WorldWideScience

Sample records for body weight fat

  1. Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum cholesterol of broilers supplemented with a microbial preparation. ACL Safalaoh. Abstract. A study was conducted to study the effects of supplementation of a microbial preparation, Effective Micro organisms (EM), on body weight gain, dressing percentage, ...

  2. Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum cholesterol of broilers supplemented with a microbial preparation. ... Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  3. Connecting theory to fat talk: body dissatisfaction mediates the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance, and fat talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Analisa

    2014-06-01

    The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for

  5. Calcium supplementation for 1 y does not reduce body weight or fat mass in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Janne K; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Astrup, Arne

    2006-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from observational studies indicates that a high calcium intake may reduce body weight and body fat. However, few randomized trials have been conducted. We examined whether calcium supplementation affects body weight and body fat in young girls and whether a relation exists between habitual calcium intake and body weight and body fat. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study was conducted in 110 young girls. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive 500 mg Ca/d as calcium carbonate or placebo for 1 y. Two groups of girls were selected according to habitual calcium intake from a large group; one group consumed 1000-1304 mg/d (40th-60th percentile; n = 60) and the other group consumed body weight, body fat, and calcium intake were measured at baseline and after 1 y. At baseline a significant negative correlation was observed between habitual dietary calcium intake and percentage of body fat (r = -0.242, P = 0.011). However, calcium supplementation had no effect on height, body weight, or percentage body fat. Habitual dietary calcium intake was inversely associated with body fat, but a low-dose calcium supplement had no effect on body weight, height, or body fat over 1 y in young girls. It is possible that the effect of calcium on body weight is only exerted if it is ingested as part of a meal, or the effect may be due to other ingredients in dairy products, and calcium may simply be a marker for a high dairy intake.

  6. Body weight homeostat that regulates fat mass independently of leptin in rats and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, John-Olov; Hägg, Daniel A.; Schéle, Erik; Dickson, Suzanne L.; Anesten, Fredrik; Bake, Tina; Montelius, Mikael; Bellman, Jakob; Johansson, Maria E.; Cone, Roger D.; Drucker, Daniel J.; Wu, Jianyao; Aleksic, Biljana; Törnqvist, Anna E.; Sjögren, Klara; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Windahl, Sara H.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2018-01-01

    Subjects spending much time sitting have increased risk of obesity but the mechanism for the antiobesity effect of standing is unknown. We hypothesized that there is a homeostatic regulation of body weight. We demonstrate that increased loading of rodents, achieved using capsules with different weights implanted in the abdomen or s.c. on the back, reversibly decreases the biological body weight via reduced food intake. Importantly, loading relieves diet-induced obesity and improves glucose tolerance. The identified homeostat for body weight regulates body fat mass independently of fat-derived leptin, revealing two independent negative feedback systems for fat mass regulation. It is known that osteocytes can sense changes in bone strain. In this study, the body weight-reducing effect of increased loading was lost in mice depleted of osteocytes. We propose that increased body weight activates a sensor dependent on osteocytes of the weight-bearing bones. This induces an afferent signal, which reduces body weight. These findings demonstrate a leptin-independent body weight homeostat (“gravitostat”) that regulates fat mass. PMID:29279372

  7. Relationship of the reported intakes of fat and fatty acids to body weight in US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categor...

  8. Genetic risk scores for body fat distribution attenuate weight loss in women during dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, M; Allin, K H; Sørensen, T I A

    2018-01-01

    suggest that genetic variants influencing body fat distribution attenuate weight loss in women independently on the effect on WHR. The stronger effect of the GRSwomen implies heterogenic effects of the WHRadjBMI variants on weight loss. A strong effect of rs1358980-T in the VEGFA locus suggests......BACKGROUND AND AIM: The well-established link between body fat distribution and metabolic health has been suggested to act through an impact on the remodeling capacity of the adipose tissue. Remodeling of the adipose tissue has been shown to affect body fat distribution and might affect the ability...... to lose weight. We aimed to study the effect of weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) on weight loss based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with waist-hip-ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI). METHOD: We included 707 participants (533 women and 174 men) from the NUGENOB multi...

  9. Protein intake induced an increase in exercise stimulated fat oxidation during stable body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Plasqui, Guy; Smeets, Astrid J; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-12-02

    Protein-rich weight-loss diets spare fat-free mass at the cost of fat mass. The objective was to examine if there is a change in stimulated fat oxidation related to protein intake during stable body weight. Subjects' (BMI 22±2kg/m(2), age 25±8 years) maximal fat oxidation (Fat(max)) was assessed during a graded bicycle test, before and after a 3-month dietary-intervention of 2MJ/day supplements exchanged with 2MJ/d of habitual energy intake. The parallel design consisted of protein-rich supplements in the protein group and an isocaloric combination of carbohydrate and fat supplements in the control group. Daily protein intake was determined according to 24-h urine nitrogen. Body composition was measured according to a 4-compartment model by a combination of underwater-weighing technique, deuterium-dilution technique and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects were weight stable and did not change their physical activity. The protein group (n=12) increased protein intake (11±14g, Pbody weight (Pbody composition or VO(2)max. Increased stimulated fat oxidation was related to increased protein intake. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of weight loss treatments on upper and lower body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, P G

    1997-08-01

    The intra-abdominal visceral deposition of adipose tissue, which characterises upper body obesity, is a major contributor to the development of hypertension, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia. Conversely, individuals with lower body obesity may have comparable amounts of adipose tissue but remain relatively free from the metabolic consequences of obesity. This raises an obvious question-are there particular weight reducing treatments which specifically target intra-abdominal fat? In theory, surgical removal of upper body fat should be effective. In reality, neither liposuction nor apronectomy ('tummy tuck') have any beneficial metabolic effects, they simply remove subcutaneous adipose tissue which is often rapidly replaced. Vertical banded gastroplasty and gastric bypass operations may be dramatically effective in improving blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. However, these benefits result from a parallel reduction in visceral and total body fat. Studies of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women confirm that the marked decrease in adiposity, following a programme of very low calorie diet and exercise, reflects a comparable reduction in visceral and thigh fat. The reduction in waist circumference after a low fat/exercise programme suggests a similar situation in men. Exercise has an important role in treatment but, once again, the fat loss is generalised. Nevertheless, the improved metabolic parameters seen in exercising obese subjects, independent of weight loss, suggest other beneficial actions. Growth hormone (GH) has a marked lipolytic action. GH replacement treatment for GH deficient adults with pronounced abdominal fat deposition, has been shown to reduce intra-abdominal fat by 47% compared to 27% decrease in abdominal subcutaneous fat. Similar beneficial actions on abdominal fat have been reported following treatment with testosterone in obese men. The potential hazards of such treatments make them unsuitable therapy for

  11. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in body fat percentage during body weight stable conditions of increased daily protein intake vs. control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-12-02

    The objective of this study was to examine if increased protein intake vs. control influences body fat percentage during stable body weight. Body composition was assessed before and after a 3-month isoenergetic dietary intervention of 2MJ/d supplements exchanged with 2MJ/d of habitual ad libitum energy intake. The parallel design consisted of protein-rich supplements in the protein group (n=12) and an isoenergetic combination of carbohydrate and fat supplements in the control group (n=12). Daily protein intake was calculated from a 24h urinary nitrogen. Body composition was measured by a combination of underwater-weighing technique, deuterium-dilution technique and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), a method that allows for estimation of 4-body compartments (fat and lean; water, bone and rest). Subjects were weight stable and did not change their habitual physical activity. Daily protein intake increased in the protein group during the intervention compared to baseline with +11±14g (Pbody fat percentage showed a significant group×time interaction of decreased body fat percentage of -1.0±1.1% of the protein group vs. 0.1±0.6% of the control group (Pbody fat percentage decreased with unchanged physical activity during 3months of stable body weight. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Wholegrain rye, but not wholegrain wheat, lowers body weight and fat mass compared with refined wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, J; Vuholm, Stine; Iversen, K N

    2017-01-01

    compared with refined wheat (RW) affect body weight and composition and appetite sensation. DESIGN: Seventy overweight/obese adults participated in this 6-week randomized parallel study, in which they replaced their habitual cereal foods with RW, WGW or wholegrain rye (WGR). Further, a 4 h postprandial...... test meal challenge was completed with meals corresponding to diet allocation in the beginning and after the intervention. Body weight and composition, fasted blood samples, compliance and 4-day dietary intake were obtained before and after the intervention period. Appetite and breath hydrogen...... excretion was assessed during the postprandial test meal challenge. RESULTS: Diet allocation affected body weight significantly (P=0.013) and tended also to affect fat mass (P=0.065). Both body weight and fat mass decreased more in the WGR group (-1.06±1.60 and -0.75±1.29 kg, respectively) compared...

  14. Effects of Body Fat on Weight Concerns, Dating, and Sexual Activity: A Longitudinal Analysis of Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Udry, J. Richard; Suchindran, Chirayath; Campbell, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Investigated implications of body-fat differences for dating and sexual activity and implications of heterosexual activity for dieting and weight concerns in adolescent girls. Found that among white girls, and blacks with college-educated mothers, more body fat was associated with lower dating probability, even among non-obese girls. Body fat was…

  15. Seasonal variation in testicular and fat-body weight and plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation in testicular and fat-body weight and plasma testosterone and androstenedione concentration of the lizard Cordylus polyzonus is described. Testicular recrudescence commenced in autumn (April), reaching a peak in early spring (September) and regression followed during mid-spring to early autumn ...

  16. Changes in weight and body fat after use of tetracycline and Lactobacillus gasseri in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge José Marciano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown a role of intestinal microbiota in obesity. The consumption of antibiotics in the last 70 years has led to changes in intestinal microbiota, which has led to weight gain and body fat accumulation. To evaluate the possibility of weight gain induced by antibiotics and the possible protective effect of probiotics, we divided 45 animals (Rattus norvegicus into groups and administered the following treatments over two weeks: tetracycline, tetracycline + Lactobacillus gasseri, and NaCl. The animals were weighed over the course of 8 weeks, and at the end of the treatment period, they were measured and subjected to bioelectrical impedance analysis. The results show that the group receiving tetracycline alone had a higher body mass index (p=0.030, a greater Lee index (p=0.008, and a lower body water percentage than the control group, indicating a greater accumulation of body fat. The group receiving the probiotics with tetracycline presented similar results to the control group, indicating a possible protective effect of body fat accumulation in the group receiving tetracycline alone. The results show that tetracycline increased the concentration of body fat, and the use of probiotics was associated with an ability to protect the animals from the pro-obesity effect.

  17. Variations in body weight, food intake and body composition after long-term high-fat diet feeding in C57BL/6J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongbin; Smith, Daniel L.; Keating, Karen D.; Allison, David B.; Nagy, Tim R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the variations in body weight, food intake and body composition of both male and female C57BL/6J mice during a diet-induced obesity (DIO) model with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Design and Methods Mice were individually housed and fed ad libitum either a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% calories from fat; n=15 male, n=15 female) or high-fat diet (HFD, 45% calories from fat; n=277 male, n=278 female) from 8 to 43 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake and body composition were routinely measured. Results Body weight was significantly increased with HFD (vs. LFD) in males from week 14 (p=0.0221) and in females from week 27 (P=0.0076). Fat mass and fat-free mass of all groups were significantly increased over time (all pbody weight for both sexes (pbody fat (pbody weight. PMID:24942674

  18. Interrelationships between weight loss, body fat distribution and sex hormones in pre- and postmenopausal obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcato, E; Zamboni, M; De Pergola, G; Armellini, F; Zivelonghi, A; Bergamo-Andreis, I A; Giorgino, R; Bosello, O

    1997-05-01

    Relationships between regional body fat distribution and sex hormones as well as changes in sex hormones after weight loss were evaluated. All subjects were hospitalized in the Institute of Internal Medicine of the University of Verona. Twenty-six premenopausal (age 33.7 +/- 10.2 years) and 15 postmenopausal (age 57.9 +/- 5.9 years) obese women. Body weight, body-mass index, waist and hip circumferences, visceral fat by computed tomography and sex hormones were evaluated before and after 4 weeks on a very low energy diet. Body-mass index was higher in pre-than in postmenopausal women, although the difference was not significant. Total and free testosterone were significantly higher in the pre- than in the postmenopausal group (P testosterone (r = -0.65; P testosterone (r = -0.54; P fat and total testosterone (r = -0.41; P testosterone and visceral fat encountered both in the subject group as a whole and in premenopausal women was no longer significant, whilst a significant negative association between visceral fat and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) (r = -0.56; P testosterone, free testosterone and androstenedione levels, whilst menopausal status was the most powerful predictor of FSH and LH levels. Changes in hormones after VLED were analysed separately in pre- and postmenopausal women. None of the hormones changed significantly after VLED in the postmenopausal group, except for FSH values. LH, free testosterone and urinary cortisol excretion values decreased significantly after VLED in the premenopausal group. Our data show that age, to a greater extent than visceral fat, seems to be negatively associated with steroid sex hormones. Weight loss seems to be associated with changes in sex hormones only in premenopausal women.

  19. The effects of chronic testosterone administration on body weight, food intake, and fat weight were age-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Yiliyasi, Mayila; Yano, Kiyohito; Irahara, Minoru

    2017-11-01

    Previously, we showed that chronic testosterone administration increased body weight (BW) and food intake (FI), but did not alter fat weight, in young female rats. To examine our hypothesis that the effects of androgens on BW, FI and body composition might be age-dependent, the effects of chronic testosterone administration were evaluated in rats of different ages; i.e., young and middle-aged rats. Although chronic testosterone administration increased BW gain, FI, and feed efficiency in both young and middle-aged rats, it increased visceral fat weight in middle-aged rats, but not in young rats. Therefore, it is possible that testosterone promotes the conversion of energy to adipose tissue and exacerbates fat accumulation in older individuals. In addition, although the administration of testosterone increased the serum leptin level, it did not alter hypothalamic neuropeptide Y mRNA expression in middle-aged rats. On the contrary, the administration of testosterone did not affect the serum leptin levels of young rats. Thus, testosterone might induce hypothalamic leptin resistance, which could lead to fat accumulation in older individuals. Testosterone might disrupt the mechanisms that protect against adiposity and hyperphagia and represent a risk factor for excessive body weight and obesity, especially in older females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss

    OpenAIRE

    Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric...

  1. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2017-06-01

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Inhibitory effect of green coffee bean extract on fat accumulation and body weight gain in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitani Michio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An epidemiological study conducted in Italy indicated that coffee has the greatest antioxidant capacity among the commonly consumed beverages. Green coffee bean is rich in chlorogenic acid and its related compounds. The effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE on fat accumulation and body weight in mice was assessed with the objective of investigating the effect of GCBE on mild obesity. Methods Male ddy mice were fed a standard diet containing GCBE and its principal constituents, namely, caffeine and chlorogenic acid, for 14 days. Further, hepatic triglyceride (TG level was also investigated after consecutive administration (13 days of GCBE and its constituents. To examine the effect of GCBE and its constituents on fat absorption, serum TG changes were evaluated in olive oil-loaded mice. In addition, to investigate the effect on hepatic TG metabolism, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT activity in mice was evaluated after consecutive ingestion (6 days of GCBE and its constituents (caffeine, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and feruloylquinic acid mixture. Results It was found that 0.5% and 1% GCBE reduced visceral fat content and body weight. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid showed a tendency to reduce visceral fat and body weight. Oral administration of GCBE (100 and 200 mg/kg· day for 13 days showed a tendency to reduce hepatic TG in mice. In the same model, chlorogenic acid (60 mg/kg· day reduced hepatic TG level. In mice loaded with olive oil (5 mL/kg, GCBE (200 and 400 mg/kg and caffeine (20 and 40 mg/kg reduced serum TG level. GCBE (1%, neochlorogenic acid (0.028% and 0.055% and feruloylquinic acid mixture (0.081% significantly enhanced hepatic CPT activity in mice. However, neither caffeine nor chlorogenic acid alone was found to enhance CPT activity. Conclusion These results suggest that GCBE is possibly effective against weight gain and fat accumulation by inhibition of fat absorption and activation of fat

  3. Relationship of the Reported Intakes of Fat and Fatty Acids to Body Weight in US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Conrad, Zach; Johnson, LuAnn K; Picklo, Matthew J; Jahns, Lisa

    2017-04-28

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categories (1) for the US adult population and, (2) by sociodemographic groups. Reported dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and What We Eat in America (WWEIA) surveys in the years 2005-2012 were analyzed. Overall, we found that the reported intake of carbohydrate, protein, total fat, total saturated fat (as well as long-chain saturated fatty acids 14:0-18:0), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were positively associated with BMI; while lauric acid (a medium-chain saturated fatty acid, 12:0) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (as well as all individual PUFAs) were not associated with BMI. Non-Hispanic black individuals demonstrated a negative association between BMI and energy intake and a positive association between total PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and BMI. Individuals with less than a high school education showed a negative association between BMI and DHA. Mexican-Americans reported intakes with no association between BMI and energy, any macronutrient, or individual fatty acids. These findings support those of experimental studies demonstrating fatty acid-dependent associations between dietary fatty acid composition and body weight. Notably, we observed divergent results for some sociodemographic groups which warrant further investigation.

  4. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E; Gower, Barbara A

    2013-06-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/day deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n = 29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  5. Variations in body weight, food intake and body composition after long-term high-fat diet feeding in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongbin; Smith, Daniel L; Keating, Karen D; Allison, David B; Nagy, Tim R

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the variations in body weight, food intake, and body composition of both male and female C57BL/6J mice during a diet-induced obesity model with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Mice were individually housed and fed ad libitum either a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% calories from fat; n = 15 male, n = 15 female) or HFD (45% calories from fat; n = 277 male, n = 278 female) from 8 to 43 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake, and body composition were routinely measured. Body weight was significantly increased with HFD (vs. LFD) in males from week 14 (P = 0.0221) and in females from week 27 (P = 0.0076). Fat mass and fat-free mass of all groups were significantly increased over time (all P weight for both sexes (P weight. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  6. Adipose tissue (P)RR regulates insulin sensitivity, fat mass and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamansurova, Zulaykho; Tan, Paul; Ahmed, Basma; Pepin, Emilie; Seda, Ondrej; Lavoie, Julie L

    2016-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that the handle-region peptide, a prorenin/renin receptor [(P)RR] blocker, reduces body weight and fat mass and may improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice. We hypothesized that knocking out the adipose tissue (P)RR gene would prevent weight gain and insulin resistance. An adipose tissue-specific (P)RR knockout (KO) mouse was created by Cre-loxP technology using AP2-Cre recombinase mice. Because the (P)RR gene is located on the X chromosome, hemizygous males were complete KO and had a more pronounced phenotype on a normal diet (ND) diet compared to heterozygous KO females. Therefore, we challenged the female mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) to uncover certain phenotypes. Mice were maintained on either diet for 9 weeks. KO mice had lower body weights compared to wild-types (WT). Only hemizygous male KO mice presented with lower total fat mass, higher total lean mass as well as smaller adipocytes compared to WT mice. Although food intake was similar between genotypes, locomotor activity during the active period was increased in both male and female KO mice. Interestingly, only male KO mice had increased O2 consumption and CO2 production during the entire 24-hour period, suggesting an increased basal metabolic rate. Although glycemia during a glucose tolerance test was similar, KO males as well as HFD-fed females had lower plasma insulin and C-peptide levels compared to WT mice, suggesting improved insulin sensitivity. Remarkably, all KO animals exhibited higher circulating adiponectin levels, suggesting that this phenotype can occur even in the absence of a significant reduction in adipose tissue weight, as observed in females and, thus, may be a specific effect related to the (P)RR. (P)RR may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications such as type 2 diabetes.

  7. Importance of dietary advice, nutritional supplements and compliance for maintaining body weight and body fat after hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengstrom, Y; Wahren, L K; Grodzinsky, E

    2009-08-01

    Poor nutritional status amongst elderly individuals with hip fractures is well documented. Studies have suggested that 30-50 % of patients admitted to orthopaedic departments suffer from protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). An 6 month intervention study. The study was conducted in Sweden between February 2005 and October 2006. Elderly patients with hip fractures (n=32). Evaluation of compliance with individual nutritional support and whether body weight and body fat (BF) could be maintained after six months. Evaluation of possible effects of nutritional supplements and dietary advice after hip fracture on BMI, BF, and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Overall compliance with supplement intake was 73%. After six months, BMI was unchanged. Women's BF had decreased (P body weight/day. Three groups could be identified: one group with increased body weight and BF, one with loss of body weight and BF, and one with increased body weight together with increased TBW and loss of BF. PARTICIPANTS who consumed 0-1 supplements daily lost more weight than those who consumed 2 supplements daily. There was a positive difference (p= body water (TBW). MNA values for women changed in a positive direction.

  8. IQP-GC-101 reduces body weight and body fat mass: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-10-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU  = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. © 2014 InQpharm Group Sdn Bhd. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A comparison of the effect of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on food intake, body weight, blood lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants levels and haemostasis variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, J.A.; Hof, K.H. van het; Berg, H. van den; Velthuis-te-Wierik, E.J.M. te; Graaf, C. de; Zimmermanns, N.J.H.; Westerterp, K.R.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Verboeket-Venne, W.P.H.G. van de

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on fat and energy intake, body weight, plasma lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants concentrations and haemostasis variables. Design: A multicentre open randomised controlled trial in which

  10. Transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted production of interleukin-6 are resistant to high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight and body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Juan; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine involved in both normal physiological brain functions and underlying significant neuropathology. IL-6 has been suggested to play a role in the control of body weight but the results are somewhat controversial. In this study we have challenged transgenic mice...... of increased sympathetic tone. The high-fat diet-induced impaired responses to an insulin tolerance test (ITT), and to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in both genotypes. The GFAP-IL6 mice did not differ from littermate wild-type (WT) mice in ITT, but they were more glucose intolerant following the high......-fat diet feeding. In summary, the present results demonstrate that brain-specific IL-6 controls body weight which may be a significant factor in physiological conditions and/or in diseases causing neuroinflammation....

  11. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; Heitmann, Berit L

    2006-01-01

    , body fat distribution, and body composition in a random group of adult Danes. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a subsample of men and women from the Danish arm of the Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease study. The subsample comprised 185 men and 191 women...... born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. RESULTS: Positive associations between GI and changes in body weight (DeltaBW), percentage body fat (Delta...... observed in men, and no significant associations with GL were observed in either sex. CONCLUSIONS: High-GI diets may lead to increases in BW, body fat mass, and WC in women, especially in sedentary women, which suggests that physical activity may protect against diet-induced weight gain. No associations...

  12. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes 1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; L. Heitmann, Berit

    2006-01-01

    .Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relationbetween GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes inbody weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in a randomgroup of adult Danes.Design: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a subsampleof men and women from the Danish arm...

  13. Bingeing, self-restriction, and increased body weight in rats with limited access to a sweet-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Laura A; Avena, Nicole M; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2008-09-01

    Prior research has shown that fasting alternated with a diet of standard rodent chow and a 10% sucrose solution produces bingeing on the sucrose, but animals remain at normal body weight. The present study investigated whether restricted access to a highly palatable combination of sugar and fat, without food deprivation, would instigate binge eating and also increase body weight. Male rats were maintained for 25 days on one of four diets: (i) sweet-fat chow for 2 h/day followed by ad libitum standard chow, (ii) 2-h sweet-fat chow only 3 days/week and access to standard chow the rest of the time, (iii) ad libitum sweet-fat chow, or (iv) ad libitum standard chow. Both groups with 2-h access to the sweet-fat chow exhibited bingeing behavior, as defined by excessively large meals. The body weight of these animals increased due to large meals and then decreased between binges as a result of self-restricted intake of standard chow following binges. However, despite these fluctuations in body weight, the group with 2-h access to sweet-fat chow every day gained significantly more weight than the control group with standard chow available ad libitum. These findings may have implications for the body weight fluctuations associated with binge-eating disorder, as well as the relationship between binge eating and the obesity epidemic.

  14. Genetic, sex, and diet effects on body weight and obesity in the Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Asja; Schmitt, Armin O; Aksu, Soner; Schlote, Werner; Neuschl, Christina; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2006-11-27

    Mouse lines long-term selected for high fatness offer the possibility to identify individual genes involved in the development of obesity. The Berlin Fat Mouse (BFM) line has been selected for low protein content and afterward for high fatness. Three Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred (BFMI) lines, which are derivates of the selection line BFM and an unselected control line (C57BL/6; B6) were systematically phenotyped between 3 and 20 wk. The body weights and body compositions were measured on a weekly basis. We demonstrated that the BFMI lines dispose of more body weight, body fat mass, and body lean mass than the control line B6 because of a better feed efficiency in these lines. In contrast to other growth-selected mouse lines, the BFMI lines exhibited a general increase in body fat mass but only a marginal increase in body lean mass. The three BFMI lines also showed line- and sex-specific patterns and varied in their response to high-fat diet. The phenotypic differences between the BFMI lines can be traced back to different sets of fixed alleles contributing to fat accumulation and diet-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that the genetically related BFMI lines are novel models to study the genetic as well as the nutritional aspects of obesity.

  15. Influences of weight, body fat patterning and nutrition on the management of PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, P; Bringer, J; Renard, E; Boulet, F; Clouet, S; Jaffiol, C

    1997-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous clinical entity that is defined as the association of hyperandrogenism with chronic anovulation in women without specific underlying diseases of the adrenal or pituitary glands. PCOS is also associated with a metabolic disturbance (insulin resistance). The nature of the complex interrelation of obesity, insulin resistance and endocrine abnormalities in PCOS remains unresolved. However, several studies link obesity, body fat distribution and nutritional habitus with the hormonal and metabolic profiles of PCOS. Moreover, intervention studies have suggested that reducing weight and/or hyperinsulinaemia either by diet alone or by a combination of diet and drugs improves hirsutism, fertility and the hormonal and metabolic profiles of PCOS. In fact, the evaluation of nutritional factors in PCOS is helpful for the screening of metabolic abnormalities and the management of women with PCOS. A point of particular interest in the management of PCOS is that the choice of contraception remains difficult in these high cardiovascular risk women. The impact of pills with ethinyl oestradiol on weight, body fat distribution and carbohydrate metabolism in women with PCOS has not been thoroughly evaluated. The lack of prospective studies to evaluate long-term metabolic and cardiovascular tolerance necessitates care and the assessment of other hormonal possibilities.

  16. Dairy food consumption and body weight and fatness studied longitudinally over the adolescent period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, S M; Bandini, L G; Cyr, H; Colclough-Douglas, S; Naumova, E; Must, A

    2003-09-01

    Although research suggests that adolescents, particularly girls, may avoid dairy products due to concerns that these foods are 'fattening,' the longitudinal relation between consumption of dairy foods and relative weight status during adolescence has not been explored. Using data from the MIT Growth and Development Study, a longitudinal study designed to assess the metabolic, dietary, and behavioral factors that predict changes in body composition with growth and development in girls during the adolescent period, the current analysis was undertaken to examine the relation of dairy food intake with relative weight status and percentage body fat (%BF). A total of 196 nonobese premenarcheal girls 8-12 y old were enrolled between 1990 and 1993. Girls were followed until 4 y postmenarche. At each annual follow-up visit, data were collected on %BF by BIA, body mass index (BMI) z-score, and dietary intake (assessed by FFQ). The present analysis is limited to the 178 girls who have at least three annual visits and who have valid anthropometric and food frequency data. In all, 1198 individual measurements were analyzed. At study entry, participants had a mean (s.d.) BMI z-score of -0.27 (0.89), a mean (s.d.) %BF of 23.4 (4.7), and obtained 19.9% (9.2) of daily calories from dairy foods. Linear mixed effects modeling indicated no relationship between BMI z-score or %BF and measures of dairy food or calcium consumption. Avoidance of dairy foods due to a possible association with relative body weight is not supported by these findings. We find no evidence that dairy food consumption is associated with BMI z-score or %BF during adolescence, but further research specifically designed to address this question is needed.

  17. Body fat percentage is better than indicators of weight status to identify children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliosa, Polyana Romano; Zaniqueli, Divanei; Alvim, Rafael de Oliveira; Barbosa, Miriam Carmo Rodrigues; Mill, José Geraldo

    2018-01-05

    To assess whether the indicators of weight status body mass index and waist-to-height ratio are similar to body fat percentage to identify obese children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile. This was a cross-sectional study involving 840 children and adolescents (6-18 years). The same individuals were classified as non-obese (

    body fat percentage and indicators of weight status, body mass index, and waist-to-height ratio. Body fat percentage was obtained by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance. Linear association between obesity and increased lipid fractions was tested by ANCOVA. Normal distribution curves of non-HDL cholesterol were designed for obese and non-obese. To provide the proportion of obese individuals with elevated non-HDL-c across all indicators, Z-score was calculated. Obese boys presented higher non-HDL cholesterol when compared with those non-obese, classified by body mass index (107±28 vs. 94±25mg/dL, p=0.001), waist-to-height ratio (115±29 vs. 94±25mg/dL, p<0.001) and body fat percentage (119±33 vs. 94±24mg/dL, p<0.001). Differently, obese girls presented with higher non-HDL cholesterol when compared with those non-obese only according to the body fat percentage classification (118±24 vs. 96±26mg/dL, p=0.001). A large shift to the right in the distribution curve of non-HDL cholesterol among obese girls compared with non-obese was observed only when body fat percentage was used to discriminate between obese and non-obese. Body fat percentage was better than the indicators of weight status to identify children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile, mainly among girls. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  18. The Effects of Usual Intervention Versus Usual Intervention Plus Knowledge of Measured Resting Energy Expenditure on Body Weight and Body Fat in Active Duty Air Force Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Heather

    2004-01-01

    ...: 25.2-36.2, enrolled in a Weight and Body Fat Management program Statistical Analysis: Descriptives, 2-sample t-tests, multiple linear regression, and ANOVA for mean differences between groups and time...

  19. BDA-410 Treatment Reduces Body Weight and Fat Content by Enhancing Lipolysis in Sedentary Senescent Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Andrea S; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Zhang, Tan; Wu, Hanzhi; Register, Thomas C; Forbes, Elizabeth; Devarie-Baez, Nelmi O; Files, Daniel Clark; Abba, Martin C; Furdui, Cristina; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2017-08-01

    Loss of muscle mass and force with age leads to fall risk, mobility impairment, and reduced quality of life. This article shows that BDA-410, a calpain inhibitor, induced loss of body weight and fat but not lean mass or skeletal muscle proteins in a cohort of sedentary 23-month-old mice. Food and water intake and locomotor activity were not modified, whereas BDA-410 treatment decreased intramyocellular lipid and perigonadal fat, increased serum nonesterified fatty acids, and upregulated the genes mediating lipolysis and oxidation, lean phenotype, muscle contraction, muscle transcription regulation, and oxidative stress response. This finding is consistent with our recent report that lipid accumulation in skeletal myofibers is significantly correlated with slower fiber-contraction kinetics and diminished power in obese older adult mice. A proteomic analysis and immunoblot showed downregulation of the phosphatase PPP1R12B, which increases phosphorylated myosin half-life and modulates the calcium sensitivity of the contractile apparatus. This study demonstrates that BDA-410 exerts a beneficial effect on skeletal muscle contractility through new, alternative mechanisms, including enhanced lipolysis, upregulation of "lean phenotype-related genes," downregulation of the PP1R12B phosphatase, and enhanced excitation-contraction coupling. This single compound holds promise for treating age-dependent decline in muscle composition and strength. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Body weight as an indicator of fat-free mass in active elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonati, Jaqueline G; Modeneze, Dênis M; Vilarta, Roberto; Maciel, Erika S; Boccaletto, Estela M A

    2011-04-01

    Fat-free mass (FFM) reduction and the tendency for a reduction in surrounding fatty issue and increase in the middle are a natural consequence of growing old and should be studied in order to gain a better understanding of the aging process. This study set out to find the FFM differences between active elderly women in two age groups (60-69 and 70-80 years) and to determine which of the anthropometric measurements, body weight (BW), abdominal circumference (AC), or body mass index (BMI) are the best predictors of FFM variation within the group. Eighty-one (n=81) active elderly women of the Third Age willingly signed up to participate in the research during the activities at the University of the Third Age (UTA) in Brazil. The research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medical Sciences of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP). Body weight (BW), height (H) and the BMI were measured according to the international standards. The AC was measured in centimetres at the H of the navel and body composition was ascertained using bioimpedance analysis. The SAS program was used to perform the statistical analysis of independent samples and parametric data. The results showed FFM values with significant differences between the two groups, with the lowest values occurring among the women who were over 70 years of age. In the analysis, the Pearson's Correlation Coefficient for each measured independent variable was ascertained, with the BW measurement showing the highest ratio (0.900). The BW measurement was regarded as reliable, low-cost and easy to use for monitoring FFM in elderly women who engage in physical activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on body weight gain and fat accrual in C57Bl/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel L; Nagy, Tim R; Wilson, Landon S; Dong, Shengli; Barnes, Stephen; Allison, David B

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity in industrialized societies has become markedly elevated. In contrast, model organism research shows that reducing caloric intake below ad libitum levels provides many health and longevity benefits. Despite these benefits, few people are willing and able to reduce caloric intake over prolonged periods. Prior research suggests that mannooligosaccharide (MOS or mannan) supplementation can increase lifespan of some livestock and in rodents can reduce visceral fat without reducing caloric intake. Hence, we tested the effect of MOS supplementation as a possible calorie restriction (CR) mimetic (CRM) in mice. C57Bl/6J male mice were fed a high-fat "western" type diet with or without 1% MOS (by weight) supplementation (n = 24/group) from 8 to 20 weeks of age. Animals were housed individually and provided 95% of ad libitum food intake throughout the study. Body weight was measured weekly and body composition (lean and fat mass) measured noninvasively every 3 weeks. Individual fat depot weights were acquired by dissection at study completion. Supplementation of a high-fat diet with 1% MOS tended to reduce total food intake (mean +/- s.d.; control (CON): 293.69 +/- 10.53 g, MOS: 288.10 +/- 11.82 g; P = 0.09) during the study. Moreover, MOS supplementation had no significant effect on final body weight (CON: 25.21 +/- 2.31 g, MOS: 25.28 +/- 1.49 g; P = 0.91), total fat (CON: 4.72 +/- 0.90 g, MOS: 4.82 +/- 0.83 g; P = 0.69), or visceral fat (CON: 1.048 +/- 0.276 g, MOS: 1.004 +/- 0.247 g; P = 0.57). Contrary to previous research, MOS supplementation had no discernable effect on body weight gain or composition during this 12-week study, challenging the potential use of MOS as a CRM or body composition enhancer.

  2. Long-term effects of consumption of a novel fat emulsion in relation to body-weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepvens, K; Soenen, S; Steijns, J; Arnold, M; Westerterp-Plantenga, M

    2007-06-01

    To assess weight maintenance after weight loss by consumption of yoghurt with a novel fat emulsion (Olibra) including effects on body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), fat oxidation, hunger feelings and satiety hormones. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel design. A 6-week weight loss period (2.1 MJ/day) was followed by 18 weeks weight maintenance with test (Olibra) or placebo yoghurt. Fifty overweight women (age: 18-58 years, body mass index (BMI) 25-32 kg/m2). In weeks 1, 7 and 25, a satiety test with questionnaires and blood samples for analysis of satiety hormones. In weeks 2, 8 and 26, REE, body weight and body composition. During weight maintenance after significant body weight reduction, there was no significant increase in body weight in the test group (1.1+/-3.4 kg); the placebo group did gain weight (3.0+/-3.1 kg, Pweight maintenance compared to placebo, which can be explained by the relatively higher REE as a function of FFM, relatively higher decrease in FM and the relatively lower increase in hunger.

  3. Relationship of pressure to be thin with gains in body weight and fat mass in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suelter, C S; Schvey, N; Kelly, N R; Shanks, M; Thompson, K A; Mehari, R; Brady, S; Yanovski, S Z; Melby, C L; Tanofsky-Kraff, M; Yanovski, J A; Shomaker, L B

    2018-01-01

    Sociocultural pressure to be thin is commonly reported by adolescents; yet, to what extent such pressure is associated with weight gain has not been evaluated longitudinally. Examine whether pressure to be thin was positively associated with weight and fat gain in adolescents. Participants were 196 healthy adolescent (age 15 ± 1 years old) girls (65%) and boys of varying weights (BMI 25 ± 7 kg/m 2 ) studied at baseline and 1-year follow-up. At baseline, adolescents and their mothers reported pressure to be thin by questionnaire. At baseline and follow-up, BMI was calculated, and fat mass was assessed with air displacement plethysmography. Multiple regression was used to examine associations between baseline pressure to be thin and 1-year changes in BMI and fat mass. Accounting for multiple covariates, including baseline BMI or fat, adolescent-reported pressure from parents and peers and mother-reported pressure toward their teen were associated with greater gains in either adolescent BMI or fat (ps weight status was a moderator of multiple effects (ps < .05). Parental and peer pressure to be thin were associated with increases in BMI and fat mass during adolescence, particularly in heavier adolescents. Further research is necessary to clarify how this association operates reciprocally and to identify underlying explanatory mechanisms. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  4. Genotype x diet interactions in mice predisposed to mammary cancer. I. Body weight and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Ryan R; Hunter, Kent W; Sørensen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    High dietary fat intake and obesity may increase susceptibility to certain forms of cancer. To study the interactions of dietary fat, obesity, and metastatic mammary cancer, we created a population of F(2) mice cosegregating obesity QTL and the MMTV-PyMT transgene. We fed the F(2) mice either...... a very-high-fat or a matched-control-fat diet and measured growth, body composition, age at mammary tumor onset, tumor number and severity, and formation of pulmonary metastases. SNP genotyping across the genome facilitated analyses of QTL and QTL x diet interaction effects. Here we describe development...... for body composition traits that were significant at the genome-wide 0.05 level, likely representing nine distinct loci after accounting for pleiotropic effects. QTL x diet and/or gender interactions were present at 15 of these QTL, indicating that such interactions play a significant role in defining...

  5. Implications of Lipids in Neonatal Body Weight and Fat Mass in Gestational Diabetic Mothers and Non-Diabetic Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Emilio; Ortega-Senovilla, Henar

    2018-02-05

    Maternal lipid metabolism greatly changes during pregnancy and we review in this article how they influence fetal adiposity and growth under non-diabetic and gestational diabetic conditions. In pregnant women without diabetes (control), maternal glycemia correlates with neonatal glycemia, neonatal body weight and fat mass. In pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), maternal glucose correlates with neither neonatal glycemia, neonatal birth weight nor fat mass, but maternal triacylglycerols (TAG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glycerol do correlate with birth weight and neonatal adiposity. The proportions of maternal plasma arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids decrease from the first to the third trimester of pregnancy, and at term these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are higher in cord blood plasma than in mothers, indicating efficient placental transfer. In control or pregnant women with GDM at term, the maternal concentration of individual fatty acids does not correlate with neonatal body weight or fat mass, but cord blood fatty acid levels correlate with birth weight and neonatal adiposity-positively in controls, but negatively in GDM. The proportion of AA and DHA in umbilical artery plasma in GDM is lower than in controls but not in umbilical vein plasma. Therefore, an increased utilization of those two fatty acids by fetal tissues, rather than impaired placental transfer, is responsible for their smaller proportion in plasma of GDM newborns. In control pregnant women, maternal glycemia controls neonatal body weight and fat mass, whereas in mothers with GDM-even with good glycemic control-maternal lipids and their greater utilization by the fetus play a critical role in neonatal body weight and fat mass. We propose that altered lipid metabolism rather than hyperglycemia constitutes a risk for macrosomia in GDM.

  6. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Body Fat and Weight Loss in Women Long After Bariatric Surgery: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Gomes, Daniela; Moehlecke, Milene; Lopes da Silva, Fernanda Bassan; Dutra, Eliane Said; D'Agord Schaan, Beatriz; Baiocchi de Carvalho, Kenia Mara

    2017-02-01

    The ideal nutritional approach for weight regain after bariatric surgery remains unclear. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of whey protein supplementation on weight loss and body composition of women who regained weight 24 or more months after bariatric surgery. This is a 16-week open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial of women who regained at least 5 % of their lowest postoperative weight after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). A total of 34 participants were treated with hypocaloric diet and randomized (1:1) to receive or not supplementation with whey protein, 0.5 g/kg of the ideal body weight. The primary outcomes were changes in body weight, fat free mass (FFM), and fat mass (FM), evaluated by tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Secondary outcomes included resting energy expenditure, blood glucose, lipids, adiponectin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and cholecystokinin levels. Statistical analyses included generalized estimating equations adjusted for age and physical activity. Fifteen patients in each group were evaluated: mean age was 45 ± 11 years, body mass index (BMI) was 35.7 ± 5.2 kg/m 2 , and time since surgery was 69 ± 23 months. Protein intake during follow-up increased by approximately 75 % in the intervention group (p = 0.01). The intervention group presented more body weight loss (1.86 kg, p = 0.017), accounted for FM loss (2.78, p = 0.021) and no change in FFM, as compared to controls (gain of 0.42 kg of body weight and 0.6 kg of FM). No differences in secondary outcomes were observed between groups. Whey protein supplementation promoted body weight and FM loss in women with long-term weight regain following RYGB.

  7. Dietary fat, body weight, and cancer: contributions of studies in rodents to understanding these cancer risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A E; Sullivan, L M; Hafer, L J

    1999-12-01

    Understanding diet and energy balance as risk factors for breast, colon, and other cancers requires information on the contribution of each factor and of interactions among factors to cancer risk. Rodent models for breast cancer provide extensive data on effects of dietary fat and calories, energy balance, body weight gain, and physical activity on tumor development. Analyses of the combined data from many studies have shown clearly that quality and quantity of dietary fat and energy balance contribute independently to increased mammary gland tumorigenesis. These findings were seen in female rats fed diets high in fat (35-40% of calories) compared to rats fed control diets, with approximately 10% of calories as fat (Fay and Freedman, 1997, Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 46, 215-223). The methods used permit comparison of experimental and epidemiological data, and they may be useful in extrapolating between species and developing public health recommendations. In addition to the contributions of lifetime-diet composition, intake, energy balance, and physical activity to cancer risk, there are questions about the timing and duration of alterations in these factors and about the "dose-response" characteristics of cancer risk to the factors. Endocrine mechanisms may be significant in mammary gland tumor risk, but experimental and epidemiological data indicate that cancers at other sites, such as colon and liver, also are influenced by the factors listed. Other diet and lifestyle factors that influence energy, or specifically fat, metabolism may also affect risk for cancers that are promoted by increased intake of fat and calories. Studies of separate and interactive effects of dietary fat, black tea, weight gain, and mammary gland tumorigenesis (Rogers, et al, 1998, Carcinogenesis 19, 1269-1273) have been analyzed. Using adjustment of carcinogenesis endpoints for body weight, tumor burden, and latency, they were found to be related to weight gain within treatment groups in

  8. The effect of fat supplementation in Shami goat diets on milk production and composition, does body weight and growth performance of their suckling kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbas, Fawzi M; Azmi, D Hawari

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding a dry fat source to Shami does on their milk production and composition, body weight change, weaning weight and average daily gain of their suckling kids. For this purpose we used thirty two multiparous Shami does weighing (47.43 +/- 1.38 kg) and randomly assigned into four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) set. Does were housed with their suckling kids and fed one of four isonitrogenous total mixed rations containing 0, 2, 3 or 4% of dry fat. Milk production and milk fat content were higher (p milk protein content. Final body weight of does was not affected by fat supplementation while body weight changes were higher (p kids were increased (p milk production and milk fat content, as well as body weight change of does, weaning weight and average daily gain of suckling kids, without any effect on their milk protein content.

  9. Effect of modified fasting therapy on body weight, fat and muscle mass, and blood chemistry in patients with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Koh-Woon; Song, Mi-Yeon; Chung, Seok-Hee; Chung, Won-Seok

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and safety of modified fasting therapy using fermented medicinal herbs and exercise on body weight, fat and muscle mass, and blood chemistry in obese subjects. Twenty-six patients participated in a 14-day fast, during which they ingested a supplement made from fermented medicinal herbs and carbohydrates (intake: 400-600 kcal/d). The schedule included 7 prefasting relief days and 14 days of stepwise reintroduction of food. The patients also took part in an exercise program that incorporated Qigong, weight training, and walking exercises. The efficacy of treatments was observed by assessing body fat mass and muscle mass, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cholesterol, and triglycerides in each study period. Specific symptoms or side effects were reported. Body weight and body fat mass both decreased significantly by (5.16 ± 0.95) and (3.89 ± 0.79) kg (both P fasting therapy using fermented medicinal herbs and exercise could be effective and safe on obese patients.

  10. Relationship between Height-Weight Difference Index and Body-Fat Percentage Estimated by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Thai Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Juntaping, Kanokkarn; Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon; Chaijaruwanich, Jeerayut; Traisathit, Patrinee

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The height-weight difference index (HWDI) is a new indicator for evaluating obesity status. While body-fat percentage (BF%) is considered to be the most accurate obesity evaluation tool, it is a more expensive method and more difficult to measure than the others. Objective. Our objectives were to find the relationship between HWDI and BF% and to find a BF% prediction model from HWDI in relation to age and gender. Method. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure BF% i...

  11. Effects of liraglutide, a human glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, on body weight, body fat area and body fat-related markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Toyoda, Masao; Kimura, Moritugu; Miyauchi, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Sato, Hiroki; Tanaka, Eitaro; Kuriyama, Yusuke; Miyatake, Han; Abe, Makiko; Umezono, Tomoya; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of six-month liraglutide treatment on body weight, visceral and subcutaneous fat and related markers in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 59 patients with type 2 diabetes were treated with liraglutide (0.3 mg/day for ≥1 week and then 0.6 mg/day for ≥1 week, gradually increasing the dose to 0.9 mg/day) for six months. Changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), HbA1c, the fasting blood glucose level, visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, hepatic and renal CT values and the associated markers proinsulin, adiponectin and pentraxin (PTX) 3 were measured. The study included one treatment-naïve patient, 10 patients who were switched from oral antidiabetic drugs and 35 patients who were switched from insulin therapy. At six months after treatment, the preprandial blood glucose levels were higher (148.8±40.5 mg/dL) than the baseline values (130.8±36.7, pbody weight, BMI and abdominal circumference were lower, and the liver/kidney CT ratio improved significantly from 1.64±0.44 at baseline to 1.78±0.42. An analysis of the patients who were not pretreated with insulin resistance ameliorators showed that six months of liraglutide treatment significantly decreased the subcutaneous but not visceral fat areas, significantly decreased the serum adiponectin levels and significantly increased the serum PTX3 levels. In addition to its glucose-lowering effects, liraglutide exhibits weight loss promotion actions, reducing subcutaneous fat areas in particular. The weight and total fat area reduction properties of liraglutide are likely to be beneficial when this medication is used in combination with other oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin.

  12. Effects of chronic consumption of green tea on weight and body fat distribution of Wistar rats evaluated by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raso, Renata Attademo, E-mail: luizronaldoa@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa da Santa Casa, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Paim, Rebecca Rodrigues Bergamaschini; Pinheiro, Sergio Veloso Brant; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos; Vasconcellos, Leonardo de Souza; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of chronic consumption of green tea on body weight and distribution of visceral fat by Computed tomography in female Wistar rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into control group (n = 5), which received water and feed ad libitum, and green tea group (n = 8), in which water has been replaced by green tea. The animals were weighed weekly and Computed Tomography was used at the beginning (1{sup st} week) and end (18{sup th} week) of the experiment for evaluating the distribution of visceral fat. The animals were followed for 18 weeks. Results: There was no significant difference in body weight between the groups. However, there was significant difference in visceral fat area. The green tea group had less visceral fat area at the end of the experiment, 3.67 ± 1.2 cm 2 , while the control group showed an area of 6.25 ± 2.2 cm (p = 0.00). Conclusions: Chronic consumption of green tea leads to decreased visceral adipose tissue area. (author)

  13. Effects of chronic consumption of green tea on weight and body fat distribution of Wistar rats evaluated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raso, Renata Attademo; Paim, Rebecca Rodrigues Bergamaschini; Pinheiro, Sergio Veloso Brant; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos; Vasconcellos, Leonardo de Souza; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of chronic consumption of green tea on body weight and distribution of visceral fat by Computed tomography in female Wistar rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into control group (n = 5), which received water and feed ad libitum, and green tea group (n = 8), in which water has been replaced by green tea. The animals were weighed weekly and Computed Tomography was used at the beginning (1 st week) and end (18 th week) of the experiment for evaluating the distribution of visceral fat. The animals were followed for 18 weeks. Results: There was no significant difference in body weight between the groups. However, there was significant difference in visceral fat area. The green tea group had less visceral fat area at the end of the experiment, 3.67 ± 1.2 cm 2 , while the control group showed an area of 6.25 ± 2.2 cm (p = 0.00). Conclusions: Chronic consumption of green tea leads to decreased visceral adipose tissue area. (author)

  14. Effects of chronic consumption of green tea on weight and body fat distribution of Wistar rats evaluated by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Renata Attademo; Paim, Rebecca Rodrigues Bergamaschini; Pinheiro, Sérgio Veloso Brant; Tavares, Wilson Campos; Vasconcellos, Leonardo de Souza; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of chronic consumption of green tea on body weight and distribution of visceral fat by Computed tomography in female Wistar rats. Wistar rats were divided into control group (n = 5), which received water and feed ad libitum, and green tea group (n = 8), in which water has been replaced by green tea. The animals were weighed weekly and Computed Tomography was used at the beginning (1st week) and end (18th week) of the experiment for evaluating the distribution of visceral fat. The animals were followed for 18 weeks. There was no significant difference in body weight between the groups. However, there was significant difference in visceral fat area. The green tea group had less visceral fat area at the end of the experiment, 3.67 ± 1.2 cm2, while the control group showed an area of 6.25 ± 2.2 cm (p = 0.00). Chronic consumption of green tea leads to decreased visceral adipose tissue area.

  15. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.; Hayward-Jones, P. M.; Orta-Flores, Z.; Nolasco-Hipólito, C.; Barradas-Dermitz, D. M.; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. G.; Pedroza-Hernández, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs) calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats, was investigated. Rats were fed with either a basal diet (SDC = Control diet) or the same diet supplemented with Hs extracts at 5%, 10% and 15% (SD5, SD10 and SD15). Only SD5 did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to SDC. The opposite occurred in SD15 group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The SD10 responses were similar to SD15, with the exception of food consumption. In both SDC and SD5 groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents. PMID:19756159

  16. Relationship between bread consumption, body weight, and abdominal fat distribution: evidence from epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2012-04-01

    A long-standing belief held by the general public is that bread fattens. This encourages many people to restrict, or even eliminate, bread from their diet. The present review was conducted to assess whether or not eating patterns that include bread are associated with overall obesity or excess abdominal adiposity, whether in the general population or in subjects undergoing obesity management. The literature search included articles published over the past 30 years that focused on dietary patterns that included bread (refined or whole-grain) and their association with ponderal status and abdominal fat distribution. A total of 38 epidemiological studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (22 cross-sectional, 11 prospective cohort, and five intervention). The results indicate that dietary patterns that include whole-grain bread do not positively influence weight gain and may be beneficial to ponderal status. With respect to dietary patterns that include refined bread, the majority of cross-sectional studies indicate beneficial effects, while most of the well-designed cohort studies demonstrate a possible relationship with excess abdominal fat. Because differences in the study designs make it difficult to form definitive conclusions, more studies are needed that focus specifically on bread consumption, within different dietary patterns, and its influence on ponderal status. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  17. A high-fat diet increases body weight and circulating estradiol concentrations but does not improve bone structural properties in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jay J; Gregoire, Brian R

    2016-04-01

    Bone health is influenced by body mass and estrogen. The objective of the study was to determine whether high-fat diet-induced obesity affects bone structure and alters markers of bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. We hypothesized that a high-fat diet would increase body weight gain and serum estradiol levels in OVX mice but would not improve bone structural parameter in OVX mice. Thirty-five C57BL/6 mice were either sham operated or OVX at the age of 4 months and then fed either a normal-fat diet (10% energy as fat) or a high-fat diet (45% energy as fat with extra fat from lard) ad libitum for 11 weeks. Ovariectomy increased body weight, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase concentration, and expression of cathepsin K in bone; decreased serum estradiol concentration; and induced significant bone loss manifested by decreased bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), connectivity density (Conn.D), trabecular number, and trabecular thickness with increased trabecular separation and structural model index (P diet increased body weight (P diet had lower BV/TV, Conn.D, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, and higher structural model index and trabecular separation than did sham mice fed the normal-fat diet. These findings indicate that increased body weight and elevated serum estradiol concentration induced by a high-fat diet do not mitigate ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Effect acute of resitive training with weight on hidrostatic weigh, body density and percentage of fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Zinn

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify if a session of Resistive training with Weights (TRP seeking Local Muscular Resistance (RML or Increase in Muscle Volume (AVM would cause significant alterations in Hydrostatic Weight (PH, Body Density (DC and Percentage of Body Fat (%G. Nine men between the ages of 17 and 26 years participated in the study, all with a basic level of TRP and who were adapted to water. The study was carried out during three days. On the first day, the subjects performed the 1RM test for the 10 exercises included into the training. Two days later, hydrostatic weighing (pre-trainingwas measured, immediately followed by a TRP session for AVM and by another hydrostatic weighing (post-training measurement. Two days later, the same process was applied to, however this time with a TRP session for RML. The statistical analyses by Student’s-t test showed that there were no significant differences (p>0.05 between pre and post-training results for PH, DC and %G variables. The 2x2 ANOVA interaction for type of training (AVM and RML and the moment of weighing (pre and post-training was not significant, while the results of PH, DC and %G did not depend on the type of training (AVM or RML. Pearson’s linear correlation between the values of the pre and post-training was significant (r≥0.94. It can be concluded that the TRP does not have an effect on the results of PH, DC and %G, regardless of type of training performed, therefore, hydrostatic weighing can be measured either before or after the TRP, without interfering on the results. RESUMO Este estudo teve por objetivo verificar se uma sessão de Treinamento Resistido com Pesos (TRP visando Resistência Muscular Localizada (RML ou objetivando Aumento de Volume Muscular (AVM causariam alterações significativas no Peso Hidrost��tico (PH, Densidade Corporal (DC e Percentual de Gordura (%G. Participaram da amostra nove homens com idade entre 17 e 26 anos que possuíam um n

  19. Predicting anti-fat attitudes: individual differences based on actual and perceived body size, weight importance, entity mindset, and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shannon Rich; Rosen, Lisa H

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relative impact of actual and perceived weight, weight importance, entity mindset, and ethnicity on anti-fat attitudes as well as to examine whether certain variables play the role of mediator. Participants included a multiethnic U.S. sample of 923 female undergraduates who completed a series of measures online. Lower BMI, higher perceived weight, higher importance of weight, endorsement of an entity mindset, and identification as White as compared to Black, Hispanic, or Asian predicted higher overall anti-fat attitudes. Examination of the individual Antifat Attitudes Questionnaire subscales (i.e. dislike, fear of fat, and willpower) using Relative Weight Analysis suggested that weight importance is an important predictor of multiple aspects of anti-fat attitudes. In addition, weight importance mediated the relationship between perceived weight and fear of fat as well as the relationship between ethnicity and dislike. Implications of findings and future research directions are discussed.

  20. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In; Park, Sang-Joon; Lee, Sang Gyu; Lee, Inkyu; Kim, Myoung Ok; Yoon, Duhak; Ryoo, Zae Young

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes

  1. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Joon [College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Gyu [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Inkyu [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 680 Gukchaebosang-ro, Jung-gu, Daegu 700-842 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Ok [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Duhak, E-mail: dhyoon@knu.ac.kr [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Zae Young, E-mail: jaewoong64@hanmail.net [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes.

  2. Consumption of diacylglycerol oil as part of a reduced-energy diet enhances loss of body weight and fat in comparison with consumption of a triacylglycerol control oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Davidson, Michael H; Tsushima, Rikio; Matsuo, Noboru; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Umporowicz, Denise M; Dicklin, Mary R; Foster, Gregory S; Ingram, Kate A; Anderson, Barbara D; Frost, Scott D; Bell, Marjorie

    2002-12-01

    Diacylglycerol is a natural component of edible oils that has metabolic characteristics that are distinct from those of triacylglycerol. We assessed the efficacy of an oil containing mainly 1,3-diacylglycerol in reducing body weight and fat mass when incorporated into a reduced-energy diet. The study was a randomized, double-blind, parallel intervention trial that was conducted at an outpatient clinical research center. The subjects (n = 131) were overweight or obese men (waist circumference > or = 90 cm) and women (waist circumference > or = 87 cm). Food products (muffins, crackers, soup, cookies, and granola bars) containing diacylglycerol or triacylglycerol oil and having the same fatty acid composition were incorporated into a reduced-energy diet (2100-3350-kJ/d deficit) for 24 wk. Percentages of change in body weight, fat mass, and intraabdominal fat area were assessed. In an intention-to-treat analysis, body weight and fat mass decreased significantly more in the diacylglycerol group than in the triacylglycerol group (P = 0.025 and 0.037, respectively). By the end of the trial, mean body weight had decreased 3.6% and 2.5% in the diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol groups, respectively. Fat mass decreased 8.3% and 5.6% in the diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol groups, respectively. Foods containing diacylglycerol oil promoted weight loss and body fat reduction and may be useful as an adjunct to diet therapy in the management of obesity.

  3. FTO genotype and 2-year change in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight-loss diets: the POUNDS LOST Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Qi, Qibin; Zhang, Cuilin; Smith, Steven R; Hu, Frank B; Sacks, Frank M; Bray, George A; Qi, Lu

    2012-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) genotype may interact with dietary intakes in relation to adiposity. We tested the effect of FTO variant on weight loss in response to 2-year diet interventions. FTO rs1558902 was genotyped in 742 obese adults who were randomly assigned to one of four diets differing in the proportions of fat, protein, and carbohydrate. Body composition and fat distribution were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. We found significant modification effects for intervention varying in dietary protein on 2-year changes in fat-free mass, whole body total percentage of fat mass, total adipose tissue mass, visceral adipose tissue mass, and superficial adipose tissue mass (for all interactions, P < 0.05). Carriers of the risk allele had a greater reduction in weight, body composition, and fat distribution in response to a high-protein diet, whereas an opposite genetic effect was observed on changes in fat distribution in response to a low-protein diet. Likewise, significant interaction patterns also were observed at 6 months. Our data suggest that a high-protein diet may be beneficial for weight loss and improvement of body composition and fat distribution in individuals with the risk allele of the FTO variant rs1558902.

  4. High-fat diet offsets the long-lasting effects of running-wheel access on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Pei-Ting; Terrillion, Chantelle E; Moran, Timothy H; Bi, Sheng

    2011-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that running-wheel access normalizes the food intake and body weight of Otsuka Long-Evens Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Following 6 wk of running-wheel access beginning at 8 wk of age, the body weight of OLETF rats remains reduced, demonstrating a lasting effect on their phenotype. In contrast, access to a high-fat diet exacerbates the hyperphagia and obesity of OLETF rats. To determine whether diet modulates the long-term effects of exercise, we examined the effects of high-fat diet on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats that had prior access to running wheels for 4 wk. We found that 4 wk of running exercise significantly decreased food intake and body weight of OLETF rats. Consistent with prior results, 4 wk of exercise also produced long-lasting effects on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats fed a regular chow. When running wheels were relocked, OLETF rats stabilized at lower levels of body weight than sedentary OLETF rats. However, access to a high-fat diet offset these effects. When OLETF rats were switched to a high-fat diet following wheel relocking, they significantly increased food intake and body weight, so that they reached levels similar to those of sedentary OLETF rats fed a high-fat diet. Gene expression determination of hypothalamic neuropeptides revealed changes that appeared to be appropriate responses to the effects of diet and running exercise. Together, these results demonstrate that high-fat diet modulates the long-lasting effects of exercise on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats.

  5. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. Methods In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n = 203 and at 6 to11 years of age (n = 177 the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Results Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173 g (-322; -23, -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7 and medium exposed children: -139 g (-272; -6, -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0. Exposed (medium and highly together children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0 from birth to school age and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6 larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount, the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5 and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4 higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022 and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22, boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79, but not IGFBP3. Conclusions Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to

  6. Altered Body Weight Regulation in CK1ε Null and tau Mutant Mice on Regular Chow and High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of circadian rhythms results in metabolic dysfunction. Casein kinase 1 epsilon (CK1ε is a canonical circadian clock gene. Null and tau mutations in CK1ε show distinct effects on circadian period. To investigate the role of CK1ε in body weight regulation under both regular chow (RC and high fat (HF diet conditions, we examined body weight on both RC and HF diets in CK1ε-/- and CK1εtau/tau mice on a standard 24 hr light-dark (LD cycle. Given the abnormal entrainment of CK1εtau/tau mice on a 24 hr LD cycle, a separate set of CK1εtau/tau mice were tested under both diet conditions on a 20 hr LD cycle, which more closely matches their endogenous period length. On the RC diet, both CK1ε-/- and CK1εtau/tau mutants on a 24 hr LD cycle and CK1εtau/tau mice on a 20 hr LD cycle exhibited significantly lower body weights, despite similar overall food intake and activity levels. On the HF diet, CK1εtau/tau mice on a 20 hr LD cycle were protected against the development of HF diet-induced excess weight gain. These results provide additional evidence supporting a link between circadian rhythms and energy regulation at the genetic level, particularly highlighting CK1ε involved in the integration of circadian biology and metabolic physiology.

  7. Immune Priming, Fat Reserves, Muscle Mass and Body Weight of the House Cricket is Affected by Diet Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Aguilar, A; Nava-Sánchez, A; González-Tokman, D M; Munguía-Steyer, R; Gutiérrez-Cabrera, A E

    2016-08-01

    Some insect species are capable of producing an enhanced immune response after a first pathogenic encounter, a process called immune priming. However, whether and how such ability is driven by particular diet components (protein/carbohydrate) have not been explored. Such questions are sound given that, in general, immune response is dietary dependent. We have used adults of the house cricket Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) and exposed them to the bacteria Serratia marcescens. We first addressed whether survival rate after priming and nonpriming treatments is dietary dependent based on access/no access to proteins and carbohydrates. Second, we investigated how these dietary components affected fat reserves, muscle mass, and body weight, three key traits in insect fitness. Thus, we exposed adult house crickets to either a protein or a carbohydrate diet and measured the three traits. After being provided with protein, primed animals survived longer compared to the other diet treatments. Interestingly, this effect was also sex dependent with primed males having a higher survival than primed females when protein was supplemented. For the second experiment, protein-fed animals had more fat, muscle mass, and body weight than carbohydrate-fed animals. Although we are not aware of the immune component underlying immune priming, our results suggest that its energetic demand for its functioning and/or consequent survival requires a higher demand of protein with respect to carbohydrate. Thus, protein shortage can impair key survival-related traits related to immune and energetic condition. Further studies varying nutrient ratios should verify our results.

  8. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were...... measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. TBF was expressed as a percentage of body weight (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK) ), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and resting heart rate (RHR) were measured. Mean arterial pressure...... (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) were calculated. Left atrial diameter (LA) was measured, and left ventricular mass (LVM) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were calculated. Z-scores were calculated. Sum of z-scores for SBP, DBP, MAP, PP, RHR, LVM, LA, RWT and -VO(2PEAK) was calculated in boys and girls...

  9. Effects of different amounts and types of dietary fatty acids on the body weight, fat accumulation, and lipid metabolism in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Hua; Chang, Jung-Su; Chen, Chi-Long; Yeh, Chiu-Li; Chien, Yi-Wen

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of different amounts of dietary fatty acids on body weight, fat accumulation, and lipid metabolism of hamsters. Sixty male golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into six groups. Three of the groups (the S groups) were fed experimental diets containing 5%, 15%, and 20% (w/w) fat of soybean oil (S5, S15, and S20, respectively), and the other three groups (the M groups) were fed the same proportions of an experimental oil mixture (M5, M15, and M20, respectively). The experimental oil mixture consisted of 60% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and a polyunsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratio of 5 with a mixture of soybean and canola oils. Food consumption was measured daily, and body weights were measured weekly. Serum insulin and leptin concentrations were measured and hepatic fatty acid metabolic enzymes and adipose differentiation markers were determined using an enzyme activity analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that the weight and weight gain of the S20 group were significantly greater than those of the other five groups. When the total fat consumption increased, the body weight, weight gain, and adipose tissue weight of the S groups significantly increased, but there were no significant differences in these parameters among the M groups. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the M15 and S15 groups. The S20 group had significantly higher leptin and insulin concentrations and lipoprotein lipase was promoted, but the acetyl-coenzyme A oxidase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, were significantly lower. The study demonstrated that a special experimental oil mixture (with 60% MUFAs and a ratio of 5) with high fat can prevent body weight gain and body fat accumulation by lowering insulin concentrations and increasing hepatic lipolytic enzyme activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuromedin U receptor 2 knockdown in the paraventricular nucleus modifies behavioral responses to obesogenic high-fat food and leads to increased body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzon, C R; Johnson, S B; McCue, D L; Li, D; Green, T A; Hommel, J D

    2014-01-31

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is a highly conserved neuropeptide which regulates food intake and body weight. Transgenic mice lacking NMU are hyperphagic and obese, making NMU a novel target for understanding and treating obesity. Neuromedin U receptor 2 (NMUR2) is a high-affinity receptor for NMU found in discrete regions of the central nervous system, in particular the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), where it may be responsible for mediating the anorectic effects of NMU. We hypothesized that selective knock down of NMUR2 in the PVN of rats would increase their sensitivity to the reinforcing properties of food resulting in increased intake and preference for high-fat obesogenic food. To this end, we used viral-mediated RNAi to selectively knock down NMUR2 gene expression in the PVN. In rats fed a standard chow, NMUR2 knockdown produced no significant effect on food intake or body weight. However, when the same rats were fed a high-fat diet (45% fat), they consumed significantly more food, gained more body weight, and had increased feed efficiency relative to controls. Furthermore, NMUR2 knockdown rats demonstrated significantly greater binge-type food consumption of the high-fat diet and showed a greater preference for higher-fat food. These results demonstrate that NMUR2 signaling in the PVN regulates consumption and preference for high-fat foods without disrupting feeding behavior associated with non-obesogenic standard chow. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between Height-Weight Difference Index and Body-Fat Percentage Estimated by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Thai Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntaping, Kanokkarn; Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon; Chaijaruwanich, Jeerayut; Traisathit, Patrinee

    2017-01-01

    The height-weight difference index (HWDI) is a new indicator for evaluating obesity status. While body-fat percentage (BF%) is considered to be the most accurate obesity evaluation tool, it is a more expensive method and more difficult to measure than the others. Our objectives were to find the relationship between HWDI and BF% and to find a BF% prediction model from HWDI in relation to age and gender. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure BF% in 2,771 healthy adult Thais. HWDI was calculated as the difference between height and weight. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between HWDI and BF%. Multiple linear and nonlinear regression analysis were used to construct the BF% prediction model. HWDI and BF% were found to be inverse which related to a tendency toward a linear relationship. Results of a multivariate linear regression analysis, which included HWDI and age as variables in the model, predicted BF% to be 34.508 - 0.159 (HWDI) + 0.161 (age) for men and 53.35 - 0.265 (HWDI) + 0.132 (age) for women. The prediction model provides an easy-to-use obesity evaluation tool that should help awareness of underweight and obesity conditions.

  12. Relationship between Height-Weight Difference Index and Body-Fat Percentage Estimated by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Thai Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokkarn Juntaping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The height-weight difference index (HWDI is a new indicator for evaluating obesity status. While body-fat percentage (BF% is considered to be the most accurate obesity evaluation tool, it is a more expensive method and more difficult to measure than the others. Objective. Our objectives were to find the relationship between HWDI and BF% and to find a BF% prediction model from HWDI in relation to age and gender. Method. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure BF% in 2,771 healthy adult Thais. HWDI was calculated as the difference between height and weight. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between HWDI and BF%. Multiple linear and nonlinear regression analysis were used to construct the BF% prediction model. Results. HWDI and BF% were found to be inverse which related to a tendency toward a linear relationship. Results of a multivariate linear regression analysis, which included HWDI and age as variables in the model, predicted BF% to be 34.508 − 0.159 (HWDI + 0.161 (age for men and 53.35 − 0.265 (HWDI + 0.132 (age for women. Conclusions. The prediction model provides an easy-to-use obesity evaluation tool that should help awareness of underweight and obesity conditions.

  13. Body weight and fat mass index as strong predictors of factor VIII in vivo recovery in adults with hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrard, S; Speybroeck, N; Hermans, C

    2011-09-01

    The treatment of hemophilia A requires infusions of factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates. The number of units to be given in order to obtain the target level is calculated using the formula: [body weight (BW) × desired FVIII increase]/2, which assumes that each unit infused per kg of BW increases the FVIII level by 2%. The present observational study evaluated the dependence of FVIII recovery on different morphometrical variables: BW, fat mass index (FMI), body mass index, and the difference between actual and ideal BW. FVIII recovery was measured in 46 non-actively bleeding hemophilia A patients, being treated with a recombinant FVIII concentrate. Regression trees were used to identify morphometrical predictors of recovery. The median recovery was 2.08 for all patients, 2.63 for those with a BW ≥ 81.0 kg and 1.87 for others (P recovery was significantly higher when FMI was ≥ 20% compared with FMI recovery: 2.35 vs. 1.74; P = 0.007). Using regression trees, three groups were created: BW recovery in these groups was 1.80, 2.16 and 2.63, respectively (P recovery after different FVIII concentrates should keep in mind morphometrical patient characteristics. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  14. INDICATORS OF SUCCESS IN THE DIETARY MANAGEMENT OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY: WEIGHT, BODY FAT LOSS AND QUALITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig García-Galbis, Manuel; Rizo Baeza, Mercedes; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2015-09-01

    %WL: Percentage of weight loss; %FL: Percentage of fat loss. evaluate which unit of measurement for weight loss could determine the success or failure of dietary treatment for overweight and obesity. 4,625 consultations carried out on 616 patients in the southeast of Spain from 2006 to 2012. All of the patients were over 25 years of age and suffered from overweight or obesity. The consultations were carried out every fortnight, using the Mediterranean or low-calorie diet. The patients were divided into four groups according to their %WL and %FL. most of the sample consisted of: women; participants between 25-45 years of age; attended consultations for over a month and a half; obese. 80% of the patients obtained a %FL ≥ 5% (15.5 } 12.8). The groups with a higher %FL obtained significant differences in weight loss (22.6 vs 11.2%, p = 0.000). The multinomial analysis shows significant differences between the groups with the highest %FL and the lowest %WL and %FL: sex (p = 0.006 vs p = 0.005), BMI (p = 0.010 vs p = 0.003) and attendance (p = 0.000 vs p = 0.000). the patients who lost weight and fat); most of the sample lost ≥ 5% of fat. This means that the method of personalised dietary treatment results in a high fat loss; fat is an indicator of the quality loss obtained. use the measurement of fat as a complementary unit of measurement to weight loss; establish a limit of 5% to evaluate such loss; and increase this type of research in any method of weight loss. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. High fat diet causes rebound weight gain

    OpenAIRE

    McNay, David E.G.; Speakman, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is at epidemic proportions but treatment options remain limited. Treatment of obesity by calorie restriction (CR) despite having initial success often fails due to rebound weight gain. One possibility is that this reflects an increased body weight (BW) set-point. Indeed, high fat diets (HFD) reduce adult neurogenesis altering hypothalamic neuroarchitecture. However, it is uncertain if these changes are associated with weight rebound or if long-term weight management is associated with...

  16. Is dietary fat a major determinant of body fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, W C

    1998-03-01

    The percentage of energy from dietary fat is widely believed to be an important determinant of body fat, and several mechanisms have been proposed to account for such a relation. Comparisons of both diets and the prevalence of obesity between affluent and poor countries have been used to support a causal association, but these contrasts are seriously confounded by differences in physical activity and food availability. Within areas of similar economic development, regional intake of fat and prevalence of obesity have not been positively correlated. Randomized trials are the preferable method to evaluate the effect of dietary fat on adiposity, and are feasible because the number of subjects needed is not large. In short-term trials, a modest reduction in body weight is typically seen in individuals randomly assigned to diets with a lower percentage of energy from fat. However, compensatory mechanisms appear to operate because in trials lasting > or = 1 y, fat consumption within the range of 18-40% of energy appears to have little if any effect on body fatness. Moreover, within the United States, a substantial decline in the percentage of energy from fat consumed during the past two decades has corresponded with a massive increase in obesity. Diets high in fat do not appear to be the primary cause of the high prevalence of excess body fat in our society, and reductions in fat will not be a solution.

  17. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre R

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK and low-fat (LF diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE in overweight/obese men and women. Design Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%. Subjects 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean ± s.e.m.: age 33.2 ± 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 ± 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 ± 1.1 kg/m2 and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 ± 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 ± 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2. Measurements Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure (REE were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. Results Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28% and the LF (~58:22:20% were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake. The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during

  18. A longitudinal study of serum insulin and insulin resistance as predictors of weight and body fat gain in African American and Caucasian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaka, N M; Olsen, C H; Yannai, L E; Stutzman, W E; Krause, A J; Sherafat-Kazemzadeh, R; Condarco, T A; Brady, S M; Demidowich, A P; Reynolds, J C; Yanovski, S Z; Hubbard, V S; Yanovski, J A

    2017-01-01

    The influence of insulin and insulin resistance (IR) on children's weight and fat gain is unclear. To evaluate insulin and IR as predictors of weight and body fat gain in children at high risk for adult obesity. We hypothesized that baseline IR would be positively associated with follow-up body mass index (BMI) and fat mass. Two hundred and forty-nine healthy African American and Caucasian children aged 6-12 years at high risk for adult obesity because of early-onset childhood overweight and/or parental overweight were followed for up to 15 years with repeated BMI and fat mass measurements. We examined baseline serum insulin and homeostasis model of assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) as predictors of follow-up BMI Z-score and fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in mixed model longitudinal analyses accounting for baseline body composition, pubertal stage, sociodemographic factors and follow-up interval. At baseline, 39% were obese (BMI⩾95th percentile for age/sex). Data from 1335 annual visits were examined. Children were followed for an average of 7.2±4.3 years, with a maximum follow-up of 15 years. After accounting for covariates, neither baseline insulin nor HOMA-IR was significantly associated with follow-up BMI (Ps>0.26), BMIz score (Ps>0.22), fat mass (Ps>0.78) or fat mass percentage (Ps>0.71). In all models, baseline BMI (PHOMA-IR that suggested less gain in mass among those with greater insulin or IR. The opposite was found in some models restricted to children with obesity at baseline. In middle childhood, BMI and fat mass, but not insulin or IR, are strong predictors of children's gains in BMI and fat mass during adolescence.

  19. Normal protein intake is required for body weight loss and weight maintenance, and elevated protein intake for additional preservation of resting energy expenditure and fat free mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Martens, Eveline A P; Hochstenbach-Waelen, Ananda; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-05-01

    Energy-restricted high-protein diets (HPDs) have shown favorable results for body weight (BW) management, yet studies differ in their outcomes depending on the dietary protein content. Our objective was to determine the effects of dietary protein content on BW loss-related variables during a 6-mo energy restriction with the use of diets containing protein at the level of requirement [normal-protein diet (NPD), 0.8 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)] and above (HPD, 1.2 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)). In overweight and obese participants (24 men and 48 women), BW, body composition, and metabolic responses were assessed before and after subsequent energy intakes of 100, 33, and 67% of the original individual daily energy requirements. Protein intake was consistent in the NPD (0.8 ± 0.3 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)) and HPD (1.2 ± 0.3 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)) groups throughout the study (P body fat mass similarly decreased in the NPD and HPD groups (P initial sparing effect of FFM and lowering of DBP.

  20. Two-year changes in circulating adiponectin, ectopic fat distribution and body composition in response to weight-loss diets: the POUNDS Lost Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W; Huang, T; Wang, M; Zheng, Y; Wang, T; Heianza, Y; Sun, D; Smith, S R; Bray, G A; Sacks, F M; Qi, L

    2016-11-01

    Adiponectin has a pivotal role in linking fat distribution with cardiometabolic disorders. We investigated the associations of long-term changes in circulating adiponectin with body composition and fat distribution at different abdominal depots in response to weight-loss dietary interventions, as well as the modification effect of sex. In the 2-year Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) Trial, 811 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to one of four diets varying in macronutrient intakes. Circulating concentrations of adiponectin were repeatedly measured at baseline, 6 months and 2 years. Body composition and fat distribution were repeatedly measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (n=424) and computed tomography (n=195). Over the 2-year intervention, after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, follow-up time, diet group, baseline body mass index and baseline level of respective outcome trait, increase of adiponectin was significantly associated with reduction of total fat mass (FM), total fat-free mass (FFM), whole body total percentage of fat mass (FM%), percentage of trunk fat (TF%), total adipose tissue (TAT), and adipose tissue mass at different depots including visceral (VAT), deep subcutaneous (DSAT) and superficial subcutaneous (SSAT; P<0.03 for each). The relations with FM, FM%, TF%, VAT and DSAT were significantly modified by sex (P for interaction=0.02, 0.005 and <0.001, 0.002, 0.03, respectively) with greater reductions associated with increase of adiponectin in men than in women. Long-term changes in circulating adiponectin were differentially associated with improvement of body composition and abdominal fat distribution in men and women.

  1. Very low birth weight infants who are fed human milk have decreased body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to evaluate body composition in infants have recently been enhanced. There are few data regarding body composition in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Our objective was to evaluate body composition in VLBW infants consuming human milk or formula using novel techniques. Using air-displac...

  2. Gamiwalbitang, composed of four herbs, controls body weight increase and lipid level elevation induced by a high-fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hyo-Jin; Rim, Hong-Kun; Suh, Se-Eun; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2010-06-01

    Gamiwalbitang (GWB) is a newly developed dietary supplement that is composed of four herbs. The purpose of GWB development is to help control weight. The aim of this study was to investigate whether GWB combined with a 40% high-fat (HF) diet can influence body weight and fat accumulation. An experiment was conducted with 40 C57BL/6J mice with an initial body weight of approximately 18g. Body weight was recorded weekly, and plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and leptin were analyzed at the end of the study. Weight increases in the 10% GWB group were 38.5% less than in the HF diet group (P < 0.05). Plasma triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels decreased by 21.2% and 51.0%, respectively, in the 5% GWB group, and 44.1% and 51.5%, respectively, in the 10% GWB group compared to the HF diet group. The HDL cholesterol level was increased by 184.0% in the 5% GWB group and 188.2% in the 10% GWB group. The serum leptin level was significantly decreased by the GWB diet, and in the GWB diet group; gene expression of leptin in adipose tissue was also decreased compared with HF diet group. These findings indicate that GWB may be beneficial in the regulation of high-fat diet-induced blood circulatory disorders.

  3. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates fat, sugar, and umami taste preference and food intake and body weight regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camandola, Simonetta; Mattson, Mark P

    2017-07-01

    Immune and inflammatory pathways play important roles in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders. This study investigated the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in orosensory detection of dietary lipids and sugars. Taste preferences of TLR4 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) male mice under a standard and a high-fat, high-sugar diet were assessed with two-bottle tests. Gene expression of taste signaling molecules was analyzed in the tongue epithelium. The role of TLR4 in food intake and weight gain was investigated in TLR4 KO and WT mice fed a high-fat and high-sugar diet for 12 weeks. Compared to WT mice, TLR4 KO mice showed reduced preference for lipids, sugars, and umami in a two-bottle preference test. The altered taste perception was associated with decreased levels of key taste regulatory molecules in the tongue epithelium. TLR4 KO mice on a high-fat and high-sugar diet consumed less food and drink, resulting in diminished weight gain. TLR4 signaling promotes ingestion of sugar and fat by a mechanism involving increased preference for such obesogenic foods. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  4. Correlation of Kupperman's index with estrogen and androgen levels, according to weight and body fat distribution in postmenopausal women from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Lira, Sebastián; Velasco Díaz, Guillermina; Olivares, Aleida; Chán Verdugo, Rosario; Herrera, Joaquín

    2006-01-01

    To establish the differences in Kupperman's index (KI) and hormone levels according to weight and body fat distribution in postmenopausal women, since obesity and fat distribution affect hormone levels. One hundred and twenty-five postmenopausal women were studied and divided according to body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR): normal weight (BMI 27); lower-level body fat distribution (WHR fat distribution (WHR >0.85). Afterwards four subgroups were created: (I) BMI 0.85, (III) BMI > 27 and WHR 27 and WHR > 0.85. Climacteric symptoms were analyzed with Kupperman's index. Estrone, estradiol, testosterone, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate determinations were done by radioimmunoassay and verified by chemoluminescence. The androstenedione-estrone and testosterone-estradiol ratios were calculated. Statistical analysis was by Student's t test for independent samples, plus Pearson's correlation analysis. Average age was 53.0 +/- 6.5 years, time since menopause 74.2 +/- 64.3 months. When comparing those with lower-level body fat distribution and those with upper-level body fat distribution, the A levels were significantly lower (P distribution. Kupperman's index was significantly lower in subgroup I when compared with subgroups III and IV. The androstenedione level was lower in subgroup IV compared with subgroup III. In the whole sample, there was a correlation of the WHR with testosterone (0.297, P testosterone-estradiol ratio (0.209, P testosterone-estradiol ratio has a better correlation with the symptoms, so it can be used to evaluate climacteric patients when they complain of menopausal symptoms.

  5. 'I feel fat': weight-related stigma, body esteem, and BMI as predictors of perceived competence in physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Dorothy L

    2010-02-01

    Efforts toward increasing participation in physical activity to prevent and treat overweight and obesity have as yet proved unsuccessful. Among the many barriers that discourage participation are weight-related stigmas. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between consciousnesses of weight-related stigma and perceived competence in physical activity. A secondary purpose of the study was to explore the potential mediation effects of body esteem and body mass index (BMI) on the relationship. Consciousness of weight stigma, body esteem, and BMI are explored as predictors of perceived competence in physical activity. Participants included 76 adults who were enrolled in a weight management program. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Path modeling was used to assess the relationships between stigma consciousness and perceived physical activity competence, and the potential mediation effects of BMI and body esteem. Tests indicated that body esteem, but not BMI, mediated the relationship of consciousness of weight-related stigma and perceived physical activity competence. Consciousness of weight stigma, regardless of objective weight status, may negatively affect individuals' willingness to participate in physical activity. Findings such as these are important in furthering understanding the factors that affect behavior, and subsequently conducting programs to overcome perceptions of weight and physical activity to encourage participation. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Agreement of bioelectrical impedance with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and MRI to estimate changes in body fat, skeletal muscle and visceral fat during a 12-month weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Kaye, Sanna; Karmi, Anna; Suojanen, Laura; Rissanen, Aila; Virtanen, Kirsi A

    2013-05-28

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the agreement of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and MRI in estimating body fat, skeletal muscle and visceral fat during a 12-month weight loss intervention. A total of nineteen obese adults (twelve females, seven males) aged 20·2-48·6 years, mean BMI 34·6 (SE 0·6) kg/m², participated in the study. Body fat, skeletal muscle and visceral fat index were measured by BIA (Omron BF-500; Omron Medizintechnik) and compared with DXA (body fat and skeletal muscle) at baseline, 5 and 12 months, and with MRI (visceral fat) at baseline and 5 months. The subjects lost 8·9 (SE 1·8) kg (9·0 (SE 1·7) %) of body weight during the 12-month intervention. BIA, as compared to DXA, accurately assessed loss of fat (7·0 (SE 1·5) v. 7·0 (SE 1·4) kg, P= 0·94) and muscle (1·0 (SE 0·2) v. 1·4 (SE 0·3) kg, P= 0·18). While body fat was similar by the two methods, skeletal muscle was underestimated by 1-2 kg using BIA at each time point. Compared to MRI, BIA overestimated visceral fat, especially in males. BIA and DXA showed high correlations for kg fat, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally (r 0·91-0·99). BIA, compared with DXA and MRI, detected kg muscle and visceral fat more accurately cross-sectionally (r 0·77-0·87 and r 0·40-0·78, respectively) than their changes longitudinally (r 0·24-0·61 and r 0·46, respectively). BIA is at its best when assessing the amount or changes in fat mass. It is a useful method for measuring skeletal muscle, but limited in its ability to measure visceral fat.

  7. Dietary fat drives whole-body insulin resistance and promotes intestinal inflammation independent of body weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Nielsen, Thomas Svava; Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel

    2016-01-01

    body glucose homeostasis was evaluated by insulin and glucose tolerance tests as well as by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp experiment. RESULTS: Compared with LFD-fed reference mice, HFD-fed mice, irrespective of protein:carbohydrate ratio, exhibited impaired glucose tolerance, whereas...... no differences were observed during insulin tolerance tests. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp revealed tissue-specific effects on glucose homeostasis in all HFD-fed groups. HFD-fed mice exhibited decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in white but not in brown adipose tissue, and sustained endogenous...... glucose production under insulin-stimulated conditions. We observed no impairment of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscles of different fiber type composition. HFD-feeding altered the gut microbiota composition paralleled by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and genes...

  8. Dietary supplementation of tetradecylthioacetic acid increases feed intake but reduces body weight gain and adipose depot sizes in rats fed on high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensaas, A J; Rustan, A C; Rokling-Andersen, M H; Caesar, R; Jensen, J; Kaalhus, O; Graff, B A; Gudbrandsen, O A; Berge, R K; Drevon, C A

    2009-11-01

    The pan-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ligand and fatty acid analogue tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) may reduce plasma lipids and enhance hepatic lipid metabolism, as well as reduce adipose tissue sizes in rats fed on high-fat diets. This study further explores the effects of TTA on weight gain, feed intake and adipose tissue functions in rats that are fed a high-fat diet for 7 weeks. The effects on feed intake and body weight during 7 weeks' dietary supplement with TTA ( approximately 200 mg/kg bw) were studied in male Wistar rats fed on a lard-based diet containing approximately 40% energy from fat. Adipose tissue mass, body composition and expression of relevant genes in fat depots and liver were measured at the end of the feeding. Despite higher feed intake during the final 2 weeks of the study, rats fed on TTA gained less body weight than lard-fed rats and had markedly decreased subcutaneous, epididymal, perirenal and mesenteric adipose depots. The effects of TTA feeding with reduced body weight gain and energy efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) started between day 10 and 13. Body contents of fat, protein and water were reduced after feeding lard plus TTA, with a stronger decrease in fat relative to protein. Plasma lipids, including Non-Esterified Fatty Acids (NEFA), were significantly reduced, whereas fatty acid beta-oxidation in liver and heart was enhanced in lard plus TTA-fed rats. Hepatic UCP3 was expressed ectopically both at protein and mRNA level (>1900-fold), whereas Ucp1 mRNA was increased approximately 30-fold in epididymal and approximately 90-fold in mesenteric fat after lard plus TTA feeding. Our data support the hypothesis that TTA feeding may increase hepatic fatty acid beta-oxidation, and thereby reduce the size of adipose tissues. The functional importance of ectopic hepatic UCP3 is unknown, but might be associated with enhanced energy expenditure and thus the reduced feed efficiency.

  9. Changes in fat-free mass in obese subjects after weight loss : a comparison of body composition measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Deurenberg, P.; Seidell, J C; Westerterp, K R; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    Estimates of body composition by densitometry were made in 84 apparently healthy subjects (42 men, 42 women) with a mean age of 40 +/- 6 years (mean +/- s.d.), before and after weight loss. The initial body mass index (BMI) was 30.7 +/- 2.3 kg/m2 and the achieved weight loss on a 4.2 MJ/day energy

  10. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Main, Katharina Maria; Schmidt, Ida Maria

    2011-01-01

    of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. METHOD: In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n=203) and at 6 to11......) children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0) from birth to school age) and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6) larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount......, and effects on body fat content at school age was potentiated by maternal smoking in pregnancy....

  11. Evaluation of Methionine Content in a High-Fat and Choline-Deficient Diet on Body Weight Gain and the Development of Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Sachina; Sato, Yoko; Itoh, Tatsuki; Umegaki, Keizo

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a globally recognized liver disease. A methionine- and choline-deficient diet is used to induce NASH in mice; however, this diet also causes severe body weight loss. To resolve this issue, we examined the effects of methionine content in a high-fat and choline-deficient (HFCD) diet on body weight and the development of NASH in mice. C57BL/6J mice (male, 10 weeks of age) were fed an L-amino acid rodent (control) diet, high-fat (HF) diet, or HFCD diet containing various amounts of methionine (0.1-0.6% (w/w)) for 12 weeks. Plasma lipid levels, hepatic lipid content and inflammatory marker gene expression were measured, and a pathological analysis was conducted to evaluate NASH. The 0.1% methionine in HFCD diet suppressed body weight gain, which was lower than that with control diet. On the other hand, the 0.2% methionine in HFCD diet yielded similar body weight gains as the control diet, while more than 0.4% methionine showed the same body weight gains as the HF diet. Liver weights and hepatic lipid contents were the greatest with 0.1% methionine and decreased in a methionine dose-dependent manner. Pathological analysis, NAFLD activity scores and gene expression levels in the liver revealed that 0.1% and 0.2% methionine for 12 weeks induced NASH, whereas 0.4% and 0.6% methionine attenuated the induction of NASH by HFCD diet. However, the 0.2% methionine in HFCD diet did not induce insulin resistance, despite the body weight gain. The 0.2% methionine in HFCD diet for 12 weeks was able to induce NASH without weight loss.

  12. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  13. Age-dependent nongenetic influences of birth weight and adult body fat on insulin sensitivity in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Rikke Nygaard; Grunnet, Louise Groth; Rasmussen, Eva Lind

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized a nongenetic influence of birth weight (BW) and twin and zygosity status on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry determined adult total and regional body composition and a quantitative equal, although independent, importance of adult body composition and BW for insulin sensitivity....

  14. Factor for adipocyte differentiation 158 gene disruption prevents the body weight gain and insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Nozaki, Yuriko; Nishizuka, Makoto; Ikawa, Masahito; Osada, Shigehiro; Imagawa, Masayoshi

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the molecular mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, we previously isolated a novel gene, factor for adipocyte differentiation (fad) 158, whose expression was induced during the earliest stages of adipogenesis, and its product was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. We found that the knockdown of fad158 expression prevented the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes. In addition, over-expression of fad158 promoted the differentiation of NIH-3T3 cells, which do not usually differentiate into adipocytes. Although these findings strongly suggest that fad158 has a crucial role in regulating adipocyte differentiation, the physiological role of the gene is still unclear. In this study, we generated mice in which fad158 expression was deleted. The fad158-deficient mice did not show remarkable changes in body weight or the weight of white adipose tissue on a chow diet, but had significantly lower body weights and fat mass than wild-type mice when fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, although the disruption of fad158 did not influence insulin sensitivity on the chow diet, it improved insulin resistance induced by the high-fat diet. These results indicate that fad158 is a key factor in the development of obesity and insulin resistance caused by a high-fat diet.

  15. During Rapid Weight Loss in Obese Children, Reductions in TSH Predict Improvements in Insulin Sensitivity Independent of Changes in Body Weight or Fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aeberli, I.; Jung, A.; Murer, S.B.; Wildhaber, J.; Wildhaber-Brooks, J.; Knopfli, B.H.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although serum TSH is often elevated in obesity and may be linked to disorders of lipid and glucose metabolism, the clinical relevance of these relationships remains unclear. Subjects: Subjects were obese children and adolescents (n = 206; mean age 14 yr) undergoing rapid weight and fat

  16. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu......A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK......). These measurements were compared with bioimpedance analysis (BIA) by applying 11 predictive BIA equations published in the literature. Predictive equations for the present study population were developed, with the use of fat-free mass (FFM) as assessed by TBK and DXA as references in multiple regression analysis....... The results of the BIA equations varied widely; FFM was generally overestimated by BIA as compared with DXA and TBK before and after weight loss. During weight loss, the FFM did not change, as estimated by DXA (1.3 +/- 2.3 kg, p > 0.05) and TBK (0.9 +/- 2.9 kg, p > 0.05). The recorded change in impedance (R...

  17. Dietary supplementation with purified mulberry (Morus australis Poir) anthocyanins suppresses body weight gain in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Qi, Xueming; Liu, Yan; Guo, Jun; Zhu, Ruiyu; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

    2013-11-01

    We present our experiment about adding anthocyanins to the daily food of mice. Three kinds of anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside) purified from Chinese mulberry (Morus australis Poir) were evaluated for suppressing body weight gain of the male C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). The results from a 12-week experiment show that consumption of purified mulberry anthocyanins (MACN) of 40 or 200mg/kg can significantly inhibit body weight gain, reduce the resistance to insulin, lower the size of adipocytes, attenuate lipid accumulation and decrease the leptin secretion. Thus, dietary supplementation with MACN can protect against body weight gain of the diet-induced obese mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of a stimulant-free dietary supplement on body weight and fat loss in obese adults: a six-week exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Derek E; Conquer, Julie A

    2003-04-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and stroke. Stimulants, such as ephedrine and caffeine and their herbal counterparts, have proved effective in facilitating body weight loss, but their use is controversial due to their undesired effects. Other nutraceuticals have shown moderate success in reducing body weight, whereas several other compounds have demonstrated little or no effect. Therefore, a tolerable and effective nutraceutical that can increase energy expenditure and/or decrease caloric intake is desirable for body weight reduction. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the tolerability and effectiveness of a novel, stimulant-free, dietary supplement containing glucomannan, chitosan, fenugreek, Gymnema sylvestre, and vitamin C on body weight and fat loss and change in body composition in obese adults. In this single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted at the University of Guelph (Guelph, Ontario, Canada), obese adults (aged 20-50 years; body mass index [BMI], ≥30 kg/m(2)) were randomized to the treatment or placebo group. The treatment group received 6 capsules of a dietary supplement containing a proprietary blend of glucomannan, chitosan, fenugreek, G sylvestre, and vitamin C daily for 6 weeks, and the placebo group received 6 capsules of rice flour daily for 6 weeks. Body weight; percentage of body fat; absolute fat mass; lean body mass; BMI; upper abdominal, waist, and hip circumference; and anthropometric measurements were recorded at baseline and at study end. Patients completed daily dietary intake records on days 1 to 3 and days 40 to 42. They also completed weekly activity logs throughout the study. Twenty-four subjects (mean [SD] age, 37.0 [8.2] years [range, 21-48years]; mean [SD] BMI, 35.7 [6.2] kg/m(2) [range, 28.9-50.9 kg/m(2)]) were assigned to the treatment group (8 women, 4 men) or the placebo

  19. A supplement containing trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid reduces milk fat yield but does not alter organ weight or body fat deposition in lactating ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Liam A; Weerasinghe, Weerasinghe M P B; Wilkinson, Robert G; de Veth, Michael J; Bauman, Dale E

    2010-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been demonstrated to be a potent inhibitor of milk fat synthesis in ruminants, but effects on carcass composition and organ weight are unknown. Our objectives in this experiment were to determine the dose response of ruminally protected CLA on the performance, organ weight, and fatty acid (FA) composition of early lactation dairy ewes. Twenty-four multiparous dairy ewes were fed a basal diet for 10 wk that was supplemented with a lipid-encapsulated CLA at 1 of 3 levels: no CLA (control, CON), low CLA (L-CLA), or high CLA (H-CLA) to supply 0, 1.5, or 3.8 g/d, respectively, of both trans-10, cis-12 and cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Dry matter intake was not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary treatment. Ewes fed H-CLA had a 13% higher milk yield compared with those receiving either CON or L-CLA. Compared with CON, milk fat yield (g/d) was 14 and 24% lower in ewes fed L-CLA or H-CLA, respectively. Supplementing ewes with CLA did not affect carcass or organ weights, carcass composition, or organ FA content. Compared with ewes receiving the CON diet, CLA supplementation had little effect on the FA composition of the Longissimus dorsi, although cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA were increased in ewes receiving H-CLA. The current findings are consistent with the view that the energy spared by the CLA reduction in milk fat content was mainly partitioned to milk yield and there was no evidence of organ hypertrophy or liver steatosis.

  20. Reductions in body weight and percent fat mass increase the vitamin D status of obese subjects: a systematic review and metaregression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannu, Poonam K; Zhao, Yun; Soares, Mario J

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this review was to confirm a volumetric dilution of vitamin D in obesity. It was based on the hypothesis that weight loss, particularly fat loss, would increase serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in the obese. We conducted a systematic review of the literature over the last 21 years and included human trials that reported changes in 25OHD, weight, or body composition after weight loss. Study arms were excluded if vitamin D was supplemented, dietary intake exceeded 800 IU/d, or extreme sun exposure was reported. Eighteen of 23 trials that met our criteria documented an increase in vitamin D status with weight loss. Metaregression analyses indicated a marginally significant effect of weight loss on unadjusted weighted mean difference of 25OHD (β = -0.60 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -1.24 to +0.04] nmol/L; P = .06) and after adjustment for study quality (Jadad score ≥3) (β = -0.64 [95% CI, -1.28 to +0.01] nmol/L; P = .05). The effect of percent fat mass on weighted mean difference of 25OHD was also marginally significant before (β = -0.91 [95% CI, -1.96 to +0.15] nmol/L; P = .08) and after adjustment of study quality (β = -1.05 [95% CI, -2.18 to +0.08] nmol/L; P = .06). Collectively, these outcomes support a volumetric dilution of vitamin D. The slopes of the respective regression lines, however, indicate a smaller increase in 25OHD than would be expected from a direct mobilization of stores into the circulation. Hence, sequestration of 25OHD and its conversion to inactive metabolites would also play a role. Future studies could relate changes in body fat compartments to the enzymatic regulation of 25OHD in response to weight loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Catch-up growth in the first two years of life in Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW infants is associated with lower body fat in young adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Raaijmakers

    Full Text Available To investigate growth patterns and anthropometrics in former extremely low birth weight (ELBW, 0.67 SDS. At 11 years, anthropometrics, neurocognitive performance, body composition, grip strength and puberty scores were assessed.ELBW neonates displayed extra-uterine growth restriction with mean Z-scores for height, weight and head circumference of -0.77, -0.93 and -0.46 at birth, -1.61, -1.67 and -0.72 at 9 months, -1.22, -1.61 and -0.84 at 24 months, and -0.42, -0.49 and -1.09 at 11 years. ELBW children performed consistently worse on neurocognitive testing with an average intelligence quotient equivalent at 11 years of 92.5 (SD 13.1. Catch-up growth was not associated with neurocognitive performance. Compared to controls, ELBW cases had lower grip strength (13.6 vs. 15.9 kg and percentage lean body weight (75.1 vs. 80.5%, but higher body fat (24.6 vs. 19.2% and advanced puberty scores at 11 years (all P≤0.025. Catch-up growth for weight and height in the first two years of life in cases was associated with a lower percentage body fat compared to cases without catch-up growth (16.8% catch-up growth for weight vs. 25.7%, P<0.001; 20.9% catch-up for height vs. 25.8%, P = 0.049.In young adolescence, former ELBW children still have difficulties to reach their target height. Compared to normal birth weight controls, ELBW adolescents show lower neurocognitive performance and grip strength and a higher percentage body fat, a potential risk factor for adverse health outcomes in adulthood. Our key finding is that catch-up growth in ELBW children in the first two years of life is associated with a lower percentage body fat and is therefore likely to be beneficial.

  2. Impact of excessive gestational weight gain in non-smoking mothers on body fatness in infancy and early childhood. Prospective prebirth cohort study in Cracow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, W; Maugeri, U; Kaim, I; Budzyn-Mrozek, D; Flak, E; Mroz, E; Sochacka-Tatara, E; Sowa, A; Musial, A

    2011-02-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is important for health policy as it may be associated with overweight epidemics in childhood and adolescence. The purpose of the study was to perform the risk assessment of joint effects of the excessive GWG and the pregravid maternal BMI on overweight in infancy and childhood. The observations were collected in the ongoing prospective birth cohort study of 482 non-smoking mothers and their newborns in Cracow inner city area. At 5 years of age the subsample of 312 infants were reexamined in order to assess their nutritional status. Body fatness was assessed by means of the weight/length ratio (WLR) in neonates and weight/height ratio (WHR) in 5-year-olds since they showed the strongest correlation with subcutaneous fat mass of young children. In the statistical analysis the binary regression models were applied to identify predictors of overweight. The excessive GWG (>18 kg) increased more than twofold the adjusted relative risk (RR) of neonatal fatness (R=2.7; 95% CI 2.0-3.7) and was also a significant independent risk factor for postnatal body fatness at 5 years of age (RR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.3-3.3). The results confirmed earlier findings that pregravid overweight increased not only the relative risk of neonatal fatness (RR=2.9; 95% CI: 2.2-3.9) but also overweight in early childhood (RR=2.7; 95% CI: 1.7-4.4). The conclusion is that excessive GWG may be a risk factor for overweight in early childhood and should be a focus of public health policy.

  3. An alternative dietary strategy to make weight while improving mood, decreasing body fat, and not dehydrating: a case study of a professional jockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, George; Chester, Neil; Eubank, Martin; Crighton, Ben; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2012-06-01

    Professional jockeys are unique among weight-making athletes, as they are often required to make weight daily and, in many cases, all year-round. Common methods employed by jockeys include dehydration, severe calorie restriction, and sporadic eating, all of which have adverse health effects. In contrast, this article outlines a structured diet and exercise plan, employed by a 22-yr-old professional National Hunt jockey in an attempt to reduce weight from 70.3 to 62.6 kg, that does not rely on any of the aforementioned techniques. Before the intervention, the client's typical daily energy intake was 8.2 MJ (42% carbohydrate [CHO], 36% fat, 22% protein) consumed in 2 meals only. During the 9-wk intervention, daily energy intake was approximately equivalent to resting metabolic rate, which the athlete consumed as 6 meals per day (7.6 MJ, 46% CHO, 19% fat, 36% protein). This change in frequency and composition of energy intake combined with structured exercise resulted in a total body-mass loss of 8 kg, corresponding to reductions in body fat from 14.5% to 9%. No form of intentional dehydration occurred throughout this period, and mean urine osmolality was 285 mOsm/kg (SD 115 mOsm/kg). In addition, positive changes in mood scores (BRUMS scale) also occurred. The client was now able to ride light for the first time in his career without dehydrating, thereby challenging the cultural practices inherent in the sport.

  4. An alternate dietary strategy to make weight improves mood, decreases body fat and removes the necessity for dehydration: A case-study from a professional jockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, George; Chester, Neil; Eubank, Martin; Crighton, Ben; Drust, B; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2012-06-15

    Professional jockeys are unique amongst weight-making athletes as they are often required to make weight daily and in many cases, all year round. Common methods employed by jockeys include dehydration, severe calorie restriction and sporadic eating, all of which have adverse health effects. In contrast, this paper outlines a structured diet and exercise plan employed by a 22 year old professional National Hunt jockey in an attempt to reduce weight from 70.3 to 62.6 kg that does not rely on any of the aforementioned techniques. Prior to the intervention, the client's typical daily energy intake was 8.2 MJ (42% CHO, 36% fats, 22% protein) consumed in two meals only. During the 9-week intervention, daily energy intake was approximately equivalent to resting metabolic rate and consumed as 6 meals per day (7.6 MJ, 46% CHO, 19% fats, 36% protein). This change in frequency and composition of energy intake combined with structured exercise, resulted in a total body mass loss of 8 kg, corresponding to reductions in percent body fat from 14.5 to 9%. No form of intentional dehydration occurred throughout this period and mean urine osmolality was 285 mOs·kg-1 (SD 115 mOs·kg-1). In addition, positive changes in mood scores (BRUMS scale) also occurred. The client was now able to ride light for the first time in his career thereby challenging the cultural practices inherent to the sport.

  5. [Long-term effects of mild hyperglycemia exposure in utero and postnatal high fat diet on body weight and lipid metabolism in rat offsprings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Li, Xin; Yang, Hui-xia

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the long-term effects of intrauterine mild hyperglycemia exposure and postnatal high fat diet on the body weight and metabolism of offspring through a pregnant rat model of intrauterine mild hyperglycemia. Twenty-one pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into intrauterine hyperglycemia group and control group. Twenty percent streptozotocin (STZ, 25 mg/kg)was given to rats of intrauterine hyperglycemia group by a single intraperitoneal injection to induce intrauterine mild hyperglycemia; control group rats received an equal volume of citric acid-sodium citrate buffer. Off springs were divided into 4 groups: exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia and fed with normal diet group (group DN) or high fat diet group (group DF); exposed to intrauterine euglycemia and fed with normal diet group (group CN) or high fat diet group (group CF). The blood glucose levels of pregnant rats in two groups and body weights of offsprings in four groups were recorded. At the age of 28 weeks, the mesenteric fat amount, epididymal amount, perirenal fat amount, total triglyceride (TG) and high density 1ipoprotein-cholestrol (HDL-C) were measured in all four groups. (1)The average blood glucose level of intrauterine hyperglycemia group [(16.6 ± 3.4) mmol/L] was significantly higher than that of the control group [(5.8 ± 1.1) mmol/L, P 0.05). (3)From then on, the body weights of the offsprings in four groups presented an increasing trend, but there was no statistical difference until 28 weeks (P > 0.05). (4) The perirenal fat amount of group DN, group CF and group DF [(13.8 ± 3.3), (14.3 ± 3.2), (18.4 ± 1.3) g] were remarkably increased compared with group CN[(9.7 ± 3.5) g, P fat amount of group CF and group DF were also significantly increased compared to group CN (P fat amount in four groups had no statistical difference (P > 0.05). (5) The TG level of group DN, group CF and group DF [(0.52 ± 0.14), (0.52 ± 0.09), (0.54 ± 0.17) mmol/L] were significantly higher

  6. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2009-01-01

    , and . Only did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to . The opposite occurred in group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The responses were similar to , with the exception of food consumption. In both and groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents.

  7. The effect of a high monounsaturated fat diet on body weight, back fat and loin muscle growth in high and medium-lean pig genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, G.; Soler, J.; Llavall, M.; Tibau, J.; Roca, R.; Coll, D.; Fabrega, E.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the use of a diet rich in oleic acid could have an effect on daily weight gain, backfat and loin muscle (Longissimus thoracis) depth. One hundred and ninety-two barrows and gilts, from two genotypes were fed a grain and soy diet (CONTROL with 28% C18:1) or a similar diet enriched with oleic acid (HO with 43% C18:1, Greedy-Grass OLIVA). The pigs were housed in 16 pens in groups of 12 according to their sex, diet and genotype. From 75 days of age every three weeks, the pigs were weighed and the backfat and loin muscle depth were ultrasonically recorded (PIGLOG). The inclusion of the dietary fat had no significant effect on the growth variables nor on the backfat and loin muscle depth measurements taken. However, the barrows resulted in higher live weight and backfat compared to the gilts at the end of the trial. Conversely, the gilts showed higher loin depth. Moreover, York-sired pigs were heavier than Pietrain-sired pigs during the whole trial and showed higher backfat at the last two measurements. Pietrain-sired pigs had higher loin muscle depth at the last measurements. The results of the present study suggest that the addition of a dietary fat into diets aiming at modifying the meat fatty acid profile has no detrimental effects on performance variables, or on backfat and loin muscle growth and thus, no negative economic impact for producers. (Author) 37 refs.

  8. Rice koji reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation, and blood glucose level in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Yoshizaki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice koji is considered a readily accessible functional food that may have health-promoting effects. We investigated whether white, yellow, and red koji have the anti-obesity effect in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, which is a model for obesity. Mice were fed HFD containing 10% (w/w of rice koji powder or steamed rice for 4 weeks. Weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue, and total adipose tissue weight were significantly lower in all rice koji groups than in the HFD-rice group after 4 weeks. Feed efficiency was significantly reduced in the yellow koji group. Blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the white and red koji groups with HOMA-R and leptin levels being reduced in the white koji group. White and red koji increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 protein expression in L6 myotube cells. These results showed that all rice koji have the anti-obesity or anti-diabetes effects although the mechanisms may differ depending on the type of rice koji consumed.

  9. Fat or fit: the joint effects of physical activity, weight gain, and body size on breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Lauren E; Eng, Sybil M; Bradshaw, Patrick T; Cleveland, Rebecca J; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Neugut, Alfred I; Gammon, Marilie D

    2012-10-01

    Although physical activity reduces breast cancer risk, issues critical to providing clear public health messages remain to be elucidated. These include the minimum duration and intensity necessary for risk reduction and the optimal time period for occurrence, as well as subgroup effects, particularly with regard to tumor heterogeneity and body size. This study investigated the relationship between recreational physical activity (RPA) and breast cancer risk, in addition to characterizing the joint effects of activity level, weight gain, and body size, through use of a population-based sample of 1504 cases (N = 233 in situ, N = 1271 invasive) and 1555 controls (aged 20-98 years) from the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project, in Long Island, New York. A nonlinear dose-response association was observed between breast cancer risk and RPA during the reproductive period and after menopause. Women in the third quartile of activity experienced the greatest benefit with an approximate 30% risk reduction for reproductive (odds ratio = 0.67; 95% confidence interval = 0.48-0.94) and postmenopausal activity (odds ratio = 0.70; 95% confidence interval = 0.52-0.95). Little to no difference was observed regarding intensity of activity or hormone receptor status. Joint assessment of RPA, weight gain, and body size revealed that women with unfavorable energy balance profiles were at increased breast cancer risk. A significant multiplicative interaction was observed between RPA and adult weight gain (P = .033). RPA at any intensity level during the reproductive and postmenopausal years have the greatest benefit for reducing breast cancer risk. Substantial postmenopausal weight gain may eliminate the benefits of regular activity. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  10. Long term effects of a continuous and intermittent aerobic exercise on weight changes and body fat percentage in overweight and obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Z

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and sedentary lifestyle are growing problem. The global community's concern is to find the best strategy to obtain a more efficient process of weight reduction, increase physical activity, and minimize weight regain level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of a short-term intervention on weight changes.Methods: The present study is a one-year follow-up study of a 12-week intervention during which the 15 individuals in the intermittent group performed 40 minutes exercise in three bouts per day; however, the 15 participants of the continuous group did the same but 40 minutes continuously. The 15 participants in the control group had no exercise prescription. After one year, weight changes, body fat percentage, and BMI were re-evaluated in the groups.Results: After adjusting the baseline weight, patterns of change in the mean weights from the end of the third month to the twelfth month were different across groups (P=0.02. After significant weight loss in the intermittent group, the mean weight in this group increased by 2.32 kilograms during the period, although not statistically significant. No increase was observed in the control group’s mean weight (P=1.00. In the continuous group, the mean weight increased statistically (P=0.048, 3.63 kilograms.Conclusion: It seems that long-term effects of moderate intensity intermittent aerobic exercise in overweight and obese women on weight control are more efficient than those of continuous exercise. However, for a change in lifestyle and prevention of weight regain, longer follow-ups are required.

  11. Common variants near MC4R in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Holst, C; Toubro, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure....

  12. Influence of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA on reduction of local fat and body weight by physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz, Gerd

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Investigation, whether water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA irradiation during moderate bicycle ergometer endurance exercise has effects especially on local fat reduction and on weight reduction beyond the effects of ergometer exercise alone. Methods: Randomised controlled study with 40 obese females (BMI 30-40 (median: 34.5, body weight 76-125 (median: 94.9 kg, age 20-40 (median: 35.5 years, isocaloric nutrition, 20 in the wIRA group and 20 in the control group. In both groups each participant performed 3 times per week over 4 weeks for 45 minutes bicycle ergometer endurance exercise with a constant load according to a lactate level of 2 mmol/l (aerobic endurance load, as determined before the intervention period. In the wIRA group in addition large parts of the body (including waist, hip, and thighs were irradiated during all ergometries of the intervention period with visible light and a predominant part of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA, using the irradiation unit “Hydrosun® 6000” with 10 wIRA radiators (Hydrosun® Medizintechnik, Müllheim, Germany, radiator type 500, 4 mm water cuvette, yellow filter, water-filtered spectrum 500-1400 nm around a speed independent bicycle ergometer. Main variable of interest: change of “the sum of circumferences of waist, hip, and both thighs of each patient” over the intervention period (4 weeks. Additional variables of interest: body weight, body mass index BMI, body fat percentage, fat mass, fat-free mass, water mass (analysis of body composition by tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis, assessment of an arteriosclerotic risk profile by blood investigation of variables of lipid metabolism (cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins HDL, low density lipoproteins LDL, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, clinical chemistry (fasting glucose, alanin-aminotransferase ALT (= glutamyl pyruvic transaminase GPT, gamma-glutamyl-transferase GGT, creatinine, albumin, endocrinology

  13. Relationship of total body fat mass to weight-bearing bone volumetric density, geometry, and strength in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B

    2010-04-01

    Understanding the influence of total body fat mass (TBFM) on bone during the peri-pubertal years is critical for the development of future interventions aimed at improving bone strength and reducing fracture risk. Thus, we evaluated the relationship of TBFM to volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), geometry, and strength at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia of young girls. Data from 396 girls aged 8-13 years from the "Jump-In: Building Better Bones" study were analyzed. Bone parameters were assessed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at the 4% and 20% distal femur and 4% and 66% distal tibia of the non-dominant leg. Bone parameters at the 4% sites included trabecular vBMD, periosteal circumference, and bone strength index (BSI), while at the 20% femur and 66% tibia, parameters included cortical vBMD, periosteal circumference, and strength-strain index (SSI). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess associations between bone parameters and TBFM, controlling for muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA). Regression analyses were then repeated with maturity, bone length, physical activity, and ethnicity as additional covariates. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare bone parameters among tertiles of TBFM. In regression models with TBFM and MCSA, associations between TBFM and bone parameters at all sites were not significant. TBFM explained very little variance in all bone parameters (0.2-2.3%). In contrast, MCSA was strongly related (p<0.001) to all bone parameters, except cortical vBMD. The addition of maturity, bone length, physical activity, and ethnicity did not alter the relationship between TBFM and bone parameters. With bone parameters expressed relative to total body mass, ANCOVA showed that all outcomes were significantly (p<0.001) greater in the lowest compared to the middle and highest tertiles of TBFM. Although TBFM is correlated with femur and tibia vBMD, periosteal circumference, and

  14. Limited Weight Loss or Simply No Weight Gain following Lifestyle-Only Intervention Tends to Redistribute Body Fat, to Decrease Lipid Concentrations, and to Improve Parameters of Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri Lenin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate whether lifestyle-only intervention in obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight redistributes parameters of body composition and reverses metabolic abnormalities. Study Design. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were assessed in 111 overweight or obese children (CA of 11.3 ± 2.8 years; 63 females and 48 males, during 8 months of lifestyle intervention. Patients maintained or lost weight (1–5% (group A; n: 72 or gained weight (group B. Results. Group A patients presented with a decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP ( and , resp., BMI (, z-score BMI (, waist circumference (, fat mass (, LDL-C (, Tg/HDL-C ratio (, fasting and postprandial insulin (, and HOMA (, while HDL-C ( and QUICKI increased (. Conversely, group B patients had an increase in BMI (, waist circumference (, SBP (, and in QUICKI (, while fat mass (, fasting insulin (, and HOMA ( decreased. Lean mass, DBP, lipid concentrations, fasting and postprandial glucose, postprandial insulin, and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP remained stable. Conclusions. Obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight following lifestyle-only intervention tend to redistribute their body fat, decrease blood pressure and lipid levels, and to improve parameters of insulin sensitivity.

  15. Body fat, menarche, fitness and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, R E

    1987-08-01

    Many well-trained athletes, ballet dancers and women who diet excessively have secondary or primary amenorrhoea. Less extensive training or weight loss may result in anovulatory menstrual cycles, or a shortened luteal phase. These disruptions of reproductive ability are due to hypothalamic dysfunction, which is correlated with weight loss or excessive leanness. It is proposed that these associations are causal and that the high percentage of body fat (26-28%) in the mature human female may influence reproduction directly. Four mechanisms are known: (i) adipose tissue converts androgens to oestrogen by aromatization. Body fat is thus a significant extragonadal source of oestrogen; (ii) body weight, hence fatness, influences the direction of oestrogen metabolism to more potent or less potent forms; leaner women make more catechol oestrogens, the less potent form; (iii) obese women and young, fat girls have a diminished capacity for oestrogen to bind sex-hormone-binding-globulin; (iv) adipose tissue can store steroid hormones. An indirect mechanism may be signals of abnormal control of temperature and changes in energy metabolism, which accompany excessive leanness. The hypothalamic reproductive dysfunction results in abnormal gonadotrophin secretion: there is an age inappropriate secretory pattern of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), resembling that of prepubertal children. The secretion of LH and the responses to LHRH are reduced in direct correlation with the amount of weight loss. Other evidence from non-athletic and athletic women and mammals is presented in support of the hypothesis that a particular, minimum ratio of fat to lean mass is normally necessary for menarche (approximately 17% fat/body wt) and the maintenance of female reproductive ability (approximately 22% fat/body wt). Nomograms are given for the prediction of these critical weights for height from a fatness index; these weights are useful clinically in the evaluation

  16. Body Weight - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Body Weight - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Expand Section Body Weight: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  17. Psychological workload and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, Finn; Heitmann, Berit L

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...... on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... psychological workload and body mass index. Only weak positive associations were found, and only between elements of psychological workload and overall body weight. For body fat distribution, two out of three studies showed a positive association in men, but the associations became insignificant after...

  18. Dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 fermented barley suppresses body weight gain in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiayan; Xiao, Xiang; Dong, Ying; Xu, Tian; Wu, Fei

    2016-12-01

    Cereal fermentations have shown significant potential in improvement and design of the nutritional quality and health effects of foods and ingredients. In the present study, the effect of supplementary Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 fermented barley (LFB) on obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats was investigated. LFB treatment showed a lower rate of increase in body weight and percentage of body fat and a reversal of HFD-induced glucose intolerance, with ameliorated hyperinsulinemia, decreased levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol, and inhibited concentration of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Moreover, LFB treatment also showed the strongest inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-kB activation and exhibited the greatest effects in blocking the degradation of the inhibitor of NF-kB and inhibiting p38 and JNK1 phosphorylation compared with HFD and raw barley treatment. It was clear that Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 fermentation significantly improves the anti-obesity properties of barley. The results establish the foundation for ameliorating diet-induced obesity of product with LFB as nutritional supplements. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Transgenic rescue of adipocyte glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor expression restores high fat diet-induced body weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugleholdt, Randi; Pedersen, Jens; Bassi, Maria Rosaria

    2011-01-01

    The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPr) has been implicated in high fat diet-induced obesity and is proposed as an anti-obesity target despite an uncertainty regarding the mechanism of action. To independently investigate the contribution of the insulinotropic effects and...

  20. Thylakoids suppress appetite by increasing cholecystokinin resulting in lower food intake and body weight in high-fat fed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhnke, Rickard; Lindqvist, Andreas; Göransson, Nathanael

    2009-01-01

    Thylakoids are membranes isolated from plant chloroplasts which have previously been shown to inhibit pancreatic lipase/colipase catalysed hydrolysis of fat in vitro and induce short-term satiety in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to examine if dietary supplementation of thylakoids cou...

  1. Body fat estimation using bioelectrical impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, M G; Crabtree, N J; Shaw, N J; Kirk, J M W

    2007-01-01

    Although childhood obesity is a major problem, routine assessment methods do not reflect fat mass. Body mass index, which is most commonly used, gives an indication of weight for height and not a degree of adiposity. Bioelectrical impedance and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were used in a group of obese children to assess body fat. Comparison between DEXA and commercial bioelectrical impedance scales in 46 children showed a highly significant correlation (R = 0.944, p bioelectrical impedance was 2.4 kg lower compared to measurement using DEXA. These bioelectrical scales may prove useful in the management of childhood obesity as they are able to provide important clinical information regarding fat mass and adiposity. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Body Weight and Body Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarlane Traci

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs than men, a lower incidence of being overweight and a higher incidence of being underweight. However, women across all weight categories are more dissatisfied with their bodies. Sixty percent of women are inactive, and women with a BMI of 27 or higher are more likely to be inactive than women with lower BMIs. The data show that women are aware of the health benefits of exercise, but there is a gap between knowledge and practice. When asked about barriers to health improvement, 39.7% of women cited lack of time and 39.2% lack of willpower. Data Gaps and Recommendations Weight prejudice must be made unacceptable and positive body image should be encouraged and diversity valued. Health policies should encourage healthy eating and healthy activity. Health curricula for young students should include information about healthy eating, active lifestyle, and self-esteem. Physical activities that mothers can participate in with their families should be encouraged. Research should be funded to elucidate the most effective methods of getting women to become and remain physically active without focusing on appearance.

  3. Percentage of body fat assessment using bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a weight loss program for obese or overweight Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Li

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to compare the estimates of body fat percentage (%BF by performing bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in a sample of obese or overweight Chinese adults who participated in a weight-loss randomized control trial stratified by gender to determine whether or not BIA is a valid measurement tool. Among 189 adults [73 males, 116 females; age = 41 to 74 years; mean body mass index (BMI = 27.3 kg/m(2], assessments of %BF at the baseline and six months from the baseline were conducted by performing BIA and DXA. Bland-Altman analyses and multiple regression analyses were used to assess the relationships between %BFBIA and %BFDXA. Compared with DXA, BIA underestimated %BF [in males: 4.6, -2.4 to 11.7 (mean biases, 95% limit of agreement at the baseline, 1.4, -7.4 to 10.2 at the endpoint, and 3.2, -4.8 to 11.3 in changes; in females: 5.1, -2.4 to 12.7; 2.2, -6.1 to 10.4; and 3.0, -4.8 to 10.7, respectively]. For males and females, %BFDXA proved to be a significant predictor of the difference between DXA and BIA at the baseline, the endpoint, and in changes when BMI and age were considered (in males: p<0.01 and R (2 = 23.1%, 24.1%, 20.7%, respectively; for females: p<0.001 and R (2 = 40.4%, 48.8%, 25.4%, respectively. The current study suggests that BIA provides a relatively accurate prediction of %BF in individuals with normal weight, overweight, or obesity after the end of weight-loss program, but less accurate prediction of %BF in obese individuals at baseline or weight change during the weight-loss intervention program.

  4. Induced Ablation of Ghrelin Cells in Adult Mice Does Not Decrease Food Intake, Body Weight, or Response to High Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Matthew R.; Brown, Michael S.; Goldstein, Joseph L.; Zhao, Tong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Injection of the peptide hormone ghrelin stimulates food intake in mice and humans. However, mice born without ghrelin demonstrate no significant loss of appetite. This paradox suggests either that compensation develops in mice born without ghrelin or that ghrelin is not essential for appetite control. To distinguish these possibilities, we generated transgenic mice (Ghrl-DTR) that express the diphtheria toxin receptor in ghrelin-secreting cells. Injection of diphtheria toxin in adulthood ablated ghrelin cells and reduced plasma ghrelin by 80-95%. Ghrelin cell-ablated mice exhibited no loss of appetite or body weight and no resistance to a high fat diet. To stimulate food intake in mice by ghrelin injection, we had to raise plasma levels many-fold above normal. Like germline ghrelin-deficient mice, the ghrelin cell-ablated mice developed profound hypoglycemia when subjected to prolonged calorie restriction, confirming that ghrelin acts to maintain blood glucose under famine conditions. PMID:24836560

  5. COH-SR4 reduces body weight, improves glycemic control and prevents hepatic steatosis in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lester Figarola

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, and is one of the principal causative factors in the development of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cancer. COH-SR4 ("SR4" is a novel investigational compound that has anti-cancer and anti-adipogenic properties. In this study, the effects of SR4 on metabolic alterations in high fat diet (HFD-induced obese C57BL/J6 mice were investigated. Oral feeding of SR4 (5 mg/kg body weight. in HFD mice for 6 weeks significantly reduced body weight, prevented hyperlipidemia and improved glycemic control without affecting food intake. These changes were associated with marked decreases in epididymal fat mass, adipocyte hypertrophy, increased plasma adiponectin and reduced leptin levels. SR4 treatment also decreased liver triglycerides, prevented hepatic steatosis, and normalized liver enzymes. Western blots demonstrated increased AMPK activation in liver and adipose tissues of SR4-treated HFD obese mice, while gene analyses by real time PCR showed COH-SR4 significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (Srebf1, acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (Acaca, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg, fatty acid synthase (Fasn, stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr, as well as gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1 and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc in the liver of obese mice. In vitro, SR4 activates AMPK independent of upstream kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1 and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ. Together, these data suggest that SR4, a novel AMPK activator, may be a promising therapeutic compound for treatment of obesity, fatty liver disease, and related metabolic disorders.

  6. Effects of gender on locomotor sensitivity to amphetamine, body weight, and fat mass in regulator of G protein signaling 9 (RGS9) knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Paul D; Jarosz, Patricia A; Bouhamdan, Mohamad; MacKenzie, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) protein 9-2 is enriched in the striatum where it modulates dopamine and opioid receptor-mediated signaling. RGS9 knockout (KO) mice show increased psychostimulant-induced behavioral sensitization, as well as exhibit higher body weights and greater fat accumulation compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. In the present study, we found gender influences on each of these phenotypic characteristics. Female RGS9 KO mice exhibited greater locomotor sensitization to amphetamine (1.0mg/kg) treatment as compared to male RGS9 KO mice. Male RGS9 KO mice showed increased body weights as compared to male WT littermates, while no such differences were detected in female mice. Quantitative magnetic resonance showed that male RGS9 KO mice accumulated greater fat mass vs. WT littermates at 5months of age. Such observations could not be explained by increased caloric consumption since male and female RGS9 KO mice demonstrated equivalent daily food intake as compared to their respective WT littermates. Although indirect calorimetry methods found decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production during the 12-hour dark phase in male RGS9 KO vs. WT mice which are indicative of less energy expenditure, male RGS9 KO mice exhibited lower levels of locomotor activity during this period. Genotype had no effect on metabolic activities when KO and WT groups were compared under fasting vs. feeding treatments. In summary, these results highlight the importance of factoring gender into the experimental design since many studies conducted in RGS9 KO mice utilize locomotor activity as a measured outcome. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Ferulic acid lowers body weight and visceral fat accumulation via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory changes in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. de Melo

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported on the glucose and lipid-lowering effects of ferulic acid (FA but its anti-obesity potential has not yet been firmly established. This study investigated the possible anti-obesitogenic effects of FA in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD for 15 weeks. To assess the antiobesity potential of FA, 32 male Swiss mice, weighing 20–25 g (n=6–8 per group were fed a normal diet (ND or HFD, treated orally or not with either FA (10 mg/kg or sibutramine (10 mg/kg for 15 weeks and at the end of this period, the body weights of animals, visceral fat accumulation, plasma levels of glucose and insulin hormone, amylase and lipase activities, the satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCH-1 were analyzed. Results revealed that FA could effectively suppress the HFD-associated increase in visceral fat accumulation, adipocyte size and body weight gain, similar to sibutramine, the positive control. FA also significantly (P<0.05 decreased the HFD-induced elevations in serum lipid profiles, amylase and lipase activities, and the levels of blood glucose and insulin hormone. The markedly elevated leptin and decreased ghrelin levels seen in HFD-fed control mice were significantly (P<0.05 reversed by FA treatment, almost reaching the values seen in ND-fed mice. Furthermore, FA demonstrated significant (P<0.05 inhibition of serum levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, and MCH-1. These results suggest that FA could be beneficial in lowering the risk of HFD-induced obesity via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory responses.

  8. Body weight and energy homeostasis was not affected in C57BL/6 mice fed high whey protein or leucine-supplemented low-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noatsch, Anne; Petzke, Klaus J; Millrose, Marion K; Klaus, Susanne

    2011-09-01

    Leucine is suggested to act as nutrient signal of high-protein diets regulating pathways associated with an alleviation of metabolic syndrome parameters. However, the subject remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess and to compare the effects of high-protein diets with dietary leucine supplementation in mice, particularly on energy homeostasis, body composition, and expression of uncoupling protein (UCP), which are suggested to decrease food energy efficiency. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed for 14 weeks to semi-synthetic diets containing either 20% (adequate protein content, AP) or 50% whey protein (high-protein content, HP). A third group was fed the AP diet supplemented with L-leucine (AP + L) corresponding to the leucine content of the HP diet. The total fat content was 5% (w/w). Body weight gain, body composition, energy expenditure, and protein expression of UCP1 in brown adipose tissue, and UCP3 in skeletal muscle were not different between groups. In HP-fed mice, a stronger increase in blood glucose levels was detected during glucose tolerance tests compared to AP and AP + L, whereas plasma insulin was similar in all groups. Leucine supplementation did not affect glucose tolerance. Plasma cholesterol was significantly decreased in HP and AP + L when compared to AP. Plasma triglyceride concentrations were increased twofold in HP-fed mice when compared to AP + L and AP groups. Liver and skeletal muscle triglyceride and glycogen concentrations were similar in all groups. Postabsorptive plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids were not significantly increased after exposure to HP and AP + L diets, whereas those of lysine were decreased in HP and AP + L mice when compared to AP (P supplementation has no significant effect on energy homeostasis and UCP expression compared with AP diets when feeding a low-fat diet. The use of high-quality whey protein might at least in part explain the results obtained.

  9. Percentage of body fat assessment using bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a weight loss program for obese or overweight Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Chun; Li, Chia-Ing; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Hsu, Hua-Shui; Lee, Cheng-Chun; Chen, Fei-Na; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to compare the estimates of body fat percentage (%BF) by performing bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a sample of obese or overweight Chinese adults who participated in a weight-loss randomized control trial stratified by gender to determine whether or not BIA is a valid measurement tool. Among 189 adults [73 males, 116 females; age = 41 to 74 years; mean body mass index (BMI) = 27.3 kg/m(2)], assessments of %BF at the baseline and six months from the baseline were conducted by performing BIA and DXA. Bland-Altman analyses and multiple regression analyses were used to assess the relationships between %BFBIA and %BFDXA. Compared with DXA, BIA underestimated %BF [in males: 4.6, -2.4 to 11.7 (mean biases, 95% limit of agreement) at the baseline, 1.4, -7.4 to 10.2 at the endpoint, and 3.2, -4.8 to 11.3 in changes; in females: 5.1, -2.4 to 12.7; 2.2, -6.1 to 10.4; and 3.0, -4.8 to 10.7, respectively]. For males and females, %BFDXA proved to be a significant predictor of the difference between DXA and BIA at the baseline, the endpoint, and in changes when BMI and age were considered (in males: pobesity after the end of weight-loss program, but less accurate prediction of %BF in obese individuals at baseline or weight change during the weight-loss intervention program.

  10. Tetrahydro iso-alpha acids from hops improve glucose homeostasis and reduce body weight gain and metabolic endotoxemia in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Everard

    Full Text Available Obesity and related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with a low-grade inflammatory state possibly through changes in gut microbiota composition and the development of higher plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS levels, i.e. metabolic endotoxemia. Various phytochemical compounds have been investigated as potential tools to regulate these metabolic features. Humulus lupulus L. (hops contains several classes of compounds with anti-inflammatory potential. Recent evidence suggests that hops-derived compounds positively impact adipocyte metabolism and glucose tolerance in obese and diabetic rodents via undefined mechanisms. In this study, we found that administration of tetrahydro iso-alpha acids (termed META060 to high-fat diet (HFD-fed obese and diabetic mice for 8 weeks reduced body weight gain, the development of fat mass, glucose intolerance, and fasted hyperinsulinemia, and normalized insulin sensitivity markers. This was associated with reduced portal plasma LPS levels, gut permeability, and higher intestinal tight junction proteins Zonula occludens-1 and occludin. Moreover, META060 treatment increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and decreased the plasma level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. In conclusion, this research allows us to decipher a novel mechanism contributing to the positive effects of META060 treatment, and supports the need to investigate such compounds in obese and type 2 diabetic patients.

  11. Tetrahydro iso-alpha acids from hops improve glucose homeostasis and reduce body weight gain and metabolic endotoxemia in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Amandine; Geurts, Lucie; Van Roye, Marie; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with a low-grade inflammatory state possibly through changes in gut microbiota composition and the development of higher plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, i.e. metabolic endotoxemia. Various phytochemical compounds have been investigated as potential tools to regulate these metabolic features. Humulus lupulus L. (hops) contains several classes of compounds with anti-inflammatory potential. Recent evidence suggests that hops-derived compounds positively impact adipocyte metabolism and glucose tolerance in obese and diabetic rodents via undefined mechanisms. In this study, we found that administration of tetrahydro iso-alpha acids (termed META060) to high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese and diabetic mice for 8 weeks reduced body weight gain, the development of fat mass, glucose intolerance, and fasted hyperinsulinemia, and normalized insulin sensitivity markers. This was associated with reduced portal plasma LPS levels, gut permeability, and higher intestinal tight junction proteins Zonula occludens-1 and occludin. Moreover, META060 treatment increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and decreased the plasma level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. In conclusion, this research allows us to decipher a novel mechanism contributing to the positive effects of META060 treatment, and supports the need to investigate such compounds in obese and type 2 diabetic patients.

  12. Tetrahydro iso-Alpha Acids from Hops Improve Glucose Homeostasis and Reduce Body Weight Gain and Metabolic Endotoxemia in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roye, Marie; Delzenne, Nathalie M.; Cani, Patrice D.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with a low-grade inflammatory state possibly through changes in gut microbiota composition and the development of higher plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, i.e. metabolic endotoxemia. Various phytochemical compounds have been investigated as potential tools to regulate these metabolic features. Humulus lupulus L. (hops) contains several classes of compounds with anti-inflammatory potential. Recent evidence suggests that hops-derived compounds positively impact adipocyte metabolism and glucose tolerance in obese and diabetic rodents via undefined mechanisms. In this study, we found that administration of tetrahydro iso-alpha acids (termed META060) to high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese and diabetic mice for 8 weeks reduced body weight gain, the development of fat mass, glucose intolerance, and fasted hyperinsulinemia, and normalized insulin sensitivity markers. This was associated with reduced portal plasma LPS levels, gut permeability, and higher intestinal tight junction proteins Zonula occludens-1 and occludin. Moreover, META060 treatment increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and decreased the plasma level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. In conclusion, this research allows us to decipher a novel mechanism contributing to the positive effects of META060 treatment, and supports the need to investigate such compounds in obese and type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:22470484

  13. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Aerobic fitness, defined as maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK)), and body fat measurements represent two known risk factors for disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between VO(2PEAK) and body fat measurements in young children at a population-ba...

  14. Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan El Ghoch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry—Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738.

  15. Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Lamburghini, Silvia; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry—Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738). PMID:25251296

  16. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu...

  17. Breastfeeding, early nutrition, and adult body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Rolland-Cachera, Marie-Françoise

    2014-06-01

    To examine the association between breastfeeding and adult body fatness, adjusting for nutritional intake in early childhood. Nutritional intakes of 73 healthy infants born in 1984 who participated in the 2-decade-long Longitudinal Study of Nutrition and Growth in Children (Etude Longitudinale Alimentation Nutrition Croissance des Enfants [ELANCE]) were estimated at age 10 months and again at age 2 years. Breastfeeding was defined as any breastfeeding, including partial breastfeeding, regardless of duration. At age 20 years, weight, height, subscapular skinfold thickness (SF), and fat mass (assessed via bioelectrical impedance analysis) were measured. In this sample, 64% of the children had been breastfed. In linear regression models adjusted for mother's body mass index and father's profession, breastfeeding was not associated with any of the body fat measurements at 20 years (all P > .05). After adding nutritional intake variables (total energy and % energy from nutrients) to the models, breastfeeding became significantly associated with lower SF at 20 years. In particular, breastfed subjects had significantly lower % SF at 20 years after adjustment for energy and % fat intakes at 2 years of age, (β = -28.25% SF; 95% CI, -50.28% to -6.21%; P = .013) or when adjusting for energy and % carbohydrates at 2 years of age (β = -28.27% SF; 95% CI, -50.64% to -5.90%; P = .014). Breastfeeding was not associated with adult body fatness taking into account the usual confounding factors. However, after also adjusting for nutritional intake covariates, a protective effect of breastfeeding emerged. Early nutrition needs to be taken into account when examining the long-term health effects of breastfeeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary fat without body weight gain increases in vivo MCF-7 human breast cancer cell growth and decreases natural killer cell cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Bruno; Nachat-Kappes, Rachida; Goncalves-Mendes, Nicolas; Mishellany, Florence; Rossary, Adrien; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Farges, Marie-Chantal

    2015-01-01

    High-calorie (HC) diet contributes to the increased incidence of obesity, which is a risk factor for breast cancer in postmenopausal women, and in particular for estrogen receptor (ER) positive tumors. This study investigated whether an HC diet increases human ER-positive breast cancer progression and modulates natural killer (NK) cell functions. Four-week-old female BALB/c athymic nude mice were fed a HC diet (5320 kcal/kg) or standard calorie diet (SC, 2820 kcal/kg) for 6 mo. After 5 mo, the mice were randomly implanted with MCF-7 breast cancer cells (SCT and HCT) or received an isovolumic injection (SC and HC) in both inguinal fat pads. Tumor growth was greater in the HCT group than in the SC group without change in body weight. The HC diet decreased the tumor expression of genes involved in the citrate cycle and in adiponectin and lipid metabolism but increased that of genes controlling glycolysis and angiogenesis. The tumor expression level of Ki67 was increased while that of the cleaved caspase 3 and the ER-β and progesterone receptors was reduced. Tumor development in response to the HC diet was associated with smaller numbers and lower cytotoxicity of splenic NK cells. These results indicate that an HC diet without body weight gain increases ER-positive breast cancer cell proliferation and reduces tumor apoptosis. The underlying mechanisms might involve a downexpression of tumor hormonal receptor and reduced NK cell functions, and might also result in the regulation of genes involved in several cellular functions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Tea decoctions prevent body weight gain in rats fed high-fat diet; black tea being more efficient than green tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hédi Hamdaoui

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Chronic GTD and BTD prevent fat storage in the liver, lowering blood lipids and glucose, increasing fecal excretion of TG, decreasing AT and weight gains in rats fed HFD, with a strong effect of BTD compared to GTD. Therefore, these beverages containing high amounts of TPC and caffeine could constitute a natural alternative in the prevention of obesity.

  20. Body weight and composition dynamics of fall migrating canvasbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serie, J.R.; Sharp, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P Weights varied by year (P weights increased (P weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.

  1. Induced ablation of ghrelin cells in adult mice does not decrease food intake, body weight, or response to high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Matthew R; Brown, Michael S; Goldstein, Joseph L; Zhao, Tong-Jin

    2014-07-01

    Injection of the peptide hormone ghrelin stimulates food intake in mice and humans. However, mice born without ghrelin demonstrate no significant loss of appetite. This paradox suggests either that compensation develops in mice born without ghrelin or that ghrelin is not essential for appetite control. To distinguish these possibilities, we generated transgenic mice (Ghrl-DTR) that express the diphtheria toxin receptor in ghrelin-secreting cells. Injection of diphtheria toxin in adulthood ablated ghrelin cells and reduced plasma ghrelin by 80%-95%. Ghrelin cell-ablated mice exhibited no loss of appetite or body weight and no resistance to a high-fat diet. To stimulate food intake in mice by ghrelin injection, we had to raise plasma levels many-fold above normal. Like germline ghrelin-deficient mice, the ghrelin cell-ablated mice developed profound hypoglycemia when subjected to prolonged calorie restriction, confirming that ghrelin acts to maintain blood glucose under famine conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Marijuana and Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patien...

  3. The contribution of fat component to gestational weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V N Pokusaeva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the role of adipose tissue in gestational weight gain (GWG and preferential fat deposition among normal-weight women. Subjects and methods: prospective cohort study of 84 pregnancies: maternal body mass index 18,5–24,9 kg/m2, singleton term pregnancy, nondiabetic women, somatically well. GWG and skinfold thickness were evaluated in the 1st, 2nd, 3d trimesters, on the 3d day after delivery. Results: fat mass gain in low GWG was similar to recommended GWG and in the high-GWG group was greater one. Women with recommended and low GWG returned to their initial fat level on the 3d day after delivery, in excessive weight gain fat significantly increased (р=0,025. Compared to initial recommended GWG resulted in triceps skinfold thicknesses loss (р=0,001, in abdominal skinfold gained nothing and in thighs skinfold thicknesses increasing (р=0,021. Inadequate GWG leads to fat loss in arms (р=0,017, fat of abdominal area and thighs return to initial level. In excessive GWG fat in the upper trunk and arms not changed, in the lower area (thighs significantly increased compared to initial level (р=0,001 or other groups (р=0,001. Conclusion: excessive GWG was associated with greater adipose tissue cumulation and its deposition preferentially over the thighs. Inadequate GWG was clearly linked to low fat-free mass gain.

  4. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  5. The effects of leptin in combination with a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, AM 251, or cannabidiol on food intake and body weight in rats fed a high-fat or a free-choice high sugar diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierucka-Rybak, M; Wolak, M; Bojanowska, E

    2014-08-01

    High intake of fats and sugars has prompted a rapid growth in the number of obese individuals worldwide. To further investigate whether simultaneous pharmacological intervention in the leptin and cannabinoid system might change food and water intake, preferences for palatable foods, and body weight, we have examined the effects of concomitant intraperitoneal administration of leptin and AM 251, a cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist, or cannabidiol (CBD), a plant cannabinoid, in rats maintained on either a high-fat (HF) diet (45% energy from fat) or free-choice (FC) diet consisting of high-sucrose and normal rat chow (83% and 61% energy from carbohydrates, respectively). Leptin at a dose of 100 μg/kg injected individually for 3 subsequent days to rats fed a HF diet reduced significantly the daily caloric intake and inhibited body weight gain. The hormone had no significant effects, however, on either caloric intake, body weight or food preferences in rats fed an FC diet. Co-injection of leptin and 1 mg/kg AM 251 resulted in a further significant decrease in HF diet intake and a profound reduction in body weight gain both in HF diet- and FC diet-fed rats. This drug combination, however, had no effect on the consumption of high-sucrose chow. In contrast, 3mg/kg of CBD co-injected with leptin did not modify leptin effects on food intake in rats maintained on an FC or HF diet. None of the drug combinations affected water consumption. It is concluded that the concomitant treatment with leptin and AM 251 attenuated markedly body weight gain in rats maintained on high-calorie diets rich in fat and carbohydrates but did not affect preferences for sweet food.

  6. Characteristics of Body Fat, Body Fat Percentage and Other Body Composition for Koreans from KNHANES IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sangmo; Oh, Han Jin; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Jung Gu; Lim, Sung Kil; Kim, Eun Kyung; Pyo, Eun Young; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Young Taek; Wilson, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Accurate measurement of fat mass has become increasingly important with the increasing incidence of obesity. We assessed fat and muscle mass of Koreans with the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (KNHANES IV). We studied 10,456 subjects (aged 20 to 85 yr; 4,476 men, 5,980 women). Fat and muscle mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Reference values of body compositions were obtained using the LMS method. The fat mass index (FMI, body fat mass/height2; kg/m2) of Korean men did not correlate with age (P = 0.452), but those of Korean women (P 9 kg/m2) in men and 2.7% (FMI > 13 kg/m2) in women. It is concluded that the muscle mass decreases and obesity increases with aging in Korean men, whereas both fat mass and obesity increase with aging in Korean women. PMID:22147997

  7. Mathematical description of human body constitution and fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R; Galenko-Yaroshevskii, P A; Cherednik, I L

    2014-02-01

    Using mathematical modeling of human body, we demonstrated logical drawbacks of body mass index (BMI1 = M/H(2); A. Quetelet, 1832) and proposed more precise body mass index (BMI2 = M/H(3)) as well as body constitution index (BCI = (M/H(3))(1/2)) and fatness index (FI = M/HC(2)), where M, H, and C are body weight, height, and wrist circumference of the individual.

  8. The potential of phototherapy to reduce body fat, insulin resistance and "metabolic inflexibility" related to obesity in women undergoing weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; de Aquino Junior, Antonio Eduardo; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Masquio, Deborah Cristina Landi; Tock, Lian; de Oliveira Duarte, Ana Claudia Garcia; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2015-10-01

    The metabolic flexibility is often impaired in diseases associated with obesity, and many studies are based on the hypothesis that dysfunction in peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue represent the etiology of development of metabolic inflexibility. Experimental evidence shows that the use of phototherapy combined with exercise was effective in controlling the lipid profile, reducing the mass of adipose tissue, suggesting increased metabolic activity and changes in lipid metabolism. However, we found few data in the literature involving the use of phototherapy in association to physical training in the obese population. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the effects of exercise training (aerobic plus resistance exercises) plus phototherapy (laser, 808 nm) on metabolic profile and adiponectinemia in obese women. Sixty-four obese women (BMI 30-40 kg/m2 , age between 20 and 40 years old) were randomly assigned in two groups: Exercise Training plus SHAM group (ET-SHAM, n = 32) and Exercise Training plus Phototherapy group (ET-PHOTO, n = 32). The treatment consisted in physical exercise intervention and the individual application of phototherapy immediately after the end of the training session. However, in the ET-SHAM group the device was turned off simulating the phototherapy application (placebo effect). The study protocol lasted for 20 weeks and comprised of three weekly sessions of aerobic plus resistance training and application of phototherapy (when applicable). The body composition and metabolic parameters were assessed (HOMA, adiponectin, insulin, glucose). Comparing the magnitude of effects between groups (ET-PHOTO vs. ET-SHAM), we observed that physical training plus phototherapy was more effective than physical training in reducing the delta of percentage of fat mass (%; -5.60 ± 1.59 vs. -4.33 ± 1.5; P obese women undergoing weight loss treatment promoting significant changes in inflexibility metabolic

  9. Effect of Body Composition Methodology on Heritability Estimation of Body Fatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Sonya J.; Roberts, Susan B.; McCrory, Megan A.; Das, Sai Krupa; Fuss, Paul J.; Pittas, Anastassios G.; Greenberg, Andrew S.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Bouchard, Thomas J.; Saltzman, Edward; Neale, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male and female monozygotic twin pairs reared apart or together. Body composition was assessed by six methods – body mass index (BMI), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), underwater weighing (UWW), total body water (TBW), bioelectric impedance (BIA), and skinfold thickness. Body fatness was expressed as percent body fat, fat mass, and fat mass/height2 to assess the effect of body fatness expression on heritability estimates. Model-fitting multivariate analyses were used to assess the genetic and environmental components of variance. Mean BMI was 24.5 kg/m2 (range of 17.8–43.4 kg/m2). There was a significant effect of body composition methodology (pbody fatness as percent body fat resulted in significantly higher heritability estimates (on average 10.3% higher) compared to expression as fat mass/height2 (p=0.015). DXA and TBW methods expressing body fatness as fat mass/height2 gave the least biased heritability assessments, based on the small contribution of specific genetic factors to their genetic variance. A model combining DXA and TBW methods resulted in a relatively low FM/ht2 heritability estimate of 60%, and significant contributions of common and unique environmental factors (22% and 18%, respectively). The body fatness heritability estimate of 60% indicates a smaller contribution of genetic variance to total variance than many previous studies using less powerful research designs have indicated. The results also highlight the importance of environmental factors and possibly genotype by environmental interactions in the etiology of weight gain and the obesity epidemic. PMID:25067962

  10. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu......A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK....... The results of the BIA equations varied widely; FFM was generally overestimated by BIA as compared with DXA and TBK before and after weight loss. During weight loss, the FFM did not change, as estimated by DXA (1.3 +/- 2.3 kg, p > 0.05) and TBK (0.9 +/- 2.9 kg, p > 0.05). The recorded change in impedance (R......) was also insignificant. Three BIA equations from the literature, which were not specific for the degree of obesity in the present study group, predicted changes in FFM (from 0.5 + 3.6 to 2.4 +/- 4.4kg, p > 0.05) that were comparable with those estimated by the reference methods. Eight equations from...

  11. Are traditional body fat equations and anthropometry valid to estimate body fat in children and adolescents living with HIV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de; Martins, Priscila Custódio; Junior, Carlos Alencar Souza Alves; Castro, João Antônio Chula de; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of traditional anthropometric equations and to develop predictive equations of total body and trunk fat for children and adolescents living with HIV based on anthropometric measurements. Forty-eight children and adolescents of both sexes (24 boys) aged 7-17 years, living in Santa Catarina, Brazil, participated in the study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used as the reference method to evaluate total body and trunk fat. Height, body weight, circumferences and triceps, subscapular, abdominal and calf skinfolds were measured. The traditional equations of Lohman and Slaughter were used to estimate body fat. Multiple regression models were fitted to predict total body fat (Model 1) and trunk fat (Model 2) using a backward selection procedure. Model 1 had an R 2 =0.85 and a standard error of the estimate of 1.43. Model 2 had an R 2 =0.80 and standard error of the estimate=0.49. The traditional equations of Lohman and Slaughter showed poor performance in estimating body fat in children and adolescents living with HIV. The prediction models using anthropometry provided reliable estimates and can be used by clinicians and healthcare professionals to monitor total body and trunk fat in children and adolescents living with HIV. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Body fat, sweetness sensitivity, and preference: determining the relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Laurel; Duizer, Lisa; Caldwell, Tristaca

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate whether body fat is a better measure than body mass index (BMI) for determining the relationship between body size and sweetness perception and preference. Seventy-two women were recruited and separated into two groups. First, BMI was determined and used to classify each woman as either normal weight (18.5 to 24.9 kg/m²) or overweight (>25.0 kg/m²). Body fat was determined from skinfold sites and used to categorize women into normal (sweetness were evaluated to determine the women's liking for sweetness, and the perceived sweetness of the sample. Women in the overweight BMI and body fat groups had higher sucrose threshold values than did women in the normal groups. When presented with custards of varying sucrose levels, the overweight BMI and body fat groups had a significantly increased liking for sweetness as sucrose concentration increased. Body fat measures were as effective as BMI measures in determining sweetness preference. Future research should be conducted to determine whether body fat and measures, such as waist circumference, can be predictive tools for sweetness preference.

  13. Changes of renal sinus fat and renal parenchymal fat during an 18-month randomized weight loss trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelicha, Hila; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Tsaban, Gal; Tene, Lilac; Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Bilitzky, Avital; Komy, Oded; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusi, Benjamin; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Haviv, Yosef S; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-05-02

    Data regarding the role of kidney adiposity, its clinical implications, and its dynamics during weight-loss are sparse. We investigated the effect of long-term weight-loss induced intervention diets on dynamics of renal-sinus-fat, an ectopic fat depot, and %renal-parenchymal-fat, lipid accumulation within the renal parenchyma. We randomized 278 participants with abdominal obesity/dyslipidemia to low-fat or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate diets, with or without exercise. We quantified renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat by whole body magnetic-resonance-imaging. Participants (age = 48 years; 89% men; body-mass-index = 31 kg/m 2 ) had 86% retention to the trial after 18 months. Both increased renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat were directly associated with hypertension, and with higher abdominal deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue and visceral-adipose-tissue (p of trend weight. Higher renal-sinus-fat was associated with lower estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate and with higher microalbuminuria and %HbA1C beyond body weight. After 18 months of intervention, overall renal-sinus-fat (-9%; p fat (-1.7%; p = 0.13 vs. baseline) significantly decreased, and similarly across the intervention groups. Renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat changes were correlated with weight-loss per-se (p fat associated with decreased pancreatic, hepatic and cardiac fats (p fat, after adjustment for 18 months weight-loss (β = 0.15; p = 0.026) and hypertension (β = 0.14; p = 0.04). Renal-sinus-fat and renal-parenchymal-fat are fairly related to weight-loss. Decreased renal-sinus-fat is associated with improved hepatic parameters, independent of changes in weight or hepatic fat, rather than with improved renal function or blood pressure parameters. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT01530724. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. Green tea reduces body fat via upregulation of neprilysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenzner, M; Tappenbeck, N; Gembardt, F; Rülke, R; Furkert, J; Melzig, M F; Siems, W-E; Brockmann, G A; Walther, T

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of green tea has become increasingly popular, particularly because of claimed reduction in body weight. We recently reported that animals with pharmacological inhibition (by candoxatril) or genetic absence of the endopeptidase neprilysin (NEP) develop an obese phenotype. We now investigated the effect of green tea extract (in drinking water) on body weight and body composition and the mediating role of NEP. To elucidate the role of NEP in mediating the beneficial effects of green tea extract, 'Berlin fat mice' or NEP-deficient mice and their age- and gender-matched wild-type controls received the extract in two different doses (300 or 600 mg kg -1 body weight per day) in the drinking water. In 'Berlin fat mice', 51 days of green tea treatment did not only prevent fat accumulation (control: day 0: 30.5% fat, day 51: 33.1%; NS) but also reduced significant body fat (green tea: day 0: 27.8%, day 51: 20.9%, PGreen tea reduced food intake. This was paralleled by a selective increase in peripheral (in kidney 17%, in intestine 92%), but not central NEP expression and activity, leading to downregulation of orexigens (like galanin and neuropeptide Y (NPY)) known to be physiological substrates of NEP. Consequently, in NEP-knockout mice, green tea extract failed to reduce body fat/weight. Our data generate experimental proof for the assumed effects of green tea on body weight and the key role for NEP in such process, and thus open a new avenue for the treatment of obesity.

  15. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  16. Gender differences in neonatal subcutaneous fat store in late gestation in relation to maternal weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guihard-Costa, A M; Papiernik, E; Grangé, G; Richard, A

    2002-01-01

    To study gender differences in fat store in human newborns and their relation to duration of gestation and maternal weight gain. The ratios subscapular skinfold thickness/body weight (SST/BW) and tricipital skinfold thickness/body weight (TST/BW) were calculated in a sample of 13609 premature and term neonates from the maternity hospital of Clamart, Hauts-de-Seine, France. Whereas BW, SST and TST increased with gestational age, SST/BW and TST/BW ratios decreased regularly, in males as in females. This result reflects a progressive reduction of subcutaneous fat store per body weight unit as the duration of gestation increases. Males had smaller values of SST/BW and TST/BW ratios than females whatever the gestational age. Increasing maternal weight gain during the third gestational trimester did not improve the subcutaneous fatness per body weight unit of the newborn. Earlier amount of maternal weight gain had an effect on the TST/BW index exclusively in females. In newborns, a gender difference was observed in the ratio of subcutaneous fat per unit of body weight; this ratio is lower in males than in females. This result argues for a gender difference in mobilization of fat store to ensure normal growth in the last weeks of pregnancy: males lose more fat but gain more weight than females in this period. Late maternal weight gain does not affect the proportion of subcutaneous fatness by body weight unit in both genders.

  17. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Meguro

    Full Text Available Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  18. Body weight perception and body weight control behaviors in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Robson; Claumann, Gaia S; Felden, Érico P G; Silva, Diego A S; Pelegrini, Andreia

    To investigate the association between the perception of body weight (as above or below the desired) and behaviors for body weight control in adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study that included 1051 adolescents (aged 15-19 years) who were high school students attending public schools. The authors collected information on the perception of body weight (dependent variable), weight control behaviors (initiative to change the weight, physical exercise, eating less or cutting calories, fasting for 24h, taking medications, vomiting, or taking laxatives), and measured body weight and height to calculate the body mass index and then classify the weight status. Associations were tested by multinomial logistic regression analysis. Adolescents of both sexes who perceived their body weight as below the expected weight took more initiatives to gain weight, and those who perceived themselves as overweight made more efforts to lose weight. In adolescents who perceived themselves as overweight, the behavior of not taking medication was associated with the outcome only in boys (Odds Ratio=8.12), whereas in girls, an association was observed with the variables eating less, cutting calories, or avoiding fatty foods aiming to lose or avoid increasing body weight (Odds Ratio=3.39). Adolescents of both sexes who practiced exercises were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight (male Odds Ratio=2.00; Odds Ratio=1.93 female). The perception of the body weight as above and below one's expected weight was associated with weight control behaviors, which were more likely to result in initiatives to lose and gain weight, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction.......Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....

  20. Is air-displacement plethysmography a reliable method of detecting ongoing changes in percent body fat within obese children involved in a weight management program?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewane, Cecile; McConkey, Stacy A; Kreiter, Clarence D

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY: BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood obesity in the US has increased considerably over the last few decades and continues to increase. To monitor the progress of patients enrolled in weight management programs, clinicians need accurate methods of detecting changes in body composition ...

  1. Relationship between physical activity, body fatness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low cardiorespiratory fitness and inactivity are strong health predictors associated with excessive fatness. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness and body fatness in South African adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with a ...

  2. Corticotropin-releasing factor overexpression in mice abrogates sex differences in body weight, visceral fat, and food intake response to a fast and alters levels of feeding regulatory hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixin; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Yuan, Pu-Qing; Stengel, Andreas; Taché, Yvette

    2017-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor overexpressing (CRF-OE) male mice showed an inhibited feeding response to a fast, and lower plasma acyl ghrelin and Fos expression in the arcuate nucleus compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We investigated whether hormones and hypothalamic feeding signals are impaired in CRF-OE mice and the influence of sex. Male and female CRF-OE mice and WT littermates (4-6 months old) fed ad libitum or overnight fasted were assessed for body, adrenal glands and perigonadal fat weights, food intake, plasma hormones, blood glucose, and mRNA hypothalamic signals. Under fed conditions, compared to WT, CRF-OE mice have increased adrenal glands and perigonadal fat weight, plasma corticosterone, leptin and insulin, and hypothalamic leptin receptor and decreased plasma acyl ghrelin. Compared to male, female WT mice have lower body and perigonadal fat and plasma leptin but higher adrenal glands weights. CRF-OE mice lost these sex differences except for the adrenals. Male CRF-OE and WT mice did not differ in hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), while female CRF-OE compared to female WT and male CRF-OE had higher NPY mRNA levels. After fasting, female WT mice lost more body weight and ate more food than male WT, while CRF-OE mice had reduced body weight loss and inhibited food intake without sex difference. In male WT mice, fasting reduced plasma insulin and leptin and increased acyl ghrelin and corticosterone while female WT showed only a rise in corticosterone. In CRF-OE mice, fasting reduced insulin while leptin, acyl ghrelin and corticosterone were unchanged with no sex difference. Fasting blood glucose was higher in CRF-OE with female > male. In WT mice, fasting increased hypothalamic NPY expression in both sexes and decreased POMC only in males, while in CRF-OE mice, NPY did not change, and POMC decreased in males and increased in females. These data indicate that CRF-OE mice have abnormal basal and fasting

  3. Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuernberg Karin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6 leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein, or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor β protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ζ expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

  4. Liver volume, intrahepatic fat and body weight in the course of a lifestyle interventional study. Analysis with quantitative MR-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongers, M.N.; Stefan, N.; Fritsche, A.; Haering, H.U.; Nikolaou, K.; Schick, F.; Machann, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between changes in liver volume, the amount of intrahepatic lipids (IHL) and body weight during lifestyle interventions. In a prospective study 150 patients with an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus were included who followed a caloric restriction diet for 6 months. In the retrospective analysis 18 women and 9 men (age range 22-71 years) with an average body mass index (BMI) of 32 kg/m 2 were enrolled. The liver volume was determined at the beginning and after 6 months by three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D-MRI, echo gradient, opposed-phase) and IHLs were quantified by volume-selective MR spectroscopy in single voxel stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM). Univariable and multivariable correlation analyses between changes of liver volume (Δliver volume), intrahepatic lipids (ΔIHL) and body weight (ΔBW) were performed. Univariable correlation analysis in the whole study cohort showed associations between ΔIHL and ΔBW (r = 0.69; p < 0.0001), ΔIHL and Δliver volume (r = 0.66; p = 0.0002) as well as ΔBW and Δliver volume (r = 0.5; p = 0.0073). Multivariable correlation analysis revealed that changes of liver volume are primarily determined by changes in IHL independent of changes in body weight (β = 0.0272; 95 % CI: 0.0155-0.034; p < 0.0001). Changes of liver volume during lifestyle interventions are independent of changes of body weight primarily determined by changes of IHL. These results show the reversibility of augmented liver volume in steatosis if it is possible to reduce IHLs during lifestyle interventions. (orig.) [de

  5. Ribonuclease-mediated control of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habacher, Cornelia; Guo, Yanwu; Venz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    . Using exon-intron split analysis, we find that REGE-1 promotes fat by degrading the mRNA encoding ETS-4, a fat-loss-promoting transcription factor. Because ETS-4, in turn, induces rege-1 transcription, REGE-1 and ETS-4 appear to form an auto-regulatory module. We propose that this type of fat regulation......Obesity is a global health issue, arousing interest in molecular mechanisms controlling fat. Transcriptional regulation of fat has received much attention, and key transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, such as SBP-1/SREBP, LPD-2/C/EBP, and MDT-15, are conserved from nematodes...... to mammals. However, there is a growing awareness that lipid metabolism can also be controlled by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans RNase, REGE-1, related to MCPIP1/Zc3h12a/Regnase-1, a key regulator of mammalian innate immunity, promotes accumulation of body fat...

  6. Fat Talk and Body Dissatisfaction among College Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartawidjaja, Jenae E.; Cordero, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate "fat talk" conversations about weight and body dissatisfaction within college dancers. Participants were 116 female undergraduates who were dancers/dance majors ("n"?=?20), dancers/nondance majors ("n"?=?32), and nondancers ("n"?=?63). Participants responded to…

  7. High body fat percentage among adult women in Malaysia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... Body fat percentage is regarded as an important measurement for diagnosis of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the ... intensity were the predictors of high BF%. Author Correspondence, e-mail: ... maintenance of weight loss among overweight and obese women [18]. 2. METHODOLOGY.

  8. Body Fat Content, Distribution and Blood Glucose Concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    loss of opportunities for investment and hence lower levels of economic development (WHO,. 2006a). It has been ... Measurements. Measurements of weight, height and body fat content were done on each subject. Height and ... 3 days before the test as starvation or diet low in carbohydrate can lead to incorrect test result.

  9. Increased Flap Weight and Decreased Perforator Number Predict Fat Necrosis in DIEP Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn L. Mulvey, BS

    2013-05-01

    Conclusions: Flaps with increasing weight have increased risk of fat necrosis. These data suggest that inclusion of more than 1 perforator may decrease odds of fat necrosis in large flaps. Perforator flap breast reconstruction can be performed safely; however, considerations concerning race, body mass index, staging with tissue expanders, perforator number, and flap weight may optimize outcomes.

  10. Associations of maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy with subcutaneous fat mass in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jharap, Varsha V; Santos, Susana; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gaillard, Romy

    2017-05-01

    Not much is known about the associations of maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain with body fat in infancy. To examine the associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with infant subcutaneous fat. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 845 mothers and their infants, we obtained maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and measured maternal weight during pregnancy. At 1.5, 6 and 24months, we estimated infant total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat). Maternal body mass index was positively associated with higher infant body mass index from 6months onwards. Maternal body mass index was not associated with infant subcutaneous fat measures at 1.5 or 6months. A 1-standard deviation scores (SDS) higher maternal body mass index was associated with a 0.09 (95% Confidence Interval 0.01, 0.17) SDS higher infant total subcutaneous fat at 24months, but not with central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio. No associations were present for maternal total or period-specific gestational weight gain with infant fat. Maternal body mass index was positively associated with infant body mass index and total subcutaneous fat in late infancy. Maternal total and period-specific gestational weight gain were not associated with infant body fat mass measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Testosterone levels in obese male patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: relation to oxygen desaturation, body weight, fat distribution and the metabolic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambineri, A; Pelusi, C; Pasquali, R

    2003-06-01

    To investigate the impact of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) on testosterone levels and on the main parameters of the metabolic syndrome in abdominally obese men, 15 male subjects with abdominal obesity phenotype and polysomnographic diagnosis of OSAS (OB-OSAS) and 15 controls matched for age and anthropometric parameters (OB) were investigated. Anthropometry, SHBG, sex hormones and several parameters of the metabolic syndrome were measured. Only subjects with an Epworth Sleepiness Score greater than 10 underwent a polysomnographic study with calculation of the number of desaturation rates per sleeping hour (ODI), the minimal oxygen saturation during each desaturation episode (minSaO2) and the mean minimal arterial oxygen saturation for the whole night period (MminSaO2). Both total and free testosterone levels were lower in OB-OSAS than in OB patients. A negative correlation between polysomnographic parameters (ODI, minSaO2 and MminSaO2) and testosterone levels was found. The relationship between total and free testosterone and ODI persisted after adjusting for body mass index (BMI) and waist (W) values. Triglyceride and uric acid levels were significantly higher in OB-OSAS than in OB patients. A negative correlation between testosterone and acid uric level and a positive correlation between testosterone and HDL-cholesterol level was found, regardless of BMI and W circumference, particularly in the OB-OSAS group. Our study suggests that, in patients with obesity and OSAS, the severity of hypoxia during sleeping hours may be an additional factor in reducing testosterone levels, regardless of BMI and abdominal fatness. This may contribute in worsening metabolic abnormalities which, in men with OSAS, exceed those expected on the basis of degree of obesity and pattern of fat distribution.

  12. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  13. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out

  14. The Body Fat-Cognition Relationship in Healthy Older Individuals: Does Gynoid vs Android Distribution Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, R; Pesce, C; De Vito, G; Boreham, C A G

    2017-01-01

    To examine the relationship between regional and whole body fat accumulation and core cognitive executive functions. Cross-sectional study. 78 healthy men and women aged between 65 and 75 years recruited through consumer's database. DXA measured percentage total body fat, android, gynoid distribution and android/gynoid ratio; inhibition and working memory updating through Random Number Generation test and cognitive flexibility by Trail Making test. First-order partial correlations between regional body fat and cognitive executive function were computed partialling out the effects of whole body fat. Moderation analysis was performed to verify the effect of gender on the body fat-cognition relationship. Results showed a differentiated pattern of fat-cognition relationship depending on fat localization and type of cognitive function. Statistically significant relationships were observed between working memory updating and: android fat (r = -0.232; p = 0.042), gynoid fat (r = 0.333; p = 0.003) and android/gynoid ratio (r = -0.272; p = 0.017). Separating genders, the only significant relationship was observed in females between working memory updating and gynoid fat (r = 0.280; p = 0.045). In spite of gender differences in both working memory updating and gynoid body fat levels, moderation analysis did not show an effect of gender on the relationship between gynoid fat and working memory updating. Results suggest a protective effect of gynoid body fat and a deleterious effect of android body fat. Although excessive body fat increases the risk of developing CDV, metabolic and cognitive problems, maintaining a certain proportion of gynoid fat may help prevent cognitive decline, particularly in older women. Guidelines for optimal body composition maintenance for the elderly should not target indiscriminate weight loss, but weight maintenance through body fat/lean mass control based on non-pharmacological tools such as physical exercise, known to have protective effects

  15. Relation between maternal body composition and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin Aguirre, Luz Helena; Reza-López, Sandra; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish the relationship between maternal body composition indicators (fat-free mass, fat mass, total body water) and birth weight, a cross-sectional study was designed, based on 196 pairs of mothers and live singleton newborns with gestational age of 37 weeks or more. Immediately after delivery, the mothers were interviewed to obtain information about different birth weight predictors. An analysis of maternal body composition through bioelectric impedance was held. Multiple linear regression was used to measure the effect of each variable on birth weight. The birth weight mean was 3,251 +/- 514 g. Maternal height was 160.44 +/- 6.3 cm, total net weight gain was 5.85 +/- 5.15 kg, fat mass consisted of 15.84 +/- 6.72 kg, and fat-free mass was 50.42 +/- 7.65 kg; total body water was 34.82 +/- 5.61 liters. The model which included total body water and all predictors found to be associated with birth weight in the bivariate analysis (maternal age, gestational age, gender, placenta weight, and placenta weight squared) was found to be the best in explaining the variability of birth weight (R(2) = 45.26%). Fat mass was an important predictor only in the subgroup of women within the low tertile of body mass index. In conclusion, fat-free mass and total body water explained a major proportion of the variability of birth weight in comparison with the mother's weight gain during the pregnancy period, which has already been considered an important predictor of birth weight. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Ramadan Fasting Decreases Body Fat but Not Protein Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrial Syam, Ari; Suryani Sobur, Cecep; Abdullah, Murdani; Makmun, Dadang

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown various results regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition in healthy individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy Indonesian medical staff. In this study, we examined the influence of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy medical staff. The longitudinal study was performed during and after Ramadan fasting in 2013 (August to October). Fourty-three medical staff members (physicians, nurses and nutritionists) at the Internal Medicine Ward of the Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital were measured to compare their calorie intake, weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body composition, including body fat, protein, minerals and water, on the first and 28(th) days of Ramadan and also 4-5 weeks after Ramadan fasting. Measurements were obtained for all 43 subjects on the 28(th) day of Ramadan, but they were obtained for only 25 subjects 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan. By the 28(th) day of Ramadan, it was found that the body weight, BMI, body fat, water and mineral measures had decreased significantly (-0.874 ± 0.859 kg, P Ramadan, body weight and composition had returned to the same levels as on the first day of Ramadan. Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss even it was only a temporary effect, as the weight was quickly regained within one month after fasting. The catabolism catabolic state, which is related to protein loss, was not triggered during Ramadan fasting. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of weight loss during Ramadan fasting in healthy individuals.

  17. Glucosamine enhances body weight gain and reduces insulin response in mice fed chow diet but mitigates obesity, insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance in mice high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji-Sun; Park, Ji-Won; Nam, Moon-Suk; Cho, Hyeongjin; Han, Inn-Oc

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the potential of glucosamine (GlcN) to affect body weight gain and insulin sensitivity in mice normal and at risk for developing diabetes. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either chow diet (CD) or a high fat diet (HFD) and the half of mice from CD and HFD provided with a solution of 10% (w/v) GlcN. Total cholesterol and nonesterified free fatty acid levels were determined. Glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test were performed. HepG2 human hepatoma cells or differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were stimulated with insulin under normal (5 mM) or high glucose (25 mM) conditions. Effect of GlcN on 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake was determined. JNK and Akt phosphorylation and nucleocytoplasmic protein O-GlcNAcylation were assayed by Western blotting. GlcN administration stimulated body weight gain (6.58±0.82 g vs. 11.1±0.42 g), increased white adipose tissue fat mass (percentage of bodyweight, 3.7±0.32 g vs. 5.61±0.34 g), and impaired the insulin response in livers of mice fed CD. However, GlcN treatment in mice fed HFD led to reduction of body weight gain (18.02±0.66 g vs. 16.22±0.96 g) and liver weight (2.27±0.1 vs. 1.85±0.12 g). Furthermore, obesity-induced insulin resistance and impaired Akt insulin signaling in the liver were alleviated by GlcN administration. GlcN inhibited the insulin response under low (5 mM) glucose conditions, whereas it restored the insulin response for Akt phosphorylation under high (25 mM) glucose conditions in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells. Uptake of 2-DG increased upon GlcN treatment under 5 mM glucose compared to control, whereas insulin-stimulated 2-DG uptake decreased under 5 mM and increased under 25 mM glucose in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Our results show that GlcN increased body weight gain and reduced the insulin response for glucose maintenance when fed to normal CD mice, whereas it alleviated body weight gain and insulin resistance in HFD mice. Therefore, the current data support the integrative

  18. Concomitant changes in sleep duration and body weight and body composition during weight loss and 3-mo weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-07-01

    An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss. A total of 98 healthy subjects (25 men), aged 20-50 y and with BMI (in kg/m(2)) from 28 to 35, followed a 2-mo very-low-energy diet that was followed by a 10-mo period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (measured by using deuterium dilution and air-displacement plethysmography), eating behavior (measured by using a 3-factor eating questionnaire), physical activity (measured by using the validated Baecke's questionnaire), and sleep (estimated by using a questionnaire with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were assessed before and immediately after weight loss and 3- and 10-mo follow-ups. The average weight loss was 10% after 2 mo of dieting and 9% and 6% after 3- and 10-mo follow-ups, respectively. Daytime sleepiness and time to fall asleep decreased during weight loss. Short (≤7 h) and average (>7 to weight loss. This change in sleep duration was concomitantly negatively correlated with the change in BMI during weight loss and after the 3-mo follow-up and with the change in fat mass after the 3-mo follow-up. Sleep duration benefits from weight loss or vice versa. Successful weight loss, loss of body fat, and 3-mo weight maintenance in short and average sleepers are underscored by an increase in sleep duration or vice versa. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  19. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    such as lean body mass, blood pressure, gender, age, and Tanner stage revealed that TBF, AFM, and AFM/TBF were all independently related to LA diameter. Differences in the different body fat measurements explained 6-9% of the variance in LA size. These results demonstrated that both total body fat, AFM......In adults, the size of the left atria (LA) has important prognostic information. In obese adults, adolescents and children enlargement of LA have been observed. This has not been investigated on a population-based level in young children. We therefore assessed if total body fat mass (TBF...

  20. Androgens, body fat Distribution and Adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerradi, Mouna; Dereumetz, Julie; Boulet, Marie-Michèle; Tchernof, André

    2014-12-01

    Androgens are regulators of important adipocyte functions such as adipogenesis, lipid storage, and lipolysis. Through depot-specific impact on the cells of each fat compartment, androgens could modulate body fat distribution patterns in humans. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone have been shown to inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes to lipid-storing adipocytes in several models including primary cultures of human adipocytes from both men and women. Androgen effects have also been observed on some markers of lipid metabolism such as LPL activity, fatty acid uptake, and lipolysis. Possible depot-specific and sex-specific effects have been observed in some but not all models. Transformation of androgen precursors to active androgens or their inactivation by enzymes that are expressed and functional in adipose tissue may contribute to modulate the local availability of active hormones. These phenomena, along with putative depot-specific interactions with glucocorticoids may contribute to human body fat distribution patterns.

  1. Combined oral contraceptives and body weight: do oral contraceptives cause weight gain? A primate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, A; Jensen, J T; Bulechowsky, M; Cameron, J

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if oral contraceptive (OC) use affects body weight, body composition and metabolism in primates. Reproductive-age female rhesus monkeys of normal and obese BMI were studied to document baseline weight stability, then treated continuously with an OC (dosed to achieve equivalent human serum levels for a 30 µg ethinyl estradiol/150 µg levonorgestrel preparation) for 237 days. Monkeys were monitored for changes in body weight, levels of physical activity (measured by a triaxial Actical accelerometer), food/caloric intake, percent body fat (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, DEXA) and metabolism (24 h metabolic rate and serum metabolic substrate and hormone concentrations). All 10 monkeys completed the study protocol with no adverse events. While body weight (-0.73% change) and percent body fat (-1.78% change) of the normal BMI group did not significantly decrease from baseline, obese monkeys showed a significant decrease in body weight (-8.58% change, P body fat (-12.13% change P = 0.02) with OC treatment. In both the obese (P = 0.03) and the normal BMI (P = 0.01) groups, there was a significant increase in basal metabolic rate with OC use. No changes were seen in food intake, activity level or % lean muscle mass with OC use for either BMI-based group. Overall, OC use appears to cause a slight increase in basal metabolic rate in female monkeys, leading to a decrease in body weight and percent body fat in obese individuals.

  2. A maternal high fat diet programmes endothelial function and cardiovascular status in adult male offspring independent of body weight, which is reversed by maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H; Segovia, Stephanie A; Zhang, Xiaohuan D; Reynolds, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    function when compared to CON and CLA groups. These data suggest that a maternal HF diet causes a developmental programming of endothelial dysfunction and hypertension in male offspring which can be partially improved by maternal CLA supplementation, independent of offspring body weight.

  3. Influence of maximal fat oxidation on long-term weight loss maintenance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Sune; Husted, Karina; Amdisen, Signe

    2017-01-01

    Impaired maximal fat oxidation has been linked to obesity and weight regain after weight loss. The aim was to investigate the relationship between maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and long-term weight loss maintenance. Eighty subjects [means (SD): age, 36(13) yrs; BMI, 38(1) kg/m2] were recruited from...... composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry) and fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry) during incremental exercise were measured at follow-up. Blood and a muscle biopsy were sampled. At follow-up, a U-shaped parabolic relationship between MFO and percent weight loss was observed (r = 0.448; P ... a total of 2,420 former participants of an 11- to 12-wk lifestyle intervention. Three groups were established based on percent weight loss at follow-up [5.3(3.3) yr]: clinical weight loss maintenance (CWL), >10% weight loss; moderate weight loss (MWL), 1–10% weight loss; and weight regain (WR). Body...

  4. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Etaoin; O'Dwyer, Vicky; Fattah, Chro; Farah, Nadine; O'Connor, Clare; Turner, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight. Nondiabetic women were recruited after ultrasonographic confirmation of an ongoing singleton pregnancy in the first trimester. Maternal body composition was measured using bioelectric impedance analysis. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to identify the strongest predictors of birth weight, with multiple logistic regression analysis performed to assess predictors of birth weight greater than 4 kg. Data were analyzed for 2,618 women, of whom 49.6% (n=1,075) were primigravid and 16.5% (n=432) were obese based on a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher. In univariable analysis, maternal age, BMI, parity, gestational age at delivery, smoking, fat mass, and fat-free mass all correlated significantly with birth weight. In multivariable regression analysis, fat-free mass remained a significant predictor of birth weight (model R=0.254, standardized β=0.237; Prelationship was found between maternal fat mass and birth weight. After adjustment for confounding variables, women in the highest fat-free mass quartile had an adjusted odds ratio of 3.64 (95% confidence interval 2.34-5.68) for a birth weight more than 4 kg compared with those in the lowest quartile. Based on direct measurements of body composition, birth weight correlated positively with maternal fat-free mass and not adiposity. These findings suggest that, in nondiabetic women, interventions intended to reduce fat mass during pregnancy may not prevent large-for-gestational-age neonates and revised guidelines for gestational weight gain in obese women may not prevent large-for-gestational-age neonates. : III.

  5. Effect of Caffeine Co-Ingested with Carnitine on Weight, Body-Fat Percent, Serum Leptin and Lipid Profile Changes in Male Teen Soccer Players: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Shirali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weight loss and decreasing the Body fat percentage (BF% is motivated to optimize performance. In order to achieve these, many supplements are used by athletes, however the possible negative or synergic effects have not been fully described in the literature, specifically in humans. The present study was conducted to investigate the co-administration effects of two common used supplements in body weight and BF% management to recommend athletes for safe weight and BF% reduction. Materials and Methods: In the present double-blind, randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled study, the effect of six-week co-administration of caffeine and carnitine was determined on changes in body weight (BW, BF%, serum leptin concentration and lipid profile (triglyceride, HDL Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol and Total Cholesterol, fasting blood glucose (FBG, and free fatty acid (FFA changes. Twenty eight male teen soccer players  from Ahvaz-Iran, were divided in three groups (group CafPlc, caffeine (6 mg/kg/day + dextrose; group CafCar, caffeine (6 mg/kg/day + carnitine (2g; and group Plc, dextrose. Results: Caffeine-carnitine had a lowering effect on BW (P=0.02 and BF% (P=0.03, compared to caffeine alone and placebo in male teen soccer players (mean age of 16.92 ± 0.76 years. TG was significantly decreased in CafCar (P=0.04. FFA levels were increased in CafCar (P=0.04 and there was significant differences between CafCar and Plc groups (P=0.01. FBG was increased in both CafPlc and CafCar (P=0.01 and P=0.02, respectively, with no significant differences between groups. Conclusion: The synergistic effect of caffeine-carnitine might be suggested to decrease the BF% and BW, besides it may prevent the increment of FFA levels; however it should be prescribed cautiously since it increased FBG levels.

  6. GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF WEANING WEIGHT, YEARLING WEIGHT, BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND BODY DIMENSION OF BALI CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    A. Supriyantono; L. Hakim; S. Suyadi; I. Ismudiono

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the genetic improving of production traits selected of Bali cattle. Four hundred and twenty eight data of weaning weight, yearling weight and body weight gain were used to estimate genetic improvement for those traits. One hundred and seven data of body dimension (body weight, chest circumference, body length and withers height) at 24 months old were used to estimate genetic improving for those traits. The estimation of genetic and environmental varianc...

  7. d-Allulose supplementation normalized the body weight and fat-pad mass in diet-induced obese mice via the regulation of lipid metabolism under isocaloric fed condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Youngji; Han, Hye Jin; Kim, Ae-Hyang; Choi, Ji-Young; Cho, Su-Jung; Park, Yong Bok; Jung, Un Ju; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2016-07-01

    A number of findings suggest that zero-calorie d-allulose, also known as d-psicose, has beneficial effects on obesity-related metabolic disturbances. However, it is unclear whether d-allulose can normalize the metabolic status of diet-induced obesity without having an impact on the energy density. We investigated whether 5% d-allulose supplementation in a high fat diet(HFD) could normalize body fat in a diet-induced obesity animal model under isocaloric pair-fed conditions. Mice were fed an HFD with or without various sugar substitutes (d-glucose, d-fructose, erytritol, or d-allulose, n = 10 per group) for 16 wk. Body weight and fat-pad mass in the d-allulose group were dramatically lowered to that of the normal group with a simultaneous decrease in plasma leptin and resistin concentrations. d-allulose lowered plasma and hepatic lipids while elevating fecal lipids with a decrease in mRNA expression of CD36, ApoB48, FATP4, in the small intestine in mice. In the liver, activities of both fatty acid synthase and β-oxidation were downregulated by d-allulose to that of the normal group; however, in WAT, fatty acid synthase was decreased while β-oxidation activity was enhanced. Taken together, our findings suggest that 5% dietary d-allulose led to the normalization of the metabolic status of diet-induced obesity by altering lipid-regulating enzyme activities and their gene-expression level along with fecal lipids. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Cross-sectional study of possible association between rapid eating and high body fat rates among female Japanese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi-Tanaka, Yuri; Kawagoshi, Yumiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Fukao, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of excessive body fat among young Japanese females with a normal BMI, which is referred to as normal weight obesity (NWO), has recently increased. Some studies have associated eating rates with BMI. However, an association between body fat rate and dietary habits has not been proven. We compared differences in dietary habits between 72 female Japanese junior college students with normal (Eating rapidly was significantly associated with body fat ratios. Our findings suggest that eating rapidly increases body fat ratios.

  9. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  10. PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS AND BODY WEIGHTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    imply that selection for these morphometric traits will lead to improvement of hatchling body weights. Keywords: Correlation, Quantitative traits, ... commands high price in the restaurants and markets than other conventional meat such as ... breeding objective and development of selection programme for effective planning.

  11. Collapsed fat navigators for brain 3D rigid body motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Mathias; Mårtensson, Magnus; Avventi, Enrico; Norbeck, Ola; Skare, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    To acquire high-resolution 3D multi-slab echo planar imaging data without motion artifacts, using collapsed fat navigators. A fat navigator module (collapsed FatNav) was added to a diffusion-weighted 3D multi-slab echo planar imaging (DW 3D-MS EPI) sequence, comprising three orthogonal echo planar imaging readouts to track rigid body head motion in the image domain and performing prospective motion correction. The stability, resolution and accuracy of the navigator were investigated on phantoms and healthy volunteers. The experiments on phantoms and volunteers show that the navigator, depicting projections of the subcutaneous fat in of the head, is capable of correcting for head motion with insignificant bias compared to motion estimates derived from the water-signaling DWI images. Despite that this projection technique implies a non-sparse image appearance, collapsed FatNav data could be highly accelerated with parallel imaging, allowing three orthogonal 2D EPI readouts in about 6ms. By utilizing signal from the leading fat saturation RF pulse of the diffusion sequence, only the readout portion of the navigator needs to be added, resulting in a scan time penalty of only about 5%. Motion can be detected and corrected for with a 5-10Hz update frequency when combined with a sequence like the DW 3D-MS EPI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  13. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  14. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  15. Effects of growth hormone administration on the body composition and hormone levels of genetically fat sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, S.M.; Jopson, N.B.; Littlejohn, R.P.; Stuart, S.K.; Veenvliet, B.A.; Young, M.J.; Suttie, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Coopworth sheep selected for low (lean) or high (fat) backfat have large differences in plasma GH profiles. Fat genotype ram lambs (5 months old) were treated with growth hormone (GH) to simulate the plasma GH profiles of lean sheep and investigate whether exogenous GH could modify carcass fatness. For 77 days, bovine GH was administered at 25mug/kg live weight per day either as a single, daily subcutaneous bolus (fat bolus) or via portable pulsatile infusion pumps (fat pump) which delivered GH solution at 90-min intervals into a jugular catheter. Measurements of body composition were made by computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonic scanning during the trial, with linear carcass measurements and proximate analysis undertaken at the end of the experiment. Before treatments began, mean plasma GH levels were lower (P < 0.01) in fat control (0.34 mug/l) than in lean lambs (1.1 mug/l). Several weeks after the start of the trial, mean plasma GH had increased in both fat bolus (1.2mug/l) and fat pump (0.45mug/l) treatment lambs with major changes in the pulsatility relative to the fat control lambs. Although these changes were maintained in the fat bolus lambs, by the end of the trial there was no significant difference in mean plasma GH between fat pump and fat control sheep. Throughout the trial, plasma IGF-1 levels were higher in fat bolus, fat pump and lean lambs than in fat control lambs. Analysis of body composition data over the GH treatment period revealed that the slope of the allometric equation for total fat relative to empty body weight was lower in the fat bolus lambs (1.07) than in the lean lambs (1.50) with fat control and fat pump treatment lambs intermediate (1.30 and 1.36, respectively). Subcutaneous fat was later maturing in lean lambs than in fat control and bolus treatment lambs when regressed against total fat, with the fat pump treatment lambs being intermediate. Linear carcass measurements revealed changes due to GH administration in the

  16. Effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin administration and high-fat diet on the body weight and hepatic estrogen metabolism in female C3H/HeN mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Baoting; Gallo, Michael A.; Burger, Conney W.; Meeker, Robert J.; Cai, May Xiaoxin; Xu Shiyao; Conney, Allan H.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the effect of administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) by i.p. injection once every 2 weeks in combination with a high-fat (HF) diet for 8 or 16 weeks on the body and organ weight changes as well as on the hepatic enzyme activity for estrogen metabolism in C3H/HeN female mice. Administration of TCDD at 100 μg/kg b.w. once every 2 weeks for 8 weeks increased the body weight by 46% in the HF diet-fed animals, but not in the regular diet-fed animals. This is the first observation suggesting that TCDD at a high dose (100 μg/kg b.w.), but not at lower doses (1 or 10 μg/kg b.w.), may have a strong obesity-inducing effect in C3H/HeN mice fed an HF diet. While TCDD increased liver weight and decreased thymus weight in animals, these effects were enhanced by feeding animals an HF diet. Metabolism studies showed that TCDD administration for 8 or 16 weeks increased the liver microsomal activity for the 2- and 4-hydroxylation of 17β-estradiol in animals fed a control diet, but surprisingly not in animals fed an HF diet. Treatment with TCDD dose-dependently increased the hepatic activity for the O-methylation of catechol estrogens in both control and HF diet-fed animals, and it also decreased the levels of liver microsomal sulfatase activity for hydrolysis of estrone-3-sulfate. TCDD did not significantly affect the hepatic enzyme activity for the glucuronidation or esterification of endogenous estrogens. It is suggested that enhanced metabolic inactivation of endogenous estrogens by hepatic estrogen-metabolizing enzymes in TCDD-treated, control diet-fed animals contributes importantly to the reduced incidence of estrogen-associated tumors in animals treated with TCDD

  17. Effect of body fat and gender on body temperature distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Eduardo Borba; Salamunes, Ana Carla Chierighini; de Oliveira, Rafael Melo; Stadnik, Adriana Maria Wan

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that body composition can influence peripheral heat loss and skin temperature. That the distribution of body fat is affected by gender is well known; however, there is little information on how body composition and gender influences the measure of skin temperature. This study evaluated skin temperature distribution according to body fat percentage (BF%) and gender. A sample of 94 apparently healthy volunteers (47 women and 47 men) was assessed with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and infrared thermography (mean, maximum and minimum temperatures - T Mean , T Max and T Min ). The sample was divided into groups, according to health risk classification, based on BF%, as proposed by the American College of Sports Medicine: Average (n = 58), Elevated (n = 16) or High (n = 20). Women had lower T Mean in most regions of interest (ROI). In both genders, group High had lower temperature values than Average and Elevated in the trunk, upper and lower limbs. In men, palms and posterior hands had a tendency (p temperature along with increased BF%. T Mean , T Max and T Min of trunk, upper and lower limbs were negatively correlated with BF% and the fat percentage of each segment (upper limbs, lower limbs and trunk). The highest correlations found in women were between posterior trunk and BF% (rho = -0.564, p temperature than men, which was related with higher BF%. Facial temperature seems not to be influenced by body fat. With the future collection of data on the relationship between BF% and skin temperature while taking into account factors such as body morphology, gender, and ethnicity, we conclude that measurement of BF may be reliably estimated with the use of thermal imaging technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    . The results of the BIA equations varied widely; FFM was generally overestimated by BIA as compared with DXA and TBK before and after weight loss. During weight loss, the FFM did not change, as estimated by DXA (1.3 +/- 2.3 kg, p > 0.05) and TBK (0.9 +/- 2.9 kg, p > 0.05). The recorded change in impedance (R...

  19. Relationship between body mass index, waist circumference, fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of obesity based on the Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference, and fat mass and fat percentage and to examine the relationship between BMI, waist circumference, fat mass and fat percentage as the measurement of obesity among university students.

  20. Brazilian Green Propolis Promotes Weight Loss and Reduces Fat Accumulation in C57BL/6 Mice Fed A High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tohru; Ohhata, Miyuki; Fujii, Misaki; Oda, Sayaka; Kusaka, Yasuna; Matsumoto, Miki; Nakamoto, Akiko; Taki, Tomoyo; Nakamoto, Mariko; Shuto, Emi

    2017-01-01

    Propolis is a bee product with various biological properties. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet and treated with propolis for 14 weeks. Body weight in mice treated with 2% propolis was less than that in control mice from 3 weeks after the start of treatment until 14 weeks except for the 7th week. Mice treated with propolis showed significantly lower epididymal fat weight and subcutaneous fat weight. Infiltration of epididymal fat by macrophages and T cells was reduced in the propolis group. Supplementation of propolis increased feces weight and fat content in feces, suggesting that mechanisms of weight reduction by propolis partly include a laxative effect and inhibition of fat absorption.

  1. Mango Supplementation Modulates Gut Microbial Dysbiosis and Short-Chain Fatty Acid Production Independent of Body Weight Reduction in C57BL/6 Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Babajide; El-Rassi, Guadalupe Davila; Payton, Mark E; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Clarke, Stephen; Smith, Brenda J; Lucas, Edralin A

    2016-08-01

    High-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity is associated with changes in the gut microbiota. Fiber and other bioactive compounds in plant-based foods are suggested to prevent gut dysbiosis brought on by HF feeding. Mango is high in fiber and has been reported to have anti-obesogenic, hypoglycemic, and immunomodulatory properties. We investigated the effects of freeze-dried mango pulp combined with an HF diet on the cecal microbial population and its relation to body composition, lipids, glucose parameters, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and gut inflammatory markers in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Six-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatment groups: control (AIN-93M, 10% fat kcal), HF (60% fat kcal), and HF + 1% or 10% mango (HF+1%M or HF+10%M, wt:wt) for 12 wk. The cecal microbial population was assessed by use of 16S rDNA sequencing. Body composition, plasma glucose and lipids, cecal and fecal SCFAs, and mRNA abundance of inflammatory markers in the ileum and colonic lamina propria were assessed. Compared with the control group, HF feeding significantly reduced (P reduction was prevented in the HF+10%M group, members of which had 10% higher final body weight compared with the HF group (P = 0.01) and similar fasting blood glucose concentrations (P = 0.24). The HF+10%M group had 135% (P = 0.004) and 133% (P < 0.0001) greater fecal acetic and n-butyric acids concentrations than the HF group, suggesting greater microbial fermentation. Furthermore, a 59% greater colonic interleukin 10 (Il10) gene expression was observed in the HF+10%M group than in the HF group (P = 0.048), indicating modulation of gut inflammation. The HF+1%M group generally did not differ from the HF group. The addition of mango to an HF diet modulated the gut microbiota and production of SCFAs in C57BL/6 mice; these changes may improve gut tolerance to the insult of an HF diet. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Impact of testosterone on body fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maddalena, Chiara; Vodo, Stella; Petroni, Anna; Aloisi, Anna Maria

    2012-12-01

    An excessive food supply has resulted in an increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity, conditions accompanied by serious health problems. Several studies have confirmed the significant inverse correlation between testosterone and obesity. Indeed after decades of intense controversy, a consensus has emerged that androgens are important regulators of fat mass and distribution in mammals and that androgen status affects cellularity in vivo. The high correlation of testosterone levels with body composition and its contribution to the balance of lipid metabolism are also suggested by the fact that testosterone lowering is associated with important clinical disorders such as dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In contrast, testosterone supplementation therapy in hypogonadic men has been shown to improve the lipid profile by lowering cholesterol, blood sugar and insulin resistance. Leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin are some of the substances related to feeding as well as androgen regulation. Thus, complex and delicate mechanisms appear to link androgens with various tissues (liver, adipose tissue, muscles, coronary arteries and heart) and the subtle alteration of some of these interactions might be the cause of correlated diseases. This review underlines some aspects regarding the high correlations between testosterone physiology and body fat composition. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Irregular patterns in the daily weight chart at night predict body weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Misuzu; Itoh, Kazue; Abe, Shimako; Imai, Katsumi; Masuda, Takashi; Koga, Ririko; Itoh, Hitomi; Konomi, Yumiko; Kinukawa, Naoko; Sakata, Toshiie

    2004-10-01

    This study examined whether charting daily weight patterns can predict weight regain in obese patients. The subjects were 98 moderately obese Japanese women aged 23 to 66 years who were obliged to precisely record their daily weights during the initial 4-month education period, but not thereafter. The patients were followed up at 8, 12, and 16 months. Abdominal fat areas and blood samples were assessed in the outpatient clinic at 0, 4, and 16 months. The standard deviations (SDs) of the differences in body weight between "after waking up" and "after breakfast" (SDa), "after dinner" (SDb), and "before going to bed" (SDc) were calculated, which were parameters reflecting the fluctuations in the daily weight patterns during the first 4 months. SDc, but not SDa or SDb, was correlated positively with weight regain at 8, 12, and 16 months (P = 0.049, P = 0.002, and P = 0.001, respectively). There were significant differences in temporal change in body weight and abdominal visceral fat between the small SDc group (SDc 75th percentile), but not for subcutaneous abdominal fat or the serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, or lipids. The results indicate that fluctuation of body weight immediately before going to bed is useful for predicting the rebound in body weight.

  4. Body weight relationships in early marriage. Weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Caron F; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-12-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants' body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Body fat related to daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2007-01-01

    was measured by accelerometers. Time spent performing vigorous activity was estimated from accelerometer data by using established cut-off points. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF), also calculated as percentage of body weight (BF......This study explored the associations between body fat versus daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic young children in a cross-sectional study of 172 children (93 boys and 79 girls) aged 8-11 years. Blood samples were analysed for serum insulin and daily physical activity......%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Body fat distribution was independently linked to both insulin concentrations and physical activity. In contrast, TBF, AFM, and BF% were linked to physical activity only and not to insulin concentrations. In conclusion in this population of non...

  6. Effect of clothing weight on body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whigham, L D; Schoeller, D A; Johnson, L K; Atkinson, R L

    2013-01-01

    In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight of adults with weather, season and gender. Fifty adults (35 women) were weighed four times during a 12-month period with and without clothing. Clothing weights were determined and regressed against minimum, maximum and average daily outdoor temperature. The average clothing weight (±s.d.) throughout the year was significantly greater in men than in women (1.2±0.3 vs 0.8±0.3 kg, Pclothing weights across the year were 0.9±0.2 and 1.5±0.4 kg for men, and 0.5±0.2 and 1.1±0.4 kg for women, respectively. The within-person s.d. in clothing weight was 0.3 kg for both men and women. Over the 55 °C range in the lowest to the highest outdoor temperatures, the regressions predicted a maximal change in clothing weight of only 0.4 kg in women and 0.6 kg in men. The clothing weight of men is significantly greater than that of women, but there is little variability throughout the year. Therefore, a clothing adjustment of approximately 0.8 kg for women and 1.2 kg for men is appropriate regardless of outdoor temperature.

  7. Metabolic implications of body fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björntorp, P

    1991-12-01

    Insulin resistance is the cornerstone for the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Free fatty acids (FFAs) cause insulin resistance in muscle and liver and increase hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipoprotein production and perhaps decrease hepatic clearance of insulin. It is suggested that the depressing effect of insulin on circulating FFA concentration is dependent on the fraction derived from visceral adipocytes, which have a low responsiveness to the antilipolytic effect of insulin. Elevated secretion of cortisol and/or testosterone induces insulin resistance in muscle. This also seems to be the case for low testosterone concentrations in men. In addition, cortisol increases hepatic gluconeogenesis. Cortisol and testosterone have "permissive" effect on adipose lipolysis and therefore amplify lipolytic stimulation; FFA, cortisol, and testosterone thus have powerful combined effects, resulting in insulin resistance and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis. All these factors promoting insulin resistance are active in abdominal visceral obesity, which is closely associated with insulin resistance, NIDDM, and the "metabolic syndrome." In addition, the endocrine aberrations may provide a cause for visceral fat accumulation, probably due to regional differences in steroid-hormone-receptor density. In addition to the increased activity along the adrenocorticosteroid axis, there also seem to be signs of increased activity from the central sympathetic nervous system. These are the established endocrine consequences of hypothalamic arousal in the defeat and defense reactions. There is some evidence that suggests an increased prevalence of psychosocial stress factors is associated with visceral distribution of body fat. Therefore, it is hypothesized that such factors might provide a background not only to a defense reaction and primary hypertension, suggested previously, but also to a defeat reaction, which contributes to an endocrine aberration

  8. Measurement of body fat and hydration of the fat-free body in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streat, S.J.; Beddoe, A.H.; Hill, G.L.

    1985-06-01

    Body fat mass, fat-free body mass and body water are basic components of body composition which are used in nutritional and metabolic studies and in patient care. A method of measuring total body fat (TBF), fat-free mass (FFM) and its hydration (TBW/FFM) involving prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) and tritium dilution has been compared with the more traditional methods of densitometry and skinfold anthropometry in 36 normal volunteers, and with skinfold anthropometry in 56 patients presenting for nutritional support. While the mean values of TBF were in reasonable agreement for the three methods in normals it was founds that skinfold anthropometry underestimated TBF relative to the IVNAA/tritium method by, on average, 3.0 kg (19%) in patients. Furthermore, the ranges of values in normals of the ratio TBW/FFM for the anthropometric (0.62 to 0.80) and densitometric (0.65 to 0.80) methods were much wider than the range for the IVNAA/tritium method (0.69 to 0.76), in which TBW was measured by tritium dilution in all cases. In the patients, the ranges of this ratio were 0.52 to 0.90 for the anthropometric method and 0.67 to 0.82 for the IVNAA/tritium method; clearly anthropometry yields values of TBW/FFM which are outside accepted biological limits. On the basis of these findings, ranges of TBW/FFM are suggested for both normal adults (0.69 to 0.75) and patients requiring nutritional support (0.67 to 0.83). Finally it is concluded that the IVNAA/tritium method is a suitable method for measuring TBF and FFM and particularly so when body composition is abnormal.

  9. Body fat content, distribution and blood glucose concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 50% of subject who had greater body fat content and waist hip ratio had impaired fasting blood glucose and impaired glucose tolerant. Body fat content within the body has significance effects on blood glucose concentration. Consequently, there is a need of increasing awareness about healthy food consumption ...

  10. The relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuankui; Zhang, Shaofen; Zou, Shien; Xia, Xian

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women. We enrolled postmenopausal women consisting of an early group (≤ 5 years since menopause, n = 105) and a late group (≥ 10 years since menopause, n = 107). Each group was subdivided into normal weight (BMI testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured. Body fat distribution was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Late postmenopausal women had a higher proportion of body fat than early postmenopausal women. The body fat of the overweight and obese women had a greater tendency to accumulate in the abdomen compared with the normal weight women both in early and late postmenopausal groups. The overweight and obese women had a higher free testosterone (FT) than the normal weight women in early postmenopausal women (Pfat distribution both in early and late postmenopausal groups (P>0.05).The FT in early postmenopausal women and the DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlated positively with the trunk/leg fat ratio (T/L) and the proportion of android fat whereas correlated negatively with the proportion of gynoid fat in the partial correlation and multiple linear regression analyses (all Pfat distribution, the FT in early postmenopausal women and DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlate positively with abdominal fat accumulation.

  11. Quantification of human body fat tissue percentage by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Raudies, Florian; Unrath, Alexander; Neumann, Heiko; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The MRI-based evaluation of the quantity and regional distribution of adipose tissue is one objective measure in the investigation of obesity. The aim of this article was to report a comprehensive and automatic analytical method for the determination of the volumes of subcutaneous fat tissue (SFT) and visceral fat tissue (VFT) in either the whole human body or selected slices or regions of interest. Using an MRI protocol in an examination position that was convenient for volunteers and patients with severe diseases, 22 healthy subjects were examined. The software platform was able to merge MRI scans of several body regions acquired in separate acquisitions. Through a cascade of image processing steps, SFT and VFT volumes were calculated. Whole-body SFT and VFT distributions, as well as fat distributions of defined body slices, were analysed in detail. Complete three-dimensional datasets were analysed in a reproducible manner with as few operator-dependent interventions as possible. In order to determine the SFT volume, the ARTIS (Adapted Rendering for Tissue Intensity Segmentation) algorithm was introduced. The advantage of the ARTIS algorithm was the delineation of SFT volumes in regions in which standard region grow techniques fail. Using the ARTIS algorithm, an automatic SFT volume detection was feasible. MRI data analysis was able to determine SFT and VFT volume percentages using new analytical strategies. With the techniques described, it was possible to detect changes in SFT and VFT percentages of the whole body and selected regions. The techniques presented in this study are likely to be of use in obesity-related investigations, as well as in the examination of longitudinal changes in weight during various medical conditions. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already...

  13. Changes in body weight, body composition, and eating attitudes in high school wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka Humenikova; Betts, Nancy Mulhollen; Payton, Mark Edward

    2009-08-01

    Many wrestlers engage in chronic dieting and rapid "weight cutting" throughout the year to compete in a category below their natural weight. Such weight-management practices have a negative influence on their health and nutritional status, so the National Wrestling Coaches Association implemented a new weight-management program for high school wrestlers in 2006. The purpose of this study was to determine whether seasonal changes in weight, body fat, and eating attitudes occur among high school wrestlers after the implementation of the new weight-management rule. Fifteen high school wrestlers participated in the study. Their weight, body composition, and eating attitudes were measured preseason, in-season, and off-season. Body fat was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Attitudes toward dieting, food, and body weight were assessed using the Eating Attitude Test (EAT). No significant changes in body fat were detected from preseason to off-season. Weight increased from preseason to in-season (p < .05) and off-season (p < .05). Although the EAT score did not change significantly from preseason to off-season, 60% reported "thinking about burning up calories when exercising" during preseason, and only 40% felt that way during the season (p < .05) and 47% during, off-season (p < .05). The wrestlers experienced a significant weight gain from preseason to off-season with no significant changes in body fat. Their eating attitudes did not change significantly from preseason to off-season in this study, but further research using a large sample of high school wrestlers is warranted to confirm these findings.

  14. Effect of a weight cycle on visceral fat accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Seidell, J C; Deurenberg, P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the effect of a single weight cycle on three fat depots: the visceral and subcutaneous abdominal depots and the subcutaneous depot at the trochanter level. Obese subjects (17 men, 15 women) were examined before and after weight-loss intervention and 67 wk

  15. Greater Neonatal Fat-Free Mass and Similar Fat Mass Following a Randomized Trial to Control Excess Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Dympna; Rosenn, Barak; Toro-Ramos, Tatiana; Paley, Charles; Gidwani, Sonia; Horowitz, Michelle; Crane, Janet; Lin, Susan; Thornton, John C; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of controlling maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) in the second and third trimesters on neonate body composition. Two hundred ten healthy women with overweight (25 > BMI fat and fat-free mass (FFM) at birth were measured by using air displacement plethysmography (PEA POD) and by using quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR). At baseline, there were no between-group differences in maternal characteristics (mean [SD]): age: 33.8 (4.3) years, weight: 81.9 (13.7) kg, BMI: 30.4 (4.5), and gestational age at randomization: 14.9 (0.8) weeks. GWG was less in the LI group by 1.79 kg (P = 0.003) or 0.0501 kg/wk (P = 0.002). Compared with UC infants, LI infants had greater weight (131 ± 59 g P = 0.03), FFM (98 ± 45 g; P = 0.03) measured by PEA POD, and lean mass (105 ± 38 g; P = 0.006) measured by QMR. Fat mass and percent fat were not significantly different. Intervening in women with overweight and obesity through behaviors promoting healthy diet and physical activity to control GWG resulted in neonates with similar fat and greater FFM. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  16. Weight and Body Composition Changes during the First Three Years of College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareen S. Gropper

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in weight, body mass index (BMI, percent and absolute body fat, fat-free mass, and waist circumference were investigated in a group of males and females during the first three years (from 2007 to 2010 of college. Significant three-year gains were observed for weight 2.1±4.7 kg, BMI 0.7±1.6 kg/m2, percent body fat 2.7±3.3%, and fat mass 2.3±3.5 kg. A significant loss of fat-free mass, −0.5 kg, was observed among females. Absolute gains in weight, BMI, and percent and absolute body fat were highest during the freshman year, followed by the junior year, and lowest during the sophomore year. Among the 70% of students gaining weight over the three years, weight gain averaged 4.3 kg. The numbers of females with over 30% body fat doubled, and the number of males with over 20% body fat increased fivefold. Initially 15% of students were classified as obese/overweight and 79% normal weight; by the end of the junior year, 24% were obese/overweight and 70% were normal weight. Efforts on college campuses to promote healthy lifestyles among its student population are needed throughout the college years.

  17. Estimation Of Body Weight From Linear Body Measurements In Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of body weight from body girth, keel length and thigh length was studied using one hundred Ross and one hundred Anak Titan broilers. Data were collected on the birds from day-old to 9 weeks of age. Body measurement was regressed against body weight at 9 weeks of age using simple linear and ...

  18. Phenotypic Correlations of Body Weight and Linear Body Traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on 126 Sigmond strain of Japanese quail chicks consisting of 42 each of heavy, medium and low body weight lines were used to estimate phenotypic correlations (rp ) among body weight (BWT) and linear body traits at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age. The linear body traits considered were breast girth (BG), shank length (SL), ...

  19. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanlin Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions. Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK, three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR. There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r2 in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF% and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated.

  20. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity

  1. Newborn body fat: associations with maternal metabolic state and placental size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla M Friis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neonatal body composition has implications for the health of the newborn both in short and long term perspective. The objective of the current study was first to explore the association between maternal BMI and metabolic parameters associated with BMI and neonatal percentage body fat and to determine to which extent any associations were modified if adjusting for placental weight. Secondly, we examined the relations between maternal metabolic parameters associated with BMI and placental weight. METHODS: The present work was performed in a subcohort (n = 207 of the STORK study, an observational, prospective study on the determinants of fetal growth and birthweight in healthy pregnancies at Oslo University Hospital, Norway. Fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acids, HDL- and total cholesterol were measured at week 30-32. Newborn body composition was determined by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA. Placenta was weighed at birth. Linear regression models were used with newborn fat percentage and placental weight as main outcomes. RESULTS: Maternal BMI, fasting glucose and gestational age were independently associated with neonatal fat percentage. However, if placental weight was introduced as a covariate, only placental weight and gestational age remained significant. In the univariate model, the determinants of placenta weight included BMI, insulin, triglycerides, total- and HDL-cholesterol (negatively, gestational weight gain and parity. In the multivariable model, BMI, total cholesterol HDL-cholesterol, gestational weight gain and parity remained independent covariates. CONCLUSION: Maternal BMI and fasting glucose were independently associated with newborn percentage fat. This effect disappeared by introducing placental weight as a covariate. Several metabolic factors associated with maternal BMI were associated with placental weight, but not with neonatal body fat. Our findings are consistent with a concept

  2. Newborn body fat: associations with maternal metabolic state and placental size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Camilla M; Qvigstad, Elisabeth; Paasche Roland, Marie Cecilie; Godang, Kristin; Voldner, Nanna; Bollerslev, Jens; Henriksen, Tore

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal body composition has implications for the health of the newborn both in short and long term perspective. The objective of the current study was first to explore the association between maternal BMI and metabolic parameters associated with BMI and neonatal percentage body fat and to determine to which extent any associations were modified if adjusting for placental weight. Secondly, we examined the relations between maternal metabolic parameters associated with BMI and placental weight. The present work was performed in a subcohort (n = 207) of the STORK study, an observational, prospective study on the determinants of fetal growth and birthweight in healthy pregnancies at Oslo University Hospital, Norway. Fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acids, HDL- and total cholesterol were measured at week 30-32. Newborn body composition was determined by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Placenta was weighed at birth. Linear regression models were used with newborn fat percentage and placental weight as main outcomes. Maternal BMI, fasting glucose and gestational age were independently associated with neonatal fat percentage. However, if placental weight was introduced as a covariate, only placental weight and gestational age remained significant. In the univariate model, the determinants of placenta weight included BMI, insulin, triglycerides, total- and HDL-cholesterol (negatively), gestational weight gain and parity. In the multivariable model, BMI, total cholesterol HDL-cholesterol, gestational weight gain and parity remained independent covariates. Maternal BMI and fasting glucose were independently associated with newborn percentage fat. This effect disappeared by introducing placental weight as a covariate. Several metabolic factors associated with maternal BMI were associated with placental weight, but not with neonatal body fat. Our findings are consistent with a concept that the effects of maternal BMI and a number of BMI

  3. Does eating good-tasting food influence body weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordoff, Michael G; Pearson, Jordan A; Ellis, Hillary T; Poole, Rachel L

    2017-03-01

    Does eating good-tasting food influence body weight? To investigate, we first established some concentrations of sucralose and mineral oil in chow that mice strongly preferred. Then, in Experiment 1, we compared groups of 16 mice fed plain chow (i.e., chow with no additives) to groups fed chow with added (a) sucralose, (b) mineral oil, (c) sucralose and mineral oil, or (d) sucralose on odd days and mineral oil on even days. During a 6-week test, the body weights and body compositions of the five groups never differed. In Experiment 2, we compared groups of 18 mice fed plain chow or plain high-fat diet to groups fed these diets with added sucralose. During a 9-week test, the high-fat diet caused weight gain, but the body weights of mice fed the sucralose-sweetened diets did not differ from those fed the corresponding plain versions. Two-cup choice tests conducted at the end of each experiment showed persisting strong preferences for the diets with added sucralose and/or mineral oil. In concert with earlier work, our results challenge the hypothesis that the orosensory properties of a food influence body weight gain. A good taste can stimulate food intake acutely, and guide selection toward nutrient-dense foods that cause weight gain, but it does not determine how much is eaten chronically. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of body fat percentage and body fat distribution on skin surface temperature with infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamunes, Ana Carla Chierighini; Stadnik, Adriana Maria Wan; Neves, Eduardo Borba

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to search for relations between body fat percentage and skin temperature and to describe possible effects on skin temperature as a result of fat percentage in each anatomical site. Women (26.11±4.41 years old) (n =123) were tested for: body circumferences; skin temperatures (thermal camera); fat percentage and lean mass from trunk, upper and lower limbs; and body fat percentage (Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry). Values of minimum (T Mi ), maximum (T Ma ), and mean temperatures (T Me ) were acquired in 30 regions of interest. Pearson's correlation was estimated for body circumferences and skin temperature variables with body fat percentage. Participants were divided into groups of high and low fat percentage of each body segment, of which T Me values were compared with Student's t-test. Linear regression models for predicting body fat percentage were tested. Body fat percentage was positively correlated with body circumferences and palm temperatures, while it was negatively correlated with most temperatures, such as T Ma and T Me of posterior thighs (r =-0.495 and -0.432), T Me of posterior lower limbs (r =-0.488), T Ma of anterior thighs (r =-0.406) and T Mi and T Me of posterior arms (r =-0.447 and -0.430). Higher fat percentages in the specific anatomical sites tended to decrease T Me , especially in posterior thighs, shanks and arms. Skin temperatures and body circumferences predicted body fat percentage with 58.3% accuracy (R =0.764 and R 2 =0.583). This study clarifies that skin temperature distribution is influenced by the fat percentage of each body segment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Obesity, body fat distribution and sex hormones in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, S M; Valdez, R A; Stern, M P; Katz, M S

    1993-11-01

    An unfavourable body fat distribution may cause metabolic abnormalities including diabetes and dyslipidemia. These effects may be mediated by alterations in sex hormones. In women the available data suggest that upper body adiposity is related to increased androgenicity (especially as indicated by low concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin). Few data, however, are available on these relationships in men. We therefore examined the association of total testosterone, free testosterone, oestradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-SO4) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) to waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and conicity index in 178 men from the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based study of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The conicity index is equal to the abdominal circumference divided by 0.109 x the square root of (weight/height). The conicity index and WHR were significantly inversely related to DHEA-SO4 and free testosterone. SHBG was only weakly associated with body mass index (r = -0.18, P testosterone remained inversely associated with conicity index (r = -0.21, P fat distribution and increased androgenicity is inverse in contrast to the situation in women.

  6. The relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuankui Cao

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women.We enrolled postmenopausal women consisting of an early group (≤ 5 years since menopause, n = 105 and a late group (≥ 10 years since menopause, n = 107. Each group was subdivided into normal weight (BMI 0.05.The FT in early postmenopausal women and the DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlated positively with the trunk/leg fat ratio (T/L and the proportion of android fat whereas correlated negatively with the proportion of gynoid fat in the partial correlation and multiple linear regression analyses (all P<0.05.Serum T levels do not correlate directly with body fat distribution, the FT in early postmenopausal women and DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlate positively with abdominal fat accumulation.

  7. Androgen effect on body composition and fat metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M D

    2000-01-01

    Recognizing the adverse metabolic effects of predominantly visceral body fat distribution associated with low testosterone levels, researchers have investigated the effects of androgen treatment on body fat distribution in men. This presentation reviews the results of research on acute and longer-term effects of treatment with testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Methods for investigating these results, including measurement of lipoprotein lipase activity and of radiolabeled fat uptake and turnover, are described and discussed.

  8. Fat intake and weight development from 9 to 16 years of age: the European youth heart study - a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Andersen, Lars Bo; Heitmann, Berit

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The literature on associations between fat intake and weight development among both children and adults is inconsistent, even if it is generally assumed that a high dietary fat intake is a major determinant of obesity. The present study aimed at investigating the association between fat......, inactivity, parents' social status, parents' body mass index, child birth weight, and status of puberty was obtained in 1997. Weight and height was measured both at baseline and at 6-year follow-up, and BMI z-score was calculated. Linear regression was used to assess the role of fat intake on subsequent......-score at baseline had a significant relation to weight change for both sexes, and number of obese parents had significant relation to weight change in girls. Number of overweight parents did not modify the association between fat intake and weight change. CONCLUSION: This study was unable to find a relation between...

  9. The relationships between percent body fat and other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationships between percent body fat and other anthropometric nutritional predictors among male and female children in Nigeria. ... A weak significant positive correlation was observed between the percent body fat and height – armspan ratio ... There was evidence of overweight and obesity in both children. The mid ...

  10. Doppler Bubble Grades After Diving and Relevance of Body Fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, Nico A. M.; Vellinga, Tjeerd P. van Rees; Van Dijk, Frank J.; Sterk, Wouter

    2012-01-01

    SCHELLART NAM, VAN REES VELLINGA TP, VAN DIJK FJ, STERK W. Doppler bubble grades after diving and relevance of body fat. Aviat Space Environ Med 2012; 83:951-7. Background: From the literature on venous gas embolism (VGE) and decompression sickness (DCS), it remains unclear whether body fat is a

  11. Body weight prediction of Brakmas and Bali cattle using body measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Hafiz, A.W.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the rural areas facilities for farm animal weighing are often difficult to find and the construction of such facilities is relatively expensive. Therefore a study was conducted with the objective to estimate body weight of Brakmas and Bali cattle using prediction equations of linear body measurements. Data of body weight and body measurements, namely withers height, body length and heart girth from 279 heads of Brakmas (age 1 to 10 y old and 74 heads of Bali (age 1 to 10 y old cows were collected. The animals were in average body condition of 3 (1= emaciated, 3= moderate fat cover, and 5= excess fat cover. The correlation analysis showed that body weight of Brakmas cattle was highly correlated with its body length, heart girth and withers height with the correlation coefficients of 0.967, 0.964 and 0.942, respectively, while body weight in Bali cattle had the highest correlation with heart girth followed by body length and height at withers with the correlation coefficient of 0.985, 0.954 and 0.945, respectively. Regression analysis showed that body length provided a good estimate of live body weight with high precision as it accounted for 91.6% of the variability in body weight in Brakmas cattle, while heart girth accounted 97.1% of body weight variability in Bali cattle. The combination of body length-withers height, body length-heart girth and body length-withers height-heart girth showed an improvement in terms of predictive precision with the changes of 0.21%, 0.21% and 0.44%, respectively, in coeficient of determination (R2 compared to a single measure of body length in Brakmas cattle. The combination of heart girth-body length did not show any change in R2 in Bali cattle compared to a single measure of heart girth. Combining heart girth-height at withers and the combination of all body measurements showed the increment in coefficients of determination at 0.41% and 0.51%, respectively as compared to heart girth. Although the combination

  12. [Effect of different dietary fat intake on blood lipids, body fat, adiponectin and leptin on energy balance status in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yantong; Zhuo, Qin; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Chun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Piao, Jianhua

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of different dietary fat intake on body fat, adiponectin and leptin on energy balance status in rats. Forty male SD rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Rats in low fat, normal fat, medium fat and high fat group were fed equal energy diets of low fat diet (5% energy from fat), normal diet (15% energy from fat), medium fat diet (25% energy from fat) and high fat diet (40% energy from fat) respectively. Blood glucose and lipids were analyzed at 0, 5 and 10 weeks. The level of serum adiponectin and leptin was tested at 0 and 10 weeks. At the end of 10 weeks, the rats were sacrificed, the perirenal and periepididymis fat were separated and weighed. The mRNA of adiponectin and leptin in fat tissues were determined by realtime PCR. After the 5 and 10 weeks, the levels of serum triglyceride of rats in medium fat group and high fat group were lower than those in low fat group and normal fat group. At the end of 10 weeks, the expression of adiponectin mRNA in fat tissues in medium fat group was lower than those in low fat group. There were no significant differences among four groups in body fat, blood glucose, blood cholesterol, serum adiponectin and leptin, and the expression of leptin mRNA in fat tissues. In energy balance status, different dietary fat intake had no effects on body fat, blood glucose, blood cholesterol, serum adiponectin and leptin in rats.

  13. Body weight: relationship to conversational distance and self-actualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, P N

    1989-01-01

    Body weight is a major concern for women. This study investigated the relationship between body weight deviation, perceived effect of weight, conversational distance, and self-actualization in healthy caucasian college women (N = 109) between the ages of 18 and 50. The perception of body weight was measured with a structured questionnaire. Conversational distance was measured by having the participant approach the investigator, and self-actualization was determined using the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI). Significant correlations were found between the Time Competence (TC) subscale of the POI and Perceived Effect (PE) and between conversational distance and TC. Further analysis of the data revealed a relationship between body weight deviation, using the actual deviation from the norm, and the combined effect (magnitude and direction) of body weight (r = .54, p less than .001). Path analysis revealed the multidimensional nature of the issue of body weight for women. The usual assumptions about body fat for women are questioned and implications for future research are discussed.

  14. Commingling effect of gynoid and android fat patterns on cardiometabolic dysregulation in normal weight American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okosun, I S; Seale, J P; Lyn, R

    2015-05-18

    To determine the independent and commingling effect of android and gynoid percent fat (measured using Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry) on cardiometabolic dysregulation in normal weight American adults. The 2005-2006 data (n=1802) from the United States National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used in this study. Associations of android percent fat, gynoid percent fat and their joint occurrence with risks of cardiometabolic risk factors were estimated using prevalence odds ratios from logistic regression analyses. Android-gynoid percent fat ratio was more highly correlated with cardiometabolic dysregulation than android percent fat, gynoid percent fat or body mass index. Commingling of android and gynoid adiposities was associated with much greater odds of cardiometabolic risk factors than either android or gynoid adiposities. Commingling of android and gynoid adiposities was associated with 1.75 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.42-2.93), 1.48 (95% CI=1.32-1.91), 1.61 (95% CI=1.50-1.89), 3.56 (95% CI=2.91-4.11) and 1.86 (95% CI=1.49-1.96) increased odds of elevated glucose, elevated blood pressure, elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, elevated triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, respectively. Normal weight subjects who present with both android and gynoid adiposities should be advised of the associated health risks. Both android and gynoid fat accumulations should be considered in developing public health strategies for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk in normal weight subjects.

  15. Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, Janne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between BMI and all-cause mortality could be disentangled into opposite effects of body fat and fat-free mass (FFM). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: All-cause mortality was studied in the Danish follow-up study "Diet, Cancer and Health" with 27......,178 men and 29,875 women 50 to 64 years old recruited from 1993 to 1997. By the end of year 2001, the median follow-up was 5.8 years, and 1851 had died. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relationships among body fat mass index (body...... fat mass divided by height squared), FFM index (FFM divided by height squared), and mortality. All analyses were adjusted for smoking habits. RESULTS: Men and women showed similar associations. J-shaped associations were found between body fat mass index and mortality adjusted for FFM and smoking...

  16. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-08-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

  17. Relationship between age and body weight on some linear body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between age and body weight on some linear body measurement of white bornu goats reared under semi-intensive system in a southern Nigeria ... Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences ... Parameters measured include distance between eyes, ear length, ear width and length, tail, and body weight.

  18. All rights reserved Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological Parameters of Rats Fed ... Biochemistry Department, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria ... These changes were significantly different (P<0.05).The absolute and relative organ (liver, heart, kidney, pancreas, spleen and lungs) weight changes of the ...

  19. Independent effects of endurance training and weight loss on peak fat oxidation in moderately overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Pernille; Rosenkilde, Mads; Ploug, Thorkil

    2015-01-01

    Endurance training increases peak fat oxidation (PFO) during exercise, but whether this is independent of changes in body weight is not known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of endurance training with or without weight loss or a diet-induced weight loss on PFO...... corresponding to 600 kcal/day were comprised of endurance exercise for T and caloric restriction for D. T-iD completed similar training but was not in 600 kcal deficit because of dietary replacement. PFO and the exercise intensity at which this occurred (FatMax) were measured by a submaximal exercise test...... and on key skeletal muscle mitochondrial proteins involved in fat oxidation. Sixty moderately overweight, sedentary but otherwise healthy men were randomized to 12 wk of training (T), diet (D), training and increased caloric intake (T-iD), or continuous sedentary control (C). Isoenergetic deficits...

  20. Relatively high-protein or 'low-carb' energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Bonomi, Alberto G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Scholte, Jolande; Thijssen, Myriam A M A; van Berkum, Frank; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2012-10-10

    'Low-carb' diets have been suggested to be effective in body weight (BW) management. However, these diets are relatively high in protein as well. To unravel whether body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein or the 'low-carb' component of the diet. Body-weight (BW), fat mass (FM), blood- and urine-parameters of 132 participants (age=50 ± 12 yr; BW=107 ± 20 kg; BMI=37 ± 6 kg/m(2); FM=47.5 ± 11.9 kg) were compared after 3 and 12 months between four energy-restricted diets with 33% of energy requirement for the first 3 months, and 67% for the last 9 months: normal-protein normal-carbohydrate (NPNC), normal-protein low-carbohydrate (NPLC); high-protein normal-carbohydrate (HPNC), high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC); 24h N-analyses confirmed daily protein intakes for the normal-protein diets of 0.7 ± 0.1 and for the high-protein diets of 1.1 ± 0.2g/kg BW (pweight-loss. Body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein, but not on the 'low-carb' component of the diet, while it is unrelated to the concomitant fat-content of the diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal fat, but not lean, mass is increased among overweight/obese women with excess gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Erica K; Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Presley, Larraine; Hauguel-de Mouzon, Sylvie; Catalano, Patrick M

    2016-06-01

    Weight gain in pregnancy is an essential physiologic adaptation that supports growth and development of a fetus and is distributed among lean mass that includes total body water and fat mass gains. Although gestational weight gain provides a source of energy for the mother and fetus, excess gestational weight gain may underlie reported associations between parity and future metabolic disorders and is linked to postpartum weight retention and insulin resistance. Although weight gain often is proposed as a modifiable variable to mitigate adverse maternal and offspring health outcomes, our knowledge of specific maternal body composition changes with weight gain and the potential metabolic consequences is limited. Furthermore, although gestational weight gain alters maternal body composition, the impact of excess weight gain on fat and lean mass is not well-studied. Understanding the accrual of fat and lean body mass may improve our understanding of the role of excessive gestational weight gain and metabolic dysfunction. The purpose of our study was to quantify the relationship between gestational weight gain and maternal fat and lean body mass accrual and to compare fat and lean body mass accrual according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine Guidelines for Gestational Weight Gain in Pregnancy adherence. We hypothesized that exceeding current weight gain guidelines would be associated with greater fat, compared with lean body, mass accrual. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of 49 overweight/obese women; all 49 are included in this secondary analysis. Maternal weight and body composition were collected in early (13 0/6 to 16 6/7 weeks gestation) and late (34 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks gestation) pregnancy with the use of air densitometry. Correlations were drawn between gestational weight gain and change in fat and lean body mass. We compared change in fat and lean body mass by adherence to the 2009 Institute of Medicine Guidelines for Gestational

  2. Fat body, fat pad and adipose tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates: the nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The fat body in invertebrates was shown to participate in energy storage and homeostasis, apart from its other roles in immune mediation and protein synthesis to mention a few. Thus, sharing similar characteristics with the liver and adipose tissues in vertebrates. However, vertebrate adipose tissue or fat has been incriminated in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders due to its role in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has not been reported in the insect fat body. The link between the fat body and adipose tissue was examined in this review with the aim of determining the principal factors responsible for resistance to inflammation in the insect fat body. This could be the missing link in the prevention of metabolic disorders in vertebrates, occasioned by obesity. PMID:24758278

  3. Body weight setpoint, metabolic adaption and human starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozusko, F P

    2001-03-01

    A biological setpoint for fatness has been proposed in the medical literature. This body weight setpoint functions as a point of stable equilibrium. In an underfed state, with resulting weight loss, the body will reduce the relative energy expenditure by metabolic adaption which reduces the rate of weight loss. Previous mathematical models of energy expenditure and weight loss dynamics have not addressed this setpoint mechanism. The setpoint model has been proposed to quantify this biological process and is unique in predicting energy expenditure during weight loss as a function of the setpoint fat-free mass ratio and setpoint energy expenditure, eliminating the various controlling characteristics such as age, gender and heredity. The model is applied to the seminal Minnesota human semistarvation experiment and is used to predict weight vs time on an individual basis and the caloric requirements for weight maintenance at the reduced weight. Comparison is made with the Harris-Benedict equations and the Brody-Kleiber (W3/4) law.

  4. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Stocks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. ( REGISTRATION: ISRCTN25867281. One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 10-week 600 kcal/d energy-deficient diet with energy percentage from fat (fat% in range of 20-25 or 40-45. The replication study used an 8-weeks diet of 880 kcal/d and 20 fat%; change in fat% intake was used for estimation of interaction effects. The main outcomes were intervention weight loss and waist reduction. In the trial, mean change in fat% intake was -12/+4 in the low/high-fat groups. In the replication study, it was -23/-12 among those reducing fat% more/less than the median. TFAP2B-rs987237 genotype AA was associated with 1.0 kg (95% CI, 0.4; 1.6 greater weight loss on the low-fat, and GG genotype with 2.6 kg (1.1; 4.1 greater weight loss on the high-fat (interaction p-value; p = 0.00007. The replication study showed a similar (non-significant interaction pattern. Waist reduction results generally were similar. Study-strengths include (i the discovery study randomised trial design combined with the replication opportunity (ii the strict dietary intake control in both studies (iii the large sample sizes of both studies. Limitations are (i the low minor allele frequency of the TFAP2B polymorphism, making it hard to investigate non-additive genetic effects (ii the different interventions preventing identical replication-discovery study designs (iii some missing data for non-completers and dietary intake. No adverse effects/outcomes or side-effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Under energy restriction, TFAP2B may modify the effect of dietary fat intake on

  5. Gain in Body Fat Is Associated with Increased Striatal Response to Palatable Food Cues, whereas Body Fat Stability Is Associated with Decreased Striatal Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokum, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional brain-imaging studies reveal that obese versus lean humans show greater responsivity of reward and attention regions to palatable food cues, but lower responsivity of reward regions to palatable food receipt. However, these individual differences in responsivity may result from a period of overeating. We conducted a repeated-measures fMRI study to test whether healthy weight adolescent humans who gained body fat over a 2 or 3 year follow-up period show an increase in responsivity of reward and attention regions to a cue signaling impending milkshake receipt and a simultaneous decrease in responsivity of reward regions to milkshake receipt versus adolescents who showed stability of or loss of body fat. Adolescents who gained body fat, who largely remained in a healthy weight range, showed increases in activation in the putamen, mid-insula, Rolandic operculum, and precuneus to a cue signaling impending milkshake receipt versus those who showed stability of or loss of body fat, though these effects were partially driven by reductions in responsivity among the latter groups. Adolescents who gained body fat reported significantly greater milkshake wanting and milkshake pleasantness ratings at follow-up compared to those who lost body fat. Adolescents who gained body fat did not show a reduction in responsivity of reward regions to milkshake receipt or changes in responsivity to receipt and anticipated receipt of monetary reward. Data suggest that initiating a prolonged period of overeating may increase striatal responsivity to food cues, and that maintaining a balance between caloric intake and expenditure may reduce striatal, insular, and Rolandic operculum responsivity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This novel, repeated-measures brain-imaging study suggests that adolescents who gained body fat over our follow-up period experienced an increase in striatal responsivity to cues for palatable foods compared to those who showed stability of or loss of body fat

  6. High tobacco consumption lowers body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study...... with a genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high...... tobacco consumption was associated with high body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio. In multivariable adjusted models a 1-cigarette/day higher tobacco consumption was associated with 0.05 kg (95% confidence interval 0.02; 0.08) higher body weight, 0.02 kg...

  7. Disproportionately increased 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in young men with low birth weight during a high-fat overfeeding challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Lilleøre, Søren Kruse; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    nocturnal fat oxidation during energy balance and low energy expenditure (EE) during fasting. We hypothesized that short-term HFO could further unmask key defects of whole-body energy metabolism in LBW men. METHODS: Eighteen LBW (2717 ± 268 g) and 26 normal birth weight (NBW) (3893 ± 207 g) healthy young......BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) associates with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. LBW individuals exhibit disproportionately reduced peripheral insulin action and increased fat oxidation after a 5-day high-fat overfeeding (HFO) challenge. Furthermore, LBW men exhibit increased...

  8. Lower core body temperature and greater body fat are components of a human thrifty phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, M; Schlögl, M; Bonfiglio, S; Votruba, S B; Krakoff, J; Thearle, M S

    2016-05-01

    In small studies, a thrifty human phenotype, defined by a greater 24-hour energy expenditure (EE) decrease with fasting, is associated with less weight loss during caloric restriction. In rodents, models of diet-induced obesity often have a phenotype including a reduced EE and decreased core body temperature. We assessed whether a thrifty human phenotype associates with differences in core body temperature or body composition. Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from 77 individuals participating in one of two normal physiology studies while housed on our clinical research unit. Twenty-four-hour EE using a whole-room indirect calorimeter and 24-h core body temperature were measured during 24 h each of fasting and 200% overfeeding with a diet consisting of 50% carbohydrates, 20% protein and 30% fat. Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. To account for the effects of body size on EE, changes in EE were expressed as a percentage change from 24-hour EE (%EE) during energy balance. A greater %EE decrease with fasting correlated with a smaller %EE increase with overfeeding (r=0.27, P=0.02). The %EE decrease with fasting was associated with both fat mass and abdominal fat mass, even after accounting for covariates (β=-0.16 (95% CI: -0.26, -0.06) %EE per kg fat mass, P=0.003; β=-0.0004 (-0.0007, -0.00004) %EE kg(-1) abdominal fat mass, P=0.03). In men, a greater %EE decrease in response to fasting was associated with a lower 24- h core body temperature, even after adjusting for covariates (β=1.43 (0.72, 2.15) %EE per 0.1 °C, P=0.0003). Thrifty individuals, as defined by a larger EE decrease with fasting, were more likely to have greater overall and abdominal adiposity as well as lower core body temperature consistent with a more efficient metabolism.

  9. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2)).......Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2))....

  10. Neonatal body composition according to the revised institute of medicine recommendations for maternal weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Thaddeus P; Huston-Presley, Larraine; Catalano, Patrick M

    2012-10-01

    In 2009, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released revised pregnancy weight gain guidelines. There are limited data regarding the effect of maternal weight gain on newborn adiposity. The aim of this study was to estimate neonatal fat mass, lean body mass, and percentage body fat according to current Institute of Medicine (IOM) pregnancy weight gain guidelines. This is a secondary analysis of a prospective observational cohort study of neonates delivered at least 36 wk gestation and evaluated for fat mass, lean body mass, and percentage body fat. Women with abnormal glucose tolerance testing and other known medical disorders or pregnancies with known fetal anomalies were excluded. Pregravid body mass index (BMI) was categorized as normal weight (30 kg/m2). Maternal weight gain was quantified as less than, equal to, or greater than current IOM guidelines. Newborn body composition measurements were compared according to weight gain and BMI categories. A total of 439 maternal-newborn pairs were evaluated; 19.8% (n=87) of women gained less than IOM guidelines; 31.9% (n=140), equal to IOM guidelines; and 48.3% (n=212), greater than IOM guidelines. Significant differences for each component of body composition were found when evaluated by IOM weight gain categories (all ANOVA, Pweight gain for women who were of normal weight before pregnancy remained significant. Maternal weight gain during pregnancy is a significant contributor to newborn body composition, particularly for women who are of normal weight before pregnancy.

  11. Total body fat and the risk of Barrett's oesophagus – a bioelectrical impedance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Bradley J; Macdonald, Graeme A; Prins, Johannes B; O'Brien, Suzanne; Whiteman, David C

    2014-01-01

    Background Body mass index is associated with the risk of Barrett's oesophagus (BO). It is uncertain whether this is related to total body fat or other factors that correlate with body mass index. We aimed to quantify the association between total body fat (measured by bioelectrical impedance) and risk of BO and examine if this association was modified by gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) and abdominal obesity. Methods In 2007-9, we surveyed 235 cases (69% Males, Mean age 62.1 years) and 244 age and sex matched population controls from a population based case-control study of BO. We conducted structured interviews, standard anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis of total body fat. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results There was a significantly increased risk of BO among those in the highest tertile of total body fat weight (OR 2.01; 95%CI 1.26-3.21) and total body fat percentage (OR 1.86; 95%CI 1.10-3.15). These risks were largely attenuated after adjustment for GOR and waist circumference. There was a significantly increased risk of BO among those in the highest tertile of waist circumference (OR 2.21; 95%CI 1.39-3.51) and this was minimally attenuated after adjustment for total body fat and moderately attenuated after adjustment for GOR. Conclusions Total body fat is associated with an increased risk of BO but this appears to be mediated via both abdominal obesity and GOR. These findings provide evidence that abdominal obesity is more important than total body fat in the development of BO. PMID:24726825

  12. Total body fat and the risk of Barrett's oesophagus - a bioelectrical impedance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Bradley J; Macdonald, Graeme A; Prins, Johannes B; O'Brien, Suzanne; Whiteman, David C

    2014-06-01

    Body mass index is associated with the risk of Barrett's oesophagus (BO). It is uncertain whether this is related to total body fat or other factors that correlate with body mass index. We aimed to quantify the association between total body fat (measured by bioelectrical impedance) and risk of BO and examine if this association was modified by gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) and abdominal obesity. In 2007-2009, we surveyed 235 cases (69% Males, Mean age 62.1 years) and 244 age and sex matched population controls from a population based case-control study of BO. We conducted structured interviews, standard anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis of total body fat. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. There was a significantly increased risk of BO among those in the highest tertile of total body fat weight (OR 2.01; 95%CI 1.26-3.21) and total body fat percentage (OR 1.86; 95%CI 1.10-3.15). These risks were largely attenuated after adjustment for GOR and waist circumference. There was a significantly increased risk of BO among those in the highest tertile of waist circumference (OR 2.21; 95%CI 1.39-3.51) and this was minimally attenuated after adjustment for total body fat and moderately attenuated after adjustment for GOR. Total body fat is associated with an increased risk of BO but this appears to be mediated via both abdominal obesity and GOR. These findings provide evidence that abdominal obesity is more important than total body fat in the development of BO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Variations in the efficacy of resistant maltodextrin on body fat reduction in rats fed different high-fat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hui-Fang; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Tseng, Yu-Han; Wang, William Wei-Li; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2014-01-08

    Many studies have utilized a variety of methods to induce obesity in rodents, but they often received inconsistent results. The present study intended to use resistant maltodextrin (RMD) as a means to investigate the variations in its efficacy on body fat accumulation under the influence of four high-fat (HF) models of 23% or 40% total fat, comprising soybean oil, lard, and/or condensed milk. Results indicated that integrating condensed milk into the diets could help increase diet intake, boost energy intake, increase weight gain, and enhance fat formation. Supplementation of RMD (2.07 g/kg) notably reduced total body fat levels in three HF models, with the exception of a condensed-milk-added 40%-fat diet that may have misrepresented the functions of RMD. The uses of the 23% HF diets, with and without milk, and the milk-free 40% HF diet were therefore recommended as suitable models for antiobesity evaluations of RMD, or other fiber-rich products.

  14. Does Impedance Measure a Functional State of the Body Fat?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Větrovská, R.; Vilikus, Z.; Klaschka, Jan; Stránská, Z.; Svačina, Š.; Svobodová, Š.; Matoulek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl. 2 (2014), S309-S320 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : body composition * DEXA * fat mass * obesity * anthropometric methods * fat tissue functional properties Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  15. Body weight, scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare testosterone concentration, body weight, scrotal circumference and age to penis detachment from days 30 to 240 in young Boer goat males (n = 22) born during the dry (n = 11) and the rainy (n = 11) seasons. In the dry season the parameters varied as follows: body weight from 3.7 ± 1.1 ...

  16. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  17. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  18. Dietary L-arginine supplementation beneficially regulates body fat deposition of meat-type ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L Y; Fang, Y J; Guo, X Y

    2011-04-01

    1. Unlike mammals, uricotelic species, such as the duck, cannot synthesise endogenous arginine (Arg). This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary L-Arg supplementation might regulate body fat deposition in ducks without affecting their fast growth rate. 2. A total of 160 21-d-old male and female White Pekin ducks were assigned randomly to two treatments: a non-supplemented control and supplementation at 10 g/kg L-Arg of a maize and soybean meal-based diet. 3. The 3-week feeding trial showed that the addition of L-Arg had no significant effect on feed intake, but significantly increased body weight gain by 5·2 %, breast muscle weight relative to live body weight by 9·9%, carcase crude protein content by 9·2%, ether extract content in breast muscle by 11·9%. Arg supplementation significantly decreased skin with fat and abdominal fat pad contents by 7·6% and 4·9% respectively and the ether extract content of carcase by 7·2%. 4. The results of this study indicate that a diet with 10 g/kg supplemental L-Arg could reduce the fat deposition of carcase and abdominal adipose cell size (diameter and volume), enhance intramuscular fat in breast muscles, as well as increase muscle and protein gain. The decreased fat depot in the carcase may be attributed to a reduction of hepatic lipogenic enzyme activity.

  19. Purple Sweet Potato Attenuate Weight Gain in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Ronghui; Zheng, Shujuan; Luo, Hongxia; Wang, Changgang; Duan, Lili; Sheng, Yao; Zhao, Changhui; Xu, Wentao; Huang, Kunlun

    2017-03-01

    Purple sweet potato (PSP) is widely grown in Asia and considered as a healthy vegetable. The objective of the current study was to determine the anti-obesity effect of the PSP on high fat diet induced obese C57BL/6J mice. The mice were administrated with high fat diet supplemented with the sweet potato (SP) or PSP at the concentration of 15% and 30% for 12 wk, respectively. The results showed that the supplementation of SP or PSP at 30% significantly ameliorated high fat diet induced obesity and its associated risk factors, including reduction of body weight and fat accumulation, improvement of lipid profile and modulation of energy expenditure. Moreover, PSP also posed beneficial effect on the liver and kidney functions. These results indicate that PSP and SP have anti-obesity effect and are effective to reduce the metabolic risk. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Hyperemesis gravidarum and its relation with maternal body fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosus, Aydin; Eser, Ayla; Kosus, Nermin; Usluogullari, Betul; Hizli, Deniz

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if maternal body fat composition and body mass index were associated with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) in the first trimester of pregnancy. Healthy pregnant women (n = 30) without nausea and vomiting (control group) and women with HG (n = 54; study group), all with singleton pregnancy at 6-14 weeks gestational age, were included. Body mass index was measured before and during pregnancy. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous fat thickness were measured during pregnancy. Comparison of the groups revealed that VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index but not subcutaneous fat thickness were significantly higher in the HG group versus controls. VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index predicted 83.8% and 67.1% of HG cases, respectively. VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index were correlated with the development of hyperemesis gravidrum and hence could be considered as predictive markers for HG.

  1. Dietary egg-white protein increases body protein mass and reduces body fat mass through an acceleration of hepatic β-oxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Shirouchi, Bungo; Umegatani, Minami; Fukuda, Meguri; Muto, Ayano; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kunou, Masaaki; Sato, Masao

    2017-09-01

    Egg-white protein (EWP) is known to reduce lymphatic TAG transport in rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary EWP on body fat mass. Male rats, 4 weeks old, were fed diets containing either 20 % EWP or casein for 28 d. Carcass protein levels and gastrocnemius leg muscle weights in the EWP group were significantly higher than those in the casein group. In addition, carcass TAG levels and abdominal fat weights in the EWP group were significantly lower than those in the casein group; adipocyte size in abdominal fat in the EWP group was smaller than that in the casein group. To identify the involvement of dietary fat levels in the rats, one of two fat levels (5 or 10 %) was added to their diet along with the different protein sources (EWP and casein). Abdominal fat weight and serum and hepatic TAG levels were significantly lower in the EWP group than in the casein group. Moreover, significantly higher values of enzymatic activity related to β-oxidation in the liver were observed in the EWP group compared with the casein group. Finally, abdominal fat weight reduction in the EWP group with the 10 % fat diet was lower than that in the EWP group with the 5 % fat diet. In conclusion, our results indicate that, in addition to the inhibition of dietary TAG absorption reported previously, dietary EWP reduces body fat mass in rats through an increase of body protein mass and the acceleration of β-oxidation in the liver.

  2. Impact of body-composition methodology on the composition of weight loss and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhassan, M; Schautz, B; Braun, W; Gluer, C-C; Bosy-Westphal, A; Müller, M J

    2013-05-01

    We intended to (i) to compare the composition of weight loss and weight gain using densitometry, deuterium dilution (D₂O), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the four-compartment (4C) model and (ii) to compare regional changes in fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and skeletal muscle as assessed by DXA and MRI. Eighty-three study participants aged between 21 and 58 years with a body mass index range of 20.2-46.8 kg/m(2) had been assessed at two different occasions with a mean follow-up between 23.5 and 43.5 months. Body-weight changes within weight stable, a gain or a loss of >3% of initial weight was considered as a significant weight change. There was a considerable bias between the body-composition data obtained by the individual methods. When compared with the 4C model, mean bias of D₂O and densitometry was explained by the erroneous assumption of a constant hydration of FFM, thus, changes in FM were underestimated by D₂O but overestimated by densitometry. Because hydration does not normalize after weight loss, all two-component models have a systematic error in weight-reduced subjects. The bias between 4C model and DXA was mainly explained by FM% at baseline, whereas FFM hydration contributed to additional 5%. As to the regional changes in body composition, DXA data had a considerable bias and, thus, cannot replace MRI. To assess changes in body composition associated with weight changes, only the 4C model and MRI can be used with confidence.

  3. Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, Janne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    ,178 men and 29,875 women 50 to 64 years old recruited from 1993 to 1997. By the end of year 2001, the median follow-up was 5.8 years, and 1851 had died. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relationships among body fat mass index (body...

  4. The effect of the holiday season on body weight and composition in college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester Casey N

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapid increase in obesity rates, determining critical periods for weight gain and the effects of changes in fat mass is imperative. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in body weight and composition over the holiday season (Thanksgiving through New Year's in male and female college students. Methods Subjects completed three visits: the first occurred within 2 weeks prior to Thanksgiving, the second occurred within 5 to 7 days following Thanksgiving, and the third occurred within 10 days following New Year's Day. A total of 82 healthy male and female college age subjects participated. Body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was assessed at visits 1 and 3 while body weight was assessed at all three visits. Results Average body weight remained relatively unchanged from pre-Thanksgiving to post-New Year's (71.3 ± 14 kg vs. 71.2 ± 15 kg; P = 0.71 and, in fact, a subset of normal weight subjects lost a significant amount of body weight. However, percent body fat (25.9 ± 9 %fat vs. 27.0 ± 9 %fat; P P P = 0.08 was not significantly different than the post-New Year's. A significant positive relationship (P P Conclusion Despite the fact that body weight remained unchanged over the course of the holiday season, a significant increase in %body fat and fat mass was observed. With recent evidence showing marked morbidity and mortality to be associated with increased body fat (particularly abdominal adiposity, results from this study suggest body weight alone may underestimate the potentially deleterious effects of the holiday season.

  5. Abdominal Obesity and their association with Total Body: Fat Distribution and Composition. Case of Algerian Teenager Male high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zerf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our aim attempted to esteem the impact of abdominal fat on body fat distribution or composition related to total body fat as recommended weight loss among High School Students. Material: For the proposed, 100 male students from the Algerian high school Education Sector's mandate Sidi Bel Abbes, participate in the present study. Their average age 16±1.52 years, distributed into homogeneous groups, according to their body fat percent categories. Examined by saving tests (Body Fat Percentage (BFP - Abdominal circumference (WC - Body mass index (BMI. Results: Based on the test data and the analysis statistics applied, we confirm: a Abdominal obesity is excess body gain correlate with total fat BMI. It highly affected body composition reported as additional fat for overweight in compare with acceptable according to Ideal BFP categories. b Abdominal obesity is an amount deep fat correlates to total BFP. It higher influenced the distribution of total body fat reported as additional excess fat among overweight category compared to the acceptable group. c Waist circumference (WC is the leading marker of abdominal fat deposits located in the central region of the body. While the combination of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, reflects the combined effects of body build (fat or fatness in individuals at higher risk of excessive body fat. Conclusions: founded on the differences acquired by the research team. We highlight that abdominal obesity is strongly connected to larger WC relate to total body gain located as excess inordinate fatness BMI or fat distribution BFP among our overall sample. Evidence, which guides us to recommend our adolescent students to intensification their hours of sports practice, in order to avoid the consequences of abdominal obesity gain. Announced in the present study as excess abdominal adiposity more metabolically active. Requiring the control of body weight loss (BFP or BMI strongly correlates to

  6. Body composition of preschool children and relation to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Costa Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.

  7. Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weight gain in growing rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Knudsen, K. E. B.; Jørgensen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit......). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g) compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g) (pbody fat compared to 5-CEL (p... and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats....

  8. Agreement in Body Fat Estimates between a Hand-Held Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and Skinfold Thicknesses in African American and Caucasian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, James C.; Ratliffe, Thomas; Williams, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI), or the ratio of weight in kilograms to the square of height in meters, is widely used to determine the presence or absence of overweight and obesity in adults. Although many consider BMI an acceptable clinical surrogate of body fatness, it does not differentiate between fat and fat-free tissues. Thus, children and…

  9. Visual adaptation to thin and fat bodies transfers across identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Hummel

    Full Text Available Visual perception is highly variable and can be influenced by the surrounding world. Previous research has revealed that body perception can be biased due to adaptation to thin or fat body shapes. The aim of the present study was to show that adaptation to certain body shapes and the resulting perceptual biases transfer across different identities of adaptation and test stimuli. We designed two similar adaptation experiments in which healthy female participants adapted to pictures of either thin or fat bodies and subsequently compared more or less distorted pictures of their own body to their actual body shape. In the first experiment (n = 16 the same identity was used as adaptation and test stimuli (i.e. pictures of the participant's own body while in the second experiment (n = 16 we used pictures of unfamiliar thin or fat bodies as adaptation stimuli. We found comparable adaptation effects in both experiments: After adaptation to a thin body, participants rated a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa. We therefore assume that adaptation to certain body shapes transfers across different identities. These results raise the questions of whether some type of natural adaptation occurs in everyday life. Natural and predominant exposure to certain bodily features like body shape--especially the thin ideal in Western societies--could bias perception for these features. In this regard, further research might shed light on aspects of body dissatisfaction and the development of body image disturbances in terms of eating disorders.

  10. Resistant starch and exercise independently attenuate weight regain on a high fat diet in a rat model of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Ginger C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term weight reduction remains elusive for many obese individuals. Resistant starch (RS and exercise may be useful for weight maintenance. The effects of RS, with or without exercise, on weight regain was examined during relapse to obesity on a high carbohydrate, high fat (HC/HF diet. Methods Obesity-prone rats were fed ad libitum for 16 weeks then weight reduced on a low fat diet to induce a 17% body weight loss (weight reduced rats. Weight reduced rats were maintained on an energy-restricted low fat diet for 18 weeks, with or without a daily bout of treadmill exercise. Rats were then allowed free access to HC/HF diet containing low (0.3% or high (5.9% levels of RS. Weight regain, energy balance, body composition, adipocyte cellularity, and fuel utilization were monitored as rats relapsed to obesity and surpassed their original, obese weight. Results Both RS and exercise independently attenuated weight regain by reducing the energy gap between the drive to eat and suppressed energy requirements. Exercise attenuated the deposition of lean mass during relapse, whereas its combination with RS sustained lean mass accrual as body weight returned. Early in relapse, RS lowered insulin levels and reduced the deposition of fat in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Exercise cessation at five weeks of relapse led to increased weight gain, body fat, subcutaneous adipocytes, and decreased lean mass; all detrimental consequences to overall metabolic health. Conclusions These data are the first to show the complimentary effects of dietary RS and regular exercise in countering the metabolic drive to regain weight following weight loss and suggest that exercise cessation, in the context of relapse on a HC/HF diet, may have dire metabolic consequences.

  11. Weight self-regulation process in adolescence: the relationship between control weight attitudes, behaviors and body weight status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi ePich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (n= 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008 in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT, we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed would be motivated either by a promotion focus (to show an attractive body, a prevention focus (to avoid social rejection of fatness, or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13% and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were Not at all concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13% and 11% respectively. By contrast 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious emotional (self-defense and cognitive (dissonance mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  12. Maternal fat mass at mid-pregnancy and birth weight in Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Ramos, Tatiana; Sichieri, Rosely; Hoffman, Daniel J

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between maternal body composition and foetal development is unclear. To determine the relationship between maternal body composition [fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)] and foetal growth and birth weight, independent of potential confounding factors. This study consisted of 92 women, normal and overweight/obese, recruited from the Instituto Fernandes Figueira in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Body composition (FM and FFM) was estimated using bioelectrical impedance. Foetal growth was assessed using serial ultrasound measurements at the second and third trimester and infant's weight and length were measured at birth. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine the association between maternal FM and FFM and birth weight adjusted for gestational age (BWt) and change in estimated foetal weight (ΔEFW), controlling for infant gender, maternal serum glucose, energy intake, parity, height and income. Maternal FM, but not FFM, was positively associated with BWt (p = 0.02) and borderline with ΔEFW (p = 0.05). FM expressed as a percentage of body weight (%FM) showed a significant positive association with BWt (p maternal FM at mid-pregnancy is associated with neonatal BW and foetal growth.

  13. Triceps skin fold thickness as a measure of body fat in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-11-26

    Nov 26, 2012 ... as obese. Conclusion: Triceps SFT remain a fair surrogate for the assessment of adiposity, the component of over- weight that leads to pathology. Key words: Skin fold thickness, bioelectrical impedance analysis, body fat, obesity, adolescents. Introduction. Nutrition transition is increasingly evident in middle.

  14. The Relationship between Endogenous Androgens and Body Fat Distribution in Early and Late Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Yuankui; Zhang, Shaofen; Zou, Shien; Xia, Xian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods We enrolled postmenopausal women consisting of an early group (?5 years since menopause, n?=?105) and a late group (?10 years since menopause, n?=?107). Each group was subdivided into normal weight (BMI

  15. Linseed Dietary Fibers Reduce Apparent Digestibility of Energy and Fat and Weight Gain in Growing Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Mette; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Jørgensen, Henry; Oomah, David; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17–21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats. PMID:23966109

  16. [Anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, João Marcos Ferreira de Lima; Grigollo, Leoberto; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To determine the anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents from a Brazilian State. The study included 1,197 adolescents (15-17 years old). The following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (weight and height), waist circumference and skinfolds (triceps and medial calf). The anthropometric indicators analyzed were: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and conicity index (C-Index). Body fat percentage, estimated by the Slaughter et al equation, was used as the reference method. Descriptive statistics, U Mann-Whitney test, and ROC curve were used for data analysis. Of the four anthropometric indicators studied, BMI, WHtR and WC had the largest areas under the ROC curve in relation to relative high body fat in both genders. The cutoffs for boys and girls, respectively, associated with high body fat were BMI 22.7 and 20.1 kg/m(2), WHtR 0.43 and 0.41, WC 75.7 and 67.7 cm and C-Index 1.12 and 1.06. Anthropometric indicators can be used in screening for identification of body fat in adolescents, because they are simple, have low cost and are non-invasive. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Garthe, Ina

    2011-01-01

    The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that a high proportion of athletes are using extreme weight-control methods and that the rules of some sports might be associated with the risk of continuous dieting, energy deficit, and/or use of extreme weight-loss methods that can be detrimental to health and performance. Thus, preventive strategies are justified for medical as well as performance reasons. The most urgent needs are: (1) to develop sport-specific educational programmes for athletic trainers, coaches, and athletes; (2) modifications to regulations; and (3) research related to minimum percentage body fat and judging patterns.

  18. Brain nuclear receptors and body weight regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essent...

  19. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Gender, and Body Weight: Examining the Impact of Participation in Active Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine whether differences in participation in active play (PAP) can account for gender differences in the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and body weight/fat (BMI and percentage fat) in youth. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation of students in grades four through eight (n = 590). Height, weight…

  20. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Victoria, Emilio; Yago, María Dolores

    2012-06-01

    In animal studies, n-3 PUFA have been shown to influence body composition and to reduce the accumulation of body fat, thereby affecting body weight homeostasis. In addition, it has been suggested that an additional supply of n-3 PUFA during pregnancy or lactation, or both, would have a beneficial effect on birth weight and infant growth and development. The purpose of the present study was to systematically review interventional clinical trials on the effects of dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation on body weight in adult subjects and in infants whose mothers were supplemented with these fatty acids during pregnancy and/or lactation. A systematic search, focused on n-3 PUFA and body weight, and limited to controlled clinical trials, was performed in different databases. The quality of all included studies was assessed against set criteria, and results of eligible trials were compared. There were few studies targeting this topic. In adults, all of the five studies included, except for one, show no change in body weight by dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA. Within those trials conducted in pregnant and/or lactating women in which a main outcome was birth weight or growth in infancy, two showed a modest increase in birth weight and the rest showed no effect. None of the trials showed an effect of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation on infant's weight at the short term. However, it should be noted that a number of limitations, including a variety of experimental designs, type and doses of n-3 PUFA, and high attrition rates, among others, make impossible to draw robust conclusions from this review.

  1. Body satisfaction and body weight: gender differences and sociodemographic determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haines Jess

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the documented links between body satisfaction, weight-related behaviors, and weight change in adolescents, we sought to examine the prevalence of poor body satisfaction in prepubescent girls and boys and its associations with body weight, socioeconomic factors, and rural residence. Methods We obtained data from 4254 girls and boys participating in a population-based survey of grade five students in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. We examined gender specific associations between the prevalence of poor body satisfaction and body mass index (BMI with generalized additive models and applied multilevel logistic regression methods to estimate associations of body satisfaction with BMI, rural residence, parental education and income, and neighborhood household income. Results We observed a linear increase in poor body satisfaction with increasing BMI in girls. Among boys, however, we found a U-shape association where boys with low BMI and those with high BMI reported higher levels of poor body satisfaction. We also found that poor body satisfaction was more prevalent among girls whose parents had lower educational attainment and among those who reside in rural areas. Conclusion Insight into the unique relationships between body satisfaction and BMI experienced by prepubescent children, males, and populations diverse in parental education and geographic location may help to inform public health initiatives designed to improve weight-related behaviors and reduce overweight in children.

  2. Does this Tweet make me look fat? A content analysis of weight stigma on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A; Cotter, Elizabeth W; Palmberg, Allison A; Simpson, Courtney; Kwitowski, Melissa; White, Kelly; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2016-06-01

    Weight stigma involves stereotyping individuals based on body size. Individuals with obesity face weight stigma in many areas of their lives, and consequences can include impairment of mental and physical health, relationships, and academic performance. Weight-stigmatizing messages are pervasive in mass media, but the degree and characteristics of its presence within new-media social environments remain comparatively unknown. This study examined weight stigma on Twitter by coding Tweet content that included the word "fat" within a 4-h timeframe (N = 4596). Coding marked demographic characteristics represented in content, messages about weight, and perceived intent of the message. Of all messages, 56.57 % were negative and 32.09 % were neutral. Of those containing weight-stigmatizing messages (n = 529), themes relating to fatness included: gluttonous (48.58 %), unattractive (25.14 %), not sexually desirable (2.65 %), sedentary (13.80 %), lazy (5.86 %), and stupid (4.16 %). Weight-stigmatizing messages are evident in the increasingly important arena of social media, and themes appear similar to those that emerge in other forms of media. Prevention and intervention body image programs should consider targeting social networks to help individuals manage societal messages.

  3. Double standards in body evaluation? The influence of identification with body stimuli on ratings of attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voges, Mona M; Giabbiconi, Claire-Marie; Schöne, Benjamin; Waldorf, Manuel; Hartmann, Andrea S; Vocks, Silja

    2017-10-20

    Although it is well documented that women evaluate their own body differently from other bodies, it remains unclear whether this discrepancy is based on double standards because of identity or on objective differences between these bodies. The aim of this study was therefore to test whether women apply double standards depending on a body's identity when evaluating the same bodies presented with different faces. Average-weight women (N = 104) rated body attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass of thin, average-weight, overweight, athletic, and hypermuscular bodies with either another female's face or their own face. With their own face, subjects rated overweight bodies as more unattractive, higher in body fat and lower in muscle mass than with another female's face. However, for non-overweight bodies, body ratings did not differ depending on body identity. Based on the self-deprecating double standards for overweight bodies, a body-related identity bias might be considered in theoretical models of body image. Level of evidence Level V, descriptive study.

  4. Body weight independently affects articular cartilage catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, W Matt; Winward, Jason G; Pardo, Michael Becker; Hopkins, J Ty; Seeley, Matthew K

    2015-06-01

    Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW) independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW), +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured immediately before (baseline) and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response. Key pointsWalking for 30 minutes with adjustments in body weight (normal body weight, +40% and -40% body weight) significantly influences articular cartilage catabolism, measured via serum COMP concentration.Compared to baseline levels, walking with +40% body weight and normal body weight both elicited significant increases in

  5. Classification of Body Fatness by Body Mass Index–for-Age Categories Among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, David S.; Wang, Jack; Thornton, John C.; Mei, Zuguo; Sopher, Aviva B.; Pierson, Richard N.; Dietz, William H.; Horlick, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the ability of various body mass index (BMI)–for-age categories, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 85th to 94th percentiles, to correctly classify the body fatness of children and adolescents. Design Cross-sectional. Setting The New York Obesity Research Center at St Luke’s–Roosevelt Hospital from 1995 to 2000. Participants Healthy 5- to 18-year-old children and adolescents (N=1196) were recruited in the New York City area through newspaper notices, announcements at schools and activity centers, and word of mouth. Main Outcome Measures Percent body fat as determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fatness cutoffs were chosen so that the number of children in each category (normal, moderate, and elevated fatness) would equal the number of children in the corresponding BMI-for-age category (<85th percentile, 85th–94th percentile, and ≥95th percentile, respectively). Results About 77% of the children who had a BMI for age at or above the 95th percentile had an elevated body fatness, but levels of body fatness among children who had a BMI for age between the 85th and 94th percentiles (n=200) were more variable; about one-half of these children had a moderate level of body fatness, but 30% had a normal body fatness and 20% had an elevated body fatness. The prevalence of normal levels of body fatness among these 200 children was highest among black children (50%) and among those within the 85th to 89th percentiles of BMI for age (40%). Conclusion Body mass index is an appropriate screening test to identify children who should have further evaluation and follow-up, but it is not diagnostic of level of adiposity. PMID:19736333

  6. Sleep duration, sleep quality and body weight: parallel developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Adam, Tanja C; Hursel, Rick; Rutters, Femke; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-09-10

    The increase in obesity, including childhood obesity, has developed over the same time period as the progressive decrease in self-reported sleep duration. Since epidemiological studies showed an inverse relationship between short or disturbed sleep and obesity, the question arose, how sleep duration and sleep quality are associated with the development of obesity. In this review, the current literature on these topics has been evaluated. During puberty, changes in body mass index (BMI) are inversely correlated to changes in sleep duration. During adulthood, this relationship remains and at the same time unfavorable metabolic and neuro-endocrinological changes develop, that promote a positive energy balance, coinciding with sleep disturbance. Furthermore, during excessive weight loss BMI and fat mass decrease, in parallel, and related with an increase in sleep duration. In order to shed light on the association between sleep duration, sleep quality and obesity, until now it only has been shown that diet-induced body-weight loss and successive body-weight maintenance contribute to sleep improvement. It remains to be demonstrated whether body-weight management and body composition improve during an intervention concomitantly with spontaneous sleep improvement compared with the same intervention without spontaneous sleep improvement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Newborn Body Fat: Associations with Maternal Metabolic State and Placental Size

    OpenAIRE

    Friis, Camilla M.; Qvigstad, Elisabeth; Paasche Roland, Marie Cecilie; Godang, Kristin; Voldner, Nanna; Bollerslev, Jens; Henriksen, Tore

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neonatal body composition has implications for the health of the newborn both in short and long term perspective. The objective of the current study was first to explore the association between maternal BMI and metabolic parameters associated with BMI and neonatal percentage body fat and to determine to which extent any associations were modified if adjusting for placental weight. Secondly, we examined the relations between maternal metabolic parameters associated with BMI and pla...

  8. Measurement of body fat using leg to leg bioimpedance

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, R; Lau, P; Yu, C; Lam, P; Nelson, E

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—(1) To validate a leg to leg bioimpedance analysis (BIA) device in the measurement of body composition in children by assessment of its agreement with dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and its repeatability. (2) To establish a reference range of percentage body fat in Hong Kong Chinese children.
METHODS—Sequential BIA and DXA methods were used to determine body composition in 49 children aged 7-18 years; agreement between the two methods was calculated. Repea...

  9. Estimating Body Weight of Cattle Using Linear Body Measurements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationships between body weight (BW) and heart girth, body length and height at withers of 116 Indigenous, 72 Friesian, 95 Brahman, 88 Red Dane and 123 Crossbred cattle from 42 smallholder herds in Nharira-Lancashire, Zimbabwe, were investigated. The principal objective was to develop simple models that ...

  10. Low physical activity accentuates the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on body fat accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Camilla H; Stender-Petersen, Kirstine L; Mogensen, Mette S

    2008-01-01

    (-16)). Furthermore, obesity-related quantitative traits such as body weight, waist circumference, fat mass, and fasting serum leptin levels were significantly elevated in A-allele carriers. An interaction between the FTO rs9939609 genotype and physical activity (P = 0.007) was found, where physically inactive...... homozygous risk A-allele carriers had a 1.95 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2) increase in BMI compared with homozygous T-allele carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We validate that variation in FTO is associated with type 2 diabetes when not adjusted for BMI and with an overall increase in body fat mass. Furthermore, low physical...... activity seems to accentuate the effect of FTO rs9939609 on body fat accumulation....

  11. Body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism in lean and obese Zucker rats fed soybean oil or butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Valérie; Roseau, Suzanne; Fromentin, Gilles; Nicolaidis, Stylianos; Tomé, Daniel; Even, Patrick C

    2002-01-01

    Dietary fat composition is thought to affect body weight regulation independent of the amount of fat ingested. We analyzed the feeding behavior, body weight gain, body composition, and energy metabolism in lean and obese rats fed a diet in which fat was in the form of either butter or soybean oil. Ten lean (Fa/?) and 10 obese (fa/fa) adult Zucker rats were divided into 4 groups according to a 2 x 2 experimental design. They were fed a normally balanced diet over 11 wk in which 30% of energy was either soybean oil or butter. Food intake, body weight gain, and body composition were measured. Indirect calorimetry was used to study energy metabolism at rest and in relation to feeding and activity. Food intake increased similarly in lean and obese rats after butter feeding. Body weight gain increased in obese rats and decreased in lean rats after butter feeding. Body weight gain in obese rats was due mainly to an increase in the weight of lean tissues besides muscle, whereas adiposity and distribution of fat between the various pads did not change. Resting metabolic rates and postprandial lipid oxidation increased in butter-fed obese rats. Lipid oxidation during exercise was not significantly different between obese and lean rats. Fat oxidation increased in butter-fed lean rats during treadmill running at moderate intensity. In obese rats, basal metabolism and postprandial lipid oxidation increased during butter feeding, which appeared to prevent fat accumulation in the long term. In lean rats, butter feeding favored lipid utilization by working muscles, an observation that deserves further investigation in terms of endurance and performance.

  12. The impact of rate of weight loss on body composition and compensatory mechanisms during weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; With, Emilie; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Rapid weight loss (WL) has been associated with a larger loss of fat free mass and a disproportional reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR), but the evidence is inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate the impact of WL rate on body composition and compensatory mechanisms activated...... with WL (reduced RMR, increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite), both during negative and neutral energy balance (EB). METHODS: Thirty-five participants with obesity were randomized to lose a similar weight rapidly (4 weeks) or gradually (8 weeks), and afterwards to maintain it (4 weeks). Body...... weight and composition, RMR, ExEff (10, 25 and 50 W), appetite feelings and appetite-regulating hormones (active ghrelin, cholecystokinin, total peptide YY (PYY), active glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin), in fasting and every 30 min up to 2.5 h, were measured at baseline and after each phase. RESULTS...

  13. Feed intake, body weight, body condition score, musculation, and immunocompetence in aged mares given equine somatotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, K; Christensen, R A; Konopka, A; Scanes, C G; Hafs, H D

    1997-03-01

    Sixteen 20- to 26-yr-old mares were given 0, 6.25, or 12.5 mg/d equine somatotropin (eST) to determine whether aged mares respond to ST with changes in feed intake, body weight, body condition score (based mostly on fat cover), or immunocompetence. Neither dry matter intake, body weight, nor body condition scores were altered during the 6 wk of eST injection. However, based on photographs taken to evaluate musculation before and after treatment (scores 0 to 4), mares given eST developed greater (P musculation and the increase in granulocyte numbers in mares given eST suggest that eST supplementation may improve the health and well-being of aged mares.

  14. Influence of ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms on body weight and body composition changes after a controlled weight-loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szendrei, Barbara; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Amigo, Teresa; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Benito, Pedro J; Gomez-Candela, Carmen; Calderón, Francisco J; Cupeiro, Rocío

    2016-03-01

    The β-2 and β-3 adrenergic receptors (ADRB2 and ADRB3) are thought to play a role in energy expenditure and lipolysis. However, the effects of the ADRB2 glutamine (Gln) 27 glutamic acid (glutamate) (Glu) and ADRB3 tryptophan (Trp) 64 arginine (Arg) polymorphisms on weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on changes in weight and body composition during a controlled weight-loss program. One hundred seventy-three healthy overweight and obese participants (91 women, 82 men) aged 18-50 years participated in a 22-week-long intervention based on a hypocaloric diet and exercise. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength, endurance, strength and endurance combined, and physical activity recommendations only. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body composition variables were assessed before and after the intervention. Genetic analysis was carried out according to standard protocols. No effect of the ADRB2 gene was shown on final weight, BMI, or body composition, although in the supervised male group, Glu27 carriers tended to have greater weight (p = 0.019, 2.5 kg) and BMI (p = 0.019, 0.88 kg/m(2)) reductions than did noncarriers. There seems to be an individual effect of the ADRB3 polymorphism on fat mass (p = 0.004) and fat percentage (p = 0.036), in addition to an interaction with exercise for fat mass (p = 0.038). After the intervention, carriers of the Arg64 allele had a greater fat mass and fat percentage than did noncarriers (p = 0.004, 2.8 kg). In conclusion, the ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms may influence weight loss and body composition, although the current evidence is weak; however, further studies are necessary to clarify their roles.

  15. Histamine and the regulation of body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Emilie A; Knigge, Ulrich; Warberg, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter. In the p......Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter...... lipolysis. Based on the current evidence of the involvement of histamine in the regulation of body weight, the histaminergic system is an obvious target for the development of pharmacological agents to control obesity. At present, H(3) receptor antagonists that stimulate the histaminergic system may...

  16. Comparison of estimates of body fat content in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinicato, N A; Peres, F A; de Oliveira Peliçari, K; de Oliveira Santos, A; Ramos, C D; Marini, R; Appenzeller, S

    2017-04-01

    Objective We aimed to compare estimates of body fat content with respect to their ability to predict the percentage of body fat, confirmed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods We included 64 consecutive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 64 healthy age and sex-matched controls in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data, body mass index and body adiposity index were calculated for all subjects. Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients were further assessed for clinical and laboratory childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations and fat mass, lean mass and percentage of body fat evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Elevated waist/hip ratio was observed in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients when compared to controls ( p lupus erythematosus patients and controls. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry as gold standard we observed that all indirect estimates of body fat were correlated with whole body fat mass. We observed a correlation between height and cumulative corticosteroid dose adjusted by weight ( r = 0.429, p = 0.005) in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. On whole body analysis we observed a correlation between lean mass and ACR Damage Index scores ( r = -0.395; p = 0.019); percentage of body fat and adjusted Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index ( r = 0.402; p = 0.008), disease duration ( r = -0.370; p = 0.012). On trunk analysis we observed a correlation between lean mass and ACR Damage Index ( r = -0.319; p = 0.042); percentage of body fat with adjusted Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index ( r = 0.402; p = 0.005), disease duration ( r = -0.408; p = 0.005). Conclusions This is the first study analyzing body adiposity index in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients. We observed that all indirect

  17. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-01-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by usi...

  18. Ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian pre-pubertal children: A cross-sectional multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon Poh Bee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic differences in body fat distribution contribute to ethnic differences in cardiovascular morbidities and diabetes. However few data are available on differences in fat distribution in Asian children from various backgrounds. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian children from four countries. Methods A total of 758 children aged 8-10 y from China, Lebanon, Malaysia and Thailand were recruited using a non-random purposive sampling approach to enrol children encompassing a wide BMI range. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC, fat mass (FM, derived from total body water [TBW] estimation using the deuterium dilution technique and skinfold thickness (SFT at biceps, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and medial calf were collected. Results After controlling for height and weight, Chinese and Thai children had a significantly higher WC than their Lebanese and Malay counterparts. Chinese and Thais tended to have higher trunk fat deposits than Lebanese and Malays reflected in trunk SFT, trunk/upper extremity ratio or supraspinale/upper extremity ratio after adjustment for age and total body fat. The subscapular/supraspinale skinfold ratio was lower in Chinese and Thais compared with Lebanese and Malays after correcting for trunk SFT. Conclusions Asian pre-pubertal children from different origins vary in body fat distribution. These results indicate the importance of population-specific WC cut-off points or other fat distribution indices to identify the population at risk of obesity-related health problems.

  19. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  20. Difference in non-weight-bearing effects on bone mineral density between trunk and peripheral fat mass in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanazume, Yumi; Kawamura, Yukie; Kuwahata, Akiko; Yonehara, Yukie; Matsuo, Takashi; Iwamoto, Ichiro; Douchi, Tsutomu

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the difference in non-weight-bearing effects on bone mineral density (BMD) between trunk and peripheral fat mass in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Subjects were 123 amenorrheic PCOS women with right side dominance. Age, height, body weight, and body mass index were recorded. Trunk, peripheral (extremities), trunk-leg fat ratio as an index of body fat distribution, left arm (non-weight-bearing site) lean mass and BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum testosterone and estradiol levels were measured. Relationships of BMD with trunk, peripheral fat mass, and sex hormones levels were investigated. Trunk fat mass amount was 9.8 + or - 6.7 kg and was lower than the peripheral fat mass amount (12.2 + or - 4.4 kg, P fat mass and left arm lean mass were positively correlated with arm BMD (r = 0.359, P fat mass and serum testosterone levels were not correlated with BMD (r = 0.083 and 0.114, respectively, NS). On multiple regression analysis, trunk fat mass was positively correlated with BMD (t-value = 3.465; P fat mass, despite the smaller amount, is more associated with arm BMD than peripheral fat mass is through its non-weight-bearing effects.

  1. COMPARISSON OF DIFFERENT IN VIVO ESTIMATORS OF BODY FAT AND MUSCLE CONTENT IN ADULT CREOLE GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hania Vilar-Martinez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of ultrasound measurements (ULT, body condition score (BCS and body mass index (BMI to predict body fat and muscle in goats. Twenty-four adult, ovariectomized, creole goats were fed individually to achieve dissimilar stable body weights (26 to 66 kg. After a six-week period of stabilization BCS was evaluated (average of 4 separate evaluations and BMI calculated (BW/(length x heightx10; average of 2 independent length and height measurements. Fat and muscle coverage over the dorsal (12-13th, lumbar (1st and coxal (1st vertebrae were measured by ultrasound imaging. Animals were slaughtered and visceral fat dissected and weighed. Left half carcass weights were obtained and muscle and fat were dissected and weighed. Left half carcass data were adjusted to whole carcass data. Simple  regression analyses were performed with ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors and visceral (VF, carcass (CF and total fat (TF, and muscle (MU as response variables. Coefficients of variation (CV were calculated for BCS and BMI estimations. ULT measurement of total tissue (fat + muscle coverage over dorsal vertebrae presented the highest predictive value for ULT measurements; thus this measurement is the only reported. Coefficients of determination (R2 for VF, CF and TF were .55, .76 and .68; .78, .82 and .87; .81, .81 and .88 for ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. R2 for MU were .67, .84 and .76 using ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. R2 for proportions of VF/BW, CF/BW and TF/BW were .47, .73 and .65; .75, .78 and .88; .74, .71 and .85; when ULT, BCS and BMI were used as predictors. R2 for MS/BW were ≤ .10 using ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. CV was greater in BCS estimation as compared to BMI estimation (9.7 vs. 3.1 %. BCS and BMI were more accurate in vivo predictors than ULT for body fat content, fat as proportion of BW and body muscle content. ULT, BCS and BMI were completely worthless for predicting

  2. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, Pprotein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P

  3. Correlates of body mass index, weight goals, and weight-management practices among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Raheem J; Valois, Robert F; Drane, J Wanzer

    2004-04-01

    The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of body weight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina. Logistic regression models were constructed separately for four race-gender groups. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine the magnitude of associations. Based on self-reported height and weight, 13% of students were overweight, while 15% were at risk for becoming overweight. However, 42% of students were trying to lose weight, and 22% were trying to maintain current weight. Female students were less likely than male students to be overweight, but more likely to be attempting to lose weight. Extreme weight control practices were reported by 27% of the sample. Among Black females trying to lose weight, positive associations were observed for strengthening exercises (OR = 1.55), but that relationship was associated inversely in Black males (OR = .600). Among White females, attempted weight loss was associated with strengthening exercises (OR = 1.72) and cigarette smoking (OR = 1.54). For White males, attempted weight loss was associated positively with vigorous exercise (OR = 1.41) and inversely related to moderate exercise (OR = .617). Effective weight-management practices for adolescents should focus on appropriate eating behaviors, physical activity, and low-fat/calorie diets. Multicomponent weight management interventions should be conducted within a coordinated school health framework.

  4. Excessive Body Weight in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Bales, Connie W

    2015-08-01

    The health challenges prompted by obesity in the older adult population are poorly recognized and understudied. A defined treatment of geriatric obesity is difficult to establish, as it must take into account biological heterogeneity, age-related comorbidities, and functional limitations (sarcopenia/dynapenia). This retrospective article highlights the current understanding of the optimal body mass index (BMI) in later life, addressing appropriate recommendations based on BMI category, age, and health history. The findings of randomized control trials of weight loss/maintenance interventions help one to move closer to evidence-based and appropriately individualized recommendations for body weight management in older adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Body contouring following massive weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Langer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global disease with epidemic proportions. Bariatric surgery or modified lifestyles go a long way in mitigating the vast weight gain. Patients following these interventions usually undergo massive weight loss. This results in redundant tissues in various parts of the body. Loose skin causes increased morbidity and psychological trauma. This demands various body contouring procedures that are usually excisional. These procedures are complex and part of a painstaking process that needs a committed patient and an industrious plastic surgeon. As complications in these patients can be quite frequent, both the patient and the surgeon need to be aware and willing to deal with them.

  6. Gender differences in body composition, physical activity, eating behavior and body image among normal weight adolescents--an evolutionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Sylvia; Marosi, Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Body composition but also physical activity patterns underlie gender typical differences throughout human life. In the present study the body composition of 354 girls and 280 boys ageing between 11 and 18 years originating from Eastern Austria were analyzed using bioelectrical impedance method. Normal weight according to body mass index categories was a strict inclusion criterion. Information regarding physical activity during school and leisure time, daily nutritional habits, subjective body satisfaction and weight control practices were collected by means of a structured and standardized questionnaire. Results of the analyses reveal that--as to be expected--adolescent boys and girls differed significantly in body composition, but also in physical activity patterns. Even normal weight girls exhibited a significantly higher amount of absolute and relative fat mass, whereas normal weight boys showed a significantly higher amount of fat free body mass. Furthermore male adolescents were significantly more physically active than their female counterparts. According to the results of multiple regression analyses physical activity patterns had beside sex an independent influence on body composition parameters during adolescence. In contrast, girls and boys showed only minor differences in nutritional habits and weight control practices. Nutritional habits, body satisfaction and weight control practices were not significantly related to body composition parameters. The observed gender differences in body composition as well as in physical activity patterns are interpreted in an evolutionary sense.

  7. Genetic Correlation between Body Fat Percentage and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Suggests Common Genetic Etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnurr, Theresia Maria; Gjesing, Anette Marianne Prior; Sandholt, Camilla Helene

    2016-01-01

    reflect a common genetic origin. In this study we aimed to 1) examine genetic correlations between body fat% and CRF; 2) determine whether CRF can be attributed to a genetic risk score (GRS) based on known body fat% increasing loci; and 3) examine whether the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) locus...... findings suggest a shared genetic etiology between whole body fat% and CRF....

  8. Comparison of a low carbohydrate and low fat diet for weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults enrolled in a clinical weight management program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curry Chelsea

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that a low carbohydrate (LC diet may be equally or more effective for short-term weight loss than a traditional low fat (LF diet; however, less is known about how they compare for weight maintenance. The purpose of this study was to compare body weight (BW for participants in a clinical weight management program, consuming a LC or LF weight maintenance diet for 6 months following weight loss. Methods Fifty-five (29 low carbohydrate diet; 26 low fat diet overweight/obese middle-aged adults completed a 9 month weight management program that included instruction for behavior, physical activity (PA, and nutrition. For 3 months all participants consumed an identical liquid diet (2177 kJ/day followed by 1 month of re-feeding with solid foods either low in carbohydrate or low in fat. For the remaining 5 months, participants were prescribed a meal plan low in dietary carbohydrate (~20% or fat (~30%. BW and carbohydrate or fat grams were collected at each group meeting. Energy and macronutrient intake were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months. Results The LC group increased BW from 89.2 ± 14.4 kg at 3 months to 89.3 ± 16.1 kg at 9 months (P = 0.84. The LF group decreased BW from 86.3 ± 12.0 kg at 3 months to 86.0 ± 14.0 kg at 9 months (P = 0.96. BW was not different between groups during weight maintenance (P = 0.87. Fifty-five percent (16/29 and 50% (13/26 of participants for the LC and LF groups, respectively, continued to decrease their body weight during weight maintenance. Conclusion Following a 3 month liquid diet, the LC and LF diet groups were equally effective for BW maintenance over 6 months; however, there was significant variation in weight change within each group.

  9. A multinational examination of weight bias: predictors of anti-fat attitudes across four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Latner, J D; O'Brien, K; Luedicke, J; Danielsdottir, S; Forhan, M

    2015-07-01

    As rates of obesity have increased throughout much of the world, so too have bias and prejudice toward people with higher body weight (that is, weight bias). Despite considerable evidence of weight bias in the United States, little work has examined its extent and antecedents across different nations. The present study conducted a multinational examination of weight bias in four Western countries with comparable prevalence rates of adult overweight and obesity. Using comprehensive self-report measures with 2866 individuals in Canada, the United States, Iceland and Australia, the authors assessed (1) levels of explicit weight bias (using the Fat Phobia Scale and the Universal Measure of Bias) and multiple sociodemographic predictors (for example, sex, age, race/ethnicity and educational attainment) of weight-biased attitudes and (2) the extent to which weight-related variables, including participants' own body weight, personal experiences with weight bias and causal attributions of obesity, play a role in expressions of weight bias in different countries. The extent of weight bias was consistent across countries, and in each nation attributions of behavioral causes of obesity predicted stronger weight bias, as did beliefs that obesity is attributable to lack of willpower and personal responsibility. In addition, across all countries the magnitude of weight bias was stronger among men and among individuals without family or friends who had experienced this form of bias. These findings offer new insights and important implications regarding sociocultural factors that may fuel weight bias across different cultural contexts, and for targets of stigma-reduction efforts in different countries.

  10. [Prediction equations for fat percentage from body circumferences in prepubescent children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Campos, Rossana; De Marco, Ademir; de Arruda, Miguel; Martínez Salazar, Cristian; Margarita Salazar, Ciria; Valgas, Carmen; Fuentes, José Damián; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of body composition through direct and indirect methods allows the study of the various components of the human body, becoming the central hub for assessing nutritional status. The objective of the study was to develop equations for predicting body fat% from circumferential body arm, waist and calf and propose percentiles to diagnose the nutritional status of school children of both sexes aged 4-10 years. We selected intentionally (non-probabilistic) 515 children, 261 children and 254 being girls belonging to Program interaction and development of children and adolescents from the State University of Campinas (Sao Paulo, Brazil). Anthropometric variables were evaluated for weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfolds and body circumferences of arm, waist and calf, and the% fat determined by the equation proposed by Boileau, Lohman and Slaughter (1985). Through regression method 2 were generated equations to predict the percentage of fat from the body circumferences, the equations 1 and 2 were validated by cross validation method. The equations showed high predictive values ranging with a R² = 64-69%. In cross validation between the criterion and the regression equation proposed no significant difference (p > 0.05) and there was a high level of agreement to a 95% CI. It is concluded that the proposals are validated and shown as an alternative to assess the percentage of fat in school children of both sexes aged 4-10 years in the region of Campinas, SP (Brazil). Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Body weight and sensitivity of screening mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse H.; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Tjønneland, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Obese women tend to participate less in breast cancer screening than normal weight women. However, obese women have fattier breast than normal weight women, and screening mammography works better in fatty than in dense breasts. One might, therefore, hypothesise that obese women would actually...... benefit more from screening than other women. Methods: We combined data from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study and the organised population-based screening mammography programme in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women were categorised according to body mass index (BMI) (... sensitivity of screening mammography, while the specificity of screening remained stable across weight groups. Screening programmes should be organized to encourage these women to overcome obstacles for participation....

  12. Does higher education reduce body weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Jane; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight has increased in almost all Western countries in the past twenty to thirty years, with social disparities in many of these countries. This paper contributes to the literature on the relation between education and body weight by studying the effect of highe...... the probability of being in a healthy weight category (and reduces the probability of being overweight). Amongst men who grew up in middle- or high-income households, enrolling in higher education has no effect on the probability of being either healthy-weighted or overweight....

  13. Age-specific association between percent body fat and pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the association between percent body fat and pulmonary function among apparently normal twenty male children tidal volume aged 4 years and twenty male children aged 10 years in Ogbomoso. The mean functional residual capacity of the lung in male children aged 10 years was significantly higher ...

  14. Physics for Medicine and Biology: Determining Body Fat Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Ronald; Altman, Albert

    2011-04-01

    Hydrostatic weighing is a technique for determining body fat content that is based on Archimedes principle and varied applications of the ideal gas law. We use this procedure as an example of the types of physics material which should be presented in an introductory course for students that are interested in careers in biology and medicine.

  15. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne-Sofie Quist; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Gamborg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    -related inflammatory markers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,212 healthy individuals with information on habitual food intake from food frequency questionnaires, six different measures of body fat, and levels of six circulating inflammatory markers. Multiple linear regression analysis of intakes of PUFAs...

  16. Anthropometric predictive equations for percentage body fat in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predictive regression equations (with r2 = 0.931 and 0.945 respectively) that worked better for Nigerian women compared to other existing equations such as Durnin and Wormersley, Siri, Vogel el al, (1984) for the estimation of body fat were obtained. These equations·could be validly used for mass screening exercise in ...

  17. Body fat distribution as a risk factor for osteoporosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    risk factor for osteoporosis. Renee Blaauw, Eisa C. Albertse, Stephen Hough. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the body fat distribution of patients with osteoporosis (GP) with that of an appropriately matched non-GP control group. Design. Case control study. Setting. Department of Endocrinology and ...

  18. The Relationship between Lutein and Zeaxanthin Status and Body Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy R. Hammond

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project was to investigate the relationships between total and regional distribution of body fat and tissue lutein (L and zeaxanthin (Z status. Healthy men and women (N = 100; average age: 22.5 year, average BMI: 23.4 kg/m2 were evaluated. Total body and regional fat mass were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Delphi A. Serum LZ was measured using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and retinal LZ (referred to as macular pigment optical density; MPOD was measured using heterochromatic flicker photometry. Body fat percentage (total and regional was inversely related to MPOD (p < 0.01 but no significant relationship was found for serum LZ. Higher body fat percentage, even within relatively healthy limits, is associated with lower tissue LZ status. The results indicate that adiposity may affect the nutritional state of the retina. Such links may be one of the reasons that obesity promotes age-related degenerative conditions of the retina.

  19. Comparison of body fat percentage and physical performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the body fat percentage and physical performance of male national senior and junior karate athletes. Sixteen male karate kumite competitors of the national karate team (senior n = 8; junior n = 8) participated in this study. The tests included both assessment of selected ...

  20. Body Fat and Muscle Mass as Functions of Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, R. A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Hydrostatic weighing and chemical dilution are well accepted methods for measuring body composition. Recently, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) has become the preferred method. The two compartment algorithms used by these methods assume a fixed constant for lean body tissue. This constant has long been suspect of variations due to many…

  1. [Measurements of location of body fat distribution: an assessment of colinearity with body mass, adiposity and stature in female adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (%BF) and stature, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. A controlled cross sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 eutrophic, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 eutrophic and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures have been assessed: weight, stature, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central skinfolds (CS) and peripheral (PS). The %BF was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. The increase of central fat, represented by WC, UC, WSR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase of peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh were proportional to the increase of BMI and %BF. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The stature showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being regular or weak with waist. The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, because it showed the highest ability to predict adiposity in each group, and also presented regular or weak correlation with stature. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of fat mass and obesity-associated gene variant with lifestyle factors and body fat in Indian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya S Parthasarthy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Common intronic variants of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene have been associated with obesity-related traits in humans. Aims: (1 The aim of this study is to study the distribution of FTO gene variants across different body mass index (BMI categories and (2 to explore the association between FTO gene variants and lifestyle factors in obese and normal weight Indian children. Subjects and Methods: Fifty-six children (26 boys, mean age 10.3 ± 2.2 years were studied. Height, weight, and waist and hip circumference were measured. Physical activity (questionnaire and food intake (food frequency questionnaire were assessed. Body fat percentage (%BF was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. FTO allelic variants at rs9939609 site were detected by SYBR Green Amplification Refractory Mutation System real-time polymerase chain reaction using allele-specific primers. Generalized linear model was used to investigate the simultaneous influence of genetic and lifestyle factors on %BF. Results: Mean height, weight, and BMI of normal and obese children were 130.6 ± 7.1 versus 143.2 ± 15.6, 24.0 ± 5.2 versus 53.1 ± 15.8, and 13.9 ± 2.1 versus 25.3 ± 3.2, respectively. The frequency of AA allele was 57% among obese children and 35% in normal weight children. Children with the AA allele who were obese had least physical activity, whereas children with AT allele and obesity had the highest intake of calories when compared to children who had AT allele and were normal. %BF was positively associated with AA alleles and junk food intake and negatively with healthy food intake and moderate physical activity. Conclusions: Healthy lifestyle with high physical activity and diet low in calories and fat may help in modifying the risk imposed by FTO variants in children.

  4. Changes in height, body weight, and body composition in American football players from 1942 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzell, Anthony R; Potteiger, Jeffrey A; Kraemer, William J; Otieno, Sango

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to document changes in height (cm), body weight (kg), and body composition (%fat) of American football players from 1942 to 2011. Published articles were identified from databases and cross-referencing of bibliographies. Studies selected met the requirements of (1) having 2 of 3 dependent (height, body weight, and body composition) variables reported in the results; (2) containing a skill level of college or professional; (3) providing measured not self-reported data; and (4) published studies in English language journals. The data were categorized into groups based on skill level (college and professional). The player positions were grouped into 3 categories: mixed linemen (offensive and defensive linemen, tight ends, and linebackers), mixed offensive backs (quarterback and running backs), and mixed skilled positions (defensive backs and wide receivers). Linear regression was used to provide slope estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Unpaired t-tests were used to determine whether an individual regression slope was significantly different from zero. Statistical significance was set at p offensive backs 0.089-0.298 kg·y(-1); mixed skilled 0.078-0.334 kg·y(-1)). The college level mixed linemen showed a significant increase over time for height (95% CI: 0.034-0.188 cm·y(-1)) and body composition (0.046-0.275% fat per year). Significant increases in body weight over time were found for professional level mixed lineman (95% CI: 0.098-0.756 kg·y(-1)) and mixed offensive backs (95% CI: 0.1800-0.545 kg·y(-1)). There were no other significant changes at the professional level. These data demonstrate that body weight of all college players and professional mixed lineman have significantly increased from 1942 to 2011.

  5. Fat and female fecundity : prospective study of effect of body fat distribution on conception rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaadstra, B M; Seidell, J C; van Noord, P.A.H.; te Velde, E.R.; Habbema, J.D.; Vrieswijk, B; Karbaat, J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of body fat distribution in women of reproductive age on fecundity. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of all women who had entered a donor insemination programme. SETTING: One fertility clinic serving a large part of the midwest of the Netherlands. SUBJECTS: Of 542

  6. Fat and female fecundity : Prospective study of effect of body fat distribution on conception rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaadstra, B M; Seidell, J. C.; Van Noord, Paul A H; te Velde, E.R.; Habbema, J.D.F.; Vrieswijk, B; Karbaat, J

    1993-01-01

    Objectives - To study the effect of body fat distribution in women of reproductive age on fecundity. Design - Prospective cohort study of all women who had entered a donor insemination programme. Setting - One fertility clinic serving a large part of the midwest of the Netherlands. Subjects - Of 542

  7. Aerobic exercise in water versus walking on land: effects on indices of fat reduction and weight loss of obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gappmaier, E; Lake, W; Nelson, A G; Fisher, A G

    2006-12-01

    It has been suggested, that water exercise is less effective than weight-bearing exercise on land for body fat reduction. To test this hypothesis 38 middle-aged obese women (25-47% body fat) participated in a 13 week exercise-diet program to compare the effects of aerobic exercise in water versus walking on land on indices of fat reduction and weight loss changes. Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 exercise groups: 1) walking on land (WL), 2) swimming (SW) at 27 degrees C water temperature and 3) walking in 29 degrees C water (WW) at the shallow end of a declining pool with the water at navel height. Subjects in the SW group alternated breast-, side-, and backstroke swimming without face immersion. Exercise parameters were kept constant for all three groups. Subjects participated in supervised exercise sessions for 40 min, 4 times a week at 70% of age-predicted maximum heart rate. Subjects were tested before and after the 13-week experimental period. Significant reductions in body weight, (5.9 kg), percent body fat, (3.7%), and skinfold and girth measurements, occurred in all groups. There where no significant differences between groups. The results of this study indicate that there are no differences in the effect of aerobic activities in the water versus weight-bearing aerobic exercise on land on body composition components as long as similar intensity, duration and frequency are used.

  8. Selection for body weight in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with selection for body weight (BW) in dairy cattle. The economic efficiency of present breeding schemes might increase further when selection decisions also consider information on BW as BW relates to feed costs and revenues from beef production. However, the practical

  9. Effect of HIV infection on body composition and fat distribution in Rwandan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimura, Eugene; Anastos, Kathryn; Zheng Lin; Cohen, Mardge; Binagwaho, Agnes; Kotler, Donald P

    2010-01-01

    To assess the association of HIV infection with body weight and composition in Rwandan women. Body weight and composition, the latter determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and by anthropometry, were compared in 620 HIV-positive and 211 HIV-negative participants. Associations of HIV with body composition were assessed, and t tests compared the groups. HIV-positive women were younger (-7.0 years, P < .001) and shorter (-2.1 cm, P < .001). Mean body weight, body mass index (BMI), total body fat, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were similar. Mean fat-free mass was 2.5% greater in HIV-negative participants, and 19% of HIV-positive group had BMI <18.5 kg/m(2) versus 26% of the HIV-negative group (P < .05). CD4 counts and body composition were not associated. Malnutrition was common in this cohort of Rwandan women. However, HIV infection was not associated with nutritional status. Factors other than malnutrition may influence quality-of-life outcomes in HIV-infected Rwandan women. Initiatives to improve nutritional status should be population-wide and not restricted to the HIV-infected population.

  10. Sex effect on productive parameters, carcass and body fat composition of two commercial broilers lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rondelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate sex effect on behavior of two commercial broilers lines. Productive parameters, carcass composition and yield, amount and quality of fat deposited in the meat and skin and total body fat were studied. A completely randomized design with four treatments (MR-Male Ross, HR-Female Ross, MAF-Male Avian Farm and HAF-Female Avian Farm and eight repetitions of 40 chickens was used. Animals received water and food ad libitum. After 50 days, two birds (a male and a female per repetition were chosen at random and slaughtered for carcass evaluation. Samples of breast, leg, skin and abdominal fats were analyzed to determine the percentage of intramuscular fat, total cholesterol and fatty acid composition. The Ross line showed higher final weight and weight gain, better intake and feed conversion rate. Also, it was observed that females of both lines had similar results in relation to these parameters. Better yield of breast with bone was found in Ross males and females. In relation to legs and thigh, Ross males showed better results and no differences were observed among females of both lines. Males deposited less fat than females. Finally, differences in percentage of intramuscular fat, content of cholesterol in breast with skin, leg with skin and skin, percentage of saturated, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed between sex and lines.

  11. Calorie-restricted weight loss reverses high-fat diet-induced ghrelin resistance, which contributes to rebound weight gain in a ghrelin-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Dana I; Lockie, Sarah H; Wu, Qunli; Lemus, Moyra B; Stark, Romana; Andrews, Zane B

    2013-02-01

    Twelve weeks of high-fat diet feeding causes ghrelin resistance in arcuate neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons. In the current study, we investigated whether diet-induced weight loss could restore NPY/AgRP neuronal responsiveness to ghrelin and whether ghrelin mediates rebound weight gain after calorie-restricted (CR) weight loss. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were allocated to one of two dietary interventions until they reached the weight of age-matched lean controls. DIO mice received chow diet ad libitum or chow diet with 40% CR. Chow-fed and high-fat-fed mice served as controls. Both dietary interventions normalized body weight, glucose tolerance, and plasma insulin. We show that diet-induced weight loss with CR increases total plasma ghrelin, restores ghrelin sensitivity, and increases hypothalamic NPY and AgRP mRNA expression. We propose that long-term DIO creates a higher body weight set-point and that weight loss induced by CR, as seen in the high-fat CR group, provokes the brain to protect the new higher set-point. This adaptation to weight loss likely contributes to rebound weight gain by increasing peripheral ghrelin concentrations and restoring the function of ghrelin-responsive neuronal populations in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Indeed, we also show that DIO ghrelin-knockout mice exhibit reduced body weight regain after CR weight loss compared with ghrelin wild-type mice, suggesting ghrelin mediates rebound weight gain after CR weight loss.

  12. Concordant lipoprotein and weight responses to dietary fat changein identical twins with divergent exercise levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Blanche, Patricia J.; Rawlings, Robin; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2004-06-01

    Background/Objective: The purpose of this study is to testthe extent that individual lipoprotein responses to diet can beattributed to genes in the presence of divergent exercise levels.Design:Twenty-eight pairs of male monozygotic twins (one mostly sedentary, theother running an average of 50 km/week more than the sedentary twin) wentfrom a 6-week 40 percent fat diet to a 6-week 20 percent fat diet in acrossover design. The diets reduced fat primarily by reducing saturatedand polyunsaturated fat (both from 14 percent to 4 percent), whileincreasing carbohydrate intake from 45 percent to 65 percent. Results:Despite the twins' differences in physical activity, the dietarymanipulation produced significantly correlated changes (P<0.05) in thetwin's total cholesterol (r=0.56), low-density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol (r=0.70), large, buoyant LDL (Sf7-12, r=0.52), apo A-I(r=0.49), Lp(a) (r=0.49), electrophoresis measurements of LDL-I (LDLsbetween 26 and 28.5 nm diameter, r=0.48), LDL-IIB (25.2-24.6 nm, r=0.54),LDL-IV (22-24.1 nm, r=0.50), and body weights (r=0.41). Replacing fatswith carbohydrates significantly decreased the size and ultracentrifugeflotation rate of the major LDL, the LDL mass concentrations of Sf7-12,LDL-I, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and apo A-I, andsignificantly increased LDL-IIIA (24.7-25.5 nm diameter) and Lp(a).Conclusions: Even in the presence of extreme exercise difference, genessignificantly affect changes in LDL, apo A-I, Lp(a) and body weight whendietary fats are replaced with carbohydrates.

  13. Liver volume, intrahepatic fat and body weight in the course of a lifestyle interventional study. Analysis with quantitative MR-based methods; Lebervolumen, Leberfettanteil und Koerpergewicht im Verlauf einer Lebensstilinterventionsstudie. Eine Analyse mit quantitativen MR-basierten Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongers, M.N. [Klinikum der Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie der Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Stefan, N.; Fritsche, A.; Haering, H.U. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Innere Medizin IV - Endokrinologie und Diabetologie, Angiologie, Nephrologie und Klinische Chemie, Tuebingen (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen an der Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Diabetes-Forschung und Metabolische Erkrankungen (IDM), Tuebingen (Germany); Nikolaou, K. [Klinikum der Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Schick, F. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie der Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Machann, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie der Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen an der Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Diabetes-Forschung und Metabolische Erkrankungen (IDM), Tuebingen (Germany); Deutsches Zentrum fuer Diabetesforschung (DZD), Neuherberg (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between changes in liver volume, the amount of intrahepatic lipids (IHL) and body weight during lifestyle interventions. In a prospective study 150 patients with an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus were included who followed a caloric restriction diet for 6 months. In the retrospective analysis 18 women and 9 men (age range 22-71 years) with an average body mass index (BMI) of 32 kg/m{sup 2} were enrolled. The liver volume was determined at the beginning and after 6 months by three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D-MRI, echo gradient, opposed-phase) and IHLs were quantified by volume-selective MR spectroscopy in single voxel stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM). Univariable and multivariable correlation analyses between changes of liver volume (Δliver volume), intrahepatic lipids (ΔIHL) and body weight (ΔBW) were performed. Univariable correlation analysis in the whole study cohort showed associations between ΔIHL and ΔBW (r = 0.69; p < 0.0001), ΔIHL and Δliver volume (r = 0.66; p = 0.0002) as well as ΔBW and Δliver volume (r = 0.5; p = 0.0073). Multivariable correlation analysis revealed that changes of liver volume are primarily determined by changes in IHL independent of changes in body weight (β = 0.0272; 95 % CI: 0.0155-0.034; p < 0.0001). Changes of liver volume during lifestyle interventions are independent of changes of body weight primarily determined by changes of IHL. These results show the reversibility of augmented liver volume in steatosis if it is possible to reduce IHLs during lifestyle interventions. (orig.) [German] Lassen sich Zusammenhaenge zwischen den Aenderungen des Lebervolumens, des Anteils intrahepatischer Lipide und des Koerpergewichts waehrend einer Lebensstilintervention feststellen ?In einer prospektiven Interventionsstudie unterzogen sich 150 Probanden mit erhoehtem Diabetesrisiko fuer 6 Monate einer diaetetischen

  14. Mapping quantitative trait loci affecting fatness and breast muscle weight in meat-type chicken lines divergently selected on abdominal fatness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neau André

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTL for abdominal fatness and breast muscle weight were investigated in a three-generation design performed by inter-crossing two experimental meat-type chicken lines that were divergently selected on abdominal fatness. A total of 585 F2 male offspring from 5 F1 sires and 38 F1 dams were recorded at 8 weeks of age for live body, abdominal fat and breast muscle weights. One hundred-twenty nine microsatellite markers, evenly located throughout the genome and heterozygous for most of the F1 sires, were used for genotyping the F2 birds. In each sire family, those offspring exhibiting the most extreme values for each trait were genotyped. Multipoint QTL analyses using maximum likelihood methods were performed for abdominal fat and breast muscle weights, which were corrected for the effects of 8-week body weight, dam and hatching group. Isolated markers were assessed by analyses of variance. Two significant QTL were identified on chromosomes 1 and 5 with effects of about one within-family residual standard deviation. One breast muscle QTL was identified on GGA1 with an effect of 2.0 within-family residual standard deviation.

  15. Functional Comparison for Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal and Fecal Microflora Enzyme Activities between Low Molecular Weight Chitosan and Chitosan Oligosaccharide in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chen-Yuan; Feng, Shih-An; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2017-07-24

    The present study investigated and compared the regulatory effects on the lipid-related metabolism and intestinal disaccharidase/fecal bacterial enzyme activities between low molecular weight chitosan and chitosan oligosaccharide in high-fat-diet-fed rats. Diet supplementation of low molecular weight chitosan showed greater efficiency than chitosan oligosaccharide in suppressing the increased weights in body and in liver and adipose tissues of high-fat-diet-fed rats. Supplementation of low molecular weight chitosan also showed a greater improvement than chitosan oligosaccharide in imbalance of plasma, hepatic, and fecal lipid profiles, and intestinal disaccharidase activities in high-fat-diet-fed rats. Moreover, both low molecular weight chitosan and chitosan oligosaccharide significantly decreased the fecal microflora mucinase and β-glucuronidase activities in high-fat-diet-fed rats. These results suggest that low molecular weight chitosan exerts a greater positive improvement than chitosan oligosaccharide in lipid metabolism and intestinal disaccharidase activity in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats.

  16. Discriminant models to estimate the body weight loss after a six-month long diet and exercise-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Tirado, Miguel A; Benito, Pedro J; Peinado, Ana B; Zapico, Augusto G; Calderón, Franciso J

    2016-01-01

    The main concern of the people who follow a weight loss program is the body weight loss, independently of the body composition. The aim of this study was to create a mathematical model able to discriminate the body weight change based on initial body composition variables. The study included 239 overweight and obese participants (18-50 years; Body Mass Index (BMI)>25 and weight loss, during twenty-four weeks while having 25-30% caloric restriction. Two multivariate discriminant models were performed taking into account the groups below and above the mean body weight change. The discriminant models obtained could discriminate the body weight change with a 65-70% of correct classification. BW, fat-free mass (FFM), and fat mass (FM) were shown to be the most discriminant variables for the discriminant models. People having higher FM and FFM at the beginning of an intervention will lose a greater amount of weight until the end of it.

  17. Shuttle-food consumption, body composition and body weight in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Frye, Sherrie; Kloeris, Vickie; Rice, Barbara; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Spector, Elisabeth; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to determine whether the NASA Space Shuttle food system can provide the food and fluid required to mitigate weight loss and physical decomposition in 12 female subjects for 28 days. Subjects receive only foods from the Space Shuttle system for four weeks within an 11-wk monitoring period. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is employed throughout the trial period to study lean body mass, percent body fat, and energy-intake levels with attention given to differences the experimental diet and the subjects' typical diet. Percent body fat is found to change significantly with losses of less than 0.05 percent, whereas energy intake based on autonomous diet choices by the participants does not vary significantly. Lean body mass remains unchanged throughout the study in which the subjects receive a relatively low-fat and low-protein menu. The 100 items on the space shuttle list of approved food items are shown to provide a palatable dietary framework for maintaining the health of female astronauts.

  18. Body composition and body fat distribution in relation to later risk of acute myocardial infarction: a Danish follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegger, Jakob; Schmidt, E B; Obel, Tina

    2011-01-01

    to evaluate LBM may lead to misclassification of MI risk in both lean and obese persons. We investigated the associations between incident MI and bioelectrical impedance analyses (BIA) derived measures of body composition in combination with body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures of body fat......Introduction:Obesity is a modifiable risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (MI), but lean body mass (LBM) may also be an important factor. Low LBM may increase the risk of MI and LBM may modify the effect of obesity on MI. Thus, the inability of the classical anthropometric measures...... circumference and BIA of body composition including body fat mass (BFM), body fat percentage and LBM were measured at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazard models with age as time axis and performed extensive control for confounding. Weight, BMI, classical estimates of abdominal obesity and BIA estimates...

  19. The change of increases body weight and weight ratios of rats during prolonged cadmium toxicosis

    OpenAIRE

    GUTYI B.; HUFRIY D.; BINKEVYCH V.; PAVLIV A.; BINKEVYCH O.; VENGRYN A.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents data changes increases body weight and weight ratios of rats in chronic cadmium toxicosis. Found that when asking cadmium chloride in body weight gain in rats and reduced weight change ratios of internal organs.

  20. Visceral fat and weight loss in obese subjects : relationship to serum lipids, energy expenditure and sex hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the relationships between visceral fat accumulation and serum lipids, energy expenditure, and sex hormone levels in healthy obese men and premenopausal women undergoing weight loss therapy. The subjects, aged 27-51 years, with an initial body mass index of 28-38 kg/m

  1. Hormone replacement therapy dissociates fat mass and bone mass, and tends to reduce weight gain in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L B; Vestergaard, P; Hermann, A P

    2003-01-01

    in women randomized to HRT (1.94 +/- 4.86 kg) than in women randomized to no HRT (2.57 +/- 4.63, p = 0.046). A similar pattern was seen in the group receiving HRT or not by their own choice. The smaller weight gain in women on HRT was almost entirely caused by a lesser gain in fat. The main determinant...... of the weight gain was a decline in physical fitness. Women opting for HRT had a significantly lower body weight at inclusion than the other participants, but the results in the self-selected part of the study followed the pattern found in the randomized part. The change in fat mass was the strongest predictor...... of bone changes in untreated women, whereas the change in lean body mass was the strongest predictor when HRT was given. Body weight increases after the menopause. The gain in weight is related to a decrease in working capacity. HRT is associated with a smaller increase in fat mass after menopause. Fat...

  2. Weight change and the conservation of lean mass in old age: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newman, A.B.; Lee, J.S.; Visser, M.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Nevitt, M.C.; Harris, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight loss may contribute to the loss of lean mass with age. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the relation between weight loss or weight gain and changes in lean mass and fat mass in older adults. DESIGN: We observed changes in weight and body composition during a 4-y period in

  3. [PREDICTORS OF WEIGHT LOSS AND FAT IN THE DIETARY MANAGEMENT: SEX, AGE, BMI AND CONSULTING ASSISTANCE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig García-Galbis, Manuel; Rizo Baeza, Mercedes; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2015-09-01

    WL%: percentage of weight loss; % FL: percentage fat loss; PNLWF: patients who lose weight or fat; PLWF: patients who lose weight and fat. assess whether the% WL and FL% in the dietary treatment was affected by gender, age, BMI and assistance to the query. 4,700 consultations, 670 patients (BMI ≥25), in the south-east of Spain (2006-12). Balanced and hypo-caloric diet was used. Two types of patients: PNLWF and PLWF (91.9%). in PLWF, men and those attending a greater number of occasions to the consultation have shown a greater loss against women (%FL: 23.0 vs 14.3%, p = 0.000; %WL: 7.7 vs 6.6%, p = 0.020), and those who attend less frequently (%FL: 19.1 vs 7.3%, p = 0.000; %WL: 7.8 vs 2.9%, p = 0.000). Multinomial regression analysis (PNLWF / PLWF) indicates that only attend more than one and a half to the consultation is a factor in the loss, OR 8.3 (IC 95% 4.5-15.1; p = 0.000). the body fat measurement provides additional information lost weight; Most patients attend more than six weeks, obtained a high %FL; attendance is a predictor of loss; the %FL indicates that the dietary management plays a major role in the resolution of this pathology; It is recommended to design practical schemes of action process nutritionists according to the IMCI and variable. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Body Fat Percentage Prediction Using Intelligent Hybrid Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehjen E. Shao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess of body fat often leads to obesity. Obesity is typically associated with serious medical diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, knowing the body fat is an extremely important issue since it affects everyone’s health. Although there are several ways to measure the body fat percentage (BFP, the accurate methods are often associated with hassle and/or high costs. Traditional single-stage approaches may use certain body measurements or explanatory variables to predict the BFP. Diverging from existing approaches, this study proposes new intelligent hybrid approaches to obtain fewer explanatory variables, and the proposed forecasting models are able to effectively predict the BFP. The proposed hybrid models consist of multiple regression (MR, artificial neural network (ANN, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, and support vector regression (SVR techniques. The first stage of the modeling includes the use of MR and MARS to obtain fewer but more important sets of explanatory variables. In the second stage, the remaining important variables are served as inputs for the other forecasting methods. A real dataset was used to demonstrate the development of the proposed hybrid models. The prediction results revealed that the proposed hybrid schemes outperformed the typical, single-stage forecasting models.

  5. Fat and female fecundity: prospective study of effect of body fat distribution on conception rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaadstra, B M; Seidell, J C; Van Noord, P A; te Velde, E R; Habbema, J D; Vrieswijk, B; Karbaat, J

    1993-02-20

    To study the effect of body fat distribution in women of reproductive age on fecundity. Prospective cohort study of all women who had entered a donor insemination programme. One fertility clinic serving a large part of the midwest of the Netherlands. Of 542 women attending the clinic for artificial insemination for the first time, 500 women were eligible for study. Probability of conception per cycle and number of insemination cycles before pregnancy or stopping treatment. A 0.1 unit increase in waist-hip ratio led to a 30% decrease in probability of conception per cycle (hazard ratio 0.706; 95% confidence interval 0.562 to 0.887) after adjustment for age, fatness, reasons for artificial insemination, cycle length and regularity, smoking, and parity. Increasing age was significantly related to lower fecundity (p fat distribution in women of reproductive age seems to have more impact on fertility than age or obesity.

  6. Postmenopausal sex hormones in relation to body fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Stefanie; Schmidt, Martina E; Vrieling, Alina; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Becker, Susen; Kaaks, Rudolf; Zaineddin, Aida K; Buck, Katharina; Benner, Axel; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Steindorf, Karen

    2012-05-01

    Being overweight or obese increases the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. A potential reason may be the frequently observed positive association of BMI with endogenous sex hormones and its negative association with sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a woman's body fat distribution shows a BMI-independent association with these breast cancer-related biomarkers. Performing cross-sectional analyses among 1,180 postmenopausal women, we assessed whether associations of surrogates for an abdominal (waist circumference; waist-to-hip ratio, WHR) and gluteofemoral (hip circumference) fat distribution with estrone, total and free estradiol, androstenedione, total and free testosterone, and SHBG changed after adjustment for, or stratification by, BMI. All anthropometric measures were positively associated with estrogens and free testosterone, and negatively with SHBG. After adjustment for BMI, associations of free estradiol, free testosterone, and SHBG with both waist circumference and WHR remained significant, but all initially significant associations with hip circumference were abolished. In stratified analyses, waist circumference and WHR correlated with free estradiol, free testosterone, and SHBG in women with a BMI fat on these biomarkers may be masked by the already large amount of overall body fat. On the whole, our results indicate that waist circumference and WHR, but not hip circumference, are associated with SHBG and SHBG-related sex hormones (free estradiol and free testosterone) independently of BMI.

  7. Longitudinal changes in desired body weight compared to changes in body weight: evidence of adaptation to weight gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aars, Nils Abel; Jacobsen, Bjarne K

    2016-01-01

    Overweight individuals desire a lower weight than they actually have. Little is known on the extent to which this discrepancy is reduced over time due to adaptation or resignation. The aim of this study is to describe cross-sectional relationships and longitudinal changes in desired body weight and differences between actual and desired body weight according to gender, age and category of body mass index in a large, adult cohort in Tromsø, Norway. Cross-sectional analyses of 8960 men and 9992 women aged 25-69 participating in Tromsø 4 (during 1994-1995), and longitudinal analyses of 3210 men and 3689 women participating in both Tromsø 4 (during 1994-1995) and Tromsø 6 (during 2007-2008). Simple descriptive statistics and linear regression was used to describe actual and desired weight, the difference between them, and how gender and age are related to the changes in actual and desired weight over this 13-year period. The difference between actual and desired body weight was largest for the obese and higher among the overweight than the normal weight for both genders. While normal weight men were quite satisfied with their body weight, normal weight women were not. Actual weight increased more than desired weight for all age groups and both genders except the oldest women. The difference between change in actual body weight and change in desired body weight during the 13-year follow-up was significantly larger among men (2.0 kg) than women (1.5 kg) (p body weight during the 13 years and change in desired body weight in the same period did not differ between men and women and, in gender specific analyses, between subjects with normal weight and those who were overweight or obese at start of follow-up. Older people adapt more to weight gain than younger age groups, with clear gender differences. Further studies of longitudinal changes in desired weight are warranted.

  8. Relationship between perceived body weight and body mass index based on self- reported height and weight among university students: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stock Christiane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite low rates of obesity, many university students perceive themselves as overweight, especially women. This is of concern, because inappropriate weight perceptions can lead to unhealthy behaviours including eating disorders. Methods We used the database from the Cross National Student Health Survey (CNSHS, consisting of 5,900 records of university students from Bulgaria, Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Spain and Turkey to analyse differences in perceived weight status based on the question: "Do you consider yourself much too thin, a little too thin, just right, a little too fat or much too fat?". The association between perceived weight and body mass index (BMI calculated from self-reported weight and height was assessed with generalized non-parametric regression in R library gam. Results Although the majority of students reported a normal BMI (72-84% of males, 65-83% of females, only 32% to 68% of students considered their weight "just right". Around 20% of females with BMI of 20 kg/m2 considered themselves "a little too fat" or "too fat", and the percentages increased to 60% for a BMI of 22.5 kg/m2. Male students rarely felt "a little too fat" or "too fat" below BMI of 22.5 kg/m2, but most felt too thin with a BMI of 20 kg/m2. Conclusions Weight ideals are rather uniform across the European countries, with female students being more likely to perceive themselves as "too fat" at a normal BMI, while male students being more likely to perceive themselves as "too thin". Programs to prevent unhealthy behaviours to achieve ill-advised weight ideals may benefit students.

  9. L-ascorbic acid addition to chitosan reduces body weight in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eun Young; Jun, Sung Chul; Chang, Un Jae; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we have found that the addition of L-ascorbic acid to chitosan enhanced the reduction in body weight gain in guinea pigs fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that the addition of L-ascorbic acid to chitosan would accelerate the reduction of body weight in humans, similar to the animal model. Overweight subjects administered chitosan with or without L-ascorbic acid for 8 weeks, were assigned to three groups: Control group (N=26, placebo, vehicle only), Chito group (N=27, 3 g/day chitosan), and Chito-vita group (N=27, 3 g/day chitosan plus 2 g/day L-ascorbic acid). The body weights and body mass index (BMI) of the Chito and Chito-vita groups decreased significantly (preduction of body weight and BMI was accentuated by the addition of L-ascorbic acid. The fat mass, percentage body fat, body circumference, and skinfold thickness in the Chito and Chito-vita groups decreased more than the Control group; however, these parameters were not significantly different between the three groups. Chitosan combined with L-ascorbic acid may be useful for controlling body weight.

  10. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness.

  11. Self-perception of body weight, weight management practices and goals, and other weight-related factors in central and eastern European adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M; Ihász, Ferenc; Uvacsek, Martina; Kalabiska, Irén; Johnson, Erin; Hantiu, Iacob; Klarova, Renata; Simonek, Jaromir

    Self-perception of body weight, management practices and goals, and other weight-related factors were assessed among a sample of 2,566 adolescents from 30 high schools in Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Ukraine, and Poland. Students who perceived themselves as much too fat were more likely than those with other weight perceptions to engage in weight management practices to lose weight, have higher body mass index, rate themselves lower on physical attractiveness, and estimate higher percentages of their same-sex friends as trying to lose weight. Similar to other research, boys and girls differed on self-perception of weight and other weight-related factors. Cross-cultural comparisons between central and eastern European adolescents and U.S. adolescents, as well as east and southeast Asian youth are made. Implications for health education practice are discussed.

  12. Treadmill walking with body weight support

    OpenAIRE

    Aaslund, Mona Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rehabilitating walking in patients post-stroke with safe, task-specific, intensive training of sufficient duration, can be challenging. Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) has been proposed as an effective method to meet these challenges and may therefore have benefits over training overground walking. However, walking characteristics should not be aggravated during BWSTT or require a long familiarisation time compared to overground walking. Objectives: To investi...

  13. Bisphenol A: Perinatal exposure and body weight

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Beverly S.; Soto, Ana M.

    2009-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate and other plastics including resins that line food and beverage containers. BPA is known to leach from products in contact with food and drink, and is therefore thought to be routinely ingested. In a recent cross sectional study, BPA was detected in urine samples from 92.6% of the US population examined. The potential for BPA to influence body weight is suggested by in vitro studies demonstrating effects of BPA on adipocyte differentiation, li...

  14. Universal equation for estimating ideal body weight and body weight at any BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Blackburn, George L; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2016-05-01

    Ideal body weight (IBW) equations and body mass index (BMI) ranges have both been used to delineate healthy or normal weight ranges, although these 2 different approaches are at odds with each other. In particular, past IBW equations are misaligned with BMI values, and unlike BMI, the equations have failed to recognize that there is a range of ideal or target body weights. For the first time, to our knowledge, we merged the concepts of a linear IBW equation and of defining target body weights in terms of BMI. With the use of calculus and approximations, we derived an easy-to-use linear equation that clinicians can use to calculate both IBW and body weight at any target BMI value. We measured the empirical accuracy of the equation with the use of NHANES data and performed a comparative analysis with past IBW equations. Our linear equation allowed us to calculate body weights for any BMI and height with a mean empirical accuracy of 0.5-0.7% on the basis of NHANES data. Moreover, we showed that our body weight equation directly aligns with BMI values for both men and women, which avoids the overestimation and underestimation problems at the upper and lower ends of the height spectrum that have plagued past IBW equations. Our linear equation increases the sophistication of IBW equations by replacing them with a single universal equation that calculates both IBW and body weight at any target BMI and height. Therefore, our equation is compatible with BMI and can be applied with the use of mental math or a calculator without the need for an app, which makes it a useful tool for both health practitioners and the general public. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Single injection of clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks decreases abdominal fat pad weight in growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijiri, Daichi; Ishitani, Kanae; El-Deep, Mahmoud Mohamed Hamza; Kawaguchi, Mana; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of clenbuterol injection into newly hatched chicks on both the abdominal fat pad tissue weight and the skeletal muscle weight during subsequent growth. Twenty-seven 1-day-old chicks were divided into two groups, receiving either a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clenbuterol (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not affected by clenbuterol injection during the 5-week experimental period, while the abdominal fat pad tissue weight of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was lower than that of the control chicks at 5 weeks post-injection. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were significantly increased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, while plasma triacylglycerol concentrations did not differ. Additionally, the enzymatic activity of fatty acid synthase was lower in the liver of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Conversely, the skeletal muscle weights were not affected by clenbuterol injection. These results suggest that a single clenbuterol injection into 1-day-old chicks decreases the abdominal fat pad tissue weight, but may not affect skeletal muscle weights during growth. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Fat and female fecundity prospective study of effect of body fat distribution on conception rates.

    OpenAIRE

    Zaadstra, B.M.; Seidell, J.C.; Noord, van, P.A.H.; Velde, te, E.R.; Habbema, J.D.F.; Vrieswijk, B.; Karbaat, J.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the effect of body fat distribution in women of reproductive age on fecundity. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study of all women who had entered a donor insemination programme. SETTING--One fertility clinic serving a large part of the midwest of the Netherlands. SUBJECTS--Of 542 women attending the clinic for artificial insemination for the first time, 500 women were eligible for study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Probability of conception per cycle and number of insemination cycl...

  17. Maternal weight and body composition in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies on weight gain in pregnancy suggested that maternal weight on average increased by 0.5-2.0 kg in the first trimester of pregnancy. This study examined whether mean maternal weight or body composition changes in the first trimester of pregnancy. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. POPULATION: We studied 1,000 Caucasian women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. SETTING: Large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Maternal height and weight were measured digitally in a standardized way and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Maternal body composition was measured using segmental multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA). Sonographic examination confirmed the gestational age and a normal ongoing singleton pregnancy in all subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal weight, maternal body composition. RESULTS: The mean BMI was 25.7 kg\\/m(2) and 19.0% of the women were in the obese category (> or =30.0 kg\\/m(2)). Cross-sectional analysis by gestational age showed that there was no change in mean maternal weight, BMI, total body water, fat mass, fat-free mass or bone mass before 14 weeks gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, mean maternal weight and mean body composition values remain unchanged in the first trimester of pregnancy. This has implications for guidelines on maternal weight gain during pregnancy. We also recommend that calculation of BMI in pregnancy and gestational weight gain should be based on accurate early pregnancy measurements, and not on self-reported or prepregnancy measurements.

  18. Body fat mass of exclusively breastfed infants born to overweight mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Aline; Shankar, Kartik; Badger, Thomas M

    2012-07-01

    Although there is evidence that maternal prepregnancy obesity (body mass index [BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)] ≥30) results in elevated risk of obesity in the offspring later in life, maternal prepregnancy overweight (BMI 25 to 29.9) has not been clearly demonstrated as a risk factor for the future development of obesity in the offspring. Our objective was to determine if body composition differs between infants born to lean or overweight breastfeeding women. Body composition (PeaPod, COSMED USA, Inc) and anthropometric outcomes were measured in 65 infants born to lean mothers (n=46) (BMI 18.5 to 24.9) or overweight mothers (n=19) (BMI 25 to 29.9) between 2006 and 2007. Maternal body composition (BodPod, COSMED USA, Inc) was also measured. Body fat mass was higher in infants born to overweight mothers compared with infants born to lean mothers at age 2 weeks and 3 months (11.9% vs 15.3% and 24.1% vs 26.8%, respectively; Pweight gain and birth weight, body fat mass was significantly greater only at age 2 weeks. Infants of overweight mothers have greater body fat mass in the neonatal period compared with infants of lean mothers, suggesting that maternal overweight may predispose fetal metabolism to favor fat storage. Although our data suggest that this effect is short lived, future studies are needed to investigate children beyond the infancy period to test if body composition is greater in offspring of overweight women. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in body weight, composition, and shape: a 4-year study of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Simmons, Karla P; Connell, Lenda Jo; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, and shape in a group of male and female students over the 4-year college period. Anthropometric assessments including height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and body shape (via 3-dimensional body scanning) were conducted at the beginning of the freshman year and end of the senior year in 131 college students. Four-year changes included significant (p obese increased from 18% to 31%. The number of females and males with ≥30% and 20% body fat, respectively, increased from n = 14 to n = 26 (with n = 4 exhibiting normal weight obesity) over the 4-year period. The waist circumference changes were significantly (p obesity and normal weight obesity among this college population suggests the need for additional health promotion strategies on college campuses.

  20. [The effect of high-frequency current and ultrasonic wave on selected indicators of body weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełczewska, Magdalena; Szymczyk, Jerzy; Leszczyńsk, Ryszard; Błaszczyk, Jan

    2015-03-01

    Effective change the appearance of the body through available both invasive and non-invasive methods such as treatment has been documented in numerous clinical trials. Liposuction and lipoplasty are currently the most widely used methods of reducing fat deposits. Technological advances made has become increasingly popular use of invasive procedures using energy fields and high-frequency ultrasonic wave. It is now one of the most effective and safe methods of treatment, based on the principle of mechanical and thermal stimulation of the physiological processes leading to the reduction of locally accumulated fat. The aim of the study was to evaluate the behavior of selected parameters of body weight in patients undergoing fat reduction BTL Exilis device. IThe study included a 50-group of women who are patients of the Specialist Outpatient Clinic Al-Med in Kolobrzeg. Taken twice the measurement of body weight, waist circumference and thickness measurement of skinfolds before the first treatment, and after a series of treatments. Treatment consisted of 4 sessions while maintaining the 10-day interval between treatments. In the study a statistically significant reduction in the studied parameters such as actual body weight, waist circumference, fat mass and thickness of the skinfolds were showed. The effect of treatment with the energy field of highfrequency ultrasonic wave in a reduction in the size of fat body mass and improving the contour shape. Willingness to continue participation examined in this type of surgery proves positive reception of therapy and its effectiveness. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  1. Prolonged adaptation to fat-rich diet and training; effects on body fat stores and insulin resistance in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effect of prolonged adaptation to training and fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on body composition and insulin resistance.......To investigate the effect of prolonged adaptation to training and fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on body composition and insulin resistance....

  2. Dietary supplements for improving body composition and reducing body weight: where is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manore, Melinda M

    2012-04-01

    Weight-loss supplements typically fall into 1 of 4 categories depending on their hypothesized mechanism of action: products that block the absorption of fat or carbohydrate, stimulants that increase thermogenesis, products that change metabolism and improve body composition, and products that suppress appetite or give a sense of fullness. Each category is reviewed, and an overview of the current science related to their effectiveness is presented. While some weight-loss supplements produce modest effects (weight loss), many have either no or few randomized clinical trials examining their effectiveness. A number of factors confound research results associated with the efficacy of weight-loss supplements, such as small sample sizes, short intervention periods, little or no follow-up, and whether the supplement is given in combination with an energy-restricted diet or increased exercise expenditure. There is no strong research evidence indicating that a specific supplement will produce significant weight loss (>2 kg), especially in the long term. Some foods or supplements such as green tea, fiber, and calcium supplements or dairy products may complement a healthy lifestyle to produce small weight losses or prevent weight gain over time. Weight-loss supplements containing metabolic stimulants (e.g., caffeine, ephedra, synephrine) are most likely to produce adverse side effects and should be avoided.

  3. Challenging fat talk: An experimental investigation of reactions to body disparaging conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambwani, Suman; Baumgardner, Megan; Guo, Cai; Simms, Lea; Abromowitz, Emily

    2017-12-01

    Although "fat talk" is associated with increased eating disorder risk, the predictors of fat talk engagement and viable alternatives to these pervasive conversations remain unclear. The current experiment examined responses to fat talk versus feminist-oriented challenging fat talk scenarios. Undergraduate women (N=283) completed baseline questionnaires assessing body dissatisfaction, fat talk engagement, and positive impression management. One week later, they were randomized to view one of the two scenarios, followed by assessment of mood, fat talk engagement, social acceptability, and social likeability. Results indicated that the challenging fat talk vignette (versus the fat talk vignette) yielded less negative affect and fat talk and was perceived as more socially attractive with a more likeable target character. Baseline body dissatisfaction, baseline fat talk tendencies, and momentary negative affect predicted post-exposure fat talk engagement. Current findings highlight possibilities for implementing feminist language and psychoeducation in fat talk prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanisms of body weight gain in patients with Parkinson's disease after subthalamic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaurier, C; Morio, B; Bannier, S; Derost, P; Arnaud, P; Brandolini-Bunlon, M; Giraudet, C; Boirie, Y; Durif, F

    2007-07-01

    Chronic bilateral subthalamic stimulation leads to a spectacular clinical improvement in patients with motor complications. However, the post-operative body weight gain involved may limit the benefits of surgery and induce critical metabolic disorders. Twenty-four Parkinsonians (61.1 +/- 1.4 years) were examined 1 month before (M - 1) and 3 months after (M + 3) surgery. Body composition and energy expenditure (EE) were measured (1) over 36 h in calorimetric chambers (CC) with rigorous control of food intakes and activities [sleep metabolic rate, resting activities, meals, 3 or 4 sessions of 20 min on a training bicycle at 13 km/h and daily EE] and (2) in resting conditions (basal metabolic rate) during an acute L-dopa challenge (M - 1) or according to acute 'off' and 'on' stimulation (M + 3). Before surgery, EE was compared between the Parkinsonian patients and healthy subjects matched for height and body composition (metabolic rate during sleep, daily EE) or matched to predicted values (basal metabolic rate). Before surgery, in Parkinsonian men but not women, (1) daily EE was higher while sleep metabolic rate was lower compared to healthy matched men (+9.2 +/- 3.9 and -8.2 +/- 2.3%, respectively, P body weight increase together with fat mass (P body weight increase together with fat mass (P body weight gain. Parkinson's disease is associated with profound alterations in the central control of energy metabolism. Normalization of energy metabolism after DBS-STN implantation may favour body weight gain, of which quality was gender specific. As men gained primarily fat-free mass, a reasonable weight gain may be tolerated, in contrast with women who gained only fat. Other factors such as changes in free-living physical activity may help to limit body weight gain in some patients.

  5. Effects of Reductions of Body Fat and Regional Adipose Tissue on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Among Eldery Japanese

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeto, Kazuhiro; Koyama, Hiroshi; Takemoto, Tai-Ichiro

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate effects of improvement of obesity on glucose and lipid metabolism, changes of body weight, skinfolds and biochemical parameters in glucose and lipid metabolism were examined through a six month health education on excercise and diet. Subjects were 20 men and 36 women aged from 48 to 87, who had overweight and/or glucose intolerance. Weight, relative weight and fat mass were significantly reduced after the program in both sexes. Circumference ratios were reduced only in women. The ...

  6. Energy-dense snack food intake in adolescence: longitudinal relationship to weight and fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Sarah M; Bandini, Linda G; Naumova, Elena N; Cyr, Helene; Colclough, Skye; Dietz, William H; Must, Aviva

    2004-03-01

    The longitudinal relationship between the consumption of energy-dense snack (EDS) foods and relative weight change during adolescence is uncertain. Using data from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Growth and Development Study, the current analysis was undertaken to examine the longitudinal relationship of EDS food intake with relative weight status and percentage body fat and to examine how EDS food consumption is related to television viewing. One hundred ninety-six nonobese premenarcheal girls 8 to 12 years old were enrolled between 1990 and 1993 and followed until 4 years after menarche. At each annual follow-up visit, data were collected on percentage body fat (%BF), BMI z score, and dietary intake. Categories of EDS foods considered were baked goods, ice cream, chips, sugar-sweetened soda, and candy. At study entry, girls had a mean +/- SD BMI z score of -0.27 +/- 0.89, consumed 2.3 +/- 1.7 servings of EDS foods per day, and consumed 15.7 +/- 8.1% of daily calories from EDS foods. Linear mixed effects modeling indicated no relationship between BMI z score or %BF and total EDS food consumption. Soda was the only EDS food that was significantly related to BMI z score over the 10-year study period, but it was not related to %BF. In addition, a significant, positive relationship was observed between EDS food consumption and television viewing. In this cohort of initially nonobese girls, overall EDS food consumption does not seem to influence weight status or fatness change over the adolescent period.

  7. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Tranberg

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P<0.001-0.05. Hereafter weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001. Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01 and glucose clearance was improved after an oral glucose challenge (P<0.05. Plasma cholesterol was lowered by whey compared to casein (P<0.001. The composition of the fecal microbiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P<0.05 whereas no difference was seen between whey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey.

  8. Review of the Mechanisms and Effects of Noninvasive Body Contouring Devices on Cellulite and Subcutaneous Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Zahra; Halabchi, Farzin; Mazaheri, Reza; Abolhasani, Maryam; Tabesh, Mastaneh

    2016-10-01

    Today, different kinds of non-invasive body contouring modalities, including cryolipolysis, radiofrequency (RF), low-level laser therapy (LLLT), and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are available for reducing the volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue or cellulite. Each procedure has distinct mechanisms for stimulating apoptosis or necrosis adipose tissue. In addition to the mentioned techniques, some investigations are underway for analyzing the efficacy of other techniques such as whole body vibration (WBV) and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT). In the present review the mechanisms, effects and side effects of the mentioned methods have been discussed. The effect of these devices on cellulite or subcutaneous fat reduction has been assessed. We searched pubmed, google scholar and the cochrane databases for systemic reviews, review articles, meta-analysis and randomized clinical trials up to February 2015. The keywords were subcutaneous fat, cellulite, obesity, noninvasive body contouring, cryolipolysis, RF, LLLT, HIFU, ESWT and WBV with full names and abbreviations. We included seven reviews and 66 original articles in the present narrative review. Most of them were applied on normal weight or overweight participants (body mass index cellulite in some body areas. However, the clinical effects are mild to moderate, for example 2 - 4 cm circumference reduction as a sign of subcutaneous fat reduction during total treatment sessions. Overall, there is no definitive noninvasive treatment method for cellulite. Additionally, due to the methodological differences in the existing evidence, comparing the techniques is difficult.

  9. Weight and weddings. Engaged men's body weight ideals and wedding weight management behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Effect of different post-weaning dietary compositions on body fat content and hormone-sensitive lipase gene expression in rats fed with high-fat diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Zhao, Li-Jun; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2006-09-01

    To study the effects of different postweaning dietary compositions on body fat content and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) gene expression in rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Wistar rats weaned on 24 days were randomly divided into A, B, C, D groups and were fed on high carbohydrate, high protein, high unsaturated fatty acid and high saturated fatty acid diet respectively. After 3 weeks, all rats were assigned to basic diet for two weeks, then rats from A group were randomly divided into A1 and A2 subgroups. A1 subgroup was fed on basic diet continuously. A2 subgroup and B, C and D groups were assigned to high-fat diet for six weeks. Eight rats from each group were sacrificed at the end of different treatments to detect body weight, body fat content and blood glucose level. RT-PCR was used to determine the gene expression of hormone-sensitive lipase in white adipose tissue. Body weight, body fat content and blood glucose level in C group were significantly lower than those in A2 subgroup on 11 weeks (P subgroup (P blood glucose level was higher than A2 subgroup on 11 weeks (P > 0.05). The body weight in D group was significantly lower than that in A2 subgroup (P blood glucose level were not significantly lower than A2 subgroup on 11 weeks (P > 0.05). The expression of HSL in B2 and C group was higher on 9 weeks and 11 weeks respectively. The HSL mRNA levels in all groups on 3 weeks were similar to that on 11 weeks. Feeding on high unsaturated-fatty acid diet after weaning may significantly reduce the body weight, body fat content, improve the abnormal blood glucose level in rats induced by high-fat diet. It was suggested that the high unsaturated-fatty acid diet can be reasonable for weaned rats and gene expression regulation may be involved in programming later obesity by early nutrition.

  11. Alterações no padrão alimentar de adolescentes com adequação pôndero-estatural e elevado percentual de gordura corporal Alterations in the feeding patterns of adolescents with weight-height adequacy and high body fat percentage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cristina Ribeiro Vieira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar o padrão alimentar de adolescentes com adequação pôndero-estatural e elevado percentual de gordura corporal (%GC. MÉTODOS: realizou-se um estudo transversal com 99 adolescentes, sendo 70% do sexo feminino. Utilizou-se o índice de massa corporal para diagnosticar adequação pôndero-estatural, segundo a World Health Organization. Obteve-se o %GC pelo somatório das pregas cutâneas, conforme Durnin e Rahaman, considerando elevados os valores >25% (sexo feminino e >20% (masculino. Aplicou-se um questionário para investigação do hábito alimentar. RESULTADOS: a mediana de refeições diárias era quatro. O jantar era a refeição mais omitida, entretanto, a maioria o substituía por lanche. Omissão do jantar e realização do lanche da tarde foram mais freqüentes entre as adolescentes (p OBJECTIVES: alterations in the feeding patterns of adolescents as related to weight-height adequacy and high body fat percentage (%BF. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out with 99 adolescents, 70% females. The body mass index was applied to diagnose weight-height adequacy, according to the cut-off point established by the World Health Organization. %BF was obtained by the sum of skinfolds, according to Durnin and Rahaman, considering the values >25% (females and >20% (males high. A questionnaire was applied to investigate the feeding pattern. RESULTS: the median of daily meals was four. Dinner was the most skipped main meal, however, the majority replaced it by a snack. Skipping dinner and having a snack in the afternoon were more common among girls (p <0.01. About 11% skipped breakfast. In the last years, meal frequency and food intake, except for vegetables, were reduced by the majority. On weekends, about 81% and 31% of the adolescents, respectively, modified the fat and sugar class and the vegetable class intake, consuming more sweets, fat foods and less vegetables. The most rejected food class consisted of vegetable

  12. Association of nutrition in early life with body fat and serum leptin at adult age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Cachera, M F; Maillot, M; Deheeger, M; Souberbielle, J C; Péneau, S; Hercberg, S

    2013-08-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that experiences during early life could have long-term health consequences. However, the role of early nutrition in programming obesity and leptin resistance is still poorly understood. We aimed at determining whether nutritional intakes in early life are associated with body composition and hormonal status at 20 years. Healthy infants participating in the two-decade-long prospective ELANCE (Etude Longitudinale Alimentation Nutrition Croissance des Enfants) study were examined at 10 months and 2 years. At 20 years, weight, height, subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses, fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) assessed via bioelectrical impedance analysis, and serum leptin concentration were recorded in 73 subjects still participating in the follow-up. In adjusted linear regression models, an increase by 100 kcal in energy intake at 2 years was associated with higher subscapular skinfold thickness (β=6.4% SF, 95% confidence interval 2.53-10.30, P=0.002) and higher FFM (0.50 kg, 0.06-0.95, P=0.03) at 20 years. An increase by 1% energy from fat at 2 years was associated with lower subscapular skinfold thickness (-2.3% SF, -4.41 to -0.18, P=0.03), lower FM (-0.31 kg, -0.60 to -0.01, P=0.04) and lower serum leptin concentration (-0.21 μg l(-1), -0.39 to -0.03, P=0.02) at 20 years. Low-fat intake in early life was negatively associated with body fat (particularly at the trunk site) and serum leptin concentration at 20 years, suggesting that early low-fat intake could increase the susceptibility to develop overweight and leptin resistance at later ages. These findings substantiate current recommendations against restricting fat intake in early life and open new directions for investigating the origin of obesity.

  13. Percentage of Body Fat and Fat Mass Index as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Tordecilla, Alejandra; Ojeda-Pardo, Mónica Liliana; Cobo-Mejía, Elisa Andrea; Castellanos-Vega, Rocío del Pilar; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Ruíz, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    High body fat is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS) in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition of MetS, the aim of this study was to explore thresholds of body fat percentage (BF%) and fat mass index (FMI) for the prediction of MetS among Colombian University students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1687 volunteers (63.4% women, mean age = 20.6 years). Weight, waist circumference, serum lipids indices, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and FMI was calculated. MetS was defined as including more than or equal to three of the metabolic abnormalities according to the IDF definition. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points for BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity in both sexes. The overall prevalence of MetS was found to be 7.7%, higher in men than women (11.1% vs. 5.3%; p < 0.001). BF% and FMI were positively correlated to MetS components (p < 0.05). ROC analysis indicated that BF% and FMI can be used with moderate accuracy to identify MetS in university-aged students. BF% and FMI thresholds of 25.55% and 6.97 kg/m2 in men, and 38.95% and 11.86 kg/m2 in women, were found to be indicative of high MetS risk. Based on the IDF criteria, both indexes’ thresholds seem to be good tools to identify university students with unfavorable metabolic profiles. PMID:28902162

  14. Percentage of Body Fat and Fat Mass Index as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High body fat is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition of MetS, the aim of this study was to explore thresholds of body fat percentage (BF% and fat mass index (FMI for the prediction of MetS among Colombian University students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1687 volunteers (63.4% women, mean age = 20.6 years. Weight, waist circumference, serum lipids indices, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and FMI was calculated. MetS was defined as including more than or equal to three of the metabolic abnormalities according to the IDF definition. Receiver operating curve (ROC analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points for BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity in both sexes. The overall prevalence of MetS was found to be 7.7%, higher in men than women (11.1% vs. 5.3%; p < 0.001. BF% and FMI were positively correlated to MetS components (p < 0.05. ROC analysis indicated that BF% and FMI can be used with moderate accuracy to identify MetS in university-aged students. BF% and FMI thresholds of 25.55% and 6.97 kg/m2 in men, and 38.95% and 11.86 kg/m2 in women, were found to be indicative of high MetS risk. Based on the IDF criteria, both indexes’ thresholds seem to be good tools to identify university students with unfavorable metabolic profiles.

  15. Do body mass index and fat volume influence vocal quality, phonatory range, and aerodynamics in females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsties, Ben; Verfaillie, Rudi; Roy, Nelson; Maryn, Youri

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the impact of body weight and body fat volume on selected parameters of vocal quality, phonatory range, and aerodynamics in females. Based on measurements of body mass index in combination with body fat volume, 29 normophonic female subjects were classified as normal weight, underweight, and obese. Voice quality was investigated via auditory-perceptual ratings of breathiness, roughness, and overall dysphonia severity, via various acoustic measures and a multiparametric index. Phonatory range performance was examined using selected measures of the voice range profile and speech range profile. Measures of vocally relevant aerodynamics included vital capacity (i.e., VC), expected VC, phonation quotient, and maximum phonation time (i.e., MPT). Significant differences between the three weight groups were found across several measures of intensity, VC, MPT, and shimmer. As compared to the other groups, significantly higher values of maximum and minimum intensity levels, as well as sound pressure level during habitual running speech were observed for the obese group (all p-valuesrange performance.

  16. DEXA measures of body fat percentage and acute phase proteins among breast cancer survivors: a Cross-Sectional Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dee, Anne; Bernstein, Leslie; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Neuhouser, Marian L; Ulrich, Cornelia; Baumgartner, Richard N; McTiernan, Anne; Baumgartner, Kathy; Alfano, Catherine M; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) increases with systemic inflammation and are related to worse survival for breast cancer survivors. This study examines the association between percent body fat and SAA and CRP and the potential interaction with NSAID use and weight change. Participants included 134 non-Hispanic white and Hispanic breast cancer survivors from the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study. Body fat percentage, measured with Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometer (DEXA), and circulating levels of CRP and SAA were obtained 30 months after breast cancer diagnosis. Circulating concentrations of CRP and SAA were associated with increased adiposity as measured by DEXA after adjustment for age at 24-months, race/ethnicity, dietary energy intake, weight change, and NSAID use. Survivors with higher body fat ≥35% had significantly higher concentrations of CRP (2.01 mg/l vs. 0.85 mg/l) and SAA (6.21 mg/l vs. 4.21 mg/l) compared to non-obese (body fat < 35%). Women who had gained more than 5% of their body weight since breast cancer diagnosis had non-statistically significant higher geometric mean levels of CRP and SAA. Mean levels of CRP and SAA were higher among obese women who were non-users of NSAIDs compared to current users; the association with SAA reached statistical significance (Mean SAA = 7.24, 95%CI 6.13-8.56 for non-NSAID; vs. 4.87; 95%CI 3.95-6.0 for NSAID users respectively). Breast cancer survivors with higher body fat had higher mean concentrations of CRP and SAA than women with lower body fat. Further assessment of NSAID use and weight control in reducing circulating inflammatory markers among survivors may be worthwhile to investigate in randomized intervention trials as higher inflammatory markers are associated with worse survival

  17. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shai, Iris; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Henkin, Yaakov; Shahar, Danit R; Witkow, Shula; Greenberg, Ilana; Golan, Rachel; Fraser, Drora; Bolotin, Arkady; Vardi, Hilel; Tangi-Rozental, Osnat; Zuk-Ramot, Rachel; Sarusi, Benjamin; Brickner, Dov; Schwartz, Ziva; Sheiner, Einat; Marko, Rachel; Katorza, Esther; Thiery, Joachim; Fiedler, Georg Martin; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Stampfer, Meir J

    2008-07-17

    Trials comparing the effectiveness and safety of weight-loss diets are frequently limited by short follow-up times and high dropout rates. In this 2-year trial, we randomly assigned 322 moderately obese subjects (mean age, 52 years; mean body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], 31; male sex, 86%) to one of three diets: low-fat, restricted-calorie; Mediterranean, restricted-calorie; or low-carbohydrate, non-restricted-calorie. The rate of adherence to a study diet was 95.4% at 1 year and 84.6% at 2 years. The Mediterranean-diet group consumed the largest amounts of dietary fiber and had the highest ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fat (Plow-carbohydrate group consumed the smallest amount of carbohydrates and the largest amounts of fat, protein, and cholesterol and had the highest percentage of participants with detectable urinary ketones (Pweight loss was 2.9 kg for the low-fat group, 4.4 kg for the Mediterranean-diet group, and 4.7 kg for the low-carbohydrate group (Pweight losses were 3.3 kg, 4.6 kg, and 5.5 kg, respectively. The relative reduction in the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 20% in the low-carbohydrate group and 12% in the low-fat group (P=0.01). Among the 36 subjects with diabetes, changes in fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels were more favorable among those assigned to the Mediterranean diet than among those assigned to the low-fat diet (PMediterranean diet and time with respect to fasting glucose levels). Mediterranean and low-carbohydrate diets may be effective alternatives to low-fat diets. The more favorable effects on lipids (with the low-carbohydrate diet) and on glycemic control (with the Mediterranean diet) suggest that personal preferences and metabolic considerations might inform individualized tailoring of dietary interventions. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00160108.) 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society

  18. Nutraceuticals for body-weight management: The role of green tea catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-08-01

    Green tea catechins mixed with caffeine have been proposed as adjuvants for maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure and for increasing fat oxidation, in the context of prevention and treatment of obesity. These catechins-caffeine mixtures seem to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that occurs during weight loss. Their effects are of particular importance during weight maintenance after weight loss. Other metabolic targets may be fat absorption and the gut microbiota composition, but these effects still need further investigation in combination with weight loss. Limitations for the effects of green tea catechins are moderating factors such as genetic predisposition related to COMT-activity, habitual caffeine intake, and ingestion combined with dietary protein. In conclusion, a mixture of green tea catechins and caffeine has a beneficial effect on body-weight management, especially by sustained energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and preservation of fat free body-mass, after energy restriction induced body-weight loss, when taking the limitations into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Increased Dietary Calcium on Body Weight, Food and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food and water intake, body weight, cardiac weight index, left ventricular weight index, renal weight index and serum calcium level were determined. The result shows that OC treated rats had significantly lower serum calcium concentration, body weight gain, food, water and calcium intake than those of the control rats.

  20. Influence of psychotropic drugs prescription on body weight increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca E. Martínez de Morentin-Aldabe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a major public health burden, not only by the rising prevalence but also because of the associated complications. Furthermore there is a number of diseases whose risk and onset is increased in subjects with overweight such as type 2 diabetes, dislipemias, tumors (endometrial, colon, breast, cancer, etc, skeletal disorders, digestive disturbances, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, psychological problems, obstetric and gynecological disorders.The prescription of psychotropic drugs is important and, in most countries, consumption has been increased in recent years. Indeed, several drugs used in the treatment of anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or epilepsy, can increase body weight and fat deposition or eventually decrease it. These side effects could make a previous situation of obesity to worsen, and it can even cause excessive weight gain in patients with a normal weight at the beginning of the treatment. This increase in adiposity may also contribute to the lack of adherence to the medication and thus a possible relapse of the patients.In this review we report the links between psychotropic drugs administration and weight gain as well as the potential mechanisms that are involved.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.17.1.4

  1. Acoustic wave therapy for cellulite, body shaping and fat reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexsel, Doris; Camozzato, Fernanda Oliveira; Silva, Aline Flor; Siega, Carolina

    2017-06-01

    Cellulite is a common aesthetic condition that affects almost every woman. To evaluate the efficacy of acoustic wave therapy (AWT) for cellulite and body shaping. In this open-label, single-centre trial, 30 women presenting moderate or severe cellulite underwent 12 sessions of AWT on the gluteus and back of the thighs, over six weeks. The following assessments were performed at baseline, and up to 12 weeks after treatment: Cellulite Severity Scale (CSS), body circumference measurements, subcutaneous fat thickness by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), quality of life related by Celluqol ® and a satisfaction questionnaire. The treatment reduced cellulite severity from baseline up to 12 weeks after the last treatment session (subjects presenting severe cellulite: 60% to 38%). The mean CSS shifted from 11.1 to 9.5 (p cellulite appearance and reduce body circumferences.

  2. Later circadian timing of food intake is associated with increased body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHill, Andrew W; Phillips, Andrew Jk; Czeisler, Charles A; Keating, Leigh; Yee, Karen; Barger, Laura K; Garaulet, Marta; Scheer, Frank Ajl; Klerman, Elizabeth B

    2017-11-01

    Background: Weight gain and obesity have reached alarming levels. Eating at a later clock hour is a newly described risk factor for adverse metabolic health; yet, how eating at a later circadian time influences body composition is unknown. Using clock hour to document eating times may be misleading owing to individual differences in circadian timing relative to clock hour. Objective: This study examined the relations between the timing of food consumption relative to clock hour and endogenous circadian time, content of food intake, and body composition. Design: We enrolled 110 participants, aged 18-22 y, in a 30-d cross-sectional study to document sleep and circadian behaviors within their regular daily routines. We used a time-stamped-picture mobile phone application to record all food intake across 7 consecutive days during a participant's regular daily routines and assessed their body composition and timing of melatonin release during an in-laboratory assessment. Results: Nonlean individuals (high body fat) consumed most of their calories 1.1 h closer to melatonin onset, which heralds the beginning of the biological night, than did lean individuals (low body fat) (log-rank P = 0.009). In contrast, there were no differences between lean and nonlean individuals in the clock hour of food consumption ( P = 0.72). Multiple regression analysis showed that the timing of food intake relative to melatonin onset was significantly associated with the percentage of body fat and body mass index (both P food intake, caloric amount, meal macronutrient composition, activity or exercise level, or sleep duration and either of these body composition measures (all P > 0.72). Conclusions: These results provide evidence that the consumption of food during the circadian evening and/or night, independent of more traditional risk factors such as amount or content of food intake and activity level, plays an important role in body composition. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials

  3. Sedentary behaviors, physical activity behaviors, and body fat in 6-year-old children: the generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Jansen, Wilma; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Raat, Hein

    2014-08-15

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health concern. Knowledge on modifiable risk factors is needed to design effective intervention programs. This study aimed to assess associations of children's sedentary behaviors (television viewing and computer game use) and physical activity behaviors (sports participation, outdoor play, and active transport to/from school) with three indicators of body fat, i.e., percent fat mass, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation scores, and weight status (normal weight, overweight). Cross-sectional data from 5913 6-year-old ethnically diverse children were analyzed. Children's weight and height were objectively measured and converted to BMI. Weight status was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points of the International Obesity Task Force. BMI standard deviation scores were created, based on Dutch reference growth curves. Fat mass was measured my dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Sedentary and physical activity behaviors were assessed by parent-reported questionnaires. Series of logistic and linear regression analyses were performed, controlling for confounders (i.e., socio-demographic factors, family lifestyle factors, and other sedentary behaviors and physical activity behaviors). Sports participation was inversely associated with fat mass (p sedentary behaviors and physical activity behaviors. No other independent associations were observed. The results of this study indicate that sports participation is inversely associated with percent body fat among ethnically diverse 6-year-old children. More research in varied populations including objective measurements and longitudinal designs are needed to confirm these current results.

  4. Heat transfer to deep tissue: the effect of body fat and heating modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, J S; Laymon, M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the thermal transfer characteristics of the skin in relation to body composition as assessed by the ability of water immersion and hot and cold packs with different thicknesses of towels layers to heat or cool deep tissue. Two sets of experiments were conducted to determine the interrelationships between body fat content and muscle temperature after immersion of the limb in water or the application of hot and cold packs. In the first series of experiments, subjects immersed their lower body in water at 42, 37, 34, 27, 24 and 0 degrees C for 20 minutes. Muscle temperature was measured in the skin above and in the belly of the quadriceps and medial gastrocnemius muscles by a thermistor on the skin and one implanted with a 20-gauge needle 25 mm below and perpendicular to the skin. To see the effect of circulation, a series was conducted with the circulation occluded. In the second series, hot or cold packs were used with different thicknesses of towel layers. The muscle temperature after immersion in water approached that of the packs within approximately 20 minutes. In contrast, when hot and cold packs were used with various thickness of towels ranging from 2 to 10 mm in thickness, the change in muscle temperature was much less and it was still changing at the end of a 20 minute period. Subjects with high body fat changed their deep tissue temperatures much more slowly with a time constant nearly double that of the thin subjects with all modalities. Even after water immersion, if the body fat exceeded 25% of the subject's weight, 20 min of immersion was not enough to either warm the muscle or cool it down substantially. Cold packs and hot packs were very ineffective in changing muscle temperature under these same conditions. Body fat plays a major role, as did limb blood flow in controlling the movement of heat across the limb.

  5. Increased hepatic inflammation in a normal-weight mouse after long-term high-fat diet feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toita, Riki; Kawano, Takahito; Fujita, Satoshi; Murata, Masaharu; Kang, Jeong-Hun

    2018-01-01

    Among five C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, one mouse showed a body weight (BW) similar to normal diet (ND)-fed mice. We compared obesity-related parameters of three groups (ND-fed mice, one HFD-fed normal-weight mouse, and HFD-fed overweight mice), including visceral fat weight, serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), glucose, and aminotransferases (AST and ALT), adipocyte size, percentage of crown-like structures, severity of hepatic steatosis, and number of inflammatory foci. Compared to ND-fed mice, the HFD-fed normal-weight mouse exhibited a similar visceral fat weight, similar serum levels of glucose and aminotransferases, and a similar percentage of crown-like structures. On the other hand, the serum TC level, adipocyte size, and hepatic steatosis severity of the HFD-fed normal-weight mouse were intermediate between those of ND-fed mice and HFD-fed overweight mice. Interestingly, the number of hepatic inflammatory foci in the HFD-fed normal-weight mouse was remarkably increased compared with those in HFD-fed overweight mice. These results suggest that having BW or serum ALT levels within normal ranges may not guarantee absence of hepatic inflammation and that the HFD-fed normal-weight mouse can be used as an animal model for the study of liver inflammation, particularly in patients with normal BWs and/or serum ALT values.

  6. Comparison between body fat measurements obtained by portable ultrasound and caliper in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, L; Neves, E B; Ripka, W L; Romaneli, E F R

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare and correlate the Portable Ultra Sound (US) measuring technique to the skinfold measuring technique (SF) to estimate body fat percentage (%F) in young adults. Sixty military were evaluated, all males, divided in two groups: Group 1 (normal) composed by 30 military with Body Mass Index (BMI) until 24.99 kg/m(2) and Group 2 (overweight) composed by 30 military with BMI > 25 kg/m(2). Weight, height, skinfolds and ultrasound were measured in 9 points (triceps, subscapular, biceps, chest, medium axillary, abdominal, suprailiac, thigh and calf). Body fat average values obtained by skinfold thickness and ultrasound measurements were 13.25 ± 6.32 % and 12.73 ± 5.95 % respectively. Despite significant differences in measurements of each anatomical site, it was possible to verify that the total final body fat percentage calculated by both techniques did not present significant differences and that overweight group presented greater similarity between the values obtained using caliper and ultrasound equipment.

  7. Resveratrol-Induced Effects on Body Fat Differ Depending on Feeding Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton-Laskibar, Iñaki; Gómez-Zorita, Saioa; Aguirre, Leixuri; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; González, Marcela; Portillo, María P

    2017-11-29

    Science constantly seeks to identify new molecules that could be used as dietary functional ingredients in the fight against obesity and its co-morbidities. Among them, polyphenols represent a group of molecules of increasing interest. One of the most widely studied polyphenols is resveratrol ( trans -3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), which has been proposed as an "energy restriction mimetic" because it can exert energy restriction-like effects. The aim of this review is to analyze the effects of resveratrol on obesity under different feeding conditions, such as overfeeding, normal feeding, and energy restriction, in animals and humans. The vast majority of the studies reported have addressed the administration of resveratrol to animals alongside an obesogenic diet. Under these experimental conditions usually a decreased body weight amount was found. To date, studies that focus on the effects of resveratrol under normal feeding or energy restriction conditions in animals and humans are scarcer. In these studies no changes in body fat were reported. After analyzing the results obtained under overfeeding, normal feeding, and energy restriction conditions, it can be stated that resveratrol is useful in reducing body fat accumulation, and thus preventing obesity. Nevertheless, for ethical reasons, these results have been obtained in animals. By contrast, there are no evidences showing the usefulness of this phenolic compound in reducing previously accumulated body fat. Consequently, as of yet, there is not scientific support for proposing resveratrol as a new anti-obesity treatment tool.

  8. Effect of increasing dietary calcium through supplements and dairy food on body weight and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alison O; Huggins, Catherine E; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-10-14

    This meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials assessed the effect of Ca on body weight and body composition through supplementation or increasing dairy food intake. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria (including fifty-one trial arms; thirty-one with dairy foods (n 2091), twenty with Ca supplements (n 2711). Ca intake was approximately 900 mg/d higher in the supplement groups compared with control. In the dairy group, Ca intake was approximately 1300 mg/d. Ca supplementation did not significantly affect body weight (mean change ( - 0·17, 95% CI - 0·70, 0·37) kg) or body fat (mean change ( - 0·19, 95% CI - 0·51, 0·13) kg) compared to control. Similarly, increased dairy food intake did not affect body weight ( - 0·06, 95% CI - 0·54, 0·43) kg or body fat change ( - 0·36, 95% CI - 0·80, 0·09) kg compared to control. Sub-analyses revealed that dairy supplementation resulted in no change in body weight (nineteen studies, n 1010) ( - 0·32, 95% CI - 0·93, 0·30 kg, P= 0·31), but a greater reduction in body fat (thirteen studies, n 564) ( - 0·96, 95% CI - 1·46, - 0·46 kg, P weight reduction strategy in adults. There is, however, an indication that approximately 3 servings of dairy may facilitate fat loss on weight reduction diets in the short term.

  9. Newborn regional body composition is influenced by maternal obesity, gestational weight gain and the birthweight standard score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, E M; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, K

    2014-01-01

    AIM: This study investigated whether newborn body composition is influenced by prepregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain (GWG) and explored any associations between body composition and birthweight standard score (z-score), categorised by size for gestational age. METHODS: We recruited 231...... the offspring of normal weight mothers. The infants' fat mass increased by 11 g (p associations between prepregnancy obesity and fat-free mass. The fat percentage was significantly higher in infants who were large for gestational age (15.3%) than small...... for gestational age (5.2%) and appropriate for gestational age (9.8%) (p associated with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass (p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Infants born to obese mothers had higher fat mass at birth, with abdominal fat accumulation. Low birthweight...

  10. Oral sensitivity to oleic acid is associated with fat intake and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jessica E; Newman, Lisa P; Keast, Russell S J

    2011-12-01

    Taste sensitivity to fatty acids influences food ingestion and may regulate fat intake and body weight status. Fatty acids are detected via homologous receptors within the mouth and gastrointestinal (GI) tract, where attenuated sensitivity may be associated with greater fat intake and BMI. This study aimed to extend observations surrounding fatty acid taste, specifically the types of foods consumed and dietary behaviours that may be associated with fatty acid taste sensitivity. 51 subjects (41 female; BMI, 21.4 ± 0.46 kg/m², age, 20 ± 0.52 yrs, 10 male; BMI, 23.6 ± 1.4 kg/m², age, 22 ± 1 yrs) were screened for oral sensitivity to oleic acid (3.8 mM) using triplicate sensory evaluations, and classified as hypersensitive; (3/3 correct identifications), or hyposensitive, (sensory-matched custards made with 0, 2, 6, 10% oil), recent diet (4-day diet record) and food habits and behaviours (food habits and behaviours questionnaire) were also established. 75% (n = 38) of subjects were classified as hyposensitive to oleic acid and these subjects differed from those who were classified as hypersensitive. Hyposensitive subjects consumed significantly more energy, fat, saturated fat, fatty foods (butter, meat, dairy), had greater BMI and were less perceptive of small changes in the fat content of custard (all P butter, meat, dairy, and increasing BMI. 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Body fat distribution and its associated factors in Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chan Hee; Yuk, Jin Sung; Choi, Kyung Mook; Yi, Kyung Wook; Kim, Tak; Hur, Jun Young; Shin, Jung-Ho

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the body fat distribution in Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the association of those distribution with metabolic parameters and hormone profiles. A total 90 patients with PCOS and 97 women without PCOS (control group) were included in this study. Total body fat, abdominal visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat were determined on abdominal fat computed tomography. Lipid profiles and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, free androgen index (FAI), and cortisol were measured in PCOS group. Total body fat and body fat distribution in the PCOS group were not significantly different from the control group in Korean women (P = 0.054, P = 0.761, P = 0.104), but abdominal visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio was larger in the PCOS group than the control group (P = 0.047). Not only total body fat and visceral fat, but also subcutaneous fat in the PCOS group had a positive correlation with homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, fasting blood sugar, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, free testosterone, FAI, body mass index, but negative correlation with SHBG and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Korean PCOS women had the same body fat distribution as the control group. Subcutaneous fat was also correlated with metabolic parameters and hormone profiles in the Korean PCOS group. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Investigating Changes in Weight and Body Composition Among Women in Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Delmar, Charlotte; Lörincz, Tamás

    2018-01-01

    for attention on younger premenopausal women given chemotherapy. Weight need to be monitored for at least 2 years as short-term changes may be caused by increased body water, whereas long-term changes seem to be related with increased fat mass essential for risking recurrence and early death. IMPLICATIONS...

  13. ENDURANCE TRAINING IN FASTING CONDITIONS: BIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS AND BODY WEIGHT MANAGEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Salar, Néstor; Urdampilleta Otegui, Aritz; Roche Collado, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    in the majority of sports the athlete is required to achieve optimal conditions both at a muscular and metabolic level as well as in body composition, increasing the lean body mass and maintaining a low body fat mass. In this context, different training protocols have been proposed in order to reduce body fat content, by maximizing fat use instead of glycogen. to verify if the training while fasting favours the use of fatty acids due to the low glycogen levels, allowing an improvement in the performance ant the control of body weight. protocols have been published, differing in time periods and exercise intensity. In addition, several markers ranging from gene expression analysis to determination of circulating parameters have been assessed in order to interpret the results. Discusion: at low intensities of endurance-based exercises, adipose tissue lipolysis and muscle fat oxidation rate seem to be higher in fasting than in fed state. On the other hand, glucose metabolism is adapted in order to save glycogen stores, possibly through gluconeogenesis activation. Finally, it has been observed that protein degradation is mainly downregulated. Only one study analyses changes in body composition after fasting during long periods, thus further work is necessary to demonstrate that this is the best method to control body fat. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Current and adolescent body fatness and body fat distribution are related to carotid atherosclerosis and large artery stiffness at age 36.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, I.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van Mechelen, W.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Seidell, J.C.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Body fat and its distribution are determinants of cardiovascular disease but the underlying mechanisms of these adverse effects are poorly understood. We therefore investigated (1) the cross-sectional relationship between estimates of body fatness and its distribution on the one hand and

  15. Low-fat dietary pattern and weight change over 7 years: the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Barbara V; Manson, JoAnn E; Stefanick, Marcia L; Beresford, Shirley A; Frank, Gail; Jones, Bobette; Rodabough, Rebecca J; Snetselaar, Linda; Thomson, Cynthia; Tinker, Lesley; Vitolins, Mara; Prentice, Ross

    2006-01-04

    Obesity in the United States has increased dramatically during the past several decades. There is debate about optimum calorie balance for prevention of weight gain, and proponents of some low-carbohydrate diet regimens have suggested that the increasing obesity may be attributed, in part, to low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets. To report data on body weight in a long-term, low-fat diet trial for which the primary end points were breast and colorectal cancer and to examine the relationships between weight changes and changes in dietary components. Randomized intervention trial of 48,835 postmenopausal women in the United States who were of diverse backgrounds and ethnicities and participated in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial; 40% (19,541) were randomized to the intervention and 60% (29,294) to a control group. Study enrollment was between 1993 and 1998, and this analysis includes a mean follow-up of 7.5 years (through August 31, 2004). The intervention included group and individual sessions to promote a decrease in fat intake and increases in vegetable, fruit, and grain consumption and did not include weight loss or caloric restriction goals. The control group received diet-related education materials. Change in body weight from baseline to follow-up. Women in the intervention group lost weight in the first year (mean of 2.2 kg, Pfruit servings, and a nonsignificant trend toward weight loss occurred with increasing intake of fiber. A low-fat eating pattern does not result in weight gain in postmenopausal women. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00000611.

  16. Whey Protein Reduces Early Life Weight Gain in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars I.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Jeamet, Aymeric; Rune, Ida; Ellekilde, Merete; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region) amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (Pwhey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, Pprotein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (Pwhey compared to casein (Pwhey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey. PMID:23940754

  17. Attention to fat- and thin-related words in body-satisfied and body-dissatisfied women before and after thin model priming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah N Tobin

    Full Text Available Understanding the cognitive processes underlying body dissatisfaction provides important information on the development and perpetuation of eating pathology. Previous research suggests that body-dissatisfied women process weight-related information differently than body-satisfied women, but the precise nature of these processing differences is not yet understood. In this study, eye-gaze tracking was used to measure attention to weight-related words in body-dissatisfied (n = 40 and body-satisfied (n = 38 women, before and after exposure to images of thin fashion models. Participants viewed 8-second displays containing fat-related, thin-related, and neutral words while their eye fixations were tracked and recorded. Based on previous research and theory, we predicted that body-dissatisfied women would attend to fat-related words more than body-satisfied women and would attend to thin-related words less. It was also predicted that exposure to thin model images would increase self-rated body dissatisfaction and heighten group differences in attention. The results indicated that body-dissatisfied women attended to both fat- and thin-related words more than body-satisfied women and that exposure to thin models did not increase this effect. Implications for cognitive models of eating disorders are discussed.

  18. Gender- and Gestational Age-Specific Body Fat Percentage at Birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin P

    2011-08-08

    Background: There is increasing evidence that in utero growth has both immediate and far-reaching influence on health. Birth weight and length are used as surrogate measures of in utero growth. However, these measures poorly reflect neonatal adiposity. Air-displacement plethysmography has been validated for the measurement of body fat in the neonatal population. Objective: The goal of this study was to show the normal reference values of percentage body fat (%BF) in infants during the first 4 days of life. Methods: As part of a large population-based birth cohort study, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured within the first 4 days of life using air-displacement plethsymography. Infants were grouped into gestational age and gender categories. Results: Of the 786 enrolled infants, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured in 743 (94.5%) infants within the first 4 days of life. %BF increased significantly with gestational age. Mean (SD) %BF at 36 to 37 weeks\\' gestation was 8.9% (3.5%); at 38 to 39 weeks\\' gestation, 10.3% (4%); and at 40 to 41 weeks\\' gestation, 11.2% (4.3%) (P < .001). Female infants had significantly increased mean (SD) %BF at 38 to 39(11.1% [3.9%] vs 9.8% [3.9%]; P = .012) and at 40 to 41 (12.5% [4.4%] vs 10% [3.9%]; P < .001) weeks\\' gestation compared with male infants. Gender- and gestational age-specific centiles were calculated, and a normative table was generated for reference. Conclusion: %BF at birth is influenced by gestational age and gender. We generated accurate %BF centiles from a large population-based cohort.

  19. Effects of different circuit training protocols on body mass, fat mass and blood parameters in overweight adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Contrò

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of exercise are known for a long time, but mechanisms underlying the exercise mode recommendations for specific chronic cardiovascular diseases remain unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different circuit training protocols in order to determine which is the best for weight loss and for specific overweight- related disorders. Forty-five female sedentary overweight participants from 20 to 50 years (average 31.8±11.2 were enrolled and assigned to three different groups; each group was compared with a control normal-weight group. Three different circuit protocols were randomly assigned to each overweight group: aerobictone- aerobic (ATA, aerobic-circuit-aerobic (ACA and mini-trampoline circuit (MTC, while control group performed a classic circuit weight training (CWT. Every group trained three times per week, for 12 weeks. The results show that ATA group reduced body fat and total body mass more than other groups (P<0.001; P=0.007. ACA group reduced total body mass in significant statistical way (P=0.032, as well as body fat (P<0.001 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.013. In MTC group there was a significant reduction in every parameter we analyzed (total body mass, body fat and lipid profile: P<0.001. CWT group has shown a significant loss only in body fat (P<0.001. Every circuit protocol is optimal for reducing body fat and total body mass: however, MTC protocol has shown the best results on lipid profile.

  20. Effects of aerobic and/or resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight or obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Leslie H; Slentz, Cris A; Bateman, Lori A; Shields, A Tamlyn; Piner, Lucy W; Bales, Connie W; Houmard, Joseph A; Kraus, William E

    2012-12-15

    Recent guidelines on exercise for weight loss and weight maintenance include resistance training as part of the exercise prescription. Yet few studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of aerobic and resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight adults. STRRIDE AT/RT, a randomized trial, compared aerobic training, resistance training, and a combination of the two to determine the optimal mode of exercise for obesity reduction. Participants were 119 sedentary, overweight or obese adults who were randomized to one of three 8-mo exercise protocols: 1) RT: resistance training, 2) AT: aerobic training, and 3) AT/RT: aerobic and resistance training (combination of AT and RT). Primary outcomes included total body mass, fat mass, and lean body mass. The AT and AT/RT groups reduced total body mass and fat mass more than RT (P body mass more than AT (P body mass reductions over AT alone. Balancing time commitments against health benefits, it appears that AT is the optimal mode of exercise for reducing fat mass and body mass, while a program including RT is needed for increasing lean mass in middle-aged, overweight/obese individuals.

  1. Eating disorder risk and body dissatisfaction based on muscularity and body fat in male university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Carrie; George, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between risk of eating disorders, body dissatisfaction, and perceptual attractiveness in male university students. Research was conducted January-April 2012 and involved 339 male and 441 female students. Eating disorder risk was assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and body dissatisfaction and perceptual attractiveness determined with the Bodybuilder Image Grid (BIG). There was a positive correlation (r=.16, pEAT and fat dissatisfaction and a negative correlation (r=-.14, pEAT score indicating that they were at risk for an eating disorder. Males chose a significantly more muscular and leaner body type than what females chose to be attractive. College-aged males may be at risk for eating disorders based on distortions in their perceived ideal body image, both for fat and muscle.

  2. [Measurement of human body fat by means of gravimetry. Application of Archimedes' principle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettwiler, W; Ribordy, M; Donath, A; Scherrer, J R

    1978-12-02

    The weighing of the human body under water is an application of Archimedes' law. Fat being lighter than water or than the structures of lean body mass, body fat can be measured by determining the specific gravity of the human body; that is, by underwater weighing. Body fat has been determined in an "ideal" sample of 14 men and 23 women, all aged 20 years. Testing against a reference measure of body fat makes it possible to test the validity of some anthropometric measurements and of some indices of obesity. These indices offer no advantages over anthropometric measurements.

  3. Salicornia herbacea prevents weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation in obese ICR mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichiah, P B Tirupathi; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2015-12-01

    Foods that are rich in fat and or sodium chloride promote obesity and associated diseases, whereas intake of dietary fiber averts obesity development. Salicornia herbacea (SH) is a rich source of dietary fiber and high in sodium chloride; therefore, we investigated whether replacing common salt with SH in a high-fat diet could prevent obesity development. Mice were divided into five groups: group ND was fed a normal diet, group HD was fed a high-fat diet, group HD-NaCl was fed a high fat diet with sodium chloride 10 g kg(-1) , group HD-CL was fed a high-fat diet with cellulose 30 g kg(-1) and group HD-SH was fed a high-fat diet with SH powder 50 g kg(-1) . The amount of sodium chloride and cellulose added in the respective diet was equivalent to their amount in SH. Data from our study showed that, SH supplementation significantly decreased body weight gain, liver weight, hepatic triglyceride, serum leptin and insulin, along with the mRNA level of key lipid anabolic genes such as SREBP-1c, PPARγ and FAS compared to the HD group. The results of this study demonstrated that SH is a potential natural anti-obesity agent that can be used in place of sodium chloride. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Evaluation of Body Weight and Other Linear Parameters of Marshall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the body weight and other linear parameters of Marshall Broiler for repeatability estimates. A total of one hundred (100) broiler chickens (Marshall) was used in estimating the repeatability of body weight and linear parameters of day old from 2 to 8 weeks of age. Body weight (BW) and ...

  5. Body weight perception among Igbo people in the University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the body weight perception of Igbo people in University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) community. The study evaluated the body weight perception among age groups and sex categories of UNN staff and students. It examined the relationship between perception of body weight among the ...

  6. Effect of weight loss plans on body composition and diet duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Patti; Wolfe, Megan M; Glore, Stephen; Guild, Ralph; Phillips, Lindsay

    2002-05-01

    Are low carbohydrate high protein (LCHP) diets more effective in promoting loss of weight and body fat and can individuals stay on an Atkins-like diet more easily than on a conventional weight loss diet? A pre-test/post-test randomized group design composed of three cohorts was utilized to test 1) a LCHP ketogenic diet; 2) the Zone diet; and 3) a conventional hypocaloric diabetic exchange diet that supplied weight loss was 5.1 kg for those who completed the 12-week program. There were no significant differences in total weight, fat, or lean body mass loss when compared by diet group. Attrition was substantial for all plans at 43%, 60%, and 36% for LCHP, Zone and conventional diets, respectively.

  7. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, body fat distribution and insulin in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, L; Megia, A; Grande, C; González-Gancedo, P; Pallardo, F

    1995-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones may be involved in determining body fat distribution in men. Recent evidence suggests that insulin may be an important regulator of sex hormones metabolism in men. Few data, however, are available on the relationship of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-SO4), a major secretory product of the adrenal gland, to regional distribution of body fat or to insulin levels in men. We therefore examined the association of DHEA-SO4, total testosterone and free testosterone to waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and to subscapular-to-triceps ratio (STR) in 34 obese, otherwise healthy men. In addition, we examined the relation between these sex steroid hormones and insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test. DHEA-SO4 was significantly positively related to STR and significantly negatively related to insulin area. These associations remained significant after adjustment for age and obesity. Using multiple linear regression, DHEA-SO4 was independently related to both STR and insulin area. Without claiming any causality in the observed associations, we conclude that, in obese men, high DHEA-SO4 levels are related to centralized adiposity, while low DHEA-SO4 levels are related to hyperinsulinemia.

  8. Body mass and fat mass in refractory asthma: an observational 1 year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafadhel, Mona; Singapuri, Amisha; Terry, Sarah; Hargadon, Beverley; Monteiro, William; Green, Ruth H; Bradding, Peter H; Wardlaw, Andrew J; Pavord, Ian D; Brightling, Christopher E

    2010-01-01

    Background. Asthma and obesity are common; however the impact of obesity upon asthma remains uncertain. Objectives. To assess relationships between obesity and fat mass with airway inflammation, lung function, and disease control in patients with refractory asthma. Methods. 151 refractory asthma patients were characterised for measures of airway inflammation, lung function, Juniper asthma control questionnaire (JACQ), body mass index (BMI), and fat mass index (FMI) derived from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Patients were reassessed over 12 months. Results. 74% of patients had an elevated BMI. BMI and FMI correlated (r = 0.9, P < .001). FMI and JACQ correlated in men (r = 0.3, P = .01). After 12 months 23% lost weight. Weight change over 12 months correlated with FEV(1) change (r = -0.3, P = .03), but not with change in JACQ or exacerbations. Conclusion. Increased fat mass is common in refractory asthma and is associated with asthma symptom control in men. Loss of weight is associated with improvement in lung function in refractory asthma.

  9. Body Mass and Fat Mass in Refractory Asthma: An Observational 1 Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Bafadhel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Asthma and obesity are common; however the impact of obesity upon asthma remains uncertain. Objectives. To assess relationships between obesity and fat mass with airway inflammation, lung function, and disease control in patients with refractory asthma. Methods. 151 refractory asthma patients were characterised for measures of airway inflammation, lung function, Juniper asthma control questionnaire (JACQ, body mass index (BMI, and fat mass index (FMI derived from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Patients were reassessed over 12 months. Results. 74% of patients had an elevated BMI. BMI and FMI correlated (r=0.9, P<.001. FMI and JACQ correlated in men (r=0.3, P=.01. After 12 months 23% lost weight. Weight change over 12 months correlated with FEV1 change (r=−0.3, P=.03, but not with change in JACQ or exacerbations. Conclusion. Increased fat mass is common in refractory asthma and is associated with asthma symptom control in men. Loss of weight is associated with improvement in lung function in refractory asthma.

  10. Health effects from exercise versus those from body fat loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess whether body weight confounds the relationships between physical activity and its health benefits. Data sources: Eighty reports from population based studies (Category C) of physical activity or fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or coronary heart disease (CHD).Data synthesis: Eleven of 64 reports found no relationship between physical activity and disease. Of the remaining 53 reports, 11 did not address the possible confounding effects of body weight, 9 cited reasons that weight differences should not explain their observed associations, and 32 statistically adjusted for weight (as required). Only 3 of these changed their associations from significant to nonsignificant when adjusted. Ten of 15 reports on cardiorespiratory fitness and CHD or CVD used statistical adjustment, and none of these changed their findings to nonsignificant. Population studies show that vigorously active individuals also have higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, a major risk factor for CHD and CVD, than sedentary individuals when statistically adjusted for weight. In contrast intervention studies, which relate dynamic changes in weight and HDL, suggest that adjustment for weight loss largely eliminates the increase in HDL-cholesterol in sedentary men who begin exercising vigorously. Adjusting the cross-sectional HDL-cholesterol differences for the dynamic effects of weight loss eliminates most of the HDL-cholesterol difference between active and sedentary men. Conclusion: Thus population studies show that the lower incidence of CHD and CVD and higher HDL of fit, active individuals are not due to lean, healthy individuals choosing to be active (i.e., self-selection bias). Nevertheless, metabolic processed associated weight loss may be primarily responsible for the HDL differences between active and sedentary men, and possibly their differences in CHD and CVD.

  11. Testicular development and relationship between body weight, testis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... testicular components, absolute testis weight and body weight in boars. There is evidence in literature that the volume percentage occupied by the spermatogenetic tissues increased with age, body weight and testis weight in boars (Allrich et al., 1983; Harder et al., 1995). These reports seem to indicate that ...

  12. The effect of a high-MUFA, low-glycaemic index diet and a low-fat diet on appetite and glucose metabolism during a 6-month weight maintenance period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Due, Anette Pia; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to test the effects of three different weight maintenance diets on appetite, glucose and fat metabolism following an initial low-energy diet (LED) induced body weight loss. Following an 8-week LED and a 2-3-week refeeding period, 131 subjects were randomized to three diets for 6 months......: MUFA, moderate-fat (35-45 energy percentage (E%) fat), high in MUFA with low glycaemic index; LF, low fat (20-30 E% fat) or CTR, control (35 E% fat). A meal test study was performed in a subgroup, before and after the 6-month dietary intervention, with forty-two subjects completing both meal tests...

  13. The effect of slaughter weight and fattening intensity on changes in carcass fatness in young Holstein-Friesian bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenon Nogalski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of body weight (BW at slaughter and fattening intensity on carcass fatness and meat fatty acid profile in young Holstein- Friesian bulls. One-hundred bulls fattened on two levels of intensity a semi-intensive (SI and an intensive (I were used. Fattening was carried out to BW of 500, 550, 600, 650 and 700 kg. Live ultrasound measurements were performed to determine back fat thickness. Carcass dressing percentage, carcass conformation and fatness, intramuscular fat content of m. longissimus dorsi and fatty acid profile (by gas chromatography were determined after slaughter. Intensively fattened bulls were characterised by a greater carcass dressing percentage – by 1.17% on average, greater carcass conformation scores, greater external fat thickness and a greater intramuscular fat content than bulls SI fattened. Fat from intensively fattened bulls contained higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs – by 0.96/100 g on average. Semi-intensive fattening contributed to a decrease in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and to a significant increase in the concentrations of C18:2 and C20:4 fatty acids. Regardless of the fattening intensity, the n- 6/n-3 ratio was greater in heavier animals. The best results were achieved when young Holstein-Friesian bulls were fattened intensively to BW of 650 kg.

  14. Prediction of fat-free mass and percentage of body fat in neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis and anthropometric measures: validation against the PEA POD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingwood, Barbara E; Storm van Leeuwen, Anne-Martine; Carberry, Angela E; Fitzgerald, Erin C; Callaway, Leonie K; Colditz, Paul B; Ward, Leigh C

    2012-05-01

    Accurate assessment of neonatal body composition is essential to studies investigating neonatal nutrition or developmental origins of obesity. Bioelectrical impedance analysis or bioimpedance analysis is inexpensive, non-invasive and portable, and is widely used in adults for the assessment of body composition. There are currently no prediction algorithms using bioimpedance analysis in neonates that have been directly validated against measurements of fat-free mass (FFM). The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of bioimpedance analysis for the estimation of FFM and percentage of body fat over the first 4 months of life in healthy infants born at term, and to compare these with estimations based on anthropometric measurements (weight and length) and with skinfolds. The present study was an observational study in seventy-seven infants. Body fat content of infants was assessed at birth, 6 weeks, 3 and 4·5 months of age by air displacement plethysmography, using the PEA POD body composition system. Bioimpedance analysis was performed at the same time and the data were used to develop and test prediction equations for FFM. The combination of weight+sex+length predicted FFM, with a bias of impedance in prediction algorithms resulted in small improvements in prediction of FFM, reducing the bias to < 50 g and limits of agreement to < 9 %. Skinfold measurements performed poorly at all ages.

  15. Whole-body vibration slows the acquisition of fat in mature female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalozzo, G F; Iwaniec, U T; Turner, R T; Rosen, C J; Widrick, J J

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration on fat, bone, leptin and muscle mass. Thirty 7-month-old female 344 Fischer rats were randomized by weight into three groups (baseline, vibration or control; n=8-10 per group). Rats in the vibration group were placed inside individual compartments attached to a Pneu-Vibe vibration platform (Pneumex, Sandpoint, ID, USA) and vibrated at 30-50 Hz (6 mm peak to peak) for 30 min per day, 5 days per week, for 12 weeks. The vibration intervention consisted of six 5-min cycles with a 1-min break between cycles. There were significant body composition differences between the whole-body vibration and the control group. The whole-body vibration group weighed approximately 10% less (mean+/-s.d.; 207+/-10 vs 222+/-15 g, P<0.03) and had less body fat (20.8+/-3.8 vs 26.8+/-5.9 g, P<0.05), a lower percentage of body fat (10.2+/-1.7 vs 12+/-2.0%, P<0.05), and lower serum leptin levels (1.06+/-0.45 vs 2.27+/-0.57 ng ml(-1), P<0.01) than the age-matched controls. No differences were observed for total lean mass, bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) or soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) mass or function. Regional high-resolution dual-energy X-ray absoptiometry scans of the lumbar spine (L1-4) revealed that the whole-body vibration group had significantly greater BMC (0.33+/-0.05 vs 0.26+/-0.03 g, P<0.01) and BMD (0.21+/-0.01 vs 0.19+/-0.01 g cm(-2), P<0.01) than the control group. No differences between the groups were observed in the amount of food consumed. These findings show that whole-body vibration reduced body fat accumulation and serum leptin without affecting whole body BMC, BMD or lean mass. However, the increase in vertebral BMC and BMD suggests that vibration may have resulted in local increases in bone mass and density. Also, whole-body vibration did not affect muscle function or food consumption.

  16. Reprogramming of defended body weight after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in diet-induced obese mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zheng; Mumphrey, Michael B.; Townsend, R. Leigh; Morrison, Christopher D.; Münzberg, Heike; Ye, Jianping; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Objective Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) results in sustained lowering of body weight in most patients, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to obtain support for the notion that reprogramming of defended body weight, rather than passive restriction of energy intake, is a fundamental mechanism of RYGB. Methods Male C57BL6J mice reaching different degrees of obesity on a high-fat diet either with ad libitum access or with caloric restriction (weight-reduced) were subjected to RYGB. Results RYGB-induced weight loss and fat mass loss was proportional to pre-surgical levels, with moderately obese mice losing less body weight and fat compared with very obese mice. Remarkably, mice that were weight-reduced to the level of chow controls before surgery, immediately gained weight after surgery, exclusively accounted for by lean mass gain. Conclusions The results provide additional evidence for re-programming of a new defended body weight as an important principle by which RYGB lastingly suppresses body weight. RYGB appears to selectively abolish defense of a higher fat mass level, while remaining sensitive to the defense of lean mass. The molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying this re-programming remain to be elucidated. PMID:26847390

  17. Thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and metabolic parameters in response to weight loss diets: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Liang, L; Bray, G A; Qi, L; Hu, F B; Rood, J; Sacks, F M; Sun, Q

    2017-06-01

    The role of thyroid hormones in diet-induced weight loss and subsequent weight regain is largely unknown. To examine the associations between thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight loss setting. Data analysis was conducted among 569 overweight and obese participants aged 30-70 years with normal thyroid function participating in the 2-year Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) LOST randomized clinical trial. Changes in body weight and RMR were assessed during the 2-year intervention. Thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), total T3, total T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)), anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, 6 months and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.6 kg of body weight during the first 6 months and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight over the remaining period from 6 to 24 months. Baseline free T3 and total T3 were positively associated, whereas free T4 was inversely associated, with baseline body weight, body mass index and RMR. Total T4 and TSH were not associated with these parameters. Higher baseline free T3 and free T4 levels were significantly associated with a greater weight loss during the first 6 months (Pweight. Comparing extreme tertiles, the multivariate-adjusted weight loss±s.e. was -3.87±0.9 vs -5.39±0.9 kg for free T3 (P trend =0.02) and -4.09±0.9 vs -5.88±0.9 kg for free T4 (P trend =0.004). The thyroid hormones did not predict weight regain in 6-24 months. A similar pattern of associations was also observed between baseline thyroid hormones and changes in RMR. In addition, changes in free T3 and total T3 levels were positively associated with changes in body weight, RMR, body fat mass, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin at 6 months and 24 months (all Pweight loss setting, higher baseline free T3 and free T4

  18. Aerobic fitness in prepubertal children according to level of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca

    2010-01-01

    ) by allometric scaling (mL/min/kg(0.71) ), whereas no relationships were detected for VO(2PEAK) scaled to fat-free mass (FFM) (mL/min/FFM). Person correlation coefficients for boys were 0.26, -0.38, -0.19 and -0.01 NS and for girls 0.33, -0.42, -0.21 and -0.03 NS, respectively. Significant differences in VO(2......AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK) ) and body fat in young children on a population-based level. METHODS: Participants were 586 children (311 boys and 275 girls) aged 6.8±0.4 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. VO......(2PEAK) was measured by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test. Percent body fat (BF%) was estimated from skinfold measurements. RESULTS:  Significant relationships existed between BF% and absolute values of VO(2PEAK) (mL/min), VO(2PEAK) scaled by body weight (mL/min/kg) and VO(2PEAK...

  19. Activity, inactivity, and screen time in relation to weight and fatness over adolescence in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G; Tybor, David J; Phillips, Sarah M; Naumova, Elena N; Dietz, William H

    2007-07-01

    The impact of activity and inactivity on relative weight and fatness change are best evaluated longitudinally. We examined the longitudinal relationship of physical activity, inactivity, and screen time with relative weight status and percentage body fat (%BF) and explored how it differed by parental overweight status. Non-obese pre-menarcheal girls (173), 8 to 12 years old, were followed until 4 years post-menarche. %BF, BMI z-score, and time spent sleeping, sitting, standing, walking, and in vigorous activity were assessed annually. We developed a physical activity index to reflect time and intensity of activity. Inactivity was defined as the sum of time spent sleeping, sitting, and standing. Screen time was defined as time spent viewing television, videotapes, or playing video games. Parental overweight was defined as at least one parent with BMI>25. In separate linear mixed effects models, activity, inactivity, and screen time were unrelated to BMI z-score longitudinally, with and without accounting for parental overweight. After controlling for parental overweight, activity was inversely related (phistory of overweight represent a target population of high priority for interventions around physical activity and inactivity.

  20. Body weight measurements and correlation relationship in Savanna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age at castration, type of birth and sex on body weight, body linear measurements and correlation between body weight and body length, chest length, height-at-withers, facial length and fore and hind leg lengths of semi-intensively managed Savanna Brown goats.

  1. Changes in the fat body during the post-embryonic development of the predator Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Dyar & Knab) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascini, T V; Albeny, D S; Ramalho-Ortigão, M; Vilela, E F; Serrão, J E; Martins, G F

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have focused on understanding the biochemistry and morphology of the fat body of the hematophagous mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). In contrast, few studies, if any, have focused on morphological characters of the fat body in other mosquitoes, especially non-hematophagous taxa such as the culicid Toxorhynchites. Larvae of Toxorhynchites prey upon the larvae of other mosquito species and are used in vector mosquito control. We investigated aspects of the fat body trophocytes, including the morphometric analyses of the lipid droplets, protein granules and nuclei, during Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Dyar & Knab) post-embryonic development. Following the body weight increase from larval stage L2 to L4, the size of lipid droplets within the trophocytes also increase, and are likely the result of lipogenesis. Lipid droplets decrease in size during L4 to the female pupal stage and increase once again during the period from newly-emerged to mature adult females. Protein granules are observed for the first time in female pupae, and their appearance might be related to protein storage during metamorphosis. The size of the nucleus of trophocytes also increases during larval development, followed by a decrease during metamorphosis and an additional increase as adult female ages. In conclusion, the morphology of the fat body of T. theobaldi changes according to the developmental stage. Our study provides for the first time important insights into T. theobaldi fat body development and contributes to understand this species biology.

  2. Effects of aerobic and/or resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight or obese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, Leslie H.; Slentz, Cris A.; Bateman, Lori A.; Shields, A. Tamlyn; Piner, Lucy W.; Bales, Connie W.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Kraus, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent guidelines on exercise for weight loss and weight maintenance include resistance training as part of the exercise prescription. Yet few studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of aerobic and resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight adults. STRRIDE AT/RT, a randomized trial, compared aerobic training, resistance training, and a combination of the two to determine the optimal mode of exercise for obesity reduction. Participants were 119 sedentary, overweig...

  3. Ultrasound measurements of perirenal fat thickness to estimate the body condition of reproducing rabbit does in different physiological states.

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Amorós, Juan José; Blanco, J.; Piquer, O.; Quevedo, F.; Cervera, C.

    2004-01-01

    Sixty New-Zealand x Californian multiparous rabbit does were used to evaluate the capability of a computerized ultrasound system to estimate changes in body condition at different physiological states: parturition, 21st day of lactation, weaning and 28th day of gestation. Perirenal fat weight and carcass energy concentration were significantly correlated with live weight (r = 0.58 and 0.49, respectively; P

  4. Prebiotics Reduce Body Fat and Alter Intestinal Microbiota in Children Who Are Overweight or With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolucci, Alissa C; Hume, Megan P; Martínez, Inés; Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Walter, Jens; Reimer, Raylene A

    2017-09-01

    It might be possible to manipulate the intestinal microbiota with prebiotics or other agents to prevent or treat obesity. However, little is known about the ability of prebiotics to specifically modify gut microbiota in children with overweight/obesity or reduce body weight. We performed a randomized controlled trial to study the effects of prebiotics on body composition, markers of inflammation, bile acids in fecal samples, and composition of the intestinal microbiota in children with overweight or obesity. We performed a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 2 separate cohorts (March 2014 and August 2014) at the University of Calgary in Canada. Participants included children, 7-12 years old, with overweight or obesity (>85th percentile of body mass index) but otherwise healthy. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given either oligofructose-enriched inulin (OI; 8 g/day; n=22) or maltodextrin placebo (isocaloric dose, controls; n=20) once daily for 16 weeks. Fat mass and lean mass were measured using dual-energy-x-ray absorptiometry. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks thereafter. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 16 weeks, and analyzed for lipids, cytokines, lipopolysaccharide, and insulin. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and 16 weeks; bile acids were profiled using high-performance liquid chromatography and the composition of the microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The primary outcome was change in percent body fat from baseline to 16 weeks. After 16 weeks, children who consumed OI had significant decreases in body weight z-score (decrease of 3.1%), percent body fat (decrease of 2.4%), and percent trunk fat (decrease of 3.8%) compared with children given placebo (increase of 0.5%, increase of 0.05%, and decrease of 0.3%, respectively). Children who consumed OI also had a significant reduction in level of

  5. GLP-1 receptor signaling is not required for reduced body weight after RYGB in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianping; Hao, Zheng; Mumphrey, Michael B; Townsend, R Leigh; Patterson, Laurel M; Stylopoulos, Nicholas; Münzberg, Heike; Morrison, Christopher D; Drucker, Daniel J; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-03-01

    Exaggerated GLP-1 and PYY secretion is thought to be a major mechanism in the reduced food intake and body weight after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Here, we use complementary pharmacological and genetic loss-of-function approaches to test the role of increased signaling by these gut hormones in high-fat diet-induced obese rodents. Chronic brain infusion of a supramaximal dose of the selective GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-9-39 into the lateral cerebral ventricle significantly increased food intake and body weight in both RYGB and sham-operated rats, suggesting that, while contributing to the physiological control of food intake and body weight, central GLP-1 receptor signaling tone is not the critical mechanism uniquely responsible for the body weight-lowering effects of RYGB. Central infusion of the selective Y2R-antagonist BIIE0246 had no effect in either group, suggesting that it is not critical for the effects of RYGB on body weight under the conditions tested. In a recently established mouse model of RYGB that closely mimics surgery and weight loss dynamics in humans, obese GLP-1R-deficient mice lost the same amount of body weight and fat mass and maintained similarly lower body weight compared with wild-type mice. Together, the results surprisingly provide no support for important individual roles of either gut hormone in the specific mechanisms by which RYGB rats settle at a lower body weight. It is likely that the beneficial effects of bariatric surgeries are expressed through complex mechanisms that require combination approaches for their identification.

  6. Equations based on anthropometry to predict body fat measured by absorptiometry in schoolchildren and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Vega López, A Valeria; Ramos-Ibáñez, Norma; Cázares Lara, L Joana; Medina Gómez, R Joab; Pérez-Salgado, Diana

    To develop and validate equations to estimate the percentage of body fat of children and adolescents from Mexico using anthropometric measurements. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 601 children and adolescents from Mexico aged 5-19 years. The participants were randomly divided into the following two groups: the development sample (n=398) and the validation sample (n=203). The validity of previously published equations (e.g., Slaughter) was also assessed. The percentage of body fat was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The anthropometric measurements included height, sitting height, weight, waist and arm circumferences, skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular, supra-iliac, and calf), and elbow and bitrochanteric breadth. Linear regression models were estimated with the percentage of body fat as the dependent variable and the anthropometric measurements as the independent variables. Equations were created based on combinations of six to nine anthropometric variables and had coefficients of determination (r 2 ) equal to or higher than 92.4% for boys and 85.8% for girls. In the validation sample, the developed equations had high r 2 values (≥85.6% in boys and ≥78.1% in girls) in all age groups, low standard errors (SE≤3.05% in boys and ≤3.52% in girls), and the intercepts were not different from the origin (p>0.050). Using the previously published equations, the coefficients of determination were lower, and/or the intercepts were different from the origin. The equations developed in this study can be used to assess the percentage of body fat of Mexican schoolchildren and adolescents, as they demonstrate greater validity and lower error compared with previously published equations. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Equations based on anthropometry to predict body fat measured by absorptiometry in schoolchildren and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ortiz-Hernández

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To develop and validate equations to estimate the percentage of body fat of children and adolescents from Mexico using anthropometric measurements. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 601 children and adolescents from Mexico aged 5-19 years. The participants were randomly divided into the following two groups: the development sample (n = 398 and the validation sample (n = 203. The validity of previously published equations (e.g., Slaughter was also assessed. The percentage of body fat was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The anthropometric measurements included height, sitting height, weight, waist and arm circumferences, skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular, supra-iliac, and calf, and elbow and bitrochanteric breadth. Linear regression models were estimated with the percentage of body fat as the dependent variable and the anthropometric measurements as the independent variables. Results: Equations were created based on combinations of six to nine anthropometric variables and had coefficients of determination (r2 equal to or higher than 92.4% for boys and 85.8% for girls. In the validation sample, the developed equations had high r2 values (≥85.6% in boys and ≥78.1% in girls in all age groups, low standard errors (SE ≤ 3.05% in boys and ≤3.52% in girls, and the intercepts were not different from the origin (p > 0.050. Using the previously published equations, the coefficients of determination were lower, and/or the intercepts were different from the origin. Conclusions: The equations developed in this study can be used to assess the percentage of body fat of Mexican schoolchildren and adolescents, as they demonstrate greater validity and lower error compared with previously published equations.

  8. Effects of sugar intake on body weight: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, S.H.F.; Pasman, W.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Weight reduction programmes are mainly focused on reducing intake of fat and sugar. In this review we have evaluated whether the replacement of dietary (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or complex carbohydrates contributes to weight reduction. In two experimental studies, no short-term

  9. Effects of Yogurt Containing Fermented Pepper Juice on the Body Fat and Cholesterol Level in High Fat and High Cholesterol Diet Fed Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Park, Woo Joon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether yogurt containing fermented pepper juice (FPJY) affects cholesterol level in high fat and high cholesterol diet (HFCD) fed rat. Twenty five Sprague-Dawley male rats of 7 wk were divided into 5 groups, and fed following diets for 9 wk; CON (control diet), HFCD (HFCD), PY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of plain yogurt), LFY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of FPJY), and HFY (HFCD supplemented with 5% of FPJY). In the LFY group, hepatic total lipid level decreased significantly compared to the HFCD group (pcholesterol level tended to increase and hepatic total cholesterol level decreased and were comparable to the CON group (p>0.05). In HFY group, body weight and hepatic total lipid level significantly decreased over the HFCD group (pcholesterol level, kidney, and body fat weights decreased, and were compared to the CON group (p>0.05). Liver weight decreased as FPJY content was increased. Results suggested FPJY would inhibit organ hypertrophy and accumulation of body fat, hepatic lipid, and cholesterol in HFCD fed rat.

  10. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, D V; Eryukova, T A; Kolesnikov, V A; Rudnev, S G; Starunova, O A; Ponomareva, E G; Soboleva, N P; Sterlikov, S A

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5–80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  11. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Eryukova, T. A.; Kolesnikov, V. A.; Ponomareva, E. G.; Soboleva, N. P.; Sterlikov, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5-80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  12. Relationships between mitochondrial content and bioenergetics with obesity, body composition and fat distribution in healthy older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bharadwaj, Manish S.; Tyrrell, Daniel J.; Leng, Iris; Demons, Jamehl L.; Lyles, Mary F.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Molina, Anthony J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial function declines with age; however, the relationship between adiposity and mitochondrial function among older adults is unclear. This study examined relationships between skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and electron transport chain complex 2 driven respiration with whole body and thigh composition, body fat distribution, and insulin sensitivity in older adults. Methods 25 healthy, sedentary, weight-stable men (N = 13) and women (N = 12) >65 years of age, with a...

  13. Partitioning the variance in calorie restriction-induced weight and fat loss in outbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaanholt, Lobke M; Lane, Jeffrey E; Garner, Bethany; Speakman, John R

    2016-10-01

    An increased understanding of the factors influencing interindividual variation in calorie restriction (CR)-induced weight loss is necessary to combat the current obesity epidemic. This study investigated the partitioning of the phenotypic variation in CR-induced wight loss. Two generations of male and female outbred MF1 mice raised by their biological mother or a foster mother were studied. Mice were exposed to 4 weeks of 30% CR when 6 months old. Heritability was estimated at 0.43 ± 0.12 for CR-induced changes in body mass and 0.24 ± 0.10 for fat mass using mid-parent-offspring regressions. No significant relationships between weight loss in fathers or foster mothers and offspring were observed. Partitioning of phenotypic variance in weight loss using maximum likelihood modeling indicated 19 ± 17% of the variation could be attributed to additive genetic effects, 8 ± 14% to maternal effects during pregnancy, and weight loss could be attributed to additive genetic and maternal effects during pregnancy, but not to maternal effects in lactation. Genetic differences in food intake and general activity may play a role in determining these effects. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  14. The Effect of Utilization of Sweet Potato Flour as Energy Source of Broiler Feed at Finisher Period to Carcass Weight, Chest Weight, Thigh Weight and Abdominal Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonok Supartini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of current research is was to know the effect of feeding sweet potato flour as a source of energy to carcass weight, chest weight, thigh weight, and abdominal fat.The material of the research were 80 finisher male broiler with initial weight of 963.37 ± 31.23 g. Completely Randomized Design (CRD used for research method which consisted of 4 treatment, namely feeding without sweet potato flour (P0, with concentration of sweet potato flour of 10% (P1, 20% (P2 and 30% (P3.The parameter of research were carcass weight, chest weight,thigh weight and abdominal fat. The results showed that the gift effect of sweet potato flour to carcass weight were P0 1199.4%; P1 1138.98%; P2 1076.6; P3 1038.2; chest weight of P0 358.08; P1 366.6; P2 337.8; and P3 323.4%; thigh weight of P0 479.8; P1 472.94; P2 468.4; and P3 442; and abdominal fat of P0 33.2; P1 35.6; P2 25.4; P3 27.8. It could be concluded that the concentration of 10% sweet potato flour from total feeding gave the best treatment.   Keywords : sweet potato flour, carcass weight, chest weight, thigh weight, abdominal fat

  15. Plasma steroids, body composition, and fat distribution: effects of age, sex, and exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zihong; Rankinen, Tuomo; Leon, Arthur S; Skinner, James S; Tchernof, André; Bouchard, Claude

    2018-03-05

    Plasma steroid hormone levels vary between men and women, but their associations with BMI and adiposity are controversial. Furthermore, little is known about the role of exercise programs on the relationship between steroid hormones and adiposity. This report evaluates these relationships for plasma levels of adrenal, gonadal, and conjugated steroids with body composition and fat distribution in sedentary men and women, aged 17-65 years, and their responses to an exercise program. In the sedentary state, 270 men (29% Blacks) and 304 women (34% Blacks) from the HERITAGE Family Study were available. Among them, 242 men and 238 women completed a 20-week fully standardized exercise program. Fourteen steroid hormones and SHBG concentrations were assayed in a fasted state and were compared for their associations with adiposity in men and women and in response to the exercise program. Covariates adjusted for in partial correlation analysis were age, ancestry, menopause status (women), and oral contraceptives/hormone replacement treatment status (women) at baseline, as well as baseline value of the trait for the training response. Differences among normal weight, overweight, and obese subjects were also considered. Statistical significance was set at P testosterone (TESTO) were negatively associated with fat mass and abdominal fat (P fat-free mass in men or women, but was significantly associated with % fat-free mass in men. No association was detected between baseline steroid hormone levels and changes in adiposity traits in response to 20 weeks of exercise. In men, low DHT, OHPROG, SHBG, and TESTO were associated with higher adiposity and abdominal and visceral fat. A similar adiposity profile was observed in women with low SHBG.

  16. [Predictive accuracy of body mass index in estimating body fatness measured by bioelectrical impedance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Fernando; Reyes, Eliana; Rimler, Olga; Rios, Francisca

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determinate the performance of body mass index (BMI) for the diagnosis of obesity and as a predictor of body fatness in adult Chilean subjects. We conducted a study in 433 women (18-73 years old; BMI: 19.7 to 69.7 kg/m2) and 264 men (18-83 y.; BMI: 19.1 to 54.8 kg/m2). Bioelectrical resistance was measured by impedance method and fat mass percent (FM%) was calculated by fatness-specific equations developed by Segal et al. Obesity was defined as a BMI of at least 30 kg/m2. Increased fatness was defined by the FM% cut-off points of at least 25% for men and at least 30% for women. Sixty-four percent of women and 23.6% of men with BMI below 30 kg/m2 had FM% higher than 30% and 25%, respectively. A value of BMI of 26 kg/m2 in women and 30 kg/m2 in men had the best agreement to the cut-off points of fatness according to sensitivity vs. specificity analysis The following equations were developed to predict individual fatness: women FM% = 0.96 x BMI + 0.154 x age + 1.44 (r2 = 0.75; standard error 3.8%); men FM% = 0.99 x BMI + 0.141 x age - 9.914 (r2 = 0.66; standard error 4.4%). Differences between measured and predicted FM% presented a wide variation, with a range of +/- 2 sd of 7.5% in women and 8.8% in men. The commonly used value of BMI 330 kg/m2 as a cut-off point for obesity does not have adequate sensitivity and specificity for the screening of increased fatness subjects, specially in women. In this study BMI shows a low reliability as a predictor of individual body fatness, particularly in men and in subjects with a BMI below 30 kg/m2.

  17. Accuracy of body weight perception and obesity among Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Fu, Mei R; Hu, Sophia H; Wang, Vincent Y; Crupi, Robert; Qiu, Jeanna M; Cleland, Chuck; D'Eramo Melkus, Gail

    2016-09-01

    Accuracy of body weight perception is an individual's perception of their body weight in comparison with actual body weight and is associated with weight-related behaviors. Chinese Americans have increased risk for obesity but no studies have examined accuracy of body weight perception. This study was a descriptive and cross-sectional study, which was conducted in a community health center in New York. Study subjects were all Chinese-American adults. Demographic information, accuracy of perception of body weight, anthropometric measures (weight, height, body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], hip circumference [HC], weight to height ratio, weight to hip ratio), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and obesity-related diseases (hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke) were assessed. A total of 162 Chinese Americans were recruited. 52 subjects (32%) did not perceive body weight correctly: 32 subjects had underestimation and 20 subjects had overestimation of body weight. Significant differences were found among subjects in the three groups of different accuracy of body weight perception in terms of gender (p=0.003), age (p=0.003), education years (p=0.047), WC (pobesity management in Chinese Americans should address gender difference, target on older subjects, and focus on educating the normal values and significances of WC, HC and HbA1C among Chinese Americans. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Body mass index and weight distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengelly, C D R; Morris, J

    2009-08-01

    It has been accepted for many years that being overweight or obese, as indicated by a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or over for the former and 30 or over for the latter, is associated with impairment of long term health and prognosis. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has indicated that, in Caucasians, waist measurements of 94 cm or more in men, and 80 cm or more in women have similar adverse effects on health, with increased risks at 102 cm or more in men and 88 cm in women. The role of waist-hip ratio (W/H) and whether it represents a better index than waist (W) measurement alone is being debated; many papers favour waist measurement alone. But two papers in 2005 discussing 27,098 subjects, 12,461 of whom had myocardial infarction and 14,637 controls, come down firmly in favour of W/H and were followed by a Lancet Editorial entitled 'Farewell to Body Mass Index?' Life assurance companies at medical examination usually request height and weight measurements (and therefore BMI). Most ask for waist measurements and a few hip measurements in addition (and therefore W/H). The authors have reviewed the data in 816 consecutive subjects for life assurance examination in whom BMIs, Ws and W/Hs were all recorded. In these the evidence supports the use of W as the best indicator of risk in men (634 cases), but not in the relatively small number of women (182 cases) in whom H appeared better. We believe that BMI, W and W/H should be recorded in every subject at life assurance examination so that the insurance companies in the long term will be able to reach valid conclusions about their individual and collective value.

  19. Administration of saccharin to neonatal mice influences body composition of adult males and reduces body weight of females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2014-04-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice.

  20. Body Fat Measurements in Singaporean Adults Using Four Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyan Bi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted to measure body composition in Asian populations. In this study, we determined the percent body fat (PBF by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, air-displacement plethysmography (ADP or BOD POD, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and skinfold (SKF in 445 healthy Singaporean adults. We observed that the BOD POD, BIA and SKF estimates of PBF were highly correlated with that from DEXA (as a reference method among Singaporean adults. However, they all underestimated PBF (differences of 3.9% for BOD POD, 5.6% for BIA and 12.5% for SKF. Our results filled a gap in the literature by testing the relationships between DEXA and BOD POD, BIA and SKF in a large sample with a wide range of body mass index (BMI from 16.1 to 37.5 kg/m2 and age from 21 to 69.2 years. The differences of PBF measured by different methods were dependent on age, gender and ethnicity. No significant difference was observed between DEXA and BOD POD in men aged > 40 or in BMI tertile 3. However, the mean difference between DEXA and BOD POD was significant in women. Different measuring methods of estimating PBF therefore must be cautiously interpreted.

  1. Changes in energy expenditure associated with ingestion of high protein, high fat versus high protein, low fat meals among underweight, normal weight, and overweight females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Barry D

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic rate is known to rise above basal levels after eating, especially following protein consumption. Yet, this postprandial rise in metabolism appears to vary among individuals. This study examined changes in energy expenditure in response to ingestion of a high protein, high fat (HPHF meal versus an isocaloric high protein, low fat (HPLF meal in underweight, normal weight, or overweight females (n = 21 aged 19–28 years. Methods Energy expenditure, measured using indirect calorimetry, was assessed before and every 30 minutes for 3.5 hours following consumption of the meals on two separate occasions. Height and weight were measured using standard techniques. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results Significant positive correlations were found between body mass index (BMI and baseline metabolic rate (MR (r = 0.539; p = 0.017, between body weight and baseline MR (r = 0.567; p = 0.011, between BMI and average total change in MR (r = 0.591; p = 0.008, and between body weight and average total change in MR (r = 0.464; p = 0.045. Metabolic rate (kcal/min was significantly higher in the overweight group than the normal weight group, which was significantly higher than the underweight group across all times and treatments. However, when metabolic rate was expressed per kg fat free mass (ffm, no significant difference was found in postprandial energy expenditure between the overweight and normal groups. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from the baseline rate did not significantly differ in the underweight (n = 3 or in the overweight subjects (n = 5 following consumption of either meal at any time. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from baseline were significantly higher in normal weight subjects (n = 11 across all times following consumption of the HPHF meal versus the HPLF meal. Conclusion There is no diet-induced thermogenic advantage between the HPHF and HPLF meals in

  2. Association of body fat and vitamin D status and the effect of body fat on the response to vitamin D supplementation in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Ida Marie; Lundby, M.; Mølgaard, C.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are both prevalent conditions in the northern countries, especially among immigrants. The aims were to assess the possible relationship between body fat and vitamin D status, and to investigate the effect of body fat on the response to oral vitamin D supplementation...... in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark. Data were obtained from a 1-year double-blind randomised controlled trial with oral vitamin D supplementation. A total of 122 women and men received either vitamin D3 supplementation (10 or 20 μg/day) or placebo. No association was found between body fat percentage...... no effect on the response to vitamin D supplementation....

  3. Influence of Regular Exercise on Body Fat and Eating Patterns of Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    OpenAIRE

    Leicht, Anthony; Crowther, Robert; Golledge, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of regular supervised exercise on body fat, assessed via anthropometry, and eating patterns of peripheral arterial disease patients with intermittent claudication (IC). Body fat, eating patterns and walking ability were assessed in 11 healthy adults (Control) and age- and mass-matched IC patients undertaking usual care (n = 10; IC-Con) or supervised exercise (12-months; n = 10; IC-Ex). At entry, all groups exhibited similar body fat and eating patterns. Maximal ...

  4. Body weight in relation to variation in body size of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, L; Hulscher, JB; Koopman, K; Zegers, PM

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationships between body weight in the Oystercatcher and two measures of its body size, bill length and wing length. The weight variation between individuals due to differences in body size is nearly as large as the seasonal variation in body weight within individuals. Wing

  5. Trends in body weight for 7-year boys from different environmental sites of copper mining region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Posłuszny

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The epidemic of the XXI century – a disease that threatens through development of other ailments, caused by pathological accumulation of adipose tissue in the body, beyond the physiological needs and adaptability – the obesity. A significant number of diseases are largely a consequence of obesity, and despite the fact that it mainly occurs in adults, that problem may start influencing our health from an early age. In childhood and adolescence the most common form is simple obesity, and frequency of occurrence shows significant growing trend, regardless of gender. The prevalence of obesity in early stages of life is associated with a significant probability of a continuation of or increase in adulthood, therefore one should look for the onset of obesity in childhood. The results of studies and projections show steady growth in the number of overweight and obese in populations of developing countries and developed economies, including Poland. Therefore it is important to continuously monitor body weight and degree of fatness of children and adolescents. Material and methods. The study was conducted in 2001 and 2002 in six rural primary schools from the Copper Mining Region and in all three primary schools from Polkowice. More measurements were made in 2008 and 2010. The total number of 7-year old boys was 277. The measurements covered Body height, Body weight, Lean Body Mass, Total Body Water and Total Body Fat. These data were collected with the use of anthropometer, body scale and FUTREX 5000, the optical body composition analyzer. Measurements were necessary to get the BMI. Results. Based on analysis, it was observed that the height and weight of 7-year-old boys from the Copper Mining Region has increased compared to the first series of tests. The BMI and amount of body fat have also increased. This situation was observed both in rural and urban environment. There was a difference in body fat percentage. Lower values were

  6. Comparison of body composition and adipokine levels between thin and normal-weight prepubertal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Thinness can have substantial consequences for child development and health. Adipokines, including leptin and adiponectin, play a significant role in the regulation of important metabolic functions. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between body composition and serum leptin and adiponectin levels in thin and normal-weight children. Methods: The authors examined 100 healthy prepubertal children, who were divided into two subgroups: thin (n = 50 and normal-weight children (n = 50. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of adipokines were determined by immunoenzymatic assays. Results: Thin children had a similar body height but significantly lower (p < 0.0001 body weight, body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content compared with normal-weight children. Serum concentrations of leptin were about 2-fold lower (p < 0.0001 in thin vs. normal-weight subjects. Serum levels of total adiponectin, adiponectin multimers, and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R were similar in both groups. The leptin/soluble leptin receptor ratio and leptin/adiponectin ratios were lower (p < 0.0001 in thin vs. normal-weight children. In both groups of children, it was found that body composition parameters were positively related with leptin but not with adiponectin levels. Additionally, bone mineral content was positively related with body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and leptin level in thin and normal-weight children. Conclusions: Prepubertal thin children have disturbances in body composition and adipokine profile. Early recognition of thinness and determination of body composition parameters and adipokine levels can be useful in medical and nutritional care of thin children for the optimization of bone mineral accrual.

  7. Metabolic syndrome: Differences for Asian Americans is in their percentage of body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alpert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Asian Americans are not frequently thought of as being obese or overweight yet some of the Asian American subgroups have a disproportionate risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although the standardized body mass index (BMI assessment is an adequate tool for reporting secular prevalence trends for overweight/obesity across populations, it falls short in accuracy when assessing Asian Americans. In recent years more has been written about the re-evaluation of BMI cut points for normal weight, overweight, or obese Asian Americans. Additionally, the waist circumference norm was modified to indicate a smaller waist size is a risk for metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the research literature on BMI and percentage of body fat as it relates to health risk for metabolic syndrome for Asian American subgroups. Three databases were used to identify articles for this review: Google Scholar, CINHAL, and PubMed. Seven hundred twenty-six articles were initially identified as meeting the criteria; 690 articles were eliminated after a review of the article titles revealed the content did not meet the focus of this review. Of the remaining articles, 19 were eliminated after a review of the abstracts indicated they were meta-analyses, review articles, or case studies. The remaining 18 articles were included in this review. Three common themes emerged. (1 The differences in BMI and body fat percentage are evident between Asian Americans and other ethnic groups. (2 Differences in the percentage of body fat exist between Asian American subgroups, and between Asian Americans and Asian immigrants. (3 There are differences in disease development end points when comparing Asian American subgroups and Asian immigrant subgroups. There are differences in body fat distribution and body fat percentages as well as BMI compared to other ethnic groups for metabolic syndrome. There are also differences between Asian

  8. Weight, Weight-Related Aspects of Body Image, and Depression in Early Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa

    1997-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that early adolescent girls (N=175) with more negative weight-related body images would report higher levels of depressive symptoms. Results indicate that the more subjective and personal measures of weight-related body image discontent (weight dissatisfaction and weight concerns) were associated with increased depressive…

  9. Effects of Body Weight Reduction on Serum Irisin and Metabolic Parameters in Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaeko Fukushima

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIrisin is a myokine implicated in lipid and glucose metabolism. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of a body weight reduction on the serum irisin level and physical indicators in obese Japanese patients without diabetes.MethodsThe subjects were 22 patients (male/female, 5/17; age, 46.1±16.0 years; body mass index [BMI], 36.9±5.0 kg/m2 who completed a 6-month body weight reduction program at our clinic. The program included diet, exercise therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. Blood parameters, body composition, exercise tolerance, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and serum irisin were determined before and after intervention, and relationships among changes in these data were examined.ResultsThere were significant decreases in body weight and BMI after the intervention. Irisin before the intervention was significantly positively correlated with HOMA-IR (r=0.434, P<0.05. The mean irisin level showed no significant change after the intervention in all participants. However, improvements in % body fat, subcutaneous fat area, triglycerides, and fasting glucose were significantly greater in patients with an increase in irisin compared to those with a decrease in irisin after the intervention. Patients with an increase in irisin also had significantly lower fasting insulin (9.7±4.8 vs. 16.4±8.2, P<0.05 and HOMA-IR (2.2±1.1 vs. 3.7±1.6, P<0.05 after the intervention, compared to patients with a decrease in irisin.ConclusionBody weight reduction did not alter irisin levels. However, irisin may play important roles in fat and glucose metabolism and insulin resistance, and the effects of body weight reduction on irisin kinetics may be a key for obesity treatment.

  10. Meal pattern alterations associated with intermittent fasting for weight loss are normalized after high-fat diet re-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T

    2017-05-15

    Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ipragliflozin Improves Hepatic Steatosis in Obese Mice and Liver Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Irrespective of Body Weight Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya, Chikara; Tsuchiya, Kyoichiro; Shiba, Kumiko; Miyachi, Yasutaka; Furuke, Shunsaku; Shimazu, Noriko; Yamaguchi, Shinobu; Kanno, Kazuo; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a high incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) related to obesity and insulin resistance. Currently, medical interventions for NAFLD have focused on diet control and exercise to reduce body weight, and there is a requirement for effective pharmacological therapies. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are oral antidiabetic drugs that promote the urinary excretion of glucose by blocking its reabsorption in renal proximal tubules. SGLT2 inhibitors lower blood glucose independent of insulin action and are expected to reduce body weight because of urinary calorie loss. Here we show that an SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin improves hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-induced and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) obese mice irrespective of body weight reduction. In the obese mice, ipragliflozin-induced hyperphagia occurred to increase energy intake, attenuating body weight reduction with increased epididymal fat mass. There is an inverse correlation between weights of liver and epididymal fat in ipragliflozin-treated obese mice, suggesting that ipragliflozin treatment promotes normotopic fat accumulation in the epididymal fat and prevents ectopic fat accumulation in the liver. Despite increased adiposity, ipragliflozin ameliorates obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance in epididymal fat. Clinically, ipragliflozin improves liver dysfunction in patients with T2DM irrespective of body weight reduction. These findings provide new insight into the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on energy homeostasis and fat accumulation and indicate their potential therapeutic efficacy in T2DM-associated hepatic steatosis.

  12. Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rats fed raw kudzu and negative control diet showed negative mean weight changes(- 6.50g and -10.0g )while those fed with positive control and treated kudzu diet showed positive mean weight ... The result showed that the treated flour supported growth but had no definite effect on other parameters measured.

  13. Overfat Adults and Children in Developed Countries: The Public Health Importance of Identifying Excess Body Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip B. Maffetone

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The global overfat pandemic is a serious public health crisis that places a substantial burden on economic resources in developed countries. The term overfat refers to the presence of excess body fat that can impair health, even for normal weight non-obese individuals. Excess body fat is associated with cardiometabolic dysfunction, a clinical situation that can progressively worsen, potentially leading to various common disease risk factors, chronic diseases, increased morbidity and mortality, and reduced quality of life. The prevalence of overfat populations in 30 of the world’s most developed countries is substantially higher than recent global estimations, with the largest growth due to a relatively recent increased number of people with excess abdominal fat. Abdominal overfat is the most unhealthful form of this condition, so it is concerning that average waist circumference measures, generally indicative of abdominal overfat, have increased. Despite a leveling off appearance of being overweight and/or obese in some developed countries, the overfat pandemic continues to grow.

  14. Motor competence and cardiorespiratory fitness have greater influence on body fatness than physical activity across time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, R A; Pfeiffer, K A; Bugge, A

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the longitudinal associations among physical activity (PA), motor competence (MC), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak ), and body fatness across 7 years, and also analyzed the possible mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO2peak on the relationships with body fatness. This was a seven...... battery. VO2peak was evaluated using a continuous running protocol until exhaustion. Body fatness was determined by the sum of four skinfolds. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the longitudinal associations among PA, MC, VO2peak, and body fatness and the potential mediation effects...

  15. Effect of feeding a weight loss food beyond a caloric restriction period on body composition and resistance to weight gain in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerchinger, Amanda M; Jackson, Matthew I; Jewell, Dennis E; MacLeay, Jennifer M; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Hahn, Kevin A

    2015-08-15

    To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental L-carnitine, lipoic acid, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in dogs. Prospective clinical study. 50 overweight dogs. The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 dogs were allocated to 3 groups (10 dogs/group) to be fed a dry maintenance dog food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 dogs was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1% to 2%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each dog was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Dogs were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase. During trial 1, dogs in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, dogs lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass (LBM) during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body fat but gained LBM during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism and LBM retention were improved from baseline for dogs fed the test food. Results suggested that feeding overweight dogs the test food caused weight loss and improvements in