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Sample records for body weight fat

  1. Body fat mass in normal weight subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Stokić Edita J.; Srdić Biljana; Peter Andrea; Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by excessive body fat accumulation which may lead to serious health problems and complications. Body mass index is the most optimal parameter to evaluate the level of nutritional status and diagnose obesity. However, modern techniques studying body composition can more accurately determine whether the gain of body weight was on the account of body fat, lean body mass or total body water. If one's body mass index is in the range of normal values but the amount of body ...

  2. Body fat mass in normal weight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokić Edita J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is characterized by excessive body fat accumulation which may lead to serious health problems and complications. Body mass index is the most optimal parameter to evaluate the level of nutritional status and diagnose obesity. However, modern techniques studying body composition can more accurately determine whether the gain of body weight was on the account of body fat, lean body mass or total body water. If one's body mass index is in the range of normal values but the amount of body fat is above normal range, we talk about sarcopenic obesity. In order to evaluate presence of sarcopenic obesity, a group of 140 normal weight students of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad were measured. Apart from standard anthropometrical parameters the amount of body fat was also determined by using the method of bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sarcopenic obesity was diagnosed in 25.71% of examined students. By using body mass index values this type of obesity cannot be diagnosed, and knowing that a higher amount of body fat in normal weight persons can lead to complications, especially metabolic, it is of great importance to evaluate the amount of body fat accurately.

  3. Connecting theory to fat talk: body dissatisfaction mediates the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance, and fat talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Analisa

    2014-06-01

    The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude. PMID:24958666

  4. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for 13 weeks

  5. Shaking weight loss away - Can vibration exercise reduce body fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARRYL COCHRANE

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An exercise modality that requires little time and physical exertion whilst providing the benefits of increased force, power, balance, flexibility, and weight loss would appeal to most people that may be at risk from an imbalanced lifestyle. One such exercise modality that has received a lot of attention has been vibration exercise (VbX, which evokes muscular work and elevates metabolic rate could be a potential method for weight reduction. Popular press has purported that VbX is quick, convenient, and 10 minutes of VbX is equivalent to one hour of traditional exercise, where it has been marketed as the new weight-loss and body toning workout. However, research studies have shown that muscle activation is elicited but the energy demand in response to VbX is quite low. Exhaustive VbX has been reported to produce a metabolic demand of 23 ml/kg/min compared to 44 ml/kg/min from an exhaustive cycle test. Different vibration frequencies have been tested with varying amplitudes and loads, but only small increases in metabolic rate have been reported. Based on these findings it has been indirectly calculated that a VbX session of 26Hz for 3 continuous minutes would only incur a loss of ~ 10.7g fat/hr. Following a 24-week programme of VbX, no observed differences were found in body composition and following 12 months of VbX the time to reach peak O2 was significantly higher in conventional exercise compared to VbX. However, one study has reported that percentage body fat decreased by 3.2% after eight months after VbX in comparison to resistance and control groups that performed no aerobic conditioning. The evidence to date, suggests that VbX can increase whole and local oxygen uptake; however, with additional load, high vibration frequency and/or amplitude it cannot match the demands of conventional aerobic exercise. Therefore, caution is required when VbX programmes are solely used for the purpose of reducing body fat without considering dietary and

  6. Determinants of relative weight and body fat distribution in an international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Molarius (Anu)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOverweight can be defined as excess storage of body fat in an individual. In adult men with a "normal" weight, the percentage of body fat is about 15-20%. In women this percentage is higher, about 25-30%. In spite of the fact that differences in weight between individuals are only partly

  7. Body fatness, relative weight and frame size in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baecke, J.A.H.; Burema, J.; Deurenberg, P.

    1982-01-01

    1. Body-weight, body height, knee width, wrist width and skinfold measurements were made on males (n 139) and females (n 167) in three age-groups (20–22, 25–27 and 30–32 years). Percentage of body fal was calculated from skinfold thicknesses using regression equations according to Durnin & Womersley

  8. Determinants of relative weight and body fat distribution in an international perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Molarius, Anu

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOverweight can be defined as excess storage of body fat in an individual. In adult men with a "normal" weight, the percentage of body fat is about 15-20%. In women this percentage is higher, about 25-30%. In spite of the fact that differences in weight between individuals are only partly due to variation in body fat, indices based on relative weight (such as body mass index (EM!), defined as weight (kg) divided by the square of height (m'» are most often used to measure the degree...

  9. Effects of Dietary Calcium on Body Weight, Carcass Fat Content and Adipocyte Size in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    J Malekzadeh; SA Keshavarz; F Siassi; M Kadkhodaei; Eshraghian MR; AR Dorosti Motlagh; A Aliehpoor; M Chamari

    2006-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Calcium is a micronutrient and now receiving much attention for its doubtful effects on weight and body fatness. A few mechanisms has been suggested for calcium effects on body fatness and the most emphasized one is the reducing of lipolysis and increasing lipogenesis via reducing parathyroid hormone levels. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of nondairy dietary calcium on adipogenesis and adipocyte size in male Sprague dawley rats. Materials ...

  10. The effects of weight loss treatments on upper and lower body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, P G

    1997-08-01

    The intra-abdominal visceral deposition of adipose tissue, which characterises upper body obesity, is a major contributor to the development of hypertension, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia. Conversely, individuals with lower body obesity may have comparable amounts of adipose tissue but remain relatively free from the metabolic consequences of obesity. This raises an obvious question-are there particular weight reducing treatments which specifically target intra-abdominal fat? In theory, surgical removal of upper body fat should be effective. In reality, neither liposuction nor apronectomy ('tummy tuck') have any beneficial metabolic effects, they simply remove subcutaneous adipose tissue which is often rapidly replaced. Vertical banded gastroplasty and gastric bypass operations may be dramatically effective in improving blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. However, these benefits result from a parallel reduction in visceral and total body fat. Studies of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women confirm that the marked decrease in adiposity, following a programme of very low calorie diet and exercise, reflects a comparable reduction in visceral and thigh fat. The reduction in waist circumference after a low fat/exercise programme suggests a similar situation in men. Exercise has an important role in treatment but, once again, the fat loss is generalised. Nevertheless, the improved metabolic parameters seen in exercising obese subjects, independent of weight loss, suggest other beneficial actions. Growth hormone (GH) has a marked lipolytic action. GH replacement treatment for GH deficient adults with pronounced abdominal fat deposition, has been shown to reduce intra-abdominal fat by 47% compared to 27% decrease in abdominal subcutaneous fat. Similar beneficial actions on abdominal fat have been reported following treatment with testosterone in obese men. The potential hazards of such treatments make them unsuitable therapy for

  11. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. PMID:24854827

  12. Transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted production of interleukin-6 are resistant to high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight and body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Juan; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes;

    2010-01-01

    with astrocyte-targeted IL-6 expression (GFAP-IL6 mice) with a high-fat diet (55% kcal from fat) versus a control diet (10%). The results demonstrate that the GFAP-IL6 mice are resistant to high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight and body fat, apparently without altering food intake and with no...... evidences of increased sympathetic tone. The high-fat diet-induced impaired responses to an insulin tolerance test (ITT), and to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in both genotypes. The GFAP-IL6 mice did not differ from littermate wild-type (WT) mice in ITT, but they were more glucose intolerant...... following the high-fat diet feeding. In summary, the present results demonstrate that brain-specific IL-6 controls body weight which may be a significant factor in physiological conditions and/or in diseases causing neuroinflammation....

  13. Shaking weight loss away - Can vibration exercise reduce body fat?

    OpenAIRE

    DARRYL COCHRANE

    2011-01-01

    An exercise modality that requires little time and physical exertion whilst providing the benefits of increased force, power, balance, flexibility, and weight loss would appeal to most people that may be at risk from an imbalanced lifestyle. One such exercise modality that has received a lot of attention has been vibration exercise (VbX), which evokes muscular work and elevates metabolic rate could be a potential method for weight reduction. Popular press has purported that VbX is quick, conv...

  14. Predicting changes of body weight, body fat, energy expenditure and metabolic fuel selection in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juen Guo

    Full Text Available The mouse is an important model organism for investigating the molecular mechanisms of body weight regulation, but a quantitative understanding of mouse energy metabolism remains lacking. Therefore, we created a mathematical model of mouse energy metabolism to predict dynamic changes of body weight, body fat, energy expenditure, and metabolic fuel selection. Based on the principle of energy balance, we constructed ordinary differential equations representing the dynamics of body fat mass (FM and fat-free mass (FFM as a function of dietary intake and energy expenditure (EE. The EE model included the cost of tissue deposition, physical activity, diet-induced thermogenesis, and the influence of FM and FFM on metabolic rate. The model was calibrated using previously published data and validated by comparing its predictions to measurements in five groups of male C57/BL6 mice (N = 30 provided ad libitum access to either chow or high fat diets for varying time periods. The mathematical model accurately predicted the observed body weight and FM changes. Physical activity was predicted to decrease immediately upon switching from the chow to the high fat diet and the model coefficients relating EE to FM and FFM agreed with previous independent estimates. Metabolic fuel selection was predicted to depend on a complex interplay between diet composition, the degree of energy imbalance, and body composition. This is the first validated mathematical model of mouse energy metabolism and it provides a quantitative framework for investigating energy balance relationships in mouse models of obesity and diabetes.

  15. Effects of Dietary Calcium on Body Weight, Carcass Fat Content and Adipocyte Size in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Malekzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Calcium is a micronutrient and now receiving much attention for its doubtful effects on weight and body fatness. A few mechanisms has been suggested for calcium effects on body fatness and the most emphasized one is the reducing of lipolysis and increasing lipogenesis via reducing parathyroid hormone levels. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of nondairy dietary calcium on adipogenesis and adipocyte size in male Sprague dawley rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was done from November to September of 2005 at Tehran school of health, nutrition department. 48 male Spragu-Dawley rats from Damgostar Company were used in three randomly selected groups. The rats were fed low (0.2% W/W, usual (0.5% W/W and high (1.2% W/W dietary calcium based on AIN-93M purified diet. Rats were housed in 12 hours light-dark cycle, 22-25°C room temperature with free access to their respective diets. At the end of the experiment, rats were decapitated and carcass fat content, carcass ash content and mean adipocyte size in testis, peritoneal and subcutaneous fat pads were compared in three groups. The SPSS 11.5 was used as statistical software, running analysis of variance for comparing the effects. Results: weight gain, carcass fat content and adipocyte size, in groups were not significantly different, while serum parathyroid hormone concentrations in high calcium group was significantly lower than low calcium group (p<0.05 and insignificantly lower than usual calcium group [12.36, 23.57 and 42.2 pg/dl respectively]. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol were also insignificantly lower in high calcium group. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that physiological concentration of dietary calcium is not effective on weight gain, body fatness and adipocyte size. Relatively equal fat content beside significant difference in serum parathyroid hormone levels is against the parathyroid theory of calcium

  16. Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract reduces body weight and fat mass in obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P bioimpedance method: -0.51 ± 1.89 kg vs -2.38 ± 2.30 kg, P < .05; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: 0.38 ± 1.59 kg vs -2.26 ± 2.37 kg, P < .05). Changes in lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c did not differ between the 2 groups. No drug-related adverse events were observed during the study. In conclusion, ASE significantly decreases body weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity. PMID:27333958

  17. Inhibitory effect of green coffee bean extract on fat accumulation and body weight gain in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitani Michio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An epidemiological study conducted in Italy indicated that coffee has the greatest antioxidant capacity among the commonly consumed beverages. Green coffee bean is rich in chlorogenic acid and its related compounds. The effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE on fat accumulation and body weight in mice was assessed with the objective of investigating the effect of GCBE on mild obesity. Methods Male ddy mice were fed a standard diet containing GCBE and its principal constituents, namely, caffeine and chlorogenic acid, for 14 days. Further, hepatic triglyceride (TG level was also investigated after consecutive administration (13 days of GCBE and its constituents. To examine the effect of GCBE and its constituents on fat absorption, serum TG changes were evaluated in olive oil-loaded mice. In addition, to investigate the effect on hepatic TG metabolism, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT activity in mice was evaluated after consecutive ingestion (6 days of GCBE and its constituents (caffeine, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and feruloylquinic acid mixture. Results It was found that 0.5% and 1% GCBE reduced visceral fat content and body weight. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid showed a tendency to reduce visceral fat and body weight. Oral administration of GCBE (100 and 200 mg/kg· day for 13 days showed a tendency to reduce hepatic TG in mice. In the same model, chlorogenic acid (60 mg/kg· day reduced hepatic TG level. In mice loaded with olive oil (5 mL/kg, GCBE (200 and 400 mg/kg and caffeine (20 and 40 mg/kg reduced serum TG level. GCBE (1%, neochlorogenic acid (0.028% and 0.055% and feruloylquinic acid mixture (0.081% significantly enhanced hepatic CPT activity in mice. However, neither caffeine nor chlorogenic acid alone was found to enhance CPT activity. Conclusion These results suggest that GCBE is possibly effective against weight gain and fat accumulation by inhibition of fat absorption and activation of fat

  18. Body Fat Measurement Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advisors Press Releases Annual Reports Donations Privacy Policy Advertising Site Map Adults Cyberkitchen Fitness Center Shape Up & Drop 10 Body Fat Lab BMI Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Children Assessing Childhood Obesity Pediatric BMI Assessment Overweight Assessment: A Parent's Guide ...

  19. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS. PMID:27326419

  20. Gender Differences in Body Fat Utilization During Weight Gain, Loss, or Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter outlines the known gender differences in fat gain, loss, and maintenance, and perhaps more importantly, highlights how little is known about the subject. The effects of gender differences on body fat distribution, fat use as an energy source, and exercise-related fat loss are discussed...

  1. Loss of Body Weight and Fat and Improved Lipid Profiles in Obese Rats Fed Apple Pomace or Apple Juice Concentrate

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and he...

  2. Effect of Instant Cooked Giant Embryonic Rice on Body Fat Weight and Plasma Lipid Profile in High Fat-Fed Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Soo Im Chung; Tae Hyeong Kim; Rico, Catherine W.; Mi Young Kang

    2014-01-01

    The comparative effects of instant cooked rice made from giant embryo mutant or ordinary normal rice on body weight and lipid profile in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The animals were given experimental diets for seven weeks: normal control (NC), high fat (HF), and HF supplemented with instant normal white (HF-NW), normal brown (HF-NB), giant embryonic white (HF-GW), or giant embryonic brown (HF-GB) rice. The HF group showed markedly higher body weight, body fat, plasma and hepatic tri...

  3. A comparison of the effect of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on food intake, body weight, blood lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants levels and haemostasis variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, J.A.; Hof, K.H. van het; Berg, H. van den; Velthuis-te-Wierik, E.J.M. te; Graaf, C. de; Zimmermanns, N.J.H.; Westerterp, K.R.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Verboeket-Venne, W.P.H.G. van de

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on fat and energy intake, body weight, plasma lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants concentrations and haemostasis variables. Design: A multicentre open randomised controlled trial in which interven

  4. Ethanolic Extract of Taheebo Attenuates Increase in Body Weight and Fatty Liver in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Won Hee Choi; Min Young Um; Jiyun Ahn; Chang Hwa Jung; Myung Kyu Park; Tae Youl Ha

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether intake of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo (TBE) from Tabebuia avellanedae protects against body weight increase and fat accumulation in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD (25% fat, w/w) for 11 weeks. The diet of control (HFD) mice was supplemented with vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by gavage); the diet of experimental (TBE) mice was supplemented with TBE (150 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage). Mice a...

  5. Ethanolic extract of Taheebo attenuates increase in body weight and fatty liver in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won Hee; Um, Min Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Park, Myung Kyu; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether intake of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo (TBE) from Tabebuia avellanedae protects against body weight increase and fat accumulation in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD (25% fat, w/w) for 11 weeks. The diet of control (HFD) mice was supplemented with vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by gavage); the diet of experimental (TBE) mice was supplemented with TBE (150 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage). Mice administered TBE had significantly reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation in the liver, and fat pad weight, compared to HFD mice. Reduced hypertrophy of fat cells was also observed in TBE mice. Mice administered TBE also showed significantly lower serum levels of triglycerides, insulin, and leptin. Lipid profiles and levels of mRNAs and proteins related to lipid metabolism were determined in liver and white adipose tissue of the mice. Expression of mRNA and proteins related to lipogenesis were decreased in TBE-administered mice compared to mice fed HFD alone. These results suggest that TBE inhibits obesity and fat accumulation by regulation of gene expression related to lipid metabolism in HFD-induced obesity in mice. PMID:25299819

  6. Ethanolic Extract of Taheebo Attenuates Increase in Body Weight and Fatty Liver in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Hee Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated whether intake of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo (TBE from Tabebuia avellanedae protects against body weight increase and fat accumulation in mice with high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity. Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD (25% fat, w/w for 11 weeks. The diet of control (HFD mice was supplemented with vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by gavage; the diet of experimental (TBE mice was supplemented with TBE (150 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage. Mice administered TBE had significantly reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation in the liver, and fat pad weight, compared to HFD mice. Reduced hypertrophy of fat cells was also observed in TBE mice. Mice administered TBE also showed significantly lower serum levels of triglycerides, insulin, and leptin. Lipid profiles and levels of mRNAs and proteins related to lipid metabolism were determined in liver and white adipose tissue of the mice. Expression of mRNA and proteins related to lipogenesis were decreased in TBE-administered mice compared to mice fed HFD alone. These results suggest that TBE inhibits obesity and fat accumulation by regulation of gene expression related to lipid metabolism in HFD-induced obesity in mice.

  7. The effect of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on body weight gain and fat accrual in C57Bl/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel L; Nagy, Tim R; Wilson, Landon S; Dong, Shengli; Barnes, Stephen; Allison, David B

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity in industrialized societies has become markedly elevated. In contrast, model organism research shows that reducing caloric intake below ad libitum levels provides many health and longevity benefits. Despite these benefits, few people are willing and able to reduce caloric intake over prolonged periods. Prior research suggests that mannooligosaccharide (MOS or mannan) supplementation can increase lifespan of some livestock and in rodents can reduce visceral fat without reducing caloric intake. Hence, we tested the effect of MOS supplementation as a possible calorie restriction (CR) mimetic (CRM) in mice. C57Bl/6J male mice were fed a high-fat "western" type diet with or without 1% MOS (by weight) supplementation (n = 24/group) from 8 to 20 weeks of age. Animals were housed individually and provided 95% of ad libitum food intake throughout the study. Body weight was measured weekly and body composition (lean and fat mass) measured noninvasively every 3 weeks. Individual fat depot weights were acquired by dissection at study completion. Supplementation of a high-fat diet with 1% MOS tended to reduce total food intake (mean +/- s.d.; control (CON): 293.69 +/- 10.53 g, MOS: 288.10 +/- 11.82 g; P = 0.09) during the study. Moreover, MOS supplementation had no significant effect on final body weight (CON: 25.21 +/- 2.31 g, MOS: 25.28 +/- 1.49 g; P = 0.91), total fat (CON: 4.72 +/- 0.90 g, MOS: 4.82 +/- 0.83 g; P = 0.69), or visceral fat (CON: 1.048 +/- 0.276 g, MOS: 1.004 +/- 0.247 g; P = 0.57). Contrary to previous research, MOS supplementation had no discernable effect on body weight gain or composition during this 12-week study, challenging the potential use of MOS as a CRM or body composition enhancer. PMID:19798073

  8. FTO Genotype and 2-Year Change in Body Composition and Fat Distribution in Response to Weight-Loss Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Qi, Qibin; Zhang, Cuilin; Hu, Frank B.; Sacks, Frank M.; Qi, Lu

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) genotype may interact with dietary intakes in relation to adiposity. We tested the effect of FTO variant on weight loss in response to 2-year diet interventions. FTO rs1558902 was genotyped in 742 obese adults who were randomly assigned to one of four diets differing in the proportions of fat, protein, and carbohydrate. Body composition and fat distribution were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and comput...

  9. Capric Acid Reduces Body Weight in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-hua LIU; Yong ZHANG; Qing XU; Xin-sheng ZHANG; Jin WANG; Xiao-ming YU; Xue-yan YANG; Chang-yong XUE

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the body weight reducing effect of two medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), capric acid and caprylic acid, and the potential underlying mechanisms in C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet.Methods Obese C57BL/6J mice were developed on a high-fat diet containing 2% caprylic acid (C8:0), 2% capric acid (C10:0), or 2% oleic acid (C18:1). Body weight and diet intake were monitored twice a week. After 8 weeks of feeding, body fat composition and the protein or mRNA expression of lipolysis-related genes in the white adipose tissue (WAT) were analyzed.Results In the capric acid group, significant reductions were observed in body weight gain, Lee's index, BMI, and epididymal adipose tissue weight, while increased levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and beta 3 adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) were found in the adipose tissue, compared to the oleic acid group. No significant differences in these parameters were found between caprylic acid and oleic acid groups.Conclusion Capric acid, but not caprylic acid, is effective in reducing body weight in obese C57BL/6J mice,possibly due to up-regulation of β3-AR, ATGL, and HSL in WAT.

  10. Transgenic Rescue of Adipocyte Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Receptor Expression Restores High Fat Diet-induced Body Weight Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugleholdt, Randi; Pedersen, Jens; Bassi, Maria Rosaria;

    2011-01-01

    The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPr) has been implicated in high fat diet-induced obesity and is proposed as an anti-obesity target despite an uncertainty regarding the mechanism of action. To independently investigate the contribution of the insulinotropic effects and...... the direct effects on adipose tissue, we generated transgenic mice with targeted expression of the human GIPr to white adipose tissue or beta-cells, respectively. These mice were then cross-bred with the GIPr knock-out strain. The central findings of the study are that mice with GIPr expression...... targeted to adipose tissue have a similar high fat diet -induced body weight gain as control mice, significantly greater than the weight gain in mice with a general ablation of the receptor. Surprisingly, this difference was due to an increase in total lean body mass rather than a gain in total fat mass...

  11. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; Heitmann, Berit L

    2006-01-01

    born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. RESULTS: Positive associations between GI and changes in body weight (DeltaBW), percentage body fat (Delta......BACKGROUND: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of weight gain. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes in body weight......%BF), and waist circumference (DeltaWC) were observed in women after adjustment for covariates. Significant GI x sex x physical activity interactions for DeltaBW, Delta%BF, and DeltaWC were observed, and the associations in the sedentary women were particularly positive. No significant associations with GI...

  12. Galanin-containing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus: a neurochemical marker for fat ingestion and body weight gain.

    OpenAIRE

    Akabayashi, A; Koenig, J I; Watanabe, Y.; Alexander, J T; Leibowitz, S F

    1994-01-01

    The physiological function of the peptide galanin (Gal) remains to be established. It is known to exist in high concentrations within the hypothalamus and to modulate the secretion of specific hormones, as well as to potentiate food consumption. Our study provides evidence for an essential function of neuronal Gal, within a specific hypothalamic area, in stimulating the behavioral process of fat ingestion and body weight gain. Through analyses of peptide levels via RIA and of gene expression ...

  13. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes 1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; L. Heitmann, Berit

    2006-01-01

    born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. Results: Positive associations between GI and changes in bodyweight (¿BW), percentage body fat (%BF), and......ABSTRACT Background: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of weight gain.Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes in body...... waist circumference (¿WC) were observed in women after adjustment for covariates.Significant GI X sex X physical activity interactions for ABSTRACTBackground: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemicload (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase therisk of weight gain...

  14. Carrying a biological "backpack": Quasi-experimental effects of weight status and body fat change on perceived steepness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Covill, Guy A H; Eves, Frank F

    2016-03-01

    The apparent steepness of hills and stairs is overestimated in explicit perception. These overestimations are malleable in that when physiological resources are compromised, apparent steepness is further overestimated. An alternative explanation of these experimental findings attributes them to demand characteristics. This article tests the relationship between estimated steepness and naturally occurring differences in body composition. A quasi-experimental field study revealed more exaggerated reports of staircase steepness in overweight than in healthy-weight participants in a situation where experimental demand would be an implausible explanation for any differences. A longitudinal follow-up study used dual X-ray absorptiometry to objectively measure participants' body composition at the beginning and end of a weight-loss program (N = 52). At baseline, higher levels of body fat were associated with steeper explicit estimates of staircase steepness. At follow-up, changes in body fat were associated with changes in estimated steepness such that a loss of fat mass co-occurred with shallower estimates. Discussion focuses on the malleability of perceived steepness at an individual level and the implication of these findings for the debate surrounding "embodied" models of perception. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26414167

  15. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.; Hayward-Jones, P. M.; Z. Orta-Flores; C. Nolasco-Hipólito; Barradas-Dermitz, D. M.; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. G.; Pedroza-Hernández, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs) calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats, was investigated. Rats were fed with either a basal diet (SDC = Control diet) or the same diet supplemented with Hs extracts at 5%, 10% and 15% (SD5, SD10 and SD15). Only SD5 did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to SDC. The opposite occurred in SD15 group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The SD10 responses...

  16. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K;

    2012-01-01

    measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. TBF was expressed as a percentage of body weight (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK) ), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and resting heart rate (RHR) were measured. Mean arterial pressure......Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were...

  17. Effect acute of resitive training with weight on hidrostatic weigh, body density and percentage of fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Zinn

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify if a session of Resistive training with Weights (TRP seeking Local Muscular Resistance (RML or Increase in Muscle Volume (AVM would cause significant alterations in Hydrostatic Weight (PH, Body Density (DC and Percentage of Body Fat (%G. Nine men between the ages of 17 and 26 years participated in the study, all with a basic level of TRP and who were adapted to water. The study was carried out during three days. On the first day, the subjects performed the 1RM test for the 10 exercises included into the training. Two days later, hydrostatic weighing (pre-trainingwas measured, immediately followed by a TRP session for AVM and by another hydrostatic weighing (post-training measurement. Two days later, the same process was applied to, however this time with a TRP session for RML. The statistical analyses by Student’s-t test showed that there were no significant differences (p>0.05 between pre and post-training results for PH, DC and %G variables. The 2x2 ANOVA interaction for type of training (AVM and RML and the moment of weighing (pre and post-training was not significant, while the results of PH, DC and %G did not depend on the type of training (AVM or RML. Pearson’s linear correlation between the values of the pre and post-training was significant (r≥0.94. It can be concluded that the TRP does not have an effect on the results of PH, DC and %G, regardless of type of training performed, therefore, hydrostatic weighing can be measured either before or after the TRP, without interfering on the results. RESUMO Este estudo teve por objetivo verificar se uma sessão de Treinamento Resistido com Pesos (TRP visando Resistência Muscular Localizada (RML ou objetivando Aumento de Volume Muscular (AVM causariam alterações significativas no Peso Hidrost��tico (PH, Densidade Corporal (DC e Percentual de Gordura (%G. Participaram da amostra nove homens com idade entre 17 e 26 anos que possuíam um n

  18. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes

  19. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Joon [College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Gyu [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Inkyu [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 680 Gukchaebosang-ro, Jung-gu, Daegu 700-842 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Ok [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Duhak, E-mail: dhyoon@knu.ac.kr [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Zae Young, E-mail: jaewoong64@hanmail.net [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes.

  20. Genotype x diet interactions in mice predisposed to mammary cancer. I. Body weight and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Ryan R; Hunter, Kent W; Sørensen, Peter;

    2008-01-01

    High dietary fat intake and obesity may increase susceptibility to certain forms of cancer. To study the interactions of dietary fat, obesity, and metastatic mammary cancer, we created a population of F(2) mice cosegregating obesity QTL and the MMTV-PyMT transgene. We fed the F(2) mice either a v...

  1. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. Methods In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n = 203 and at 6 to11 years of age (n = 177 the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Results Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173 g (-322; -23, -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7 and medium exposed children: -139 g (-272; -6, -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0. Exposed (medium and highly together children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0 from birth to school age and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6 larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount, the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5 and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4 higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022 and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22, boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79, but not IGFBP3. Conclusions Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to

  2. Subclinical vascular inflammation in subjects with normal weight obesity and its association with body Fat: an 18 F-FDG-PET/CT study

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Shinae; Kyung, Chanhee; Park, Jong Suk; Kim, Sohee; Lee, Seung-Pyo; Kim, Min Kyung; Kim, Hye Kyung; Kim, Kyung Rae; Jeon, Tae Joo; Ahn, Chul Woo

    2014-01-01

    Background Although body mass index (BMI) is the most widely accepted parameter for defining obesity, recent studies have indicated a unique set of patients who exhibit normal BMI and excess body fat (BF), which is termed as normal weight obesity (NWO). Increased BF is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. However, it is unclear whether NWO subjects already have a higher degree of vascular inflammation compared to normal weight lean (NWL) subjects; moreover, the association of BF wi...

  3. Aerobic exercise training improves insulin sensitivity without changes in body weight, body fat, adiponectin, and inflammatory markers in overweight and obese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassis, George P; Papantakou, Katerina; Skenderi, Katerina; Triandafillopoulou, Maria; Kavouras, Stavros A; Yannakoulia, Mary; Chrousos, George P; Sidossis, Labros S

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise training on insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese girls. Nineteen overweight and obese girls (mean +/- SD: age, 13.1+/-1.8 years; body mass index, 26.8+/-3.9 kg/m(2)) volunteered for this study. Body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity (oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance; n=15), adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL) 6, insulin-like growth factor-1, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 serum levels, and blood lipids and lipoproteins were assessed before and after 12 weeks of aerobic training. Cardiorespiratory fitness increased by 18.8% (P<.05) as a result of training. The area under the insulin concentration curve (insulin area under the curve) decreased by 23.3% (12781.7+/-7454.2 vs 9799.0+/-4918.6 microU.min/mL before and after intervention, respectively; P=.03). Insulin sensitivity was improved without changes in body weight (pre-intervention, 67.9+/-14.5 kg; post-intervention, 68.3+/-14.0 kg) or percent body fat (pre-intervention, 41.4% +/- 4.8%; post-intervention, 40.7%+/-5.2%). The lower limb fat-free mass increased by 6.2% (P<.01) as a result of training, and changes in lower limb fat-free mass were correlated with changes in the insulin area under the curve (r= -.68; P< .01). Serum adiponectin, IL-6, and CRP concentrations did not change (pre-intervention vs post-intervention: adiponectin, 9.57+/-3.01 vs 9.08+/-2.32 microg/mL; IL-6, 1.67+/-1.29 vs 1.65+/-1.25 pg/mL, CRP, 3.21+/-2.48 vs 2.73+/-1.88 mg/L) whereas insulin-like growth factor-1 was lower after training (pre-intervention, 453.8 +/- 159.3 ng/mL; post-intervention, 403.2+/- 155.1 ng/mL; P<.05). In conclusion, 12 weeks of aerobic training improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese girls without change in body weight, percent body fat, and circulating

  4. Neuromedin U receptor 2 knockdown in the paraventricular nucleus modifies behavioral responses to obesogenic high-fat food and leads to increased body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzon, C R; Johnson, S B; McCue, D L; Li, D; Green, T A; Hommel, J D

    2014-01-31

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is a highly conserved neuropeptide which regulates food intake and body weight. Transgenic mice lacking NMU are hyperphagic and obese, making NMU a novel target for understanding and treating obesity. Neuromedin U receptor 2 (NMUR2) is a high-affinity receptor for NMU found in discrete regions of the central nervous system, in particular the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), where it may be responsible for mediating the anorectic effects of NMU. We hypothesized that selective knock down of NMUR2 in the PVN of rats would increase their sensitivity to the reinforcing properties of food resulting in increased intake and preference for high-fat obesogenic food. To this end, we used viral-mediated RNAi to selectively knock down NMUR2 gene expression in the PVN. In rats fed a standard chow, NMUR2 knockdown produced no significant effect on food intake or body weight. However, when the same rats were fed a high-fat diet (45% fat), they consumed significantly more food, gained more body weight, and had increased feed efficiency relative to controls. Furthermore, NMUR2 knockdown rats demonstrated significantly greater binge-type food consumption of the high-fat diet and showed a greater preference for higher-fat food. These results demonstrate that NMUR2 signaling in the PVN regulates consumption and preference for high-fat foods without disrupting feeding behavior associated with non-obesogenic standard chow. PMID:24269937

  5. Long-Term High Fat Diet Has a Profound Effect on Body Weight, Hormone Levels, and Estrous Cycle in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Tandra R; Donthireddy, Laxminarasimha; Adhikary, Debasis; Chakraborty, Sanjoy

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity causes several health complications along with disruption of the reproductive system. The aim of the current study was to determine how long-term intake of very high fat diet (VHFD) changes the hormonal milieu, affecting the cellular morphology and reproductive cycle in female mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS Mice were fed on normal diet (ND) and VHFD for 2 weeks, 12 weeks, and 25-27 weeks. We assessed changes in body weight, food consumption, energy intake, cellular and tissue morphology, hormonal levels (leptin, insulin, and estradiol), and vaginal smears were performed at various time points to determine the length and cellularity at each stage of the estrous cycle. RESULTS Mice fed on VHFD showed a significant increase in weight gain, reduction in food intake, and increase in energy intake compared to animals fed on ND, indicating that the caloric density of the diet is responsible for the differences in weight gain. Hormonal analysis showed hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, and increases in estrogen levels, along with increases in size of the islet of Langerhans and adipocytes. After 25-27 weeks, all animals fed on VHFD showed complete acyclicity; elongation of phases (e.g., diestrous), skipping of phases (e.g., metestrous), or a combination of both, indicating disruption in the reproductive cycle. Quantitative analysis showed that in the diestrous phase there was a 70% increase in cell count in VHFD compared to animals fed on ND. CONCLUSIONS The above results show that morphological and hormonal changes caused by VHFD probably act via negative feedback to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to shut down reproduction, which has a direct effect on the estrous cycle, causing acyclicity in mice. PMID:27171231

  6. STUDY ON BODY FAT DENSITY PREDICTION BASED ON ANTHROPOMETRIC VARIABLES

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva Shanth Reddy Ainala,; Nawaf Aljohani; Kaushik Roy; Xiaohong Yuan; Huiming A. Yu

    2015-01-01

    For a human body to function properly it is essential to have a certain amount of body fat. Fat serves to manage body temperature, pads and protects the organs. Fat is the fundamental type of the body's vitality stockpiling. It is important to have a healthy amount of body fat. Overabundance of fat quotient can build danger of genuine wellbeing issues. Anthropometry is a broadly accessible and basic strategy for the appraisal of body composition. Anthropometry measures are weight,...

  7. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volek JS

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK and low-fat (LF diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE in overweight/obese men and women. Design Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%. Subjects: 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean s.e.m.: age 33.2 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 1.1 kg/m2 and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 1.1 kg/m2. Measurements: Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure (REE were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. Results Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28% and the LF (~58:22:20% were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake. The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during the VLCK diet in men and women

  8. Effects of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside lignan-enriched flaxseed powder on body weight, visceral fat, lipid profile, adipokines, and blood pressure in rats fed a high-fructose and high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential effects of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) lignan-enriched flaxseed powder LEFP) on body weight, visceral fat, lipid profile, adipokines, and blood pressure were investigated using Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into three groups (n=8) that were fed either a norm...

  9. Body Weight Control by a High-Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diet Slows the Progression of Diabetic Kidney Damage in an Obese, Hypertensive, Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Ohtomo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of several factors implicated in the genesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN. Obese, hypertensive, type 2 diabetic rats SHR/NDmcr-cp were given, for 12 weeks, either a normal, middle-carbohydrate/middle-fat diet (MC/MF group or a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (HC/LF group. Daily caloric intake was the same in both groups. Nevertheless, the HC/LF group gained less weight. Despite equivalent degrees of hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and even a poorer glycemic control, the HC/LF group had less severe renal histological abnormalities and a reduced intrarenal advanced glycation and oxidative stress. Mediators of the renoprotection, specifically linked to obesity and body weight control, include a reduced renal inflammation and TGF-beta expression, together with an enhanced level of adiponectin. Altogether, these data identify a specific role of body weight control by a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet in the progression of DN. Body weight control thus impacts on local intrarenal advanced glycation and oxidative stress through inflammation and adiponectin levels.

  10. Age-dependent nongenetic influences of birth weight and adult body fat on insulin sensitivity in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Rikke Nygaard; Grunnet, Louise Groth; Rasmussen, Eva Lind;

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized a nongenetic influence of birth weight (BW) and twin and zygosity status on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry determined adult total and regional body composition and a quantitative equal, although independent, importance of adult body composition and BW for insulin sensitivity....

  11. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Main, Katharina Maria; Schmidt, Ida Maria;

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of...... years of age (n=177) the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis......), the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5) and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4) higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022) and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22), boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79)), but not IGFBP3. CONCLUSIONS...

  12. Influence of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) on reduction of local fat and body weight by physical exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Gerd; Obermüller, Roy; Drobnik, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Gerd; Möckel, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Aim of the study: Investigation, whether water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) irradiation during moderate bicycle ergometer endurance exercise has effects especially on local fat reduction and on weight reduction beyond the effects of ergometer exercise alone. Methods: Randomised controlled study with 40 obese females (BMI 30-40 (median: 34.5), body weight 76-125 (median: 94.9) kg, age 20-40 (median: 35.5) years, isocaloric nutrition), 20 in the wIRA group and 20 in the control group. In both gro...

  13. CALORIC INTAKE AND DIETARY FAT TO CARBOHYDRATE RATIO INFLUENCE BODY WEIGHT ACCRETION AND ADIPOSITY IN RATS FED BY TOTAL ENTERAL NUTRITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of high energy high-fat diets leads to weight gain and adiposity in rodents. However the relative roles of higher caloric intake vs. increased dietary fat remain unclear. Low carbohydrate high fat diets, like the Atkins diet, claim to promote weight loss. We employed a total enteral nutr...

  14. Common variants near MC4R in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Holst, C; Toubro, Søren;

    2010-01-01

    Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure.......Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure....

  15. Body Weight and Body Image

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane Traci; Olmsted Marion P

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs...

  16. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2009-01-01

    , and . Only did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to . The opposite occurred in group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The responses were similar to , with the exception of food consumption. In both and groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents.

  17. The effect of a high monounsaturated fat diet on body weight, back fat and loin muscle growth in high and medium-lean pig genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, G.; Soler, J.; Llavall, M.; Tibau, J.; Roca, R.; Coll, D.; Fabrega, E.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the use of a diet rich in oleic acid could have an effect on daily weight gain, backfat and loin muscle (Longissimus thoracis) depth. One hundred and ninety-two barrows and gilts, from two genotypes were fed a grain and soy diet (CONTROL with 28% C18:1) or a similar diet enriched with oleic acid (HO with 43% C18:1, Greedy-Grass OLIVA). The pigs were housed in 16 pens in groups of 12 according to their sex, diet and genotype. From 75 days of age every three weeks, the pigs were weighed and the backfat and loin muscle depth were ultrasonically recorded (PIGLOG). The inclusion of the dietary fat had no significant effect on the growth variables nor on the backfat and loin muscle depth measurements taken. However, the barrows resulted in higher live weight and backfat compared to the gilts at the end of the trial. Conversely, the gilts showed higher loin depth. Moreover, York-sired pigs were heavier than Pietrain-sired pigs during the whole trial and showed higher backfat at the last two measurements. Pietrain-sired pigs had higher loin muscle depth at the last measurements. The results of the present study suggest that the addition of a dietary fat into diets aiming at modifying the meat fatty acid profile has no detrimental effects on performance variables, or on backfat and loin muscle growth and thus, no negative economic impact for producers. (Author) 37 refs.

  18. Rice koji reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation, and blood glucose level in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Yoshizaki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice koji is considered a readily accessible functional food that may have health-promoting effects. We investigated whether white, yellow, and red koji have the anti-obesity effect in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, which is a model for obesity. Mice were fed HFD containing 10% (w/w of rice koji powder or steamed rice for 4 weeks. Weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue, and total adipose tissue weight were significantly lower in all rice koji groups than in the HFD-rice group after 4 weeks. Feed efficiency was significantly reduced in the yellow koji group. Blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the white and red koji groups with HOMA-R and leptin levels being reduced in the white koji group. White and red koji increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 protein expression in L6 myotube cells. These results showed that all rice koji have the anti-obesity or anti-diabetes effects although the mechanisms may differ depending on the type of rice koji consumed.

  19. Long term effects of a continuous and intermittent aerobic exercise on weight changes and body fat percentage in overweight and obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Z

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and sedentary lifestyle are growing problem. The global community's concern is to find the best strategy to obtain a more efficient process of weight reduction, increase physical activity, and minimize weight regain level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of a short-term intervention on weight changes.Methods: The present study is a one-year follow-up study of a 12-week intervention during which the 15 individuals in the intermittent group performed 40 minutes exercise in three bouts per day; however, the 15 participants of the continuous group did the same but 40 minutes continuously. The 15 participants in the control group had no exercise prescription. After one year, weight changes, body fat percentage, and BMI were re-evaluated in the groups.Results: After adjusting the baseline weight, patterns of change in the mean weights from the end of the third month to the twelfth month were different across groups (P=0.02. After significant weight loss in the intermittent group, the mean weight in this group increased by 2.32 kilograms during the period, although not statistically significant. No increase was observed in the control group’s mean weight (P=1.00. In the continuous group, the mean weight increased statistically (P=0.048, 3.63 kilograms.Conclusion: It seems that long-term effects of moderate intensity intermittent aerobic exercise in overweight and obese women on weight control are more efficient than those of continuous exercise. However, for a change in lifestyle and prevention of weight regain, longer follow-ups are required.

  20. Influence of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA on reduction of local fat and body weight by physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz, Gerd

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Investigation, whether water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA irradiation during moderate bicycle ergometer endurance exercise has effects especially on local fat reduction and on weight reduction beyond the effects of ergometer exercise alone. Methods: Randomised controlled study with 40 obese females (BMI 30-40 (median: 34.5, body weight 76-125 (median: 94.9 kg, age 20-40 (median: 35.5 years, isocaloric nutrition, 20 in the wIRA group and 20 in the control group. In both groups each participant performed 3 times per week over 4 weeks for 45 minutes bicycle ergometer endurance exercise with a constant load according to a lactate level of 2 mmol/l (aerobic endurance load, as determined before the intervention period. In the wIRA group in addition large parts of the body (including waist, hip, and thighs were irradiated during all ergometries of the intervention period with visible light and a predominant part of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA, using the irradiation unit “Hydrosun® 6000” with 10 wIRA radiators (Hydrosun® Medizintechnik, Müllheim, Germany, radiator type 500, 4 mm water cuvette, yellow filter, water-filtered spectrum 500-1400 nm around a speed independent bicycle ergometer. Main variable of interest: change of “the sum of circumferences of waist, hip, and both thighs of each patient” over the intervention period (4 weeks. Additional variables of interest: body weight, body mass index BMI, body fat percentage, fat mass, fat-free mass, water mass (analysis of body composition by tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis, assessment of an arteriosclerotic risk profile by blood investigation of variables of lipid metabolism (cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins HDL, low density lipoproteins LDL, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, clinical chemistry (fasting glucose, alanin-aminotransferase ALT (= glutamyl pyruvic transaminase GPT, gamma-glutamyl-transferase GGT, creatinine, albumin, endocrinology

  1. Limited Weight Loss or Simply No Weight Gain following Lifestyle-Only Intervention Tends to Redistribute Body Fat, to Decrease Lipid Concentrations, and to Improve Parameters of Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri Lenin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate whether lifestyle-only intervention in obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight redistributes parameters of body composition and reverses metabolic abnormalities. Study Design. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were assessed in 111 overweight or obese children (CA of 11.3 ± 2.8 years; 63 females and 48 males, during 8 months of lifestyle intervention. Patients maintained or lost weight (1–5% (group A; n: 72 or gained weight (group B. Results. Group A patients presented with a decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP ( and , resp., BMI (, z-score BMI (, waist circumference (, fat mass (, LDL-C (, Tg/HDL-C ratio (, fasting and postprandial insulin (, and HOMA (, while HDL-C ( and QUICKI increased (. Conversely, group B patients had an increase in BMI (, waist circumference (, SBP (, and in QUICKI (, while fat mass (, fasting insulin (, and HOMA ( decreased. Lean mass, DBP, lipid concentrations, fasting and postprandial glucose, postprandial insulin, and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP remained stable. Conclusions. Obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight following lifestyle-only intervention tend to redistribute their body fat, decrease blood pressure and lipid levels, and to improve parameters of insulin sensitivity.

  2. Effects of low-carbohydrate diets v. low-fat diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Nadia; Vinknes, Kathrine J; Veierød, Marit B; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2016-02-14

    The effects of low-carbohydrate (LC) diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk are unclear, and previous studies have found varying results. Our aim was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT), assessing the effects of LC diets v. low-fat (LF) diets on weight loss and risk factors of CVD. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Trials. Studies had to fulfil the following criteria: a RCT; the LC diet was defined in accordance with the Atkins diet, or carbohydrate intake of diets, participants on LC diets experienced a greater reduction in body weight (WMD -2·17 kg; 95% CI -3·36, -0·99) and TAG (WMD -0·26 mmol/l; 95% CI -0·37, -0·15), but a greater increase in HDL-cholesterol (WMD 0·14 mmol/l; 95% CI 0·09, 0·19) and LDL-cholesterol (WMD 0·16 mmol/l; 95% CI 0·003, 0·33). This meta-analysis demonstrates opposite change in two important cardiovascular risk factors on LC diets--greater weight loss and increased LDL-cholesterol. Our findings suggest that the beneficial changes of LC diets must be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of increased LDL-cholesterol. PMID:26768850

  3. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K;

    2011-01-01

    percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute......Abstract Objective. Aerobic fitness, defined as maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK)), and body fat measurements represent two known risk factors for disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between VO(2PEAK) and body fat measurements in young children at a population......-based level. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 225 children (128 boys and 97 girls) aged 8-11 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. Total lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass (TBF), and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fat was also calculated as a...

  4. Psychological workload and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, F; Heitmann, B L

    2004-01-01

    psychological workload and body mass index. Only weak positive associations were found, and only between elements of psychological workload and overall body weight. For body fat distribution, two out of three studies showed a positive association in men, but the associations became insignificant after......BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature on the...... association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...

  5. The impact of liposuction on body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarasso, A; Kim, R W; Kral, J G

    1998-10-01

    Routine liposuction has very low perioperative complication rates and is thus considered to be innocuous. Some authors have even proposed that large-volume liposuction could be therapeutic. However, because subcutaneous adipose tissue has nutritional and thermodynamic metabolic functions proportional to the absolute amount and the distribution of fat, it is possible that removal of subcutaneous adipose tissue might be detrimental. We measured the amount of fat removed by large-volume (>1000 cc) liposuction and expressed the results in terms of absolute and relative changes in total body fat and in visceral adipose tissue (nonsubcutaneous adipose tissue) in 63 normal weight to mildly obese women (n = 51) and men (n = 12). Aspiration of 1.5 +/- 0.7 kg (mean +/- SD) of lipid in women removed 9.2 +/- 3.2 percent of body fat or 10.5 percent of subcutaneous adipose tissue corresponding to a 12-percent increase in the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue. One third of the women (n = 17) had a mean increase of 16 percent (range 13 to 21 percent) in the proportion of visceral fat. In the 12 men, aspiration of 1.7 +/- 0.6 kg of lipid removed 9.8 +/- 2.9 percent of body fat or 12.7 +/- 3.6 percent of subcutaneous adipose tissue, resulting in a 14-percent increase in the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat. The correlation between aspirate and body mass index was 0.57 (p removed relatively little body fat, it led to significant increases in the proportion of visceral adipose tissue. Because the proportion of visceral adipose tissue is a risk factor for metabolic complications of obesity, the metabolic effects of large-volume liposuction need to be evaluated. PMID:9774031

  6. Associations of supermarket characteristics with weight status and body fat: a multilevel analysis of individuals within supermarkets (RECORD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Chaix

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Previous research on the influence of the food environment on weight status has often used impersonal measures of the food environment defined for residential neighborhoods, which ignore whether people actually use the food outlets near their residence. To assess whether supermarkets are relevant contexts for interventions, the present study explored between-residential neighborhood and between-supermarket variations in body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, and investigated associations between brands and characteristics of supermarkets and BMI or WC, after adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics. METHODS: Participants in the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris Region, France, 2007-2008 were surveyed on the supermarket (brand and exact location where they conducted their food shopping. Overall, 7 131 participants shopped in 1 097 different supermarkets. Cross-classified multilevel linear models were estimated for BMI and WC. RESULTS: Just 11.4% of participants shopped for food primarily within their residential neighborhood. After accounting for participants' residential neighborhood, people shopping in the same supermarket had a more comparable BMI and WC than participants shopping in different supermarkets. After adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics, participants shopping in specific supermarket brands, in hard discount supermarkets (especially if they had a low education, and in supermarkets whose catchment area comprised low educated residents had a higher BMI/WC. CONCLUSION: A public health strategy to reduce excess weight may be to intervene on specific supermarkets to change food purchasing behavior, as supermarkets are where dietary preferences are materialized into definite purchased foods.

  7. Thylakoids suppress appetite by increasing cholecystokinin resulting in lower food intake and body weight in high-fat fed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhnke, Rickard; Lindqvist, Andreas; Göransson, Nathanael;

    2009-01-01

    Thylakoids are membranes isolated from plant chloroplasts which have previously been shown to inhibit pancreatic lipase/colipase catalysed hydrolysis of fat in vitro and induce short-term satiety in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to examine if dietary supplementation of thylakoids could...... compared with the high-fat fed control mice. Reduced serum glucose, serum triglyceride and serum free fatty acid levels were found in the thylakoid-treated animals. The satiety hormone cholecystokinin was elevated, suggesting this hormone mediates satiety. Leptin levels were reduced, reflecting a decreased...

  8. AgRP Neuron-Specific Deletion of Glucocorticoid Receptor Leads to Increased Energy Expenditure and Decreased Body Weight in Female Mice on a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Miyuki; Banno, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Mariko; Tominaga, Takashi; Onoue, Takeshi; Tsunekawa, Taku; Azuma, Yoshinori; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Lu, Wenjun; Ito, Yoshihiro; Goto, Motomitsu; Suga, Hidetaka; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Oiso, Yutaka; Arima, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Agouti-related protein (AgRP) expressed in the arcuate nucleus is a potent orexigenic neuropeptide, which increases food intake and reduces energy expenditure resulting in increases in body weight (BW). Glucocorticoids, key hormones that regulate energy balance, have been shown in rodents to regulate the expression of AgRP. In this study, we generated AgRP-specific glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-deficient (knockout [KO]) mice. Female and male KO mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) showed decreases in BW at the age of 6 weeks compared with wild-type mice, and the differences remained significant until 16 weeks old. The degree of resistance to diet-induced obesity was more robust in female than in male mice. On a chow diet, the female KO mice showed slightly but significantly attenuated weight gain compared with wild-type mice after 11 weeks, whereas there were no significant differences in BW in males between genotypes. Visceral fat pad mass was significantly decreased in female KO mice on HFD, whereas there were no significant differences in lean body mass between genotypes. Although food intake was similar between genotypes, oxygen consumption was significantly increased in female KO mice on HFD. In addition, the uncoupling protein-1 expression in the brown adipose tissues was increased in KO mice. These data demonstrate that the absence of GR signaling in AgRP neurons resulted in increases in energy expenditure accompanied by decreases in adiposity in mice fed HFD, indicating that GR signaling in AgRP neurons suppresses energy expenditure under HFD conditions. PMID:26889940

  9. Effects of gender on locomotor sensitivity to amphetamine, body weight, and fat mass in regulator of G protein signaling 9 (RGS9) knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Paul D; Jarosz, Patricia A; Bouhamdan, Mohamad; MacKenzie, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) protein 9-2 is enriched in the striatum where it modulates dopamine and opioid receptor-mediated signaling. RGS9 knockout (KO) mice show increased psychostimulant-induced behavioral sensitization, as well as exhibit higher body weights and greater fat accumulation compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. In the present study, we found gender influences on each of these phenotypic characteristics. Female RGS9 KO mice exhibited greater locomotor sensitization to amphetamine (1.0mg/kg) treatment as compared to male RGS9 KO mice. Male RGS9 KO mice showed increased body weights as compared to male WT littermates, while no such differences were detected in female mice. Quantitative magnetic resonance showed that male RGS9 KO mice accumulated greater fat mass vs. WT littermates at 5months of age. Such observations could not be explained by increased caloric consumption since male and female RGS9 KO mice demonstrated equivalent daily food intake as compared to their respective WT littermates. Although indirect calorimetry methods found decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production during the 12-hour dark phase in male RGS9 KO vs. WT mice which are indicative of less energy expenditure, male RGS9 KO mice exhibited lower levels of locomotor activity during this period. Genotype had no effect on metabolic activities when KO and WT groups were compared under fasting vs. feeding treatments. In summary, these results highlight the importance of factoring gender into the experimental design since many studies conducted in RGS9 KO mice utilize locomotor activity as a measured outcome. PMID:25455864

  10. COH-SR4 reduces body weight, improves glycemic control and prevents hepatic steatosis in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lester Figarola

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, and is one of the principal causative factors in the development of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cancer. COH-SR4 ("SR4" is a novel investigational compound that has anti-cancer and anti-adipogenic properties. In this study, the effects of SR4 on metabolic alterations in high fat diet (HFD-induced obese C57BL/J6 mice were investigated. Oral feeding of SR4 (5 mg/kg body weight. in HFD mice for 6 weeks significantly reduced body weight, prevented hyperlipidemia and improved glycemic control without affecting food intake. These changes were associated with marked decreases in epididymal fat mass, adipocyte hypertrophy, increased plasma adiponectin and reduced leptin levels. SR4 treatment also decreased liver triglycerides, prevented hepatic steatosis, and normalized liver enzymes. Western blots demonstrated increased AMPK activation in liver and adipose tissues of SR4-treated HFD obese mice, while gene analyses by real time PCR showed COH-SR4 significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (Srebf1, acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (Acaca, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg, fatty acid synthase (Fasn, stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr, as well as gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1 and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc in the liver of obese mice. In vitro, SR4 activates AMPK independent of upstream kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1 and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ. Together, these data suggest that SR4, a novel AMPK activator, may be a promising therapeutic compound for treatment of obesity, fatty liver disease, and related metabolic disorders.

  11. Volumetric fat-water separated T2-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric body MRI exams often cover multiple body parts, making the development of broadly applicable protocols and obtaining uniform fat suppression a challenge. Volumetric T2 imaging with Dixon-type fat-water separation might address this challenge, but it is a lengthy process. We develop and evaluate a faster two-echo approach to volumetric T2 imaging with fat-water separation. A volumetric spin-echo sequence was modified to include a second shifted echo so two image sets are acquired. A region-growing reconstruction approach was developed to decompose separate water and fat images. Twenty-six children were recruited with IRB approval and informed consent. Fat-suppression quality was graded by two pediatric radiologists and compared against conventional fat-suppressed fast spin-echo T2-W images. Additionally, the value of in- and opposed-phase images was evaluated. Fat suppression on volumetric images had high quality in 96% of cases (95% confidence interval of 80-100%) and were preferred over or considered equivalent to conventional two-dimensional fat-suppressed FSE T2 imaging in 96% of cases (95% confidence interval of 78-100%). In- and opposed-phase images had definite value in 12% of cases. Volumetric fat-water separated T2-weighted MRI is feasible and is likely to yield improved fat suppression over conventional fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging. (orig.)

  12. Volumetric fat-water separated T2-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasanawala, Shreyas S.; Sonik, Arvind [Stanford University, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Madhuranthakam, Ananth J. [GE Healthcare, Global Applied Science Laboratory, Boston, MA (United States); Venkatesan, Ramesh [GE Healthcare, MR Engineering, Bangalore (India); Lai, Peng; Brau, Anja C.S. [GE Healthcare, Global Applied Science Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Pediatric body MRI exams often cover multiple body parts, making the development of broadly applicable protocols and obtaining uniform fat suppression a challenge. Volumetric T2 imaging with Dixon-type fat-water separation might address this challenge, but it is a lengthy process. We develop and evaluate a faster two-echo approach to volumetric T2 imaging with fat-water separation. A volumetric spin-echo sequence was modified to include a second shifted echo so two image sets are acquired. A region-growing reconstruction approach was developed to decompose separate water and fat images. Twenty-six children were recruited with IRB approval and informed consent. Fat-suppression quality was graded by two pediatric radiologists and compared against conventional fat-suppressed fast spin-echo T2-W images. Additionally, the value of in- and opposed-phase images was evaluated. Fat suppression on volumetric images had high quality in 96% of cases (95% confidence interval of 80-100%) and were preferred over or considered equivalent to conventional two-dimensional fat-suppressed FSE T2 imaging in 96% of cases (95% confidence interval of 78-100%). In- and opposed-phase images had definite value in 12% of cases. Volumetric fat-water separated T2-weighted MRI is feasible and is likely to yield improved fat suppression over conventional fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging. (orig.)

  13. Independent and Combined Effects of Lactitol, Polydextrose, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron on Postprandial Metabolism and Body Weight in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olli, Kaisa; Saarinen, Markku T.; Forssten, Sofia D.; Madetoja, Mari; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Tiihonen, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is related to the consumption of energy-dense foods in addition to changes in the microbiome where a higher abundance of gut Bacteroidetes can be found in lean subjects or after weight loss. Lactitol, a sweet-tasting sugar alcohol, is a common sugar-replacement in foods. Polydextrose (PDX), a highly branched glucose polymer, is known to reduce energy intake. Here, we test if the combined effects of lactitol or PDX in combination with Bacteroides species will have a beneficial metabolic response in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. A total of 175 male Wistar rats were fed either a LF or HF diet. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (1010 bacteria/animal/day) was orally administered with or without lactitol (1.6−2 g/animal/day) or PDX (2 g/animal/day) for 8 days. Postprandial blood samples, cecal digesta, and feces were collected on the last day. Measurements included: body weight, feed consumption, cecal short-chain fatty acids, fecal dry matter and heat value, blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and satiety hormone concentrations. Lactitol and PDX decreased the mean body weight when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron or when lactitol was administered alone. Levels of postprandial plasma triglycerides declined with lactitol and PDX when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron. For intestinal hormone release, lactitol – alone or with B. thetaiotaomicron – increased the release of gastrointestinal peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) as well as the area under the curve (AUC) measured for PYY (0–8 h). In addition, levels of insulin AUC (0–8 h) decreased in the lactitol and PDX-supplemented groups. Lactitol and PDX may both provide additional means to regulate postprandial metabolism and weight management, whereas the addition of B. thetaiotaomicron in the tested doses had only minor effects on the measured parameters.

  14. Sire carcass breeding values affect body composition in lambs--2. Effects on fat and bone weight and their distribution within the carcass as measured by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, F; Williams, A; Pannier, L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the effect of paternal Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post weaning c-site eye muscle depth (PEMD) and fat depth (PFAT), and post weaning weight (PWWT) on the composition of lamb carcasses. Composition was measured using computed tomography scans of 1665 lambs which were progeny of 85 Maternal, 115 Merino and 155 Terminal sires. Reducing sire PFAT decreased carcass fat weight by 4.8% and increased carcass bone by 1.3% per unit of PFAT (range 5.1 mm). Increasing sire PEMD reduced carcass fat weight by 3.8% in Maternal and 2% in Terminal sired lambs per unit of PEMD (range 4.3 and 7.8 mm), with no impact on bone. Increasing sire PWWT reduced carcass fat weight, but only at some experimental locations. Differences in composition varied between sire types with Maternal sired lambs having the most fat and Merino sired lambs the greatest bone weight. Genetic effects on fatness were greater than the environmental or production factor effects, with the converse true of bone. PMID:26914513

  15. Assessing Body Condition from Fat on Carcass

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding assessment of body condition based on carcass fat. Provides stepwise instructions and photos on how to assess body condition from carcass fat

  16. Estimation of Total Body Fat from Potassium-40 Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper concerns on estimation of total body fat from potassium 40 content using total body counting technique. The work performed using fast scan whole body counter. Calibration of that system for K-40 was carried out under assumption that uniformity distribution of radioactivity of potassium was distributed in 10 polyethylene bottles phantom. Different body sizes were represented by 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 polyethylene bottles; each bottle has a volume of 0.04 m3. The counting efficiency for each body size was determined. Lean body weight (LBW) was calculated for ten males and ten females using appropriate mathematical equation. Total Body Potassium, TBK for the same selected group was measured using whole body counter. A mathematical relationship between lean body weight and potassium content was deduced .Fat contents for some individuals were calculated and weight/height ratio was indicated for fatness.

  17. Effects of Dietary Fibre (Pectin) and/or Increased Protein (Casein or Pea) on Satiety, Body Weight, Adiposity and Caecal Fermentation in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L.; Gratz, Silvia W.; Peinado, Diana I.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Garden, Karen E.; Williams, Patricia A.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary constituents that suppress appetite, such as dietary fibre and protein, may aid weight loss in obesity. The soluble fermentable dietary fibre pectin promotes satiety and decreases adiposity in diet-induced obese rats but effects of increased protein are unknown. Adult diet-induced obese rats reared on high fat diet (45% energy from fat) were given experimental diets ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group): high fat control, high fat with high protein (40% energy) as casein or pea protein, or these diets with added 10% w/w pectin. Dietary pectin, but not high protein, decreased food intake by 23% and induced 23% body fat loss, leading to 12% lower final body weight and 44% lower total body fat mass than controls. Plasma concentrations of satiety hormones PYY and total GLP-1 were increased by dietary pectin (168% and 151%, respectively) but not by high protein. Plasma leptin was decreased by 62% on pectin diets and 38% on high pea (but not casein) protein, while plasma insulin was decreased by 44% on pectin, 38% on high pea and 18% on high casein protein diets. Caecal weight and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the caecum were increased in pectin-fed and high pea protein groups: caecal succinate was increased by pectin (900%), acetate and propionate by pectin (123% and 118%, respectively) and pea protein (147% and 144%, respectively), and butyrate only by pea protein (309%). Caecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were decreased by pectin (down 78%) but increased by pea protein (164%). Therefore, the soluble fermentable fibre pectin appeared more effective than high protein for increasing satiety and decreasing caloric intake and adiposity while on high fat diet, and produced a fermentation environment more likely to promote hindgut health. Altogether these data indicate that high fibre may be better than high protein for weight (fat) loss in obesity. PMID:27224646

  18. Energy Balance and Body Weight Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris Melby; Matt Hickey

    2006-01-01

    @@ KEY POINTS · Thermodynamic laws dictate that an excess of food energy intake relative to energy expenditure will lead to energy storage-an accumulation of fat. Conversely, a deficit of energy intake relative to expenditure will lead to a loss of body energy stores and a reduced body weight.

  19. Anorexia nervosa and body fat distribution: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Lamburghini, Silvia; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry-Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738). PMID:25251296

  20. Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan El Ghoch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry—Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738.

  1. Marijuana and Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patien...

  2. The contribution of fat component to gestational weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V N Pokusaeva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the role of adipose tissue in gestational weight gain (GWG and preferential fat deposition among normal-weight women. Subjects and methods: prospective cohort study of 84 pregnancies: maternal body mass index 18,5–24,9 kg/m2, singleton term pregnancy, nondiabetic women, somatically well. GWG and skinfold thickness were evaluated in the 1st, 2nd, 3d trimesters, on the 3d day after delivery. Results: fat mass gain in low GWG was similar to recommended GWG and in the high-GWG group was greater one. Women with recommended and low GWG returned to their initial fat level on the 3d day after delivery, in excessive weight gain fat significantly increased (р=0,025. Compared to initial recommended GWG resulted in triceps skinfold thicknesses loss (р=0,001, in abdominal skinfold gained nothing and in thighs skinfold thicknesses increasing (р=0,021. Inadequate GWG leads to fat loss in arms (р=0,017, fat of abdominal area and thighs return to initial level. In excessive GWG fat in the upper trunk and arms not changed, in the lower area (thighs significantly increased compared to initial level (р=0,001 or other groups (р=0,001. Conclusion: excessive GWG was associated with greater adipose tissue cumulation and its deposition preferentially over the thighs. Inadequate GWG was clearly linked to low fat-free mass gain.

  3. Body Weight Control by a High-Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diet Slows the Progression of Diabetic Kidney Damage in an Obese, Hypertensive, Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Shuichi Ohtomo; Yuko Izuhara; Masaomi Nangaku; Takashi Dan; Sadayoshi Ito; Charles van Ypersele de Strihou; Toshio Miyata

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is one of several factors implicated in the genesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Obese, hypertensive, type 2 diabetic rats SHR/NDmcr-cp were given, for 12 weeks, either a normal, middle-carbohydrate/middle-fat diet (MC/MF group) or a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (HC/LF group). Daily caloric intake was the same in both groups. Nevertheless, the HC/LF group gained less weight. Despite equivalent degrees of hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and even a poor...

  4. Can physical activity maintain normal grades of body mass index and body fat percentage?

    OpenAIRE

    Kesavachandran, C.; Bihari, V.; N. Mathur

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 767 urban male volunteers performing physical activity and 469 age and socioeconomic status matched controls not doing any physical activity from the city limits of North India. Materials and Methods: Height and weight were recorded for each participant to determine their Body Mass Index (BMI). Body fat percentage and weight was measured using a body fat monitor. Results: Fifty three percent of the physical activity performers showed ...

  5. Can physical activity maintain normal grades of body mass index and body fat percentage?

    OpenAIRE

    Kesavachandran C; Bihari V; Mathur N

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims : A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 767 urban male volunteers performing physical activity and 469 age and socioeconomic status matched controls not doing any physical activity from the city limits of North India. Materials and Methods : Height and weight were recorded for each participant to determine their Body Mass Index (BMI). Body fat percentage and weight was measured using a body fat monitor. Results : Fifty three percent of the physical activity performers ...

  6. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  7. Fructose containing sugars modulate mRNA of lipogenic genes ACC and FAS and protein levels of transcription factors ChREBP and SREBP1c with no effect on body weight or liver fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janevski, Mile; Ratnayake, Sunil; Siljanovski, Svetlana; McGlynn, Maree A; Cameron-Smith, David; Lewandowski, Paul

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-glucose, high-fructose and high-sucrose diets on weight gain, liver lipid metabolism and gene expression of proteins involved with hepatic fat metabolism. Rats were fed a diet containing either 60% glucose, 60% fructose, 60% sucrose, or a standard chow for 28 days. Results indicated that high-fructose and high-sucrose diets were associated with higher mRNA levels of gene transcripts involved with fat synthesis; ACC, FAS and ChREBP, with no change in SREBP-1C mRNA. The protein level of ChREBP and SREBP1c was similar in liver homogenates from all groups, but were higher in nuclear fractions from the liver of high-fructose and high-sucrose fed rats. The mRNA level of gene transcripts involved with fat oxidation was the same in all three diets, whilst a high-fructose diet was associated with greater amount of mRNA of the fat transporter CD36. Despite the changes in mRNA of lipogenic proteins, the body weight of animals from each group was the same and the livers from rats fed high-fructose and high-sucrose diets did not contain more fat than control diet livers. In conclusion, changing the composition of the principal monosaccharide in the diet to a fructose containing sugar elicits changes in the level of hepatic mRNA of lipogenic and fat transport proteins and protein levels of their transcriptional regulators; however this is not associated with any changes in body weight or liver fat content. PMID:22159273

  8. Regulation of Body Fat in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Supriya

    2016-01-01

    Studies conducted in C. elegans over the last decade highlight the ancient and complex origins of body fat regulation. In this critical review, I introduce the major functional approaches used to study energy balance and body fat, the lipid composition of C. elegans, the regulation of cellular fat metabolism and its transcriptional control. Next I describe the influence of the sensory nervous system on body fat and the major regulatory mechanisms that couple food perception in the nervous system with the production of energy via fat metabolism. The final section describes the opportunities for the discovery of neuroendocrine factors that control communication between the nervous system and the metabolic tissues. The coming years are expected to reveal a wealth of information on the neuroendocrine control of body fat in C. elegans. PMID:25340962

  9. Relationship of anthropometric measurements to body fat as determined by densitometry 40K and body water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of anthropometric measurements were made on 223 male and 36 female military personnel for whom total body fat was estimated by density, 40K counting, and D2O dilution. Simple correlations with body fat estimates indicated that for the male population, waist, weight and buttocks circumferences were most highly correlated with fat estimate ( r = 0.70 to 0.85). In the female population skinfold thicknesses were the measurements most highly correlated with weight of body fat (r = 0.66 to 0.87). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that five of the variables could account for 60 to 70 percent of the variation in fat in males and up to 90 percent in females. Correlations of measurements were higher with fat as estimated by density than with estimates derived from potassium-40 counting or D2O dilution in males. (U.S.)

  10. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina;

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....

  11. Liver volume, intrahepatic fat and body weight in the course of a lifestyle interventional study. Analysis with quantitative MR-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between changes in liver volume, the amount of intrahepatic lipids (IHL) and body weight during lifestyle interventions. In a prospective study 150 patients with an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus were included who followed a caloric restriction diet for 6 months. In the retrospective analysis 18 women and 9 men (age range 22-71 years) with an average body mass index (BMI) of 32 kg/m2 were enrolled. The liver volume was determined at the beginning and after 6 months by three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D-MRI, echo gradient, opposed-phase) and IHLs were quantified by volume-selective MR spectroscopy in single voxel stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM). Univariable and multivariable correlation analyses between changes of liver volume (Δliver volume), intrahepatic lipids (ΔIHL) and body weight (ΔBW) were performed. Univariable correlation analysis in the whole study cohort showed associations between ΔIHL and ΔBW (r = 0.69; p < 0.0001), ΔIHL and Δliver volume (r = 0.66; p = 0.0002) as well as ΔBW and Δliver volume (r = 0.5; p = 0.0073). Multivariable correlation analysis revealed that changes of liver volume are primarily determined by changes in IHL independent of changes in body weight (β = 0.0272; 95 % CI: 0.0155-0.034; p < 0.0001). Changes of liver volume during lifestyle interventions are independent of changes of body weight primarily determined by changes of IHL. These results show the reversibility of augmented liver volume in steatosis if it is possible to reduce IHLs during lifestyle interventions. (orig.)

  12. Racial differences in body fat distribution among reproductive-aged women

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Temple, Jeff R.; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Berenson, Abbey B

    2009-01-01

    We examined the influence of race/ethnicity on body fat distribution for a given body mass index (BMI) among reproductive-aged women. Body weight, height, and body fat distribution were measured with a digital scale, wall-mounted stadiometer, and dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA), respectively, on 708 healthy black, white, and Hispanic women 16–33 years of age. Multiple linear regression was used to model the relationship between race/ethnicity and different body fat distribution variables aft...

  13. Macular Pigment and Percentage of Body Fat.

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Nolan, Dr.; O'Donovan, O.; Kavanagh, Heather; BEATTY, S

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. To Investigate the relationship between percentage of body fat and macular pigment (MP) optical density. Methods. One hundred healthy subjects of ages between 22 and 60 years volunteered to participate in this study. MP optical density was measured psychophysically, serum lutein and zeaxanthin were quantified by HPLC, and dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Body fat was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (D...

  14. Neuromedin U receptor 2 knockdown in the paraventricular nucleus modifies behavioral responses to obesogenic high-fat food and leads to increased body weight

    OpenAIRE

    Benzon, Caitlin R.; Johnson, Sarah B; McCue, David L.; Li, Dingge; Green, Thomas A; Hommel, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is a highly conserved neuropeptide which regulates food intake and body weight. Transgenic mice lacking NMU are hyperphagic and obese, making NMU a novel target for understanding and treating obesity. Neuromedin U receptor 2 (NMUR2) is a high-affinity receptor for NMU found in discrete regions of the central nervous system, in particular the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), where it may be responsible for mediating the anorectic effects of NMU. We hypothes...

  15. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K;

    2012-01-01

    ). Body fat was also calculated as a percentage of body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution (AFM/TBF) was calculated. Echocardiography was performed with two-dimensional guided M-mode. LA diameter was measured and left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood......In adults, the size of the left atria (LA) has important prognostic information. In obese adults, adolescents and children enlargement of LA have been observed. This has not been investigated on a population-based level in young children. We therefore assessed if total body fat mass (TBF......), abdominal fat, and body fat distribution were related to LA diameter. Cross-sectional study of 244 children (boys = 137 and girls n = 107) aged 8-11 years, recruited from an urban population-based cohort. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured total lean body mass, TBF, and abdominal fat mass (AFM...

  16. Fat Talk and Body Dissatisfaction among College Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartawidjaja, Jenae E.; Cordero, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate "fat talk" conversations about weight and body dissatisfaction within college dancers. Participants were 116 female undergraduates who were dancers/dance majors ("n"?=?20), dancers/nondance majors ("n"?=?32), and nondancers ("n"?=?63). Participants responded to…

  17. Fat substitutes promote weight gain in rats consuming high-fat diets

    OpenAIRE

    Swithers, Susan E.; Ogden, Sean B.; Davidson, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    The use of food products designed to mimic the sensory properties of sweet and fat while providing fewer calories has been promoted as a method for reducing food intake and body weight. However, such products may interfere with one mechanism that animals use to regulate energy balance, a learned relationship between the sensory properites of food and the caloric consequences of consuming those foods. Consistent with this hypothesis, previous data have shown that providing rats with sweet tast...

  18. Reduced intestinal lipid absorption and body weight-independent improvements in insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-fed Park2 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Diana K; Huckestein, Brydie R; Edmunds, Lia R; Petersen, Max C; Nasiri, Ali; Butrico, Gina M; Abulizi, Abudukadier; Harmon, Daniel B; Lu, Canying; Mantell, Benjamin S; Hartman, Douglas J; Camporez, João-Paulo G; O'Doherty, Robert M; Cline, Gary W; Shulman, Gerald I; Jurczak, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with many human diseases and results from mismatch of damage and repair over the life of the organelle. PARK2 is a ubiquitin E3 ligase that regulates mitophagy, a repair mechanism that selectively degrades damaged mitochondria. Deletion of PARK2 in multiple in vivo models results in susceptibility to stress-induced mitochondrial and cellular dysfunction. Surprisingly, Park2 knockout (KO) mice are protected from nutritional stress and do not develop obesity, hepatic steatosis or insulin resistance when fed a high-fat diet (HFD). However, these phenomena are casually related and the physiological basis for this phenotype is unknown. We therefore undertook a series of acute HFD studies to more completely understand the physiology of Park2 KO during nutritional stress. We find that intestinal lipid absorption is impaired in Park2 KO mice as evidenced by increased fecal lipids and reduced plasma triglycerides after intragastric fat challenge. Park2 KO mice developed hepatic steatosis in response to intravenous lipid infusion as well as during incubation of primary hepatocytes with fatty acids, suggesting that hepatic protection from nutritional stress was secondary to changes in energy balance due to altered intestinal triglyceride absorption. Park2 KO mice showed reduced adiposity after 1-wk HFD, as well as improved hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. These studies suggest that changes in intestinal lipid absorption may play a primary role in protection from nutritional stress in Park2 KO mice by preventing HFD-induced weight gain and highlight the need for tissue-specific models to address the role of PARK2 during metabolic stress. PMID:27166280

  19. Lean body mass and total body fat by dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a method for measuring the lean body mass (LBM) and total body fat (FAT) by dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry (DPA). Lean percent determination on limb phantoms, revealed precision and accuracy errors below 2.0%. The in vivo precision of the LBM of duplicate measurements on five healthy subjects was 2.2%. The accuracy error in vivo of measuring the total mass of soft tissues was 1.4%, thus yielding an overall accuracy error of the LBM of about 2.5%. Measurements on 100 healthy subjects revealed high correlations between FAT, FAT% or LBM by DPA versus FAT, FAT% or LBM calculated from anthropometric measurements. From DPA measurements of 228 normal adults, multiple regression equations of LBM and FAT based on age, height, and weight were computed. They conclude that DPA measurements of LBM and FAT in vivo is a reliable estimation of the gross body composition, and that LBM and FAT in normal adults can be calculated solely from age, height, and weight with reasonable accuracy for many purposes

  20. Limited Weight Loss or Simply No Weight Gain following Lifestyle-Only Intervention Tends to Redistribute Body Fat, to Decrease Lipid Concentrations, and to Improve Parameters of Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Valeri Lenin; Molina Zarela; Cichetti Rosanna; Camacho Nolis; Santomauro Mercedes; Paoli Mariela; Fernández Maricelia; Marcano Henry; Lanes Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether lifestyle-only intervention in obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight redistributes parameters of body composition and reverses metabolic abnormalities. Study Design. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were assessed in 111 overweight or obese children (CA of 11.3 ± 2.8 years; 63 females and 48 males), during 8 months of lifestyle intervention. Patients maintained or lost weight (1–5%) (group A; n: 72) or gained weight ...

  1. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  2. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out

  3. The Effect of Body fat Mass and Fat Free Mass on Migraine Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity seems to be associated to migraine headache. Increase in body fat, especially in gluteofemoral region, elevates adiponectin and leptin secretion which in turn impair inflammatory processes that could be contributing to migraine risk. This study was designed to assess the relationship between body composition and risk of migraine for the first time.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1510 middle-aged women who were visited in a weight reduction clinicof university were recruited. Migraine was diagnosedwith HIS criteria. Body composition parameters including total fat mass (FATM, total fat free mass (FFM, truncal fat mass (TFATM, and truncal fat free mass (TFFM was assessed using bioelectric impedance. We further assessed cardiovascular risk factors and smoking as confounding factors. To determine the real association between different variables and risk of migraine, the associations were adjusted by multivariate logistic regression analysis.Results: Elevation in fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, FFM, TFFM, and waist-to-hip ratio increased the risk of migraine. When the associations were adjusted for other factors, only the association between migraine and FFM remained statistically significant.Conclusion: Lower FFM increased the risk of migraine in overweight and obese individuals. In the other words, higher fat free mass could be a protective factor for migraine.

  4. A maternal high fat diet programmes endothelial function and cardiovascular status in adult male offspring independent of body weight, which is reversed by maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Gray

    EDHF function when compared to CON and CLA groups. These data suggest that a maternal HF diet causes a developmental programming of endothelial dysfunction and hypertension in male offspring which can be partially improved by maternal CLA supplementation, independent of offspring body weight.

  5. Food Prices and Body Fatness among Youths

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Michael; Tekin, Erdal; Wada, Roy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the effect of food prices on clinical measures of obesity, including body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) measures derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), among youths ages 12 through 18. The empirical analyses employ data from various waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) merged with several food prices measured by county and year. This is the first study to consi...

  6. Fat and lean BMI reference curves in children and adolescents and their utility in identifying excess adiposity compared with BMI and percentage body fat1234

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, David R.; Moore, Reneé H.; Leonard, Mary B.; Babette S. Zemel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) are widely used to assess adiposity. These indexes fail to account for independent contributions of fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) to body weight, which vary according to age, sex, pubertal status, and population ancestry in the pediatric population.

  7. Healthy Fats in Mediterranean Diet Won't Boost Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159217.html Healthy Fats in Mediterranean Diet Won't Boost Weight Vegetable oils, nuts can ... groups, though less so in those on the healthy fat diets. The low-fat group had an increase of ...

  8. Effect of Various Protein Sources on Body Weight Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnevik, Alexander Krokedal

    Background: Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity, finding effective dietary strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance is of great interest. High protein diets are reported to protect against diet-induced obesity, however less is known about how different protein sources affect body...... consumption of lean meat in Western background diets was only evident with free access to the diets, most likely due to differences in body composition. We purpose that the beneficial effects of lean seafood consumption in relation to body weight regulation may be due to an enrichment of the amino acids...... weight regulation. We aimed to investigate how various protein sources influenced body weight development and glucose metabolism by feeding obesity prone male C57/BL6 mice various protein sources in different background diets. Results: In high fat/high sucrose diets (HF/HS), high fat/high protein diets...

  9. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  10. Relationship of body fat with insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors among normal glucose-tolerant subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Gokulakrishnan, K.; Deepa, M; F Monickaraj; Mohan, V

    2011-01-01

    Background : The amount of body fat, rather than the amount of excess weight, determines the health risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Aims : To look at the association of body fat percentage with cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Settings and Design : Cross-section study from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Materials and Methods : Body fat was measured by Beurer body fat analyzer. Metabolic syndrome ...

  11. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L;

    1996-01-01

    measurements were compared with bioimpedance analysis (BIA) by applying 11 predictive BIA equations published in the literature. Predictive equations for the present study population were developed, with the use of fat-free mass (FFM) as assessed by TBK and DXA as references in multiple regression analysis...

  12. Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan El Ghoch; Simona Calugi; Silvia Lamburghini; Riccardo Dalle Grave

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa ado...

  13. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  14. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  15. Disentangling the body weight-bone mineral density association among breast cancer survivors: an examination of the independent roles of lean mass and fat mass

    OpenAIRE

    George, Stephanie M; McTiernan, Anne; Villaseñor, Adriana; Alfano, Catherine M.; Irwin, Melinda L.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Baumgartner, Richard N.; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Bernstein, Leslie; Smith, Ashley W.; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Bone mineral density (BMD) and lean mass (LM) may both decrease in breast cancer survivors, thereby increasing risk of falls and fractures. Research is needed to determine whether lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) independently relate to BMD in this patient group. Methods The Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study participants included 599 women, ages 29–87 years, diagnosed...

  16. Effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin administration and high-fat diet on the body weight and hepatic estrogen metabolism in female C3H/HeN mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effect of administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) by i.p. injection once every 2 weeks in combination with a high-fat (HF) diet for 8 or 16 weeks on the body and organ weight changes as well as on the hepatic enzyme activity for estrogen metabolism in C3H/HeN female mice. Administration of TCDD at 100 μg/kg b.w. once every 2 weeks for 8 weeks increased the body weight by 46% in the HF diet-fed animals, but not in the regular diet-fed animals. This is the first observation suggesting that TCDD at a high dose (100 μg/kg b.w.), but not at lower doses (1 or 10 μg/kg b.w.), may have a strong obesity-inducing effect in C3H/HeN mice fed an HF diet. While TCDD increased liver weight and decreased thymus weight in animals, these effects were enhanced by feeding animals an HF diet. Metabolism studies showed that TCDD administration for 8 or 16 weeks increased the liver microsomal activity for the 2- and 4-hydroxylation of 17β-estradiol in animals fed a control diet, but surprisingly not in animals fed an HF diet. Treatment with TCDD dose-dependently increased the hepatic activity for the O-methylation of catechol estrogens in both control and HF diet-fed animals, and it also decreased the levels of liver microsomal sulfatase activity for hydrolysis of estrone-3-sulfate. TCDD did not significantly affect the hepatic enzyme activity for the glucuronidation or esterification of endogenous estrogens. It is suggested that enhanced metabolic inactivation of endogenous estrogens by hepatic estrogen-metabolizing enzymes in TCDD-treated, control diet-fed animals contributes importantly to the reduced incidence of estrogen-associated tumors in animals treated with TCDD

  17. Body Contouring After Major Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Plastic Surgery Statistics ASPS TV News Program History of Plastic Surgery For Medical Professionals ... Major Weight Loss Body Contouring After Major Weight Loss For Men and Women Body contouring following major weight loss improves the ...

  18. Effects of growth hormone administration on the body composition and hormone levels of genetically fat sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coopworth sheep selected for low (lean) or high (fat) backfat have large differences in plasma GH profiles. Fat genotype ram lambs (5 months old) were treated with growth hormone (GH) to simulate the plasma GH profiles of lean sheep and investigate whether exogenous GH could modify carcass fatness. For 77 days, bovine GH was administered at 25mug/kg live weight per day either as a single, daily subcutaneous bolus (fat bolus) or via portable pulsatile infusion pumps (fat pump) which delivered GH solution at 90-min intervals into a jugular catheter. Measurements of body composition were made by computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonic scanning during the trial, with linear carcass measurements and proximate analysis undertaken at the end of the experiment. Before treatments began, mean plasma GH levels were lower (P < 0.01) in fat control (0.34 mug/l) than in lean lambs (1.1 mug/l). Several weeks after the start of the trial, mean plasma GH had increased in both fat bolus (1.2mug/l) and fat pump (0.45mug/l) treatment lambs with major changes in the pulsatility relative to the fat control lambs. Although these changes were maintained in the fat bolus lambs, by the end of the trial there was no significant difference in mean plasma GH between fat pump and fat control sheep. Throughout the trial, plasma IGF-1 levels were higher in fat bolus, fat pump and lean lambs than in fat control lambs. Analysis of body composition data over the GH treatment period revealed that the slope of the allometric equation for total fat relative to empty body weight was lower in the fat bolus lambs (1.07) than in the lean lambs (1.50) with fat control and fat pump treatment lambs intermediate (1.30 and 1.36, respectively). Subcutaneous fat was later maturing in lean lambs than in fat control and bolus treatment lambs when regressed against total fat, with the fat pump treatment lambs being intermediate. Linear carcass measurements revealed changes due to GH administration in the

  19. Ciliary neurotrophic factor activates leptin-like pathways and reduces body fat, without cachexia or rebound weight gain, even in leptin-resistant obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, P. D.; Anderson, K. D.; Sleeman, M. W.; Wong, V.; Tan, J.; Hijarunguru, A.; Corcoran, T L; Murray, J. D.; Thabet, K. E.; Yancopoulos, G D; Wiegand, S J

    2001-01-01

    Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) was first characterized as a trophic factor for motor neurons in the ciliary ganglion and spinal cord, leading to its evaluation in humans suffering from motor neuron disease. In these trials, CNTF caused unexpected and substantial weight loss, raising concerns that it might produce cachectic-like effects. Countering this possibility was the suggestion that CNTF was working via a leptin-like mechanism to cause weight loss, based on the find...

  20. Body Mass Index and Percentage of Body Fat as Indicators for Obesity in an Adolescent Athletic Population

    OpenAIRE

    Etchison, William C.; Bloodgood, Elizabeth A.; Minton, Cholly P.; Thompson, Nancy J.; Collins, Mary Ann; Hunter, Stephen C.; Dai, Hongying

    2011-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) is widely accepted in determining obesity. Skinfold thickness measurements have been commonly used to determine percentage of body fat. Hypothesis: The authors hypothesize that because BMI does not measure fat directly but relies on body weight alone, a large percentage of athletic adolescents will be misclassified as obese by BMI. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: To compare BMI and skinfold measurements as indicators for obesity in the adolescent athl...

  1. A residential summer camp can reduce body fat and improve health-related quality of life in obese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an earlier report, we showed that a 2-week, residential summer camp (Kamp K'aana) led to improved body weight, body mass index, body mass index z score, and self-esteem among obese children. To assess whether improvements in body weight and self-esteem translate into improvement in body fat and w...

  2. Determination of total body fat by tritium dilution. Methodology and relation of the results to the body-mass-index (BMI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tritium dilution method primarily measures the fat-free mass of the total body by equilibration of an oral dose of tritiated water. The radioactivity is measured in a serum sample drawn four hours after tracer application. For these processes a serial precision of VC = 1.7% has been observed. The total body fat is calculated assuming the hydratation constant of the fat-free body to be 73%. 65 female and 142 male patients suffering from metabolic diseases were examined. They represent the whole scale of body composition ranging from 48 to 208 kg of body weight, 18 to 66 kg/m2 of BMI. 2.4 to 98 kg of absolute body fat, and 3.8 to 52% of relative body fat. Normal-weight (BMI from 20 to 25) women have 25% fat and standard weight men have 15% fat. Close relationships of the type F = a + b · W + c · H2 between body fat, body weight, and body height have been found. They allow to detect extreme body compositions. Scientific studies like optimizing of measures of weight reduction need direct assessment of body composition. For this purpose the tritium method is well suited due to its precision whereas the BMI is sufficient for epidemiologic and orienting statements. (author)

  3. Relationships among Body Weight, Body Measurements and Estimated Feed Efficiency Characteristics in Holstein Friesian Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bayram

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Data concerning body measurements, milk yield and body weights data were analysed on 101 of Holstein Friesian cows. Phenotypic correlations indicated positive significant relations between estimated feed efficiency (EFE and milk yield as well as 4 % fat corrected milk yield, and between body measurements and milk yield. However, negative correlations were found between the EFE and body measurements indicating that the taller, longer, deeper and especially heavier cows were not to be efficient as smaller cows

  4. Body Fat Percentage Prediction Using Intelligent Hybrid Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Yuehjen E. Shao

    2014-01-01

    Excess of body fat often leads to obesity. Obesity is typically associated with serious medical diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, knowing the body fat is an extremely important issue since it affects everyone’s health. Although there are several ways to measure the body fat percentage (BFP), the accurate methods are often associated with hassle and/or high costs. Traditional single-stage approaches may use certain body measurements or explanatory variables t...

  5. Gestational Diabetes May Lead to More Body Fat on Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158813.html Gestational Diabetes May Lead to More Body Fat on Babies ... HealthDay News) -- Babies born to mothers who had gestational diabetes may be more likely to carry excess fat ...

  6. INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACUTE FLUID LOSS AND BODY FAT PERCENTAGE BY USING BIA METHOD TO DETERMİNE BODY COMPOSİTİON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA is so popular technique to analysis body fat mass (BFM, free fat mass (FFM, lean body mass (LBM and total body fluid (TBF in both healthy and patient subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the acute weight(fluid loss on body fat mass and percentage by using BIA method. In this study 43 soccer players (age: 21.90; length: 179.62and weight: 73.90 who playing in college league in Afyonkarahisar province has been participated. Body weight, total body fluid, body fat percentage and fat mass of soccer players were measured by using BIA(Tanita method before and after the matches. Paired t test has been used to compare pretest and posttest values. Pearson's correlation analysis has been used to determine relationship between tests values. Statistically differences has been determined between pre-post body weight and body fat TBF (p<0,01. Also, highly negative correlation has been determined between pre-post body fluide loss percentage differences and pre-post body fat mass percentage differences (r=-,766; p<0,001. Theoretically, body fat loss is expected following weight loss after computation, anything but rising rate of body fat was observed. So it is speculated that bio-electric facing more resistance in the body due to fluid loss. Therefore more body fat calculated. Dehydration should be taken into account for the measurements made by the BIA method, because of changes in body fat percentages. It is suggested that fluid intake of the subjects should be under control before the measurementin the studies.

  7. Body fat related to daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K;

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the associations between body fat versus daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic young children in a cross-sectional study of 172 children (93 boys and 79 girls) aged 8-11 years. Blood samples were analysed for serum insulin and daily physical activity...... was measured by accelerometers. Time spent performing vigorous activity was estimated from accelerometer data by using established cut-off points. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF), also calculated as percentage of body weight (BF......%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Body fat distribution was independently linked to both insulin concentrations and physical activity. In contrast, TBF, AFM, and BF% were linked to physical activity only and not to insulin concentrations. In conclusion in this population of non...

  8. Food prices and body fatness among youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Michael; Tekin, Erdal; Wada, Roy

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of food prices on clinical measures of obesity, including body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) measures derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), among youths ages 12 through 18 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This is the first study to consider clinically measured levels of body composition rather than BMI to investigate the effects of food prices on obesity outcomes among youths classified by gender and race/ethnicity. Our findings suggest that increases in the real price per calorie of food for home consumption and the real price of fast-food restaurant food lead to improvements in obesity outcomes among youths. We also find that a rise in the real price of fruits and vegetables leads to increased obesity. Finally, our results indicate that measures of PBF derived from BIA and DXA are no less sensitive and in some cases more sensitive to the prices just mentioned than BMI, and serve an important role in demonstrating that rising food prices (except fruit and vegetable prices) are indeed associated with reductions in obesity rather than with reductions in body size proportions alone. PMID:24246131

  9. Body fat, fat distribution, and psychosocial factors among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R A; Summerson, J H; Spangler, J G; Konen, J C

    1998-01-01

    Diabetes, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, requires lifestyle modifications (diet, exercise, weight loss). The relations between body mass index, waist-hip ratio (WHR), and psychosocial indicators, such as affect and stress, among 302 diabetic patients from a clinic and a neighborhood health center were analyzed. Data included stress and mood scale responses, body size (height, weight, and WHR) and potential confounders (physical activity, energy intake, and diabetes duration). In univariate analyses, body mass index was positively associated with stress and inversely associated with positive affect only in women. Multiple regression analyses indicated that stress was associated with body mass index and negative mood was associated with the WHR. The findings suggested that stress and affect may be important correlates of body fat among women with Type 2 diabetes, leading to more complications. Healthcare providers can help women with Type 2 diabetes lose weight and lower the risk of cardiovascular disease by recognizing and helping them deal with these psychosocial issues. PMID:9850808

  10. Cross-sectional study of possible association between rapid eating and high body fat rates among female Japanese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi-Tanaka, Yuri; Kawagoshi, Yumiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Fukao, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of excessive body fat among young Japanese females with a normal BMI, which is referred to as normal weight obesity (NWO), has recently increased. Some studies have associated eating rates with BMI. However, an association between body fat rate and dietary habits has not been proven. We compared differences in dietary habits between 72 female Japanese junior college students with normal (<30%; normal body fat ratio, NFR) and high (≥ 30%; excessive body fat ratio, EFR) proportions of body fat. Energy and the intake of many nutrients and foods did not significantly differ between the two groups, but the EFR group consumed significantly less saturated fatty acid, sugar and confectionery. Eating rapidly was significantly associated with body fat ratios. Our findings suggest that eating rapidly increases body fat ratios. PMID:23883696

  11. Measurement of body fat and hydration of the fat-free body in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body fat mass, fat-free body mass and body water are basic components of body composition which are used in nutritional and metabolic studies and in patient care. A method of measuring total body fat (TBF), fat-free mass (FFM) and its hydration (TBW/FFM) involving prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) and tritium dilution has been compared with the more traditional methods of densitometry and skinfold anthropometry in 36 normal volunteers, and with skinfold anthropometry in 56 patients presenting for nutritional support. While the mean values of TBF were in reasonable agreement for the three methods in normals it was founds that skinfold anthropometry underestimated TBF relative to the IVNAA/tritium method by, on average, 3.0 kg (19%) in patients. Furthermore, the ranges of values in normals of the ratio TBW/FFM for the anthropometric (0.62 to 0.80) and densitometric (0.65 to 0.80) methods were much wider than the range for the IVNAA/tritium method (0.69 to 0.76), in which TBW was measured by tritium dilution in all cases. In the patients, the ranges of this ratio were 0.52 to 0.90 for the anthropometric method and 0.67 to 0.82 for the IVNAA/tritium method; clearly anthropometry yields values of TBW/FFM which are outside accepted biological limits. On the basis of these findings, ranges of TBW/FFM are suggested for both normal adults (0.69 to 0.75) and patients requiring nutritional support (0.67 to 0.83). Finally it is concluded that the IVNAA/tritium method is a suitable method for measuring TBF and FFM and particularly so when body composition is abnormal

  12. Measurement of body fat and hydration of the fat-free body in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streat, S.J.; Beddoe, A.H.; Hill, G.L.

    1985-06-01

    Body fat mass, fat-free body mass and body water are basic components of body composition which are used in nutritional and metabolic studies and in patient care. A method of measuring total body fat (TBF), fat-free mass (FFM) and its hydration (TBW/FFM) involving prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) and tritium dilution has been compared with the more traditional methods of densitometry and skinfold anthropometry in 36 normal volunteers, and with skinfold anthropometry in 56 patients presenting for nutritional support. While the mean values of TBF were in reasonable agreement for the three methods in normals it was founds that skinfold anthropometry underestimated TBF relative to the IVNAA/tritium method by, on average, 3.0 kg (19%) in patients. Furthermore, the ranges of values in normals of the ratio TBW/FFM for the anthropometric (0.62 to 0.80) and densitometric (0.65 to 0.80) methods were much wider than the range for the IVNAA/tritium method (0.69 to 0.76), in which TBW was measured by tritium dilution in all cases. In the patients, the ranges of this ratio were 0.52 to 0.90 for the anthropometric method and 0.67 to 0.82 for the IVNAA/tritium method; clearly anthropometry yields values of TBW/FFM which are outside accepted biological limits. On the basis of these findings, ranges of TBW/FFM are suggested for both normal adults (0.69 to 0.75) and patients requiring nutritional support (0.67 to 0.83). Finally it is concluded that the IVNAA/tritium method is a suitable method for measuring TBF and FFM and particularly so when body composition is abnormal.

  13. Regulation of glycogenolysis in the locust fat body during flight

    OpenAIRE

    Marrewijk, W.J.A. van; Broek, A.Th.M. van den; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    Glycogen reserves in the fat body of Locusta migratoria decrease dramatically during the first two hours of flight. In fat body of rested locusts only 10% of glycogen phosphorylase occurs in the active form. The enzyme is activated significantly during flight, when up to one-third of the total phosphorylase becomes active. Phosphorylase activation can also be accomplished by injection of corpus cardiacum extracts, to give a maximum of circa 75% active enzyme. Locust fat body is shown to conta...

  14. Leptin-induced increase in body fat content of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth B.S. Harris

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that peripheral leptin infusions in chronically decrebrate rats, in which the forebrain is neurally isolated from the hindbrain, increased body fat and decreased energy expenditure. Any central leptin response in decerebrate rats would depend upon the hindbrain. Here, we tested whether selective activation of hindbrain leptin receptors increased body fat. Fourth ventricle infusion of 0.6 μg leptin/day for 12 days increased body fat by 13% with no increase in food intake...

  15. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity

  16. Influence of winter temperature and simulated climate change on body mass and fat body depletion during diapause in adults of the solitary bee, Osmia rufa (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliszkiewicz, Monika; Giejdasz, Karol; Wasielewski, Oskar; Krishnan, Natraj

    2012-12-01

    The influence of simulated climate change on body weight and depletion of fat body reserves was studied during diapause in the European solitary bee Osmia rufa L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Insects (females) were reared and collected from outdoor nests from September to March. One cohort of females was weighed and dissected immediately for analyses, whereas another cohort was subjected to simulated warmer temperature (15°C for 7 d) before analyses. A gradual decline in body mass and fat body content was recorded with declining temperatures from September to January in female bees from natural conditions. Temperature increased gradually from January to March with a further decline in body mass and fat body content. The fat body development index dropped from five in September-October (≈ 89% individuals) to four for the period from November to February (≈ 84% individuals) and further to three in March (95% individuals) before emergence. Simulated warmer winter temperature also resulted in a similar decline in body weight and fat body content; however, body weight and fat body content declined faster. The fat body development index dropped to three in December in the majority of individuals and continued at this level until March just before emergence. Taken together, our data indicate an earlier depletion of fat body reserves under simulated climate change conditions that may impact ovarian development and reproductive fitness in O. rufa. PMID:23321111

  17. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther; Jess, Tine; Berentzen, Tina; Toubro, Søren; Hansen, Torben; Astrup, Arne; Pedersen, Oluf; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already in...

  18. THE COMPARISON OF BALANCE AND BODY FAT PERCENTAGE OF ELITE FUTSAL PLAYERS AND SEDENTARY PEOPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Gürkan, Alper Cenk; Sever, Ozan; Fatma Nur ER; Ceren SUVEREN; Koçak, Mehmet; HAZAR, Muhsin

    2012-01-01

    This study, which was applied to determine the balance and body fat percentage of elite futsal players and to compare them with the sedentary people, consisted of totally 49 people; 12 elite futsal players from Gazi University, 12 elite futsal players from Middle East Technical University and 13 sedentary people from Police Academy. The age, height, weight, balance and body fat percentage data of subjects were measured. The data obtained from the study were analyzed in SPSS 19 by using Kruska...

  19. Physical Activity: An Important Adaptative Mechanism for Body-Weight Control

    OpenAIRE

    Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina

    2012-01-01

    We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains ...

  20. New insights into biological effects of conjugated linoleic acid and saturated fats in body fat composition, obesity and related disorders: experimental studies in normal-weight Wistar and obese Zucker rats

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Susana Isabel Vargas

    2010-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciência e Tecnologia Animal The daily intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers by humans, through diet and supplementation, and the controversial effects of these compounds in human health, were the main motivation for the elaboration of this thesis. Firstly, the present work intended to estimate the daily CLA ingestion by the Portuguese population. Secondly, the biological effects of CLA were exploited using two distinct animal models, normal-weight (Wistar...

  1. Are foods with fat-related claims useful for weight management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermel, Alyssa; Wong, Christina L; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2016-01-01

    Many consumers believe that foods labelled with fat claims (e.g. low fat) are lower in calories than comparable regular foods and are therefore helpful for weight management. However, it is unknown whether such foods are actually lower in calories. Our aims were to determine 1) the relative proportion of foods carrying fat claims among various food categories within the Canadian marketplace; and 2) whether foods with fat claims are actually lower in calories than comparable foods without claims. The Food Label Information Program 2010, a database of Canadian foods developed at the University of Toronto, was used to compare the calorie content of products with and without fat claims within a given food subcategory, as defined by Schedule M of the Food and Drug Regulations. Median differences of 25% or greater were deemed nutritionally significant, as that is the minimum difference required for comparative claims such as "reduced" and "lower" in the Food and Drug Regulations. Fat claims were present on up to 68% of products in a given food subcategory. Products with fat claims were not significantly lower in both fat and calories compared to comparable products without fat claims in more than half of the subcategories (24 out of 40) analyzed. Conversely, in 16 subcategories, foods with fat claims were at least 25% lower in calories; however, for many of these foods, the absolute difference in calories was small, i.e., for 9 of the 16 subcategories, the absolute difference between foods with and without fat claims was <50 calories, even though the relative percent difference was high. This research suggests that foods with fat claims may be misleading consumers and undermining their efforts to manage body weight or prevent obesity. PMID:26362994

  2. In Vivo Examination of Fat Deposition in Growing Rabbits Selected for High and Low Body Fat Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Milisits

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Pannon White rabbits of average ± 1 S.D. live weight at 10 weeks and of average± 1 S.D. daily weight gain between 6 and 10 weeks of age were chosen from the experimental stock of our university, and their fat content was determined with an EM-SCAN SA-3152 type small animal body composition analyser (by means of TOBEC method at 10 weeks of age. Based on the fat content determined, the best and worst 16% of the does and the best and worst 8% of the bucks were chosen and mated with each other (fatty doe with fatty buck and lean doe with lean buck. Their offspring were examined by computer tomography (CT weekly between 6 and 11 weeks of age. Cross-sectional images (scans were taken from the scapular arch to the end of the femur on each animal. From this scans the amount of fat was determined and its ratio to the total amount of body was calculated in the scapular, perirenal and pelvic region. In the most cases it was established that the total body fat content and also fat content in the scapular, perirenal and pelvic regions are significantly higher in the offspring of fatty rabbits as in the offspring of non-fatty ones. In the group of non-fatty rabbits the scapular fat increased intensively from the age of 7 weeks. The perirenal fat content began to grow rapidly at 8 weeks in fatty group and at 10 weeks of age in the non-fatty rabbits. Based on the results of this experiment TOBEC method seems to be a useful thing for selecting rabbits based on their body fat content.

  3. In Vivo Examination of Fat Deposition in Growing Rabbits Selected for High and Low Body Fat Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Milisits

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Pannon White rabbits of average ± 1 S.D. live weight at 10 weeks and of average ± 1 S.D. daily weight gain between 6 and 10 weeks of age were chosen from the experimental stock of our university, and their fat content was determined with an EM-SCAN SA-3152 type small animal body composition analyser (by means of TOBEC method at 10 weeks of age. Based on the fat content determined, the best and worst 16% of the does and the best and worst 8% of the bucks were chosen and mated with each other (fatty doe with fatty buck and lean doe with lean buck. Their offspring were examined by computer tomography (CT weekly between 6 and 11 weeks of age. Cross-sectional images (scans were taken from the scapular arch to the end of the femur on each animal. From this scans the amount of fat was determined and its ratio to the total amount of body was calculated in the scapular, perirenal and pelvic region. In the most cases it was established that the total body fat content and also fat content in the scapular, perirenal and pelvic regions are significantly higher in the offspring of fatty rabbits as in the offspring of non-fatty ones. In the group of non-fatty rabbits the scapular fat increased intensively from the age of 7 weeks. The perirenal fat content began to grow rapidly at 8 weeks in fatty group and at 10 weeks of age in the non-fatty rabbits. Based on the results of this experiment TOBEC method seems to be a useful thing for selecting rabbits based on their body fat content.

  4. Body Mass Index, percent body fat, and regional body fat distribution in relation to leptin concentrations in healthy, non-smoking postmenopausal women in a feeding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell William

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between BMI and leptin has been studied extensively in the past, but previous reports in postmenopausal women have not been conducted under carefully controlled dietary conditions of weight maintenance using precise measures of body fat distribution. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between serum leptin concentration and adiposity as estimated by BMI and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA measures (percent body fat, central and peripheral fat, and lean mass in postmenopausal women. Methods This study was conducted as a cross-sectional analysis within the control segment of a randomized, crossover trial in which postmenopausal women (n = 51 consumed 0 (control, 15 (one drink, and 30 (two drinks g alcohol (ethanol/d for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet. BMIs were determined and DEXA scans were administered to the women during the 0 g alcohol treatment, and a blood sample was collected at baseline and week 8 of each study period for leptin analysis. Results and discussion In multivariate analysis, women who were overweight (BMI > 25 to ≤ 30 kg/m2 had a 2-fold increase, and obese women (BMI > 30 kg/m2 had more than a 3-fold increase in serum leptin concentrations compared to normal weight (BMI ≤25 kg/m2 women. When the models for the different measures of adiposity were assessed by multiple R2, models which included percent body fat explained the highest proportion (approximately 80% of the serum leptin variance. Conclusion Under carefully controlled dietary conditions, we confirm that higher levels of adiposity were associated with higher concentrations of serum leptin. It appears that percent body fat in postmenopausal women may be the best adiposity-related predictor of serum leptin.

  5. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanlin; Djafarian, Kurosh; Egedigwe, Chima A; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Ojiambo, Robert; Ramuth, Harris; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra Johanna; Lackner, Sonja; Diouf, Adama; Sauciuvenaite, Justina; Hambly, Catherine; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Faries, Mark D; Speakman, John R

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions). Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK), three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius) and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal) rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r (2)) in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated. PMID:26336638

  6. Metabolic Post-feeding Changes in Fat Body and Hemolymph of Dipetalogaster maximus (Hemiptera:Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilián E Canavoso

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipids and glycogen in fat body as well as the modifications in the wet weight of this organ were evaluated in an unfed insect, Dipetalogaster maximus, on day 5 after adult ecdysis (time 0 and during a 30-day period after ingestion of blood meal. Total lipids, high density lipophorin (HDLp, carbohydrates, total proteins and uric acid were determined in the hemolymph during the same period. Fat body wet weight was maximum on day 10 post-feeding and represented on day 30 only 42% of the maximum weight. Lipids stored in the fat body increased up to day 15 reaching 24% of the total weight of tissue. Glycogen was maximum on day 20, representing approximately 3% of the fat body weight. HDLp represented at all times between 17-24% of the total proteins, whose levels ranged between 35 and 47 mg/ml. Uric acid showed at 20, 25 and 30 days similar levels and significantly higher than the ones shown at days 10 and 15. Hemolymphatic lipids fluctuated during starvation between 3-4.4 mg/ml and carbohydrates showed a maximum on day 15 after a blood meal, decreasing up to 0.26 mg/ml on day 25. The above results suggest that during physiological events such as starvation, the availability of nutrients is affected, involving principally the fat body reserves

  7. Influence of age, menopause status, body mass index and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in midlife women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Dai-min; Yu Qi; Zhang Ying; Chen Feng-ling

    2012-01-01

    -tissue mass decreases.Age itself has no significant relation with body composition and body fat distribution.It is recommended that midlife women should engage in more physical activity and keep proper body weight to reduce the negative effect of menopause on body fat tissue.

  8. Estimating liver weight of adults by body weight and gender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    See Ching Chan; Chi Leung Liu; Chung Mau Lo; Banny K Lam; Evelyn W Lee; Yik Wong; Sheung Tat Fan

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the standard liver weight for assessing adequacies of graft size in live donor liver transplantation and remnant liver in major hepatectomy for cancer.METHODS: In this study, anthropometric data of body weight and body height were tested for a correlation with liver weight in 159 live liver donors who underwent donor right hepatectomy including the middle hepatic vein. Liver weights were calculated from the right lobe graft weight obtained at the back table, divided by the proportion of the right lobe on the computed tomography.RESULTS: The subjects, all Chinese, had a mean age of 35.8 ± 10.5 years, and a female to male ratio of 118:41. The mean volume of the right lobe was 710.14 ±131.46 mL and occupied 64.55%±4.47% of the whole liver on computed tomography. Right lobe weighed 598.90±117.39 g and the estimated liver weight was 927.54 ± 168.78 g. When body weight and body height were subjected to multiple stepwise linear regression analysis, body height was found to be insignificant. Females of the same body weight had a slightly lower liver weight. A formula based on body weight and gender was derived: Estimated standard liver weight (g) = 218 + BW (kg) x 12.3 + genderx 51 (R2 = 0.48)(female = 0, male = 1). Based on the anthropometric data of these 159 subjects, liver weights were calculated using previously published formulae derived from studies on Caucasian, Japanese, Korean, and Chinese.All formulae overestimated liver weights compared to this formula. The Japanese formula overestimated the estimated standard liver weight (ESLW) for adults less than 60 kg.CONCLUSION: A formula applicable to Chinese males and females is available. A formula for individual races appears necessary.

  9. Fat body, fat pad and adipose tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates: the nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Azeez, Odunayo Ibraheem; Meintjes, Roy; Chamunorwa, Joseph Panashe

    2014-01-01

    The fat body in invertebrates was shown to participate in energy storage and homeostasis, apart from its other roles in immune mediation and protein synthesis to mention a few. Thus, sharing similar characteristics with the liver and adipose tissues in vertebrates. However, vertebrate adipose tissue or fat has been incriminated in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders due to its role in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has not been reported in the insect fat body. The link ...

  10. Leptina sérica, su relación con peso y distribución de grasa corporal en mujeres posmenopáusicas Relation between leptin serun with weight and body fat distribution in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Barrios

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La leptina es una hormona peptídica secretada por el tejido adiposo, juega un papel importante en la regulación del peso corporal. Después de la menopausia se incrementa la ganancia de peso y la obesidad de tipo androide. Estudios previos sugieren una relación entre concentración de leptina, índice de masa corporal (IMC y distribución de grasa. Objetivo: Establecer relaciones entre leptina sérica, IMC, circunferencia de cintura (CCi e índice cintura/cadera (ICC. Metodología: Se evaluaron 48 mujeres menores de 60 años de edad, con amenorrea de un año o más. Se determinó leptina sérica y estradiol (ELISA vn: 3,63-11,09 ng/mL y 0-65 pg/mL; IMC (OMS, CCi > 88cm e ICC > 0,80 se consideraron riesgo cardiometabólico. Resultados: La edad promedio del grupo fue 54 ± 3,9 años; leptina: 8,4 ± 3,7 ng/ml y estradiol: 17,6 ± 10,0 pg/ml; IMC: 27,0 ± 4,9 kg/m², CCi: 86,2 ± 8,6 cm e ICC: 0,84 ± 0,06. 20% de las mujeres presentaron hiperleptinemia, 58,4% malnutrición por exceso, 35% estaban en situación de riesgo cardiovascular CCi. Los valores más altos de leptina se observaron en las mujeres obesas. No hubo asociación entre niveles séricos de leptina y variables antropométricas. Encontrándose correlación positiva y significativa entre peso, talla, IMC, CCi, circunferencia de cadera (CCa y estradiol. Conclusiones: Las mujeres posmenopáusicas presentaron una alta prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad, distribución de grasa tipo androide y niveles normales de leptina sérica. El grupo evaluado se considera en riesgo para enfermedades cardiometabólicas según indicadores antropométricos.Leptin is a peptidic hormone secreted by the fat tissue and plays an important role in body weight regulation. After menopause, weight gain increases as well as android-like obesity. Previous studies suggest a relationship between leptin level, body mass index (BMI and fat distribution. Objective: To establish the relationships between serum leptin

  11. Cerebral Fat Embolism: Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PURPOSE: To demonstrate the diffusion-weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and the follow-up MRI findings, of cerebral fat embolism in the acute stage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The initial DWI and clinical findings of six patients with cerebral fat embolism were retrospectively evaluated. The finding of DWI with a b-value of 1000 s/mm2 (b=1000) was compared with that of DWI with a b-value of 0 s/mm2 (b=0). In three patients who underwent follow-up MRI, the interval change of the lesion on T2-weighted images was investigated. RESULTS: The characteristic DWI finding of cerebral fat embolism in the acute stage was multiple, hyperintense, dot-like lesions disseminated in the brain. These lesions were distributed dominantly in the bilateral border-zone areas. Some lesions had an ancillary location including the cortex, deep white matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. The lesions were more intense and numerous in DWI (b=1000) than in DWI (b=0). The findings on the follow-up T2-weighted images were multiple confluent hyperintense lesions in the white matter with progression since the initial MRI. CONCLUSION: DWI could be a sensitive tool for detecting cerebral fat embolism in the acute phase. It is recommended that DWI be included in the initial evaluation of cerebral fat embolism with MRI

  12. Independent effects of endurance training and weight loss on peak fat oxidation in moderately overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Pernille; Rosenkilde, Mads; Ploug, Thorkil;

    2015-01-01

    Endurance training increases peak fat oxidation (PFO) during exercise, but whether this is independent of changes in body weight is not known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of endurance training with or without weight loss or a diet-induced weight loss on PFO and on...... key skeletal muscle mitochondrial proteins involved in fat oxidation. Sixty moderately overweight, sedentary but otherwise healthy men were randomized to 12 wk of training (T), diet (D), training and increased caloric intake (T-iD), or continuous sedentary control (C). Isoenergetic deficits...... corresponding to 600 kcal/day were comprised of endurance exercise for T and caloric restriction for D. T-iD completed similar training but was not in 600 kcal deficit because of dietary replacement. PFO and the exercise intensity at which this occurred (FatMax) were measured by a submaximal exercise test and...

  13. Effect of Exenatide on Plasma Glucose,Weight and Body Fat in Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Patients Using Oral Antidiabetic Drug%艾塞那肽对2型糖尿病患者疗效、体重及体质成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢林娜; 高政南; 朱珠; 罗兰; 刘羽晗; 王冰; 李欣宇; 牛敏; 侯桂梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of exenatide on plasma glucose,weight and body fat in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes patients using oral antidiabetic drug.Method:15 cases of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes who used oral antidiabetic drug in our hospital were selected. Exenatide was injected subcutaneously together with the original basis of oral hypoglycemic agents for three months,and the body weight,body mass index(BMI),the percentage of body fat tissue, the percentage of fat tissue of waist to hip and visceral fat range were analyzed by body composition analyzer before and after treatment. In the mean time,Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to determine the fat mass and percentage,muscle and bone mineral salts mass of upper limb,Lower limb,trunk,and whole body. Result:After 3 months’treatment,HbA1c were significantly decreased than before,had statistical differences(t=3.472,P0.05). The body weight,BMI, the percentage of body fat and visceral fat range were significantly decreased before and after treatment(t=4.424,P0.05). After 3 months’ treatment,the fat tissue mass of lower limb,trunk,and whole body were significantly decreased than before,had statistical differences(t=4.008,P0.05). The muscle and bone mineral salts mass were not altered(P>0.05). After 3 months’ treatment,the decrease of body weight was highly correlated with the decrease of trunk fat and whole body fat(r=0.860,0.819,P0.05);治疗后体重、体重指数、体脂百分比及内脏脂肪区域均明显下降,与治疗前比较差异均有统计学意义(t体重=4.424,P0.05);治疗后下肢、躯干、全身脂肪量较治疗前均明显下降,差异有统计学意义(t下肢脂肪量=4.008,P0.05);治疗前后上肢、下肢、躯干、全身肌肉及骨矿物盐含量无明显改变;治疗后体重下降幅度与躯干和全身脂肪量下降幅度高度相关(r=0.860、0.819,P<0.01);治疗后全身脂肪量下降幅度与下肢和躯干脂

  14. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Stocks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. ( REGISTRATION: ISRCTN25867281. One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 10-week 600 kcal/d energy-deficient diet with energy percentage from fat (fat% in range of 20-25 or 40-45. The replication study used an 8-weeks diet of 880 kcal/d and 20 fat%; change in fat% intake was used for estimation of interaction effects. The main outcomes were intervention weight loss and waist reduction. In the trial, mean change in fat% intake was -12/+4 in the low/high-fat groups. In the replication study, it was -23/-12 among those reducing fat% more/less than the median. TFAP2B-rs987237 genotype AA was associated with 1.0 kg (95% CI, 0.4; 1.6 greater weight loss on the low-fat, and GG genotype with 2.6 kg (1.1; 4.1 greater weight loss on the high-fat (interaction p-value; p = 0.00007. The replication study showed a similar (non-significant interaction pattern. Waist reduction results generally were similar. Study-strengths include (i the discovery study randomised trial design combined with the replication opportunity (ii the strict dietary intake control in both studies (iii the large sample sizes of both studies. Limitations are (i the low minor allele frequency of the TFAP2B polymorphism, making it hard to investigate non-additive genetic effects (ii the different interventions preventing identical replication-discovery study designs (iii some missing data for non-completers and dietary intake. No adverse effects/outcomes or side-effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Under energy restriction, TFAP2B may modify the effect of dietary fat intake on

  15. Disproportionately increased 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in young men with low birth weight during a high-fat overfeeding challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Lilleøre, Søren Kruse; Astrup, Arne; Vaag, Allan

    2016-01-01

    nocturnal fat oxidation during energy balance and low energy expenditure (EE) during fasting. We hypothesized that short-term HFO could further unmask key defects of whole-body energy metabolism in LBW men. METHODS: Eighteen LBW (2717 ± 268 g) and 26 normal birth weight (NBW) (3893 ± 207 g) healthy young......BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) associates with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. LBW individuals exhibit disproportionately reduced peripheral insulin action and increased fat oxidation after a 5-day high-fat overfeeding (HFO) challenge. Furthermore, LBW men exhibit increased...

  16. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Utzschneider, Kristina M.; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L.; Arbuckle, Matthew D.; Tidwell, Jaime M.; Todd L. Richards; Craft, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23% fat/7% saturated fat/GI < 55) or a high-fat/high...

  17. INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACUTE FLUID LOSS AND BODY FAT PERCENTAGE BY USING BIA METHOD TO DETERMİNE BODY COMPOSİTİON

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet; VAN, Ali; Yücel

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) is so popular technique to analysis body fat mass (BFM), free fat mass (FFM), lean body mass (LBM) and total body fluid (TBF) in both healthy and patient subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the acute weight(fluid) loss on body fat mass and percentage by using BIA method. In this study 43 soccer players (age: 21.90; length: 179.62and weight: 73.90) who playing in college league in Afyonkarahisar province has been participated....

  18. Body composition and body image perception in portuguese and spanish college students: comparative study between overweight /obese and normal weight women

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Elza; Lacerda, Fernanda; Valador, Natacha; Ferro-Lebres, Vera; Arroyo, Marta

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate body image perception and compare with real measures of body composition between overweight/obese and normal weight women college students. Subjects: The reported sample included 600 students from Portugal and Spain. Material and Methods: The anthropometry variables: weight, height, skinfolds, circumferences and body mass index, waist-hip ratio, percentage of body fat and fat-free mass- FFM were compared with reference values. The body image perception an...

  19. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  20. Measures of body fat in South Asian adults

    OpenAIRE

    S Kalra; Mercuri, M.; Anand, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: South Asian people who originate from the Indian subcontinent have greater percent body fat (%BF) for the same body mass index (BMI) compared with white Caucasians. This has been implicated in their increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is limited information comparing different measures of body fat in this ethnic group. Objectives: The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate the correlation of %BF measured by a foot-to-foot bioelectrical im...

  1. Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat

    OpenAIRE

    Valter Paulo N. Miranda; Franciane Rocha de Faria; Eliane Rodrigues de Faria; Silvia Eloiza Priore

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1), eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2), eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assesse...

  2. Energy intake and body weight in ovo-lacto vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, N; Rattan, J; Gilat, T

    1986-08-01

    Vegetarians have a lower body weight than omnivores. In this study the relationship between the weight/height ratio and food consumption was evaluated in 92 ovo-lacto vegetarians and 113 omnivores in Israel. The average weight of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the omnivores (60.8 kg vs. 69.1 kg), even though the vegetarian diet supplied a significantly higher amount of calories than the nonvegetarian diet (3,030.5 cal/day vs. 2,626.8 cal/day). Consumption of fat was similar in both groups. Carbohydrate consumption was higher in the vegetarians while protein consumption was lower. The prevalence of obesity was significantly lower in the vegetarian group (5.4%) as compared to 19.5% among the omnivores. The lower body weight of vegetarians despite a higher caloric intake is of considerable interest. PMID:3760524

  3. Body composition analyses in normal weight obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, L; Del Gobbo, V; Bigioni, M; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify new indexes of body composition that characterize the normal weight obese (NWO) women. We measured body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry in a cohort of seventy-five healthy Italian women, subdivided into three groups (nonobese/controls, NWO, preobese-obese women). Despite a normal body mass index (BMI), the NWO women have a higher body fat mass percentage (FAT %) (38.99 +/- 6.03) associated to a significant (p = 0.02) lower amount of lean mass of legs (12.24 +/- 1.31) and lean mass of left leg (6.07 +/- 0.64) with respect to the control group. The NWO group showed a significant (p = 0.043) lower RMR (1201.25 +/- 349.02) in comparison with nonobese and preobese-obese women. To classify NWO individuals among general population, we identified three significant body composition indexes: abdominal index, leg index and trunk index. The NWO women showed significant increased value in the three indexes (p NWO women displayed a cluster of anthropometric characteristics (body fat mass percentage, leg indexes) not different to obese women ones. An appropriate diet-therapy and physical activity may be protecting NWO individuals from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases associated to preobese-obese women. PMID:16910350

  4. Body composition of preschool children and relation to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Costa Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.

  5. Variations in the efficacy of resistant maltodextrin on body fat reduction in rats fed different high-fat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hui-Fang; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Tseng, Yu-Han; Wang, William Wei-Li; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have utilized a variety of methods to induce obesity in rodents, but they often received inconsistent results. The present study intended to use resistant maltodextrin (RMD) as a means to investigate the variations in its efficacy on body fat accumulation under the influence of four high-fat (HF) models of 23% or 40% total fat, comprising soybean oil, lard, and/or condensed milk. Results indicated that integrating condensed milk into the diets could help increase diet intake, boost energy intake, increase weight gain, and enhance fat formation. Supplementation of RMD (2.07 g/kg) notably reduced total body fat levels in three HF models, with the exception of a condensed-milk-added 40%-fat diet that may have misrepresented the functions of RMD. The uses of the 23% HF diets, with and without milk, and the milk-free 40% HF diet were therefore recommended as suitable models for antiobesity evaluations of RMD, or other fiber-rich products. PMID:24313233

  6. Does Impedance Measure a Functional State of the Body Fat?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Větrovská, R.; Vilikus, Z.; Klaschka, Jan; Stránská, Z.; Svačina, Š.; Svobodová, Š.; Matoulek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl. 2 (2014), S309-S320. ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : body composition * DEXA * fat mass * obesity * anthropometric methods * fat tissue functional properties Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  7. Weight self-regulation process in adolescence: the relationship between control weight attitudes, behaviors and body weight status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi ePich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (n= 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008 in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT, we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed would be motivated either by a promotion focus (to show an attractive body, a prevention focus (to avoid social rejection of fatness, or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13% and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were Not at all concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13% and 11% respectively. By contrast 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious emotional (self-defense and cognitive (dissonance mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  8. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a "promotion focus" (to show an attractive body), or a "prevention focus" (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were "Not at all" concerned about weight gain, and girls' percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics. PMID:26284248

  9. Effect of Body Composition Methodology on Heritability Estimation of Body Fatness

    OpenAIRE

    Elder, Sonya J.; Roberts, Susan B.; McCrory, Megan A.; Das, Sai Krupa; Fuss, Paul J.; Pittas, Anastassios G.; Greenberg, Andrew S.; Heymsfield, Steven B; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Bouchard, Thomas J.; Saltzman, Edward; Neale, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male and female monozygotic twin pairs reared apart or together. Body composition was assessed by six methods – body mass index (BMI), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), underwater weighing (UWW), t...

  10. Body Fat Percentages by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry Corresponding to Body Mass Index Cutoffs for Overweight and Obesity in Indian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pandit, Deepa; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Khadilkar, Anuradha; Khadilkar, Vaman; Ekbote, Veena

    2009-01-01

    Background: Indians are suspected to have higher body fat percent at a given body mass index (BMI) than their western counterparts. Objective: To estimate percent body fat in apparently healthy Indian children and adolescents by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and explore linkages of BMI with body fat percent for better health risk assessment. Methods: Age, weight, height of 316 boys and 250 girls (6–17 years) were recorded. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiom...

  11. Diet, Body Fat Distribution, and Serum Leptin in Young Men with Undiagnosed Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Emily Taylor

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Little is known about influences of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) on dietary intake and body composition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dietary status, body fat distribution and leptin in overweight young men with and without OSAS in comparison to published values for normal weight counterparts. Methods: Groups were comprised of 24 sedentary overweight young men with and without OSAS, who had a body mass index (BMI) greater than 25 kg/m2. Serum ...

  12. Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, Janne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between BMI and all-cause mortality could be disentangled into opposite effects of body fat and fat-free mass (FFM). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: All-cause mortality was studied in the Danish follow-up study "Diet, Cancer and Health" with 27...

  13. Menarche and Fatness: Reexamination of the Critical Body Composition Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, James

    1978-01-01

    Examines the credibility of the theory that, menarche and fecundity require a certain level of fat in the body. Concludes that the evidence does not totally support this hypothesis and that further investigation is warranted. (GA)

  14. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Abdominal Lipectomy on Weight and Fat Mass in Females: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seretis, Konstantinos; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Koliakos, Georgios; Demiri, Efterpi

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue is considered as an endocrine organ, which is developed in specific depots, distinguished either as subcutaneous or visceral. Lipectomy, by means of liposuction or abdominoplasty, is a common plastic surgery procedure, which can remove substantial amounts of subcutaneous fat. This systematic review aims to evaluate the impact of surgical removal of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue on body weight and fat mass in females in the short- and long-term. A systematic review was conducted using a predetermined protocol established according to the Cochrane Handbook's recommendations. PubMed, Scopus, CENTRAL, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to December 2014. Eligible studies were prospective studies with ≥1 month of follow-up that included female only individuals who underwent lipectomy of the abdominal region and reported on body weight, body mass index (BMI), or fat mass. Ten studies were included in this systematic review with a total of 231 individuals. A significant weight loss and BMI improvement were reported in 4 out of 5 studies with a mean follow-up of 1-2 months, but in none of the 5 studies with a longer follow-up (3-20 months). Fat mass showed a similar to weight change. The risk of bias was low for the two clinical trials but high for the observational studies included in the review. This systematic review revealed only a transient effect of abdominal lipectomy in body fat and weight in women, which fades a few months after the operation. These results corroborate the evidence from experimental and clinical studies, which support fat redistribution and compensatory fat growth, as a result of feedback mechanisms, triggered by fat removal. Additional clinical studies, with adequate follow-up, may further elucidate the long-term effects of abdominal lipectomy in body weight and composition. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42015017564 ( www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO ). PMID:26210190

  15. Whether depositing fat or losing weight, fish maintain a balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Ole; Grüner, Renate; Rønnestad, Ivar; Gemballa, Sven

    2009-11-01

    In fish, the relative amount of tissues of different densities changes significantly over short periods throughout the year, depending on the availability of food, nutrition and their developmental status, such as sexual maturation. If a land-living animal accumulates fat it influences not only its general state of health, but also markedly increases its energy expenditure for locomotion owing to the force of gravity. On a body submerged in water, this force, which acts on the centre of gravity (COG), is counterbalanced by a lifting force that is negligible in air and which acts on the centre of buoyancy (COB). Any difference in the longitudinal positions of the two centres will therefore result in pitching moments that must be counteracted by body or fin movements. The displacement of the COG away from the COB is a result of tissues of different density (e.g. bones and fat) not being distributed homogeneously along the body axis. Moreover, the proportions of tissues of different densities change significantly with feeding status. It is still unknown whether these changes produce a displacement of the COG and thus affect the hydrostatic stability of fish. Analysis of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging images of Atlantic herring, Atlantic salmon and Atlantic mackerel reveals that the COG is fairly constant in each species, although we recorded major interspecies differences in the relative amount of fat, muscle and bone. We conclude that the distribution of different tissues along the body axis is very closely adjusted to the swimming mode of the fish by keeping the COG constant, independent of the body fat status, and that fish can cope with large variations in energy intake without jeopardizing their COG and thus their swimming performance. PMID:19675008

  16. Basic study of T1-weighted images with fat suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance methods for scanning using Gd-DTPA have been improved. Enhanced MR angiography and dynamic MRI, which enable detection of movement in the body shortly after rapid intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA, are often performed using fat-suppression methods. In this study, the spoiled gradient echo sequence, which is mainly used in these examinations, was analyzed, and the significant differences in signal intensity and fat-suppression effects on a hand-made phantom using Gd-DTPA solutions and olive oil were evaluated. The optimal flip angle in each pulse sequence under basic scanning conditions was first determined. As a result, there was correlation between the concentration and signal intensity of Gd-DTPA, and the angle of the stronger fat-suppression effect was found. Also, the relationship between repetition time (TR) and echo time (TE) was almost understood. The fat-suppression effects differed depending on pulse sequence, and were greatest one in T1 fast field echo (FFE)-ProSet1331 and T1 fast field echo planar imaging (FFEEPI)-ProSet1331. However, attention must be paid to the use of ProSet due to the extension of TE. It was concluded that we determined the optimal sequence for MR angiography and dynamic MRI in the 1.0T MRI equipment, In MR angiography, T1 turbo field echo-spectral presaturation inversion recovery (TFE-SPIR) should be selected because of the largest fat-suppression effects in some scanning regions. (author)

  17. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Gender, and Body Weight: Examining the Impact of Participation in Active Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine whether differences in participation in active play (PAP) can account for gender differences in the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and body weight/fat (BMI and percentage fat) in youth. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation of students in grades four through eight (n = 590). Height, weight…

  18. Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Garthe, Ina

    2011-01-01

    The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that a high proportion of athletes are using extreme weight-control methods and that the rules of some sports might be associated with the risk of continuous dieting, energy deficit, and/or use of extreme weight-loss methods that can be detrimental to health and performance. Thus, preventive strategies are justified for medical as well as performance reasons. The most urgent needs are: (1) to develop sport-specific educational programmes for athletic trainers, coaches, and athletes; (2) modifications to regulations; and (3) research related to minimum percentage body fat and judging patterns. PMID:21500080

  19. Genetic parameters for carcass weight, conformation and fat in five beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kause, A; Mikkola, L; Strandén, I; Sirkko, K

    2015-01-01

    Profitability of beef production can be increased by genetically improving carcass traits. To construct breeding value evaluations for carcass traits, breed-specific genetic parameters were estimated for carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat in five beef cattle breeds in Finland (Hereford, Aberdeen Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin). Conformation and fat were visually scored using the EUROP carcass classification. Each breed was separately analyzed using a multitrait animal model. A total of 6879-19 539 animals per breed had phenotypes. For the five breeds, heritabilities were moderate for carcass weight (h 2=0.39 to 0.48, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and slightly lower for conformation (h 2=0.30 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and carcass fat (h 2=0.29 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04). The genetic correlation between carcass weight and conformation was favorable in all breeds (r G=0.37 to 0.53, s.e.=0.04 to 0.05), heavy carcasses being genetically more conformed. The phenotypic correlation between carcass weight and carcass fat was moderately positive in all breeds (r P=0.21 to 0.32), implying that increasing carcass weight was related to increasing fat levels. The respective genetic correlation was the strongest in Hereford (r G=0.28, s.e.=0.05) and Angus (r G=0.15, s.e.=0.05), the two small body-sized British breeds with the lowest conformation and the highest fat level. The correlation was weaker in the other breeds (r G=0.08 to 0.14). For Hereford, Angus and Simmental, more conformed carcasses were phenotypically fatter (r P=0.11 to 0.15), but the respective genetic correlations were close to zero (r G=-0.05 to 0.04). In contrast, in the two large body-sized and muscular French breeds, the genetic correlation between conformation and fat was negative and the phenotypic correlation was close to zero or negative (Charolais: r G=-0.18, s.e.=0.06, r P=0.02; Limousin: r G=-0.56, s.e.=0.04, r P=-0.13). The results indicate genetic variation for the genetic

  20. Relationship of dietary fat and lysine level with body composition in broiler chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of varying dietary energy to protein/lysine ratio on the body composition of 300, day-old meat-type Tetra-82 hybrid broiler chicks was studied. Body composition was measured by computed tomography (CT) and direct chemical analysis.Ten chickens from each treatment group were euthanized, frozen and subjected to CT, after which carcasses were dissected and ground to obtain homogeneous samples for chemical analysis.Supplementation of the diet with lysine 6 g/kg did not change total body composition but positively influenced final body weight.In the group receiving added fat 40 g/kg and lysine 3 g/kg feed (F-LYS-I) the higher body weight ran parallel with a higher fat content

  1. Visual adaptation to thin and fat bodies transfers across identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Dennis; Rudolf, Anne K; Untch, Karl-Heinz; Grabhorn, Ralph; Mohr, Harald M

    2012-01-01

    Visual perception is highly variable and can be influenced by the surrounding world. Previous research has revealed that body perception can be biased due to adaptation to thin or fat body shapes. The aim of the present study was to show that adaptation to certain body shapes and the resulting perceptual biases transfer across different identities of adaptation and test stimuli. We designed two similar adaptation experiments in which healthy female participants adapted to pictures of either thin or fat bodies and subsequently compared more or less distorted pictures of their own body to their actual body shape. In the first experiment (n = 16) the same identity was used as adaptation and test stimuli (i.e. pictures of the participant's own body) while in the second experiment (n = 16) we used pictures of unfamiliar thin or fat bodies as adaptation stimuli. We found comparable adaptation effects in both experiments: After adaptation to a thin body, participants rated a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa. We therefore assume that adaptation to certain body shapes transfers across different identities. These results raise the questions of whether some type of natural adaptation occurs in everyday life. Natural and predominant exposure to certain bodily features like body shape--especially the thin ideal in Western societies--could bias perception for these features. In this regard, further research might shed light on aspects of body dissatisfaction and the development of body image disturbances in terms of eating disorders. PMID:22905232

  2. Visual adaptation to thin and fat bodies transfers across identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Hummel

    Full Text Available Visual perception is highly variable and can be influenced by the surrounding world. Previous research has revealed that body perception can be biased due to adaptation to thin or fat body shapes. The aim of the present study was to show that adaptation to certain body shapes and the resulting perceptual biases transfer across different identities of adaptation and test stimuli. We designed two similar adaptation experiments in which healthy female participants adapted to pictures of either thin or fat bodies and subsequently compared more or less distorted pictures of their own body to their actual body shape. In the first experiment (n = 16 the same identity was used as adaptation and test stimuli (i.e. pictures of the participant's own body while in the second experiment (n = 16 we used pictures of unfamiliar thin or fat bodies as adaptation stimuli. We found comparable adaptation effects in both experiments: After adaptation to a thin body, participants rated a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa. We therefore assume that adaptation to certain body shapes transfers across different identities. These results raise the questions of whether some type of natural adaptation occurs in everyday life. Natural and predominant exposure to certain bodily features like body shape--especially the thin ideal in Western societies--could bias perception for these features. In this regard, further research might shed light on aspects of body dissatisfaction and the development of body image disturbances in terms of eating disorders.

  3. Whether depositing fat or losing weight, fish maintain a balance

    OpenAIRE

    Brix, Ole; Grüner, Renate; Rønnestad, Ivar; Gemballa, Sven

    2009-01-01

    In fish, the relative amount of tissues of different densities changes significantly over short periods throughout the year, depending on the availability of food, nutrition and their developmental status, such as sexual maturation. If a land-living animal accumulates fat it influences not only its general state of health, but also markedly increases its energy expenditure for locomotion owing to the force of gravity. On a body submerged in water, this force, which acts on the centre of gravi...

  4. Physical activity: an important adaptative mechanism for body-weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina

    2012-01-01

    We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains unresolved is whether changes in nutrient intake or body composition secondarily affect the spontaneous physical activity. PMID:24533208

  5. Black tea polyphenols and polysaccharides improve body composition, increase fecal fatty acid, and regulate fat metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Guo, Yu; Liu, Rui; Wang, Kuan; Zhang, Min

    2016-05-18

    With the current changes in diet and living habits, obesity has become a global health problem. Thus, the weight-reducing function of tea has attracted considerable attention. This study investigated the anti-obesity effect and the mechanism of black tea (BT) polyphenols and polysaccharides in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The BT polyphenols and polysaccharides reduced the body weight, Lee's index, visceral fat weight, and fat cell size but improved the biochemical profile and increased the fecal fatty acid content, thereby preventing high-fat diet-induced obesity. A gene expression profile array was used to screen eight upregulated and five downregulated differentially expressed genes that affect fat metabolic pathways, such as glycerolipid and glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid degradation, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, bile and pancreatic secretion, the insulin signaling pathway, and steroid hormone secretion. The BT polyphenols and polysaccharides suppressed the formation and accumulation of fat and promoted its decomposition to prevent obesity. PMID:27161951

  6. Insulin resistance and body fat distribution in South Asian men compared to Caucasian men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Chandalia

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: South Asians are susceptible to insulin resistance even without obesity. We examined the characteristics of body fat content, distribution and function in South Asian men and their relationships to insulin resistance compared to Caucasians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-nine South Asian and 18 Caucasian non-diabetic men (age 27+/-3 and 27+/-3 years, respectively underwent euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp for insulin sensitivity, underwater weighing for total body fat, MRI of entire abdomen for intraperitoneal (IP and subcutaneous abdominal (SA fat and biopsy of SA fat for adipocyte size. RESULTS: Compared to Caucasians, in spite of similar BMI, South Asians had higher total body fat (22+/-6 and 15+/-4% of body weight; p-value<0.0001, higher SA fat (3.5+/-1.9 and 2.2+/-1.3 kg, respectively; p-value = 0.004, but no differences in IP fat (1.0+/-0.5 and 1.0+/-0.7 kg, respectively; p-value = 0.4. SA adipocyte cell size was significantly higher in South Asians (3491+/-1393 and 1648+/-864 microm2; p-value = 0.0001 and was inversely correlated with both glucose disposal rate (r-value = -0.57; p-value = 0.0008 and plasma adiponectin concentrations (r-value = -0.71; p-value<0.0001. Adipocyte size differences persisted even when SA was matched between South Asians and Caucasians. CONCLUSIONS: Insulin resistance in young South Asian men can be observed even without increase in IP fat mass and is related to large SA adipocytes size. Hence ethnic excess in insulin resistance in South Asians appears to be related more to excess truncal fat and dysfunctional adipose tissue than to excess visceral fat.

  7. Leptin responses to overfeeding: relationship with body fat and nonexercise activity thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J A; Eberhardt, N L; Jensen, M D

    1999-08-01

    Administration of leptin to rodents results in weight loss through decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure that occurs in part through increased spontaneous activity. In humans, low levels of spontaneous physical activity and below normal plasma leptin concentrations predict subsequent excess weight gain. We recently found that failure to increase nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) with overfeeding results in greater fat gain in humans, and subsequently evaluated whether changes in leptin are related to NEAT activation. We measured plasma leptin concentrations and adipose tissue leptin messenger ribonucleic acid together with the components of energy expenditure in 16 nonobese humans before and after overfeeding to assess the relationship between leptin responses to overfeeding and the changes in NEAT. Adipocyte leptin expression was up-regulated with overfeeding, and leptin concentrations increased. Leptin concentrations correlated with body fat before and after overfeeding. Changes in leptin with overfeeding were strongly related to changes in body fat, but not to changes in NEAT. Changes in NEAT correlated inversely with fat gain. It is, therefore, unlikely that leptin mediates activation of NEAT with overfeeding in nonobese humans; rather, leptin directly reflects body fat mass and fat mass gain. PMID:10443673

  8. Age-related rump fat, fat percent, body fat mass, leptin, androgens and semen parameters ofArab stallions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AmalMAboEl-Maaty; GamalA ElSisy; MonaHShaker; OmimaH Ezzo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To study the effect of age and body fat on leptin levels and semen parameters of Arab horse.Methods:Fifteen fertileArab stallions of different ages belonging toPoliceAcademy were divided into three equal groups according to their age.Old horses are those of >18 yeas (18-27),Mid-age horses≥13 to18 years(13-18),Young horses are those of <12 years(7-11). Semen was evaluated three times for each stallion.Blood and seminal plasma were assayed for measuring leptin, testosterone and estradiol.Subcutaneous rump fat thickness was measured using ultrasound for estimating body fat percent and fat mass percent.Results:All body fat parameters were significantly high inYoung stallions and decreased with increasing age.As age increased, testosterone levels increases but leptin levels decreased.Age was inversely correlated with fat%, fat mass and leptin.All fat parameters had direct correlation with leptin in semen and serum but an inverse one with serum testosterone.Serum leptin directly correlated with sperm cell concentration inMid- age stallions and inversely correlated with percent of live sperm in Old stallions.Semen leptin correlated directly with both percent of live sperm and percent of abnormal sperm inOld stallions.Conclusion:This study proved that aging in stallions is related to a drop in fertility, a decrease in body fat and in turn leptin.Arab stallions of age7 to18 years could be used in the breeding efficiently.

  9. Effects of covert subject actions on percent body fat by air-displacement plethsymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegenkamp, Michelle H; Clark, R Randall; Schoeller, Dale A; Landry, Greg L

    2011-07-01

    Air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) is used for estimation of body composition, however, some individuals, such as athletes in weight classification sports, may use covert methods during ADP testing to alter their apparent percent body fat. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of covert subject actions on percent body fat measured by ADP. Subjects underwent body composition analysis in the Bod Pod following the standard procedure using the manufacturer's guidelines. The subjects then underwent 8 more measurements while performing the following intentional manipulations: 4 breathing patterns altering lung volume, foot movement to disrupt air, hand cupping to trap air, and heat and cold exposure before entering the chamber. Increasing and decreasing lung volume during thoracic volume measurement and during body density measurement altered the percent body fat assessment (p fat by 3.7 ± 2.1 percentage points. Lowered lung volume during body volume measures overestimated body fat by an additional 2.2 ± 2.1 percentage points. The heat and cold exposure, tapping, and cupping treatments provided similar estimates of percent body fat when compared with the standard condition. These results demonstrate the subjects were able to covertly change their estimated ADP body composition value by altering breathing when compared with the standard condition. We recommend that sports conditioning coaches, athletic trainers, and technicians administering ADP should be aware of the potential effects of these covert actions. The individual responsible for administering ADP should remain vigilant during testing to detect deliberate altered breathing patterns by athletes in an effort to gain a competitive advantage by manipulating their body composition assessment. PMID:21499137

  10. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas;

    2006-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2))....

  11. Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Paulo N. Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1, eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2, eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV. Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032. There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049. The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034 and percentage of central fat (p=0.039 compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751. Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess.

  12. High tobacco consumption lowers body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high.......23 kg/m(2) (0.33; 0.13) lower body mass index, 0.32 cm (0.74; 0.003) lower waist circumference and 0.45 cm (0.66; 0.24) lower hip circumference. No association was found between tobacco consumption and waist-hip ratio in genetic analysis, or among CHRNA3 genotype and any of the outcome variables in......BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study with a...

  13. Anorexia nervosa at normal body weight!--The abnormal normal weight control syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, A H

    1981-01-01

    Disgust with "fatness" and a consequent preoccupation with body weight, coupled with an inability to reduce it to or sustain it at the desired low level, characterizes the abnormal normal weight control syndrome. Individuals remain sexually active in a biological sense and often also socially. Indeed their sexual behaviour may be as impulse ridden as is their eating behaviour, which often comprises phases of massive bingeing coupled with vomiting and/or purgation. The syndrome is unlike frank anorexia nervosa in that the latter involves a regression to a position of phobic avoidance of normal body weight and consequent low body weight control with inhibition of both biological and social sexual activity. In abnormal normal weight control there is a strong and sometimes desperate hedonistic and extrovert element that will often not be denied so long as body weight does not get too low. Individuals nevertheless feel desperately "out of control" and insecure beneath their bravura. The syndrome is much more common in females than in males. There is a clinical overlap with anorexia nervosa and obesity in many cases as the disorder evolves. Depression, stealing, drug dependence (including alcohol) and acute self-poisoning and self-mutilation are common complications. Clinic cases probably only represent the tip of the iceberg of the much more widespread morbidity within the general population. Like anorexia nervosa and for the same reasons the disorder is probably more common than it used to be. PMID:7309391

  14. Postnatal Stress in Mice: Effects on Body Fat, Plasma Lipids, Glucose and Insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Amore, A; Caiola, S; Maroccia, E; Loizzo, A

    2000-01-01

    Mice pups were exposed to stressful stimuli everyday during the first 3 weeks of life. Body weight, food intake and spontaneous locomotor activity, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, glucose and insulin basal levels, as well as epididymal fat pad weight and its cell volume were measured in stressed and control animals. Results indicated that postnatal stressful manipulations induced an increase in body weight, epididymal fat pad weight and its cell volume, as well as in insulin, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides plasma levels, at 4 months of age. No significant changes in food consumption, locomotor activity and phospholipids plasma levels were found. Present data suggest that early stressful manipulations may induce residual effects on lipid and glucid metabolism. PMID:27414054

  15. Effect of maximal exercise on percent body fat using bioelectrical impedance analysis in active males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Civar Yavuz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of maximal exercise on percent body fat (%BF using bioelectrical impedance analysis in highly active male athletes at university. Design: The subjects of the study consisted of fifty-two (52 males with mean age of 21.68±1.66 years old, height of 164.46±5.21cm and weight of 57.69±6.61kg. All of the subjects joined the study voluntarily and were students in Akdeniz University School of Physical Education and Sport. Methods: All participants made two visits to the laboratory on separate days. On the first visit, anthropometric measurements were collected, orientation with the respiratory metabolic mouthpiece and treadmill was provided. During the second visit subjects exercised on a treadmill at different workloads in order to familiarize them to the treadmill. Percent body fat was assessed using a leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analyzer (BIA; Tanita Model TBF-300A. BIA measures of %BF were obtained immediately before and within five minutes following the exercise test. Results: Differences were found between pre and post exercise bioelectrical impedance values. There is significant difference respectively in weight, BMI, Body fat Percent, impedance (p<0.001 and fat mass, fat free mass, total body water values (p<0.05. Conclusions: Maximal exercise can effect the bioelectrical impedance analysis measurement.

  16. EFFECT OF GREEN TEA AND ITS COMPONENTS ON BODY WEIGHT, FAT ACCUMULATION AND ACTIVITY OF HEPATIC FAT METABOLISM RELATED ENZYMES IN MICE%绿茶及其成分对小鼠体重、脂肪沉积和肝脏脂肪代谢酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑国栋; 黎冬明; 张清峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anti-obesity mechanism of green tea and its components in mice. Method Fifty female Kunming mice were randomly assigned to 5 groups and fed on commercial powder diets containing none (control), 2% green tea, 0.05% caffeine, 0.3% catechins and 0.05% caffeine + 0.3% catechins for 8 w respectively. Liver and intraperitoneal adipose tissues (IPAT) were weighed at the end of experiment. Serum levels of glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterols, leptin and insulin, and lipids in liver were measured. Fatty acid synthese (FAS), carnitine acyltransferase (CAT) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) in liver were determined. Results The body weight gain and IPAT weight were significantly reduced by green tea, caffeine and caffeine + catechins. Serum TG and leptin concentrations were significantly decreased by caffeine + catechins. Green tea, catechins and caffeine + catechins reduced TG level in liver. Caffeine + catechins significantly reduced FAS activity, and remarkably increased CAT and ACO activities in liver. Conclusion Caffeine + catechins can inhibit fat accumulation and body weight gain in mice through regulating fat metabolism related enzymes activities. Moreover, caffeine and catechins possess synergistic anti-obesity effect.%目的 研究绿茶及其成分的减肥作用机制.方法 50只雌性昆明小鼠随机分成5组,分别为对照组、2%绿茶组、0.05%咖啡碱组、0.3%儿茶素组及0.05%咖啡碱+0.3%儿茶素组.混合饲料投喂8w后,摘取肝脏和腹腔脂肪(IPAT)并称重.分析血清中血糖、甘油三酯(TG)、总胆固醇、瘦素及胰岛素浓度和肝脏中脂类含量.测定肝脏中脂肪酸合成酶(FAS)、肉毒碱脂酰转移酶(CAT)和酰基辅酶A氧化酶(ACO)的活性.结果 绿茶、咖啡碱、咖啡碱+儿茶素组体重增加和IPAT重量比对照组明显减少,特别是咖啡碱+儿茶素效果极显著.咖啡碱+儿茶素显著降低血中TG和瘦素浓度.绿茶、儿茶素、咖啡

  17. Associations between dietary intake and body fat independent of genetic and familial environmental background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Heitmann, B L; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Sørensen, T I A

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether habitual dietary intake was associated with body fat mass and body fat distribution, independently of possible confounding by the genetic and shared environmental background.......To determine whether habitual dietary intake was associated with body fat mass and body fat distribution, independently of possible confounding by the genetic and shared environmental background....

  18. Effect of body fat distribution on the transcription response to dietary fat interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radonjic, M.; Erk, M.J. van; Pasman, W.J.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Ommen, B. van

    2009-01-01

    Combination of decreased energy expenditure and increased food intake results in fat accumulation either in the abdominal site (upper body obesity, UBO) or on the hips (lower body obesity, LBO). In this study, we used microarray gene expression profiling of adipose tissue biopsies to investigate the

  19. Influence of ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms on body weight and body composition changes after a controlled weight-loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szendrei, Barbara; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Amigo, Teresa; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Benito, Pedro J; Gomez-Candela, Carmen; Calderón, Francisco J; Cupeiro, Rocío

    2016-03-01

    The β-2 and β-3 adrenergic receptors (ADRB2 and ADRB3) are thought to play a role in energy expenditure and lipolysis. However, the effects of the ADRB2 glutamine (Gln) 27 glutamic acid (glutamate) (Glu) and ADRB3 tryptophan (Trp) 64 arginine (Arg) polymorphisms on weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on changes in weight and body composition during a controlled weight-loss program. One hundred seventy-three healthy overweight and obese participants (91 women, 82 men) aged 18-50 years participated in a 22-week-long intervention based on a hypocaloric diet and exercise. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength, endurance, strength and endurance combined, and physical activity recommendations only. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body composition variables were assessed before and after the intervention. Genetic analysis was carried out according to standard protocols. No effect of the ADRB2 gene was shown on final weight, BMI, or body composition, although in the supervised male group, Glu27 carriers tended to have greater weight (p = 0.019, 2.5 kg) and BMI (p = 0.019, 0.88 kg/m(2)) reductions than did noncarriers. There seems to be an individual effect of the ADRB3 polymorphism on fat mass (p = 0.004) and fat percentage (p = 0.036), in addition to an interaction with exercise for fat mass (p = 0.038). After the intervention, carriers of the Arg64 allele had a greater fat mass and fat percentage than did noncarriers (p = 0.004, 2.8 kg). In conclusion, the ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms may influence weight loss and body composition, although the current evidence is weak; however, further studies are necessary to clarify their roles. PMID:26888112

  20. The Percentage of Body Fat in Children and the Level of their Motor Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Prskalo, Ivan; Badrić, Marko; Kunješić, Mateja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary education pupils and to identify differences in motor skills between normal weight, excessive and obese pupils. Partial aim was to determine differences in motor status of girls and boys and their anthropometric characteristics (Body Mass Index, body fat percentage). The study was conducted in two primary schools in Zagreb, Ivan Goran Kovačić and Davorin Trstenjak. Total of 333 pupils, ag...

  1. Correction of Hypothyroidism Seems to Have No Effect on Body Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Okan Bakiner; Emre Bozkirli; Emine Duygu Ersozlu Bozkirli; Kursat Ozsahin

    2013-01-01

    Aim. We aimed to observe the effects of L-thyroxine replacement therapy on body fat content determined with various anthropometric methods and a bioelectrical impedance analysis method in patients with hypothyroidism. Methods. Forty-two women with naive autoimmune hypothyroidism were included. Also, 40 healthy participants were enrolled as a control group. Weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and subscapulary, suprailiac, femur, biceps, and triceps skin fold thicknesses were measured...

  2. Body fatness as a cause of cancer: epidemiologic clues to biologic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Tim; Sedjo, Rebecca L

    2015-06-01

    Carrying excess body fat is a leading cause of cancer. Epidemiologic evidence gives strong clues about the mechanisms that link excess adiposity to risk for several cancer sites. For postmenopausal breast cancer and endometrial cancer, the hyper-estrogenic state that is induced by excess body fatness is the likely cause. For esophageal cancer and gallbladder cancer, chronic local inflammation induced by acid reflux and gallstones is the likely cause, and for liver cancer, local inflammation induced by hepatic fatty infiltration is the likely cause. However, for several other cancers known to be associated with excess adiposity, including cancers of the colon, pancreas, ovary, kidney, and prostate, specific causes are not known. Possible candidates include elevated systemic or local tissue inflammation induced by adiposity and effects of the elevated levels of leptin, insulin, IGFs, and depressed immune function that are seen with excess adiposity. There is growing evidence that intentional weight loss not only reduces circulating levels of cancer-associated factors but that it also reduces cancer incidence and recurrence. Better research is needed to understand the mechanisms that link excess body fat to cancer risk as well as to understand the amount of weight loss needed for substantial cancer risk reduction. Finally, as we develop better understanding of the mediators of the effects of excess body fatness on cancer risk, we should identify pharmacologic interventions that target those mediators so that they can be used to complement weight loss in order to reduce cancer risk. PMID:25870250

  3. Histamine and the regulation of body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Emilie A; Knigge, Ulrich; Warberg, Jørgen;

    2007-01-01

    Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter. In the p......Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter...... lipolysis. Based on the current evidence of the involvement of histamine in the regulation of body weight, the histaminergic system is an obvious target for the development of pharmacological agents to control obesity. At present, H(3) receptor antagonists that stimulate the histaminergic system may...

  4. Measurement of body fat using leg to leg bioimpedance

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, R; Lau, P; Yu, C.; Lam, P.; Nelson, E

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—(1) To validate a leg to leg bioimpedance analysis (BIA) device in the measurement of body composition in children by assessment of its agreement with dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and its repeatability. (2) To establish a reference range of percentage body fat in Hong Kong Chinese children.
METHODS—Sequential BIA and DXA methods were used to determine body composition in 49 children aged 7-18 years; agreement between the two methods was calculated. Repea...

  5. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Obesity, body fatness and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Annie S; Key, Timothy J; Norat, Teresa; Scoccianti, Chiara; Cecchini, Michele; Berrino, Franco; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Espina, Carolina; Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    It is estimated that over half the population of the European Union (EU) is overweight or obese due to an imbalance between energy expenditure and energy intake; this is related to an obesogenic environment of sociocultural, economic and marketing challenges to the control of body weight. Excess body fat is associated with nine cancer sites - oesophagus, colorectum, gall bladder, pancreas, postmenopausal breast, endometrium, ovary, kidney and prostate (advanced) - and 4-38% of these cancers (depending on site and gender) can be attributed to overweight/obesity status. Metabolic alterations which accompany excess body weight are accompanied by increased levels of inflammation, insulin, oestrogens and other hormonal factors. There are some indications that intentional weight loss is associated with reduced cancer incidence (notably in postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancers). Excess body weight is also a risk factor for several other diseases, including diabetes and heart disease, and is related to higher risk of premature death. In reviewing the current evidence related to excess body fat and cancer, the European Code against Cancer Nutrition Working Group has developed the following recommendation: 'Take action to be a healthy body weight'. PMID:26205840

  6. Comparison of a low carbohydrate and low fat diet for weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults enrolled in a clinical weight management program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curry Chelsea

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that a low carbohydrate (LC diet may be equally or more effective for short-term weight loss than a traditional low fat (LF diet; however, less is known about how they compare for weight maintenance. The purpose of this study was to compare body weight (BW for participants in a clinical weight management program, consuming a LC or LF weight maintenance diet for 6 months following weight loss. Methods Fifty-five (29 low carbohydrate diet; 26 low fat diet overweight/obese middle-aged adults completed a 9 month weight management program that included instruction for behavior, physical activity (PA, and nutrition. For 3 months all participants consumed an identical liquid diet (2177 kJ/day followed by 1 month of re-feeding with solid foods either low in carbohydrate or low in fat. For the remaining 5 months, participants were prescribed a meal plan low in dietary carbohydrate (~20% or fat (~30%. BW and carbohydrate or fat grams were collected at each group meeting. Energy and macronutrient intake were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months. Results The LC group increased BW from 89.2 ± 14.4 kg at 3 months to 89.3 ± 16.1 kg at 9 months (P = 0.84. The LF group decreased BW from 86.3 ± 12.0 kg at 3 months to 86.0 ± 14.0 kg at 9 months (P = 0.96. BW was not different between groups during weight maintenance (P = 0.87. Fifty-five percent (16/29 and 50% (13/26 of participants for the LC and LF groups, respectively, continued to decrease their body weight during weight maintenance. Conclusion Following a 3 month liquid diet, the LC and LF diet groups were equally effective for BW maintenance over 6 months; however, there was significant variation in weight change within each group.

  7. Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Cerebral Fat Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feride Kural

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fat embolism syndrome (FES is mostly associated with long bone fractures of the lower extremities. FES typically occurs between 1 and 3 days after the trauma, and the clinical triad is hypoxia, neurologic symptoms and petechial rash (4, 5. Neurologic symptoms widely vary from confusion to coma, rarely death may occur. Magnetic resonance imaging is the most sensitive technique in the diagnosis of cerebral FES and typical findings are multipl punctate hyperintensities at subcortical and deep white matter on T2 weighted and diffusion weighted images which is called as starfield pattern. We report a case of cerebral FES in a patient who had neurologic symptoms after traumatic femur neck facture.

  8. The Relationship between Lutein and Zeaxanthin Status and Body Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Billy R.; Lewis, Richard D.; Emily R. Bovier

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the relationships between total and regional distribution of body fat and tissue lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) status. Healthy men and women (N = 100; average age: 22.5 year, average BMI: 23.4 kg/m2) were evaluated. Total body and regional fat mass were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Delphi A). Serum LZ was measured using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and retinal LZ (referred to as macular pigment ...

  9. Ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian pre-pubertal children: A cross-sectional multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon Poh Bee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic differences in body fat distribution contribute to ethnic differences in cardiovascular morbidities and diabetes. However few data are available on differences in fat distribution in Asian children from various backgrounds. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian children from four countries. Methods A total of 758 children aged 8-10 y from China, Lebanon, Malaysia and Thailand were recruited using a non-random purposive sampling approach to enrol children encompassing a wide BMI range. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC, fat mass (FM, derived from total body water [TBW] estimation using the deuterium dilution technique and skinfold thickness (SFT at biceps, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and medial calf were collected. Results After controlling for height and weight, Chinese and Thai children had a significantly higher WC than their Lebanese and Malay counterparts. Chinese and Thais tended to have higher trunk fat deposits than Lebanese and Malays reflected in trunk SFT, trunk/upper extremity ratio or supraspinale/upper extremity ratio after adjustment for age and total body fat. The subscapular/supraspinale skinfold ratio was lower in Chinese and Thais compared with Lebanese and Malays after correcting for trunk SFT. Conclusions Asian pre-pubertal children from different origins vary in body fat distribution. These results indicate the importance of population-specific WC cut-off points or other fat distribution indices to identify the population at risk of obesity-related health problems.

  10. Fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight in European women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen M;

    2013-01-01

    Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. Only a few human studies have investigated the association between fish consumption and body-weight gain. We investigated the association between fish...

  11. Effect of recreational exercise on pregnancy weight gain and subcutaneous fat deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, J F; Little, K D

    1995-02-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that continuing a regular regimen of recreational endurance exercise alters the time-specific rate of maternal weight gain and subcutaneous fat deposition during pregnancy. Serial measurements of body mass and 5-site skinfold thickness were obtained from 44 women before and during pregnancy who continued their preconceptional exercise regimen throughout pregnancy and from women who voluntarily stopped their preconceptional exercise regimen either before conception (N = 31) or reduced it below baseline fitness levels in very early pregnancy (N = 4). In the first and second trimester, the rate of weight gain and change in skinfold thicknesses were unrelated to exercise performance. However, those who continued exercise had a reduced rate of weight gain and change in skinfold thickness at specific sites in the last trimester of pregnancy. Overall weight gains were (mean +/- SEM) 13.0 +/- 0.5 kg and 16.3 +/- 0.7 kg in the exercise and control groups, respectively, and the increases in the sum of skinfolds were 22 +/- 2 mm and 31 +/- 2 mm, respectively. We conclude that continuing a regular exercise regimen throughout pregnancy does not influence the rate of early pregnancy weight gain or subcutaneous fat deposition but decreases both in late pregnancy. However, overall pregnancy weight gain remains well within the normal range. PMID:7723638

  12. Concordant lipoprotein and weight responses to dietary fat changein identical twins with divergent exercise levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Blanche, Patricia J.; Rawlings, Robin; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2004-06-01

    Background/Objective: The purpose of this study is to testthe extent that individual lipoprotein responses to diet can beattributed to genes in the presence of divergent exercise levels.Design:Twenty-eight pairs of male monozygotic twins (one mostly sedentary, theother running an average of 50 km/week more than the sedentary twin) wentfrom a 6-week 40 percent fat diet to a 6-week 20 percent fat diet in acrossover design. The diets reduced fat primarily by reducing saturatedand polyunsaturated fat (both from 14 percent to 4 percent), whileincreasing carbohydrate intake from 45 percent to 65 percent. Results:Despite the twins' differences in physical activity, the dietarymanipulation produced significantly correlated changes (P<0.05) in thetwin's total cholesterol (r=0.56), low-density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol (r=0.70), large, buoyant LDL (Sf7-12, r=0.52), apo A-I(r=0.49), Lp(a) (r=0.49), electrophoresis measurements of LDL-I (LDLsbetween 26 and 28.5 nm diameter, r=0.48), LDL-IIB (25.2-24.6 nm, r=0.54),LDL-IV (22-24.1 nm, r=0.50), and body weights (r=0.41). Replacing fatswith carbohydrates significantly decreased the size and ultracentrifugeflotation rate of the major LDL, the LDL mass concentrations of Sf7-12,LDL-I, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and apo A-I, andsignificantly increased LDL-IIIA (24.7-25.5 nm diameter) and Lp(a).Conclusions: Even in the presence of extreme exercise difference, genessignificantly affect changes in LDL, apo A-I, Lp(a) and body weight whendietary fats are replaced with carbohydrates.

  13. Body fat throughout childhood in 2647 healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Winther, K.;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Total body fat percentage (%BF) evaluated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans (DXA %BF) is widely recognized as a precise measure of fatness. We aimed to establish national reference curves for DXA %BF, %BF calculated from skinfolds (SF %BF) and waist...... 14 years) and DXA %BF (8-14 years). Age- and sex-specific Z-scores for body mass index (BMI), WC and SF %BF were compared. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for agreement of WC, SF %BF and BMI with DXA %BF to identify obese children (>+1 s.d.). RESULTS: %BF differed with age, sex, pubertal...... correlation and best agreement with DXA %BF in identifying children with excess fat (+1 s.d.)....

  14. Circulating persistent organic pollutants and body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Geng; Grandjean, Philippe; Wu, Hongyu;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the correlations of various circulating persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with fat mass percentages (FM%) of trunk, leg, and whole body measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. METHODS: This study included 2358 adults (≥20 years) in the National Health and...

  15. The Relationship between Lutein and Zeaxanthin Status and Body Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy R. Hammond

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project was to investigate the relationships between total and regional distribution of body fat and tissue lutein (L and zeaxanthin (Z status. Healthy men and women (N = 100; average age: 22.5 year, average BMI: 23.4 kg/m2 were evaluated. Total body and regional fat mass were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Delphi A. Serum LZ was measured using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and retinal LZ (referred to as macular pigment optical density; MPOD was measured using heterochromatic flicker photometry. Body fat percentage (total and regional was inversely related to MPOD (p < 0.01 but no significant relationship was found for serum LZ. Higher body fat percentage, even within relatively healthy limits, is associated with lower tissue LZ status. The results indicate that adiposity may affect the nutritional state of the retina. Such links may be one of the reasons that obesity promotes age-related degenerative conditions of the retina.

  16. Predicting Body Fat Using Data on the BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Terence C.

    2005-01-01

    A data set contained in the "Journal of Statistical Education's" data archive provides a way of exploring regression analysis at a variety of teaching levels. An appropriate functional form for the relationship between percentage body fat and the BMI is shown to be the semi-logarithmic, with variation in the BMI accounting for a little over half…

  17. Mapping quantitative trait loci affecting fatness and breast muscle weight in meat-type chicken lines divergently selected on abdominal fatness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neau André

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTL for abdominal fatness and breast muscle weight were investigated in a three-generation design performed by inter-crossing two experimental meat-type chicken lines that were divergently selected on abdominal fatness. A total of 585 F2 male offspring from 5 F1 sires and 38 F1 dams were recorded at 8 weeks of age for live body, abdominal fat and breast muscle weights. One hundred-twenty nine microsatellite markers, evenly located throughout the genome and heterozygous for most of the F1 sires, were used for genotyping the F2 birds. In each sire family, those offspring exhibiting the most extreme values for each trait were genotyped. Multipoint QTL analyses using maximum likelihood methods were performed for abdominal fat and breast muscle weights, which were corrected for the effects of 8-week body weight, dam and hatching group. Isolated markers were assessed by analyses of variance. Two significant QTL were identified on chromosomes 1 and 5 with effects of about one within-family residual standard deviation. One breast muscle QTL was identified on GGA1 with an effect of 2.0 within-family residual standard deviation.

  18. Clinical Usefulness of a New Equation for Estimating Body Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Ambrosi, J.; Silva, C.; Catalan, V.; Rodriguez, A.; Galofre, J.C. (Juan Carlos); Escalada, J.; Valenti, V.; F. Rotellar; Romero, S; Ramirez, B; J. Salvador; G. Frühbeck

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive capacity of a recently described equation that we have termed CUN-BAE (Clínica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator) based on BMI, sex, and age for estimating body fat percentage (BF%) and to study its clinical usefulness. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a comparison study of the developed equation with many other anthropometric indices regarding its correlation with actual BF% in a large cohort of 6,510 white subjects from b...

  19. Liver volume, intrahepatic fat and body weight in the course of a lifestyle interventional study. Analysis with quantitative MR-based methods; Lebervolumen, Leberfettanteil und Koerpergewicht im Verlauf einer Lebensstilinterventionsstudie. Eine Analyse mit quantitativen MR-basierten Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongers, M.N. [Klinikum der Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie der Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Stefan, N.; Fritsche, A.; Haering, H.U. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Innere Medizin IV - Endokrinologie und Diabetologie, Angiologie, Nephrologie und Klinische Chemie, Tuebingen (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen an der Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Diabetes-Forschung und Metabolische Erkrankungen (IDM), Tuebingen (Germany); Nikolaou, K. [Klinikum der Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Schick, F. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie der Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Machann, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie der Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen an der Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Diabetes-Forschung und Metabolische Erkrankungen (IDM), Tuebingen (Germany); Deutsches Zentrum fuer Diabetesforschung (DZD), Neuherberg (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between changes in liver volume, the amount of intrahepatic lipids (IHL) and body weight during lifestyle interventions. In a prospective study 150 patients with an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus were included who followed a caloric restriction diet for 6 months. In the retrospective analysis 18 women and 9 men (age range 22-71 years) with an average body mass index (BMI) of 32 kg/m{sup 2} were enrolled. The liver volume was determined at the beginning and after 6 months by three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D-MRI, echo gradient, opposed-phase) and IHLs were quantified by volume-selective MR spectroscopy in single voxel stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM). Univariable and multivariable correlation analyses between changes of liver volume (Δliver volume), intrahepatic lipids (ΔIHL) and body weight (ΔBW) were performed. Univariable correlation analysis in the whole study cohort showed associations between ΔIHL and ΔBW (r = 0.69; p < 0.0001), ΔIHL and Δliver volume (r = 0.66; p = 0.0002) as well as ΔBW and Δliver volume (r = 0.5; p = 0.0073). Multivariable correlation analysis revealed that changes of liver volume are primarily determined by changes in IHL independent of changes in body weight (β = 0.0272; 95 % CI: 0.0155-0.034; p < 0.0001). Changes of liver volume during lifestyle interventions are independent of changes of body weight primarily determined by changes of IHL. These results show the reversibility of augmented liver volume in steatosis if it is possible to reduce IHLs during lifestyle interventions. (orig.) [German] Lassen sich Zusammenhaenge zwischen den Aenderungen des Lebervolumens, des Anteils intrahepatischer Lipide und des Koerpergewichts waehrend einer Lebensstilintervention feststellen ?In einer prospektiven Interventionsstudie unterzogen sich 150 Probanden mit erhoehtem Diabetesrisiko fuer 6 Monate einer diaetetischen

  20. Sex effect on productive parameters, carcass and body fat composition of two commercial broilers lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rondelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate sex effect on behavior of two commercial broilers lines. Productive parameters, carcass composition and yield, amount and quality of fat deposited in the meat and skin and total body fat were studied. A completely randomized design with four treatments (MR-Male Ross, HR-Female Ross, MAF-Male Avian Farm and HAF-Female Avian Farm and eight repetitions of 40 chickens was used. Animals received water and food ad libitum. After 50 days, two birds (a male and a female per repetition were chosen at random and slaughtered for carcass evaluation. Samples of breast, leg, skin and abdominal fats were analyzed to determine the percentage of intramuscular fat, total cholesterol and fatty acid composition. The Ross line showed higher final weight and weight gain, better intake and feed conversion rate. Also, it was observed that females of both lines had similar results in relation to these parameters. Better yield of breast with bone was found in Ross males and females. In relation to legs and thigh, Ross males showed better results and no differences were observed among females of both lines. Males deposited less fat than females. Finally, differences in percentage of intramuscular fat, content of cholesterol in breast with skin, leg with skin and skin, percentage of saturated, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed between sex and lines.

  1. Effect of licorice on the reduction of body fat mass in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, D; De Palo, C B; Mattarello, M J; Spinella, P; Zaccaria, M; Ermolao, A; Palermo, M; Fiore, C; Sartorato, P; Francini-Pesenti, F; Karbowiak, I

    2003-07-01

    The history of licorice, as a medicinal plant, is very old and has been used in many societies throughout the millennia. The active principle, glycyrrhetinic acid, is responsible for sodium retention and hypertension, which is the most common side-effect. We show an effect of licorice in reducing body fat mass. We studied 15 normal-weight subjects (7 males, age 22-26 yr, and 8 females, age 21-26 yr), who consumed for 2 months 3.5 g a day of a commercial preparation of licorice. Body fat mass (BFM, expressed as percentage of total body weight, by skinfold thickness and by bioelectrical impedance analysis, BIA) and extracellular water (ECW, percentage of total body water, by BIA) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) did not change. ECW increased (males: 41.8+/-2.0 before vs 47.0+/-2.3 after, p<0.001; females: 48.2+/-1.4 before vs 49.4+/-2.1 after, p<0.05). BFM was reduced by licorice: (male: before 12.0+/-2.1 vs after 10.8+/-2.9%, p<0.02; female: before 24.9+/-5.1 vs after 22.1+/-5.4, p<0.02); plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone were suppressed. Licorice was able to reduce body fat mass and to suppress aldosterone, without any change in BMI. Since the subjects were consuming the same amount of calories during the study, we suggest that licorice can reduce fat by inhibiting 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1 at the level of fat cells. PMID:14594116

  2. Body composition and body fat distribution in relation to later risk of acute myocardial infarction: a Danish follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegger, Jakob; Schmidt, E B; Obel, Tina;

    2011-01-01

    circumference and BIA of body composition including body fat mass (BFM), body fat percentage and LBM were measured at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazard models with age as time axis and performed extensive control for confounding. Weight, BMI, classical estimates of abdominal obesity and BIA estimates of...... evaluate LBM may lead to misclassification of MI risk in both lean and obese persons. We investigated the associations between incident MI and bioelectrical impedance analyses (BIA) derived measures of body composition in combination with body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures of body fat......Introduction:Obesity is a modifiable risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (MI), but lean body mass (LBM) may also be an important factor. Low LBM may increase the risk of MI and LBM may modify the effect of obesity on MI. Thus, the inability of the classical anthropometric measures to...

  3. Natural products and body weight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the review was to summarise the effect of some commonly available natural products used for body weight management. We collected data from PubMed and scientific journals. There are numerous publications on this topic, however we have summarized the most commonly available and potent natural products from recent 53 publications. The natural products analyzed in this paper include catechins, capsaicin, conjugated linoleic acid, fucoxanthin, soy isoflavone, glabridin, astaxanthin and cyaniding-3-glucoside. These natural products are effective and safe for body weight management. Further studies need to be conducted to investigate the mechanism of action, metabolism, long term safety and side effects of these natural products, as well as interactions between these natural products with dietary components.

  4. Natural products and body weight control

    OpenAIRE

    Jay Lee; Yanmei Li; Chunhua Li; Duo Li

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the review was to summarise the effect of some commonly available natural products used for body weight management. We collected data from PubMed and scientific journals. There are numerous publications on this topic, however we have summarized the most commonly available and potent natural products from recent 53 publications. The natural products analyzed in this paper include catechins, capsaicin, conjugated linoleic acid, fucoxanthin, soy isoflavone, glabridin, astaxanthin ...

  5. Selection for body weight in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Koenen, E.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with selection for body weight (BW) in dairy cattle. The economic efficiency of present breeding schemes might increase further when selection decisions also consider information on BW as BW relates to feed costs and revenues from beef production. However, the practical implementation of such a selection strategy is hindered by limited knowledge on procedures for data recording and genetic evaluation. The aim of this thesis was to study the possibilities and economic relevan...

  6. Determinants of body weight regulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehlecke, Milene; Canani, Luis Henrique; Silva, Lucas Oliveira Junqueira E; Trindade, Manoel Roberto Maciel; Friedman, Rogerio; Leitão, Cristiane Bauermann

    2016-04-01

    Body weight is regulated by the ability of hypothalamic neurons to orchestrate behavioral, endocrine and autonomic responses via afferent and efferent pathways to the brainstem and the periphery. Weight maintenance requires a balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Although several components that participate in energy homeostasis have been identified, there is a need to know in more detail their actions as well as their interactions with environmental and psychosocial factors in the development of human obesity. In this review, we examine the role of systemic mediators such as leptin, ghrelin and insulin, which act in the central nervous system by activating or inhibiting neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide protein, melanocortin, transcript related to cocaine and amphetamine, and others. As a result, modifications in energy homeostasis occur through regulation of appetite and energy expenditure. We also examine compensatory changes in the circulating levels of several peripheral hormones after diet-induced weight loss. PMID:26910628

  7. Determinación del Porcentaje de Masa Grasa, según Mediciones de Perímetros Corporales, Peso y Talla: Un Estudio de Validación Determination of Fat Mass Percentage by Measuring Body Circumferences, Weight and Height: A Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Díaz

    2012-12-01

    the percentage of fat mass (% FM in schoolchildren, measuring the variables body circumferences, weight and height (CWH.A sample of 1725 primary school students, 1020 girls and 705 boys, in age of 10 to 14 years old from Arica (Region XV, were analyzed to determine % FM according to the model proposed (CWH, as reference models were used Durnin & Womersley protocols (1974 and the Slaughter et al. protocol (1988.The results show that body mass index (BMI, have normal values of 21 kg/m2 for both girls and boys. The sum of the body skinfolds biceps, triceps, subscapular, iliac and abdominal (S5 is significantly higher in women, compared to males (108.5 mm and 81.4 mm respectively.The comparison of the percentage of fat mass between the various models in study demonstrates that the proposed model of "circumferences, weight and height (CWH, not show significant differences (NS. All models express percentage of fat mass over 20% in the study population, typical of overweight and obesity. We conclude that the model of circumference, weight and height (CWH, is effective to determine the percentages of body fat in school population. In addition the study population has high levels of fat mass.

  8. Relationship of body fat with insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors among normal glucose-tolerant subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gokulakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The amount of body fat, rather than the amount of excess weight, determines the health risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Aims : To look at the association of body fat percentage with cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT. Settings and Design : Cross-section study from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Materials and Methods : Body fat was measured by Beurer body fat analyzer. Metabolic syndrome (MS was diagnosed based on modified ATPIII guidelines. Statistical Analysis : Student′s t test or one-way ANOVA (with Tukey′s HSD was used to compare groups for continuous variables. Results : Body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HOMA IR, serum cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol increased significantly with increasing tertiles of body fat (P<0.001. There was a linear increase in the percentage of body fat with increase in number of components of MS (no metabolic abnormality: 25±11, one metabolic abnormality: 28±10, two metabolic abnormalities: 33±8, and three and more metabolic abnormalities: 35±7 (P<0.001. Regression models showed significant association of body fat with MS after adjusting for age, gender, insulin resistance, and glycated hemoglobin (Odds ratio: 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.04 - 1.08, P<0.001. In linear regression analysis, body fat showed a significant association with insulin resistance after adjusting for age, gender, and glycated hemoglobin (β=0.030, P<0.001. Conclusions : A significant association exists between body fat, MS, and cardiometabolic risk factors even among subjects with NGT.

  9. Sweetening yoghurt with glucose, but not with saccharin, promotes weight gain and increased fat pad mass in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakes, Robert A; Kendig, Michael D; Martire, Sarah I; Rooney, Kieron B

    2016-10-01

    The claim that non-nutritive sweeteners accelerate body weight gain by disrupting sweet-calorie associations was tested in two experiments using rats. The experiments were modelled on a key study from a series of experiments reporting greater body weight gain in rats fed yoghurt sweetened with saccharin than with glucose (Swithers & Davidson, 2008). Both of the current experiments likewise compared groups fed saccharin- or glucose-sweetened yoghurt in addition to chow and water, while Experiment 1 included a third group (Control) given unsweetened yoghurt. In Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2, rats were initially exposed to both saccharin- and glucose-sweetened yoghurts to assess their relative palatability. We also tested whether the provision of an energy-dense sweet biscuit would augment any effects of saccharin on food intake and weight gain, as seemingly predicted by Swithers and Davidson (2008). In Experiment 1 there were no differences in body weight gain or fat pad mass between the Saccharin and Control group, whereas the Glucose group was the heaviest by the final 5 weeks and at cull had the largest fat pads. Greater acceptance of saccharin predicted more weight gain over the whole experiment. Consistent with past reports, fasting blood glucose and insulin measures did not differ between the Saccharin and Control groups, but suggested some impairment of insulin sensitivity in the Glucose group. Experiment 2 found similar effects of glucose on fat mass, but not on body weight gain. In summary, adding saccharin had no detectable effects on body-weight regulation, whereas the effects of glucose on fat pad mass were consistent with previous studies reporting more harmful effects of sugars compared to non-nutritive sweeteners. PMID:27189382

  10. Does the Effect of Supervised Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs on Body Fat Distribution Remained Long Time?

    OpenAIRE

    Nalini, Mehdi; Moradi, Bahieh; Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Maleki, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An increased accumulation of fat in the intra-abdominal cavity is highly correlated with adverse coronary risk profiles. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) produces a host of health benefits related to modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. Further research is needed to define better program for weight loss and risk improvement in coronary patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supervised and unsupervised cardiac rehabilitation program on body composition and b...

  11. Associations between body fat and vitamin K status in older women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fat soluble nutrients are stored in fat tissue. Yet, the association between body fat and vitamin K status is not clear. We examined associations between % body fat (%BF) and 3 circulating measures of vitamin K status [plasma phylloquinone (plasma K1), uncarboxylated prothrombin (PIVKA), uncarboxyla...

  12. Maternal weight and body composition in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies on weight gain in pregnancy suggested that maternal weight on average increased by 0.5-2.0 kg in the first trimester of pregnancy. This study examined whether mean maternal weight or body composition changes in the first trimester of pregnancy. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. POPULATION: We studied 1,000 Caucasian women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. SETTING: Large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Maternal height and weight were measured digitally in a standardized way and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Maternal body composition was measured using segmental multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA). Sonographic examination confirmed the gestational age and a normal ongoing singleton pregnancy in all subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal weight, maternal body composition. RESULTS: The mean BMI was 25.7 kg\\/m(2) and 19.0% of the women were in the obese category (> or =30.0 kg\\/m(2)). Cross-sectional analysis by gestational age showed that there was no change in mean maternal weight, BMI, total body water, fat mass, fat-free mass or bone mass before 14 weeks gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, mean maternal weight and mean body composition values remain unchanged in the first trimester of pregnancy. This has implications for guidelines on maternal weight gain during pregnancy. We also recommend that calculation of BMI in pregnancy and gestational weight gain should be based on accurate early pregnancy measurements, and not on self-reported or prepregnancy measurements.

  13. A predictive model of the dynamics of body weight and food intake in rats submitted to caloric restrictions.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquier, Marine; Crauste, Fabien; Soulage, Christophe O.; Soula, Hédi A

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics of body weight and food intake can be studied by temporally perturbing food availability. This perturbation can be obtained by modifying the amount of available food over time while keeping the overall food quantity constant. To describe food intake dynamics, we developed a mathematical model that describes body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass, energy expenditure and food intake dynamics in rats. In addition, the model considers regulation of food intake by leptin, ghrelin and glucos...

  14. Body Fat Percentage Prediction Using Intelligent Hybrid Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehjen E. Shao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess of body fat often leads to obesity. Obesity is typically associated with serious medical diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, knowing the body fat is an extremely important issue since it affects everyone’s health. Although there are several ways to measure the body fat percentage (BFP, the accurate methods are often associated with hassle and/or high costs. Traditional single-stage approaches may use certain body measurements or explanatory variables to predict the BFP. Diverging from existing approaches, this study proposes new intelligent hybrid approaches to obtain fewer explanatory variables, and the proposed forecasting models are able to effectively predict the BFP. The proposed hybrid models consist of multiple regression (MR, artificial neural network (ANN, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, and support vector regression (SVR techniques. The first stage of the modeling includes the use of MR and MARS to obtain fewer but more important sets of explanatory variables. In the second stage, the remaining important variables are served as inputs for the other forecasting methods. A real dataset was used to demonstrate the development of the proposed hybrid models. The prediction results revealed that the proposed hybrid schemes outperformed the typical, single-stage forecasting models.

  15. Food reward in active compared to inactive men: Roles for gastric emptying and body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Katy M; Finlayson, Graham; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2016-06-01

    Habitual exercise could contribute to weight management by altering processes of food reward via the gut-brain axis. We investigated hedonic processes of food reward in active and inactive men and characterised relationships with gastric emptying and body fat. Forty-four men (active: n=22; inactive: n=22, BMI range 21-36kg/m(2); percent fat mass range 9-42%) were studied. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast and an ad libitum lunch meal 5h later. Explicit liking, implicit wanting and preference among high-fat, low-fat, sweet and savoury food items were assessed immediately post-breakfast (fed state) and again pre-lunch (hungry state) using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Gastric emptying was assessed by (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. Active individuals exhibited a lower liking for foods overall and a greater implicit wanting for low-fat savoury foods in the fed state, compared to inactive men. Differences in the fed state remained significant after adjusting for percent fat mass. Active men also had a greater increase in liking for savoury foods in the interval between breakfast and lunch. Faster gastric emptying was associated with liking for savoury foods and with an increase in liking for savoury foods in the postprandial interval. In contrast, greater implicit wanting for high-fat foods was associated with slower gastric emptying. These associations were independent of each other, activity status and body fat. In conclusion, active and inactive men differ in processes of food reward. The rate of gastric emptying may play a role in the association between physical activity status and food reward, via the gut-brain axis. PMID:27072508

  16. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness. PMID:18811793

  17. Nutraceuticals for body-weight management: The role of green tea catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-08-01

    Green tea catechins mixed with caffeine have been proposed as adjuvants for maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure and for increasing fat oxidation, in the context of prevention and treatment of obesity. These catechins-caffeine mixtures seem to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that occurs during weight loss. Their effects are of particular importance during weight maintenance after weight loss. Other metabolic targets may be fat absorption and the gut microbiota composition, but these effects still need further investigation in combination with weight loss. Limitations for the effects of green tea catechins are moderating factors such as genetic predisposition related to COMT-activity, habitual caffeine intake, and ingestion combined with dietary protein. In conclusion, a mixture of green tea catechins and caffeine has a beneficial effect on body-weight management, especially by sustained energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and preservation of fat free body-mass, after energy restriction induced body-weight loss, when taking the limitations into account. PMID:26836279

  18. Insights into the Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) fat body transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Soares de Sousa; José Eduardo Serrão; Ana Maria Bonetti; Isabel Marques Rodrigues Amaral; Warwick Estevam Kerr; Andréa Queiroz Maranhão; Carlos Ueira-Vieira

    2013-01-01

    The insect fat body is a multifunctional organ analogous to the vertebrate liver. The fat body is involved in the metabolism of juvenile hormone, regulation of environmental stress, production of immunity regulator-like proteins in cells and protein storage. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in fat body physiology in stingless bees. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of the fat body from the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. In silico analysis o...

  19. Body Fat and Body-Mass Index among a Multiethnic Sample of College-Age Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L. Carpenter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity prevalence and average body composition vary by US race and gender. Asian Americans have the lowest prevalence of obesity. Relying on body-mass index (BMI to estimate obesity prevalence may misclassify subgroups that appear normally weighted but have excess body fat. We evaluated percentage body fat (PBF and BMI to determine whether BMI reflects PBF consistently across different races. 940 college students were recruited from a local public university over four consecutive years. We measured PBF by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA, weight by physicians’ scales, and height with stadiometers. Our sample comprised Asians (49%, Caucasians (23%, Hispanics (7%, and Other (21%. Participants averaged 21.4 years old; BMI was 22.9 kg/m2; PBF was 24.8%. BMI and PBF varied significantly by race and gender (P value = 0.002 and 0.005 for men; 0.0009 and 0.0008 for women. Asian-American women had the lowest BMI (21.5 kg/m2 but the second highest PBF (27.8%. Linear association between BMI and PBF was the weakest ( among Asian-American women and BMI had the poorest sensitivity (37% to detect PBF. The high PBF with low BMI pattern exhibited by Asian-American women suggests that they could escape detection for obesity-related disease if BMI is the sole measure that estimates body composition.

  20. Association of body fat and vitamin D status and the effect of body fat on the response to vitamin D supplementation in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Ida Marie; Lundby, M.; Mølgaard, C.;

    2015-01-01

    in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark. Data were obtained from a 1-year double-blind randomised controlled trial with oral vitamin D supplementation. A total of 122 women and men received either vitamin D3 supplementation (10 or 20 μg/day) or placebo. No association was found between body fat percentage...... and vitamin D status in a multiple linear regression model (P<0.001). No effect of body fat was seen on the vitamin D status response following the intervention with vitamin D. In conclusion, there was no baseline association between body fat percentage and vitamin D status, and body fat percentage......Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are both prevalent conditions in the northern countries, especially among immigrants. The aims were to assess the possible relationship between body fat and vitamin D status, and to investigate the effect of body fat on the response to oral vitamin D supplementation...

  1. STUDY OF BODY MASS INDEX (BMI, BODY FAT PERCENT (%BF, AND WAIST TO HIP RATIO (WHR IN MALE PHYSICAL EDUCATION STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Shabani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate body mass index (BMI, body fat percent (%BF and waist-hip ratio (WHR of physical education male students of Shahid Chamran University and comparison with national and international body composition standards. Material : Subjects were seventy five male students physical education male students of Shahid Chamran University of mean age (23.21±2.78, mean height (174±5.71 and mean weight (70.07±9.43 who were selected randomly. Some of body composition indices were determined with body composition analyzer apparatus (bioelectrical impedance apparatus. Results : Descriptive characteristics of subjects include: body fat percent (19.37±3.62, waist-hip ratio (0.80±0.037 and body mass index (23.18±2.68. To categorize and regulate data we used descriptive analyzes, to calculate Pearson correlation coefficient we used presumption analyzes and to compare the obtained data with national standards we used T-test statistical procedure. There are significant correlations between body mass index and waist-hip ratio (P=0.709, r=0.001, between body mass index and body fat percent (P=0.783, r=0.001 and between body fat percent and waist-hip ratio (P=0.809, r=0.001. There are significant differences between mean body mass index and its national standard (P=0.001, between mean waist-hip ratio and its national standard (P=0.001 and between mean body fat percentage and its national standard (P=0.001. Conclusions : Results revealed that according to national standards of body fat percentage and body mass index of subjects, they were assigned to more than intermediate limitation; it may be due to abnormal nutrition, unregulated exercise or physical activity and heredity.

  2. Body mass index versus percentage body fat in Chinese, African-American and Caucasian postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; He Qing; Lin Shou-qing; Tian Jun-ping; Stan He-shka; Jack Wang; Steven Heymsfield; Richard N. Pierson; Dympna Gallagher

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate in postmenopausal women whether the relationship between percentage body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) differs between Asians living in Beijing (BA) and African-Americans (AA), and Caucasians (Ca) living in New York City.Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (231 BA; 113 AA, 95 Ca), aged 50-80 years, were studied. Weight, height and PBF by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were measured. The relationship between PBF and BMI was assessed by multiple regression analysis. Results: Race, reciprocal of BMI (1/BMI) and the interaction between race and 1/BMI were all significantly (P<0.05) related to PBF in this sample. The slope of the line relating 1/BMI to PBF was different for BA compared to AA (P=0.01) and Ca (P=0.003) while the slopes for AA and Ca were not different (P>0.05). At lower levels of BMI, Asians tended to have higher PBF comparable to AA and Ca, while at BMI >30 BA tended to have less PBF than the other groups. Conclusion: The relation between PBF and BMI in BA postmenopausal women differs from that of AA and Ca women in this sample.

  3. Inhibitory effects of Leonurus sibiricus on weight gain after menopause in ovariectomized and high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jangseon; Kim, Mi Hye; Choi, You Yeon; Hong, Jongki; Yang, Woong Mo

    2016-07-01

    Leonurus sibiricus, also called motherwort, is a well-known functional food and medicinal herb. It has been known to possess beneficial properties for women's health, especially for aged women. Estrogen deficiency in the menopause could induce lipid metabolic abnormalities in body fat, resulting in obesity. In this study, the inhibitory effects of L. sibiricus on obesity after the menopause were investigated. Female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Following an induction period, aqueous extracts of L. sibiricus (LS) were orally administrated for 6 weeks. The body, uterine, and visceral fat weights were measured immediately after the animals were killed. Histological analysis was performed to monitor fat and liver. Serum levels of glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were evaluated. In addition, the expression of lipases was analyzed. Total body weight was significantly decreased by LS treatment. Histological changes in adipocyte size were shown along with a decrease of visceral fat weight in the LS-treated group. In addition, the fat infiltration of liver was reduced by LS administration. LS-treated mice experienced decreases of serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol levels. The expression of HSL and ATGL was significantly increased by LS treatment. These results suggest that LS could regulate the lipid metabolism via an increase of lipases expression in ovariectomized and HFD-fed mice. LS might be a novel candidate for a functional food to inhibit weight gain after the menopause. PMID:26899238

  4. Influence of psychotropic drugs prescription on body weight increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca E. Martínez de Morentin-Aldabe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a major public health burden, not only by the rising prevalence but also because of the associated complications. Furthermore there is a number of diseases whose risk and onset is increased in subjects with overweight such as type 2 diabetes, dislipemias, tumors (endometrial, colon, breast, cancer, etc, skeletal disorders, digestive disturbances, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, psychological problems, obstetric and gynecological disorders.The prescription of psychotropic drugs is important and, in most countries, consumption has been increased in recent years. Indeed, several drugs used in the treatment of anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or epilepsy, can increase body weight and fat deposition or eventually decrease it. These side effects could make a previous situation of obesity to worsen, and it can even cause excessive weight gain in patients with a normal weight at the beginning of the treatment. This increase in adiposity may also contribute to the lack of adherence to the medication and thus a possible relapse of the patients.In this review we report the links between psychotropic drugs administration and weight gain as well as the potential mechanisms that are involved.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.17.1.4

  5. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzschneider, Kristina M; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L; Arbuckle, Matthew D; Tidwell, Jaime M; Richards, Todd L; Craft, Suzanne

    2013-03-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23 % fat/7 % saturated fat/GI 70) diet in older subjects. In the present study, twenty subjects (seven males/thirteen females; age 69.3 (SEM 1.6) years, BMI 26.9 (SEM 0.8) kg/m2) were randomised to the LSAT diet and fifteen subjects (six males/nine females; age 68.6 (SEM 1.8) years, BMI 28.1 (SEM 0.9) kg/m2) to the HSAT diet. Weight remained stable. Liver fat decreased significantly on the LSAT diet (median 2.2 (interquartile range (IQR) 3.1) to 1.7 (IQR 1.8) %, P= 0.002) but did not change on the HSAT diet (median 1.2 (IQR 4.1) to 1.6 (IQR 3.9) %). The LSAT diet lowered fasting glucose and total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and raised TAG (PLSAT diet (PLSAT v. HSAT diet was a predictor of changes in lipid parameters but not liver fat. We conclude that diet composition may be an important factor in the accumulation of liver fat, with a low-fat/low-saturated fat/LGI diet being beneficial. PMID:22849970

  6. Prolonged adaptation to fat-rich diet and training; effects on body fat stores and insulin resistance in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effect of prolonged adaptation to training and fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on body composition and insulin resistance.......To investigate the effect of prolonged adaptation to training and fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on body composition and insulin resistance....

  7. Effects of Reductions of Body Fat and Regional Adipose Tissue on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Among Eldery Japanese

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeto, Kazuhiro; Koyama, Hiroshi; Takemoto, Tai-ichiro

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate effects of improvement of obesity on glucose and lipid metabolism, changes of body weight, skinfolds and biochemical parameters in glucose and lipid metabolism were examined through a six month health education on excercise and diet. Subjects were 20 men and 36 women aged from 48 to 87, who had overweight and/or glucose intolerance. Weight, relative weight and fat mass were significantly reduced after the program in both sexes. Circumference ratios were reduced only in women. The ...

  8. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongbo; Gao, Xiang; Pedram, Pardis; Shahidi, Mariam; Du, Jianling; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Zhang, Hongwei; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects participated in the study. Dietary Se intake was determined from the Willett food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Obese men and women had the lowest dietary Se intake, being 24% to 31% lower than corresponding normal weight men and women, classified by both BMI and body fat percentage. Moreover, subjects with the highest dietary Se intake had the lowest BMI, waist circumference, and trunk, android, gynoid and total body fat percentages, with a clear dose-dependent inverse relationship observed in both gender groups. Furthermore, significant negative associations discovered between dietary Se intake and obesity measurements were independent of age, total dietary calorie intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, medication, and menopausal status. Dietary Se intake alone may account for 9%-27% of the observed variations in body fat percentage. The findings from this study strongly suggest that high dietary Se intake is associated with a beneficial body composition profile. PMID:26742059

  9. The Percentage of Body Fat in Children and the Level of their Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prskalo, Ivan; Badrić, Marko; Kunješić, Mateja

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary education pupils and to identify differences in motor skills between normal weight, excessive and obese pupils. Partial aim was to determine differences in motor status of girls and boys and their anthropometric characteristics (Body Mass Index, body fat percentage). The study was conducted in two primary schools in Zagreb, Ivan Goran Kovačić and Davorin Trstenjak. Total of 333 pupils, aged 7-11, were measured (178 boys and 155 girls). Four anthropometric and seven motor variables were used to analyze differences in motor abilities of children. Children were divided into three groups within gender based on their body fat measures. We established a statistically significant difference in motor abilities between groups of subjects in three subsamples (1st-2nd class girls and 3rd-4th boys and girls). Children with normal weight have better results in explosive strength, coordination, static strength of arm and shoulder than children who are overweight and obese. The differences are not observed in motor variables where body weight is not a requisite for efficient execution of movement. Differences in motor skills by gender showed that boys are better in coordination, speed of the simple movements, explosive and repetitive strength, and girls are better in flexibility. The conclusion of this study confirmed the existence of differences in the development of motor skills in children with normal body weight compared to children who are overweight or obese. These facts prove that excessive body weight has negative repercussions on motor performance. PMID:26434007

  10. DEXA measures of body fat percentage and acute phase proteins among breast cancer survivors: a Cross-Sectional Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) increases with systemic inflammation and are related to worse survival for breast cancer survivors. This study examines the association between percent body fat and SAA and CRP and the potential interaction with NSAID use and weight change. Participants included 134 non-Hispanic white and Hispanic breast cancer survivors from the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study. Body fat percentage, measured with Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometer (DEXA), and circulating levels of CRP and SAA were obtained 30 months after breast cancer diagnosis. Circulating concentrations of CRP and SAA were associated with increased adiposity as measured by DEXA after adjustment for age at 24-months, race/ethnicity, dietary energy intake, weight change, and NSAID use. Survivors with higher body fat ≥35% had significantly higher concentrations of CRP (2.01 mg/l vs. 0.85 mg/l) and SAA (6.21 mg/l vs. 4.21 mg/l) compared to non-obese (body fat < 35%). Women who had gained more than 5% of their body weight since breast cancer diagnosis had non-statistically significant higher geometric mean levels of CRP and SAA. Mean levels of CRP and SAA were higher among obese women who were non-users of NSAIDs compared to current users; the association with SAA reached statistical significance (Mean SAA = 7.24, 95%CI 6.13-8.56 for non-NSAID; vs. 4.87; 95%CI 3.95-6.0 for NSAID users respectively). Breast cancer survivors with higher body fat had higher mean concentrations of CRP and SAA than women with lower body fat. Further assessment of NSAID use and weight control in reducing circulating inflammatory markers among survivors may be worthwhile to investigate in randomized intervention trials as higher inflammatory markers are associated with worse survival

  11. Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Anthony P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is speculated that high saturated fat very low carbohydrate diets (VLCARB have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk but evidence for this in controlled studies is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare, under isocaloric conditions, the effects of a VLCARB to 2 low saturated fat high carbohydrate diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. Methods Eighty three subjects, 48 ± 8 y, total cholesterol 5.9 ± 1.0 mmol/L, BMI 33 ± 3 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to one of 3 isocaloric weight loss diets (6 MJ for 8 weeks and on the same diets in energy balance for 4 weeks: Very Low Fat (VLF (CHO:Fat:Protein; %SF = 70:10:20; 3%, High Unsaturated Fat (HUF = (50:30:20; 6%, VLCARB (4:61:35; 20% Results Percent fat mass loss was not different between diets VLCARB -4.5 ± 0.5, VLF-4.0 ± 0.5, HUF -4.4 ± 0.6 kg. Lean mass loss was 32-31% on VLCARB and VLF compared to HUF (21% (P Conclusion Isocaloric VLCARB results in similar fat loss than diets low in saturated fat, but are more effective in improving triacylglycerols, HDL-C, fasting and post prandial glucose and insulin concentrations. VLCARB may be useful in the short-term management of subjects with insulin resistance and hypertriacylglycerolemia.

  12. Relationship between ultrasound measurements of body fat reserves and body condition score in female donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, M; Payan-Carreira, R; Silva, S R

    2013-08-01

    Several methods have been developed to monitor body fat reserves of farm animals and body condition scoring (BCS) is generally assumed to be the most practical. Objective methods, such as real time ultrasonography (RTU), are accepted methods for measuring fat reserves in several farm species but there is no published information about the use of RTU to monitor body fat reserves in donkeys. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between RTU measurements and BCS in female donkeys (jennies) (n=16) with a BCS of 3-7 on a 9 point scale. Ultrasound images were captured using an Aloka 500-V scanner equipped with a 7.5 MHz probe and subcutaneous fat (SF, range: 1.0-14.0mm) and thoracic wall tissue (TD, range: 5.6-21.4mm) depths measurements were determined. A significant correlation was found between BCS and all RTU measurements (0.65fat and tissue depths measurements to monitor fat reserves in jennies. PMID:23395347

  13. Changes in Skeletal Integrity and Marrow Adiposity during High-Fat Diet and after Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Erica L.; Khoury, Basma; Moller, Kayla L.; Wee, Natalie K. Y.; Khandaker, Shaima; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Abrishami, Simin H.; Zamarron, Brian F.; Singer, Kanakadurga

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise over the past three decades leading to significant increases in obesity-related medical care costs from metabolic and non-metabolic sequelae. It is now clear that expansion of body fat leads to an increase in inflammation with systemic effects on metabolism. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity, there is also an expansion of bone marrow adipocytes. However, the persistence of these changes after weight loss has not been well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high-fat diet (HFD) and subsequent weight loss on skeletal parameters in C57Bl6/J mice. Male mice were given a normal chow diet (ND) or 60% HFD at 6 weeks of age for 12, 16, or 20 weeks. A third group of mice was put on HFD for 12 weeks and then on ND for 8 weeks to mimic weight loss. After these dietary challenges, the tibia and femur were removed and analyzed by micro computed-tomography for bone morphology. Decalcification followed by osmium staining was used to assess bone marrow adiposity, and mechanical testing was performed to assess bone strength. After 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, mice had significant weight gain relative to controls. Body mass returned to normal after weight loss. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) volume in the tibia increased after 16 weeks of HFD and persisted in the 20-week HFD group. Weight loss prevented HFD-induced MAT expansion. Trabecular bone volume fraction, mineral content, and number were decreased after 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, relative to ND controls, with only partial recovery after weight loss. Mechanical testing demonstrated decreased fracture resistance after 20 weeks of HFD. Loss of mechanical integrity did not recover after weight loss. Our study demonstrates that HFD causes long-term, persistent changes in bone quality, despite prevention of marrow adipose tissue accumulation, as demonstrated through changes in bone morphology and mechanical strength in a mouse

  14. Effect of High Fat Diets on Body Mass, Oleylethanolamide Plasma Levels and Oxytocin Expression in Growing Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sospedra, Isabel; Moral, Raquel; Escrich, Raquel; Solanas, Montserrat; Vela, Elena; Escrich, Eduard

    2015-06-01

    Obesity prevalence in developed countries has promoted the need to identify the mechanisms involved in control of feeding and energy balance. We have tested the hypothesis that different fats present in diet composition may contribute in body weight gain and body indexes by regulation of oxytocin gene (oxt) expression in hypothalamus and Oleylethanolamide (OEA) levels in plasma. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed two high fat diets, based on corn (HCO) and extra virgin olive oil (HOO) and results were compared to a low fat diet (LF). LC-MS/MS analysis showed an increasing trend of OEA plasma levels in HOO group, although no significant differences were found. However, body weight gain of LF and HOO were similar and significantly lower than HCO. HCO rats also had higher Lee index than HOO. Rats fed HOO diet showed higher levels of hypothalamic oxt mRNA expression, which could indicate that oxytocin may be modulated by dietary lipids. PMID:25976631

  15. Body Fat Distribution and Plasma Lipid Profiles of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    ÇOMOĞLU, Selçuk; YARDIMCI, Serdar; Okçu, Zeki

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the body fat percentage, fat distribution and plasma lipid-cholesterol levels of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We compared the body fat percentage, distribution and lipid profile in 22 patients with definitive diagnosis of MS and age and height matched 16 healthy control subjects on normal diets. Poser criteria was used to determine the MS diagnosis. Body fat percentage and distribution were evaluated anthropometrically by measuring skin fold thi...

  16. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample: findings from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas Peter;

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat free mass index (FFMI, fat free mass/weight(2)). Objectives: We explored...... mortality and 2.4 (1.4-4.0) for COPD-related mortality. FFMI was also a predictor of overall mortality when analyses were restricted to subjects with normal BMI. Conclusions: FFMI provides information in addition to BMI and assessment of fat free mass should be considered in the routine assessment of COPD....

  17. The correlation study on arch type with physical fitness, body fat and heath-carter somatotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei; Yin Shuai; Sui Yuelin; Liu Yuanyuan; Ding Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the arch type and physical form, physical fit-ness, body fat and somatotype. Methods:Measure and type the arch of 382 male soldier in a certain army by foot-print ratio method; Routinely detect the results of height and weight, body fat, 100 and 5 000 meters running, standing jump;According to the international heath-carter method, ten indexes were measured and the somatotype were evaluated. Results:①382 samples, flatfoot 91, accounted for 23. 6%, the foot arch index 0. 60 + 0. 21;non-flatfoot 291 , 76 . 2%, arch index 1 . 14 +0 . 22 , t=22 . 83 , P=0 . 001;②Comparing the mean of the results of height, weight, BMI, body fat percentage,100 and 5 000 meters running, standing jump of the two groups( flatfoot and non-flatfoot) samples, t-text, P>0. 05; ③Assessed by the method of heath-carter shape, flatfoot group so-matotype mean is 2. 7 (0. 7) -4. 8 (1. 3) -2. 7 (0. 9), sam is 1. 5 (0. 9);non flatfoot group somatotype mean is 2. 3 (0. 7) -5. 0 (3. 1) -2. 4 (0. 9), sam is 1. 6 (1. 0);The distance of two groups`points in 3D space mean somatotypes is 0. 54; t-test of the two groups`somatotype mean, P>0. 05. Conclusions: Compared the flatfoot group with the control group, there is no significant difference in physical form, physical fitness, body fat and so-matotype. The increasingly high rate of flatfoot in healthy people is physical, but not flatfoot disease, and no need for surgery.

  18. Concordance of the Recently Published Body Adiposity Index With Measured Body Fat Percent in European-American Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, William; Chumlea, William C.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demerath, Ellen W

    2011-01-01

    The body adiposity index (BAI; hip circumference (cm)/height (m)1.5 − 18) has recently been shown to demonstrate a stronger correlation with percentage body fat (%fat) than that between the BMI and %fat in Mexican-American adults. Here, we compare the concordance between %fat from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and BAI, and between %fat and BMI, in European-American adults (n = 623). Agreement between BAI, BMI, and %fat was assessed using Lin’s concordance coefficients (ρc), where val...

  19. Relationships between Body Fat Distribution, Epicardial Fat and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Patients with and without Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Lubrano; Maurizio Saponara; Giuseppe Barbaro; Palma Specchia; Eliana Addessi; Daniela Costantini; Marta Tenuta; Gabriella Di Lorenzo; Giuseppe Genovesi; Donini, Lorenzo M; Andrea Lenzi; Lucio Gnessi

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and metabolic syndrome, both closely related to obesity, often coexist in affected individuals; however, body mass index is not an accurate indicator of body fat and thus is not a good predictor of OSA and other comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the occurrence of OSA could be associated with an altered body fat distribution and a more evident cardio metabolic risk independently from obesity and metabolic syndrome. METHODS...

  20. Newborn regional body composition is influenced by maternal obesity, gestational weight gain and the birthweight standard score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, K.;

    2014-01-01

    obese and 80 normal weight mothers and their newborn infants and assessed the babies' body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: The total and abdominal fat masses of infants born to mother who were obese before pregnancy were 135 g (p < 0.001) and 18 g (p < 0.001) higher than the...... offspring of normal weight mothers. The infants' fat mass increased by 11 g (p < 0.001) for every kilogram of GWG. There were no associations between prepregnancy obesity and fat-free mass. The fat percentage was significantly higher in infants who were large for gestational age (15.3%) than small for......AIM: This study investigated whether newborn body composition is influenced by prepregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain (GWG) and explored any associations between body composition and birthweight standard score (z-score), categorised by size for gestational age. METHODS: We recruited 231...

  1. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body weight gain in ovariectomized female C57BL/6J mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaya, Noriko; Chen, Shiuan

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is an important protective factor against obesity in females. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher rate of obesity than premenopausal women, which is associated with age-related loss of ovary function. It has been reported that a diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced body weight and body fat mass in the animal model as well as in human trials. We hypothesized that ingestion of CLA would reduce body weight gain in ovariectomized (OVX) female C57BL/6J mice whi...

  2. Relationship of percent body fat (estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis with blood pressure among young adult females of Amritsar (Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindiya Rana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present cross-sectional study was carried out to find the association of percent body fat (PBF with blood pressure (BP variables among apparently healthy young females studying in Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar. A total of 150 females ranging in age from 20-25 years were personally interviewed. Height and weight of each subject was taken using standard methodology. Their body composition parameters were taken by using body fat analyzer. Subjects were categorized as obese and non-obese according to PBF, in which those having >30% body fat was considered as obese. BP of each subject was measured by using the standard methodology. The prevalence of hypertension was calculated according to JNC VII criteria. In the pooled data, the percentage prevalence of obesity according to PBF was 36%. The percentage prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension in the pooled sample was 54% and 12%, respectively. However, it was observed that prevalence of hypertension was slightly more among obese females (7.3% as compared to non-obese (4.7% but the prevalence of pre-hypertension was significantly (p<0.05 more in non-obese females (39.3% as compared to obese females (14.7%. The underline cause of this high prevalence of pre-hypertension in non-obese subjects was not known. It is clear from the correlation analysis that no association was observed between SBP and MAP with PBF in obese and non-obese subjects while DBP is positively and significantly (p<0.05 correlated with weight, fat mass and fat free mass in non-obese subjects only. Thus it is concluded from this study that PBF measured by BIA was not likely to be a good predictor of high BP. Therefore, further large prospective studies on the association of hypertension and whole body fat and abdominal fat should be carried out to confirm the role of fat on BP.

  3. 高邮鸭肌肉生长抑制素基因(MSTN)5'调控区多态性与生长及腹脂率的关联分析%Association of the MSTN-5'regulatory region polymorphisms with body weights and abdominal fat rates in the Gaoyou duck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵南南; 陈永华; 刘倩; 蔡凤仙; 王志跃; 张汤杰

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms of MSTN 5'regulatory region of 3 different Gaoyou and 1 Shaoxing duck populations were detected using PCR-SSCP.Genetic effects of the MSTN 5'regulatory region on body weights and abdominal fat rates were analyzed.The results showed that C-G of mutations in 1046st bp of MSTN gene promoters was detected.In the test of 4 duck populations,three genotypes(CC,CG and GG gene type)were detected,and with C alleles for advantage alleles.The least square analysis results showed that different genotypes had no significant effects on week body weights.In addition,no significant differences were found among abdominal fat rates of 3 Gaoyou duck populations,while average abdominal fat rates of 3 Gaoyou duck populations were significantly greater than that of Shaoxing duck population.Different genotypes had a significant effect on abdominal fat rates of Gaoyou ducks and abdominal fat rate of the GG genotype was significantly greater than that of CG and CC type(P<0.05).In regard to MSTN 5'regulatory region,MSTN gene,as a candidate gene of affecting abdominal fat rates,needs to be further researched.%肌肉生长抑制素(Myostatin,MSTN)基因在发育和成熟的骨骼肌中特异表达,对肌肉具有负调控作用.采用PCR-SSCP技术检测了3个不同高邮鸭群体和1个绍鸭群体MSTN5’的单核苷酸多态性,并与0及3~10周龄体重和腹脂率进行相关性分析.结果:在MSTN基因5’调控区的1046 bp处检测到C→G的突变.在4个鸭群中,均检测到3种基因型(CC、CG和GG基因型),且都以C等位基因为优势等位基因.最小二乘法分析结果表明,不同基因型对试验的4个群体鸭周龄生长无显著影响;高邮鸭3个群体间平均腹脂率无显著差异,但绍鸭腹脂率均极显著低于3个高邮鸭群体(P<0.01);不同基因型对高邮鸭3个不同群体的腹脂率均有显著影响,GG型高邮鸭腹脂率显著高于CG型和CC型(P<0.05).就5’调控区而言,MSTN基因作为

  4. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne-Sofie Quist; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Gamborg, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    -related inflammatory markers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,212 healthy individuals with information on habitual food intake from food frequency questionnaires, six different measures of body fat, and levels of six circulating inflammatory markers. Multiple linear regression analysis of intakes of PUFAs....... No significant interactions with the dietary macronutrient composition were observed. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were not associated with absolute PUFA intake, but the macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) was associated with the n-3/n-6 ratio. CONCLUSION: In humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs, in particular ALA...

  5. Gender- and Gestational Age-Specific Body Fat Percentage at Birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin P

    2011-08-08

    Background: There is increasing evidence that in utero growth has both immediate and far-reaching influence on health. Birth weight and length are used as surrogate measures of in utero growth. However, these measures poorly reflect neonatal adiposity. Air-displacement plethysmography has been validated for the measurement of body fat in the neonatal population. Objective: The goal of this study was to show the normal reference values of percentage body fat (%BF) in infants during the first 4 days of life. Methods: As part of a large population-based birth cohort study, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured within the first 4 days of life using air-displacement plethsymography. Infants were grouped into gestational age and gender categories. Results: Of the 786 enrolled infants, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured in 743 (94.5%) infants within the first 4 days of life. %BF increased significantly with gestational age. Mean (SD) %BF at 36 to 37 weeks\\' gestation was 8.9% (3.5%); at 38 to 39 weeks\\' gestation, 10.3% (4%); and at 40 to 41 weeks\\' gestation, 11.2% (4.3%) (P < .001). Female infants had significantly increased mean (SD) %BF at 38 to 39(11.1% [3.9%] vs 9.8% [3.9%]; P = .012) and at 40 to 41 (12.5% [4.4%] vs 10% [3.9%]; P < .001) weeks\\' gestation compared with male infants. Gender- and gestational age-specific centiles were calculated, and a normative table was generated for reference. Conclusion: %BF at birth is influenced by gestational age and gender. We generated accurate %BF centiles from a large population-based cohort.

  6. Healthy Fats in Mediterranean Diet Won't Boost Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... imply that unrestricted diets with high levels of unhealthy fats such as butter, processed meat, sweetened beverages, deserts or fast-foods are beneficial," Estruch added. The study included more ...

  7. Camphor Tree Seed Kernel Oil Reduces Body Fat Deposition and Improves Blood Lipids in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming; Zeng, Cheng; Jiang, Yihao; Zeng, Zheling

    2015-08-01

    The total and positional fatty acid composition in camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) seed kernel oil (CKO) were analyzed, and for the first time, the effect of CKO on body fat deposition and blood lipids in rats was studied. The major fatty acids in CKO were determined to be decanoic acid (C10:0, 51.49%) and dodecanoic acid (C12:0, 40.08%), and uniformly distributed at Sn-1, 3, and Sn-2 positions in triglyceride (TG). Rats were randomly divided into control, CKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. At the end of the experiment, levels of blood lipids and the fats of abdomen in the rats were measured. The main organ were weighted and used for the histological examination. The results showed that body weight and fat deposition in CKO group were significantly lower than the lard and soybean groups. Moderate consumption of CKO was found to improve the levels of blood TG and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:26130050

  8. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Jeamet, Aymeric; Rune, Ida; Ellekilde, Merete; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be...... associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001). Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01) and glucose clearance was improved...

  9. Live weight and body measurement of Hungarian Thoroughbred broodmares

    OpenAIRE

    Szabolcs Bene; Anita Giczi; Zsuzsanna Nagy; Zsuzsanna Benedek; Ferenc Szabo; Peter Polgar

    2013-01-01

    Live weights and 21 body measurements of 110 adult brood mares from Thoroughbred breed were evaluated in Hungary. Body measurements and some body measure indices were determined. One way ANOVA was used to compare the studs. Regression equations were developed to estimate the live weight from body measurements. Population genetic parameters of the examined traits were estimated. Only few differences among studs, concerning evaluated body measurements, were presented - firstly: body measurement...

  10. Effects of sugar intake on body weight: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, S.H.F.; Pasman, W.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Weight reduction programmes are mainly focused on reducing intake of fat and sugar. In this review we have evaluated whether the replacement of dietary (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or complex carbohydrates contributes to weight reduction. In two experimental studies, no short-term differen

  11. Body Mass and Fat Mass in Refractory Asthma: An Observational 1 Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Bafadhel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Asthma and obesity are common; however the impact of obesity upon asthma remains uncertain. Objectives. To assess relationships between obesity and fat mass with airway inflammation, lung function, and disease control in patients with refractory asthma. Methods. 151 refractory asthma patients were characterised for measures of airway inflammation, lung function, Juniper asthma control questionnaire (JACQ, body mass index (BMI, and fat mass index (FMI derived from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Patients were reassessed over 12 months. Results. 74% of patients had an elevated BMI. BMI and FMI correlated (r=0.9, P<.001. FMI and JACQ correlated in men (r=0.3, P=.01. After 12 months 23% lost weight. Weight change over 12 months correlated with FEV1 change (r=−0.3, P=.03, but not with change in JACQ or exacerbations. Conclusion. Increased fat mass is common in refractory asthma and is associated with asthma symptom control in men. Loss of weight is associated with improvement in lung function in refractory asthma.

  12. Relative body fat and anthropometric prediction of body density of female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, R T; Whittingham, N O; Norton, K I; La Forgia, J; Ellis, M W; Crockett, A

    1987-01-01

    Ninety-one percent (n = 182) of the female members of South Australian representative squads in 14 sports volunteered to act as subjects. Twenty-seven percent of them had represented Australia. The underwater weighing method together with the measurement of residual volume (RV) by helium dilution were used to determine body density (BD); the percent body fat (% BF) was then computed according to Siri. A stepwise multiple regression analysis yielded a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.863 between the criterion (BD) and the best weighted sum of predictors (anthropometric variables): BD (g X cm-3) = 1.14075-0.04959 (log10 sigma triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and calf skinfolds in mm) + 0.00044 (age in decimal years)-0.000612 (waist girth in cm) + 0.000284 (height in cm)-0.000505 (gluteal girth in cm) + 0.000331 (breast girth in cm). Only those predictors which resulted in a statistically significant increase in R (p less than or equal to 0.05) were included. The standard error of estimate of 0.00597 g X cm-3 was equivalent to 2.7% BF at the mean. This equation was shown to be largely population specific. There was a range of 7.6-35.8% of BF and the overall mean 18.5% was significantly lower (p less than 0.001) than that of 23.4% obtained on a moderately active reference sample of similar age (n = 135). If group sizes of only one or two are regarded as too small for meaningful comparison, then the lowest mean of 13.5% was achieved by the long-distance runners (n = 14). The highest averages were registered by the heavyweight rowers (24.2%; n = 7) and soccer players (22.0%; n = 11). The overall average for games players (n = 107) was 19.4%. PMID:3569223

  13. Comparison of Changes in Body Composition during Puberty Development of Obese and Normal-weight Children in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN MA; NING FENG; SHI-WEI ZHANG; YONG-PING PAN; YONG-BO HUANG

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the changes in body composition, including fat mass index (FMI) and fat free mass index (FFMI) during puberty development of obese and normal-weight children in China, and to explore the effect of age and gender on body composition. Methods A total of 356 children at the age of 7-15 years were enrolled in this study. Body composition of 10 normal-weight and obese children in each age group was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). FFMI and FMI were calculated according to the following formula: FFMI (kg·mT~(-2))= FFM(kg) / height~2 (m~2) and FMI (kg· m~2)= FM (kg) / height~2 (m~2). Results The fat mass and fat free mass of obese children were significantly higher than those of normal-weight children (P<0.05). The FMI and FFMI of obese children increased significantly with age and were higher than those of the same sex, gender, and age normal-weight children (P<0.05). Conclusion The levels of fat mass, fat free mass, FMI, and FFMI are different in obese and normal-weight children, and gender effects are significant in boys having higher levels of these indicators than in girls. FFMI and FMI can be used as monitoring indexes in weight control of obese children.

  14. Ipragliflozin Improves Hepatic Steatosis in Obese Mice and Liver Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Irrespective of Body Weight Reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikara Komiya

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is associated with a high incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD related to obesity and insulin resistance. Currently, medical interventions for NAFLD have focused on diet control and exercise to reduce body weight, and there is a requirement for effective pharmacological therapies. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors are oral antidiabetic drugs that promote the urinary excretion of glucose by blocking its reabsorption in renal proximal tubules. SGLT2 inhibitors lower blood glucose independent of insulin action and are expected to reduce body weight because of urinary calorie loss. Here we show that an SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin improves hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-induced and leptin-deficient (ob/ob obese mice irrespective of body weight reduction. In the obese mice, ipragliflozin-induced hyperphagia occurred to increase energy intake, attenuating body weight reduction with increased epididymal fat mass. There is an inverse correlation between weights of liver and epididymal fat in ipragliflozin-treated obese mice, suggesting that ipragliflozin treatment promotes normotopic fat accumulation in the epididymal fat and prevents ectopic fat accumulation in the liver. Despite increased adiposity, ipragliflozin ameliorates obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance in epididymal fat. Clinically, ipragliflozin improves liver dysfunction in patients with T2DM irrespective of body weight reduction. These findings provide new insight into the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on energy homeostasis and fat accumulation and indicate their potential therapeutic efficacy in T2DM-associated hepatic steatosis.

  15. Ipragliflozin Improves Hepatic Steatosis in Obese Mice and Liver Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Irrespective of Body Weight Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya, Chikara; Tsuchiya, Kyoichiro; Shiba, Kumiko; Miyachi, Yasutaka; Furuke, Shunsaku; Shimazu, Noriko; Yamaguchi, Shinobu; Kanno, Kazuo; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a high incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) related to obesity and insulin resistance. Currently, medical interventions for NAFLD have focused on diet control and exercise to reduce body weight, and there is a requirement for effective pharmacological therapies. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are oral antidiabetic drugs that promote the urinary excretion of glucose by blocking its reabsorption in renal proximal tubules. SGLT2 inhibitors lower blood glucose independent of insulin action and are expected to reduce body weight because of urinary calorie loss. Here we show that an SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin improves hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-induced and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) obese mice irrespective of body weight reduction. In the obese mice, ipragliflozin-induced hyperphagia occurred to increase energy intake, attenuating body weight reduction with increased epididymal fat mass. There is an inverse correlation between weights of liver and epididymal fat in ipragliflozin-treated obese mice, suggesting that ipragliflozin treatment promotes normotopic fat accumulation in the epididymal fat and prevents ectopic fat accumulation in the liver. Despite increased adiposity, ipragliflozin ameliorates obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance in epididymal fat. Clinically, ipragliflozin improves liver dysfunction in patients with T2DM irrespective of body weight reduction. These findings provide new insight into the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on energy homeostasis and fat accumulation and indicate their potential therapeutic efficacy in T2DM-associated hepatic steatosis. PMID:26977813

  16. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI. PMID:26718229

  17. Effects of treatment with leptin-like peptides on factors related to body fat control in Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpidia Poveda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The results of administering recombinant leptin, as well as the 116-130 peptide of mouse leptin in ob/ob mice have shown the probability of discovering more efficient leptin-based therapeutic methods to treat obesity. Objective: To demonstrate in Wistar rats fed with high-fat diet if the administration of synthetic peptides corresponding to the 116-130 peptide of mouse leptin (SR 116, its human homologue peptide (SH 95: sequence 95-109 from the 1AX8 protein and five modified peptides (P80 to P84 similar to these two peptides, produces effects related to regulation of body fat. Materials and methods: Nine-week old Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet for fifteen weeks. On the fifteenth week, and for five consecutive days, they were treated with the peptides to be evaluated. During the days of treatment, body weight and food intake were evaluated. After the last peptide administration, lipid profile, glycerol in the cellular medium, and DNA fragmentation in adipocytes were analyzed. Results: The results revealed that: the SR116 peptide affects the regulation of adiposity in rats fed a high-fat diet. The SH 95 is the human peptide with biological activity similar to SR 116 to lower weight, lessen food intake, and increase free glycerol in the cellular medium. The P80 and P81 peptides had a similar effect on SR 116 and SH 95 regarding body weight and food intake. The SR 116, SH 95 and three of the modified peptides (P80, P81, and P82 caused DNA fragmentation. Conclusion: The results suggest that peptides analogous to leptin are potentially viable to achieve effects of adiposity reduction in Wistar rats with obesity associated to high-fat diet; more research is rendered to explain the differences among peptides and the biological action mechanisms.

  18. Effects of treatment with leptin-like peptides on factors related to body fat control in Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpidia Poveda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The results of administering recombinant leptin, as well as the 116-130 peptide of mouse leptin in ob/ob mice have shown the probability of discovering more efficient leptin-based therapeutic methods to treat obesity.Objective: To demonstrate in Wistar rats fed with high-fat diet if the administration of synthetic peptides corresponding to the 116-130 peptide of mouse leptin (SR 116, its human homologue peptide (SH 95: sequence 95-109 from the 1AX8 protein and five modified peptides (P80 to P84 similar to these two peptides, produces effects related to regulation of body fat.Materials and methods: Nine-week old Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet for fifteen weeks. On the fifteenth week, and for five consecutive days, they were treated with the peptides to be evaluated. During the days of treatment, body weight and food intake were evaluated. After the last peptide administration, lipid profile, glycerol in the cellular medium, and DNA fragmentation in adipocytes were analyzed.Results: The results revealed that: the SR116 peptide affects the regulation of adiposity in rats fed a high-fat diet. The SH 95 is the human peptide with biological activity similar to SR 116 to lower weight, lessen food intake, and increase free glycerol in the cellular medium. The P80 and P81 peptides had a similar effect on SR 116 and SH 95 regarding body weight and food intake. The SR 116, SH 95 and three of the modified peptides (P80, P81, and P82 caused DNA fragmentation.Conclusion: The results suggest that peptides analogous to leptin are potentially viable to achieve effects of adiposity reduction in Wistar rats with obesity associated to high-fat diet; more research is rendered to explain the differences among peptides and the biological action mechanisms.

  19. Effect of maximal exercise on percent body fat using bioelectrical impedance analysis in active males

    OpenAIRE

    Selma Civar Yavuz

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of maximal exercise on percent body fat (%BF) using bioelectrical impedance analysis in highly active male athletes at university. Design: The subjects of the study consisted of fifty-two (52) males with mean age of 21.68±1.66 years old, height of 164.46±5.21cm and weight of 57.69±6.61kg. All of the subjects joined the study voluntarily and were students in Akdeniz University School of Physical Educ...

  20. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Eryukova, T. A.; Kolesnikov, V. A.; Ponomareva, E. G.; Soboleva, N. P.; Sterlikov, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5-80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  1. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5–80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  2. Changes in energy expenditure associated with ingestion of high protein, high fat versus high protein, low fat meals among underweight, normal weight, and overweight females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Barry D

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic rate is known to rise above basal levels after eating, especially following protein consumption. Yet, this postprandial rise in metabolism appears to vary among individuals. This study examined changes in energy expenditure in response to ingestion of a high protein, high fat (HPHF meal versus an isocaloric high protein, low fat (HPLF meal in underweight, normal weight, or overweight females (n = 21 aged 19–28 years. Methods Energy expenditure, measured using indirect calorimetry, was assessed before and every 30 minutes for 3.5 hours following consumption of the meals on two separate occasions. Height and weight were measured using standard techniques. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results Significant positive correlations were found between body mass index (BMI and baseline metabolic rate (MR (r = 0.539; p = 0.017, between body weight and baseline MR (r = 0.567; p = 0.011, between BMI and average total change in MR (r = 0.591; p = 0.008, and between body weight and average total change in MR (r = 0.464; p = 0.045. Metabolic rate (kcal/min was significantly higher in the overweight group than the normal weight group, which was significantly higher than the underweight group across all times and treatments. However, when metabolic rate was expressed per kg fat free mass (ffm, no significant difference was found in postprandial energy expenditure between the overweight and normal groups. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from the baseline rate did not significantly differ in the underweight (n = 3 or in the overweight subjects (n = 5 following consumption of either meal at any time. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from baseline were significantly higher in normal weight subjects (n = 11 across all times following consumption of the HPHF meal versus the HPLF meal. Conclusion There is no diet-induced thermogenic advantage between the HPHF and HPLF meals in

  3. "They Are Weighted with Authority": Fat Female Professors in Academic and Popular Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisanick, Christina

    2007-01-01

    The images of fat professors encountered in popular culture are few in number and negative in depiction. In this article, the author discusses on how will the professorial body affect the way in which students perceive the professor's teaching abilities. The author concludes that bias against fat professors, professors of color, and other…

  4. The Study on Correlation Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of IGF2 Gene and Body Fatness Traits in Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-hui; LI Hui; WANG Qi-gui; ZHAO Jian-guo; WANG Yu-xiang

    2004-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor Ⅱ has profound effects on the growth and differentiation of animal embryo. Some researches indicated that it affects the fat metabolism of poultry.This study was designed to investigate the effect of IGF2 on chicken fatness traits.Broiler, Hyline Brown layer and three native breeds (Shiqiza, Beijing You, Baier) were used in this research. Body weight and body composition traits were measured in broiler line at the age of 7 weeks. Primers for exon2 in IGF2 were designed from database of chicken genomic sequence. Polymorphisms were detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing.The total χ2 test results showed that there was a significant difference (P< 0.01) in the frequency of genotype among breeds. A C/G mutation at base position 139 was found among individuals in broiler line and the least square analysis showed that BB genotype birds had significant lower (P< 0.05) abdominal fat weight and percentage of abdominal fat than AA or AB genotype birds. From the results we can conclude putatively that IGF2 gene is the major gene affecting the fatness traits of chicken or it links with the major gene,and the mutation could be used as the molecular genetic marker to select the chicken for low abdominal fat.

  5. The properties of monoclonal antibody against sepiapterin reductase from fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, T; Sawada, H; Gyure, W L; Tsusué, M

    1992-12-01

    A specific monoclonal antibody prepared for the 29-kDa a subunit of silkworm fat body sepiapterin reductase (SPR) was able to recognize the subunit in crude extract of fat body after SDS treatment. Although SPR from the silkworm fat body has biochemical properties similar to those reported for SPR from mammalian sources, especially rat erythrocytes, the antibody failed to recognize the 28-kDa subunit of rat erythrocyte SPR. This result indicates that SPR from silkworm fat body has a different amino-acid sequence from that of the rat erythrocyte enzyme. Sepiapterin reductase activity has not been found in crude extract of fat body from the silkworm mutant lemon. Although the antibody recognized only 29-kDa protein in the crude extract of silkworm fat body from normal strain after SDS-treatment, the antibody recognized only an approximately 80-kDa protein in the crude extract of the lemon mutant after SDS-treatment. PMID:1292509

  6. Componentes externos do corpo e gordura de descarte em vacas mestiças Charolês x Nelore abatidas com diferentes pesos Body external components and discard fat of feedlot finished Charolais x Nellore crossbred cows slaughtered with different weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Kuss

    2007-08-01

    the second (G2 - 3/4Charolais (C 1/4Nellore (N and 3/4NC and third (G3 - 5/8CN and 5/8NC generations of a Charolais ´ Nellore rotational crossbreeding program slaughtered with 465 (T465, 507 (T507 and 566 kg (T566 of body weight. At the beginning of the trial, age, body weight and body condition score averaged, respectively, 8.5 years, 388.6 kg and 2.35 points. Animals were fed a diet with a forage to concentrate ratio of 48:52, which contained 12.5% of CP and 2.99 Mcal of digestible energy per kg of DM. The increment in empty body weight (EBW (376.34, 412.53 e 463.64 kg, respectively, for T465, T507 and T566 followed that of slaughter weight (SW but EBW yield did not change and averaged 81.51% across the different SW groups. Increased SW and EBW reduced the proportion of digesta content. Animals with heavier body weight showed greater development of head and udder. However, skin growth was not affected leading to lower relative proportion with the increase of SW and EBW. Increasing SW also resulted in lower relative participation in the EBW of the external components (16.47, 15.65 and 14.30%. Deposition of internal fat increased until T507 while that of subcutaneous fat was greatest on T566, resulting in larger removal of trim fat from carcasses of T566 (4.02, 4.26 and 7.31 kg, respectively cows. Greater participation of Charolais in the genotype resulted in higher head development. Cows of the third generation of the rotational crossbreeding Charolês ´ Nellore had greater head size than those from the second generation (16.22 against 15.77 kg.

  7. Mmp1 and Mmp2 cooperatively induce Drosophila fat body cell dissociation with distinct roles

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Qiangqiang; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hanhan; Li, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    During Drosophila metamorphosis, the single-cell layer of fat body tissues gradually dissociates into individual cells. Via a fat body-specific RNAi screen in this study, we found that two matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), Mmp1 and Mmp2, are both required for fat body cell dissociation. As revealed through a series of cellular, biochemical, molecular, and genetic experiments, Mmp1 preferentially cleaves DE-cadherin-mediated cell-cell junctions, while Mmp2 preferentially degrades basement memb...

  8. A Study of VO2 Max and Body Fat Percentage in Female Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Shete, Anjali N.; Bute, Smita S; P R Deshmukh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Aerobic capacity of athletes is an important element of success in sports achievements. It is generally considered the best indicator of cardio respiratory endurance and athletic fitness. Body fat percentage affects VO2 max and thus the cardiovascular status of the athletes. The present study was undertaken to assess the VO2 max and body fat percentage in athletes. The secondary objective of the study was to study the relationship between VO2 max and body fat percentage.

  9. Effects of gender, age, and body mass index on fat contents and apparent diffusion coefficients in healthy parotid glands: an MRI evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fat content as a function of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in healthy parotid glands, and to address the influences of fat suppression on ADC measurements. A total of 100 healthy adults (gender and age evenly distributed) were prospectively recruited, with parotid fat content measured from gradient-echo images with fat-water separated using iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares (IDEAL). The ADCs were estimated using both fat-saturated and non-fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging via a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique. Parotid fat content was larger in men than in women by about 10 percentage points (P < 0.005), and positively associated with BMI and age for both genders (mostly with P < 0.001). ADCs estimated with non-fat-saturated PROPELLER were significantly lower in men than in women (P < 0.005), but showed no gender difference if measured using fat-saturated PROPELLER (P = 0.840). The negative association between parotid ADC and age/BMI/fat (P < 0.001) showed greater regression slopes in non-fat-saturated PROPELLER than in fat-saturated data. Parotid fat content in healthy adults correlates positively with both age and BMI; the correlation with age is gender-dependent. Parotid ADC measurements are strongly influenced by fat saturation. (orig.)

  10. Effects of gender, age, and body mass index on fat contents and apparent diffusion coefficients in healthy parotid glands: an MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Duke University Medical Center, Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Durham, NC (United States); GE Healthcare, Applied Science Laboratory, Taipei (China); Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Chiu, Hui-Chu [Tatung University, Graduate Institute of Design Science, Taipei (China); Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chiu, Su-Chin [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Liu, Yi-Jui [Feng Chia University, Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Taichung (China); Chung, Hsiao-Wen [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, MD.624, Department of Electrical Engineering, Taipei (China)

    2014-09-15

    To establish standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fat content as a function of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in healthy parotid glands, and to address the influences of fat suppression on ADC measurements. A total of 100 healthy adults (gender and age evenly distributed) were prospectively recruited, with parotid fat content measured from gradient-echo images with fat-water separated using iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares (IDEAL). The ADCs were estimated using both fat-saturated and non-fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging via a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique. Parotid fat content was larger in men than in women by about 10 percentage points (P < 0.005), and positively associated with BMI and age for both genders (mostly with P < 0.001). ADCs estimated with non-fat-saturated PROPELLER were significantly lower in men than in women (P < 0.005), but showed no gender difference if measured using fat-saturated PROPELLER (P = 0.840). The negative association between parotid ADC and age/BMI/fat (P < 0.001) showed greater regression slopes in non-fat-saturated PROPELLER than in fat-saturated data. Parotid fat content in healthy adults correlates positively with both age and BMI; the correlation with age is gender-dependent. Parotid ADC measurements are strongly influenced by fat saturation. (orig.)

  11. Fat intake and weight development from 9 to 16 years of age: the European youth heart study - a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Andersen, Lars Bo; Heitmann, Berit

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The literature on associations between fat intake and weight development among both children and adults is inconsistent, even if it is generally assumed that a high dietary fat intake is a major determinant of obesity. The present study aimed at investigating the association between fa...... fat intake and 6-year weight change among 9-year-old children. No interaction was seen between number of overweight parents on the relation between fat intake and subsequent weight change....

  12. DXA, bioelectrical impedance, ultrasonography and biometry for the estimation of fat and lean mass in cats during weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Naida C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few equations have been developed in veterinary medicine compared to human medicine to predict body composition. The present study was done to evaluate the influence of weight loss on biometry (BIO, bioimpedance analysis (BIA and ultrasonography (US in cats, proposing equations to estimate fat (FM and lean (LM body mass, as compared to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA as the referenced method. For this were used 16 gonadectomized obese cats (8 males and 8 females in a weight loss program. DXA, BIO, BIA and US were performed in the obese state (T0; obese animals, after 10% of weight loss (T1 and after 20% of weight loss (T2. Stepwise regression was used to analyze the relationship between the dependent variables (FM, LM determined by DXA and the independent variables obtained by BIO, BIA and US. The better models chosen were evaluated by a simple regression analysis and means predicted vs. determined by DXA were compared to verify the accuracy of the equations. Results The independent variables determined by BIO, BIA and US that best correlated (p r2, 19 equations were selected (12 for FM, 7 for LM; however, only 7 equations accurately predicted FM and one LM of cats. Conclusions The equations with two variables are better to use because they are effective and will be an alternative method to estimate body composition in the clinical routine. For estimated lean mass the equations using body weight associated with biometrics measures can be proposed. For estimated fat mass the equations using body weight associated with bioimpedance analysis can be proposed.

  13. Gains in Body Fat and Vasomotor Symptom Reporting Over the Menopausal Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, MaryFran R.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Gold, Ellen B.; Bromberger, Joyce; Chang, Yuefang; Joffe, Hadine; Crandall, Carolyn J.; Waetjen, L. Elaine; Matthews, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    Although most women report vasomotor symptoms (hot flashes, night sweats) during midlife, their etiology and risk factors are incompletely understood. Body fat is positively associated with vasomotor symptoms cross-sectionally, but the longitudinal relation between changes in body fat and vasomotor symptoms is uncharacterized. The study aim was to examine whether gains in body fat were related to vasomotor symptom reporting over time. Measures of bioelectrical impedance for body fat, reproductive hormones, and reported vasomotor symptoms were assessed annually over 4 years from 2002 to 2006 among 1,659 women aged 47–59 years participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Body fat change was examined in relation to vasomotor symptoms by using generalized estimating equations. Body fat gains were associated with greater odds of reporting hot flashes in models adjusted for age, site, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, parity, anxiety, and menopausal status (relative to stable body fat, gain: odds ratio = 1.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.48; P = 0.03; loss: odds ratio = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.89, 1.29; P = 0.45). Findings persisted controlling for estradiol, the free estradiol index, or follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. The relations between body fat changes and night sweats were not statistically significant. Body fat gains are associated with greater hot flash reporting during the menopausal transition. PMID:19675142

  14. Benign versus malignant vertebral compression fractures: distinction with T1-weighted, fast spin-echo T2-weighted, and fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To differentiate malignant vertebral compression fractures from benign fractures, as seen on spin-echo T1-wieghted, fast spin-echo T2-weighted, and fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR images. Thirty two benign (18 acute and 14 chronic) and 28 malignant vertebral collapses were studied in 54 patients aged between 15 and 78 (mean, 51) years. Malignant compression fractures involved only metastasis. We obtained sagittal and axial fast spin-echo T2-weighted images, and unenhanced and fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images, and analyzed MR signal intensity, enhancement patterns, and morphologic changes including convex posterior cortex vs retropulsion of a bone fragment, focal vs diffuse paraspinal mass, and epidural mass. All cases of acute benign and malignant compression fractures showed low signal intensity within the vertebral body on T1-weighted images, and substantial contrast enhancement on fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images. Acute benign and malignant compression fractures were distinguished on the basis of three signal intensity characteristics : hypointense band (acute benign cases 77% ; malignant cases 0%), diffuse low signal intensity(17% vs 86%) and involvement of pedicle (0% vs 75%). Fast spin-echo T2-weighted images played little role in distinguishing between the two. Three morphologic changes were suggestive of malignancy : convex posterior cortex (malignant cases 75% ; benign 0%), epidural mass (79% vs 5%), and focal paraspinal mass (57% vs 0%). Retropulsion of a bone fragment (benign cases 63% ; malignant cases 14%) was preferable for benignancy. In addition, thin diffuse paraspinal mass (benign cases 15% ; malignant cases 14%) was seen. The morphologic and signal intensity characteristics seen on T1-weighted images were useful for distinguishing benign and malignant vertebral compression fractures. Fast spin-echo T2-weighted and fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images played little role

  15. Postprandial Energy Metabolism in the Regulation of Body Weight: Is there a Mechanistic Role for Dietary Calcium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario J. Soares

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been much interest in the mechanisms by which calcium may attenuate weight gain or accelerate body fat loss. This review focuses on postprandial energy metabolism and indicates that dietary calcium increases whole body fat oxidation after single and multiple meals. There is, as yet, no conclusive evidence for a greater diet induced thermogenesis, an increased lipolysis or suppression of key lipogenic enzyme systems. There is however convincing evidence that higher calcium intakes promote a modest energy loss through increased fecal fat excretion. Overall, there is a role for dietary calcium in human energy metabolism. Future studies need to define threshold intakes for metabolic and gastrointestinal outcomes.

  16. Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Cerebral Fat Embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Feride Kural; Fuldem Yıldırım Dönmez; Hülya Aslan; Burcu Akpınar; Ahmet Muhteşem Ağıldere

    2012-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is mostly associated with long bone fractures of the lower extremities. FES typically occurs between 1 and 3 days after the trauma, and the clinical triad is hypoxia, neurologic symptoms and petechial rash (4, 5). Neurologic symptoms widely vary from confusion to coma, rarely death may occur. Magnetic resonance imaging is the most sensitive technique in the diagnosis of cerebral FES and typical findings are multipl punctate hyperintensities at subcortical and deep ...

  17. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijvers, Jenna K; McNaughton, Sarah A; Beck, Kathryn L; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women's EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16-45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status. PMID:27472358

  18. Whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwee, Thomas C. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: thomaskwee@gmail.com; Takahara, Taro [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan); Ochiai, Reiji [Department of Radiology, Koga Hospital 21, Kurume, Fukuoka (Japan); Katahira, Kazuhiro [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Van Cauteren, Marc [Philips Healthcare Asia Pacific, Shinagawa, Tokyo (Japan); Imai, Yutaka [Department of Radiology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Luijten, Peter R. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-06-15

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) provides information on the diffusivity of water molecules in the human body. Technological advances and the development of the concept of diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) have opened the path for routine clinical whole-body DWI. Whole-body DWI allows detection and characterization of both oncological and non-oncological lesions throughout the entire body. This article reviews the basic principles of DWI and the development of whole-body DWI, illustrates its potential clinical applications, and discusses its limitations and challenges.

  19. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  20. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cettour-Rose Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested.

  1. Changes in body weight and pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seimon, R V; Espinoza, D; Finer, N;

    2015-01-01

    minute (bpm)  with weight increase; 1.4±7.3 bpm, 0-5 kg weight loss; 0.6±7.4 bpm, ⩾5 kg weight loss). Throughout the subsequent treatment period, those continuing on sibutramine showed a consistently higher mean pulse rate than the placebo group. There was no difference in POE rates with either...

  2. Relationship between diet and body fat percentage in female undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Feč

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the millennium obesity has become the most common metabolic disease due to changes in life conditions and lifestyle. The rise of overweight and obesity is the result of inadequate energy intake relative to its expense. Only 2 to 5% of all cases of overweight or obesity have objective medical causes. In view of energy balance, equally important to the amount of calories consumed is their distribution throughout the day. Other cases are clearly the result of improper lifestyle. A basic remedy to this condition appears to be an increase in the volume of regular physical activities and the establishment of an active healthy lifestyle. The aim of the research under the grant VEGA No. 1/1343/12 "Selected risk factors of obesity and its physical prevention" was to determine the relationship between selected factors of diet and the amount of body fat in female undergraduates. The study group consisted of female students at P.J. Šafarik University (n=620, average age=20.8 years. We examined the eating habits applying a non-standardized questionnaire compiled by ourselves. We followed the frequency of meals and their regularity, (breakfast, dinner, the time and quantity of the meals consumed in the evening hours. We determined the percentage of body fat using an Omron BF51 scale. We calculated the basic statistical characteristics (arithmetic mean, median. In order to detect statistically significant differences between particular variables, we applied the non-parametric Kruskal - Valis analysis of variance (H - test and the Man - Whitney U test. Statistically significant differences in the percentage of fat was found in students divided into groups according to their responses regarding the variable "Frequency of meals" (p = 0.023, "Dinner regularity " (p = 0.001 and "Dinner time before bedtime" (p = 0.001. The research results show the importance of diet regularity and its optimal frequency. Especially important is the regularity of

  3. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N = 130; 58 male (M, 72 female (F; BMI = 32.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2 middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500 kcal/d diets providing protein at 1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO or 0.8 g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB. LM and fat mass (FM were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2 ± 7.1 %, F:-9.9 ± 6.0 %, as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7 ± 6.8 %, CARB:-10.1 ± 6.2 %, with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0 ± 12.8 %, F:-7.3 ± 8.1 %, p  Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident.

  4. Rapid total body fat measurement by magnetic resonance imaging: quantification and topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate a rapid and comprehensive MR protocol based on a T1-weighted sequence in conjunction with a rolling table platform for the quantification of total body fat. Materials and Methods: 11 healthy volunteers and 50 patients were included in the study. MR data was acquired on a 1.5-T system (Siemens Magnetom Sonata). An axial T1-weighted flash 2D sequence (TR 101, TE 4.7, FA 70, FOV 50 cm, 205 x 256 matrix, slice thickness: 10 mm, 10 mm interslice gap) was used for data acquisition. Patients were placed in a supine position on a rolling table platform capable of acquiring multiple consecutive data sets by pulling the patient through the isocenter of the magnet. Data sets extending from the upper to lower extremities were collected. The images were analyzed with respect to the amount of intraabdominal, subcutaneous and total abdominal fat by semi-automated image segmentation software that employs a contour-following algorithm. Results: The obtained MR images were able to be evaluated for all volunteers and patients. Excellent correlation was found between whole body MRI results in volunteers with DEXA (r2 = 0.95) and bioimpedance (r2 = 0.89) measurements, while the correlation coefficient was 0.66 between MRI and BMI, indicating only moderate reliability of the BMI method. Variations in patients with respect to the amount of total, subcutaneous, and intraabdominal adipose tissue was not related to standard anthropometric measurements and metabolic lipid profiles (r2 = 0,001 to 0.48). The results showed that there was a significant variation in intraabdominal adipose tissue which could not be predicted from the total body fat (r2 = 0.14) or subcutaneous adipose tissue (r2 = 0.04). Although no significant differences in BMI could be found between females and males (p = 0.26), females showed significantly higher total and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (p < 0.05). Conclusion. (orig.)

  5. Validity of air-displacement plethysmography in the assessment of body composition changes in a 16-month weight loss program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hull Holly R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the accuracy of air displacement plethysmography (ADP and dual energy x-ray absorptionmetry (DXA in tracking changes in body composition after a 16 month weight loss intervention in overweight and obese females. Methods 93 healthy female subjects (38.9 ± 5.7 yr, 159.8 ± 5.6 cm, 76.7 ± 9.9 kg, 30.0 ± 3.4 kg/m2 completed a 16 month weight loss intervention. Eligible subjects attended 15 treatment sessions occurring over the course of 4 months with educational content including topics relating to physical activity and exercise, diet and eating behavior, and behavior modification. In the remaining 12 months, subjects underwent a lifestyle program designed to increase physical activity and improve eating habits. Before and after the intervention, subjects had their percent body fat (%fat, fat mass (FM, and fat-free mass (FFM assessed by DXA and ADP. Results Significant differences (p ≤ 0.001 were found between DXA and ADP at baseline %fat (46.0 % fat vs. 42.0 % fat, FM (35.3 kg vs. 32.5 kg and FFM (40.8 kg vs. 44.2 kg as well as at post intervention for %fat (42.1% fat vs. 38.3 % fat, FM (30.9 kg vs. 28.4 kg and FFM (41.7 kg vs. 44.7 kg. At each time point, ADP %fat and total FM was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.001 than DXA while FFM was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.001. However, both techniques tracked %fat changes similarly considering that there were no differences between the two means. Furthermore, a Bland-Altman analysis was performed and no significant bias was observed, thus demonstrating the ability of ADP to measure body fat across a wide range of fatness. Conclusion At baseline and post weight loss, a significant difference was found between ADP and DXA. However, the results indicate both methods are highly related and track changes in %fat similarly after a weight loss program in overweight and obese females. Additionally, the mean changes in %fat were similar between the two techniques, suggesting

  6. The variations of body mass index and body fat in adult Thai people across the age spectrum measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chittawatanarat K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Kaweesak Chittawatanarat1,2, Sakda Pruenglampoo3, Siriphan Kongsawasdi4, Busaba Chuatrakoon4, Vibul Trakulhoon5, Winai Ungpinitpong6, Jayanton Patumanond21Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, 2Clinical Epidemiology Unit, 3Research Institute for Health Sciences, 4Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 5Department of Surgery, Bhumibol Adulyadej Hospital, Bangkok, 6Surgical Unit, Surin Hospital, Surin, ThailandBackground: The measurements of body mass index (BMI and percentage of body fat are used in many clinical situations. However, special tools are required to measure body fat. Many formulas are proposed for estimation but these use constant coefficients of age. Age spectrum might affect the predicted value of the body composition due to body component alterations, and the coefficient of age for body fat prediction might produce inconsistent results. The objective of this study was to identify variations of BMI and body fat across the age spectrum as well as compare results between BMI predicted body fat and bioelectrical impedance results on age.Methods: Healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. Body fat was measured by bioelectrical impedance. The age spectrum was divided into three groups (younger: 18–39.9; middle: 40–59.9; and older: ≥60 years. Comparison of body composition covariates including fat mass (FM, fat free mass (FFM, percentage FM (PFM, percentage FFM (PFFM, FM index (FMI and FFM index (FFMI in each weight status and age spectrum were analyzed. Multivariable linear regression coefficients were calculated. Coefficient alterations among age groups were tested to confirm the effect of the age spectrum on body composition covariates. Measured PFM and calculated PFM from previous formulas were compared in each quarter of the age spectrum.Results: A total of 2324 volunteers were included in this study. The overall body composition and weight

  7. Body weight and beauty: the changing face of the ideal female body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P

    2011-01-01

    By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight. PMID:20492540

  8. Perceptions of Body Weight, Weight Management Strategies, and Depressive Symptoms among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).…

  9. Anthropometric parameters: weight height, body mass index and mammary volume in relationship with the mammographic pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective study to attempt to relate the anthropometric parameters of height, weight, body mass index as well as age with the mammographic patterns obtained for the patients and obtain an anthropometric profile was carried out. The study was performed in 1.000 women who underwent a mammography in cranial-caudal and medial lateral oblique projection of both breasts, independently of whether they were screened or diagnosed. Prior to the performance of the mammography, weight and height were obtained, and this was also performed by the same technicians, and the patient were asked their bra size to deduce breast volume. With the weight, the body mass index of Quetelet was calculated (weight [kg]/height''2 (ml). After reading the mammography, the patient was assigned to one of the four mammographic patterns considered in the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) established by the ACR (American College of Radiology): type I (fat). type II (disperse fibroglandular densities), type III (fibroglandular densities distributed heterogeneously), type 4 (dense). The results were introduced into a computer database and the SPSS 8.0 statistical program was applied, using the statistical model of multivariant logistic regression. In women under 40 years, with normal weight, the dense breast pattern accounted for 67.8% and as the body mass index (BMI) increased, this pattern decreased to 25.1%. The fat pattern is 20% and as the BMI increases, this increased to 80%. In 40-60 year old women with normal weight, the dense pattern accounts for 44% and decreases to 20.9% in the grades II, III and IV obese. The fat pattern is 11.1% and increases to 53.7% in the grade II, III and IV obese. In women over 60 with normal, the dense pattern accounts for 19.3% and and decreases to 13% in the grade III obese. The fat pattern is 5.3% and increases to 20.2% in the grade iii of obesity. As age increases, the probability of presenting a mammographic pattern with a fat image in the

  10. Mechanisms of body weight fluctuations in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eKistner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Typical body weight changes are known to occur in PD. Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake and expenditure in PD.

  11. Consuming Bodies: Fatness, Sexuality, and the Protestant Ethic

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Lesleigh J.

    2007-01-01

    For those readers who spent their entire lives up till today in a secluded bomb shelter or an abandoned cave in some nearby woods, allow me to share a secret with you: fat persons are stigmatized. As I will discuss, and explore, below, fatness has come to represent a slew of undesirable social identities or traits. Fatness also represents some of the rather scary and perplexing contradictions characterizing many Western, industrialized citizens. Fat people often bring to mind -- as well as pr...

  12. Weight, body composition and handgrip strength among pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praygod, George; Range, Nyagosya; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel;

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate deficits in weight, arm fat area (AFA), arm muscle area (AMA) and handgrip strength among smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB+) patients starting treatment. We conducted a cross-sectional study among PTB+ patients and age- and sex-matched neighborhood controls. HIV statu...

  13. Body Mass Index and Body Fat Status of Men Involved in Sports, Exercise, and Sedentary Activites

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Nudri, Wan Daud; Wan Abdul Manan, Wan Muda; Mohamed Rusli, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kota Bharu on three groups of men with ages ranging from 18 to 44 years. The study groups included 83 athletes representing various types of sports and levels of participation (athlete group), 80 active men who exercised a minimum of 30 minutes per day at least 3 times per week (exercise group), and 80 inactive men (sedentary group). The objectives of the study were to compare the body mass indices (BMIs) and body fat statuses among the three groups ...

  14. Relationships between neonatal weight, limb lengths, skinfold thicknesses, body breadths and circumferences in an Australian cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Pomeroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. METHODS: We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia. We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. RESULTS: Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference, this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative

  15. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota...

  16. EFFECT OF WEANER BODY WEIGHT ON GROWTH TRAITS OF RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.K. OKE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from growth parameters and production traits of 108 ten-week old male rabbits comprising Newzealand white, Dutch and Chinchilla breeds collected over a period of 16 weeks were analysed in a 2- factor factorial in a randomised complete block (RCBD to determine their interrelationships and response to age and weaner body weight groupings as a step towards employing them in selection and breeding programme and predicting live body weight. Individual breeds were grouped into three categories of body weights of low (LBW, medium (MBW, and high (HBW, depending on the body weight range of each breed. The linear body parameters were characterised using Body weight (BW, Heart girth (HG, Shoulder to tail drop, Head to shoulder, Ear length and Tail length, while the Production traits studied were average Daily feed intake, Feed conversion efficiency and mortality. Results of the analysis evinced significant (P<0.01 effect of breed-body weight interaction on the Production traits and linear body parameters studied. High weaner body weight Chinchilla consumed more feed; converted feed to meat more efficiently, gained weight more rapidly and recorded no mortality. Regression and correlation studies revealed that any one of the linear body traits could predict the rabbit body, weight at 20 weeks of age. Trait combination revealed that Ear length Vs Height at withers (R2-0.944, Ear length Vs Heart girth (R2-0.969 and Heart girth (R2= 0.935 best contributed to the total variability in body weight of Newzealand white Dutch and chinchilla respectively.

  17. Influence of Parental Overweight on the Association of Birth Weight and Fat Distribution Later in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim; Andersen, Lars Bo; Wedderkopp, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether the association between birth weight and fat distribution in childhood is modified by parental overweight. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 728 Danish children aged 8-10 and 14-16 years. The main outcomes were waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, subscapular...... association between birth weight and fat distribution seems to be influenced by parental overweight. Lower birth weights are associated with central adiposity among offspring of overweight parents. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg....

  18. [Low-carbohydrate or low-fat diet for weight loss--which is better?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauner, H

    2004-10-01

    Several recent clinical studies show that a low-carbohydrate diet produces a greater initial weight loss than conventional low-fat diets, and is associated with a greater reduction of elevated serum triglycerides. After one year, however, weight loss is similar with both diets. Since the intake of saturated fat is higher on a low-carbohydrate diet, there may be an increased risk of elevated levels of LDL cholesterol, thus furthering atherosclerosis, over the long term. Before low-carbohydrate diets can be considered an equivalent alternative to low-fat diets for the treatment of obesity, long-term clinical trials are urgently required. The greater weight loss under low-carbohydrate diets would appear to be due to a lower caloric intake. Successful weight loss largely depends on restricting the intake of calories, but the supply of essential nutrients should be guaranteed. PMID:15532735

  19. Empagliflozin reduces body weight and indices of adipose distribution in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Neeland, Ian J.; McGuire, Darren K.; Chilton, Robert; Crowe, Susanne; Lund, Søren S; Woerle, Hans J.; Broedl, Uli C.; Johansen, Odd Erik

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To determine the effects of empagliflozin on adiposity indices among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Changes in weight, waist circumference, estimated total body fat, index of central obesity and visceral adiposity index were assessed using analysis of covariance and testing of treatment by strata for age, sex and baseline waist circumference in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus randomized to blinded treatment with empagliflozin versus placebo in clinical trials of...

  20. Weight loss and body composition changes following three sequential cycles of ketogenic enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Cappello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ketogenic enteral nutrition (KEN is a modification of the protein sparing modified fast in which a protein solution is introduced with a continuous infusion through a nasogastric tube over 10-days cycles. The aim of the study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the safety, compliance, weight loss and body composition changes after 3 sequential 10-days cycles of KEN therapy. Materials and Methods: From a large number of patients who underwent KEN therapy in our department over a 5-year period, we selected 188 patients who participated in 3 KEN cycles with 10-13 days of break between them. Before and after the treatment cycles, body composition was analyzed by bioelectric impedance; a final assessment was made 10 days after the end of last cycle. During each rest period all the patients were on a low-carbohydrate, normal caloric diet. Results: Most patients (97% successfully tolerated the nasogastric treatment and lost an average of 14.4 kg of body weight, 10.6 kg of fat mass and 3.4 kg of body cell mass. Adverse effects were recorded as mild gastric hypersecretion (2% and constipation (5%. Patients continued to lose fat during the 10-day follow up period after the end of each KEN Cycle. This effect may be explained by abnormality of water distribution during the rapid weight loss inducing the observed change in fat mass. Conclusion: Ten-days KEN treatment cycles can induce rapid weight loss and reduction of fat mass in obese patients. Furthermore, preservation of lean mass can be achieved by infusing 1.9 g of protein/kg of BCM.

  1. 宫内轻度高糖暴露及出生后高脂饮食对子鼠体质量和脂代谢的远期影响%Long-term effects of mild hyperglycemia exposure in utero and postnatal high fat diet on body weight and lipid metabolism in rat offsprings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯; 李鑫; 杨慧霞

    2013-01-01

    /L,明显高于CN组的(0.41 ±0.09) mmol/L,分别比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),但前3组之间分别比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);各组子鼠HDL-C分别比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 宫内轻度高糖环境下,子鼠出生时和生后早期存在体质量增长过快的趋势,远期出现内脏脂肪含量增多和脂代谢紊乱的情况,出生后高脂饮食使这些代谢紊乱进一步加重.%Objective To investigate the long-term effects of intrauterine mild hyperglycemia exposure and postnatal high fat diet on the body weight and metabolism of offspring through a pregnant rat model of intrauterine mild hyperglycemia.Methods Twenty-one pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into intrauterine hyperglycemia group and control group.Twenty percent streptozotocin (STZ,25 mg/kg)was given to rats of intrauterine hyperglycemia group by a single intraperitoneal injection to induce intrauterine mild hyperglycemia; control group rats received an equal volume of citric acid-sodium citrate buffer.Off springs were divided into 4 groups:exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia and fed with normal diet group(group DN)or high fat diet group (group DF) ; exposed to intrauterine euglycemia and fed with normal diet group(group CN)or high fat diet group(group CF).The blood glucose levels of pregnant rats in two groups and body weights of offsprings in four groups were recorded.At the age of 28 weeks,the mesenteric fat amount,epididymal amount,perirenal fat amount,total triglyceride (TG)and high density 1 ipoprotein-cholestrol(HDL-C) were measured in all four groups.Results (1) The average blood glucose level of intrauterine hyperglycemia group[(16.6 ± 3.4) mmol/L] was significantly higher than that of the control group [(5.8 ± 1.1) mmol/L,P < 0.01].(2) On the birth day,3 weeks and 4 weeks,the body weight of group DN [(7.4 ± 0.6),(44.1 ± 5.9),(79.6 ± 7.4) g] and group DF [(7.4 ± 0.2),(43.9 ±6.9),(76.1 ± 5.8) g] were remarkably increased

  2. Association of body weight concern with media exposure: A study on young girls of Howrah District, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mallick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the association between body weight concern and their frequency of exposure to the media among a group of young girls. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted of 110 girls aged 14-21 years, residing in the district of Howrah, West Bengal. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, weight related concern and media exposures were collected using pretested questionnaires. Weight related concerns included body weight dissatisfaction and perceived body weight. Media exposures included frequency of watching television programs, reading newspaper and magazine articles and browsing internet on topics related to body weight concern. Results: Although the frequency of watching television programs was high among the study participants yet it was not significantly associated with their body weight. Ch-square test showed that there was an association between the frequency of exposure to magazine articles related to body weight concern and initiation of exercise to reduce body weight. Reading of newspaper articles related to body weight by the participants was significantly associated with those who perceive themselves as fat. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that the perception of being overweight was found to be four times more among the girls below 17 years compared to those who are older. Conclusions: Print media (both news paper and magazine did play a significant role in developing concerns over body weight among this group of young girls.

  3. Energy absorption, lean body mass, and total body fat changes during 5 weeks of continuous bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Jean M.; Evans, Harlan; Kuo, Mike C.; Schneider, Victor S.; Leblanc, Adrian D.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the body composition changes due to inactivity was examined together with the question of whether these changes are secondary to changes in energy absorption. Volunteers were 15 healthy males who lived on a metabolic research ward under close staff supervision for 11 weeks. Subjects were ambulatory during the first six weeks and remained in continuous bed rest for the last five weeks of the study. Six male volunteers (age 24-61 years) were selected for body composition measurements. Nine different male volunteers (age 21-50 years) were selected for energy absorption measurements. The volunteers were fed weighed conventional foods on a constant 7-d rotation menu. The average daily caloric content was 2,592 kcal. Comparing the five weeks of continuous bed rest with the previous six weeks of ambulation, it was observed that there was no change in energy absorption or total body weight during bed rest, but a significant decrease in lean body mass and a significant increase in total body fat (p less than 0.05).

  4. Influence of Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Lifestyle Behaviors on Plasma Adipokines: A Randomized Weight Loss Trial in Older Men and Women with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate effects of weight loss on adipokines and health measures in obese older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to either weight loss (WL (men: 12, women: 14 or weight stable (WS group (men: 12, women: 13. WL intervention included meal replacements and structured exercise training. Measurements of leptin, adiponectin, soluble leptin receptor, lifestyle behaviors, and body composition were collected at baseline and 6 months. Univariate analysis of covariance was performed on 6 month variables, and Spearman and partial correlations were made between variables. Results. Weight loss was 13.0% and 6.7% in WL for men and women, respectively. Women in WL had lower whole body and trunk fat than WS. The leptin : adiponectin ratio was lower for women in WL than WS at 6 months, with no group differences in adipokines for men. Leptin and free leptin index correlated with body fat in both genders at baseline. Interestingly, only women showed reductions in leptin (P<0.100 and correlations between the percentage change leptin and trunk fat and the percentage changes in free leptin index with total fat and trunk fat. Partial correlations between 6 month adipokines after adjustments for covariates and group/time period show potential multivariate influences. Conclusions. In the presence of an effective weight loss intervention in older obese adults, there are significant relationships between weight and fat loss and leptin in women, but not men, suggesting gender-specific features of adipokine metabolism in this age group.

  5. The effect of a high-MUFA, low-glycaemic index diet and a low-fat diet on appetite and glucose metabolism during a 6-month weight maintenance period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Due, Anette Pia; Larsen, Thomas Meinert;

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to test the effects of three different weight maintenance diets on appetite, glucose and fat metabolism following an initial low-energy diet (LED) induced body weight loss. Following an 8-week LED and a 2-3-week refeeding period, 131 subjects were randomized to three diets for 6 months......: MUFA, moderate-fat (35-45 energy percentage (E%) fat), high in MUFA with low glycaemic index; LF, low fat (20-30 E% fat) or CTR, control (35 E% fat). A meal test study was performed in a subgroup, before and after the 6-month dietary intervention, with forty-two subjects completing both meal tests. No...... difference in body weight, energy intake or appetite ratings were observed between diets. Both the LF and MUFA diets compared to CTR diet reduced postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia and lowered fasting insulin from month 0 to month 6. Following the 8-week LED period lower levels of the appetite...

  6. Body Composition and Epicardial Fat in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Following Insulin Detemir Versus Insulin Glargine Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisha, B; Azar, M; Taleb, N; Bernard, S; Iacobellis, G; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare body composition and epicardial fat thickness changes in insulin-naïve inadequately controlled patients with type 2 diabetes following basal insulin initiation with detemir vs. glargine. Six-month, open-label, interventional randomized pilot study was conducted. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and echocardiography were used to estimate the body composition and epicardial fat thickness respectively. Thirty-six patients in the detemir group and 20 in the glargine group completed the study. Study groups baseline characteristics were comparable. At 6 months, for similar glycemic control, those on detemir significantly gained less total weight (0.6±2.5 vs. 4.2±4.1 kg, p=0.004), total fat mass (0.9±2.2 vs. 2.9±2.4 kg, p=0.02), and truncal fat mass (0.8±1.5 vs. 2.1±1.7 kg, p=0.02), with a loss in truncal lean mass (- 0.8±1.9 kg vs. 0.3±1.7 kg; p=0.02). EFT significantly decreased from baseline in both group (detemir - 1.7±0.52-mm, glargine - 1.1±1.6-mm; p<0.05, without significant difference inter-groups). Within the detemir group, epicardial fat thickness change correlated with truncal fat and total fat mass changes (r=0.65, p=0.06 and r=0.60, p=0.07). In conclusion, detemir resulted in less fat mass gain, a trend for a more pronounced epicardial fat thickness reduction when compared with glargine. PMID:26340704

  7. Body Fat Percentage in Active and Inactive Students Using Anthropometric Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Ghane; Azar Aghayari; Alireza Babai mazreno

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Complications of obesity and high fat in children are grave now and future. The aim of this research is comparing percentage of body fat in active and inactive girls using Anthropometric Parameters.Materials and Methods: This research is descriptive- correlation that 144 active(n= 70) and inactive(n= 74) girls aged 8 to 10 years old were selected by random cluster sampling method and studied the relationship between percentage of body fat and Anthropometric Parameters and Result...

  8. An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Egras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss.

  9. Macronutrient distribution over a period of 23 years in relation to energy intake and body fatness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.L.J.; Boon, N.; Nooyens, A.C.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Saris, W.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of the four macronutrients is associated with energy intake and body fatness according to short-term interventions. The present study involves macronutrient distribution in relation to energy intake and body fatness over a period of 23 years in individuals who have ad libitum access

  10. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Shungin (Dmitry); T.W. Winkler (Thomas W.); D.C. Croteau-Chonka (Damien); T. Ferreira (Teresa); A. Locke (Adam); R. Mägi (Reedik); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); T.H. Pers (Tune); K. Fischer (Krista); A.E. Justice (Anne); T. Workalemahu (Tsegaselassie); J.M.W. Wu (Joseph M. W.); M.L. Buchkovich (Martin); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); T.S. Roman (Tamara S.); A. Drong (Alexander); C. Song (Ci); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); F.R. Day (Felix); T. Esko (Tõnu); M. Fall (Magnus); Z. Kutalik (Zolta'n); J. Luan; J.C. Randall (Joshua); A. Scherag (Andre); S. Vedantam (Sailaja); A.R. Wood (Andrew); J. Chen (Jin); R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); J. Karjalainen (Juha); B. Kahali (Bratati); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); E.M. Schmidt (Ellen); D. Absher (Devin); N. Amin (Najaf); D. Anderson (David); M. Beekman (Marian); J.L. Bragg-Gresham (Jennifer L.); S. Buyske (Steven); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); G.B. Ehret (Georg); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); A. Goel (Anuj); A.U. Jackson (Anne); T. Johnson (Toby); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); K. Kristiansson; M. Mangino (Massimo); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); C. Palmer (Cameron); D. Pasko (Dorota); S. Pechlivanis (Sonali); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); I. Prokopenko (Inga); A. Stanca'kova' (Alena); Y.J. Sung (Yun Ju); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A. Teumer (Alexander); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); L. Yengo (Loic); W. Zhang (Weihua); E. Albrecht (Eva); J. Ärnlöv (Johan); G.M. Arscott (Gillian M.); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); A. Barrett (Angela); C. Bellis (Claire); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); C. Berne (Christian); M. Blüher (Matthias); S. Böhringer (Stefan); F. Bonnet (Fabrice); Y. Böttcher (Yvonne); M. Bruinenberg (M.); D.B. Carba (Delia B.); I.H. Caspersen (Ida H.); R. Clarke (Robert); E.W. Daw (E. Warwick); J. Deelen (Joris); E. Deelman (Ewa); G. Delgado; A.S.F. Doney (Alex); N. Eklund (Niina); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); E. Eury (Elodie); N. Friedrich (Nele); M. Garcia (Melissa); V. Giedraitis (Vilmantas); B. Gigante (Bruna); A. Go (Attie); A. Golay (Alain); H. Grallert (Harald); T.B. Grammer (Tanja); J. Gräsler (Jürgen); J. Grewal (Jagvir); C.J. Groves (Christopher); T. Haller (Toomas); G. Hallmans (Göran); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); M. Hassinen (Maija); C. Hayward (Caroline); K. Heikkilä (Kauko); K.H. Herzig; Q. Helmer (Quinta); H.L. Hillege (Hans); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); S.C. Hunt (Steven); A. Isaacs (Aaron); T. Ittermann (Till); A.L. James (Alan); I. Johansson (Inger); T. Juliusdottir (Thorhildur); I.-P. Kalafati (Ioanna-Panagiota); L. Kinnunen (Leena); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); I.K. Kooner (Ishminder K.); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); C. Lamina (Claudia); K. Leander (Karin); N.R. Lee (Nanette R.); P. Lichtner (Peter); L. Lind (Lars); J. Lindström (Jaana); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); F. MacH (François); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); A. Mahajan (Anubha); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); C. Menni (Cristina); S. Merger (Sigrun); E. Mihailov (Evelin); L. Milani (Lili); R. Mills (Rebecca); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); K.L. Monda (Keri); S.P. Mooijaart (Simon); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); R. Nagaraja (Ramaiah); M.A. Nalls (Michael); N. Narisu (Narisu); N. Glorioso (Nicola); I.M. Nolte (Ilja M.); M. Olden (Matthias); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); F. Renström (Frida); J.S. Ried (Janina); N.R. Robertson (Neil R.); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Sanna (Serena); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); S. Scholtens (Salome); B. Sennblad (Bengt); T. Seufferlein (Thomas); C.M. Sitlani (Colleen); G.D. Smith; K. Stirrups (Kathy); H.M. Stringham (Heather); J. Sundstrom (Johan); M. Swertz (Morris); A.J. Swift (Amy); A.C. Syvanen; B. Tayo (Bamidele); B. Thorand (Barbara); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); A. Tomaschitz (Andreas); C. Troffa (Chiara); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); N. Verweij (Niek); J.M. Vonk (Judith); L. Waite (Lindsay); R. Wennauer (Roman); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); A. Wong (Andrew); Q. Zhang (Qunyuan); J.H. Zhao; E.P. Brennan (Eoin P.); M. Choi (Murim); P. Eriksson (Per); L. Folkersen (Lasse); A. Franco-Cereceda (Anders); A.G. Gharavi (Ali G.); A.K. Hedman (Asa); M.F. Hivert; J. Huang (Jinyan); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); F. Karpe (Fredrik); S. Keildson (Sarah); K. Kiryluk (Krzysztof); L. Liang (Liming); R.P. Lifton (Richard); B. Ma (Baoshan); A.J. McKnight (Amy J.); R. McPherson (Ruth); A. Metspalu (Andres); J.L. Min (Josine L.); M.F. Moffatt (Miriam); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J. Murabito (Joanne); G. Nicholson (Ggeorge); A.S. Dimas (Antigone); C. Olsson (Christian); J.R.B. Perry (John); E. Reinmaa (Eva); R.M. Salem (Rany); N. Sandholm (Niina); E.E. Schadt (Eric); R.A. Scott (Robert A.); L. Stolk (Lisette); E.E. Vallejo (Edgar E.); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); K.T. Zondervan (Krina); P. Amouyel (Philippe); D. Arveiler (Dominique); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); J.P. Beilby (John); R.N. Bergman (Richard); J. Blangero (John); M.J. Brown (Morris); M. Burnier (Michel); H. Campbell (Harry); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); P.S. Chines (Peter); S. Claudi-Boehm (Simone); F.S. Collins (Francis); D.C. Crawford (Dana); J. Danesh (John); U. de Faire (Ulf); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); M. Dörr (Marcus); R. Erbel (Raimund); K. Hagen (Knut); M. Farrall (Martin); E. Ferrannini (Ele); J. Ferrieres (Jean); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); T. Forrester (Terrence); O.H. Franco (Oscar); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); C. Gieger (Christian); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); T.B. Harris (Tamara); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); M. Heliovaara (Markku); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A. Hingorani (Aroon); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); A. Hofman (Albert); G. Homuth (Georg); S.E. Humphries (Steve); E. Hypponen (Elina); T. Illig (Thomas); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); B. Johansen (Berit); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); A. Jula (Antti); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); F. Kee (F.); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); C. Kooperberg (Charles); P. Kovacs (Peter); A. Kraja (Aldi); M. Kumari (Meena); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); T.A. Lakka (Timo); C. Langenberg (Claudia); L. Le Marchand (Loic); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); S. Männistö (Satu); A. Marette (Andre'); T.C. Matise (Tara C.); C.A. McKenzie (Colin A.); B. McKnight (Barbara); A.W. Musk (Arthur); S. Möhlenkamp (Stefan); A.D. Morris (Andrew); M. Nelis (Mari); C. Ohlsson (Claes); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); K.K. Ong (Ken K.); C. Palmer (Cameron); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); A. Peters (Annette); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); O. Raitakari (Olli); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); T.K. Rice (Treva K.); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.D. Ritchie (Marylyn D.); I. Rudan (Igor); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); J. Saramies (Jouko); M.A. Sarzynski (Mark A.); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter E. H.); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); J.A. Staessen (Jan); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); K. Strauch (Konstantin); A. Tönjes (Anke); A. Tremblay (Angelo); E. Tremoli (Elena); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); U. Völker (Uwe); P. Vollenweider (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James F); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); L.S. Adair (Linda); M. Bochud (Murielle); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan R.); C. Bouchard (Claude); S. Cauchi (Ste'phane); M. Caulfield (Mark); J.C. Chambers (John C.); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); R.S. Cooper (Richard S.); G.V. Dedoussis (George); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); P. Froguel (Philippe); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); A. Hamsten (Anders); J. Hui (Jennie); K. Hveem (Kristian); K.-H. Jöckel (Karl-Heinz); M. Kivimaki (Mika); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Laakso (Markku); Y. Liu (Yongmei); W. März (Winfried); P. Munroe (Patricia); I. Njølstad (Inger); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy L.); M. Perola (Markus); L. Perusse (Louis); U. Peters (Ulrike); C. Power (Christopher); T. Quertermous (Thomas); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); T. Saaristo (Timo); D. Saleheen; J. Sinisalo (Juha); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); H. Snieder (Harold); T.D. Spector (Timothy); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); M. Stumvoll (Michael); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Uusitupa (Matti); P. van der Harst (Pim); G. Veronesi (Giovanni); M. Walker (Mark); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); L. Franke (Lude); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); D. Hunter (David); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); J.R. O´Connell; L. Qi (Lu); D. Schlessinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); C.J. Willer (Cristen); P.M. Visscher (Peter); J. Yang (Joanna); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel N.); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); K.E. North (Kari); C.S. Fox (Caroline S.); I. Barroso (Inês); P.W. Franks (Paul); E. Ingelsson (Erik); I.M. Heid (Iris); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); A.P. Morris (Andrew); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); K.L. Mohlke (Karen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBody fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct geno

  11. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Ferreira, Teresa; Lockes, Adam E.; Maegi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Pers, Tune H.; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M. W.; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Roman, Tamara S.; Drong, Alexander W.; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R.; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltan; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C.; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U.; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D.; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivaniss, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Stancakova, Alena; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanakam, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Yengo, Loic; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Arnlov, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J.; Berne, Christian; Blueher, Matthias; Buhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Boettcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B.; Caspersen, Ida H.; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E. Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S. F.; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R.; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrichs, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E.; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S.; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Graessler, Juergen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J.; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkila, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L.; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C.; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R.; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindstrom, Jaana; Lobbens, Stephane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, Francois; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Ken L.; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Mulas, Antonella; Mueller, Gabriele; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A.; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M.; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S.; Robertson, Neil R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundstrom, Johan; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G.; Hedman, Asa K.; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P.; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J.; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R.; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R. B.; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M.; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E.; Scott, Robert A.; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T.; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N.; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J.; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chiness, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehmi, Simone; Collins, Francis S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geusl, Eco J. C.; Doerr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrieres, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G.; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heliovaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E.; Hyppoenen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Mannisto, Satu; Marette, Andre; Matise, Tara C.; McKenzie, Colin A.; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W.; Mohlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D.; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ong, Ken K.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Ridker, Paul M.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Staessen, Jan A.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strauch, Konstantin; Toenjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Voelker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Adair, Linda S.; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stephane; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chambers, John C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cooper, Richard S.; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Joergen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Joeckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Maerz, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njolstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Perola, Markus; Perusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E.; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P. Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur R.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Uusitupa, Math; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boehnkes, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M.; Groop, Leif C.; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Dujin, Cornelia M.; Willer, Cristen J.; Visscher, Peter M.; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Zillikens, M. Carola; McCarthy, Mark I.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; North, Kari E.; Fox, Caroline S.; Barroso, Ines; Franks, Paul W.; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Mohlke, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide asso

  12. Control of body weight by eating behavior in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modjtaba eZandian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen.

  13. Control of Body Weight by Eating Behavior in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandian, Modjtaba; Bergh, Cecilia; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Esfandiari, Maryam; Shield, Julian; Lightman, Stafford; Leon, Michael; Södersten, Per

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen. PMID:26539422

  14. Managing fat bodies: Identity regulation between public and private domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanna Mik-Meyer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between public andprivate domains in contemporary Danish organizationsby examining their increasing focus on the personalhealth situation of employees, and, more specifically,their body weight. This paper combines literature onidentity and management with governmentality-inspiredresearch on risk, morality and the body. The aim of thispaper is to show that overweight people are perceived as“risk identities”, i.e. problem people who automaticallycall for personal management. The author demonstratesthat besides the unintended effect of categorizing overweightemployees as problem people, this managementgoal also run counter to the declared value regardingrespect for diversity in contemporary organizations.Based on in-depth interviews with managers and recordedtalks between health consultants and overweightemployees, this paper emphasizes processes thatsubordinate employees and restrict their autonomy.

  15. Profile of leptin, adiponectin, and body fat in patients with hyperprolactinemia: Response to treatment with cabergoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmad Pala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Though hypoadiponectinemia and leptin resistance have been proposed as potential factors for weight gain in patients with hyperprolactinemia (HPL, the effects of HPL and cabergoline on these adipocyte-derived hormones are not clear. Aims of this study were (i to assess the alterations of body fat, leptin, and adiponectin in patients with HPL (ii effect of cabergoline treatment on these parameters. Methods: Nineteen consecutive patients with prolactinoma (median prolactin [PRL] 118.6 (interquartile range: 105.3 μg/L and 20 controls were studied in a nonrandomized matched prospective design. The controls were age, gender, and body mass index (BMI matched. Anthropometric data, metabolic variables, leptin, and adiponectin were studied at baseline and 3 and 6 months after cabergoline treatment. Results: Patients with prolactinoma had increased level of fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.001 as compared to age-, gender-, and BMI-matched healthy controls. Estradiol concentration of controls was higher than that of patients (P = 0.018. Patients with prolactinoma had higher levels of leptin (P = 0.027 as compared to healthy controls without a significant difference in adiponectin levels. There was a significant decrease of body weight at 3 months (P = 0.029, with a further decline at 6 months (P < 0.001 of cabergoline therapy. Furthermore, there was a significant decrement of BMI (P < 0.001, waist circumference (P = 0.003, waist-hip ratio (P = 0.03, total body fat (P = 0.003, plasma glucose (P < 0.001, leptin levels (P = 0.013, and an increase in estradiol concentration (P = 0.03 at 6 months of cabergoline treatment. Conclusion: Patients with prolactinoma have adverse metabolic profile compared to matched controls. Normalization of PRL with cabergoline corrects all the metabolic abnormalities.

  16. Body Weight Concerns among Urban Adolescent Girls: A Microlevel Study

    OpenAIRE

    Susmita Mukhopadhyay; Nandini Ganguly; Shailendra Kumar Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Growing consciousness about ideal body image leads to dietary modifications and consequent eating disorders among girls in developing countries like India. The present study aims to (i) assess the prevalence of body weight consciousness and related behaviours among a group of adolescent girls; (ii) assess the sociodemographic correlates of weight related behaviours; and (iii) compare weight related behaviours of the girls of two religious groups residing in Howrah. The study is the outcome of...

  17. Control of Body Weight by Eating Behavior in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Zandian, Modjtaba; Bergh, Cecilia; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Esfandiari, Maryam; Shield, Julian; Lightman, Stafford; Leon, Michael; Södersten, Per

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost ...

  18. Daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness and body fat in an urban sample of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Thorsson, O; Karlsson, M K;

    2008-01-01

    -energy x-ray absorptiometry. TBF was calculated as percentage of total body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Aerobic fitness was measured by indirect calorimetry during a maximal cycle ergometer exercise test. Daily physical activity was assessed by accelerometers for 4 days and......This study evaluates associations between objectively measured daily physical activity vs aerobic fitness and body fat in children aged 8-11 years. A cross-sectional study of 225 children aged 7.9-11.1 years was performed. Abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF) were quantified by dual...... population, low daily accumulation of vigorous activity was, already in children aged 8-11 years, associated with more body fat and lower aerobic fitness. A similar relation was not found for daily accumulation of moderate-to-vigorous activity....

  19. Measuring adiposity in patients: the utility of body mass index (BMI, percent body fat, and leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav R Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a serious disease that is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and cancer, among other diseases. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC estimates a 20% obesity rate in the 50 states, with 12 states having rates of over 30%. Currently, the body mass index (BMI is most commonly used to determine adiposity. However, BMI presents as an inaccurate obesity classification method that underestimates the epidemic and contributes to failed treatment. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of precise biomarkers and duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA to help diagnose and treat obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study of adults with BMI, DXA, fasting leptin and insulin results were measured from 1998-2009. Of the participants, 63% were females, 37% were males, 75% white, with a mean age = 51.4 (SD = 14.2. Mean BMI was 27.3 (SD = 5.9 and mean percent body fat was 31.3% (SD = 9.3. BMI characterized 26% of the subjects as obese, while DXA indicated that 64% of them were obese. 39% of the subjects were classified as non-obese by BMI, but were found to be obese by DXA. BMI misclassified 25% men and 48% women. Meanwhile, a strong relationship was demonstrated between increased leptin and increased body fat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the prevalence of false-negative BMIs, increased misclassifications in women of advancing age, and the reliability of gender-specific revised BMI cutoffs. BMI underestimates obesity prevalence, especially in women with high leptin levels (>30 ng/mL. Clinicians can use leptin-revised levels to enhance the accuracy of BMI estimates of percentage body fat when DXA is unavailable.

  20. Lumbar spinal loads vary with body height and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kap-Soo; Rohlmann, Antonius; Zander, Thomas; Taylor, William R

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge about spinal loading is required for designing and preclinical testing of spinal implants. It is assumed that loading of the spine depends upon body weight and height, as well as on the spine level, but a direct measurement of the loading conditions throughout the spine is not yet possible. Here, computer models can allow an estimation of the forces and moments acting in the spine. The objective of the present study was to calculate spinal loads for different postures and activities at several levels of the thoracolumbar spine for various combinations of body height and weight. A validated musculoskeletal model, together with commercially available software (AnyBody Technology), were used to calculate the segmental loads acting on the centre of the upper endplate of the vertebrae T12 to L5. The body height was varied between 150 and 200 cm and the weight between 50 and 120 kg. The loads were determined for five standard static postures and three lifting tasks. The resultant forces and moments increased approximately linearly with increasing body weight. The body height had a nearly linear effect on the spinal loads, but in almost all loading cases, the effect on spinal loads was stronger for variation of body weight than of body height. Spinal loads generally increased from cranial to caudal. The presented data now allow the estimation of the spinal load during activities of daily living on a subject specific basis, if body height and weight are known. PMID:23040051

  1. The skinny on cocaine: insights into eating behavior and body weight in cocaine-dependent men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersche, Karen D; Stochl, Jan; Woodward, Jeremy M; Fletcher, Paul C

    2013-12-01

    There is a general assumption that weight loss associated with cocaine use reflects its appetite suppressing properties. We sought to determine whether this was justified by characterizing, in detail, alterations in dietary food intake and body composition in actively using cocaine-dependent individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control comparison of 65 male volunteers from the local community, half of whom satisfied the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cocaine dependence (n=35) while the other half had no personal or family history of a psychiatric disorder, including substance abuse (n=30). Assessments were made of eating behavior and dietary food intake, estimation of body composition, and measurement of plasma leptin. Although cocaine users reported significantly higher levels of dietary fat and carbohydrates as well as patterns of uncontrolled eating, their fat mass was significantly reduced compared with their non-drug using peers. Levels of leptin were associated with fat mass, and with the duration of stimulant use. Tobacco smoking status or concomitant use of medication did not affect the significance of the results. Weight changes in cocaine users reflect fundamental perturbations in fat regulation. These are likely to be overlooked in clinical practice but may produce significant health problems when cocaine use is discontinued during recovery. PMID:23920064

  2. Impact of Weight Loss on Physical Function with Changes in Strength, Muscle Mass, and Muscle Fat Infiltration in Overweight to Moderately Obese Older Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Santanasto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Evaluate the effects of weight loss on muscle mass and area, muscle fat infiltration, strength, and their association with physical function. Methods. Thirty-six overweight to moderately obese, sedentary older adults were randomized into either a physical activity plus weight loss (PA+WL or physical activity plus successful aging health education (PA+SA program. Measurements included body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, knee extensor strength, and short physical performance battery (SPPB. Results. At 6 months, PA+WL lost greater thigh fat and muscle area compared to PA+SA. PA+WL lost 12.4% strength; PA+SA lost 1.0%. Muscle fat infiltration decreased significantly in PA+WL and PA+SA. Thigh fat area decreased 6-fold in comparison to lean area in PA+WL. Change in total SPPB score was strongly inversely correlated with change in fat but not with change in lean or strength. Conclusion. Weight loss resulted in additional improvements in function over exercise alone, primarily due to loss of body fat.

  3. Weight loss on an energy-restricted, low-fat, sugar-containing diet in overweight sedentary men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Sandra; Dixon, Kathryn; Griffin, Jane; De Looy, Anne

    2004-06-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity in the United Kingdom, the search for an effective weight reducing diet is a priority in helping to reverse this trend. A 12-week dietary intervention study was carried out to test the effectiveness of an energy-restricted, low-fat, sugar-containing diet on weight loss in sedentary overweight men. The study also aimed to assess eating behaviour, to measure change in attitude towards sugar-containing foods and to measure the impact of the study on perceived quality of life. Subjects were recruited from three UK cities; Edinburgh, Birmingham and London. Seventy-six men, aged between 25 and 60 years, completed the study. Baseline diets were assessed by a 7-day diet diary. Compliance to the subsequent dietary advice was measured on four occasions post intervention, by 4-day diaries. Measures of body weight status were also monitored. Eating behaviour, attitudes towards sugar-containing foods and quality of life were assessed by questionnaire. Significant reductions in body weight (5.2%), body fat (11.2%) and waist:hip ratio (3%) were observed following reported dietary changes that included a reduction in reported energy intake of 3.2 MJ/day (770 kcal/day), a reduction in the percent energy from fat (from 38.1% to 26.2%), an increase in the percent energy from total carbohydrate (from 44.4% to 54%) and from protein (from 17.3% to 20.6%). Subjects scored relatively highly for dietary restraint and emotional eating, and were strongly influenced by external eating cues. On completion of the 12-week study, subjects had a more positive attitude towards sugar-containing foods and perceived an improved quality of life. It is concluded, therefore, that including sugar-containing foods in a weight-reducing diet may be an effective strategy to achieve a palatable, low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, which promotes weight loss in overweight individuals. PMID:15369982

  4. A dynamic model to predict fat and protein fluxes and dry matter intake associated with body reserve changes in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Luis O; Fox, Danny G; Kononoff, Paul J

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to develop the structure and concepts of a dynamic model to simulate dry matter intake (DMI) pattern and the fluxes of fat and protein in the body reserves of cattle associated with changes in body condition score (BCS) for application within the structure of applied nutrition models. This model was developed to add the capability of evaluating the effects of factors affecting pre- and postcalving DMI, daily energy and protein balances, and changes in BCS over a reproductive cycle. Input variables are average DMI, diet metabolizable energy, and animal information (body weight, BCS, milk production, and calf birth body weight) from each diet fed over the reproductive cycle. Because the depletion and repletion of body reserves in cattle is a complex system of coordinated metabolic processes that reflect hormonal and physiological changes caused by negative or positive energy balances, the system dynamics modeling methodology was used to develop this model. The model was used to evaluate the effect of the dynamic interactions between dietary supply and animal requirements for energy and protein on the fluxes of body fat and body protein of dairy cows over the reproductive cycle and Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the sensitivity of the parameters. The main long-term factor affecting DMI pattern was the growth of the gravid uterus causing an increase in the volume of abdominal organs and a compression of the rumen, consequentially reducing feed intake. Changes in body reserves (fat and protein) were computed based on metabolizable energy balance, assuming different efficiency of utilization coefficients for fat and protein during repletion and mobilization. The model was evaluated with data from 37 dairy cows individually fed 3 different diets over the lactation and dry periods. The model was successful in simulating the observed pattern of DMI (mean square error was 3.59, 3.97, and 3.66 for diets A, B, and C, respectively

  5. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lubkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m2. Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF, subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM, lean body mass (LBM, skeletal muscle mass (SMM. In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG. Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01, adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM. Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued.

  6. Contribution of the BMI Level or the Body Fat Percentage Level to Bone-Mass

    OpenAIRE

    高畑,陽子; 穴井,孝信

    2011-01-01

    It is unclear which body mass index (BMI) or body fat percentage level has the strongest effect on the bone mass in young women.We examined the data gathered from 233 adolescent girls in a junior high,high school,and university to ascertain the relationship between BMI or body fat percentage and bone mass. The transmission index (TI) of the calcaneus was measured using an ultrasound bone densitometer. The subjects were classified into 3 groups by BMI and body fat percentage se...

  7. Relationship between the percentage of body fat and surrogate indices of fatness in male and female Polish active and sedentary students

    OpenAIRE

    Lutoslawska, Grażyna; Malara, Marzena; Tomaszewski, Paweł; Mazurek, Krzysztof; Czajkowska, Anna; Kęska, Anna; Tkaczyk, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited data have indicated that body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) of athletes and young adults provide misleading results concerning body fat content. This study was aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between different surrogate indices of fatness (BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR and body adiposity index (BAI)) with the percentage of body fat in Polish students with respect to their sex and physical activity. Met...

  8. Polyphenolic extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa reduces body fat by inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis and preadipocyte adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Erl-Shyh; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Hung, Chia-Hung; Huang, Chien-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Diets high in fat lead to excess lipid accumulation in adipose tissue, which is a crucial factor in the development of obesity, hepatitis, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) in vivo. Hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD) develop symptoms of obesity, which were determined based on body weight changes and changes in plasma and serum triglycerides, free fatty acid concentrations, total cholesterol levels, LDL-C levels, HDL-C levels, and adipocyte tissue weight. HFD-fed hamsters were used to investigate the effects of HSE on symptoms of obesity such as adipogenesis and fatty liver, loss of blood glucose regulation, and serum ion imbalance. Interestingly, HSE treatment effectively reduced the effects of the HFD in hamsters in a dose-dependent manner. Further, after inducing maturation of preadipocytes, Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenolic extract (HPE) was shown to suppress the adipogenesis of adipocytes. However, HPE does not affect the viability of preadipocytes. Therefore, both HSE and HPE are effective and viable treatment strategies for preventing the development and treating the symptoms of obesity. PMID:26489044

  9. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.;

    2015-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide a...... adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.......Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome......(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated...

  10. Estimation of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements and Body Condition Scores in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width, and...... body condition score were consistently associated with BW. The coefficients of multiple determination varied from 80 to 89%. The number of significant terms and the parameter estimates of the models differed markedly among groups of cows. Apparently, these differences were due to breed and feeding...... regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes...

  11. Does Employee Body Weight Affect Employers' Behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Lene

    used to examine the occupation and industry distribution. Most importantly, we find that wage differences between normal-weight and overweight or obese workers are explained by differential firm behavior, both with respect to the job offer arrival rate and to the probability of being promoted. Further....... Furthermore, the wage equations do not capture the sorting of workers into different occupations and industries. Using an equilibrium search model, this paper takes search friction and cross-firm differences in factor productivity into account, when looking at firm behavior. Addition- ally, a logit model is...

  12. Comparative study of fast T 2-weighted images using respiratory triggered, breath-hold, fat suppression and phased array multi coil for liver evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to compare both qualitatively and quantitatively six T 2-weighted turbo spin-echo sequences varying the respiratory compensation technique, associating or not fat tissue suppression and using different types of coils. We performed a prospective study of 71 consecutive patients that were submitted to MRI of the liver using a 1.5 T magnet. The six following pulse sequences were used: fat-suppressed respiratory triggered with conventional body coil; breath-hold fat-suppressed with conventional body coil; non-suppressed respiratory triggered with conventional body coil; breath-hold non fat-suppressed with conventional body coil; fat-suppressed respiratory triggered with phased-array multi coil; breath-hold fat-suppressed with phased-array multi coil. Images were analyzed quantitatively by measuring the signal-to-noise ratios and qualitatively by evaluating the sharpness of hepatic contours, visibility of intrahepatic vessels and other segmental landmarks, and the presence of artifacts. Results: the qualitative analysis showed that the mean values obtained with the six sequences were 7.8, 4.6, 7.9, 5.2, 6.7 and 4.6 respectively. The respiratory-triggered sequences were better than the breath-hold sequences in both qualitative and quantitative analysis (p < 0.001). No significant differences in the values of signal-to-noise ratios and in overall image quality were found between the sequences with and without fat suppression (p . 0.05). The sequences using the body coil were similar in terms of image quality (p . 0.05) and better regarding signal-to-noise ratios than those obtained with the phased=array multi coil (p ,0.001). Our qualitative and quantitative results suggest that the best MRI sequences for the valuation of the liver are the sequences with respiratory triggering using a conventional body coil, with or without fat suppression. (author)

  13. Complications following body contouring surgery after massive weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasanbegovic, Emir; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is a way to achieve lasting weight loss in the obese. Body contouring surgery seeks to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by the excessive loose skin following massive weight loss. Higher complication rates are described in this type of surgery when done post-bariatric. The...... purpose of this article is to compare complication rates of body contouring surgery when performed on patients with weight loss due to bariatric surgery compared to patients who lost weight due to dietary changes and/or exercise....

  14. Level of satiety: In vitro energy metabolism in brain during hypophagic and hyperphagic body weight recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rates of in vitro glucose and fatty acid oxidation were examined in four brain sites during hypophagic and hyperphagic recovery of normal body weight. Rats were fed 40, 100, or 160% of normal intake, via gastric intubation, for 3 wk. Another group of rats was starved until body weight loss was equivalent to weight loss in 40%-fed rats. Groups of rats were killed at the conclusion of tube feeding or fasting and at specific periods during recovery of body weight. Brain sites examined were the ventrolateral hypothalamus (VLH), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), a caudal brain stem site encompassing the area postrema-nucleus of the solitary tract (AP-NTS), and cortex. During recovery, rats previously fed 160% of normal intake (anorectic) maintained low rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation and were hypophagic until most excess fat was depleted. Conversely, rats previously fed 40% of normal intake (hungry) maintained high rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation and were hyperphagic until most deficient fat was repleted. Rats previously starved maintained high rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation during hyperphagic recovery, although levels of VLH fatty acid oxidation and food intake were initially low on refeeding. Rates of glucose oxidation in the brain sites examined did not relate well to energy balance status and the needed adjustments in food intake. The results indicated that the level of glucose oxidation in the VLH and AP-NTS responded to the level of energy immediately coming into the system (food intake)

  15. Growth hormone-mediated breakdown of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Richelsen, Bjørn; Hansen, Harald S.; Din, N.

    2003-01-01

    regimen. Twelve-month-old rats fed first a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet for 14 weeks were injected with saline or growth hormone (4 mg/kg/d) for four days or three weeks in different combinations with either high- or low-fat diets. In adipose tissue, growth hormone generally inhibited lipoprotein...... lipase and also attenuated the inhibiting effect of insulin on hormone-sensitive lipase activity. Growth hormone treatment combined with restricted high-fat feeding reduced the activity of both lipases in adipose tissue and stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase in muscle. Generally, plasma levels of free...... fatty acids, glycerol and cholesterol were reduced by growth hormone, and in combination with restricted high-fat feeding, triglyceride levels improved too. We conclude that growth hormone inhibits lipid storage in adipose tissue by reducing both lipoprotein lipase activity and insulin's inhibitory...

  16. Percentiles of percentage body fat in German children and adolescents: An international comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Schwandt; Arnold von Eckardstein; Gerda-Maria Haas

    2012-01-01

    Background: Age- and gender-specific percentiles of body mass index in children and adolescents are a cornerstone categorizing overweight and obesity in youths worldwide. Since corresponding worldwide growth curves of percent body fat (% BF) are missing, the purpose was to contribute smoothed percentiles of percentage body fat from a large urban sample of German youths and to include them in actual national and international percentile curves. Methods: We estimated % BF in 22 113 German y...

  17. A study of acid phosphatase locus 1 in women with high fat content and normal body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Antonino; Di Renzo, Laura; Puja, Alberto; Saccucci, Patrizia; Gloria-Bottini, Fulvia; Bottini, Egidio

    2009-03-01

    De Lorenzo and coworkers have recently described a class of women with normal body mass index (BMI) and high fat content (normal weight obese syndrome [NWO]). This observation prompted us to study the possible role of acid phosphatase locus 1 (ACP(1)) in the differentiation of this special class of obese subjects. Acid phosphatase locus 1 is a polymorphic gene associated with severe obesity and with total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. The enzyme is composed by 2 isoforms--F and S--that have different biochemical properties and probably different functions. The sample study was composed of 130 white women from the population of Rome. Total fat mass and percentage of fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Thirty-six women had a BMI less than 25 and percentage of fat mass greater than 30 (high fat, normal BMI [HFHB]), and 94 women showed a BMI greater than 25 and a percentage of fat mass greater than 30 (high fat, high BMI [HFHB]). In the whole sample, the proportion of low-activity ACP(1) genotypes (*A/*A and *B/*A) was higher than in controls. However, whereas HFNB showed a very high frequency of ACP(1) *A/*A genotype, high-fat, high-BMI women showed an increase of *B/*A genotype. These 2 genotypes differ in the concentration of F isoform and the F/S ratio, which are lower in ACP(1)*A/*A genotype than in ACP(1)*B/*A genotype. The genetic differentiation of the class of women with normal BMI and high fat content from the class showing a concordant level of the 2 parameters supports the hypothesis that HFNB class represents a special cluster of obese subjects not revealed by BMI evaluation. Because ACP(1) is present in adipocytes, the present observation suggests that F isoform may have a specific role in the regulation of quantity of adipose tissue. PMID:19217450

  18. Exploring the relationship between time preference, body fatness, and educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather; Biosca, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is a global health concern. This is the first study to explore if the relationship between body fatness and time preference is consistent across different ways of objectively measuring body fatness. Our second aim is to explore if there are differential associations between educational attainment and being a saver to determine if education can be used to change saving behaviour and subsequently body fatness. This paper uses data on 15,591 individuals from 2010/2011 of the Understanding Society Survey (UK) to explore the relationship between time preference, measured as being a saver and three objective measures of body fatness: BMI, percent body fatness (PBF), and waist circumference (WC). Our findings show that there is a negative relationship between the three measures of body fatness and being a saver. The strongest relationship is found for WC and being a saver for both genders. Overall, a stronger association is found for women than men. Our results suggest that differential effects by educational attainment can be found in the relationship between being a saver and body fatness. Educational interventions to improve savings behaviour and subsequently obesity may be more effective for women with lower levels of education. PMID:27111437

  19. Midupper arm circumference and weight-for-length z scores have different associations with body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Wells, Jonathan Ck; Girma, Tsinuel;

    2015-01-01

    understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between these 2 anthropometric indexes and body composition to help understand why they identify different children as wasted. DESIGN: We analyzed weight, length, MUAC, fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) data from 2470 measurements from 595 healthy...... regression coefficients for the WLZ. Conversely, length showed greater regression coefficients for the MUAC. At all ages, the MUAC was shown to be more influenced than was the WLZ by the FM variability relative to the FFM variability. CONCLUSIONS: The MUAC and WLZ have different associations with body...... composition, and length influences these associations differently. Our results suggest that the WLZ is a good marker of tissue masses independent of length. The MUAC acts more as a composite index of poor growth indexing jointly tissue masses and length. This trial was registered at www...

  20. Change in proportional protein intake in a 10-week energy-restricted low- or high-fat diet, in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Taylor, Moira A; Ängquist, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in a secondary analysis of a randomised trial the effects of a low-/high-fat diet and reported change from baseline in energy% from protein (prot%), in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors. Methods: Obese adults (n = 771) were randomised to a 600 kcal...... increased the percentage energy intake from protein showed the greatest reduction in weight and cholesterol, and a triglyceride reduction equally large to that of participants on a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg....... energy-deficient low-fat (20-25 fat%) or high-fat (40-45 fat%) diet over 10 weeks. Dietary intake data at baseline and during the intervention were available in 585 completers. We used linear regression to calculate the combined effects of randomised group and groups of prot% change (2) on outcomes...

  1. Body Weight Gain during Altered Gravity: Spaceflight, Centrifugation and Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Charles E.; Harper, J. S.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Gravity is a force that influences all living systems, and is often disregarded in the study of environment on growth and development. To assess the effect of gravity exposure on growth, immature rats (130-200 g) were evaluated during chronic altered gravity exposure and during transition between gravity fields. The effects of 14 days of spaceflight on body weight gain were evaluated (n=12) and compared to controls. Spaceflight did not affect weight gain. In 6 rats, the transition from spaceflight to 1 G showed a significant (p less than 0.05) post flight weight loss over 48 hr of 13 g compared to controls. Over subsequent days this loss was compensated for with no difference noted after 5 days. Exposure to hypergravity, 2 G for 16 days, was evaluated in groups of n=6 (Control; On Center Control (OCC); Centrifuged). With centrifugation or OCC there was a reduction in body weight within 24 hr. The OCC regained control weights within 13 days. The weight difference, 26 +/- 1 g, persisted with 2 G with no subsequent difference in weight gain over days 3-16 compared to controls; 3.7 +/- 0.1 versus 3.9 +/- 0.1 g/day respectively. Transition from centrifugation to 1 G resulted in a weight increase within 48 hours. Over 16 days the rate of gain was increased 3.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for centrifuge compared to 2.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for controls between Day 3 to 16. However, differences from control were still noted on Day 16. Transition from one gravity field to another causes acute changes in body weight. Transition to microgravity or 1 G, following the acute changes, results in adjustments to attain a normal weight. In hypergravity the acute reduction in body weight persist, but weight gain is normal. Transitioning from hypergravity to 1G results in an increased weight gain to compensate for the persistent reduction during exposure.

  2. Impact of resistant starch on body fat patterning and central appetite regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Wah So

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue patterning has a major influence on the risk of developing chronic disease. Environmental influences on both body fat patterning and appetite regulation are not fully understood. This study was performed to investigate the impact of resistant starch (RS on adipose tissue deposition and central regulation of appetite in mice. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Forty mice were randomised to a diet supplemented with either the high resistant starch (HRS, or the readily digestible starch (LRS. Using (1H magnetic resonance (MR methods, whole body adiposity, intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL were measured. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI was used to investigate neuronal activity in hypothalamic regions involved in appetite control when fed ad libitum. At the end of the interventional period, adipocytes were isolated from epididymal adipose tissue and fasting plasma collected for hormonal and adipokine measurement. Mice on the HRS and LRS diet had similar body weights although total body adiposity, subcutaneous and visceral fat, IHCL, plasma leptin, plasma adiponectin plasma insulin/glucose ratios was significantly greater in the latter group. Adipocytes isolated from the LRS group were significantly larger and had lower insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. MEMRI data obtained from the ventromedial and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei suggests a satiating effect of the HRS diet despite a lower energy intake. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Dietary RS significantly impacts on adipose tissue patterning, adipocyte morphology and metabolism, glucose and insulin metabolism, as well as affecting appetite regulation, supported by changes in neuronal activity in hypothalamic appetite regulation centres which are suggestive of satiation.

  3. The Association of Antidepressant Medication and Body Weight Gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ranjbar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature and discover which antidepressants are responsible for weight gain and then to discuss the areas with lack of adequate knowledge. Method: An electronic search was conducted through Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library, and ScienceDirect. Forty nine empirical researches were identified and reviewed. Results: Amitriptyline, clomipramine, and mirtazapine have been associated with more weight gain induction in clinical studies, but not in animal-based studies. All TCAs have been reported to cause weight gain except protriptyline. MAOIs have been associated with weight gain. In SSRI group, citalopram and ecitalopram induce weight, yet mixed results exist for paroxetine and fluoxetine. Researches unanimously reported weight loss effect for bupropion. Some studies suggest contributing factors in the relationship of antidepressants with body weight changes including age, gender, base-line weights and treatment duration. Various results of different treatment durations have been reported in some cases but there are not continuous time-dependent studies for the influences of antidepressants on body weight changes. Conclusion: More studies are required to discover underlying mechanisms and the time-dependent effects of antidepressants on body weight changes.

  4. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner RM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rick M Gardner Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than

  5. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K;

    1999-01-01

    Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular...... filtration rate in nondiabetic predialysis uremic patients and in nondiabetic patients on chronic hemodialysis. Plasma leptin, body fat mass, and creatinine clearance were measured in 22 predialysis uremic patients, 18 hemodialysis patients, and 24 healthy control subjects. The logarithmically transformed...... plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass in all groups (r = 0.93, r = 0.83, and r = 0.72, respectively; p < 0.000001, < 0.000002 and p < 0.001, respectively). In predialysis uremic patients the plasma leptin concentration was slightly elevated as compared with controls 10...

  6. Anatomic Dead Space Cannot Be Predicted by Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, Lara M.; Orr, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    Anatomic, airway, or tracheal, dead space is the part of the tidal volume that does not participate in gas exchange. Knowledge of the size of the dead space is important for proper mechanical ventilation, especially if small tidal volumes are used. Respiratory and medical textbooks state that anatomic dead space can be estimated from the patient’s body weight. Specifically, these references suggest dead space can be predicted using a relationship of one milliliter per pound of body weight. Us...

  7. Genome-Wide Association of Body Fat Distribution in African Ancestry Populations Suggests New Loci

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Keri L Monda; Taylor, Kira C.; Lange, Leslie; Demerath, Ellen W; Palmas, Walter; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Jaclyn C Ellis; Mara Z Vitolins; Liu, Simin; Papanicolaou, George J.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Xue, Luting; Griffin, Paula J.; Michael A Nalls

    2013-01-01

    Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in...

  8. Fat-free mass mediates the association between birth weight and aerobic fitness in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridgway, C L; Andresen, Brage Storstein; Anderssen, S; Sardinha, L B; Andersen, L B; Ekelund, U; Andersen, Lars Bo

    Abstract Objective. To investigate whether birth weight acts as a biological determinant of later aerobic fitness, and whether fat-free mass may mediate this association. Methods. The European Youth Heart Study (EYHS) is a population-based cohort of two age groups (9 and 15 years) from Denmark...

  9. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

    OpenAIRE

    Morinaka Tomoko; Limtrakul Porn-ngarm; Makonkawkeyoon Luksana; Sone Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young univers...

  10. Body Composition Changes after Weight-Loss Interventions among Obese Females: A Comparison of Three Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate body composition changes after use of three different types of obesity management protocols: dietary measures and physical activity; acupuncture or laser acupuncture with healthy diet; aiming at achieving stable weight loss among obese Egyptian females. METHODS:  A randomized longitudinal prospective study included 76 obese adult females; aged 26 up to 55 years. Anthropometric, body composition, ultrasonographic and biochemical assessments were done. RESULTS: The three types of obesity management protocols showed significant improvement in body composition (decrease in fat% and increases in FFM and TBW and visceral fat by US. However, nutritional intervention showed highly significant improvement in the skin fold thickness at triceps and biceps sites and peripheral adiposity index.  Acupuncture intervention showed highly significant improvement in fasting blood glucose (decreased and lipid profile (decreased triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and increased HDL. Laser intervention showed highly significant improvement in all the skin fold thickness and some parameters of lipid profile (decreased total cholesterol and LDL. CONCLUSIONS: The three obesity management protocols have significant effect on body composition, but acupuncture has the best effect in improving the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. In addition, Laser intervention was recommended to improve skin fold thickness and subcutaneous fat.

  11. The Mechanism by Which Safflower Yellow Decreases Body Fat Mass and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in HFD-Induced Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huijuan; Wang, Xiangqing; Pan, Hui; Dai, Yufei; Li, Naishi; Wang, Linjie; Yang, Hongbo; Gong, Fengying

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Safflower yellow (SY) is the main effective ingredient of Carthamus tinctorius L. It has been reported that SY plays an important role in anti-inflammation, anti-platelet aggregation, and inhibiting thrombus formation. In present study, we try to investigate the effects of SY on body weight, body fat mass, insulin sensitivity in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Methods: HFD-induced obese male ICR mice were intraperitoneally injected with SY (120 mg kg−1) daily. Eight weeks later, intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (IPITT), and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) were performed, and body weight, body fat mass, serum insulin levels were measured. The expression of glucose and lipid metabolic related genes in white adipose tissue (WAT) were determined by RT-qPCR and western blot technologies. Results: The administration obese mice with SY significantly reduced the body fat mass of HFD-induced obese mice (P mice were evidently improved. The mRNA levels of insulin signaling pathway related genes including insulin receptor substrate 1(IRS1), PKB protein kinase (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and forkhead box protein O1(FOXO1) in mesenteric WAT of SY treated mice were significantly increased to 1.9- , 2.8- , 3.3- , and 5.9-folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice, respectively (P mice, respectively (P mice (P mice. The possible mechanism is to promote the browning of subcutaneous WAT and activate the IRS1/AKT/GSK3β pathway in visceral WAT. Our study provides an important experimental evidence for developing SY as a potential anti-obesity and anti-diabetic drug.

  12. Body weight gain after radioiodine therapy of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Analysis and follow up of body weight after radioiodine therapy (RITh) of hyperthyroidism, since excessive weight gain is a common complaint among these patients. Methods: Therapy and body weight related data of 100 consecutive RITh-patients were retrospectively analysed from the time before up to three years after RITh. All patients suffered from hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease or autonomy), but were adjusted to euthyroid levels after RITh. Patients' data were compared to a control group of 48 euthyroid patients out of the same ambulance and during the same time scale. Results: All patients (RITh and controls) gained weight over the time. There was no statistically significant difference in BMI development over three years between RITh-patients and controls (5.5% resp. 4.9% increase). In the first year after RITh, weight gain of the RITh patients was higher indeed, but lower in the follow up, resulting in the same range of weight gain after three years as the controls. Besides that women showed a slightly higher increase of BMI than men, and so did younger patients compared to elder as well as patients with overweight already before RITh. Conclusions: An initially distinct increase of body weight after RITh of hyperthyroidism is mainly a compensation of pretherapeutic weight loss due to hyperthyroidism. Presupposing adequate euthyroid adjustment of thyroid metabolism after therapy, RITh is not responsible for later weight gain and adipositas. (orig.)

  13. Live Weight Estimation by Chest Girth, Body Length and Body Volume Formula in Minahasa Local Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Takaendengan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Study was conducted in the regency of Minahasa to estimate horse live weight using its chest girth, body length and body volume formula (cylinder volume formula represented by animal chest girth and body length dimensions, particularly focused in Minahasa local horses. Data on animal live weight (LW, body length (BL, chest girth (CG and body volume were collected from 221 stallions kept by traditional household farmers. Animal body volume was calculated using cylinder volume formula with CG and BL as the components of its formula. Regression analysis was carried out for LW with all the linear body measurements. The data were classified on the basis of age. Age significantly (P0.05. Animal live weight was predicted by simple regression models using dependent variable (Y of the animal live weight and independent variable (X of the animal body measurement, either body length, chest girth, or body volume. The correlations between all pairs of measurements were highly significant (P<0.01 for all age groups. Regression analysis showed that live weight could be predicted accurately from body volume (R2= 0.92 and chest girth (R2= 0.90. Simple regression model that can be recommended to predict horse live weight based on body volume with their age groups ranging from 3 to ≥10 years old was as follow: Live weight (kg= 5.044 + 1.87088 body volume (liters. The analyses of data on horse chest girth, body length and body volume formula provided quantitative measure of body size and shape that were desirable, as they enable genetic parameters for these traits to be estimated and also included in breeding programs.

  14. Body Weight Concerns among Urban Adolescent Girls: A Microlevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Mukhopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing consciousness about ideal body image leads to dietary modifications and consequent eating disorders among girls in developing countries like India. The present study aims to (i assess the prevalence of body weight consciousness and related behaviours among a group of adolescent girls; (ii assess the sociodemographic correlates of weight related behaviours; and (iii compare weight related behaviours of the girls of two religious groups residing in Howrah. The study is the outcome of a cross-sectional school based survey involving 280 (159 Hindu and 121 Muslim girls from standards 8 to 11. Significant differences exist between two religious groups with respect to their family size, socioeconomic profile, and media exposures (in terms of watching television. Consciousness about body weight among girls shows significant difference with respect to religion, family size (χ2=64.77, father’s occupation (χ2=60.28, level of education of both the parents, and media exposure (P<0.05. Consciousness about body weight drives them to adopt several behavioural measures like calorie restriction, food avoidance, and dieting. Sociodemographic correlates of all these behaviours have been analyzed. The study documents that concern over body image and weight loss is quite important among these urban girls.

  15. Baseline of visceral fat area and decreased body weight correlate with improved pulmonary function after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Chinese obese patients with BMI 28–35 kg/m2 and Type 2 diabetes: a 6-month follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Yinfang; Yu, Haoyong; Bao, Yuqian; Zhang, Pin; Di, Jianzhong; Han, Xiaodong; Jia, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Background Associations between demographic data and pulmonary function have not been adequately examined in patients that underwent Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB). This study was designed to examine changes in body fat distribution and metabolic parameters after RYGB and whether these changes correlated with improved lung function. Methods A retrospective review of 32 ethnic Chinese with obesity with body mass index (BMI) 28–35 kg/m2 and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) was conducted, focusing on met...

  16. Lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition among youth with an intellectual disability: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïano, Christophe; Normand, Claude L; Aimé, Annie; Bégarie, Jérôme

    2014-08-01

    Over the past three decades, the potential effects of lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition (weight, body mass index, fat mass, waist circumference) among adults with an intellectual disability (ID) have been examined in various systematic reviews. Nevertheless, since the middle of the 1980s, the potential effects of these interventions for youth with an ID remain an open question. The purpose of this article is to review the effects of lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition among youth with an ID. This review will focus on changes in body weight and composition, healthy lifestyle, and secondary health conditions. A systematic review of English- and French-language studies, published between 1981 and 2013, was performed on Academic Search Complete, PsycARTICLES, Medline and Scopus. The nine studies included in this review focused mainly on: a sample with a wide age range (e.g., 7-22 years); males; overweight-obese youth having a mild-to-moderate ID with Down or Prader-Willi syndrome; physical activity interventions; cohort pre- and post-test designs with/without a control group; and changes in body weight and composition. Taken together, results from these studies suggest successful changes in weight, body mass index and fat mass. However, intervention effects on healthy lifestyle and secondary health conditions are scarce and inconclusive. Given the weaknesses of the reviewed studies, the present findings should be considered preliminary and indicative of the need for future research. PMID:24830882

  17. Total body fat, proinflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in Indian subjects. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban and migrant Indians are experiencing a rapidly escalating epidemic of diabetes and CHD. This may be related to high body fat percentage in Indians and its central distribution which have been shown to be detrimental for metabolism

  18. The association of gut microbiota with body weight and body mass index in preschool children of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epp Sepp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gut microbiota has been shown to affect both fat storage and energy harvesting, suggesting that it plays a direct role in the development of obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intestinal colonization by particular species/groups of the intestinal microbiota is related to body weight values in Estonian preschool children born in different years during the entire 1990s. Methods: Body weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and quantitative composition of cultivable gut microbiota (staphylococci, enterococci, streptococci, enterobacteria, lactobacilli, anaerobic gram-positive cocci, bifidobacteria, eubacteria, bacteroides, clostridia, and candida were studied in 51 healthy 5-year-old children (40 were born between 1993 and 94 and 11 were born between 1996 and 97. Results: At the age of 5 years, median weight was 19.5 kg and median BMI was 15.3 kg/m2. Significantly higher BMI (p=0.006 was found in 5-year-old children born in late versus early 1990s during the development of socioeconomic situation of Estonia (2% rise in gross domestic product. The counts of the different gut bacteria did not show any association with weight and BMI in the 5-year-old children. However, the BMI values were in positive correlation with a relative share of anaerobic gram-positive bacteria, for example, bifidobacteria when adjusted for sex and year of birth (adj R2=0.459, p=0.026 and eubacteria (adj R2=0.484, p=0.014 in the community of cultured intestinal microbiota. The relative share of bacteroides showed a negative correlation with the childrens’ weight (adj R2=− 0.481, p=0.015. Conclusion: The body weight indices of preschool children of the general population are associated with the proportion of anaerobic intestinal microbiota and can be predicted by sex and particular socioeconomic situation from birth to 5 years of age.

  19. Green tea polyphenols reduce body weight in rats by modulating obesity-related genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanwen Lu

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP against obesity have been reported, however, the mechanism of this protection is not clear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify GTP-targeted genes in obesity using the high-fat-diet-induced obese rat model. A total of three groups (n = 12/group of Sprague Dawley (SD female rats were tested, including the control group (rats fed with low-fat diet, the HF group (rats fed with high-fat diet, and the HF+GTP group (rats fed with high-fat diet and GTP in drinking water. The HF group increased body weight as compared to the control group. Supplementation of GTP in the drinking water in the HF+GTP group reduced body weight as compared to the HF group. RNA from liver samples was extracted for gene expression analysis. A total of eighty-four genes related to obesity were analyzed using PCR array. Compared to the rats in the control group, the rats in the HF group had the expression levels of 12 genes with significant changes, including 3 orexigenic genes (Agrp, Ghrl, and Nr3c1; 7 anorectic genes (Apoa4, Cntf, Ghr, IL-1β, Ins1, Lepr, and Sort; and 2 genes that relate to energy expenditure (Adcyap1r1 and Adrb1. Intriguingly, the HF+GTP group restored the expression levels of these genes in the high-fat-induced obese rats. The protein expression levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in the serum samples from the control, HF, and HF+GTP groups confirmed the results of gene expression. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT also showed GTP-regulated protective changes in this obese rat model. Collectively, this study revealed the beneficial effects of GTP on body weight via regulating obesity-related genes, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant capacity, and estrogen-related actions in high-fat-induced obese rats.

  20. Food shopping and weight concern. Balancing consumer and body normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Holm, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their body weight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus...... towards practices and values related to food shopping, this study adds to our understanding of central features in perceptions of normality among people with weight concerns. In a qualitative study 25 people who participated in a dietary intervention trial in Denmark were interviewed and five people were......, practices and experiences of controlling food intake. The paper suggests that freedom and control are composite and complementary ideals of normality for people with weight concerns. On the basis of this insight, the authors discuss the contribution the paper makes to existing studies of weight management...

  1. Visceral Adipocyte Hypertrophy is Associated With Dyslipidemia Independent of Body Composition and Fat Distribution in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Veilleux, Alain; Caron-Jobin, Maude; Noël, Suzanne; Laberge, Philippe Y.; Tchernof, André

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We assessed whether subcutaneous and omental adipocyte hypertrophy are related to metabolic alterations independent of body composition and fat distribution in women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Mean adipocyte diameter of paired subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue samples was obtained in lean to obese women. Linear regression models predicting adipocyte size in both adipose tissue depots were computed using body composition and fat distribution measures (n = 150). In a given dep...

  2. Potentiation of aminoglycoside antibiotic activity using the body fat from the snake Boa constrictor

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe S. Ferreira; Nalba L. G. Silva; Edinardo F.F Matias; Samuel V. Brito; Francisco G. Oliveira; José G. M. Costa; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Waltécio O. Almeida; Alves, Rômulo R. N.

    2011-01-01

    Boa constrictor is widely used in traditional communities in many different folk remedies and products derived from it are sold in public markets throughout northeastern Brazil and as its body fat has many different therapeutic indications as a folk remedy. The present work evaluates the antibacterial activity of the body fat from the snake Boa constrictor when employed either alone or in combination with antibiotics and discusses the ecological implications of the use of this traditional rem...

  3. The Effect of Low Impact and Mixed Impact Aerobic Exercise on Percentage of Body Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Umar Nawawi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of low impact aerobic exercise and mixed impact aerobic exercise on lowering percentage of body fat. Many people have difficulty to stay away from overweight (obesity). It is widely known that obesity is commonly caused by over fat in the body. The populations of this research were female students of Faculty of Sport Science, Universitas Negeri Padang, while the samples were female students Department of Coaching Education. 20 female students were se...

  4. Height, adiposity and body fat distribution and breast density in young women

    OpenAIRE

    Dorgan, Joanne F; Klifa, Catherine; John A. Shepherd; Egleston, Brian L.; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Himes, John H.; Gabriel, Kelley; Van Horn, Linda; Snetselaar, Linda G; Stevens, Victor J.; Barton, Bruce A; Robson, Alan M.; Lasser, Norman L.; Deshmukh, Snehal; Hylton, Nola M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Breast density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, but determinants of breast density in young women remain largely unknown. Methods Associations of height, adiposity and body fat distribution with percentage dense breast volume (%DBV) and absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 174 healthy women, 25 to 29 years old. Adiposity and body fat distribution were measured by anthropometry and dual-energy...

  5. Neck circumference as predictor of excess body fat and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian Siqueira Santos Gonçalves; Eliane Rodrigues de Faria; Sylvia Do Carmo Castro Franceschini; Silvia Eloiza Priore

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify whether neck circumference can predict cardiovascular risk factors and excess body fat in adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included male and female adolescents aged 10 to 14 years from Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The following data were collected: anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, percentage of body fat according to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipop...

  6. Relationships between Weight and Body Dissatisfaction, Body Esteem, and Teasing in African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…

  7. Protein Supplementation with Low Fat Meat after Resistance Training: Effects on Body Composition and Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Negro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beef is a nutrient-rich, high-quality protein containing all the essential amino acids in proportions similar to those found in human skeletal muscle. In order to investigate the efficacy of a beef supplementation strategy on strength and body composition, we recruited 26 young healthy adults to participate in a resistance-training program of eight weeks, based on the use of isotonic machines and free weights at 75% of one repetition maximum. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups, food group and control group, of 12 and 14 subjects respectively. Food group were supplemented after resistance training with a 135 g serving of lean beef (tinned meat, providing 20 g of protein and 1.7 g of fat. No supplementation was provided to control group. Fat mass, fat free mass, lean mass, assessed by bioelectrical impedance analyzer, and muscle strength, assessed by one repetition maximum test, were evaluated in all subjects both at the beginning (week 0 and at the end (week 8 of the study. Pre- and post-training differences were evaluated with paired t-tests while group differences for each outcome parameter was evaluated with independent t-tests. At the end of the study the food group showed a significantly decrease in fat mass (week 0: 15.0 ± 6.7 kg; week 8: 13.1 ± 7.6 kg; Δ: −1.9 ± 2.9 kg; p < 0.05 and a significantly increase in fat free mass (week 0: 52.8 kg ± 9.4; week 8: 55.1 kg ± 10.9; Δ: 2.3 ± 2.5 kg; p < 0.01. No significant differences in lean mass were found in either food group or control group. No significant differences in one repetition maximum tests were found between food group and control group. Tinned meat can be considered a nutrition strategy in addition to other proteins or amino acid supplements, but as with any other supplementation strategy, a proper nutrition plan must be coupled.

  8. Dose-dependent positive association between cigarette smoking, abdominal obesity and body fat: cross-sectional data from a population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques-Vidal Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although smokers tend to have a lower body-mass index than non-smokers, smoking may favour abdominal body fat accumulation. To our knowledge, no population-based studies have assessed the relationship between smoking and body fat composition. We assessed the association between cigarette smoking and waist circumference, body fat, and body-mass index. Methods Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured among 6,123 Caucasians (ages 35-75 from a cross-sectional population-based study in Switzerland. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥102 cm for men and ≥88 cm for women. Body fat (percent total body weight was measured by electrical bioimpedance. Age- and sex-specific body fat cut-offs were used to define excess body fat. Cigarettes smoked per day were assessed by self-administered questionnaire. Age-adjusted means and odds ratios were calculated using linear and logistic regression. Results Current smokers (29% of men and 24% of women had lower mean waist circumference, body fat percentage, and body-mass index compared with non-smokers. Age-adjusted mean waist circumference and body fat increased with cigarettes smoked per day among smokers. The association between cigarettes smoked per day and body-mass index was non-significant. Compared with light smokers, the adjusted odds ratio (OR for abdominal obesity in men was 1.28 (0.78-2.10 for moderate smokers and 1.94 (1.15-3.27 for heavy smokers (P = 0.03 for trend, and 1.07 (0.72-1.58 and 2.15 (1.26-3.64 in female moderate and heavy smokers, respectively (P P = 0.75 for trend and 1.34 (0.89-2.00 and 2.11 (1.25-3.57, respectively in women (P = 0.07 for trend. Conclusion Among smokers, cigarettes smoked per day were positively associated with central fat accumulation, particularly in women.

  9. Insights into the Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini fat body transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Soares de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The insect fat body is a multifunctional organ analogous to the vertebrate liver. The fat body is involved in the metabolism of juvenile hormone, regulation of environmental stress, production of immunity regulator-like proteins in cells and protein storage. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in fat body physiology in stingless bees. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of the fat body from the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. In silico analysis of a set of cDNA library sequences yielded 1728 expressed sequence tags (ESTs and 997 high-quality sequences that were assembled into 29 contigs and 117 singlets. The BLAST X tool showed that 86% of the ESTs shared similarity with Apis mellifera (honeybee genes. The M. scutellaris fat body ESTs encoded proteins with roles in numerous physiological processes, including anti-oxidation, phosphorylation, metabolism, detoxification, transmembrane transport, intracellular transport, cell proliferation, protein hydrolysis and protein synthesis. This is the first report to describe a transcriptomic analysis of specific organs of M. scutellaris. Our findings provide new insights into the physiological role of the fat body in stingless bees.

  10. Insights into the Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) fat body transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Cristina Soares; Serrão, José Eduardo; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Amaral, Isabel Marques Rodrigues; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Maranhão, Andréa Queiroz; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    The insect fat body is a multifunctional organ analogous to the vertebrate liver. The fat body is involved in the metabolism of juvenile hormone, regulation of environmental stress, production of immunity regulator-like proteins in cells and protein storage. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in fat body physiology in stingless bees. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of the fat body from the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. In silico analysis of a set of cDNA library sequences yielded 1728 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and 997 high-quality sequences that were assembled into 29 contigs and 117 singlets. The BLAST X tool showed that 86% of the ESTs shared similarity with Apis mellifera (honeybee) genes. The M. scutellaris fat body ESTs encoded proteins with roles in numerous physiological processes, including anti-oxidation, phosphorylation, metabolism, detoxification, transmembrane transport, intracellular transport, cell proliferation, protein hydrolysis and protein synthesis. This is the first report to describe a transcriptomic analysis of specific organs of M. scutellaris. Our findings provide new insights into the physiological role of the fat body in stingless bees. PMID:23885214

  11. Supplementation with a fish protein hydrolysate (Micromesistius poutassou): effects on body weight, body composition, and CCK/GLP-1 secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Vincenzo; Duclos, Elisa; Michelotti, Angela; Bizzaro, Gioia; Negro, Massimo; Soisson, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Background Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs) have been reported as a suitable source of proteins for human nutrition because of their balanced amino acid composition and positive effect on gastrointestinal absorption. Objective Here, we investigated the effect of a FPH, Slimpro®, obtained from blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) muscle by enzymatic hydrolysis, on body composition and on stimulating cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. Design A randomized clinical study was carried out on 120, slightly overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMIProduct use was associated with a mild hypocaloric diet (−300 kcal/day). Body composition (body weight; fat mass; extracellular water; and circumference of waist, thighs, and hips) and CCK/GLP-1 blood levels were measured at the beginning of the study and after 45 and 90 days of product use. CCK/GLP-1 levels were measured since they are involved in controlling food intake. Results Treated subjects reported an improvement of body weight composition and an increased blood concentration of both CCK and GLP-1. No differences were found between the 1.4 and 2.8 g FPH doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 1.4 g FPH. Conclusions Both 1.4 and 2.8 g of FPH were effective in improving body composition and in increasing CCK and GLP-1 blood levels. PMID:26829186

  12. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  13. The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) in three different ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and ninety-one sub

  14. Numerous Genes in Loci Associated With Body Fat Distribution Are Linked to Adipose Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlman, Ingrid; Rydén, Mikael; Brodin, David; Grallert, Harald; Strawbridge, Rona J; Arner, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Central fat accumulation is a strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous loci associated with body fat distribution. The objectives of the current study are to examine whether genes in genetic loci linked to fat distribution can be linked to fat cell size and number (morphology) and/or adipose tissue function. We show, in a cohort of 114 women, that almost half of the 96 genes in these loci are indeed associated with abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue parameters. Thus, adipose mRNA expression of the genes is strongly related to adipose morphology, catecholamine-induced lipid mobilization (lipolysis), or insulin-stimulated lipid synthesis in adipocytes (lipogenesis). In conclusion, the genetic influence on body fat distribution could be mediated via several specific alterations in adipose tissue morphology and function, which in turn may influence the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26798124

  15. Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Kathy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a community related public health nurses; (b school public health nurses; (c GPs and practice nurses (primary care; and (d occupational health nurses (workplace from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based - to determine the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may

  16. Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moorhead, Anne

    2011-03-31

    Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups\\' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a) community related public health nurses; (b) school public health nurses; (c) GPs and practice nurses (primary care); and (d) occupational health nurses (workplace) from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods\\/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based) - to determine the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals\\' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may

  17. Genetic parameters of body weight and prolificacy in pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaumont Catherine

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic parameters of body weight at weaning and of prolificacy were estimated in three commercial lines of pigeons selected by BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction on both traits. The model of analysis took into account the direct genetic effects for both traits and the effect of parental permanent environment for body weight. Depending on the line considered, body weight varied from 556.7 g to 647.6 g and prolificacy ranged from 12.5 to 16.8 pigeons weaned per couple of parents per year. Heritability of body weight was high, varying between 0.46 and 0.60, and permanent environment was responsible for 6% to 9% of the total variability. On the contrary, prolificacy was poorly heritable (0.04 to 0.12. They were highly and negatively correlated (-0.77 to -0.82. Body weight showed significant genetic trends in lines B and C. No significant genetic difference could be observed between males and females for both traits.

  18. Body image and extreme attitudes toward weight in Brazilian schoolchildren (PeNSE 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moreira Claro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a period characterized by changes such as accelerated physical growth and sexual development. Besides having to deal with these changes, adolescents are faced with beauty standards and extreme valorization of physical appearance. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to describe body image and the practice of extreme attitudes regarding weight in Brazilian students. METHODS: Data from the National Survey of School Health (PeNSE 2012 were used in this study. PeNSE 2012 has a representative sample of students in the 9th grade of elementary school in public and private schools across the country. A self-administered questionnaire on body image, practice of extreme measures in relation to weight and sociodemographic data was used. Body image and the practice of extreme attitudes were described for the total sample and according to gender. Poisson regression analyzes were used to identify differences in the practices of extreme attitudes between the different types of body image. RESULTS: More than 38% of the adolescents did not consider their body image as normal. Over 15% of the students referred to carry out extreme weight control practices, combining practices to loose and gain weight. Adolescents who considered themselves fat presented frequency of extreme practices for weight loss 92% higher than that shown by individuals who considered themselves normal. Similarly, adolescents who considered themselves thin presented frequency of extreme attitudes to gain weight (9.7% higher than that shown by students who considered themselves normal (5.6%. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of extreme weight control practices among Brazilian adolescents is alarming and should be subject of measures in health and education fields.

  19. Conjugated Linoleic Acids Reduce Body Fat in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Toubro, S.;

    2009-01-01

    Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce fat mass FM) and increase insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, murine studies. In humans, this effect is still debatable. In this study, we compared the effect of 2 CLA supplements on total and regional FM assessed by dual energy X...

  20. Importance of Lean Muscle Maintenance to Improve Insulin Resistance by Body Weight Reduction in Female Patients with Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurose, Satoshi; Shinno, Hiromi; Cao Thu, Ha; Takao, Nana; Tsutsumi, Hiromi; Kimura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Background It has recently been suggested that skeletal muscle has an important role in insulin resistance in obesity, in addition to exercise tolerance and the fat index. The aim of this study was to identify body composition factors that contribute to improvement of insulin resistance in female patients with obesity who reduce body weight. Methods We studied 92 female obese patients (age 40.9±10.4 years, body mass index 33.2±4.6 kg/m2) who reduced body weight by ≥5% after an intervention program including diet, exercise therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Before and after the intervention, body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to examine changes in skeletal muscle mass. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was measured as an index of insulin resistance. Cardiopulmonary exercise was also performed by all patients. Results There were significant improvements in body weight (–10.3%±4.5%), exercise tolerance (anaerobic threshold oxygen uptake 9.1%±18.4%, peak oxygen uptake 11.0%±14.2%), and HOMA-IR (–20.2%±38.3%). Regarding body composition, there were significant decreases in total body fat (–19.3%±9.6%), total fat-free mass (–2.7%±4.3%), and % body fat (–10.1%±7.5%), whereas % skeletal muscle significantly increased (8.9%±7.2%). In stepwise multiple linear regression analysis with change in HOMA-IR as the dependent variable, the change in % skeletal muscle was identified as an independent predictor (β=–0.280, R2=0.068, P<0.01). Conclusion Improvement of insulin resistance in female obese patients requires maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. PMID:27126885

  1. Modeling of daily body weights and body weight changes of Nordic Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A

    2015-10-01

    Increased availability of automated weighing systems have made it possible to record massive amounts of body weight (BW) data in a short time. If the BW measurement is unbiased, the changes in BW reflect the energy status of the cow and can be used for management or breeding purposes. The usefulness of the BW data depends on the reliability of the measures. The noise in BW measurements can be smoothed by fitting a parametric or time series model into the BW measurements. This study examined the accuracy of different models to predict BW of the cows based on daily BW measurements and investigated the usefulness of modeling in increasing the value of BW measurements as management and breeding tools. Data included daily BW measurements, production, and intake from 230 Nordic Red dairy cows. The BW of the cows was recorded twice a day on their return from milking. In total, the data included 50,594 daily observations with 98,418 BW measurements. A clear diurnal change was present in the BW of the cows even if they had feed available 24 h. The daily average BW were used in the modeling. Five different models were tested: (1) a cow-wise fixed second-order polynomial regression model (FiX) including the exponential Wilmink term, (2) a random regression model with fixed and random animal lactation stage functions (MiX), (3) MiX with 13 periods of weighing added (PER), (4) natural cubic smoothing splines with 8 equally spaced knots (SPk8), and (5) spline model with no restriction on knots but a smoothing parameter corresponding to a fit of 5 degrees of freedom (SPdf5). In the original measured BW data, the within-animal variation was 6.4% of the total variance. Modeling decreased the within animal variation to levels of 2.9 to 5.1%. The smallest day-to-day variation and thereafter highest day-to-day repeatabilities were with PER and MiX models. The usability of modeled BW as energy balance (EB) indicator were evaluated by estimating relationships between EB, or EB

  2. Effects of Royal Jelly Supplementation on Body Weight and Dietary Intake in Type 2 Diabetic Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmoradian, Samira; Mahdavi, Reza; Mobasseri, Majid; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mobasseri, Mehrnoosh

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of royal jelly supple-mentation on body weight, total daily energy and macronutrients intakes in type2 diabetic fe-males. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, fifty female volunteers with type2 diabetes were as-signed into the supplemented (n=25) and placebo (n=25) groups, given a daily dose of 1000 mg royal jelly soft gel or placebo, for 8 weeks, respectively. Before and after the intervention, body weight and height of subjects were measured and body mass index was calculated. Dietary intake of patients was assessed using 24-hour food recall questionnaire for three non consecutive days (including 1 weekend day) and analyzed with Nutritionist IV software. The normally distributed data were compared using paired and independent t-tests, where appropriate. Results: Royal jelly supplementation significantly (P<0.01) decreased the mean body weight (72.45±4.42 vs. 71.00±6.44 kg) while it increased insignificantly in placebo group (73.02±6.44 vs 73.52±6.80 kg). Royal jelly supplementation resulted in significant decrease of mean daily total energy (P<0.01) and carbohydrate (P<0.01) intakes, while in placebo group the mean daily total energy and fat intakes were increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Supplementation with royal jelly may be beneficial in weight management of di-abetic patients. PMID:24688939

  3. Effects of Royal Jelly Supplementation on Body Weight and Dietary Intake in Type 2 Diabetic Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Pourmoradian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of royal jelly supple-mentation on body weight, total daily energy and macronutrients intakes in type2 diabetic fe-males.Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, fifty female volunteers with type2 diabetes were as-signed into the supplemented (n=25 and placebo (n=25 groups, given a daily dose of 1000 mg royal jelly soft gel or placebo, for 8 weeks, respectively. Before and after the intervention, body weight and height of subjects were measured and body mass index was calculated. Dietary intake of patients was assessed using 24-hour food recall questionnaire for three non consecutive days (including 1 weekend day and analyzed with Nutritionist IV software. The normally distributed data were compared using paired and independent t-tests, where appropriate.Results: Royal jelly supplementation significantly (P<0.01 decreased the mean body weight(72.45±4.42 vs. 71.00±6.44 kg while it increased insignificantly in placebo group (73.02±6.44 vs73.52±6.80 kg. Royal jelly supplementation resulted in significant decrease of mean daily totalenergy (P<0.01 and carbohydrate (P<0.01 intakes, while in placebo group the mean daily totalenergy and fat intakes were increased significantly (P<0.05.Conclusion: Supplementation with royal jelly may be beneficial in weight management of di-abetic patients.

  4. Body Fat Distribution and Its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescent Iranian Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Parizadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationships between body fat distribution, lipid profile and blood pressure, have not been studied extensively in young population. This study was designed to evaluate the association between measures of adiposity and established cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent girls.Methods: A total of 477 adolescent girls aged 15 to 18 years were recruited from Mashhad high schools.Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometricassessments, blood pressure measurement and biochemical assessment were performed. Total and regionalfat mass were determined by bio-impedance analysis. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed in relation to body fat measures with adjustment for confounder factors including age and family socioeconomic status.Findings: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 14.6% and 3.4% respectively; 16% of study population had greater fat mass compared to its ideal distribution. The majority of cardiovascular riskfactors, especially systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride concentration, CRP and fasting blood sugar were significantly higher in group with a high body fat when compared to those with normal and low values. All anthropometric indices showed significant correlation with fat mass, fat free mass, total andregional body fat percent (P<0.001. After adjustment for age and family socioeconomic status, a high fat massespecially, truncal fat, was positively associated with triglyceride and blood pressure.Conclusion: Adiposity, especially truncal adiposity, which can be assessed by simple measures such as Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Circumference (WC may predispose adolescent girls for demonstration of metabolic abnormalities and consequently cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Predicting body weight from body measurements in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hile, M E; Hintz, H F; Erb, H N

    1997-12-01

    Accurate estimates of body weight can be useful in the evaluations of feeding programs, nutritional status and general health, and in calculation of dose levels (such as for anesthesia)-thus providing a valuable tool for captive elephant management. We used body measurements of 75 Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to predict body weight. Weight, heart girth, height at the withers, body length, and foot-pad circumference were measured. All possible linear regressions of weight on one, two, three, or four body measurements were calculated. The highest correlation with a single measurement was that between heart girth and weight (R2 = 0.90). The data were also divided into age groups (1-13, 18-28, 29-39, and 40-57 yr), and all possible linear regressions were calculated for each group (there were no elephants aged 14-17 yr). Adding body length or pad circumference to heart girth resulted in a slight increase in R2. We conclude that body weight in Asian elephants can be predicted from body measurements and that heart girth is the best predictor. A second body measurement might improve predictive accuracy for some age groups. PMID:9523637

  6. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'Abee, Carianne; Visser, G. Henk; Liem, Eryn T.; Kok, Dieuwertje E. G.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aim: Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of this

  7. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abée, l' C.; Visser, G.H.; Liem, E.T.; Kok, D.E.G.; Sauer, P.J.; Stolk, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aim Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of t

  8. MR staging of pelvic endometriosis. Role of fat-suppression T1-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined whether MR can determine the stage of endometriosis according to the scoring system established and revised by the American Fertility Society (r-AFS), a system which is widely used by gynecologists. We also studied the utility of fat suppression T1-weighted images in improving accuracy. Seventeen patients with endometriosis examined by conventional MR were included in this study. All the patients had surgically proved stage III or IV disease. We determined the stage by MR using the following criteria according to the r-AFS system: adnexal masses without normal ovarian tissue were considered deep ovarian lesions, while those with normal tissue were considered superficial. A lack of fat between the lesion and surrounding structures was considered a dense adhesion, and hyperintense spots were considered peritoneal implants. The MR scores of patients with and without fat suppression were correlated with the surgical scores. MR staging corresponded to surgical staging in 15 of the 17 patients. In eight patients, peritoneal implants of less than 1.5 cm were depicted only by fat-suppression images. However, these lesions did not change the score significantly. MR imaging could determine the stage in advanced endometriosis. Fat-suppression could highlight smaller implants. These tiny lesions had little clinical meaning in these advanced cases; however, the clinical value of this technique should be evaluated in milder disease. (author)

  9. Estrogenic plant extracts reverse weight gain and fat accumulation without causing mammary gland or uterine proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise F Saunier

    Full Text Available Long-term estrogen deficiency increases the risk of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Menopausal hormone therapy containing estrogens might prevent these conditions, but its prolonged use increases the risk of breast cancer, as wells as endometrial cancer if used without progestins. Animal studies indicate that beneficial effects of estrogens in adipose tissue and adverse effects on mammary gland and uterus are mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα. One strategy to improve the safety of estrogens to prevent/treat obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome is to develop estrogens that act as agonists in adipose tissue, but not in mammary gland and uterus. We considered plant extracts, which have been the source of many pharmaceuticals, as a source of tissue selective estrogens. Extracts from two plants, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (RG and Pueraria montana var. lobata (RP bound to ERα, activated ERα responsive reporters, and reversed weight gain and fat accumulation comparable to estradiol in ovariectomized obese mice maintained on a high fat diet. Unlike estradiol, RG and RP did not induce proliferative effects on mammary gland and uterus. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that RG and RP induced estradiol-like regulation of genes in abdominal fat, but not in mammary gland and uterus. The compounds in extracts from RG and RP might constitute a new class of tissue selective estrogens to reverse weight gain, fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

  10. [Etiological and exacerbation factors for COPD. Body weight loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akihito

    2016-05-01

    Hunger or malnutrition is not only a historical issue but also a current problem worldwide. Biological responses to hunger are evolutionary prepared in our body, including energy generation by degradation of body proteins. Extreme weight loss (malnutrition) can cause air space enlargement in human and rodents. However, the changes in rodents could be reversible, since refeeding could repair the pathology. On the other hand, weight loss is a common feature in patients with more severe COPD. Complex factors, such as increased energy consumption, decreased food uptake by low grade inflammation, socio-economic factors and so on, are involved in weight loss. Weight loss in patients with COPD also increases the risk of exacerbation, hospitalization, and death. PMID:27254941

  11. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    L'Abee, Carianne; Visser, G. Henk; Liem, Eryn T.; Kok, Dieuwertje E. G.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aim: Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of this study is to compare total body fat, assessed by different methods in non-obese children. Methods: We compared total body fat, assessed by isotope dilution, dual energy X-ray, skinfold thickness, b...

  12. Cost and weight effective composite design of automotive body structures

    OpenAIRE

    Mårtensson, Per

    2014-01-01

    The automotive industry stands in front of a great challenge, to decrease its impact on the environment. One important part in succeeding with this is to decrease the structural weight of the body structure and by that the fuel consumption or the required battery power. Carbon fibre composites are by many seen as the only real option when traditional engineering materials are running out of potential for further weight reduction. However, the automotive industry lacks experience working with ...

  13. Neurotrophic factor control of satiety and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baoji; Xie, Xiangyang

    2016-05-01

    Energy balance - that is, the relationship between energy intake and energy expenditure - is regulated by a complex interplay of hormones, brain circuits and peripheral tissues. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine that suppresses appetite and increases energy expenditure. Ironically, obese individuals have high levels of plasma leptin and are resistant to leptin treatment. Neurotrophic factors, particularly ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are also important for the control of body weight. CNTF can overcome leptin resistance in order to reduce body weight, although CNTF and leptin activate similar signalling cascades. Mutations in the gene encoding BDNF lead to insatiable appetite and severe obesity. PMID:27052383

  14. Social Stress at Work and Change in Women's Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Kottwitz, Maria Undine; Grebner, Simone Irmgard; Semmer, Norbert K.; Tschan, Franziska; ELFERING, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions —specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work— on women’s change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participa...

  15. Changes in body composition during weight loss in obese subjects in the NUGENOB study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdich, C.; Barbe, P.; Petersen, Martin;

    2011-01-01

    AIM: We studied the accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess changes in body composition during moderate weight loss in obese subjects. METHODS: Estimates of changes in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) by BIA were compared with those by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA......) as the reference method during a 10-week standardized weight-loss intervention. In obese women (age: 20-50years, mean BMI: 33.8kg/m(2)) participating in a European multicentre trial (nutrient-gene interactions in human obesity [NUGENOB]), body composition was assessed by BIA (Bodystat QuadScan 4000...... were wide (mean±7-8.5kg). For body-composition changes, although biases were generally non-significant, the limits of agreement were also wide (mean±3.7-4.6kg). An FFM prediction equation for BIA data was developed in subjects scanned with Lunar instruments and cross-validated in an independent sample...

  16. Whole grain and body weight changes in apparently healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies123

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pol, Korrie; Christensen, Robin; Bartels, Else M;

    2013-01-01

    randomized controlled studies of whole-grain compared with a non–whole-grain control in adults. A total of 2516 articles were screened for eligibility, and relevant data were extracted from 26 studies. Weighted mean differences were calculated, and a metaregression analysis was performed by using the whole...... weight compared with control consumption, but a small beneficial effect on body fat may be present. The relatively short duration of intervention studies (≤16 wk) may explain the lack of difference in body weight and fat. Discrepancies between studies may be caused by differences in study design....

  17. The Association of Serum Total Peptide YY (PYY with Obesity and Body Fat Measures in the CODING Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrell Cahill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PYY is an appetite suppressing hormone. Low circulating PYY has been linked to greater BMI. However data is controversial and this association has not been verified in large human populations. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate if fasting serum total PYY is associated with obesity status and/or adiposity at the population level. DESIGN: A total of 2094 subjects (Male-523, Female-1571 participated in this investigation. Total PYY was measured in fasting serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Obesity status (NW-normal-weight, OW-overweight and OB-obese was determined by the Bray Criteria according to body fat percentage measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and the WHO criteria according to BMI. One-way ANOVA and multiple regression was used to assess the adiposity-specific association between PYY and the following; weight, BMI, waist-circumference, hip-circumference, waist-hip ratio, percent body fat (%BF, trunk fat (%TF, android fat (%AF and gynoid fat (%GF. RESULTS: PYY was not significantly different among NW, OW and OB groups defined by neither %BF nor BMI for both men and women. However among women, fasting PYY was positively associated with adiposity measures. Women with the highest (Top 33% waist-circumference, %BF and %TF had significantly higher PYY (10.5%, 8.3% and 9.2% respectively than women with the lowest (Bottom 33%. Age, smoking, medication use and menopause were all positively associated with PYY levels in women but not in men. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the largest population based study, with the most comprehensive analysis and measures of confounding factors, to explore the relationship of circulating PYY with obesity. Contrary to initial findings in the literature we discovered that PYY was positively associated with body fat measures (waist-circumference, %BF and %TF in women. Although the effect size of the positive association of PYY with obesity in women is small, and

  18. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor

  19. Fatty Acid Synthase and Hormone-sensitive Lipase Expression in Liver Are Involved in Zinc-α2-glycoprotein-induced Body Fat Loss in Obese Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-ying Gong; Jie-ying Deng; Hui-juan Zhu; Hui Pan; Lin-jie Wang; Hong-bo Yang

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of zinc-a2-glycoprotein (ZAG) on body weight and body fat in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice and the possible mechanism.Methods Thirty-six male mice were fed with standard food (SF) (n=9) and HFD (n=27), respec-tively. Five weeks later, 9 mice fed with HFD were subjected to ZAG expression plasmid DNA transfection by liposome transfection method, and another 9 mice to negative control plasmid transfection. Two weeks later, serum ZAG level in the mice was assayed by Western blot, and the effects of ZAG over-expression on body weight, body fat, serum biochemical indexes, and adipose tissue of obese mice were evaluated. The mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in liver tissue were de-termined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.Results Serum ZAG level significantly lowered in simple HFD-fed mice in comparison to SF-fed mice (0.51±0.10 AU vs. 0.75±0.07 AU, P<0.01). Further statistical analysis demonstrated that ZAG level was negatively correlated with body weight (r =-0.56, P<0.001), epididymal fat mass (r=-0. 67, P<0.001), percentage of epididymal fat (r=-0.65, P<0.001 ), and increased weight (r=-0.57, P<0.001) in simple SF-and HFD-fed mice. ZAG over-expression in obese mice reduced body weight and the percentage of epididy-mal fat. Furthermore, FAS mRNA expression decreased (P<0.01) and HSL mRNA expression increased (P<0.001) in the liver in ZAG over-expressing mice.Conclusions ZAG is closely related to obesity. Serum ZAG level is inversely correlated with body weight and percentage of body fat. The action of ZAG is associated with reduced FAS expression and in-creased HSL expression in the liver of obese mice.

  20. Allelic variants of melanocortin 3 receptor gene (MC3R and weight loss in obesity: a randomised trial of hypo-energetic high- versus low-fat diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L Santos

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The melanocortin system plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Mice genetically deficient in the melanocortin-3 receptor gene have a normal body weight with increased body fat, mild hypophagia compared to wild-type mice. In humans, Thr6Lys and Val81Ile variants of the melanocortin-3 receptor gene (MC3R have been associated with childhood obesity, higher BMI Z-score and elevated body fat percentage compared to non-carriers. The aim of this study is to assess the association in adults between allelic variants of MC3R with weight loss induced by energy-restricted diets. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This research is based on the NUGENOB study, a trial conducted to assess weight loss during a 10-week dietary intervention involving two different hypo-energetic (high-fat and low-fat diets. A total of 760 obese patients were genotyped for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the single exon of MC3R gene and its flanking regions, including the missense variants Thr6Lys and Val81Ile. Linear mixed models and haplotype-based analysis were carried out to assess the potential association between genetic polymorphisms and differential weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. RESULTS: No differences in drop-out rate were found by MC3R genotypes. The rs6014646 polymorphism was significantly associated with weight loss using co-dominant (p = 0.04 and dominant models (p = 0.03. These p-values were not statistically significant after strict control for multiple testing. Haplotype-based multivariate analysis using permutations showed that rs3827103-rs1543873 (p = 0.06, rs6014646-rs6024730 (p = 0.05 and rs3746619-rs3827103 (p = 0.10 displayed near-statistical significant results in relation to weight loss. No other significant associations or gene*diet interactions were detected for weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. CONCLUSION: The study

  1. ESTIMATION OF LIVE BODY WEIGHT FROM LINEAR BODY MEASUREMENTS FOR FARTA SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENGISTIE TAYE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study, to develop regression models for prediction of body weight from other linear body measurements, was conducted in Esite, Farta and Lai-Gaint districts of South Gondar, Amhara region. Records on body weight (BW and other linear body measurements (Body Length (BL, Wither Height (WH, Chest Girth (CH, Pelvic Width (PW and Ear Length (EL were taken from 941 sheep. Non-linear, simple linear and multiple linear regression models were developed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 12.0. For the multiple linear regressions, step-wise regression procedures were used. Predicting models were developed for different age, sex and for the pool. Positive and significant (P<0.01 correlations were observed between body weight and linear body measurements for all sex and age groups. Among the four linear body measurements, heart girth had the highest correlation coefficient (except ear length in all age and sex groups which is followed by body length, height at wither and pelvic width. Heart girth was the first variable to explain more variation than other variables in both sex and age groups. The models developed had a coefficient of determination of 0.26 to 0.89; the highest coefficient of determination was depicted for male while the lowest was for dentition groups having two permanent incisors. Regression models in general were poor in explaining weight for the dentition groups above one pair of permanent incisors. Heart girth alone was able to estimate weight with a coefficient of determination of 0.77, for both sexes and the pool. The coefficient of determination of the fitted equations (in general decreased as the age of sheep advances indicating that the fitted equations can predict weight for younger sheep with better accuracy than for older ones. In general, much of the variation in weight was explained when many traits were included in the model. However, for ease of use and to avoid complexity at field condition, it is

  2. Birth weight, current body weight, and blood pressure in late adolescence.

    OpenAIRE

    Seidman, D S; Laor, A.; Gale, R; Stevenson, D K; Mashiach, S; Danon, Y L

    1991-01-01

    Objective--To study the effect of birth weight and body weight on blood pressure in late adolescence. Design--Analysis of data on weight, height, and blood pressure at age 17 of subjects from the Jerusalem perinatal study, according to their birth weight. Data for men and women were analysed separately. Setting--Jerusalem, Israel. Subjects--32,580 subjects (19,734 men and 12,846 women) born in the three major hospitals in Jerusalem during 1964-71 and subsequently drafted in to the army. MAIN ...

  3. A study of percentage body fat in children via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percentage body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and skin fold calipers on 26 children (nine in obesity group, 12 in healthy group and 5 in steroid treated group). Mean percent body fat did not differ significantly between methods in the whole subjects as well as the healthy group and the steroid treated group. However, the mean percent body fat using skin fold caliper was higher for the obesity group than the other two. The measurements of all cases in the obesity group by DEXA were higher than those of BIA. There were high correlations among the percent body fat obtained by each technique. According to the analysis of mean regional percent fat, the percent fat of legs was the highest in the healthy and steroid treated group, while there was no regional difference in the obesity group. It should be possible to classify each case in the obesity group into upper segment and lower segment obesity by DEXA. (author)

  4. Impact of changes in weight, fat depth, and loin muscle depth on carcass yield and value and implications for selection and pricing of rams from terminal-sire sheep breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding objectives and selection indexes are necessary to support comprehensive genetic improvement programs. This study used off-test body weights (OTBW) or chilled carcass weights (CCW), ultrasonic measurements of fat depth (USFD, mm), and predicted ultrasound loin muscle depths (USLMD, mm) from ...

  5. Reference curves of the body fat index in adolescents and their association with anthropometric variables

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Rago Frignani; Maria Aparecida Zanetti Passos; Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari; Sheila Rejane Niskier; Mauro Fisberg; Isa de Pádua Cintra

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop reference curves for the body fat index (BFI) in the pediatric population, in adolescents from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, and verify their association with body mass index and body fat percentage. METHODS: The study is part of the research project "Nutritional Profile of Adolescents from Public and Private Schools of São Paulo" that was performed in 2004-2005. A total of 4,686 adolescents (2,130 boys and 2,556 girls) aged 10-15 years were divided into two groups: 10...

  6. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, “BMIref”), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m2, respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders’ and ethnicities’ trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40–50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  7. Cardiometabolic risk markers of normal weight and excess body weight in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroeni, Silmara Salete de Barros Silva; Mastroeni, Marco Fabio; Gonçalves, Muryel de Carvalho; Debortoli, Guilherme; da Silva, Nilza Nunes; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Adamovski, Maristela; Veugelers, Paul J; Rondó, Patrícia Helen de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Excess body weight leads to a variety of metabolic changes and increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of risk markers for CVD among Brazilian adolescents of normal weight and with excess body weight. The markers included blood pressure, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, fibrinogen, fasting insulin and glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides. We calculated odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders such as age, sex, physical activity, and socioeconomic background. Compared with normal weight subjects, overweight/obese adolescents were more likely to have higher systolic blood pressure (OR = 3.49, p overweight increased to 11.09 (95% CI: 4.05-30.35). In conclusion, excess body weight in adolescents exhibits strong associations with several markers that are established as causes of CVD in adults. This observation stresses the importance of primary prevention and of maintaining a healthy body weight throughout adolescence to reduce the global burden of CVD. PMID:27227571

  8. Dietary effects on body weight of predatory mites (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goleva, Irina; Rubio Cadena, Esteban C; Ranabhat, Nar B; Beckereit, Caroline; Zebitz, Claus P W

    2015-08-01

    Pollen is offered as alternative or supplementary food for predacious mites; however, it may vary in its nutritional value. Body weight appears a representative parameter to describe food quality. Thus, we assessed the body weight for adults of the generalist mites Amblyseius swirskii, Amblydromalus limonicus, and Neoseiulus cucumeris reared on 22, 12, and 6 pollen species, respectively. In addition, A. swirskii and A. limonicus was reared on codling moth eggs. In all mite species, female body weight was higher than that of males, ranging between 4.33 and 8.18 µg for A. swirskii, 2.56-6.53 µg for A. limonicus, and 4.66-5.92 µg for N. cucumeris. Male body weight ranged between 1.78 and 3.28 µg, 1.37-3.06 µg, and 2.73-3.03 µg, respectively. Nutritional quality of pollen was neither consistent among the mite species nor among sex, revealing superior quality of Quercus macranthera pollen for females of A. swirskii and Tulipa gesneriana pollen for males, Alnus incana pollen for females of A. limonicus and Aesculus hippocastanum pollen for males, and Ae. hippocastanum pollen for both sexes of N. cucumeris. The results are discussed against the background of known or putative pollen chemistry and mite's nutritional physiology. PMID:26014648

  9. Religion and body weight in an underserved population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Religions prominence in some underserved groups that bear a disproportionate burden of the obesity epidemic (e.g. rural, Southern, minority) may play an important role in body weight. Data (1662 African American and Caucasian adults aged 18+) from a representative U.S. sample of a predominately rura...

  10. Body Dissatisfaction, Dietary Restraint, Depression, and Weight Status in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…

  11. Comparison of two field methods for estimating body fat in different spanish dance disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Marfell-Jones, Mike; Alacid, Fernando; Artero Orta, Pedro; Correas-Gómez, Lorena; Santonja Medina, Fernando; Carnero, Elvis A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate percentage body fat (%BF) differences in three Spanish dance disciplines and to compare skinfold and bioelectrical impedance predictions of body fat percentage in the same sample. Seventy-six female dancers, divided into three groups, Classical (n=23), Spanish (n=29) and Flamenco (n=24), were measured using skinfold measurements at four sites: triceps, subscapular, biceps and iliac crest, and whole body multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance (BIA). The skinfold measures were used to predict body fat percentage via Durnin and Womersley's and Segal, Sun and Yannakoulia equations by BIA. Differences in percent fat mass between groups (Classical, Spanish and Flamenco) were tested by using repeated measures analysis (ANOVA). Also, Pearson's product-moment correlations were performed on the body fat percentage values obtained using both methods. In addition, Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement, between anthropometric and BIA methods. Repeated measures analysis of variance did not found differences in %BF between modalities (p<0.05). Fat percentage correlations ranged from r= 0.57 to r=0.97 (all, p<0.001). Bland-Altman analysis revealed differences between BIA Yannakoulia as a reference method with BIA Segal (-0.35 ± 2.32%, 95%CI: -0.89to 0.18, p=0.38), with BIA Sun (-0.73 ± 2.3%, 95%CI: -1.27 to -0.20, p=0.014) and Durnin-Womersley (-2.65 ± 2,48%, 95%CI: -3.22 to -2.07, p<0.0001). It was concluded that body fat percentage estimates by BIA compared with skinfold method were systematically different in young adult female ballet dancers, having a tendency to produce underestimations as %BF increased with Segal and Durnin-Womersley equations compared to Yannakoulia, concluding that these methods are not interchangeable. PMID:25238839

  12. Bone, fat, and body composition: evolving concepts in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Clifford J; Klibanski, Anne

    2009-05-01

    Disorders of body composition, including obesity and osteoporosis, have reached record proportions. Coincidentally, our understanding of the mechanisms controlling body mass also has greatly improved. Shared regulation at the hypothalamus and the bone marrow highlight major bone-fat interactions. The hypothalamus modulates fat and bone via the sympathetic nervous system by regulating appetite, insulin sensitivity, energy use, and skeletal remodeling. In the bone marrow, fat and bone cells arise from the same stem cells. Insights from disorders such as anorexia nervosa provide a new rationale for examining the mechanisms that link bone to fat. This article explores these relationships in the context of a new paradigm with implications for obesity and osteoporosis. PMID:19375545

  13. Topographical body fat distribution links to amino acid and lipid metabolism in healthy obese women [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Pierre J Martin

    Full Text Available Visceral adiposity is increasingly recognized as a key condition for the development of obesity related disorders, with the ratio between visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT reported as the best correlate of cardiometabolic risk. In this study, using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 y, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2 under healthy clinical conditions and monitored over a 2 weeks period we examined the relationships between different body composition parameters, estimates of visceral adiposity and blood/urine metabolic profiles. Metabonomics and lipidomics analysis of blood plasma and urine were employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of body composition and abdominal fat distribution using iDXA and computerized tomography. Of the various visceral fat estimates, VAT/SAT and VAT/total abdominal fat ratios exhibited significant associations with regio-specific body lean and fat composition. The integration of these visceral fat estimates with metabolic profiles of blood and urine described a distinct amino acid, diacyl and ether phospholipid phenotype in women with higher visceral fat. Metabolites important in predicting visceral fat adiposity as assessed by Random forest analysis highlighted 7 most robust markers, including tyrosine, glutamine, PC-O 44∶6, PC-O 44∶4, PC-O 42∶4, PC-O 40∶4, and PC-O 40∶3 lipid species. Unexpectedly, the visceral fat associated inflammatory profiles were shown to be highly influenced by inter-days and between-subject variations. Nevertheless, the visceral fat associated amino acid and lipid signature is proposed to be further validated for future patient stratification and cardiometabolic health diagnostics.

  14. Maternal low-dose estradiol-17β exposure during pregnancy impairs postnatal progeny weight development and body composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner Fürst, Rainer [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); ZIEL PhD Graduate school ‘Epigenetics, Imprinting and Nutrition’, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Pistek, Veronika Leopoldine; Kliem, Heike [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Skurk, Thomas; Hauner, Hans [ZIEL Dep. Nutritional Medicine, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 81675 München (Germany); Meyer, Heinrich Herman Dietrich [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Ulbrich, Susanne Ernestine, E-mail: ulbrich@wzw.tum.de [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity play an important role as obesogens. However, studies investigating the most potent natural estrogen, estradiol-17β (E2), at low dose are lacking. We examined endocrine and physiological parameters in gilts receiving distinct concentrations of E2 during pregnancy. We then investigated whether adverse effects prevail in progeny due to a potential endocrine disruption. E2 was orally applied to gilts during the entire period of pregnancy. The concentrations represented a daily consumption at the recommended ADI level (0.05 μg/kg body weight/day), at the NOEL (10 μg/kg body weight/day) and at a high dosage (1000 μg/kg body weight/day). Plasma hormone concentrations were determined using enzyme immuno assays. Offspring body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. In treated gilts receiving 1000 μg E2/kg body weight/day we found significantly elevated plasma E2 levels during pregnancy, paralleled by an increased weight gain. While offspring showed similar weight at birth, piglets exhibited a significant reduction in weight at weaning even though their mothers had only received 0.05 μg E2/kg body weight/day. At 8 weeks of age, specifically males showed a significant increase in overall body fat percentage. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to low doses of E2 affected pig offspring development in terms of body weight and composition. In line with findings from other obesogens, our data suggest a programming effect during pregnancy for E2 causative for the depicted phenotypes. Therefore, E2 exposure may imply a possible contribution to childhood obesity. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the potential role of estradiol-17β (E2) as an obesogen. ► We orally apply E2 at the ADI, NOEL and a high dose to gilts during pregnancy. ► Offspring weight is similar at birth but reduced at weaning even after ADI treatment. ► Male offspring only exhibit an increase in overall body fat percentage

  15. Maternal low-dose estradiol-17β exposure during pregnancy impairs postnatal progeny weight development and body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity play an important role as obesogens. However, studies investigating the most potent natural estrogen, estradiol-17β (E2), at low dose are lacking. We examined endocrine and physiological parameters in gilts receiving distinct concentrations of E2 during pregnancy. We then investigated whether adverse effects prevail in progeny due to a potential endocrine disruption. E2 was orally applied to gilts during the entire period of pregnancy. The concentrations represented a daily consumption at the recommended ADI level (0.05 μg/kg body weight/day), at the NOEL (10 μg/kg body weight/day) and at a high dosage (1000 μg/kg body weight/day). Plasma hormone concentrations were determined using enzyme immuno assays. Offspring body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. In treated gilts receiving 1000 μg E2/kg body weight/day we found significantly elevated plasma E2 levels during pregnancy, paralleled by an increased weight gain. While offspring showed similar weight at birth, piglets exhibited a significant reduction in weight at weaning even though their mothers had only received 0.05 μg E2/kg body weight/day. At 8 weeks of age, specifically males showed a significant increase in overall body fat percentage. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to low doses of E2 affected pig offspring development in terms of body weight and composition. In line with findings from other obesogens, our data suggest a programming effect during pregnancy for E2 causative for the depicted phenotypes. Therefore, E2 exposure may imply a possible contribution to childhood obesity. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the potential role of estradiol-17β (E2) as an obesogen. ► We orally apply E2 at the ADI, NOEL and a high dose to gilts during pregnancy. ► Offspring weight is similar at birth but reduced at weaning even after ADI treatment. ► Male offspring only exhibit an increase in overall body fat percentage

  16. Self-estimation of Body Fat is More Accurate in College-age Males Compared to Females

    OpenAIRE

    HANCOCK, HALLEY L.; Jung, Alan P.; Petrella, John K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of gender on the ability to accurately estimate one’s own body fat percentage. Fifty-five college-age males and 99 college-age females participated. Participants estimated their own body fat percent before having their body composition measured using a BOD POD. Participants also completed a modified Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS). Estimated body fat was significantly lower compared to measured body fat percent in females (26.8±5.6% vs. 30.2±7.0%...

  17. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  18. Differences in nutrient uptake between the fat body and embryonic primary cultures of silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEILA MATINDOOST; JALAL J. SENDI; HOORIEH SOLEIMAN JAHI; KAYVAN ETEBARI

    2006-01-01

    Nutrition utilization and by-product formation in cultured insect cells has been investigated in several insect cells and has been of great interest to cell culturists and physiologists. In this research the biochemical changes in embryonic and fat body primary cultures of silkworm, Bombyx mori, have been compared. TC-100 medium supplemented with 10% and 20% FBS was used in embryonic and fat body primary cultures, respectively.Medium was renewed every week and the amount of glucose, uric acid, urea, total protein and alkaline phosphatase were measured in the samples from medium of primary cultures using spectrophotometeric methods. All biochemical macromolecules except uric acid showed significant changes. Glucose decreased in embryonic tissues, while in fat body culture its amount increased. Urea accumulation in embryonic culture was higher than in the fat body cultures. Since urea is a by-product, this accumulation could be due to higher utilization of amino acids. Total protein showed considerable changes and was consumed by embryonic culture more than the fat body' s. Alkaline phosphatase showed stronger activity in embryonic cells.

  19. Body mass, fat percentage, and fat free mass as reference variables for lung function: effects on terms for age and sex

    OpenAIRE

    COTES, J; Chinn, D.; Reed, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Sex specific cross sectional reference values for lung function indices usually employ a linear model with terms for age and stature. The effects of also matching for body mass index (BMI= mass/stature2) or its components, fat percentage of body mass (fat%) and fat free mass index (FFMI = fat free mass/stature2) were studied.
METHODS—The subjects were 458 asymptomatic male and female non-smokers (383 men) and 22 female ex-smokers. Measurements were made of ventila...

  20. Diffusion-weighted imaging in pediatric body magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavhan, Govind B; Caro-Dominguez, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Diffusion-weighted MRI is being increasingly used in pediatric body imaging. Its role is still emerging. It is used for detection of tumors and abscesses, differentiation of benign and malignant tumors, and detection of inflamed bowel segments in inflammatory bowel disease in children. It holds great promise in the assessment of therapy response in body tumors, with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value as a potential biomarker. Significant overlap of ADC values of benign and malignant processes and less reproducibility of ADC measurements are hampering its widespread use in clinical practice. With standardization of the technique, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is likely to be used more frequently in clinical practice. We discuss the principles and technique of DWI, selection of b value, qualitative and quantitative assessment, and current status of DWI in evaluation of disease processes in the pediatric body. PMID:27229502

  1. Effect of weight, sex and hunting period on fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artūras Šiukščius

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the influence of weight, sex and month of hunting on the fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from 49 free ranging wild boars hunted in Lithuania during the winter season. A total number of 27 and 25 fatty acids were identified in the intramuscular fat and subcutaneous tissue of wild boars, respectively. The weight of the wild boar had mainly affected only the levels of separate fatty acids both in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. Higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA were found in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat of males compared with females. The effect of both weight and sex on the levels of fatty acids was higher in the subcutaneous fat than in the intramuscular fat. Weight, sex and hunting month had no effect on PUFA/SFA and n-6 PUFA/n-3 PUFA ratios in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. The atherogenic (AI and thrombogenic (TI indexes and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio in subcutaneous fat were more favorable in females compared with males and in the January hunting season than in November and December.

  2. Social stress at work and change in women's body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottwitz, Maria U; Grebner, Simone; Semmer, Norbert K; Tschan, Franziska; Elfering, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions--specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work--on women's change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic. PMID:24429516

  3. Lifestyle patterns associated with diet, physical activity, body mass index and amount of recent weight loss in a sample of successful weight losers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuglestad Paul T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that the interaction between biological susceptibility and environmental risk is complex and that further study of behavioral typologies related to obesity and associated behaviors is important to further elucidate the nature of obesity risk and how to approach it for intervention. The current investigation aims to identify phenotypical lifestyle patterns that might begin to unify our understanding of obesity and obesity related behaviors. Methods Individuals who had recently lost substantial weight of their own initiative completed measures of intentional weight control behaviors and lifestyle behaviors associated with eating. These behaviors were factor analyzed and the resulting factors were examined in relation to BMI, recent weight loss, diet, and physical activity. Results Four meaningful lifestyle and weight control behavioral factors were identified— regularity of meals, TV related viewing and eating, intentional strategies for weight control, and eating away from home. Greater meal regularity was associated with greater recent weight loss and greater fruit and vegetable intake. Greater TV related viewing and eating was associated with greater BMI and greater fat and sugar intake. More eating away from home was related to greater fat and sugar intake, lower fruit and vegetable intake, and less physical activity. Greater use of weight control strategies was most consistently related to better weight, diet, and physical activity outcomes. Conclusions Compared to the individual behavior variables, the identified lifestyle patterns appeared to be more reliably related to diet, physical activity, and weight (both BMI and recent weight loss. These findings add to the growing body of literature identifying behavioral patterns related to obesity and the overall weight control strategy of eating less and exercising more. In future research it will be important to replicate these behavioral factors (over

  4. Genetic association study of common mitochondrial variants on body fat mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie-Lin Yang

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a central role in ATP production and energy metabolism. Previous studies suggest that common variants in mtDNA are associated with several common complex diseases, including obesity. To test the hypothesis that common mtDNA variants influence obesity-related phenotypes, including BMI and body fat mass, we genotyped a total of 445 mtSNPs across the whole mitochondrial genome in a large sample of 2,286 unrelated Caucasian subjects. 72 of these 445 mtSNPs passed quality control criteria, and were used for subsequent analyses. We also classified all subjects into nine common European haplogroups. Association analyses were conducted for both BMI and body fat mass with single mtSNPs and mtDNA haplogroups. Two mtSNPs, mt4823 and mt8873 were detected to be significantly associated with body fat mass, with adjusted P values of 4.94 × 10⁻³ and 4.58 × 10⁻², respectively. The minor alleles mt4823 C and mt8873 A were associated with reduced fat mass values and the effect size (β was estimated to be 3.52 and 3.18, respectively. These two mtSNPs also achieved nominally significant levels for association with BMI. For haplogroup analyses, we found that haplogroup X was strongly associated with both BMI (adjusted P = 8.31 × 10⁻³ and body fat mass (adjusted P = 5.67×10⁻⁴ Subjects classified as haplogroup X had lower BMI and fat mass values, with the β estimated to be 2.86 and 6.03, respectively. Our findings suggest that common variants in mitochondria might play a role in variations of body fat mass. Further molecular and functional studies will be needed to clarify the potential mechanism.

  5. Preliminary radiation protection tests for the body height and body weight of the Chinese reference man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation protection standard recommended by ICRP was evaluated in terms of its suitability for Chinese people. The body height and weight of 100,325 healthy Chinese were measured and anatomical data collected from usable corpses of persons who died by accident or sudden death. The data included the size and weight of certain organs. 18 refs

  6. Liuwei Dihuang Lowers Body Weight and Improves Insulin and Leptin Sensitivity in Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Perry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the efficacy and mechanism(s of action of a Chinese herbal formulation, Liuwei Dihuang (LWDH, as a prospective natural weight-lowering product. Following a 2-week acclimation period, 48 obesity-prone (OP-CD rats were divided into 4 groups (n=12 each. One group served as a positive control for obesity (OP, while the other 3 were challenged twice daily by oral gavage with total daily dosages of 500, 1500, or 3500 mg/kg BW LWDH, respectively, for 10 weeks. One group (n=12 of obesity-resistant (OR-CD rats served as the normal control group. All rats were fed the same AIN-93G diet modified to contain 60% energy from fat. The highest LWDH dose significantly reduced body weight during the last 4 weeks of treatment. Food intake was reduced beginning in week 2. The high LWDH dose lowered serum triglyceride (TG and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA levels and body fat. Both the high and medium doses also lowered serum leptin and insulin levels. Liver function testing revealed no adverse side effects under the current experimental conditions. The results of the present study suggest that LWDH has potential as a preventive or therapeutic natural product against overweight and obesity.

  7. Unconventional dose administrations: modifications of body and small intestine weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modifications of body and small intestine weight were analyzed after abdominal irradiation in rats. Different doses were administered in single sessions, in two equal fractions with different splits, in multiple daily fractionations, varying the amount of the dose and the intervals among fractions. The results show that body weight gradually decreased after irradiation and only after many days it returned to control levels. Small intestine weight decreased starting from early intervals, and a rapid increase over controls was observed at 5 days. A return to control levels was reaches later. Multiple-daily-fractionation (MDF) irradiation with 12 Gy (1200 rad) produced modifications less evident than the same dose administered in single session and appeared more similar to those observed after 6 or 8 Gy, according to the different splits used. The more marked the damage the lower the interval between fractions when a total dose of 12 Gy was administered in two fractions. The modifications after 6 Gy MDF were less marked than after a single session of the same magnitude, both in body and small-intestinal weight. In conclusion the MDF used in these experiments produced a damage very easily recovered by the organism in spite of the short time of dose administration. (orig.)

  8. Genetic parameters for level and change of body condition score and body weight in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    (Co)variance components for body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), BCS change, BW change, and milk yield traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 6646 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, and(or) milk yield at different stages of lactation from 74 dairy herds

  9. Adolescent Boys and Body Image: Weight and Muscularity Concerns as Dual Pathways to Body Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.

    2005-01-01

    This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…

  10. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J;

    2013-01-01

    ), and postmenopausal (n = 14)]. Estimated insulin sensitivity was obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Fat oxidation and energy expenditure were measured during an acute exercise bout of 45 min of ergometer...... biking at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps muscle were obtained before and immediately after the exercise bout. Postmenopausal women had 33% [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 12-55] lower whole body fat oxidation (P = 0.005) and 19% (CI...... 95%: 9-22) lower energy expenditure (P = 0.02) during exercise, as well as 4.28 kg lower lean body mass (LBM) than premenopausal women. Correction for LBM reduced differences in fat oxidation to 23% (P = 0.05), whereas differences in energy expenditure disappeared (P = 0.22). No differences between...

  11. Potentiation of aminoglycoside antibiotic activity using the body fat from the snake Boa constrictor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe S. Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Boa constrictor is widely used in traditional communities in many different folk remedies and products derived from it are sold in public markets throughout northeastern Brazil and as its body fat has many different therapeutic indications as a folk remedy. The present work evaluates the antibacterial activity of the body fat from the snake Boa constrictor when employed either alone or in combination with antibiotics and discusses the ecological implications of the use of this traditional remedy. Oil (OBC was extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of B. constrictor using hexane as a solvent. The antibacterial activity of OBC was tested against standard as well as multi-resistant lines, either alone and in combination with antibiotics. OBC did not demonstrate any relevant antibacterial activity against standard or multidrug-resistant bacterial strains. OBC showed synergistic activity when combined with the aminoglycoside antibiotics. Our results indicate that the body fat of Boa constrictor does not possess bactericidal activity, from the clinical point of view, but when combined with an antibiotic, the fat demonstrated a significant synergistic activity.

  12. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morinaka Tomoko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students daily physical activity by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass index by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass index among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical activity plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical activity for controlling body mass index and for the prevention of obesity.

  13. Weight loss on stimulant medication: how does it affect body composition and bone metabolism? – A prospective longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulton Alison

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Children treated with stimulant medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD often lose weight. It is important to understand the implications of this during growth. This prospective study was designed to quantify the changes in body composition and markers of bone metabolism on starting treatment. Methods 34 children (29 boys aged 4.7 to 9.1 years newly diagnosed with ADHD were treated with dexamphetamine or methylphenidate, titrating the dose to optimise the therapeutic response. Medication was continued for as long as clinically indicated. Body composition and bone density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured at baseline, 6 months and 3 years; changes were analysed in Z-scores based on data from 241 healthy, local children. Markers of bone turnover were measured at baseline, 3 months and 3 years. Results Fat loss of 1.4±0.96kg (total fat 5.7±3.6 to 4.3±3.1kg, p Conclusions Stimulant medication was associated with early fat loss and reduced bone turnover. Lean tissue including bone increased more slowly over 3 years of continuous treatment than would be expected for growth in height. There was long-term improvement in the proportion of central fat for height. This study shows that relatively minor reductions in weight on stimulant medication can be associated with long-term changes in body composition. Further study is required to determine the effects of these changes on adult health.

  14. Image Quality Stability of Whole-body Diffusion Weighted Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-bin Chen; Chun-miao Hu; Jing Zhong; Fei Sun

    2009-01-01

    To assess the reproducibility of whole-body diffusion weighted imaging (WB-DWI) technique in healthy volunteers under normal breathing with background body signal suppression. Methods WB-DWI was performed on 32 healthy volunteers twice within two-week period using short TI inversion-recovery diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging sequence and built-in body coil. The volunteers were scanned across six stations continuously covering the entire body from the head to the feet under normal breathing. The bone apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and exponential ADC (eADC) of regions of interest (ROIs) were measured. We analyzed correlation of the results using paired-t-test to assess the reproducibility of the WB-DWl technique.Results We were successful in collecting and analyzing data of 64 WB-DWI images. There was no significant difference in bone ADC and eADC of 824 ROIs between the paired observers and paired scans (P>0.05). Most of the images from all stations were of diagnostic quality.Conclusion The measurements of bone ADC and eADC have good reproducibility. WB-DWI technique under normal breathing with background body signal suppression is adequate.

  15. Metabolic Syndrome in Italian Obese Children and Adolescents: Stronger Association with Central Fat Depot than with Insulin Sensitivity and Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Brufani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate whether body fat distribution, birth weight, and family history for diabetes (FHD were associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS in children and adolescents. Methods. A total of 439 Italian obese children and adolescents (5–18 years were enrolled. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: prepubertal and pubertal. MetS was diagnosed according to the adapted National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Birth weight percentile, central obesity index (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, insulin sensitivity (ISI, and disposition index were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine variables associated with MetS. Results. The prevalence of MetS was 17%, with higher percentage in adolescents than in children (21 versus 12%. In the overall population, central obesity index was a stronger predictor of MetS than insulin sensitivity and low birth weight. When the two groups were considered, central fat depot remained the strongest predictor of MetS, with ISI similarly influencing the probability of MetS in the two groups and birth weight being negatively associated to MetS only in pubertal individuals. Neither FHD nor degree of fatness was a significant predictor of MetS. Conclusion. Simple clinical parameters like increased abdominal adiposity and low birth weight could be useful tools to identify European obese adolescents at risk for metabolic complications.

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Different Macronutrient Profiles on Weight, Body Composition and Metabolic Parameters in Obese Adolescents Seeking Weight Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Truby

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity is difficult to treat and the optimal dietary pattern, particularly in relation to macronutrient composition, remains controversial. This study tested the effect of two structured diets with differing macronutrient composition versus control, on weight, body composition and metabolic parameters in obese adolescents.A randomized controlled trial conducted in a children's hospital.Eighty seven obese youth (means: age 13.6 years, BMI z-score 2.2, waist: height ratio 0.65, 69% female completed a psychological preparedness program and were then randomized to a short term 'structured modified carbohydrate' (SMC, 35% carbohydrate; 30% protein; 35% fat, n = 37 or a 'structured low fat' (SLF, 55% carbohydrate; 20% protein; 25% fat, n = 36 or a wait listed control group (n = 14. Anthropometric, body composition and biochemical parameters were measured at randomization and after 12 weeks, and analyzed under the intention to treat principle using analysis of variance models.After 12 weeks, data was collected from 79 (91% participants. BMI z-scores were significantly lower in both intervention groups compared to control after adjusting for baseline values, SLF vs. control, mean difference = -0.13 (95%CI = -0.18, -0.07, P<0.001; SMC vs. control, -0.14 (-0.19, -0.09, P<0.001, but there was no difference between the two intervention diet groups: SLF vs. SMC, 0.00 (-0.05, 0.04, P = 0.83.Both dietary patterns resulted in similar changes in weight, body composition and metabolic improvements compared to control. The use of a structured eating system which allows flexibility but limited choices can assist in weight change and the rigid application of a low fat eating pattern is not exclusive in its efficacy.International Clinical Trials Registry ISRCTN49438757.

  17. Body weight concerns and antifat attitude in iranian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saideh Garousi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is increasing evidence that children are showing body image issues in recent years. Body image disturbances in childhood must be taken seriously. The thin ideal is becoming more prominent in Asian countries; however, there is little research examining how this issue affects Iranian children. This study explores body weight concerns and associated factors among children in Iranian elementary schools. Methods: This study was conducted in 500 elementary schools. An assessment of body image and antifat attitudes was undertaken using the figure rating scale. In addition, body mass index (BMI and demographic variables were assessed. Results: Nearly, 27.4% of children were underweight, and 13.3% were obese. There was a significant difference between the mean score of body dissatisfaction (BD between boys and girls (P < 0.05. There were no differences between BD and education of parents, age, and academic grades. In girls, antifat attitudes were significantly related to BMI. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the paramount importance of undertaking further research in order to identify the predictive factors of body concerns and its consequences among Iranian children. In addition, researchers must plan prevention and educational program for these children.

  18. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in south asian children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Joan L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls. BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size. The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99 and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31, adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity. Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96 and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67. Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in

  19. High-fat-diet-induced weight gain ameliorates bone loss without exacerbating AβPP processing and cognition in female APP/PS1 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhua ePeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is negatively correlated with body mass, whereas both osteoporosis and weight loss occur at higher incidence during the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD than the age-matched non-dementia individuals. Given that there is no evidence that overweight associated with AD-type cognitive dysfunction, we hypothesized that moderate weight gain might have a protective effect on the bone loss in AD without exacerbating cognitive dysfunction. In the present study, feeding a high-fat-diet (HFD, 45% calorie from fat to female APP/PS1 transgenic mice, an AD animal model, induced weight gain. The bone mineral density, microarchitecture, and biomechanical properties of the femurs were then evaluated. The results showed that the middle-aged female APP/PS1 transgenic mice were susceptible to osteoporosis of the femoral bones and that weight gain significantly enhanced bone mass and mechanical properties. Notably, HFD was not detrimental to brain insulin signaling and AβPP processing, as well as to exploration ability and working, learning and memory performance of the transgenic mice measured by T maze and water maze, compared with the mice fed a normal fat diet (10% calorie from fat. In addition, the circulating levels of leptin but not estradiol were remarkably elevated in HFD-treated mice. These results suggest that a body weight gain induced by the HFD feeding regimen significantly improved bone mass in female APP/PS1 mice with no detriments to exploration ability and spatial memory, most likely via the action of elevated circulating leptin.

  20. Body weights in grey and red squirrels: do seasonal weight increases occur in conifer woodland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lurz, P.W.W.; Lloyd, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Seasonal body weight changes were investigated in red and grey squirrels in spruce-dominated conifer plantations in the north of England. Annual seed food availability, particularly in the spruce plantations, varies markedly and is characterized by years with large cone crops (‘mast crops’) followed

  1. Adipokines, cytokines and body fat stores in hepatitis Cvirus liver steatosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify patients with or without liver steatosisand its severity in treatment-na?ve patients affected byhepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.METHODS: We included 56 HCV infected patients, andassessed the amount of liver fat by histomorphometry,and its relationships with fat and lean mass at differentparts of the body (by densitometry), hormones [insulin,homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)], adipokines(resistin, adiponectin, leptin), and cytokines (tumornecrosis factor α, interleukin-6).RESULTS: Although the intensity of liver steatosis isrelated to trunk fat mass and HOMA, 33% of patientsshowed no liver steatosis, and this finding was notrelated to body mass index or genotype. Besides trunk fat mass, no other factor was related to the presenceor not of liver steatosis, or to the intensity of it, by multivariateanalysis. Lean mass was not related to liversteatosis. Adiponectin levels were lower among patients.No differences were observed in leptin and resistin.CONCLUSION: Steatosis in HCV infection is common(67.2%), and closely related to trunk fat, and insulinresistance, but not with leg fat mass or adipokines.

  2. General and persistent effects of high-intensity sweeteners on body weight gain and caloric compensation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Swithers, Susan E.; Baker, Chelsea R.; Davidson, T.L.

    2009-01-01

    In four experiments, we assessed the generality of previous findings (Swithers & Davidson, 2008) that increased caloric intake, body weight gain, and reduced caloric compensation are exhibited by rats that consume a diet containing a nonnutritive, high intensity sweetener. In this earlier work, rats consumed a diet in which saccharin was mixed in low-fat yogurt, and animals were provided with a fixed amount of the yogurt. The present experiments showed that the effects of saccharin on energy ...

  3. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene-ablation Exacerbates Weight Gain in High-Fat Fed Female Mice

    OpenAIRE

    McIntosh, Avery L.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Landrock, Danilo; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Martin, Gregory G.; Storey, Stephen M.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    Loss of liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) decreases long chain fatty acid uptake and oxidation in primary hepatocytes and in vivo. On this basis, L-FABP gene ablation would potentiate high-fat diet-induced weight gain and weight gain/energy intake. While this was indeed the case when L-FABP null (−/−) mice on the C57BL/6NCr background were pair-fed high fat diet, whether this would also be observed under high-fat diet fed ad libitum was not known. Therefore, this possibility was exami...

  4. Respiratory uncoupling in white fat increases whole body lipid oxidation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janovská, Petra; Kůs, Vladimír; Rossmeisl, Martin; Kopecký, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 31, Suppl.1 (2007), S77-S77. ISSN 0307-0565. [European congress on obesity /15./. 22.04.2007-25.04.2007, Budapest] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : indirect calorimetry * aP2-Ucp1 mice * whole body energy expenditure Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  5. Body Weight and Depression: A Simultaneous Equation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and depression are two major public health concerns that involving a huge population around the world. This study investigates the mutual causality relation between obesity and depression for both males and females. Data for this study are drawn from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), and an ordered probability simultaneous equation system is developed to accommodate the ordinal nature of body weight categories and its relation to depression. Results suggest ...

  6. Comparison of body fat in Brazilian adult females by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body-fat is essential for human body, provided that its amount is at healthy levels. If in-excess body-fat is deleterious, its lack is otherwise also harmful. Estimated percent body-fat performed with commercially available devices measuring bioimpedance have many advantages, such as easy measurement and low cost. However, these measurements are based on standard models and equations that are not disclosed by manufacturers, and this leads to questioning the validity of these estimates for Brazilian females. The aim of this study was to compare electrical tetrapolar and octapolar impedance results obtained with commercially available equipment: Maltron BF-906 and OMRON 510-W. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics. Devices used in this study to estimate body fat quantity have not shown any significant differences in results; this is a major issue when selecting equipment based on three factors: study focus, available financial resources, and target population. Results obtained from the two devices have not shown any significant differences, which lead to the conclusion that either device may be reliably used.

  7. Comparison of body fat in Brazilian adult females by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamir, Vaz; Frère, Slaets Annie France; Ramírez Leonardo, López

    2012-12-01

    Body-fat is essential for human body, provided that its amount is at healthy levels. If in-excess body-fat is deleterious, its lack is otherwise also harmful. Estimated percent body-fat performed with commercially available devices measuring bioimpedance have many advantages, such as easy measurement and low cost. However, these measurements are based on standard models and equations that are not disclosed by manufacturers, and this leads to questioning the validity of these estimates for Brazilian females. The aim of this study was to compare electrical tetrapolar and octapolar impedance results obtained with commercially available equipment: Maltron BF-906 and OMRON 510-W. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics. Devices used in this study to estimate body fat quantity have not shown any significant differences in results; this is a major issue when selecting equipment based on three factors: study focus, available financial resources, and target population. Results obtained from the two devices have not shown any significant differences, which lead to the conclusion that either device may be reliably used.

  8. Why do girls watch their weight? Sociocultural and interpersonal influences on body image and weight watching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Kuhar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Body dissatisfaction, importance of thinness, dieting behaviour, and weight watching were examined through discussions with 34 girls in five focus groups and with a questionnaire survey on the sample of 184 girls. The article emphasis is on sociocultural and interpersonal influences on girl's body images and eating practices. Quantitative and qualitative results point to fashion and media as the strongest pressures to be thin for subjects. Family members and peers are beside magazines, TV programmes and numbers of clothes important source of message about the importance and attainability of thinness. Some respondents reported direct pressures to diet from friends and parents but indirect social influences were more common. These influences included social comparison, teasing, criticizing. A few girls live in a subculture of intense weight and body-shape concern that places them at risk for disordered eating behaviour.

  9. Leptin as a Marker of Body Fat and Hyperinsulinemia in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Angela M.; Strother, Myra L.; Li, Chaoyang; Kaur, Harsohena; Huang, Terry T-K.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about obesity and insulin resistance in college students. Leptin is a hormone secreted by fat cells and has been shown to strongly correlate with both obesity and insulin resistance in children and adults. We investigated associations of leptin with insulin secretion and action in 119 normal-weight students aged 18-24 years. Leptin…

  10. Body Fat Percentage in Active and Inactive Students Using Anthropometric Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Complications of obesity and high fat in children are grave now and future. The aim of this research is comparing percentage of body fat in active and inactive girls using Anthropometric Parameters.Materials and Methods: This research is descriptive- correlation that 144 active(n= 70 and inactive(n= 74 girls aged 8 to 10 years old were selected by random cluster sampling method and studied the relationship between percentage of body fat and Anthropometric Parameters and Result analyzed by SPSS-18 software. data was analyzed by descriptive statistics and inferential statistics for example pearson correlation coefficient to investigate the relationship between composition variables . Confidence level for all tests was considered 95% . Results: The mean age of the subjects in this study were 8 to 10 years .Result indicated BMI from anthropometric indexes had significant recipe with percentage of body fat in both of groups and waist circumference to hip ratio (WHR was significant only in inactive group (p ≤ 0.05.Conclusion: Results of this research indicated percentage of fat influenced by level of activity.

  11. Exploring glycosuria as a mechanism for weight and fat mass reduction. A pilot study with remogliflozin etabonate and sergliflozin etabonate in healthy obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Napolitano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 increase glucose excretion in the urine and improve blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glycosuria provides an energy and osmotic drain that could alter body composition. We therefore conducted a pilot study comparing the effects on body composition of two SGLT2 inhibitors, remogliflozin etabonate (RE 250 mg TID (n = 9 and sergliflozin etabonate (SE (1000 mg TID (n = 9, with placebo (n = 12 in obese non-diabetic subjects. Both drugs were well tolerated during 8 weeks of dosing, and the most common adverse event was headache. No urinary tract infections were observed, but there was one case of vaginal candidiasis in the RE group. As expected, RE and SE increased urine glucose excretion, with no change in the placebo group. All the subjects lost weight over 8 weeks, irrespective of treatment assignment. There was a reduction in TBW measured by D2O dilution in the RE group that was significantly greater than placebo (1.4 kg, p = 0.029. This was corroborated by calculation of fat-free mass using a quantitative magnetic resonance technique. All but one subject had a measurable decrease in fat mass. There was significant between-subject variability of weight and fat loss, and no statistically significant differences were observed between groups. Despite a lack of a difference in weight and fat mass loss, the leptin/adiponectin ratio, a measure of insulin resistance, was significantly decreased in the RE group when compared to placebo and SE, suggesting that this SGTL-2 inhibitor may improve metabolic health independent of a change in fat mass.

  12. Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Charlton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Impaired strength adversely influences an older person’s ability to perform activities of daily living. A cross-sectional study of 117 independently living men and women (age = 73.4 ± 9.4 year; body mass index (BMI = 27.6 ± 4.8 kg/m2 aimed to assess the association between body composition and: (1 upper body strength (handgrip strength, HGS; (2 lower extremity performance (timed up and go (TUG and sit to stand test (STS; and (3 endurance (6-minute walk (SMWT. Body composition (% fat; lean body mass (LBM was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Habitual physical activity was measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPA and dietary macronutrient intake, assessed using 24 h recalls and 3-day food records. Regression analyses included the covariates, protein intake (g/kg, MLTPA, age and sex. For natural logarithm (Ln of right HGS, LBM (p < 0.001 and % body fat (p < 0.005 were significant (r2 = 46.5%; p < 0.000. For left LnHGS, LBM (p < 0.000, age (p = 0.036, protein intake (p = 0.015 and LnMLTPA (p = 0.015 were significant (r2 = 0.535; p < 0.000. For SMW, % body fat, age and LnMLTPA were significant (r2 = 0.346; p < 0.000. For STS, % body fat and age were significant (r2 = 0.251; p < 0.000. LBM is a strong predictor of upper body strength while higher % body fat and lower physical activity are associated with poorer outcomes on tests of lower extremity performance.

  13. Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Karen; Batterham, Marijka; Langford, Kelly; Lateo, Jenna; Brock, Erin; Walton, Karen; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Eisenhauer, Katie; Green, Nick; McLean, Cameron

    2015-09-01

    Impaired strength adversely influences an older person's ability to perform activities of daily living. A cross-sectional study of 117 independently living men and women (age = 73.4 ± 9.4 year; body mass index (BMI) = 27.6 ± 4.8 kg/m²) aimed to assess the association between body composition and: (1) upper body strength (handgrip strength, HGS); (2) lower extremity performance (timed up and go (TUG) and sit to stand test (STS)); and (3) endurance (6-minute walk (SMWT). Body composition (% fat; lean body mass (LBM)) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Habitual physical activity was measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPA) and dietary macronutrient intake, assessed using 24 h recalls and 3-day food records. Regression analyses included the covariates, protein intake (g/kg), MLTPA, age and sex. For natural logarithm (Ln) of right HGS, LBM (p < 0.001) and % body fat (p < 0.005) were significant (r² = 46.5%; p < 0.000). For left LnHGS, LBM (p < 0.000), age (p = 0.036), protein intake (p = 0.015) and LnMLTPA (p = 0.015) were significant (r² = 0.535; p < 0.000). For SMW, % body fat, age and LnMLTPA were significant (r² = 0.346; p < 0.000). For STS, % body fat and age were significant (r² = 0.251; p < 0.000). LBM is a strong predictor of upper body strength while higher % body fat and lower physical activity are associated with poorer outcomes on tests of lower extremity performance. PMID:26343709

  14. Body mass index as discriminator of the lean mass deficit and excess body fat in institutionalized elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Maria Helena; Bolina, Alisson F; Luiz, Raíssa B; de Oliveira, Karoline F; Virtuoso, Jair S; Rodrigues, Rosalina A P; Silva, Larissa C; da Cunha, Daniel F; De Mattia, Ana Lúcia; Barichello, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the discriminating criterion for body mass index (BMI) in the prediction of low fat free mass and high body fat percentage according to sex among older people. Observational analytical study with cross-sectional design was used for this study. All institutionalized older people from the city of Uberaba (Minas Gerais, Brazil) who fit within the inclusion and exclusion criteria were approached. Sixty-five institutionalized older people were evaluated after signing a Free and Informed Consent Form. Descriptive and inferential statistical procedures were employed for the analysis, using Student's t-test and multiple linear regression. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the BMI (kg/m(2)) cut-off points. The study complied with all the ethical norms for research involving human beings. In comparing the anthropometric measurements obtained via bioimpedance, elder male had higher mean height and body water volume than females. However, women had higher mean triceps skinfold and fat free mass than men. The BMI cut-off points, as discriminators of low fat free mass percentage and high body fat percentage in women, were ≤22.4 kg/m(2) and >26.6 kg/m(2), respectively; while for men they were ≤19.2 kg/m(2) and >23.8 kg/m(2). The results of this study indicate the need for multicenter studies aimed at suggesting BMI cut-off points for institutionalized older people, taking into account specific sex characteristics. PMID:25771958

  15. Metabolic Rather Than Body Composition Measurements Are Associated With Lower Serum Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations in Normal Weight and Obese Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla L; Nielsen, Søren J; Andersen, Ulrik B;

    2014-01-01

    < 0.0001) and plasma glucose concentrations (β = -0.21; P = 0.02) but not with total (β = 0.00), android (β = -0.01), or gynoid (β = 0.03) fat mass percentage (P > 0.76). No significant interaction effects between metabolic measurements or body composition measurements and weight status on MR...... obese men (BMI ≥ 30kg/m(2)), we determined body composition (total, android, and gynoid fat mass) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning, and we measured fasting serum concentrations of midregional proatrial NP (MR-proANP) and insulin, as well as fasting plasma glucose concentrations. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that obese persons have lower circulating natriuretic peptide (NP) concentrations. The cause of the relative NP deficiency seen in obese persons is poorly understood, although variation in body composition and metabolic abnormalities has been suggested to play...

  16. Body image and body type preferences in St. Kitts, Caribbean: a cross- cultural comparison with U.S. samples regarding attitudes towards muscularity, body fat, and breast size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; Frederick, David A

    2012-01-01

    We investigated body image in St. Kitts, a Caribbean island where tourism, international media, and relatively high levels of body fat are common. Participants were men and women recruited from St. Kitts (n = 39) and, for comparison, U.S. samples from universities (n = 618) and the Internet (n = 438). Participants were shown computer generated images varying in apparent body fat level and muscularity or breast size and they indicated their body type preferences and attitudes. Overall, there were only modest differences in body type preferences between St. Kitts and the Internet sample, with the St. Kitts participants being somewhat more likely to value heavier women. Notably, however, men and women from St. Kitts were more likely to idealize smaller breasts than participants in the U.S. samples. Attitudes regarding muscularity were generally similar across samples. This study provides one of the few investigations of body preferences in the Caribbean. PMID:22995446

  17. Ultrasonic estimates of fat thickness, C measurement and longissimus dorsi depth in rasa aragonesa ewes with same body condition score

    OpenAIRE

    Delfa, R.; Teixeira, A.; Blasco, I.; COLOMER-ROCHER, F.

    1991-01-01

    Ultrasonic estimates of fat thickness, C measurement and longissimus dorsi depth were assessed in 14 Rasa Aragonesa ewes with same body condition score. The ultrasonic estimates have been used for predicting tota1 carcass fat and muscle. The 76% of the variation in carcass lumbar fat thickness was accounted for by variation in lumbar fat thickness assessed by ultrasonic machine, whereas 53% of the variation in C measurement was accounted. Nevertheless only 5% of variation in m. Longissi...

  18. Pharmacodynamics comparative of cis-atracurium intermittent bolus injected according to real body weight and fat-free mass%顺苯磺酸阿曲库铵按无脂肪体重与实际体重间断静注给药药效学的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈汉文; 磨凯; 刘中杰; 刘辉; 梁启波; 徐世元

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较顺苯磺酸阿曲库铵按无脂肪体重与实际体重间断静注给药的临床药效学及个体化差异,提供临床用药参考。方法:选择择期手术全麻患者40例,按给药剂量不同分为无脂肪体重组(FFM组)和实际体重组(RBW组),每组20例。全麻诱导采用静注芬太尼3μg/kg,丙泊酚2 mg/kg, FFM组静注顺苯磺酸阿曲库铵129.6μg/kg(2倍ED95),RBW组100μg/kg(2倍ED95),TOF-Watch SX Monitor加速度肌松监测仪行肌松监测。麻醉维持期间当 T1恢复至5%时 FFM 组静注顺苯磺酸阿曲库铵64.8μg/kg (1倍ED95),RBW组50μg/kg(1倍ED95),预计手术结束前20 min 不再追加顺苯磺酸阿曲库铵,使其自然代谢恢复。结果:两组间肌松药维持用量差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),FFM组肌松药维持用量显著<RBW组;两组间无反应期和药理作用时间的变异度差异有统计学意义,FFM 组的无反应期和药理作用时间的变异度更小(P<0.05)。结论:顺苯磺酸阿曲库铵按无脂肪体重间断静注给药,可获得按实际体重相似的肌松效应,减少肌松阻滞时效的个体差异和肌松药用药量,为临床顺苯磺酸阿曲库铵间断给药提供用药参考。%Ojective To compara the individual differences and clinical efficacy of cis-atracurium intermittent bolus injected according to fat-free mass and real body weight. Methods Forty patients (ASAI-II) who had no neuromuscular disease and underwent selective abdominal surgery under general anesthesia were randomly divided into group FFM (n=20) and group RBW(n=20) according to the different administration method. The responses of adductor pollicis to train-of-four (TOF) stimulation were monitored. Anesthesia was induced with propofol 2 mg/kg, fentanyl 3 ug/kg, cis-atracurium 129.6μg/kg (group FFM) or 100μg /kg (group RBW),and maintained with propofol and fentanyl given by target

  19. Correlation between percentage of body fat measured by the Slaughter equation and bio impedance analysis technique in Mexican schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Orta Duarte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is considered one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century in children and adolescents. The percentile or Z-score of the body mass index is widely used in children and adolescents to define and assess overweight and obesity, but it does not determine the percentage of total body fat. Other anthropometric measurements that determine total body fat are skinfold thickness and methods of body composition assessment such as bio impedance analysis, both of which are rapid and inexpensive. Objetive: The aim of the study was to correlate the percentage of body fat determined by the Slaughter equation with the percentage of body fat determined by the bio impedance analysis technique, and the body mass index in schoolchildren. Methods: The design of the study is cross-sectional and it was performed on a random selection of 74 children (9.47 ± 1.55 years old attending a primary school in Colima, Mexico during 2011. The percentage of body fat was measured by the Slaughter equation and bio impedance analysis technique. Body mass index was calculated. Inferential statistics were performed with the non-paired Student's t test, Pearson's correlation for quantitative variables (percentage of body fat by the Slaughter equation and bio impedance analysis and the Fisher exact test for qualitative variables. Results: A significant correlation (r = 0.74; p < 0.001 was identified between the percentage of fat measured by the Slaughter equation and bio impedance analysis. We also identified a significant correlation between the percentage of fat measured by the Slaughter equation and body mass index (r = 0. 85; p < 0.001 and the percentage of fat measured by bio impedance analysis and body mass index (r = 0.78; p < 0.001. Conclusion: Given that we identified a significant positive correlation between BIA and STE, we conclude that both are adequate alternatives for measuring the percentage of body fat among schoolchildren in

  20. Altered skeletal muscle fiber composition and size precede whole-body insulin resistance in young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Madsbad, Sten;

    2007-01-01

    associated with LBW. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Vastus lateralis muscle was obtained by percutaneous biopsy from 20 healthy 19-yr-old men with birth weights at 10th percentile or lower for gestational age (LBW) and 20 normal birth weight controls, matched for body fat, physical fitness, and whole-body glucose......CONTEXT: Low birth weight (LBW), a surrogate marker of an adverse fetal milieu, is linked to muscle insulin resistance, impaired insulin-stimulated glycolysis, and future risk of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle mass, fiber composition, and capillary density are important determinants of muscle...... disposal. Myofibrillar ATPase staining was used to classify muscle fibers as type I, IIa, and IIx (formerly type IIb), and double immunostaining was performed to stain capillaries (LBW, n=8; normal birth weight, n=12). RESULTS: LBW was associated with increased proportion of type IIx fibers (+66%; P=0...

  1. Body weight, lifestyle, dietary habits and gastroesophagealre flux disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davide Festi; Eleonora Scaioli; Fabio Baldi; Amanda Vestito; Francesca Pasqui; Anna Rita Di Biase; Antonio Colecchia

    2009-01-01

    While lifestyle modifications are currently used as firstline treatment for subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), the pathogenetic role of lifestyle factors and consequently, the efficacy of lifestyle measures is controversial. Our aim was to systematically review the pathogenetic link between overweight/ obesity, dietary habits, physical activity and GERD, and the beneficial effect of specific recommended changes, by means of the available literature from the 1999 to the present. Obesity, in particular, abdominal obesity, plays a key role in determining GERD symptoms and complications through mechanical and metabolic effects. Controlled weight loss (by diet or surgery) is effective in improving GERD symptoms. No definitive data exist regarding the role of diet and, in particular, of specific foods or drinks, in influencing GERD clinical manifestations. Moderate physical activity seems to be beneficial for GERD, while vigorous activity may be dangerous in predisposed individuals. In conclusion, being obese/overweight and GERD-specific symptoms and endoscopic features are related, and weight loss significantly improves GERD clinical-endoscopic manifestations. The role of dietary behavior, mainly in terms of specific dietary components, remains controversial. Mild routine physical activity in association with diet modifications, i.e. a diet rich in fiber and low in fat, is advisable in preventing reflux symptoms.

  2. Leptin-independent programming of adult body weight and adiposity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Elizabeth C; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Luan, Jian'an; Berends, Lindsey M; Ozanne, Susan E

    2011-02-01

    Low birth weight and rapid postnatal weight gain are independent and additive risk factors for the subsequent development of metabolic disease. Despite an abundance of evidence for these associations, mechanistic data are lacking. The hormone leptin has received significant interest as a potential programming factor, because differences in the profile of leptin in early life have been associated with altered susceptibility to obesity. Whether leptin alone is a critical factor for programming obesity has, until now, remained unclear. Using the leptin-deficient ob/ob mouse, we show that low birth weight followed by rapid catch-up growth during lactation (recuperated offspring) leads to a persistent increase in body weight in adult life, both in wild-type and ob/ob animals. Furthermore, recuperated offspring are hyperphagic and epididymal fat pad weights are significantly increased, reflecting greater adiposity. These results show definitively that factors other than leptin are crucial in the programming of energy homeostasis in this model and are powerful enough to alter adiposity in a genetically obese strain. PMID:21209019

  3. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MATERNAL BODY MASS INDEX AND WEIGHT GAIN WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT IN EASTERN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sananpanichkul, Panya; Rujirabanjerd, Sinitdhorn

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to determine the association between maternal body mass index and pregnancy weight gain with low birth weight newborns (LBWN) at Phrapokklao Hospital in eastern Thailand. We evaluated the files of 2,012 women who delivered at the hospital. Data obtained from the charts were parity, maternal age, body mass index (BMI), prepregnancy weight, weight gained during pregnancy, gestational age, hematocrit level, referral status, place of residence, fetal presentation, completion of antenatal care visits and maternal HIV infection. Sixty-five point two percent of subjects were aged 20-34 years old. Fifty-seven percent of subjects had a normal BMI and 13.2% were anemic. Thirty- seven point five percent, 32.9% and 29.6% gained too little, the correct amount and too much weight during pregnancy, respectively. Primiparity, too little weight gain and gestational age less than 37 weeks at delivery were all significantly associated with LBWN. Preterm babies were 25 times more likely to have a low birth weight than term infants (adjusted OR = 24.995; 95% CI: 16.824-37.133, p < 0.001). When maternal weight gain of any BMI group was inadequate, the subject had a 3.4 times greater risk (adjusted OR = 3.357; 95% CI: 22.114-5.332, p < 0.001) of having a LBWN. Primiparous women had a 1.7 times (adjusted OR=1.720; 95% CI: 1.182-2.503, p-0.005) greater risk of having a LBWN. The results from this study may be useful to plan maternal health programs for eastern Thailand. PMID:26867367

  4. Effect of milnacipran on body weight in patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold LM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lesley M Arnold,1 Robert H Palmer,2 Michael R Hufford,3 Wei Chen21Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, 2Medical Affairs, Forest Research Institute Inc, Jersey City, NJ, 3Clinical Development, Cypress Bioscience Inc, San Diego, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of milnacipran on body weight in patients with fibromyalgia.Methods: Analyses were conducted in the following groups: patients from three double-blind, placebo-controlled milnacipran trials (3 months, n = 2096; 6 months, n = 1008; 354 patients receiving milnacipran in placebo-controlled trials and double-blind extension studies (total ≥ 12 months of treatment; and 1227 patients in a long-term (up to 3.25 years open-label milnacipran study.Results: In placebo-controlled trials, 77% of patients were overweight or obese at baseline (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Mean weight loss was found with milnacipran at 3 months (100 mg/day, —1.14 kg; 200 mg/day, —0.97 kg; placebo, —0.06 kg; P > 0.001 and 6 months (100 mg/day, -1.01 kg; 200 mg/day, -0.71 kg; placebo, —0.04 kg; P > 0.05. Approximately twice as many milnacipran-treated patients had ≥5% weight loss from baseline compared with placebo (3 and 6 months, P > 0.01. In extension studies, mean weight loss in patients receiving ≥12 months of milnacipran was —1.06 kg. In patients receiving ≥3 years of treatment in the open-label study, mean changes at 12, 24, 30, and 36–38 months were —1.16, —0.76, —0.19, and +0.11 kg, respectively. Among milnacipran-treated patients, rates of nausea (the most common adverse event were lower among patients who lost weight than among those who did not (3 months, P = 0.02.Conclusion: The majority of patients with fibromyalgia in the milnacipran studies were overweight or obese. Milnacipran was associated with mean weight loss at 3 and 6 months (P < 0.05 versus placebo and at

  5. Multivariate indices as estimates of dry body weight for comparative study of body size in Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique García-Barros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on the size of adult Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies frequently rely on single linear estimates of body size, namely of forewing length or wingspan. As the shape of the wings of these insects – in fact, of all body parts – differs from one taxon to another, such estimates of body mass may not be adequate for comparisons across a wide taxonomic range. Using the length and width of the forewing, thorax and abdomen, as well as the wing area of 375 species and their correlations with dry body weight, several composite indices were determined that might be used in different circumstances. As the coefficients of determination from the multivariate regression models were rather high (R2>0.96, the results are believed to be reliable. A critical re-evaluation of the results indicates that important variations in the regression slopes described here would be expected, if at all, only from species with unusual body shapes. Incidentally, the bivariate relationships are in agreement with former comparative work on Lepidoptera and other terrestrial insects in that the relationship between body weight and single linear measurements follows a slightly negatively allometric trend, implying comparatively lighter bodies at the largest body sizes and relatively heavier ones at the shortest body sizes.

  6. Physical fitness is inversely related with body mass index and body fat percentage in soccer players aged 16-18 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaïdis Pantelis Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents are at increased risk for the development of obesity, while sport has been suggested as an effective means against adolescent obesity. The objectives of this study were to examine (a the prevalence of overweight/obesity, (b the relationship between body mass index and body fat percentage, and (c the association between body mass index, body fat and physical fitness in soccer players aged 16-18 yr. Material and Methods: Members (n=109, aged 17.0±0.5 yr of competitive soccer clubs were examined for physical and physiological characteristics. Results: Based on international body mass index cut-off points, 18.3% (n=20 of participants were classified as overweight. Body mass index was highly correlated with body fat percentage (r=0.70, p<0.001. Body fat percentage was in inverse relationship with aerobic power (r=-0.21, p=0.029, maximal anaerobic power (r=-0.20, p=0.044 and local muscular endurance (r=-0.39, p<0.001, while corresponding values of body mass index were non-significant (r=-0.05, p=0.614; r=0.03, p=0.771; r=-0.12, p=0.220, respectively. However, both body fat percentage and body mass index were inversely related with fatigue index of Wingate anaerobic test (r=-0.26, p=0.009; r=-0.29, p=0.003, respectively. Conclusions: The strong relationship between body mass index and body fat percentage suggest the further use of body mass index in adolescent soccer players. The findings confirmed previous observations on general population about the negative effect of overweight and fatness on physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight among participants was similar with what is observed in general population. Therefore, sport participation cannot guarantee physiological body mass and body composition, and it is necessary to prescribe exercise targeting body mass and fat control.

  7. An alternative to body mass index for standardizing body weight for stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagust, A; Walley, T

    2000-09-01

    Although body mass index (BMI) has been adopted by WHO as an international measure of obesity, it lacks a theoretical basis, and empirical evidence suggests it is not valid for all populations. We determined standard weight-for-height using a model calibrated by multivariate analysis of observational data on body dimensions and health status in the USA (NHANES III). A multiple linear regression model based on a simple mathematical formulation accurately described the observed weight variations in this normal adult population. A standardized reference model using just two measurements (upper arm length and sitting height), readily applied in both clinical and research settings using lookup tables, improved explanatory power substantially compared to the best BMI formulation (r(2) increased 16.3% for males, 21.1% for females). Physical dysfunction and self-reported poor health showed strong trends with excess body weight. These findings need confirmation from larger population samples. PMID:10984553

  8. Marathon performance in relation to body fat percentage and training indices in recreational male runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanda G

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Tanda,1 Beat Knechtle2,31DIME, Università degli Studi di Genova, Genova, Italy; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of anthropometric characteristics and training indices on marathon race times in recreational male marathoners.Methods: Training and anthropometric characteristics were collected for a large cohort of recreational male runners (n = 126 participating in the Basel marathon in Switzerland between 2010 and 2011.Results: Among the parameters investigated, marathon performance time was found to be affected by mean running speed and the mean weekly distance run during the training period prior to the race and by body fat percentage. The effect of body fat percentage became significant as it exceeded a certain limiting value; for a relatively low body fat percentage, marathon performance time correlated only with training indices.Conclusion: Marathon race time may be predicted (r = 0.81 for recreational male runners by the following equation: marathon race time (minutes = 11.03 + 98.46 exp(−0.0053 mean weekly training distance [km/week] + 0.387 mean training pace (sec/km + 0.1 exp(0.23 body fat percentage [%]. The marathon race time results were valid over a range of 165–266 minutes.Keywords: endurance, exercise, anthropometry

  9. Unusual fatty acids in the fat body of the early nesting bumblebee, Bombus pratorum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvačka, Josef; Kofroňová, Edita; Vašíčková, Soňa; Stránský, Karel; Jiroš, Pavel; Hovorka, Oldřich; Kindl, Jiří; Valterová, Irena

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2008), s. 441-450. ISSN 0024-4201 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4055403; GA MŠk 2B06007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : bumblebees * fat body lipids * marking pheromone biosynthesis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.888, year: 2008

  10. BODY FAT TOPOGRAPHY AND WAIST HIP RATIO IN FEMALE HANDBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Anand Asia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The WHR was significantly lower in sport group as compared to control group. Body fat (% did not differ significantly in the two groups. The FFM (kg was significantly greater in the sports group. Findings of the above study could be utilized for the selection and recruitment of athletes and development of training programmes.

  11. Waist circumference adjusted for body mass index and intra-abdominal fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Angquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna;

    2012-01-01

    The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM...

  12. Optimism and positive body image in women : The mediating role of the feared fat self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Vidal, Jose

    2013-01-01

    We predicted that an expectancy judgment about acquiring a feared fat self and an expectancy judgment about acquiring a hoped-for thin self would mediate dispositional optimism on positive body image. We also predicted that the mediation pathway through the feared self would be significantly stronge

  13. Role of adult fat body and milk gland in larval nourishment of Glossina morsitans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Glossina larva is nourished entirely in utero by 'milk' composed of equal parts lipid and protein or protein-derivatives, produced by the adult female accessory gland or milk gland. A series of experiments in which activities of the female fat body and milk gland were studied separately, showed that during early pregnancy fat body synthesized and stored triglyceride and, to a lesser extent, protein, utilizing either 14C leucine or 14C palmitate in the process. Late in the pregnancy cycle, synthetic activity of the fat body was reduced whereas that of the milk gland increased, both lipid and protein synthesis being conspicuous at this time. There was apparently a switch in mid-pregnancy at which time the milk gland became the dominant organ for synthesis of nutrient substances. Results support the hypothesis that the adult fat body provides the major store, derived from blood meals ingested during early pregnancy, from which the milk gland obtains the lipid component of the milk. The gland itself synthesizes the bulk of the protein components from digested blood meals ingested during the latter half of pregnancy. Control of the processes identified, and their cyclical nature, suggests a neuroendocrine involvement. Identification of this involvement, and the underlying control mechanisms for hormone synthesis and degradation, may well lead to more specific methods of vector control acting through disruption of larval nutrition. (author)

  14. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan;

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eigh...

  15. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G; Iles, Mark M; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R B; Pers, Tune H; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M; Scott, William R; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Walker, Ryan W; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J L; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; De Jager, Philip L; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Enneman, Anke W; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lee, Christine G; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A; Nielson, Carrie M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M A; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D; Ried, Janina S; Scott, Robert A; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oostra, Ben A; Shuldiner, Alan R; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S; Forouhi, Nita G; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bennett, David A; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H; Cummings, Steven R; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B; Chambers, John C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C; Kooner, Jaspal S; McCarthy, Mark I; Murabito, Joanne M; Morris, Andrew P; Bishop, Julia A N; North, Kari E; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J Brent; Schadt, Eric E; Spector, Tim D; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J F

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eight w

  16. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in Danish children in relation to body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B. M.; Bjørnsbo, K. B.; Tetens, Inge;

    2005-01-01

    population comprised 485 children aged 10 years and 364 children aged 16 years from Odense County, Denmark. Dietary GI and GL were estimated using international food tables, and the associations between energy-adjusted dietary GI, GL and body fatness were analysed by multiple linear regression. The mean...

  17. The role of leptin and other hormones related to bone metabolism and appetite-regulation as determinants of gain in body fat and fat-free mass in 8-11 year old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Ritz, Christian; Larnkjær, Anni;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regulation of body composition during childhood is complex. Numerous hormones are potentially involved. Leptin has been proposed to restrain weight gain, but results are inconsistent. Objectives: We examined if baseline fasting levels of ghrelin, adiponectin, leptin, insulin, insulin......-like growth factor I (IGF-1), osteocalcin and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were associated with body composition cross-sectionally and longitudinally in 633 8-11-year-olds. Design: Data on hormones and body composition by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry from OPUS School Meal Study were used. We looked...... at baseline hormones as predictors of baseline fat mass index (FMI) or fat-free mass index (FFMI), and also subsequent changes (three and six months) in FMI or FFMI using models with hormones individually or combined. Results: Cross-sectionally, baseline leptin was positively associated with FMI in girls (0...

  18. Methods of Assessing Body