WorldWideScience

Sample records for body water loss

  1. Body ion loss as a bioindicator of water quality impaired by coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grippo, R.S.; Dunson, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Protection of surface waters receiving discharges from coal mines is currently based on performance standards set by the EPA after passage of the Clean Water Act. These standards were technology-driven and reflect the Best Achievable Control Technology (BAT) available at the time of promulgation. Changes proposed as part of the upcoming reauthorization of the US Clean Water Act suggest that such technology-based standards may be reevaluated in light of more recent information on the toxicological effect of mine discharges on aquatic biota. The authors present here a physiological-based method for evaluating the site-specific toxicity of mine-derived discharges into receiving waters. They tested the usefulness of the body ion loss rate bioassay by exposing fathead minnows, brook charr and stoneflies to coal mine-impacted waters (elevated acidity and trace metals) in the field and to artificial mine water (AMW) in the laboratory. Body ion loss rate was significantly correlated with levels of mine pollution in the field. Body ion loss measured in AMW revealed strong interactions between metals and acid. Because the test animals exhibited differing levels of sensitivity to mine discharge, the selection of an appropriate organism for the body ion loss bioassay may vary depending on the (1) physical characteristics, (2) chemical characteristics and (3) pre-existing level of mine impact of the receiving waters

  2. Evaluation of the correlations for predicting evaporative loss from water body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, T.P.; Aybar, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Water evaporation (evaporation from here on) is a natural phenomenon that is important for system design and system safety in many engineering branches. Indeed, evaporative heat and mass loss are observed and calculated in very diverse situations, such as irrigation plants, water purification plants, cooling ponds, lakes, dams, swimming pools, health spas, management of liquid wastes as in evaporation pools, and spent fuel pools in nuclear power plants. There are a number of correlations obtained from experimental studies that predict the evaporative heat and mass loss from a water body. This study aims to summarize and to compare the existing evaporation correlations to determine the upper and lower bounding correlations for use in various thermal-hydraulic analyses of systems. Currently and widely used, six correlations found in the literature have been selected and tested using the major parameters of evaporation such as water temperature, air relative humidity, air velocity, and temperature. The comparison test cases show that ASHRAE (1991) and Ryan et al. (1974) equations result in the highest evaporative loss, while the Brady et al. (1969) equation provides the lowest evaporative loss in most conditions. Engineering designers may sometimes need the upper bound value of evaporative loss or sometimes the lower bound value for a conservative calculation. The authors conclude that using a single equation does not provide the conservative calculation for every situation and show which correlation gives the lower or upper bound for different conditions

  3. Use of dew-point hygrometry, direct sweat collection, and measurement of body water losses to determine sweating rates in exercising horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, J K; Geor, R J; McCutcheon, L J

    1997-02-01

    To compare dew-point hygrometry, direct sweat collection, and measurement of body water loss as methods for determination of sweating rate (SR) in exercising horses. 6 exercise-trained Thoroughbreds. SR was measured in 6 horses exercising at 40% of the speed that elicited maximum oxygen consumption for 45 km, with a 15-minute rest at the end of each 15-km phase. Each horse completed 2 exercise trials. Dew-point hygrometry, as a method of local SR determination, was validated in vitro by measurement of rate of evaporative water loss. During exercise, local SR was determined every 10 minutes by the following 2 methods: (1) dew-point hygrometry on the neck and lateral area of the thorax, and (2) on the basis of the volume of sweat collected from a sealed plastic pouch attached to the lateral area of the thorax. Mean whole body SR was calculated from total body water loss incurred during exercise. Evaporation rate measured by use of dew-point hygrometry was significantly correlated (r2 = 0.92) with the actual rate of evaporative water loss. There was a similar pattern of change in SR measured by dew-point hygrometry on the neck and lateral area of the thorax during exercise, with a significantly higher SR on the neck. The SR measured on the thorax by direct sweat collection and by dew-point hygrometry were of similar magnitude. Mean whole body SR calculated from total body water loss was not significantly different from mean whole body SR estimated from direct sweat collection or dew-point hygrometry measurements on the thorax. Dew-point hygrometry and direct sweat collection are useful methods for determination of local SR in horses during prolonged, steady-state exercise in moderate ambient conditions. Both methods of local SR determination provide an accurate estimated of whole body SR.

  4. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-22

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  5. Can tritiated water-dilution space accurately predict total body water in chukar partridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, B.G.; Williams, J.B.; Nagy, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) volumes determined from the dilution space of injected tritiated water have consistently overestimated actual water volumes (determined by desiccation to constant mass) in reptiles and mammals, but results for birds are controversial. We investigated potential errors in both the dilution method and the desiccation method in an attempt to resolve this controversy. Tritiated water dilution yielded an accurate measurement of water mass in vitro. However, in vivo, this method yielded a 4.6% overestimate of the amount of water (3.1% of live body mass) in chukar partridges, apparently largely because of loss of tritium from body water to sites of dissociable hydrogens on body solids. An additional source of overestimation (approximately 2% of body mass) was loss of tritium to the solids in blood samples during distillation of blood to obtain pure water for tritium analysis. Measuring tritium activity in plasma samples avoided this problem but required measurement of, and correction for, the dry matter content in plasma. Desiccation to constant mass by lyophilization or oven-drying also overestimated the amount of water actually in the bodies of chukar partridges by 1.4% of body mass, because these values included water adsorbed onto the outside of feathers. When desiccating defeathered carcasses, oven-drying at 70 degrees C yielded TBW values identical to those obtained from lyophilization, but TBW was overestimated (0.5% of body mass) by drying at 100 degrees C due to loss of organic substances as well as water

  6. A phylogenetic approach to total evaporative water loss in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sant, Matthew J; Oufiero, Christopher E; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Hammond, Kimberly A; Williams, Joseph B

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining appropriate water balance is a constant challenge for terrestrial mammals, and this problem can be exacerbated in desiccating environments. It has been proposed that natural selection has provided desert-dwelling mammals physiological mechanisms to reduce rates of total evaporative water loss. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between total evaporative water loss and body mass in mammals by using a recent phylogenetic hypothesis. We compared total evaporative water loss in 80 species of arid-zone mammals to that in 56 species that inhabit mesic regions, ranging in size from 4 g to 3,500 kg, to test the hypothesis that mammals from arid environments have lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mammals from mesic environments once phylogeny is taken into account. We found that arid species had lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mesic species when using a dichotomous variable to describe habitat (arid or mesic). We also found that total evaporative water loss was negatively correlated with the average maximum and minimum environmental temperature as well as the maximum vapor pressure deficit of the environment. Annual precipitation and the variable Q (a measure of habitat aridity) were positively correlated with total evaporative water loss. These results support the hypothesis that desert-dwelling mammals have lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mesic species after controlling for body mass and evolutionary relatedness regardless of whether categorical or continuous variables are used to describe habitat.

  7. A Temperature-Based Bioimpedance Correction for Water Loss Estimation During Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Matthias; Lohmueller, Clemens; Rauh, Manfred; Mester, Joachim; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2016-11-01

    The amount of total body water (TBW) can be estimated based on bioimpedance measurements of the human body. In sports, TBW estimations are of importance because mild water losses can impair muscular strength and aerobic endurance. Severe water losses can even be life threatening. TBW estimations based on bioimpedance, however, fail during sports because the increased body temperature corrupts bioimpedance measurements. Therefore, this paper proposes a machine learning method that eliminates the effects of increased temperature on bioimpedance and, consequently, reveals the changes in bioimpedance that are due to TBW loss. This is facilitated by utilizing changes in skin and core temperature. The method was evaluated in a study in which bioimpedance, temperature, and TBW loss were recorded every 15 min during a 2-h running workout. The evaluation demonstrated that the proposed method is able to reduce the error of TBW loss estimation by up to 71%, compared to the state of art. In the future, the proposed method in combination with portable bioimpedance devices might facilitate the development of wearable systems for continuous and noninvasive TBW loss monitoring during sports.

  8. Partitioning of transpiratory water loss of the desert scorpion, Hadrurus arizonensis (Iuridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefen, Eran; Ung, Cuong; Gibbs, Allen G

    2009-06-01

    Terrestrial arthropods lose body water to the environment mainly through transpiration. The aim of this study was to determine the fraction of respiratory losses from total transpiratory water loss in scorpions, as relatively high respiratory losses would indicate a fitness benefit from regulation of gas-exchange rate under stressful desiccating conditions. We measured metabolic rates and water-loss rates of Hadrurus arizonensis (Iuridae) at a range of ecologically-relevant temperatures. Calculation of respiratory water losses was based on increased metabolic and water-loss rates during nocturnal activity (assuming no change in cuticular resistance at a given constant experimental temperature). Respiratory losses accounted for 9.0+/-1.7% of total transpiratory losses at 25 degrees C, doubled to 17.9+/-1.8% at 30 degrees C and increased to 31.0+/-2.0% at 35 degrees C (n=5, 15 and 15, respectively). Furthermore, the relative importance of respiratory transpiration is likely to be higher at temperatures above 35 degrees C, which have been recorded even within the burrows of H. arizonensis. Measurements of cuticular lipid melting points do not provide evidence for increased cuticular resistance to water loss at higher temperatures. However, the relatively high fraction of respiratory water losses reported here for H. arizonensis supports the notion of respiratory regulation as an evolved mechanism for conserving scorpion body water stores under stressful conditions.

  9. Escape of atmospheres and loss of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunten, D.M.; Donahue, T.M.; Walker, J.C.G.; Kasting, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The properties and limitations of several loss processes for atmospheric gases are presented and discussed. They include thermal loss (Jeans and hydrodynamic); nonthermal loss (all processes involve charged particles); and impact erosion, including thermal escape from a molten body heated by rapid accretion. Hydrodynamic escape, or blowoff, is of particular interest because it offers the prospect of processing large quantities of gas and enriching the remainder in heavy elements and isotopes. In a second part, the water budgets and likely evolutionary histories of Venus, Earth and Mars are assessed. Although it is tempting to associate the great D/H enrichment on Venus with loss of a large initial endowment, a steady state with juvenile water (perhaps from comets) is equally probable

  10. Bioimpedance measurement of body water correlates with measured volume balance in injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemurgy, A S; Rodriguez, E; Hart, M B; Kurto, H Z; Albrink, M H

    1993-06-01

    Bioimpedance technology is being used increasingly to determine drug volume of distribution, body water status, and nutrition repletion. Its accuracy in patients experiencing large volume flux is not established. To address this, we undertook this prospective study in 54 consecutive seriously injured adults who had emergency celiotomy soon after arrival in the emergency department. Bioimpedance measurements were obtained in the emergency department before the patient was transported to the operating room, on completion of celiotomy, and 24 hours and 48 hours after celiotomy. Bioimpedance measurements of body water were compared with measured fluid balance. If insensible losses are subtracted from measured fluid balance, the percentage of body weight, which is body water determined by bioimpedance, closely follows fluid flux. This study supports the use of bioimpedance measurements in determining total body water even during periods of surgery, blood loss, and vigorous resuscitation.

  11. Hydric "Costs" of Reproduction: Pregnancy Increases Evaporative Water Loss in the Snake Vipera aspis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourdais, Olivier; Dupoué, Andréaz; Guillon, Michaël; Guiller, Gaëtan; Michaud, Bruno; DeNardo, Dale F

    Water constraints can mediate evolutionary conflict either among individuals (e.g., parent-offspring conflict, sexual conflict) or within an individual (e.g., cost of reproduction). During pregnancy, water is of particular importance because the female provides all water needed for embryonic development and experiences important maternal shifts in behavior and physiology that, together, can compromise female water balance if water availability is limited. We examined the effect of pregnancy on evaporative water loss and microhabitat selection in a viviparous snake, the aspic viper. We found that both physiological (increased metabolism and body temperature) and morphological (body distension) changes contribute to an increased evaporative water loss in pregnant females. We also found that pregnant females in the wild select warmer and moister basking locations than nonreproductive females, likely to mitigate the conflict between thermal needs and water loss. Water resources likely induce significant reproductive constraints across diverse taxa and thus warrant further consideration in ecological research. From an evolutionary perspective, water constraints during reproduction may contribute to shaping reproductive effort.

  12. Evaporative water loss, relative water economy and evaporative partitioning of a heterothermic marsupial, the monito del monte (Dromiciops gliroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Philip C; Cooper, Christine E; Nespolo, Roberto F

    2012-08-15

    We examine here evaporative water loss, economy and partitioning at ambient temperatures from 14 to 33°C for the monito del monte (Dromiciops gliroides), a microbiotheriid marsupial found only in temperate rainforests of Chile. The monito's standard evaporative water loss (2.58 mg g(-1) h(-1) at 30°C) was typical for a marsupial of its body mass and phylogenetic position. Evaporative water loss was independent of air temperature below thermoneutrality, but enhanced evaporative water loss and hyperthermia were the primary thermal responses above the thermoneutral zone. Non-invasive partitioning of total evaporative water loss indicated that respiratory loss accounted for 59-77% of the total, with no change in respiratory loss with ambient temperature, but a small change in cutaneous loss below thermoneutrality and an increase in cutaneous loss in and above thermoneutrality. Relative water economy (metabolic water production/evaporative water loss) increased at low ambient temperatures, with a point of relative water economy of 15.4°C. Thermolability had little effect on relative water economy, but conferred substantial energy savings at low ambient temperatures. Torpor reduced total evaporative water loss to as little as 21% of normothermic values, but relative water economy during torpor was poor even at low ambient temperatures because of the relatively greater reduction in metabolic water production than in evaporative water loss. The poor water economy of the monito during torpor suggests that negative water balance may explain why hibernators periodically arouse to normothermia, to obtain water by drinking or via an improved water economy.

  13. Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niswender Kevin D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing dietary energy density has proven to be an effective strategy to reduce energy intakes and promote weight control. This effect appears most robust when a low energy dense preload is consumed before meals. Yet, much discussion continues regarding the optimal form of a preload. The purpose of the present study was to compare effects of a solid (grapefruit, liquid (grapefruit juice and water preload consumed prior to breakfast, lunch and dinner in the context of caloric restriction. Methods Eighty-five obese adults (BMI 30-39.9 were randomly assigned to (127 g grapefruit (GF, grapefruit juice (GFJ or water preload for 12 weeks after completing a 2-week caloric restriction phase. Preloads were matched for weight, calories, water content, and energy density. Weekly measures included blood pressure, weight, anthropometry and 24-hour dietary intakes. Resting energy expenditure, body composition, physical performance and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were assessed. Results The total amount (grams of food consumed did not change over time. Yet, after preloads were combined with caloric restriction, average dietary energy density and total energy intakes decreased by 20-29% from baseline values. Subjects experienced 7.1% weight loss overall, with significant decreases in percentage body, trunk, android and gynoid fat, as well as waist circumferences (-4.5 cm. However, differences were not statistically significant among groups. Nevertheless, the amount and direction of change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in GF (+6.2% and GFJ (+8.2% preload groups was significantly greater than water preload group (-3.7%. Conclusions These data indicate that incorporating consumption of a low energy dense dietary preload in a caloric restricted diet is a highly effective weight loss strategy. But, the form of the preload did not have differential effects on energy balance, weight loss or body composition. It is notable that subjects in GF

  14. About Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video) Thyroid Disease Additional Content Medical News About Body Water By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending ... here for the Professional Version Water Balance About Body Water Dehydration Overhydration Water accounts for about one ...

  15. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  16. Atomic Color Superfluid via Three-Body Loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantian, A.; Diehl, S.; Zoller, P.; Daley, A. J.; Dalmonte, M.; Hofstetter, W.

    2009-01-01

    Large three-body loss rates in a three-component Fermi gas confined in an optical lattice can dynamically prevent atoms from tunneling so as to occupy a lattice site with three atoms. This effective constraint not only suppresses the occurrence of actual loss events, but stabilizes BCS-pairing phases by suppressing the formation of trions. We study the effect of the constraint on the many-body physics using bosonization and density matrix renormalization group techniques, and also investigate the full dissipative dynamics including loss for the example of 6 Li.

  17. Age-related differences in body weight loss in response to altered thyroidal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, A D

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether age-related differences in body weight loss in hyperthyroidism could be related to caloric intake, the body weight and food consumption of Fischer 344 male rats were monitored every other day for four weeks. Six-month-old (young) rats were compared to 16-month-old rats (intermediate age) and 25-month-old (aged) rats. Hypothyroidism was induced with 0.025% methimazole in the drinking water for four weeks. Hyperthyroidism was induced with triiodothyronine (T3) injections (15 micrograms/100 g body weight i.p.) for the last 10 days of observation. A group of young rats pair fed with aged rats was included as a control group. The body weight changes of aged rats were similar to hypothyroid young rats. An index of T3 catabolic effect was calculated based on the net weight loss and food intake. This index was not different in aged rats compared to young rats. The apparent hypersensitivity of aged rats to T3 as evidenced by excessive weight loss could totally be attributed to decreased caloric intake. It is concluded that aged rats compared to the young are not more sensitive to the overall catabolic effects of thyroid hormones.

  18. Association between body water status and acute mountain sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Gatterer

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The present study determined the association between body fluid variation and the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS in adults. METHODS: Forty-three healthy participants (26 males and 17 females, age: 26 ± 6 yr, height: 174 ± 9 cm, weight: 68 ± 12 kg were passively exposed at a FiO2 of 12.6% (simulated altitude hypoxia of 4500 m, PiO2 = 83.9 mmHg for 12-h. AMS severity was assessed using the Lake Louise Score (LLS. Food and drink intakes were consumed ad libitum and measured; all urine was collected. Before and after the 12-h exposure, body weight and plasma osmolality were measured and whole-body bioimpedance analysis was performed. RESULTS: The overall AMS incidence was 43% (38% males, 50% females. Participants who developed AMS showed lower fluid losses (3.0 ± 0.9 vs. 4.5 ± 2.0 ml/kg/h, p = 0.002, a higher fluid retention (1.9 ± 1.5 vs. 0.6 ± 0.8 ml/kg/h, p = 0.022, greater plasma osmolality decreases (-7 ± 7 vs. -2 ± 5 mOsm/kg, p = 0.028 and a larger plasma volume expansion (11 ± 10 vs. 1 ± 15%, p = 0.041 compared to participants not developing AMS. Net water balance (fluid intake--fluid loss and the amount of fluid loss were strong predictors whether getting sick or not (Nagelkerkes r(2 = 0.532. The LLS score was related to net water balance (r = 0.358, p = 0.018, changes in plasma osmolality (r = -0.325, p = 0.033 and sodium concentration (r = -0.305, p = 0.047. Changes in the impedance vector length were related to weight changes (r = -0.550, p<0.001, fluid intake (r = -0.533, p<0.001 and net water balance (r = -0.590, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Participants developing AMS within 12 hours showed a positive net water balance due to low fluid loss. Thus measures to avoid excess fluid retention are likely to reduce AMS symptoms.

  19. Water Loss in Small Settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Mindaugas Rimeika; Anželika Jurkienė

    2014-01-01

    The main performance indicators of a water supply system include the quality and safety of water, continuous work, relevant pressure and small water loss. The majority of foreign and local projects on reducing water loss have been carried out in the water supply systems of metropolitans; however, the specificity of small settlements differs from that of big cities. Differences can be observed not only in the development of infrastructure and technical indicators but also in the features of wa...

  20. Body talk among undergraduate women: why conversations about exercise and weight loss differentially predict body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylkiw, Louise; Butler, Nicole A

    2014-08-01

    Undergraduate women (N = 143) completed self-reports on exercise behavior, body orientation, body appreciation, and body-related talk. Results showed that conversations about weight loss/dieting and conversations about exercise differentially predicted body appreciation. Importantly, multiple regression analyses showed that the relationship between talk type and body appreciation was explained by the object-process dichotomy: Conversations about exercise oriented women to consider what their bodies can do which, in turn, predicted appreciation of one's body. In contrast, the relationship between conversations about weight loss/dieting and body appreciation was mediated by negative attitudes about one's body but not by an object orientation. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Transfer, loss and physical processing of water in hit-and-run collisions of planetary embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, C.; Maindl, T. I.; Schäfer, C. M.

    2018-01-01

    Collisions between large, similar-sized bodies are believed to shape the final characteristics and composition of terrestrial planets. Their inventories of volatiles such as water are either delivered or at least significantly modified by such events. Besides the transition from accretion to erosion with increasing impact velocity, similar-sized collisions can also result in hit-and-run outcomes for sufficiently oblique impact angles and large enough projectile-to-target mass ratios. We study volatile transfer and loss focusing on hit-and-run encounters by means of smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations, including all main parameters: impact velocity, impact angle, mass ratio and also the total colliding mass. We find a broad range of overall water losses, up to 75% in the most energetic hit-and-run events, and confirm the much more severe consequences for the smaller body also for stripping of volatile layers. Transfer of water between projectile and target inventories is found to be mostly rather inefficient, and final water contents are dominated by pre-collision inventories reduced by impact losses, for similar pre-collision water mass fractions. Comparison with our numerical results shows that current collision outcome models are not accurate enough to reliably predict these composition changes in hit-and-run events. To also account for non-mechanical losses, we estimate the amount of collisionally vaporized water over a broad range of masses and find that these contributions are particularly important in collisions of ˜ Mars-sized bodies, with sufficiently high impact energies, but still relatively low gravity. Our results clearly indicate that the cumulative effect of several (hit-and-run) collisions can efficiently strip protoplanets of their volatile layers, especially the smaller body, as it might be common, e.g., for Earth-mass planets in systems with Super-Earths. An accurate model for stripping of volatiles that can be included in future planet

  2. Complications following body contouring surgery after massive weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasanbegovic, Emir; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is a way to achieve lasting weight loss in the obese. Body contouring surgery seeks to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by the excessive loose skin following massive weight loss. Higher complication rates are described in this type of surgery when done post......-bariatric. The purpose of this article is to compare complication rates of body contouring surgery when performed on patients with weight loss due to bariatric surgery compared to patients who lost weight due to dietary changes and/or exercise....

  3. Body image concerns amongst massive weight loss patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Jo

    2013-05-01

    To explore body image matters amongst patients following massive weight loss. In contemporary health care, a growing number of morbidly obese patients are seeking surgical solutions such as bariatric surgery or in other cases engaging with radical lifestyle changes. Massive weight loss can leave patients with a huge excess of lax overstretched skin that in some cases can trigger major body image dissatisfaction or depression. There is a scarcity of research about the needs of this group of patients and this is important for nursing practice. A qualitative design using in-depth interviews was employed. Twenty white adults (18 women and two men) were recruited retrospectively amongst patients who had massive weight loss by undergoing bariatric surgery or radical lifestyle changes, aged 29-63 years. All of the participants gave signed informed consent. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. One core theme focusing on body image ugliness and three associated subthemes were identified: the subthemes included feeling socially marginalised, feeling depressed and sexual and intimacy difficulties. Body image matters are hugely significant and appear to have a lasting effect on emotional well-being and function, contributing to psychological distress and social isolation. Greater sensitivity is required in enabling patients to work through emotional isolation and shame that has been a part of their childhood. Furthermore more, treatments need to be accessible to this growing patient population such as reconstructive surgery. Nurses who care for massive weight loss patients need to be mindful of their psychodynamic needs and be non-judgemental and accepting. Moreover, nurses need to be aware of treatment options and be able to assess body image matters and implement quality care for this particular patient group including body image acceptance programmes and support groups. © 2013 Blackwell

  4. Body water, extracellular water, body potassium, and exchangeable sodium in body builders using anabolic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Colt, E.D.W.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Nine competitive male body builders aged 21 to 34 who were determined to take anabolic steroids were studied before and 6 to 10 weeks after a training cycle which included steroid administration. A control group of nine subjects matched in age and duration of competitive career, but using only natural training methods were studied on a single occasion while in training. Total body potassium (TBK) by 40 K, total body water (TBW) by 3 H 2 O dilution, extracellular water (ECW) by 35 SO 4 dilution and zero time extrapolation, and exchangeable sodium by 24 Na dilution were measured before and after training. Intracellular water (ICW) was calculated from TBW - ECW. Initially steroid users had a greater skeletal muscle mass than control subjects, and obtained a further weight gain on steroids, all in skeletal muscle, based on parallel increases in TBK and ICW. Other body composition measurements did not change significantly. A single steroid user became ill taking steroids, decreased potassium by 5%, and increased extracellular water, changes which may represent the effects of hepatic dysfunction which occurred while on anabolic steroids

  5. [Etiological and exacerbation factors for COPD. Body weight loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akihito

    2016-05-01

    Hunger or malnutrition is not only a historical issue but also a current problem worldwide. Biological responses to hunger are evolutionary prepared in our body, including energy generation by degradation of body proteins. Extreme weight loss (malnutrition) can cause air space enlargement in human and rodents. However, the changes in rodents could be reversible, since refeeding could repair the pathology. On the other hand, weight loss is a common feature in patients with more severe COPD. Complex factors, such as increased energy consumption, decreased food uptake by low grade inflammation, socio-economic factors and so on, are involved in weight loss. Weight loss in patients with COPD also increases the risk of exacerbation, hospitalization, and death.

  6. In-to-out body path loss for wireless radio frequency capsule endoscopy in a human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeeren, G; Tanghe, E; Thielens, A; Martens, L; Joseph, W

    2016-08-01

    Physical-layer characterization is important for design of in-to-out body communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs). This paper numerically investigates the path loss of an in-to-out body radio frequency (RF) wireless link between an endoscopy capsule and a receiver outside the body using a 3D electromagnetic solver. A spiral antenna in the endoscopy capsule is tuned to operate in the Medical Implant Communication Service (MICS) band at 402 MHz, accounting for the properties of the human body. The influence of misalignment, rotation of the capsule, and human body model are investigated. Semi-empirical path loss models for various homogeneous tissues and 3D realistic human body models are provided for manufacturers to evaluate the performance of in-to-out-body WBAN systems.

  7. Quantitative determination of blood losses by a whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochna Viola, E.M.; Garreta, A.C. de; Soria, N.; Blanco, E.

    1976-01-01

    A method to quantitate blood losses by determination of the 51 Cr whole body retention (WBR) was developed. Autologous red cells labelled with Na 2 O 4 51 Cr were given intravenously. Blood losses were simulated by withdrawing blood samples. Percent relative variation (PRV) between real blood losses (blood withdrawal) and blood losses calculated by determining the WBR, were found. Withdrawal of 60 ml blood gave a PRV lower than 10.0%. 51 Cr body loss due to elution and red cell death was found to be 0.017 day -1 . The method allows the accurate detection of total blood losses of 60 ml or more, and it can be used to quantitate gastrointestinal or gynecological hemorrhages, avoiding the inconveniences involved by the complete recolection of faeces or of towels and tampons. (author) [es

  8. Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Samuel; Mitchell, Nigel; Tipton, Kevin D

    2010-02-01

    To examine the influence of dietary protein on lean body mass loss and performance during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss in athletes. In a parallel design, 20 young healthy resistance-trained athletes were examined for energy expenditure for 1 wk and fed a mixed diet (15% protein, 100% energy) in the second week followed by a hypoenergetic diet (60% of the habitual energy intake), containing either 15% (approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1)) protein (control group, n = 10; CP) or 35% (approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1)) protein (high-protein group, n = 10; HP) for 2 wk. Subjects continued their habitual training throughout the study. Total, lean body, and fat mass, performance (squat jump, maximal isometric leg extension, one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press, muscle endurance bench press, and 30-s Wingate test) and fasting blood samples (glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glycerol, urea, cortisol, free testosterone, free Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone), and psychologic measures were examined at the end of each of the 4 wk. Total (-3.0 +/- 0.4 and -1.5 +/- 0.3 kg for the CP and HP, respectively, P = 0.036) and lean body mass loss (-1.6 +/- 0.3 and -0.3 +/- 0.3 kg, P = 0.006) were significantly larger in the CP compared with those in the HP. Fat loss, performance, and most blood parameters were not influenced by the diet. Urea was higher in HP, and NEFA and urea showed a group x time interaction. Fatigue ratings and "worse than normal" scores on the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes were higher in HP. These results indicate that approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1) or approximately 35% protein was significantly superior to approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1) or approximately 15% energy protein for maintenance of lean body mass in young healthy athletes during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss.

  9. Two-body loss rates for reactive collisions of cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cop, C.; Walser, R.

    2018-01-01

    We present an effective two-channel model for reactive collisions of cold atoms. It augments elastic molecular channels with an irreversible, inelastic loss channel. Scattering is studied with the distorted-wave Born approximation and yields general expressions for angular momentum resolved cross sections as well as two-body loss rates. Explicit expressions are obtained for piecewise constant potentials. A pole expansion reveals simple universal shape functions for cross sections and two-body loss rates in agreement with the Wigner threshold laws. This is applied to collisions of metastable 20Ne and 21Ne atoms, which decay primarily through exothermic Penning or associative ionization processes. From a numerical solution of the multichannel Schrödinger equation using the best currently available molecular potentials, we have obtained synthetic scattering data. Using the two-body loss shape functions derived in this paper, we can match these scattering data very well.

  10. Water-loss dehydration and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lee; Bunn, Diane; Jimoh, Florence O; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    This review defines water-loss and salt-loss dehydration. For older people serum osmolality appears the most appropriate gold standard for diagnosis of water-loss dehydration, but clear signs of early dehydration have not been developed. In older adults, lower muscle mass, reduced kidney function, physical and cognitive disabilities, blunted thirst, and polypharmacy all increase dehydration risk. Cross-sectional studies suggest a water-loss dehydration prevalence of 20-30% in this population. Water-loss dehydration is associated with higher mortality, morbidity and disability in older people, but evidence is still needed that this relationship is causal. There are a variety of ways we may be able to help older people reduce their risk of dehydration by recognising that they are not drinking enough, and being helped to drink more. Strategies to increase fluid intake in residential care homes include identifying and overcoming individual and institutional barriers to drinking, such as being worried about not reaching the toilet in time, physical inability to make or to reach drinks, and reduced social drinking and drinking pleasure. Research needs are discussed, some of which will be addressed by the FP7-funded NU-AGE (New dietary strategies addressing the specific needs of elderly population for a healthy ageing in Europe) trial. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Water Loss Reduction as the Basis of Good Water Supply Companies’ Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ociepa-Kubicka Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Companies using water distribution systems to reduce the operating costs and increase the reliability of water supply systems, as well as to protect disposable water resources, must search for ways to reduce water losses. The article points out the economic and environmental aspects of water losses. The possibilities of using international water loss assessment standards have been analysed. The reflections presented in the paper refer to the current trends and world standards in the field of water distribution systems management. The article presents the results and analysis of water losses for the water supply network operated by the Water Supply and Sewerage Company in Gliwice (Przedsiębiorstwo Wodociągów i Kanalizacji w Gliwicach, PWiK. The losses were determined on the basis of numerous indicators and compared with other distribution systems. At present, most indicators of water loss are at a very good or good level. The Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI, as one of the most reliable loss indicators for the surveyed distribution system, assumed values from 3.33 in 2012 to 2.06 in 2015. The recent drop in ILI values indicates the effectiveness of the Company's strategy for water leakage reduction. The success comprises a number of undertakings, such as ongoing monitoring, pressure reduction and stabilisation, repairs and replacement of the most emergency wires.

  12. Water Loss Reduction as the Basis of Good Water Supply Companies' Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ociepa-Kubicka, Agnieszka; Wilczak, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    Companies using water distribution systems to reduce the operating costs and increase the reliability of water supply systems, as well as to protect disposable water resources, must search for ways to reduce water losses. The article points out the economic and environmental aspects of water losses. The possibilities of using international water loss assessment standards have been analysed. The reflections presented in the paper refer to the current trends and world standards in the field of water distribution systems management. The article presents the results and analysis of water losses for the water supply network operated by the Water Supply and Sewerage Company in Gliwice (Przedsiębiorstwo Wodociągów i Kanalizacji w Gliwicach, PWiK). The losses were determined on the basis of numerous indicators and compared with other distribution systems. At present, most indicators of water loss are at a very good or good level. The Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI), as one of the most reliable loss indicators for the surveyed distribution system, assumed values from 3.33 in 2012 to 2.06 in 2015. The recent drop in ILI values indicates the effectiveness of the Company's strategy for water leakage reduction. The success comprises a number of undertakings, such as ongoing monitoring, pressure reduction and stabilisation, repairs and replacement of the most emergency wires.

  13. Reduction of water losses by rehabilitation of water distribution network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Mahmud; Yarar, Ufuk; Firat, Mahmut

    2017-09-11

    Physical or real losses may be indicated as the most important component of the water losses occurring in a water distribution network (WDN). The objective of this study is to examine the effects of piping material management and network rehabilitation on the physical water losses and water losses management in a WDN. For this aim, the Denizli WDN consisting of very old pipes that have exhausted their economic life is selected as the study area. The fact that the current network is old results in the decrease of pressure strength, increase of failure intensity, and inefficient use of water resources thus leading to the application of the rehabilitation program. In Denizli, network renewal works have been carried out since the year 2009 under the rehabilitation program. It was determined that the failure rate at regions where network renewal constructions have been completed decreased down to zero level. Renewal of piping material enables the minimization of leakage losses as well as the failure rate. On the other hand, the system rehabilitation has the potential to amortize itself in a very short amount of time if the initial investment cost of network renewal is considered along with the operating costs of the old and new systems, as well as water loss costs. As a result, it can be stated that renewal of piping material in water distribution systems, enhancement of the physical properties of the system, provide significant contributions such as increase of water and energy efficiency and more effective use of resources.

  14. After massive weight loss: patients' expectations of body contouring surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzinger, Hugo B; Abayev, Sara; Pittermann, Anna; Karle, Birgit; Bohdjalian, Arthur; Langer, Felix B; Prager, Gerhard; Frey, Manfred

    2012-04-01

    Massive weight loss following bariatric surgery leads to excess skin with functional and aesthetic impairments. Surplus skin can then contribute to problems with additional weight loss or gain. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the frequency of massive soft tissue development in gastric bypass patients, to determine whether males and females experience similar post-bypass body changes, and to learn about the expectations and impairments related to body contouring surgery. A questionnaire addressing information on the satisfaction of body image, quality of life, and expectation of body contouring surgery following massive weight loss was mailed to 425 patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery between 2003 and 2009. Of these 425 individuals, 252 (59%) patients completed the survey. Ninety percent of women and 88% of men surveyed rated their appearance following massive weight loss as satisfactory, good, or very good. However, 96% of all patients developed surplus skin, which caused intertriginous dermatitis and itching. In addition, patients reported problems with physical activity (playing sports) and finding clothing that fit appropriately. Moreover, 75% of female and 68% of male patients reported desiring body contouring surgery. The most important expectation of body contouring surgery was improved appearance, followed by improved self-confidence and quality of life. Surplus skin resulting from gastric bypass surgery is a common issue that causes functional and aesthetic impairments in patients. Consequently, this increases the desire for body contouring surgery with high expectations for the aesthetic outcome as well as improved life satisfaction.

  15. Discontinuous gas exchange, water loss, and metabolism in Protaetia cretica (Cetoniinae, Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Philip G D; White, Craig R

    2012-01-01

    Insects are at high risk of desiccation because of their small size, high surface-area-to-volume ratio, and air-filled tracheal system that ramifies throughout their bodies to transport O(2) and CO(2) to and from respiring cells. Although the tracheal system offers a high-conductance pathway for the movement of respiratory gases, it has the unintended consequence of allowing respiratory transpiration to the atmosphere. When resting, many species exchange respiratory gases discontinuously, and an early hypothesis for the origin of these discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) is that they serve to reduce respiratory water loss. In this study, we test this "hygric" hypothesis by comparing rates of CO(2) exchange and water loss among flower beetles Protaetia cretica (Cetoniinae, Scarabaeidae) breathing either continuously or discontinuously. We show that, consistent with the expectations of the hygric hypothesis, rates of total water loss are higher during continuous gas exchange than during discontinuous gas exchange and that the ratio of respiratory water loss to CO(2) exchange is lower during discontinuous gas exchange. This conclusion is in agreement with other studies of beetles and cockroaches that also support the hygric hypothesis. However, this result does not exclude other adaptive hypotheses supported by work on ants and moth pupae. This ambiguity may arise because there are multiple independent evolutionary origins of DGCs and no single adaptive function underlying their genesis. Alternatively, the observed reduction in water loss during DGCs may be a side effect of a nonadaptive gas exchange pattern that is elicited during periods of inactivity.

  16. Heat transfer and loss by whole-body hyperthermia during severe lower-body heating are impaired in healthy older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazaitis, Marius; Paulauskas, Henrikas; Eimantas, Nerijus; Obelieniene, Diana; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2017-10-01

    Most studies demonstrate that aging is associated with a weakened thermoregulation. However, it remains unclear whether heat transfer (for heat loss) from the lower (uncompensable) to the upper (compensable) body during passively-induced severe lower-body heating is delayed or attenuated with aging. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to investigate heat transfer from uncompensable to compensable body areas in young men and healthy older men during passively-induced whole-body hyperthermia with a demonstrated post-heating change in core body (rectal; T re ) temperature. Nine healthy older men and eleven healthy young men (69±6 vs. 21±1 years old, mean±SD, Pheating in water at approximately 43°C. Despite a similar increment in T re (approximately 2.5°C) in both groups, the heating rate was significantly lower in older men than in young men (1.69±0.12 vs. 2.47±0.29°C/h, respectively; Pheat in the skin and deep muscles than young men, and this was associated with a greater heat-transfer delay and subsequent inertia in the increased core body (T re ) temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Respiratory evaporative water loss during hovering and forward flight in hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald R; Getsinger, Philip W; Tobalske, Bret W; Wethington, Susan M; Powers, Sean D; Warrick, Douglas R

    2012-02-01

    Hummingbirds represent an end point for small body size and water flux in vertebrates. We explored the role evaporative water loss (EWL) plays in management of their large water pool and its use in dissipating metabolic heat. We measured respiratory evaporative water loss (REWL) in hovering hummingbirds in the field (6 species) and over a range of speeds in a wind tunnel (1 species) using an open-circuit mask respirometry system. Hovering REWL during the active period was positively correlated with operative temperature (T(e)) likely due to some combination of an increase in the vapor-pressure deficit, increase in lung ventilation rate, and reduced importance of dry heat transfer at higher T(e). In rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus; 3.3g) REWL during forward flight at 6 and 10 m/s was less than half the value for hovering. The proportion of total dissipated heat (TDH) accounted for by REWL during hovering at T(e)> 40°C was hummingbirds is a relatively small component of the water budget compared with other bird species (hummingbirds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Body contouring following massive weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Langer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global disease with epidemic proportions. Bariatric surgery or modified lifestyles go a long way in mitigating the vast weight gain. Patients following these interventions usually undergo massive weight loss. This results in redundant tissues in various parts of the body. Loose skin causes increased morbidity and psychological trauma. This demands various body contouring procedures that are usually excisional. These procedures are complex and part of a painstaking process that needs a committed patient and an industrious plastic surgeon. As complications in these patients can be quite frequent, both the patient and the surgeon need to be aware and willing to deal with them.

  19. Protection of Urban Water body Infrastructure - Policy Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, T. R.; Ramakrishnan, K.

    2017-07-01

    Water body is an important infrastructure of urban landscape. Water bodies like tanks and ponds are constructed to harvest rainwater for local use. Such water bodies serve many environmental functions including flood and soil erosion control and are useful for irrigation, drinking water supply and groundwater recharge. A large number of water bodies recently have been lost due to anthropogenic activities and the remaining water bodies are under stress due to risk of degradation. There are many phases to solve or control the problem; starting from stopping the abuse, to restoration to monitoring and maintenance. In this situation, the existing urban and peri-urban water bodies are to be preserved and rehabilitated. In this study, policy requirements for the protection (preservation and rehabilitation) of water bodies are analyzed with special reference to Thanjavur city. Thanjavur city has many water bodies and moat around the Big-Temple and the palace, and stands as an evidence for water management in ancient days. These water bodies are to be protected and used properly for sustainable growth of the city. This paper envisages the following three: (a) need for evaluation of hydraulic and hydrologic properties of the water bodies for conserving rainwater and controlling flood water in the existing urban water bodies; (b) need for evaluation of potential of socio-environmental services by the water bodies, and (c) need for developing a relative importance index for protection of water bodies to prioritize the remedial actions.

  20. Body water handling in response to hypertonic-saline induced diuresis in fasting northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo

    2003-01-01

    During natural fasting conditions in postweaned northern elephant seal (NES) (Mirounga angustirostris) pups, urinary water loss is minimized and percent total body water (TBW) is maintained constant. However, following infusion of hypertonic saline, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine output increased in fasting pups. Therefore, we quantified the magnitude of the hypernatremia-induced diuresis relative to the animal's total body water (TBW) pool and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed. Following a 24 h control period, naturally fasting NES pups (n=7) were infused (4 ml min(-1)) with hypertonic saline (16.7%) at a dose of 3 mmol NaCl kg(-1) body mass. Total body water was estimated prior to infusion by tritium dilution, GFR was estimated by standard creatinine clearance, and urine output (V) was measured for 24 h during the control and post infusion periods. Percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was calculated as (1-(V/GFR))x100. Twenty-four hours following the infusion, GFR (control: 69+/-12 ml min(-1) and post-infusion: 118+/-19 ml min(-1); mean+/-S.E.) increased 77+/-28% above control and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was decreased 0.4+/-0.1%. The increase in urine output (control: 218+/-47 ml d(-1) and post-infusion: 883+/-92 ml d(-1)) accounted for 1.7+/-0.2% of the pups' TBW. The hypernatremia-induced diuresis was accompanied by the loss of body water indicating the lack of water retention. Although the 77% increase in GFR was only associated with a 0.4% decrease in the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed, this decrease was significant enough to result in a 4-fold increase in urine output. Despite the observed diuresis, fasting NES pups appear to possess an efficient water recycling mechanism requiring only a small percentage of body water to excrete an excess salt load. This water recycling mechanism may allow pups to avoid negative perturbations in body water as they initiate feeding in a marine environment following the

  1. Implementing tactical plans to improve water-energy loss management

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, D.; Alegre, H.; Silva, M. S.; Ribeiro, R.; Mamade, A.; Poças, A.

    2015-01-01

    Water utilities are aware of the water-energy loss relevance in supply systems. However, they still mainly focus on daily water loss control (real and apparent losses), without considering the impact on embedded energy. Moreover, they are mostly concerned with the economic dimension and, in most cases, tend to disregard the impact that water-energy loss may have on the quality of service, communication with the customers, social awareness, water quality and environment. This paper focuses on ...

  2. Assessment of evaporative water loss from Dutch cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, C.M.J.; Elbers, J.A.; Brolsma, R.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Moors, E.J.; Rodríguez-CarreteroMárquez, M.T.; Hove, van B.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable estimates of evaporative water loss are required to assess the urban water budget in support of division of water resources among various needs, including heat mitigation measures in cities relying on evaporative cooling. We report on urban evaporative water loss from Arnhem and Rotterdam

  3. Weight loss and body composition changes following three sequential cycles of ketogenic enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Cappello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ketogenic enteral nutrition (KEN is a modification of the protein sparing modified fast in which a protein solution is introduced with a continuous infusion through a nasogastric tube over 10-days cycles. The aim of the study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the safety, compliance, weight loss and body composition changes after 3 sequential 10-days cycles of KEN therapy. Materials and Methods: From a large number of patients who underwent KEN therapy in our department over a 5-year period, we selected 188 patients who participated in 3 KEN cycles with 10-13 days of break between them. Before and after the treatment cycles, body composition was analyzed by bioelectric impedance; a final assessment was made 10 days after the end of last cycle. During each rest period all the patients were on a low-carbohydrate, normal caloric diet. Results: Most patients (97% successfully tolerated the nasogastric treatment and lost an average of 14.4 kg of body weight, 10.6 kg of fat mass and 3.4 kg of body cell mass. Adverse effects were recorded as mild gastric hypersecretion (2% and constipation (5%. Patients continued to lose fat during the 10-day follow up period after the end of each KEN Cycle. This effect may be explained by abnormality of water distribution during the rapid weight loss inducing the observed change in fat mass. Conclusion: Ten-days KEN treatment cycles can induce rapid weight loss and reduction of fat mass in obese patients. Furthermore, preservation of lean mass can be achieved by infusing 1.9 g of protein/kg of BCM.

  4. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Gilmartin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. The ability to pursue self-esteem and the accruing social benefits is emphasized in the interrelated sub themes including social acceptance, undoing depression and sexual vitality. Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss appears to facilitate improvement in body image and well-being. Adjustment to the changing body image is both empowering and challenging. Supportive educational programmes need to be developed to assist this transition to a more positive body image and appreciation; these could usefully include access to and involvement with patient support groups.

  5. Bursting bodies of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls.......A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls....

  6. Water consumption increases weight loss during a hypocaloric diet intervention in middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Dengo, Ana Laura; Comber, Dana L; Flack, Kyle D; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2010-02-01

    Water consumption acutely reduces meal energy intake (EI) among middle-aged and older adults. Our objectives were to determine if premeal water consumption facilitates weight loss among overweight/obese middle-aged and older adults, and to determine if the ability of premeal water consumption to reduce meal EI is sustained after a 12-week period of increased water consumption. Adults (n = 48; 55-75 years, BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) were assigned to one of two groups: (i) hypocaloric diet + 500 ml water prior to each daily meal (water group), or (ii) hypocaloric diet alone (nonwater group). At baseline and week 12, each participant underwent two ad libitum test meals: (i) no preload (NP), and (ii) 500 ml water preload (WP). Meal EI was assessed at each test meal and body weight was assessed weekly for 12 weeks. Weight loss was ~2 kg greater in the water group than in the nonwater group, and the water group (beta = -0.87, P hypocaloric diet, consuming 500 ml water prior to each main meal leads to greater weight loss than a hypocaloric diet alone in middle-aged and older adults. This may be due in part to an acute reduction in meal EI following water ingestion.

  7. Weight loss expectations and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, M; Montagnese, C; Muscariello, E; Evans, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Papa, A; Iannetti, E; Colantuoni, A

    2014-04-01

    Unrealistic weight loss expectations (WLEs) and greater body dissatisfaction may be associated with the poor long-term outcomes of dietary and lifestyle weight loss treatments. We evaluated the association between body size, WLEs and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight. Forty-four young healthy women [age range 18-35 years, body mass index (BMI) range 23-40 kg/m2] were recruited. Women were classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI social (career, family acceptance, peer acceptance, mass media, social pressure) factors. Individual WLEs were compared with recommended clinical targets (5%, 10% and 20%) for weight loss. Body dissatisfaction was lower in non-obese subjects and was directly associated with BMI (P media, whereas they perceived that family and friends were supportive of a lesser degree of weight loss. We observed a mismatch between clinical and personal expectations, and social pressure and interpersonal relationships appear to have a prominent role with respect to influencing the association. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  8. Use of the cellular model of body composition to describe changes in body water compartments after total fasting, very low calorie diet and low calorie diet in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, M; Faber, P; Gibney, E R; Lobley, G E; Elia, M; Stubbs, R J; Johnstone, A M

    2010-05-01

    The cellular model of body composition divides the body in body cell mass (BCM), extracellular solids and extracellular fluids. This model has been infrequently applied for the evaluation of weight loss (WL) programmes. (1) To assess changes in body compartments in obese men undergoing fasting, very low calorie diet (VLCD) and low calorie diet (LCD); (2) to evaluate two cellular models for the determination of changes in BCM, fat mass (FM) and body fluids. Three groups of six, obese men participated in a total fast (F) for 6 days, a VLCD (2.5 MJ per day) for 3 weeks or an LCD (5.2 MJ per day) for 6 weeks. Body composition was measured at baseline and after small ( approximately 5%) and moderate ( approximately 10%) WL. FM was measured using a four-compartment model. Total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) were, respectively, measured by deuterium and sodium bromide dilution and intracellular water (ICW) calculated by difference. Two cellular models were used to measure BCM, FM and body fluids distribution. After about 5%WL changes in TBW were F=-3.2+/-1.2 kg (Pfasting (+1.5+/-3.1 kg, n.s.), decreased during the VLCD (-2.0+/-1.5 kg, Pfasting (-4.7+/-3.9 kg, Pfasting group and it was directly associated with changes in ICW. After a 6-day period of fasting we observed more ICW losses and less fat mobilization compared with VLCD and LCD. The cellular model of body composition is suitable for the characterization of changes in body fluids distribution during WL.

  9. Relationship between perilipin gene polymorphisms and body weight and body composition during weight loss and weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Mariman, Edwin C M; Vogels, Neeltje; Bouwman, Freek G; den Hoed, Marcel; Brown, Louise; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-03-23

    Genetic variation in the perilipin (PLIN) gene may play a role in the etiology and treatment of obesity. To examine different polymorphisms in the PLIN gene in relation to body-weight regulation. 118 subjects followed a 6 wk VLCD, followed by 1 year weight maintenance. Body-weight (BW), body composition, leptin concentration, and polymorphisms of the PLIN gene: PLIN1:rs2289487, PLIN4:rs894160, PLIN6:rs1052700, PLIN5:rs2304795 and PLIN7:rs 2304796 were determined. BW loss during VLCD was 7.0+/-3.1 kg (p0.9, r2=0.72; PLIN5 and PLIN7: D' >0.9, r2=0.85. In men, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, body fat, leptin concentrations were significantly lower for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). In women weight loss and loss of fat mass were larger for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). For PLIN6 genotypes body weight and body fat were lower for homozygotes of the minor allele (T/T) in the men; in the women leptin concentrations were lower. The haplotype of PLIN5 and PLIN7 consisting of A/G and G/G of PLIN5 and A/A of PLIN7 showed a reduction in FM: 5.9+/-0.6 kg vs 3.1+/-0.4 kg, % body fat: 5.5+/-0.6% vs 2.2+/-0.2%, and leptin: 20.5+/-10.8 ng/ml vs 12.9+/-6.7 ng/ml over time in the women (pinfluencer of obesity risk in humans.

  10. Distortion of calculated whole-body hematocrit during lower-body immersion in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, D R; Santoro, T; Bondi, K R

    1986-11-01

    We found a difference between the venous hematocrits of immersed and nonimmersed arms during immersion of the lower body in cold water but not during a comparable exposure to warm water. Fourteen healthy men were exposed to three different experimental conditions: arm immersion, body immersion, and control. The men always sat upright while both upper extremities hung vertically at their sides. During arm immersion, one forearm was completely immersed for 30 min in either cold water (28 degrees C, n = 7) or warm water (38 degrees C, n = 7). This cold-warm water protocol was repeated on separate days for exposure to the remaining conditions of body immersion (immersion of 1 forearm and all tissues below the xiphoid process) and control (no immersion). Blood samples were simultaneously drawn from cannulated veins in both antecubital fossae. Hematocrit difference (Hct diff) was measured by subtracting the nonimmersed forearm's hematocrit (Hct dry) from the immersed forearm's hematocrit (Hct wet). Hct diff was approximately zero when the men were exposed to the control condition and body immersion in warm water. In the remaining conditions, Hct wet dropped below Hct dry (P less than 0.01, 3-way analysis of variance). The decrements of Hct diff showed there were differences between venous hematocrits in immersed and nonimmersed regions of the body, indicating that changes of the whole-body hematocrit cannot be calculated from a large-vessel hematocrit soon after immersing the lower body in cold water.

  11. Significance of losses in water distribution systems in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, V

    1983-01-01

    Effective management of water supply systems consists in supplying adequate quantities of clean water to the population. Detailed pilot studies of water distribution systems were carried out in 9 cities in India during 1971-81 to establish the feasibility of a programme of assessment, detection, and control of water losses from supply systems. A cost-benefit analysis was carried out. Water losses from mains and service pipes in the areas studied amounted to 20-35% of the total flow in the system. At a conservative estimate, the national loss of processed water through leaks in the water distribution systems amounts to 10(12) litres per year, which is equivalent to 500 million rupees.It is possible to bring down the water losses in the pipe mains to 3-5% of the total flow, and the cost incurred on the control programme can be recovered in 6-18 months. Appropriate conservation measures will help in achieving the goals of the International Water Supply and Sanitation Decade to provide clean water for all.

  12. Body protein losses estimated by nitrogen balance and potassium-40 counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyea, R.L.; Babbitt, C.L.; Sedgwick, H.T.; Zinn, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    Body protein losses estimated from N balance were compared with those estimated by 40K counting. Six nonlactating dairy cows were fed an adequate N diet for 7 wk, a low N diet for 9 wk, and a replete N diet for 3 wk. The low N diet contained high cell wall grass hay plus ground corn, starch, and molasses. Soybean meal was added to the low N diet to increase N in the adequate N and replete N diets. Intake was measured daily. Digestibilities, N balance, and body composition (estimated by 40K counting) were determined during each dietary regimen. During low N treatment, hay dry matter intake declined 2 kg/d, and supplement increased about .5 kg/d. Dry matter digestibility was not altered by N treatment. Protein and acid detergent fiber digestibilities decreased from 40 and 36% during adequate N to 20 and 2%, respectively, during low N. Fecal and urinary N also declined when cows were fed the low N diet. By the end of repletion, total intake, fiber, and protein digestibilities as well as N partition were similar to or exceeded those during adequate N intake. Body protein (N) loss was estimated by N balance to be about 3 kg compared with 8 kg by 40K counting. Body fat losses (32 kg) were large because of low energy digestibility and intake. Seven kilograms of body fat were regained during repletion, but there was no change in body protein

  13. Evaluation of seasonality on total water intake, water loss and water balance in the general population in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, O; Bountziouka, V; Panagiotakos, D Β; Zampelas, A; Kapsokefalou, M

    2013-07-01

    Water balance is achieved when water intake from solid and fluid foods and drinking water meets water losses, mainly in sweat, urine and faeces. Seasonality, particularly in Mediterranean countries that have a hot summer, may affect water loss and consequently water balance. Water balance has not been estimated before on a population level and the effect of seasonality has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to compare water balance, intake and loss in summer and winter in a sample of the general population in Greece. The Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) was used to evaluate water balance, estimating water intake and loss in summer (n = 480) and in winter (n = 412) on a stratified sample of the general population in Athens, Greece. In winter, mean (SD) water balance was -63 (1478) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD)water intake was 2892 (987) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 2637 (1810-3922) mL/day(-1) . In summer, mean (SD) water balance was -58 (2150) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD) water intake was 3875 (1373) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 3635 (2365-5258) mL/day(-1) . Water balance did not differ between summer and winter (P = 0.96); however, the data distribution was different; in summer, approximately 8% more participants were falling in the low and high water balance categories. Differences in water intake from different sources were identified (P balance in summer and winter was not different. However, water intake and loss were approximately 40% higher in summer than in winter. More people were falling in the low and high water balance categories in summer when comparing the distribution on water balance in winter. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. Body composition and water metabolism in tropical ruminants using tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjhan, S.K.; Kalanidhi, A.P.; Gosh, T.K.; Singh, U.B.; Saxena, K.K.

    1982-01-01

    Experiment 1. Studies were conducted on Muzaffarnagri, Muzaffarnagri x Dorset and Muzaffarnagri x Suffolk breeds of sheep to determine the water turnover rates and body composition. The native Muzaffarnagri and crossbred animals did not differ significantly in body composition. The water turnover rates were not significantly different between breeds within the same season, but a significant difference was observed between the two seasons (winter and summer). Experiment 2. Nine animals, three each of crossbred cattle (Hariana x Holstein), buffalo and crossbred sheep (Muzaffarnagri x Suffolk), were used to determine the body composition by the indirect method in the two seasons. There was a reduction in the TOH space and total body water during the summer season in cattle and buffalo as compared with the winter season. Experiment 3. Four adult Barbari goats were used to study body composition by direct (slaughter) and indirect (isotope dilution) techniques. There was a significant correlation between corrected TOH space and total body water, fat and protein. Experiment 4. Twelve animals, three each of buffalo, crossbred cattle (Hariana x Holstein), crossbred sheep (Muzaffarnagri x Suffolk) and Barbari goats, were used to determine the water requirements during the two seasons (winter and summer) by the tritiated water (TOH) dilution technique. There were significant differences (P < 0.01) in the water requirement and water turnover between seasons and between species within a season. The lowest water turnover and water requirement were found in goats, followed by sheep, crossbred cattle and buffalo when expressed as ml/kgsup(0.82).d. The metabolic water production was 10% of the total water input in the case of buffalo and crossbred cattle, but it was more in sheep and goats in both seasons

  15. Obesity: locus of control, body image, weight loss, and age-at-onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wineman, N M

    1980-01-01

    In a retrospective investigation designed to measure locus of control, body image, and weight loss in Overeaters Anonymous members who had childhood, adolescence, or adulthood onset of obesity, 116 subjects were grouped according to age at onset of obesity and the year they joined OA. A convenience, volunteer sample of OA members completed a demographic data questionnaire, Rotter's Social Reaction. Inventory, and Secord and Jourard's Body Cathexis Scale. Significant overweight percentage differences were not found when the three age-at-onset groups were compared. Significant differences emerged, however, for adolescent-onset group persons who were categorized as "old" members; they had a larger weight loss and were more satisfied with their body image. A positive linear relationship between greater perception of internal control and a good body image was found in the entire adulthood-onset group. Weight loss and good body image of the oldest adolescent-onset group probably was the outcome of their association with a self-help group i.e., OA. Assessment of developmental issues related to the time of initial weight gain may indicate which treatment regime would be most effective.

  16. Heat losses through pipe connections in hot water stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    The heat loss from pipe connections at the top of hot water storage tanks with and without a heat trap is investigated theoretically and compared to similar experimental investigations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used for the theoretical analysis. The investigations show that the heat...... loss from an ideally insulated pipe connected to the top of a hot water tank is mainly due to a natural convection flow in the pipe, that the heat loss coefficient of pipes connected to the top of a hot water tank is high, and that a heat trap can reduce the heat loss coefficient significantly. Further......, calculations show that the yearly thermal performance of solar domestic hot water systems is strongly reduced if the hot water tank has a thermal bridge located at the top of the tank....

  17. Dynamics of many-body localization in the presence of particle loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenburg, EPL; Yago Malo, J.; Daley, AJ; Fischer, MH

    2018-01-01

    At long times, residual couplings to the environment become relevant even in the most isolated experiments, a crucial difficulty for the study of fundamental aspects of many-body dynamics. A particular example is many-body localization in a cold-atom setting, where incoherent photon scattering introduces both dephasing and particle loss. Whereas dephasing has been studied in detail and is known to destroy localization already on the level of non-interacting particles, the effect of particle loss is less well understood. A difficulty arises due to the ‘non-local’ nature of the loss process, complicating standard numerical tools using matrix product decomposition. Utilizing symmetries of the Lindbladian dynamics, we investigate the particle loss on both the dynamics of observables, as well as the structure of the density matrix and the individual states. We find that particle loss in the presence of interactions leads to dissipation and a strong suppression of the (operator space) entanglement entropy. Our approach allows for the study of the interplay of dephasing and loss for pure and mixed initial states to long times, which is important for future experiments using controlled coupling of the environment.

  18. Use of total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) to determine total body water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, W.; Wong, W.; Sheng, H.P.; Klein, P.; Klish, W.

    1986-01-01

    Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) has been introduced as a safe and rapid method to estimate body composition in infants and adults. Recently, a second generation instrument that operates in a scanning mode has been developed. A study was undertaken to calibrate this new instrument and to assess the feasibility of its use in estimating total body water. Six healthy adults, 3 males and 3 females, ranging in age from 25 to 57 years, and in weight from 43.3 to 104.7 kg were analyzed. Simultaneously, determinations of total body water were made by standard dilutional techniques using H 2 18 O. A baseline plasma sample was obtained and 60 mg 18 O/kg was given orally as H 2 18 O. Five hr later, a postdose plasma sample was obtained. The 18 O/ 16 O ratio in the plasma samples was determined as CO 2 by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry and used to calculate the H 2 18 O volume of distribution. The total body water values ranged from 26.35 to 58.02 and represented 51 to 58% of body weight. There was good linear correlation between the total body water measurement and its phase average (TOBEC number) with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.998. The standard error of the estimate was 0.98. In addition to estimating fat and fat-free mass, the TOBEC method also estimates total body water with excellent correlation to physical dilutions methods

  19. Indices of quality surface water bodies in the planning of water resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Miranda, Juan Pablo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a review of the literature major and significant methods of quality indices of water applied in surface water bodies, used and proposed for assessing the significance of parameters of water quality in the assessment of surface water currents and they are usually used in making decisions for intervention and strategic prevention measures for those responsible for the conservation and preservation of watersheds where these water bodies belong. An exploratory methodology was applied to realize the conceptualization of each water quality index. As a result, it is observed that there are several important methods for determining the water quality index applied in surface water bodies.

  20. Human Water and Electrolyte Balance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montain, S. J; Cheuvront, S. N; Carter, R; Sawka, M. N

    2006-01-01

    .... Sweat losses, if not replaced, reduce body water volume and electrolyte content. Excessive body water or electrolyte losses can disrupt physiological homeostasis and threaten both health and performance...

  1. Seasonal changes in total body water; body composition and water turnover in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje S. Larsen

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Total body water and water turnover were measured at different times throughout the year in 3 captive Norwegian reindeer, using a tritiated water dilution method (Holleman et al. 1982. Total body water (percent of body weight increased during late autumn and winter, from 59.1 ± 1.5 % in October to 72.5 ± 2.0 % in April. Using the equatation by Pace and Rathbun (1945 for predicting total body fat (% fat = 100 - % water/0.732, this increase in total body water indicates a concomitant reduction in body fat, from a maximum value of 18.9 ± 2.6 % (of body weight in October to a minimum of 0.9 ± 2.7 % in April. During summer, on the other hand, fat content increased at the expense of a reduced percentage of body water. Water turnover was low in winter (December - April, ranging between 30.8 ± 5.2and43.6 ± 13.5ml.d-'. kg-1, but increased nearly fourfold during summer (June-August with a maximum of 117.7 ± 5.9 ml.d-1. kg-1 in August. Positive correlations between water turnover and food intake and between water turnover and ambient temperature were found, the latter probably resulting from an incidental correlation between food intake and ambient temperature.Sesongmessige forandringer i totalt kroppsvann, kropps-sammensetning og vannomsetning hos reinsdyr.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Totalt kroppsvann og vannomsetning av vann ble målt til forskjellige årstider i 3 norske reinsdyr ved hjelp av utvasking av tritiert vann (Holleman et al. 1982. Totalt kroppsvann (prosent av kroppsvekt økte utover høsten og vinteren, fra 59.1 ± 1.5 % i oktober til 72.5 ± 2.0 % i april. Ved hjelp av en ligning som er gitt av Pace og Rathbun (1945 for beregning av totalt kroppsfett (% fett = 100 - % vann/0.732, fant en at denne økningen i vanninnhold tilsvarte en samtidig reduksjon i fettinnhold, fra en maksimums-verdi på 18.9 ± 2.6 % av kroppsvekt i oktober til et minimum på 0.9 ± 2.7 % i april. Utover sommeren økte derimot innholdet av fett p

  2. Watching reality weight loss TV. The effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourn, Rebecca; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a weight loss reality TV show on body satisfaction, mood and food consumption. Young Australian women (N = 99) first completed baseline measures of state body satisfaction and mood. They were then randomly allocated to either a weight loss or a home renovation programme and were provided with snack foods during viewing. Post-measures included state body satisfaction, state mood and trait dietary restraint and snack food consumption. BMI moderated the relationship between condition and body satisfaction and mood. Larger women experienced less body satisfaction and less positive mood in response to the weight loss programme. Dietary restraint moderated the relationship between condition and food consumption. A greater percentage of women with lower dietary restraint ate in the control condition; whilst a greater percentage of women with higher dietary restraint ate food whilst watching the weight loss programme. These findings highlight the potential negative impact of weight-focused reality TV on mood, body satisfaction and snack food consumption among some women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Water Loss Management: Tools and Methods for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mutikanga, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Water utilities in developing countries are struggling to provide customers with a reliable level of service due to their peculiar water distribution characteristics including poorly zoned networks with irregular supply operating under restricted budgets. These unique conditions demand unique tools and methods for water loss control. Water loss management: Tools and Methods for Developing Countries provide a decision support toolbox (appropriate tools and methodologies) for assessing, quantif...

  4. Water loss in Mafraq governorate, Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ansari, Nadhir; Al-Oun, Salem; Hadad, Wafa; Knutsson, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Jordan is located in the Middle East and covers an area of 89,342 km2. The total population of Jordan is 6,508,271. Jordan is rapidly facing a severe water supply crisis due to greater demands on a finite quantity of available water. If current trends continue, it has been estimated that the country will experience a chronic water shortage by 2020. Despite these shortages, water loss in the distribution network is relatively high where it reaches 46%. Mafraq Governorate has the maximum water ...

  5. Machine-learning methods in the classification of water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sołtysiak Marek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Amphibian species have been considered as useful ecological indicators. They are used as indicators of environmental contamination, ecosystem health and habitat quality., Amphibian species are sensitive to changes in the aquatic environment and therefore, may form the basis for the classification of water bodies. Water bodies in which there are a large number of amphibian species are especially valuable even if they are located in urban areas. The automation of the classification process allows for a faster evaluation of the presence of amphibian species in the water bodies. Three machine-learning methods (artificial neural networks, decision trees and the k-nearest neighbours algorithm have been used to classify water bodies in Chorzów – one of 19 cities in the Upper Silesia Agglomeration. In this case, classification is a supervised data mining method consisting of several stages such as building the model, the testing phase and the prediction. Seven natural and anthropogenic features of water bodies (e.g. the type of water body, aquatic plants, the purpose of the water body (destination, position of the water body in relation to any possible buildings, condition of the water body, the degree of littering, the shore type and fishing activities have been taken into account in the classification. The data set used in this study involved information about 71 different water bodies and 9 amphibian species living in them. The results showed that the best average classification accuracy was obtained with the multilayer perceptron neural network.

  6. Evaporative water loss from welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, G.R.; Turner, J.R. Jr.

    1980-04-01

    Welded tuff is one of the many candidate rocks presently being considered as a host medium for the disposal of radioactive waste. In the case where the disposal site lies above the water table, the host rock will in general be only partially saturated. This condition leads to a number of mass transfer processes of interest, including evaporative drying, two-phase water flow due to pressure gradients, capillary movement, plus others. Although these processes have all been known about for decades, it is not clear at this time what the relative importance of each is with regard to geologic media in a waste disposal environment. In particular, there seems to be no data available for tuff that would allow an investigator to sort out mechanisms. This work is intended to be a start in that direction. This paper reports the measurement of water loss rate for welded tuff at various temperatures due to the action of evaporative drying. The initial saturation was unknown, but the average initial water content was found to be 7% by weight. The resulting data show that the water loss rate declines monotonically with time at a given temperature and increases with increasing temperature as expected. Somewhat surprising, however, is the fact that over 90% of the water from a sample was lost by evaporation at room temperature within 72 hours. All the water loss data, including that taken at temperatures as high as 150 0 C, are explained to within a factor of two by a simple evaporation front model. The latter assumes the water is lost by the molecular diffusion of water vapor from a receding evaporation front. The motion of the evaporation front seems to depend on mass balance rather than energy balance. Capillary forces and the resulting liquid diffusion are evidently not strong enough to wash out the evaporation front, since the front model seems to fit the data well

  7. Significance of losses in water distribution systems in India

    OpenAIRE

    Raman, V.

    1983-01-01

    Effective management of water supply systems consists in supplying adequate quantities of clean water to the population. Detailed pilot studies of water distribution systems were carried out in 9 cities in India during 1971-81 to establish the feasibility of a programme of assessment, detection, and control of water losses from supply systems. A cost-benefit analysis was carried out. Water losses from mains and service pipes in the areas studied amounted to 20-35% of the total flow in the sys...

  8. Water-body use by Asian elephants in Southern Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Pastorini, J; Nishantha, H G; Janaka, H K; Isler, K; Prithiviraj, F

    2010-01-01

    We assessed water-body use by elephants through monitoring elephant signs around them. Elephant footprints and dung piles were recorded at 25 water bodies fortnightly for one year. Elephants preferred perennial water bodies and avoided those with temporary human dwellings. Human activities did not significantly affect elephant use of water bodies, suggesting low incidence of activities and behavioral adaptation to them by elephants. Elephant signs at perennial water bodies increased in the dr...

  9. Evaluation of the apparent losses caused by water meter under-registration in intermittent water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criminisi, A; Fontanazza, C M; Freni, G; Loggia, G La

    2009-01-01

    Apparent losses are usually caused by water theft, billing errors, or revenue meter under-registration. While the first two causes are directly related to water utility management and may be reduced by improving company procedures, water meter inaccuracies are considered to be the most significant and hardest to quantify. Water meter errors are amplified in networks subjected to water scarcity, where users adopt private storage tanks to cope with the intermittent water supply. The aim of this paper is to analyse the role of two variables influencing the apparent losses: water meter age and the private storage tank effect on meter performance. The study was carried out in Palermo (Italy). The impact of water meter ageing was evaluated in laboratory by testing 180 revenue meters, ranging from 0 to 45 years in age. The effects of the private water tanks were determined via field monitoring of real users and a mathematical model. This study demonstrates that the impact on apparent losses from the meter starting flow rapidly increases with meter age. Private water tanks, usually fed by a float valve, overstate meter under-registration, producing additional apparent losses between 15% and 40% for the users analysed in this study.

  10. Body composition during weight loss in obese patients estimated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and by total body potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Andersen, T

    1996-01-01

    for FFM were strong (r = 0.92 and 0.93). Bland and Altman plots showed limits of agreement of +/-9 kg before and after weight loss; DXA underestimated FFM in women and overestimated FFM in men. DXA accounted for 80% of the lost body weight. The composition of the lost body mass did not differ from...... that estimated by TBK (7.6% FFM and 92.4% FM by TBK; 11% FFM and 89% FM by DXA). CONCLUSION: DXA estimates accurately the body composition and the composition of weight loss in groups of obese subjects. However, the scan table may be too small for patients weighing more than 95 kg....

  11. Creating prototypes for cooling urban water bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortesoao, Joao; Klok, E.J.; Lenzholzer, Sanda; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Kluck, J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract When addressing urban heat problems, climate- conscious urban design has been assuming that urban water bodies such as canals, ditches or ponds cool down their surroundings. Recent research shows that this is not necessarily the case and that urban water bodies may actually have a warming e

  12. Effect of the Health Tourism weight loss programme on body composition and health outcomes in healthy and excess-weight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Shizuma, Kayoko; Toguchi, Makiko; Mizuhara, Hiroji; Machida, Yukiko; Yamada, Yosuke; Ebine, Naoyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2018-05-01

    Excess weight loss while minimising fat-free mass (FFM) loss is important for health. Travel is a particular period at risk for weight gain and for which the effects of a short-term intensive weight loss programme have not been studied. Therefore, we studied the effect of a novel, 1-week supervised health travel programme combining high volume, low-to-moderate intensity exercise and energy intake restriction on weight, body composition and health outcomes in adults. Weight was also monitored for 12 weeks after the programme. In all, thirty-six subjects (nineteen men, seventeen women) consisting of sixteen excess-weight (BMI: 27·1 (sd 1·7) kg/m2) and twenty healthy-weight (BMI: 22·3 (sd 1·8) kg/m2) individuals participated. Subjects performed 1 h of slow-paced intermittent jogging three times per d and other leisure activities, whereas consuming only provided foods without water restriction. Body mass significantly decreased from pre- to post-intervention in excess-weight and healthy-weight individuals (-3·5 (sd 1·5) and -3·5 (sd 1·3) %, respectively; PTourism weight loss programme's results indicate that it is a viable option.

  13. Water losses during technical snow production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Thomas; Wolfsperger, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    These days, the production of technical snow can be seen as a prerequisite for winter tourism. Huge amounts of water are used for technical snow production by ski resorts, especially in the beginning of the winter season. The aim is to guarantee an appropriate amount of snow to reliably provide optimal ski runs until the date of season opening in early December. Technical snow is generated by pumping pressurized water through the nozzles of a snow machine and dispersing the resulting spray of small water droplets which freeze during their travel to the ground. Cooling and freezing of the droplets can only happen if energy is emitted to the air mass surrounding the droplets. This heat transfer is happening through convective cooling and though evaporation and sublimation of water droplets and ice particles. This means that also mass is lost from the droplets and added in form of vapor to the air. It is important to note that not all water that is pumped through the snow machine is converted to snow distributed on the ground. Significant amounts of water are lost due to wind drift, sublimation and evaporation while droplets are traveling through the air or to draining of water which is not fully frozen when arriving at the ground. Studies addressing this question are sparse and the quantity of the water losses is still unclear. In order to assess this question in more detail, we obtained several systematic field observations at a test site near Davos, Switzerland. About a dozen of snow making tests had been performed during the last winter seasons. We compare the amount of water measured at the intake of the snow machine with the amount of snow accumulating at the ground during a night of snow production. The snow mass was calculated from highly detailed repeated terrestrial laser scanning measurements in combination with manually gathered snow densities. In addition a meteorological station had been set up in the vicinity observing all relevant meteorological

  14. Domestic water buffaloes: Access to surface water, disease prevalence and associated economic losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Ehsan; Abid, Muhammad; Zhang, Huiming; Cui, Weijun; Ul Hasson, Shabeh

    2018-06-01

    Given the shortage and non-availability of freshwater in Pakistan, wastewater is being used for bathing water buffaloes; however, this has a negative impact on animal welfare. Although there is a vast literature on indirect linkages between wastewater and animal productivity, studies focusing on the direct impacts of water buffaloes bathing in wastewater on animal productivity and economic losses are rare. Therefore, using 360 domestic water buffalo farms, this study examines the expenditure and production losses associated with bathing (in wastewater and freshwater) and non-bathing water buffaloes by employing partial budgeting and resource adjustment component techniques. Furthermore, it investigates the prevalence of animal diseases and associated economic effects using correlation analysis and propensity score matching techniques, respectively. The findings reveal that compared to their counterparts (freshwater bathing and non-bathing water buffaloes), buffaloes bathing in wastewater are at increased risk of clinical mastitis, foot and mouth disease (FMD) and tick infestation. Moreover, the use of wastewater for bathing buffaloes also leads to higher economic and production losses by affecting milk productivity, causing premature culling, and reducing slaughter value. The findings of the double-log model show that economic losses are higher if buffaloes bathe in wastewater within 30 min after milking, as there are more chances that those buffaloes would be exposed to bacterial penetration in the teat ducts, which may result in intramammary infection. According to the propensity score matching method, the higher economic damages per month are associated with buffaloes bathing in wastewater and freshwater, 155 and 110 USD per farm, respectively. The study findings reference the need for policies to restrict wastewater access by water buffaloes, and a regular check of and access to cool clean water wallows for bathing during hot summer days, to reduce excess

  15. The effects of uncoated paper on skin moisture and transepidermal water loss in bedridden patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Soon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Moon, Nam-Kyung; Ahn, Young Hee; Kim, Kyoung-Ok

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were to measure skin moisture and transepidermal water loss after application of uncoated paper and to compare skin moisture and transepidermal water loss after use of uncoated paper and disposable underpads. The study was a cross-over, prospective, open-labeled, randomized trial. Bedridden patients aged≥18 years at a medical center in Korea were included. Treatment order was randomly assigned using block randomization, with a block size of 4 and an assignment rate of one-by-one. Skin moisture was measured using a Corneometer 825 and transepidermal water loss was measured using a Tewameter 300. Skin moisture after application of an uncoated paper was significantly lower than observed after application of a disposable underpad (mean 40.6 and SD 13.1 vs. mean 64.6 and SD 23.7, p<0.001). Transepidermal water loss also showed greater health scores after using uncoated paper (mean 11.1 and SD 5.7 g/m2/hour) than after applying a disposable underpad (mean 23.2 and SD 11.1 g/m2 /hour, p<0.001). There were no statistical between-group differences in room temperature, relative humidity, and body temperature. We found that uncoated paper was helpful in avoiding excessive moisture without adverse effects. As indicated by the results of this study, uncoated paper can be applied to bed-ridden patients who required incontinence care. Nurses may consider using uncoated paper as one of nursing methods in the routine care of bed-ridden patients for moisture control. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Perceptions relating to body size, weight loss and weight-loss interventions in black South African women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Catherine E; Davidowitz, Kesiah J; Goedecke, Julia H

    2016-02-01

    A higher tolerance for a larger body size has been associated with obesity in black South African (SA) women. The aim of the present study was to explore perceptions regarding body size and weight loss in a sample of black women from a low-income community in Cape Town, SA. Qualitative pilot study including five focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Khayelitsha, Cape Town, SA. Twenty-one black SA women. The majority of participants had positive perceptions of overweight/obesity, which were influenced by community and cultural perceptions, but some inconsistencies were observed as overweight/obesity was also associated with ill health. Participants identified many benefits to weight loss, but due to the association with sickness, they were concerned about being stigmatised in their community. Although participants had knowledge about healthy eating, the main barrier to eating healthily included the perceived higher cost of healthier food and food insecurity. All participants saw exercise as a strategy to lose weight and improve health, and were interested in participating in a community-based exercise intervention, but negative community perceptions and conflicting views regarding who should lead the intervention were identified as barriers. These findings highlight the complexities surrounding participants' perceptions regarding body size, weight loss and weight-loss interventions, and emphasise low socio-economic status as a barrier to change. The study also highlights the strong influence of cultural ideals and community perceptions on personal perceptions. These findings underscore the necessity for culturally appropriate weight-loss interventions in low-income, transitioning communities.

  17. Economic evaluation of water loss saving due to the biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on water loss saving as the benefit derived from biological control of this plant between 1990 and 2013 at New Year's Dam, Alicedale, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Estimates of water loss due to evapotranspiration from water hyacinth vary significantly; therefore, the study used three different rates, high, ...

  18. Body composition and dietary intake in neoplasic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Gartenhaus, W.; Vartsky, D.; Sawitsky, A.; Zanzi, I.; Vaswani, A.; Yasummure, S.; Rai, K.; Cartes, E.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in body composition in 37 cancer patients were studied over a period of 6 months. Initially, the patients were divided into two groups: those who lost body weight (over 10%) and those who maintained or gained body weight before the study. Analysis of body composition indicated that patients who lost body weight has caloric and protein intakes markedly below ''normal'' levels at the beginning of the study. There also appears to be a direct relationship between the protein intake and the total body potassium/total body water ratio in the cancer patients. At the end of the 6-month study, the patients were again placed into two groups on the basis of weight loss or gain (and maintenance). Changes in body composition over the period were analyzed in terms of lean body mass, its protein constituent, water, and fat. Weight loss was found to reflect primarily the loss of fat, water, lean body mass (potassium), and only to a minor extent the protein component of lean body mass (nitrogen). Further, on the basis of the values of the ratios of total body nitrogen/total body potassium/total body water, it was possible to ascertain the relative normalcy of the body tissue gained or lost in the 6-month period. The results of the study suggest that the ratio total body nitrogen/total body potassium may serve as the best indicator of recent or ongoing catabolism or anabolism of the neoplastic process. By means of the application of the techniques used for the determination of body composition, it should be possible to assess regimes of hyperalimentation of cancer patients who lose body weight

  19. Study of Chironomidae Natural Populations of the Former Semipalatinsk Test Site Water Bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimanova, K.G.; Blinov, A.G.; Kiknadze, I.I.; Bakhtin, M.M.; Seisebaev, A.T.; Rakhimbaeva, K.T.

    1998-01-01

    The open water bodies as a component of the biosphere serve as the accumulators of artificial radionuclides generated during the nuclear explosions; therefore their radioactive contamination needs to be registered. The assessment of the environmental radioactive contamination consequences for the natural populations of organisms living in water bodies is of particular importance. Chironomini (Diptera, Chironomidae) play an important role as they are a significant component of water and air biocenoses and provide the self-cleaning of water bodies and food chains of industrial fish and bird. Chironomini have been chosen to be a model for the UNESCO International Program titled 'Man and Biosphere' and are used as the biologic indicator for ecological studies of anthropogenic influence on water bodies. The study of Chironomini natural mutagenic process and its alteration due to the radioactive contamination of water bodies is of extreme scientific interest and can serve as the indicator of the scale of genetic damage of water organisms. This work presents the data on natural populations of Chironomini of former STS water bodies: Shagan Lake, Balapan Lake, the artificial water body on the Karazhyra Coal Field, the backwater near the Shagan River, Balykty col Lake, etc. The analysis of morphology and caryotype of Camptochironomus sp. S (S - larvae have been sampled from the Semipalatinsk Test Site) showed that this is a new species as compared to studied species (C. tentans, C. pallidivittatus) of Camptochironomus subfamily. The caryotype Camptochironomus sp. S differs sharply from the caryotypes of other Camptochironomus species due to its strong hetero chromatization of centromeric discs. The immediate molecular analysis of genome DNA of Camptochironomus sp. S larvae sampled from Shagan Lake was performed: the total DNA of larvae of this species was obtained, nucleonic sequences of genes of cytochrome B (Cyt B) and cytochrome I (COI) were determined using methods of

  20. Whole body immersion and hydromineral homeostasis: effect of water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Chantal; Regnard, Jacques; Robinet, Claude; Mourot, Laurent; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Chennaoui, Mounir; Jammes, Yves; Dumoulin, Gilles; Desruelle, Anne-Virginie; Melin, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was designed to assess the effects of prolonged whole body immersion (WBI) in thermoneutral and cold conditions on plasma volume and hydromineral homeostasis.10 navy "combat swimmers" performed three static 6-h immersions at 34 degrees C (T34), 18 degrees C (T18) and 10 degrees C (T10). Rectal temperature, plasma volume (PV) changes, plasma proteins, plasma and urine ions, plasma osmolality, renin, aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) were measured. Results show that compared to pre-immersion levels, PV decreased throughout WBI sessions, the changes being markedly accentuated in cold conditions. At the end of WBI, maximal PV variations were -6.9% at T34, -14.3% at T18, and -16.3% at T10. Plasma osmolality did not change during and after T34 immersion, while hyperosmolality was present at the end of T18 immersion and began after only 1 h of T10 immersion. In the three temperature conditions, significant losses of water (1.6-1.7 l) and salt (6-8 g) occurred and were associated with similar increases in osmolar and free water clearances. Furthermore, T18 and T10 immersions increased the glomerular filtration rate. There was little or no change in plasma renin and ADH, while the plasma level of aldosterone decreased equally in the three temperature conditions. In conclusion, our data indicate that cold water hastened PV changes induced by immersion, and increased the glomerular filtration rate, causing larger accumulated water losses. The iso-osmotic hypovolemia may impede the resumption of baseline fluid balance. Results are very similar to those repeatedly described by various authors during head-out water immersion.

  1. HEAT LOSS FROM HOT WATER SUPPLY LINE IN A RESIDENTIAL BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    近藤, 修平; 鉾井, 修一

    2011-01-01

    In order to the evaluate heat loss from hot water supply lines in a residential building, hot water demand in a house in Chiba prefecture was measured and analyzed. The following results were obtained. 1. The heat loss of the hot water supply line was about 132kJ for the shower and 110kJ for the bathtub in winter. Since the temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of the hot water supply line is small, the measured heat loss from the hot water supply line sometimes becomes negative...

  2. Impact of Genetic Variants on the Individual Potential for Body Fat Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeon Cha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has witnessed the discovery of obesity-related genetic variants and their functions through genome-wide association studies. Combinations of risk alleles can influence obesity phenotypes with different degrees of effectiveness across various individuals by interacting with environmental factors. We examined the interaction between genetic variation and changes in dietary habits or exercise that influences body fat loss from a large Korean cohort (n = 8840. Out of 673 obesity-related SNPs, a total of 100 SNPs (37 for carbohydrate intake; 19 for fat intake; 44 for total calories intake; 25 for exercise onset identified to have gene-environment interaction effect in generalized linear model were used to calculate genetic risk scores (GRS. Based on the GRS distribution, we divided the population into four levels, namely, “very insensitive”, “insensitive”, “sensitive”, and “very sensitive” for each of the four categories, “carbohydrate intake”, “fat intake”, “total calories intake”, and “exercise”. Overall, the mean body fat loss became larger when the sensitivity level was increased. In conclusion, genetic variants influence the effectiveness of dietary regimes for body fat loss. Based on our findings, we suggest a platform for personalized body fat management by providing the most suitable and effective nutrition or activity plan specific to an individual.

  3. Water loss from terrestrial planets with CO2-rich atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wordsworth, R. D.; Pierrehumbert, R. T.

    2013-01-01

    Water photolysis and hydrogen loss from the upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets is of fundamental importance to climate evolution but remains poorly understood in general. Here we present a range of calculations we performed to study the dependence of water loss rates from terrestrial planets on a range of atmospheric and external parameters. We show that CO 2 can only cause significant water loss by increasing surface temperatures over a narrow range of conditions, with cooling of the middle and upper atmosphere acting as a bottleneck on escape in other circumstances. Around G-stars, efficient loss only occurs on planets with intermediate CO 2 atmospheric partial pressures (0.1-1 bar) that receive a net flux close to the critical runaway greenhouse limit. Because G-star total luminosity increases with time but X-ray and ultraviolet/ultravoilet luminosity decreases, this places strong limits on water loss for planets like Earth. In contrast, for a CO 2 -rich early Venus, diffusion limits on water loss are only important if clouds caused strong cooling, implying that scenarios where the planet never had surface liquid water are indeed plausible. Around M-stars, water loss is primarily a function of orbital distance, with planets that absorb less flux than ∼270 W m –2 (global mean) unlikely to lose more than one Earth ocean of H 2 O over their lifetimes unless they lose all their atmospheric N 2 /CO 2 early on. Because of the variability of H 2 O delivery during accretion, our results suggest that many 'Earth-like' exoplanets in the habitable zone may have ocean-covered surfaces, stable CO 2 /H 2 O-rich atmospheres, and high mean surface temperatures.

  4. Medical weight loss versus bariatric surgery: does method affect body composition and weight maintenance after 15% reduction in body weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulovitz, Michelle G; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Conn, Carole A; Cohen, Deborah A; Ferraro, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate body composition changes in fat mass (FM) to lean body mass (LBM) ratios following 15% body weight loss (WL) in both integrated medical treatment and bariatric surgery groups. Obese patients (body mass index [BMI] 46.6 ± 6.5 kg/m(2)) who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery (BS), were matched with 24 patients undergoing integrated medical and behavioral treatment (MT). The BS and MT groups were evaluated for body weight, BMI, body composition, and waist circumference (WC) at baseline and after 15% WL. Following 15% body WL, there were significant decreases in %FM and increased %LBM (P maintenance of WL at 1 y were found. For both groups, baseline FM was found to be negatively correlated with percentage of weight regained (%WR) at 1 y post-WL (r = -0.457; P = 0.007). Baseline WC and rate of WL to 15% were significant predictors of %WR only in the BS group (r = 0.713; P = 0.020). If followed closely by professionals during the first 15% body WL, patients losing 15% weight by either medical or surgical treatments can attain similar FM:LBM loss ratios and can maintain WL for 1 y. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A closed unventilated chamber for the measurement of transepidermal water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuutinen, Jouni; Alanen, Esko; Autio, Pekka; Lahtinen, Marjo-Riitta; Harvima, Ilkka; Lahtinen, Tapani

    2003-05-01

    Open chamber systems for measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) have limitations related to ambient and body-induced airflows near the probe, probe size, measurement sites and angles, and measurement range. The aim of the present investigation was to develop a closed chamber system for the TEWL measurement without significant blocking of normal evaporation through the skin. Additionally, in order to use the evaporimeter to measure evaporation rates through other biological and non-biological specimens and in the field applications, a small portable, battery-operated device was a design criteria. A closed unventilated chamber (inner volume 2.0 cm(3) was constructed. For the skin measurement, the chamber with one side open (open surface area 1.0 cm(2) is placed on the skin. The skin application time was investigated at low and high evaporation rates in order to assess the blocking effect of the chamber on normal evaporation. From the rising linear part of the relative humidity (RH) in the chamber the slope was registered. The slope was calibrated into a TEWL value by evaporating water at different temperatures and measuring the water loss of heated samples with a laboratory scale. The closed chamber evaporation technique was compared with a conventional evaporimeter based on an open chamber method (DermaLab), Cortex Technology, Hadsund, Denmark). The reproducibility of the closed chamber method was measured with the water samples and with volar forearm and palm of the hand in 10 healthy volunteers. The skin application time varied between 7 and 9 s and the linear slope region between 3 and 5 s at the evaporation rates of 3-220 g/m(2) h. A correlation coefficient between the TEWL value from the closed chamber measurements and the readings of the laboratory scale was 0.99 (P measurements with the water samples was 4.0% at the evaporation rate of 40 g/m(2) h. A correlation coefficient of the TEWL values between the closed chamber and open chamber measurements was 0

  6. Alternatives to isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the measurement of deuterium content of body water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluck, L.J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The measurement of breast milk intake using the isotope dilution techniques is now well established. The methodology involves the administration of a bolus of tracer followed by observation of the kinetics of its passage though the system. For example in the popular 'dose to the mother' method a dose of labeled water is administered to the mother, and over the following days samples of body fluids are taken and the concentration of tracer determined in order to establish the rate of loss of tracer from her body. Likewise samples are taken from the breast fed infant in order to determine the rates of tracer intake and subsequent loss. Deuterium is the tracer of choice for these experiments since it is non-radioactive, and therefore suitable for use in these vulnerable subject groups, and also because of its relative cheapness. Conventionally isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) has been used for the determination of the amount of deuterium in the body fluids. However this methodology is expensive (an instrument might typically cost US$ 150,000), and it requires a considerable amount of dedicated technical expertise for its operation. Consequently such instrumentation is not widely available, and this has limited the number and scope of studies using this technique. Recently there have been reports of possible alternative technologies for the determination of deuterium in body water which appear attractive because of the wider general availability of the equipment required. It is the purpose of this report to assess these reported methods for their suitability for breast milk intake measurements

  7. Use of tritiated water for estimating body composition in grazing ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, A.J.F.; Foot, J.Z.; McFarlane, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    Tritiated water was used to estimate total body water, body composition and water turnover of non-pregnant, pregnant, non-lactating and lactating grazing sheep. Body composition was estimated from equilibrated and extrapolated values of tritiated water space. These methods both overestimated the total body water measured directly. Body fat could be predicted satisfactorily from tritiated water space within the physiological states of ewes, i.e. lactating, pregnant, etc., although for lactating ewes the error of prediction is greater. It appears inadvisable at this stage to use equations derived from all classes of ewes to estimate body fat in ewes of any one physiological state. Water turnover varied, with the physiological state being highest for lactating ewes. (author)

  8. Multi-criteria decision analysis : A strategic planning tool for water loss management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutikanga, H.E.; Sharma, S.K.; Vairavamoorthy, K.

    2011-01-01

    Water utilities particularly in the developing countries continue to operate with considerable inefficiencies in terms of water and revenue losses. With increasing water demand and scarcity, utilities require effective strategies for optimum use of available water resources. Diverse water loss

  9. Adult onset global loss of the fto gene alters body composition and metabolism in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona McMurray

    Full Text Available The strongest BMI-associated GWAS locus in humans is the FTO gene. Rodent studies demonstrate a role for FTO in energy homeostasis and body composition. The phenotypes observed in loss of expression studies are complex with perinatal lethality, stunted growth from weaning, and significant alterations in body composition. Thus understanding how and where Fto regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and body composition is a challenge. To address this we generated a series of mice with distinct temporal and spatial loss of Fto expression. Global germline loss of Fto resulted in high perinatal lethality and a reduction in body length, fat mass, and lean mass. When ratio corrected for lean mass, mice had a significant increase in energy expenditure, but more appropriate multiple linear regression normalisation showed no difference in energy expenditure. Global deletion of Fto after the in utero and perinatal period, at 6 weeks of age, removed the high lethality of germline loss. However, there was a reduction in weight by 9 weeks, primarily as loss of lean mass. Over the subsequent 10 weeks, weight converged, driven by an increase in fat mass. There was a switch to a lower RER with no overall change in food intake or energy expenditure. To test if the phenotype can be explained by loss of Fto in the mediobasal hypothalamus, we sterotactically injected adeno-associated viral vectors encoding Cre recombinase to cause regional deletion. We observed a small reduction in food intake and weight gain with no effect on energy expenditure or body composition. Thus, although hypothalamic Fto can impact feeding, the effect of loss of Fto on body composition is brought about by its actions at sites elsewhere. Our data suggest that Fto may have a critical role in the control of lean mass, independent of its effect on food intake.

  10. Gender differences in body mass index, body weight perception and weight loss strategies among undergraduates in Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, P X; Ho, H L; Shuhaili, M S; Siti, A A; Gudum, H R

    2011-04-01

    This study was carried out among undergraduate students in Universiti Malaysia Sarawak with the objective of examining gender differences in body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, eating attitudes and weightloss strategies. Subjects consisted of 600 undergraduates (300 males and 300 females) recruited from the various faculties between September 2008 until mid-November 2008. The Original Figure Rating Scale: Body Weight Perception, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) were used as assessment tools. Overall, 52.8% of students had normal BMI, with approximately an equal number of both sexes. More males than females were overweight (33.7%), while more females were underweight (25.3%). Males were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight, and fail to see themselves as underweight. More than half of the females preferred their ideal figure to be underweight, whereas about 30% males chose an overweight figure as their ideal model. Females were generally more concerned about body weight, body shape and eating than males. They diet more frequently, had self-induced vomiting, and used laxatives and exercise as their weight-loss strategies. Issues pertaining to body weight perception, eating attitudes and weight-loss strategies exist with differences among male and female undergraduates. Thus, in order to correct misperceptions among young adults, a more tailored intervention programme and more in-depth studies into the various factors involved are required.

  11. Mapping evaporative water loss in desert passerines reveals an expanding threat of lethal dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Thomas P; Mutiibwa, Denis; Gerson, Alexander R; Smith, Eric Krabbe; Talbot, William A; O'Neill, Jacqueline J; McKechnie, Andrew E; Wolf, Blair O

    2017-02-28

    Extreme high environmental temperatures produce a variety of consequences for wildlife, including mass die-offs. Heat waves are increasing in frequency, intensity, and extent, and are projected to increase further under climate change. However, the spatial and temporal dynamics of die-off risk are poorly understood. Here, we examine the effects of heat waves on evaporative water loss (EWL) and survival in five desert passerine birds across the southwestern United States using a combination of physiological data, mechanistically informed models, and hourly geospatial temperature data. We ask how rates of EWL vary with temperature across species; how frequently, over what areas, and how rapidly lethal dehydration occurs; how EWL and die-off risk vary with body mass; and how die-off risk is affected by climate warming. We find that smaller-bodied passerines are subject to higher rates of mass-specific EWL than larger-bodied counterparts and thus encounter potentially lethal conditions much more frequently, over shorter daily intervals, and over larger geographic areas. Warming by 4 °C greatly expands the extent, frequency, and intensity of dehydration risk, and introduces new threats for larger passerine birds, particularly those with limited geographic ranges. Our models reveal that increasing air temperatures and heat wave occurrence will potentially have important impacts on the water balance, daily activity, and geographic distribution of arid-zone birds. Impacts may be exacerbated by chronic effects and interactions with other environmental changes. This work underscores the importance of acute risks of high temperatures, particularly for small-bodied species, and suggests conservation of thermal refugia and water sources.

  12. How Does Silicon Mediate Plant Water Uptake and Loss Under Water Deficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoqian Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In plants, water deficiency can result from a deficit of water from the soil, an obstacle to the uptake of water or the excess water loss; in these cases, the similar consequence is the limitation of plant growth and crop yield. Silicon (Si has been widely reported to alleviate the plant water status and water balance under variant stress conditions in both monocot and dicot plants, especially under drought and salt stresses. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. In addition to the regulation of leaf transpiration, recently, Si application was found to be involved in the adjustment of root hydraulic conductance by up-regulating aquaporin gene expression and concentrating K in the xylem sap. Therefore, this review discusses the potential effects of Si on both leaf transpiration and root water absorption, especially focusing on how Si modulates the root hydraulic conductance. A growing number of studies support the conclusion that Si application improves plant water status by increasing root water uptake, rather than by decreasing their water loss under conditions of water deficiency. The enhancement of plant water uptake by Si is achievable through the activation of osmotic adjustment, improving aquaporin activity and increasing the root/shoot ratio. The underlying mechanisms of the Si on improving plant water uptake under water deficiency conditions are discussed.

  13. Loss of Water to Space from Mars: Processes and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, D. M.

    2001-12-01

    One of the major sinks for water on Mars is the loss to space. This occurs via a complex series of processes that transport the individual atoms to the upper atmosphere, where several escape mechanisms remove them. Hydrogen and deuterium are lost primarily by Jeans escape. Non-thermal processes also remove H and D, but are only important in determining D loss at solar minimum under modern conditions. The present H loss rate is equivalent to the loss of 10-3~pr-\\micron~yr-1 of water. The loss of oxygen is more complicated. The three main processes are indirect (or ionospheric) sputtering, solar wind pickup of O+, and O2+ dissociative recombination. Their relative importance has varied over the history of Mars. The combined effect of the O loss processes is to remove a ~ 50~m global layer of water over the last 3.5 Gyr. Based on photochemical modeling, the loss of oxygen and hydrogen are balanced (over geological timescales) by a feedback process. During the early history of Mars, impact erosion and hydrodynamic blow-off may have removed significant water. But, it is difficult to estimate their quantitative effects. The transport of individual H, D and O atoms to the exosphere where they can escape is not completely understood. It occurs primarily via intermediate species, H2, HD, O2 and CO2. The H2 and HD are formed by photolysis of water and the odd hydrogen photochemistry. One open issue is the mechanism regulating the partitioning of D between HDO and HD (which controls the supply of D available for escape from the exosphere). The various loss processes isotopically enrich Martian water since the exospheric escape source region is depleted. Jeans escape and the transport from the lower atmosphere further fractionate hydrogen, the most useful isotopic system. Based on recent observations, the D/H fractionation factor, F ~ 0.02. Measurements of atmospheric water vapor indicate it is enriched in deuterium, with a D/H ratio ~ 5 times the terrestrial value. Since

  14. Bioimpedance identifies body fluid loss after exercise in the heat: a pilot study with body cooling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Gatterer

    Full Text Available Assessment of post-exercise changes in hydration with bioimpedance (BI is complicated by physiological adaptations that affect resistance (R and reactance (Xc values. This study investigated exercise-induced changes in R and Xc, independently and in bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, when factors such as increased skin temperature and blood flow and surface electrolyte accumulation are eliminated with a cold shower.Healthy males (n = 14, 24.1±1.7 yr; height (H: 182.4±5.6 cm, body mass: 72.3±6.3 kg exercised for 1 hr at a self-rated intensity (15 BORG in an environmental chamber (33°C and 50% relative humidity, then had a cold shower (15 min. Before the run BI, body mass, hematocrit and Posm were measured. After the shower body mass was measured; BI measurements were performed continuously every 20 minutes until R reached a stable level, then hematocrit and Posm were measured again.Compared to pre-trial measurements body mass decreased after the run and Posm, Hct, R/H and Xc/H increased (p<0.05 with a corresponding lengthening of the impedance vector along the major axis of the tolerance ellipse (p<0.001. Changes in Posm were negatively related to changes in body mass (r = -0.564, p = 0.036 and changes in Xc/H (r = -0.577, p = 0.041.Present findings showed that after a bout of exercise-induced dehydration followed by cold shower the impedance vector lengthened that indicates fluid loss. Additionally, BI values might be useful to evaluate fluid shifts between compartments as lower intracellular fluid loss (changed Xc/R indicated greater Posm increase.

  15. Aging Impairs Whole-Body Heat Loss in Women under Both Dry and Humid Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notley, Sean R; Poirier, Martin P; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Flouris, Andreas D; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-11-01

    This study was designed to determine whether age-related impairments in whole-body heat loss, which are known to exist in dry heat, also occur in humid heat in women. To evaluate this possibility, 10 young (25 ± 4 yr) and 10 older (51 ± 7 yr) women matched for body surface area (young, 1.69 ± 0.11; older, 1.76 ± 0.14 m, P = 0.21) and peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak) (young, 38.6 ± 4.6; older, 34.8 ± 6.6 mL·kg·min, P = 0.15) performed four 15-min bouts of cycling at a fixed metabolic heat production rate (300 W; equivalent to ~45% V˙O2peak), each separated by a 15-min recovery, in dry (35°C, 20% relative humidity) and humid heat (35°C, 60% relative humidity). Total heat loss (evaporative ± dry heat exchange) and metabolic heat production were measured using direct and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Body heat storage was measured as the temporal summation of heat production and loss. Total heat loss was lower in humid conditions compared with dry conditions during all exercise bouts in both groups (all P body heat storage in young and older women, respectively (both P body heat storage was 29% and 16% greater in older women compared with young women in dry and humid conditions, respectively (both P < 0.05). Increasing ambient humidity reduces heat loss capacity in young and older women. However, older women display impaired heat loss relative to young women in both dry and humid heat, and may therefore be at greater risk of heat-related injury during light-to-moderate activity.

  16. Body Loss Study of Beamforming Mode in LTE MIMO Mobile Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Zhao, Kun; Ying, Zhinong

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly focuses on the investigation of the body loss of beamforming mode in LTE MIMO mobile terminals with CTIA user effects. The research of the body loss and radiation efficiency is carried out over different phase differences between two ports of each MIMO antenna. During studies......, four kinds of typical LTE MIMO antennas are used, namely, collocated ground free (GF), parallel GF, parallel on ground (OG) and orthogonal OG MIMO antennas, under four mobile terminal lengths at low and high frequencies. Two kinds of CTIA user effects are included in the research. From the studies......, the parallel GF MIMO antenna type exhibits the best beamforming performance in the four MIMO antenna types. In order to verify the simulations, envelope correlation coefficients of two MIMO antenna prototypes are measured. All the measured results agree well with the simulated....

  17. Real-time dynamic hydraulic model for potable water loss reduction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abu-Mahfouz, Adnan M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a water scarce country with limited water resources and steadily growing water demand. Unacceptably high water losses and non-revenue water threaten our water resource security as well as the financial viability of municipal water...

  18. Use of Hydraulic Model for Water Loss Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Mindaugas Rimeika; Anželika Jurkienė

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic modeling is the modern way to apply world water engineering experience in every day practice. Hydraulic model is an effective tool in order to perform analysis of water supply system, optimization of its operation, assessment of system efficiency potential, evaluation of water network development, fire flow capabilities, energy saving opportunities and water loss reduction and ect. Hydraulic model shall include all possible engineering elements and devices allocated in a real water ...

  19. Hull loss accident model for narrow body commercial aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchanok Tiabtiamrat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidents with narrow body aircraft were statistically evaluated covering six families of commercial aircraft includingBoeing B737, Airbus A320, McDonnell Douglas MD80, Tupolev TU134/TU154 and Antonov AN124. A risk indicator for eachflight phase was developed based on motion characteristics, duration time, and the presence of adverse weather conditions.The estimated risk levels based on these risk indicators then developed from the risk indicator. Regression analysis indicatedvery good agreement between the estimated risk level and the accident ratio of hull loss cases per number of delivered aircraft.The effect of time on the hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft was assessed for B737, A320 and MD80. Equationsrepresenting the effect of time on hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were proposed for B737, A320, and MD80,while average values of hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were found for TU134, TU154, and AN 124. Accidentprobability equations were then developed for each family of aircraft that the probability of an aircraft in a hull loss accidentcould be estimated for any aircraft family, flight phase, presence of adverse weather factor, hour of day, day of week, monthof year, pilot age, and pilot flight hour experience. A simplified relationship between estimated hull loss accident probabilityand unsafe acts by human was proposed. Numerical investigation of the relationship between unsafe acts by human andfatality ratio suggested that the fatality ratio in hull loss accident was dominated primarily by the flight phase media.

  20. Effect of Exercise Type During Intentional Weight Loss on Body Composition in Older Adults with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Kristen M; Ambrosius, Walter T; Rejeski, W Jack; Burdette, Jonathan H; Walkup, Michael P; Sheedy, Jessica L; Nesbit, Beverly A; Gaukstern, Jill E; Nicklas, Barbara J; Marsh, Anthony P

    2017-11-01

    To examine the long-term effects of exercise modality during weight loss on body composition and associations between body composition and physical function changes. Two hundred forty-nine older adults (66.9 ± 4.7 years, 71% women, 32% African American, BMI: 34.4 ± 3.7 kg/m 2 ) were randomized to weight loss (WL; n = 82), WL plus aerobic training (WL + AT; n = 86), or WL plus resistance training (WL + RT; n = 81) for 18 months. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-acquired body composition, 400-m walk time, and knee extensor strength were measured at baseline and at 6 and 18 months. Total body mass loss was enhanced when WL was combined with exercise (WL: -5.7 ± 0.7 kg, WL + AT: -8.5 ± 0.7 kg, WL + RT: -8.7 ± 0.7 kg; P exercise yields greater fat mass loss than WL alone. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  1. Prognostic significance of unintentional body weight loss in colon cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Hung; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Huang, Cheng Yi; Huang, Yun-Ching; Chin, Chih-Chien

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether unintentional body weight loss (BWL) provides additional clinical information in terms of tumor progression and prognosis in non-metastatic colon cancer. In the present study, a total of 2,406 consecutive colon cancer patients without metastasis were retrospectively enrolled. Unintentional BWL was defined as loss of >5% of body weight within the last 6-12 months, or defined subjectively upon fulfillment of at least two of the following: Evidence of change in clothing size and corroboration of the reported weight loss by family or friend. This category was recorded as present ('with') or absent ('without'). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the correlation between BWL and the tumor characteristics and post-operative outcomes of patients with colon cancer. The Cox regression model was used to determine the association of BWL with long-term survival of colon cancer patients. A significant association between BWL and tumor location [right vs. left: Odds ratio (OR)=1.62; Pcolon cancer is not just a symptom, but it is also correlated with tumor location, size and depth, and is a prognostic factor for poor outcomes including overall survival and tumor relapse.

  2. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  3. Water loss from terrestrial planets with CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordsworth, R. D.; Pierrehumbert, R. T., E-mail: rwordsworth@uchicago.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 60637 IL (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Water photolysis and hydrogen loss from the upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets is of fundamental importance to climate evolution but remains poorly understood in general. Here we present a range of calculations we performed to study the dependence of water loss rates from terrestrial planets on a range of atmospheric and external parameters. We show that CO{sub 2} can only cause significant water loss by increasing surface temperatures over a narrow range of conditions, with cooling of the middle and upper atmosphere acting as a bottleneck on escape in other circumstances. Around G-stars, efficient loss only occurs on planets with intermediate CO{sub 2} atmospheric partial pressures (0.1-1 bar) that receive a net flux close to the critical runaway greenhouse limit. Because G-star total luminosity increases with time but X-ray and ultraviolet/ultravoilet luminosity decreases, this places strong limits on water loss for planets like Earth. In contrast, for a CO{sub 2}-rich early Venus, diffusion limits on water loss are only important if clouds caused strong cooling, implying that scenarios where the planet never had surface liquid water are indeed plausible. Around M-stars, water loss is primarily a function of orbital distance, with planets that absorb less flux than ∼270 W m{sup –2} (global mean) unlikely to lose more than one Earth ocean of H{sub 2}O over their lifetimes unless they lose all their atmospheric N{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} early on. Because of the variability of H{sub 2}O delivery during accretion, our results suggest that many 'Earth-like' exoplanets in the habitable zone may have ocean-covered surfaces, stable CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O-rich atmospheres, and high mean surface temperatures.

  4. Myths and methodologies: Making sense of exercise mass and water balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Montain, Scott J

    2017-09-01

    What is the topic of this review? There is a need to revisit the basic principles of exercise mass and water balance, the use of common equations and the practice of interpreting outcomes. What advances does it highlight? We propose use of the following equation as a way of simplifying exercise mass and water balance calculations in conditions where food is not consumed and waste is not excreted: ∆body mass - 0.20 g/kcal -1  = ∆body water. The relative efficacy of exercise drinking behaviours can be judged using the following equation: percentage dehydration = [(∆body mass - 0.20 g kcal -1 )/starting body mass] × 100. Changes in body mass occur because of flux in liquids, solids and gases. This knowledge is crucial for understanding metabolism, health and human water needs. In exercise science, corrections to observed changes in body mass to estimate water balance are inconsistently applied and often misinterpreted, particularly after prolonged exercise. Although acute body mass losses in response to exercise can represent a close surrogate for body water losses, the discordance between mass and water balance equivalence becomes increasingly inaccurate as more and more energy is expended. The purpose of this paper is briefly to clarify the roles that respiratory water loss, gas exchange and metabolic water production play in the correction of body mass changes for fluid balance determinations during prolonged exercise. Computations do not include waters of association with glycogen because any movement of water among body water compartments contributes nothing to water or mass flux from the body. Estimates of sweat loss from changes in body mass should adjust for non-sweat losses when possible. We propose use of the following equation as a way of simplifying the study of exercise mass and water balance: ∆body mass - 0.20 g kcal -1  = ∆body water. This equation directly controls for the influence of energy expenditure on body mass

  5. Virtual water trade and time scales for loss of water sustainability: a comparative regional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Prashant; Nishad, Shiv Narayan

    2015-03-20

    Assessment and policy design for sustainability in primary resources like arable land and water need to adopt long-term perspective; even small but persistent effects like net export of water may influence sustainability through irreversible losses. With growing consumption, this virtual water trade has become an important element in the water sustainability of a nation. We estimate and contrast the virtual (embedded) water trades of two populous nations, India and China, to present certain quantitative measures and time scales. Estimates show that export of embedded water alone can lead to loss of water sustainability. With the current rate of net export of water (embedded) in the end products, India is poised to lose its entire available water in less than 1000 years; much shorter time scales are implied in terms of water for production. The two cases contrast and exemplify sustainable and non-sustainable virtual water trade in long term perspective.

  6. Overnight weight loss: relationship with sleep structure and heart rate variability

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Moraes; Dalva Poyares; Christian Guilleminault; Agostinho Rosa; Marco Tulio Mello; Adriana Rueda; Sergio Tufik

    2008-01-01

    Background: Weight loss can be caused by a loss of body mass due to metabolism and by water loss as unsensible water loss, sweating, or excretion in feces and urine. Although weight loss during sleep is a well-known phenomenon, it has not yet been studied in relation to sleep structure or autonomic tonus during sleep. Our study is proposed to be a first step in assessing the relationship between overnight weight loss, sleep structure, and HRV (heart rate variability) parameters.Methods: Twent...

  7. Re-designating water bodies in Denmark bypasses the Water Framework Directive objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Despite the initially ambitious provisions of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) when it first entered into force, thousands of kilometres of Danish watercourses have now lost their legal protection through the application of the WFD’s provisions concerning the designation of water bodies....... This article describes the designation process and concludes that it does not conform to the obligation carefully to assign an environmental objective to discrete and significant water bodies as set out in the WFD. Neither does it ensure the same level of protection that existed prior to the implementation...

  8. Re-designating water bodies in Denmark bypasses the Water Framework Directive objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    Despite the initially ambitious provisions of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) when it first entered into force, thousands of kilometres of Danish watercourses have now lost their legal protection through the application of the WFD’s provisions concerning the designation of water bodies....... This article describes the designation process and concludes that it does not conform to the obligation carefully to assign an environmental objective to discrete and significant water bodies as set out in the WFD. Neither does it ensure the same level of protection that existed prior to the implementation...

  9. Effects of replacing diet beverages with water on weight loss and weight maintenance: 18-month follow-up, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjd, A; Taylor, M A; Delavari, A; Malekzadeh, R; Macdonald, I A; Farshchi, H R

    2018-04-01

    Beneficial effects of replacing diet beverages (DBs) with water on weight loss, during a 24-week hypoenergetic diet were previously observed. However, it is not known whether this difference is sustained during a subsequent 12-month weight maintenance period. To evaluate effects of replacing DBs with water on body weight maintenance over a 12-month period in participants who undertook a 6-month weight loss plan. Seventy-one obese and overweight adult women (body mass index (BMI): 27-40 kg m -2 ; age: 18-50 years) who usually consumed DBs in their diet were randomly assigned to either substitute water for DBs (water group: 35) or continue drinking DBs five times per week (DBs group: 36) after their lunch for the 6-month weight loss intervention and subsequent 12-month weight maintenance program. A total of 71 participants who were randomly assigned were included in the study by using an intention-to-treat analysis. Greater additional weight loss (mean±s.d.) in the water group was observed compared with the DBs group after the 12-month follow-up period (-1.7±2.8 vs -0.1±2.7 kg, P=0.001). BMI decreased more in the water group than in the DBs group (-0.7±1 vs -0.05±1.1 kg m - 2 , P=0.003). There was also a greater reduction in fasting insulin levels (-0.5±1.4 vs -0.02±1.5 mmol l -1 , P=0.023), better improvement in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (-0.2±0.4 vs -0.1±0.3, P=0.013) and a greater decrease in 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (-0.2±0.3 vs -0.1±0.3 mmol l -1 , Pwater group compared with the DBs over the 12-month weight maintenance period. Replacement of DBs with water after the main meal in women who were regular users of DBs may cause further weight reduction during a 12-month weight maintenance program. It may also offer benefits in carbohydrate metabolism including improvement of insulin resistance over the long-term weight maintenance period.

  10. Body cooling in human males by cold-water immersion after vigorous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, A; Goode, R C; Livingstone, S D; Duffin, J

    1984-03-01

    Five male subjects were immersed to neck level in a whole-body water calorimeter (water temperature 19 degrees C) on two occasions. One immersion was preceded by 30 min of exercise on a treadmill at 80% of the subjects' maximum heart rate, while the other was preceded by no exercise (control). Ventilation, oxygen consumption, hand-grip strength, and heat loss (measured by calorimetry) results showed no significant differences between resting and exercise trials. Minute ventilation and oxygen consumption increased during the immersion but the magnitude of the increase varied among subjects. There was a significant decrease is isometric hand-grip strength after 30 min of immersion. Rectal temperatures fell faster (0.031 degree C +/- 0.004 degree C/min) for exercised subjects than for controls (0.019 degree C +/- 0.005 degree C/min) between 10 and 45 min of immersion (P less than 0.01). It appears that vigorous preimmersion exercise may shorten survival time in cold water due to an increase in cooling rate.

  11. Comparison of total body water determinations in lactating women by anthropometry, water displacement, and deuterium isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.; Butte, N.; Lee, L.; Garza, C.; Klein, P.

    1986-01-01

    To expand the limited data on the total body water in lactating women, the authors have determined total body water contents, in eight subjects from anthropometric measurements, water displacement, and isotope dilution of deuterium oxide. On the day of the study, their skinfold thicknesses were measured over the biceps and triceps muscles and at the suprailiac and subscapular areas. Their body densities were measured by water displacement. Deuterium oxide was administered orally at 100 mg/kg of body weight. One predose milk sample was collected from each subject. The milk samples were defatted by centrifugation and the milk water was reduced to hydrogen gas for hydrogen isotope ratio measurements by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. The results indicated that total body water in lactating women estimated from anthropometric measurements was 49.7 +/- 3.3% of body weight, by water displacement was 54.9 +/- 7.2%, and by isotope dilution was 50.8 +/- 3.7%

  12. Perfluoroalkyl substances and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate in response to weight-loss diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Gang; Dhana, Klodian; Furtado, Jeremy D

    2018-01-01

    in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight-loss setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the 2-year POUNDS Lost randomized clinical trial based in Boston, Massachusetts, and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, that examined the effects of energy-restricted diets on weight changes, baseline...... and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.4 kg of body weight during the first 6 months (weight-loss period) and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight during the period of 6-24 months (weight regain period). After multivariate adjustment, baseline PFAS concentrations were...... not significantly associated with concurrent body weight or weight loss during the first 6 months. In contrast, higher baseline levels of PFASs were significantly associated with a greater weight regain, primarily in women. In women, comparing the highest to the lowest tertiles of PFAS concentrations...

  13. Keratinophilic fungi in various types of water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The keratinophilic fungi in various types of water bodies (slough. pond. beach pool. two lakes and two rivers were studied. Samples of water were collected every other month for bydrochemical analysis and once a month (1989-1990 in order to determine the fungus content. Human hair, snippings of finger-nails, chips of hoofs, feathers and snake exuviae were used as bait. Twenty-five species of keratinophilic fungi were found in various types of water bodies. Hyphochytrium catenoides, Aphanomyces stellatus, Leptolegniella caudala and Achlya oligacantha represent new records as koratinophilic fungi.

  14. Changes in fat-free mass in obese subjects after weight loss : a comparison of body composition measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Deurenberg, P.; Seidell, J C; Westerterp, K R; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    Estimates of body composition by densitometry were made in 84 apparently healthy subjects (42 men, 42 women) with a mean age of 40 +/- 6 years (mean +/- s.d.), before and after weight loss. The initial body mass index (BMI) was 30.7 +/- 2.3 kg/m2 and the achieved weight loss on a 4.2 MJ/day energy

  15. Effects on weight loss in adults of replacing diet beverages with water during a hypoenergetic diet: a randomized, 24-wk clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjd, Ameneh; Taylor, Moira A; Delavari, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza; Macdonald, Ian A; Farshchi, Hamid R

    2015-12-01

    Obese people believe that drinking diet beverages (DBs) may be a simple strategy to achieve weight loss. However, nutritionists advise drinking water when attempting to lose weight. It is unclear how important drinking water instead of DBs is during a weight-loss program. In this study, we compared the effect on weight loss of either replacing DBs with water or continuing to consume DBs in adults during a 24-wk weight-loss program. Overweight and obese women [n = 89; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 27-40; age: 18-50 y] who usually consumed DBs in their diet were asked to either substitute water for DBs (water group) or continue drinking DBs 5 times/wk after their lunch for 24 wk (DB group) while on a weight-loss program. Sixty-two participants (71%) completed the trial (32 in the DB group, 30 in the water group). Baseline variables were not statistically significantly different between groups. A statistically significant reduction in anthropometric measurements and statistically significant improvements in cardiometabolic risk characteristics were observed over 24 wk in both groups. Compared with the DB group, the water group had a greater decrease in weight (mean ± SD: water: -8.8 ± 1.9 kg; DBs: -7.6 ± 2.1 kg; P = 0.015, time × group), fasting insulin (mean ± SD: water: -2.84 ± 0.77 mU/L; DBs: -1.78 ± 1.25 mU/L, P water: -0.097 ± 0.049; DBs: -0.057 ± 0.042, P water: -1.02 ± 0.25 mmol/L; DBs: -0.72 ± 0.27 mmol/L; P fasting plasma glucose, and lipid profiles within both groups over 24 wk. Replacement of DBs with water after the main meal may lead to greater weight reduction during a weight-loss program. It may also offer clinical benefits to improve insulin resistance. This trial was registered at www.irct.ir/ as IRCT201402177754N5. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Health risks, past usage, and intention to use weight loss products in normal weight women with high and low body dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenhunt, B L; Williamson, D A; Netemeyer, R G; Andrews, C

    2003-06-01

    There are many health risks involved with the use of weight loss products by normal weight women. The mass media may compound this problem through the promotion of weight loss products and a thin body size. This study tested women's perceptions of different weight loss product ads to determine if body dysphoria (i.e., an over concern with body size and shape in normal weight people) was associated with risk beliefs, past behaviors, and intention toward using weight loss products. Normal weight women (age range = 18-41 yr), who were classified as either high (n=45) or low (n=43) on a measure of body dysphoria, rated different weight loss products according to their perception of health risks, past behavior, and their intention to consume the products. These products were a dietary fat substitute (olestra), a prescription obesity medication (sibutramine), and an over-the-counter appetite suppressant (phenylpropanolamine). High body dysphoric women reported higher intentions to use the products as well as increased prior use of two of the three weight loss products. High body dysphoric women did not believe that these weight loss products were harmless. They recognized potential health risks associated with using such products, but nonetheless, expressed intention to use these weight loss products at a higher frequency. Also, several variables related to body image were found to effectively discriminate normal weight women at risk for abusing weight loss products. This study found that women who do not need to lose weight but have significant body image concerns were willing to use potentially harmful weight loss products despite the knowledge that such products might pose significant health risks. Techniques utilized by advertising regulatory agencies such as warning labels did not have a strong deterrent effect for stated intentions to use the products. Implications of these findings for public health policy issues were discussed.

  17. Not Good, but Not All Bad: Dehydration Effects on Body Fluids, Organ Masses, and Water Flux through the Skin of Rhinella schneideri (Amphibia, Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rodolfo C O; Bovo, Rafael P; Eismann, Carlos E; Menegario, Amauri A; Andrade, Denis V

    Because of their permeable skin, terrestrial amphibians are constantly challenged by the potential risk of dehydration. However, some of the physiological consequences associated with dehydration may affect aspects that are themselves relevant to the regulation of water balance. Accordingly, we examined the effects of graded levels of dehydration on the rates of evaporative water loss and water absorption through the skin in the terrestrial Neotropical toad, Rhinella schneideri. Concomitantly, we monitored the effects of dehydration on the mass of visceral organs; hematocrit and hemoglobin content; plasma osmolality; and plasma concentration of urea, sodium, chloride, and potassium. We found that dehydration caused an increase in the concentration of body fluids, as indicated by virtually all the parameters examined. There was a proportional change in the relative masses of visceral organs, except for the liver and kidneys, which exhibited a decrease in their relative masses greater than the whole-body level of dehydration. Changes-or the preservation-of relative organ masses during dehydration may be explained by organ-specific physiological adjustments in response to the functional stress introduced by the dehydration itself. As dehydration progressed, evaporative water loss diminished and water reabsorption increased. In both cases, the increase in body fluid concentration associated with the dehydration provided the osmotic driver for these changes in water flux. Additionally, dehydration-induced alterations on the cutaneous barrier may also have contributed to the decrease in water flux. Dehydration, therefore, while posing a considerable challenge on the water balance regulation of anurans, paradoxically facilitates water conservation and absorption.

  18. A Numerical Study of Water Loss Rate Distributions in MDCT-based Human Airway Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2015-01-01

    Both three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are applied to study regional water loss in three multi-detector row computed-tomography (MDCT)-based human airway models at the minute ventilations of 6, 15 and 30 L/min. The overall water losses predicted by both 3D and 1D models in the entire respiratory tract agree with available experimental measurements. However, 3D and 1D models reveal different regional water loss rate distributions due to the 3D secondary flows formed at bifurcations. The secondary flows cause local skewed temperature and humidity distributions on inspiration acting to elevate the local water loss rate; and the secondary flow at the carina tends to distribute more cold air to the lower lobes. As a result, the 3D model predicts that the water loss rate first increases with increasing airway generation, and then decreases as the air approaches saturation, while the 1D model predicts a monotonic decrease of water loss rate with increasing airway generation. Moreover, the 3D (or 1D) model predicts relatively higher water loss rates in lower (or upper) lobes. The regional water loss rate can be related to the non-dimensional wall shear stress (τ*) by the non-dimensional mass transfer coefficient (h0*) as h0* = 1.15 τ*0.272, R = 0.842. PMID:25869455

  19. WATER LOSS OF KOKA RESERVOIR, ETHIOPIA: COMMENTS ON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to be used for Awash River simulation model. Key words/phrases: Ethiopia, Koka Reservoir water loss, leakage rate, subsurface inflow, water balance. INTRODUCTION. Koka Dam was built on Awash River, Ethiopia, in 1960 for hydropower and irrigation purposes. It is located at 8°24'N latitude and 39°05'E longitude (Fig.

  20. Comparison of the body compositions in obese and nonobese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total body water, visceral fat accumulation, body mass index, resting metabolic rate, fat‑free mass, bone mass, and muscle mass were significantly higher in obese when compared to those with nonobese (P < 0.001). Thirteen ... Keywords: Body composition, body fat distribution, body mass index, obesity, weight loss ...

  1. Water Loss from Young Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng; Güdel, Manuel; Johnstone, Colin P.; Lammer, Helmut; Luger, Rodrigo; Odert, Petra

    2018-04-01

    Good progress has been made in the past few years to better understand the XUV evolution trend of Sun-like stars, the capture and dissipation of hydrogen dominant envelopes of planetary embryos and protoplanets, and water loss from young planets around M dwarfs. This chapter reviews these recent developments. Observations of exoplanets and theoretical works in the near future will significantly advance our understanding of one of the fundamental physical processes shaping the evolution of solar system terrestrial planets.

  2. Physical Activity, Body Size, Intentional Weight Loss and Breast Cancer Risk: Fellowship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    early life physical activity and weight interactions in postmenopausal women; 2) age specific intentional weight loss; 3) method of weight loss. In...Effects of aerobic exercise and dietary carbohydrate on energy expenditure and body composition during weight reduction in obese women. Am J Clin...3600 1 soccer , and swimming as well as labor, but not high school 1-2 561 696 0.95 (0.83-1.08) s r 3-4 694 957 0.91 (0.81-1.02) physical education. Up

  3. Effect of human skin grafts on whole-body heat loss during exercise heat stress: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganio, Matthew S; Gagnon, Daniel; Stapleton, Jill; Crandall, Craig G; Kenny, Glen P

    2013-01-01

    When exposed to heat stress, increases in cutaneous blood flow and sweating in well-healed grafted skin are severely attenuated, which could impair whole-body heat loss if skin grafts cover a large portion of total body surface area (TBSA). It is unknown to what extent whole-body heat loss is impaired when skin grafts cover a significant (eg, >50%) proportion of TBSA. The authors examined whole-body heat exchange during and after 60 min of cycling exercise in the heat (35°C; 25% relative humidity), at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (~400 W) in a woman (age, 36 years; mass, 78.2 kg) with well-healed (17+ years) skin grafts covering 75% of TBSA. Her responses were compared with two noninjured control subjects. Whole-body evaporative and dry heat exchange were measured by direct calorimetry. While exercising in the same ambient conditions and at the same rate of heat production, relative evaporative heat loss of nongrafted skin in the grafted subject (ie, evaporative heat loss per m) was nearly twice that of the control subjects. However, total rate of evaporative heat loss reached only 59% of the amount required for heat balance in the skin-grafted subject compared with 92 ± 3% in controls. Thus, the increase in core temperature was 2-fold greater for the grafted (1.22°C) vs control (0.61 ± 0.19°C) individuals. This case study demonstrates that a large area of grafted skin greatly diminishes maximum evaporative heat loss during exercise in the heat, making a compensable environment for control subjects uncompensable for skin-grafted individuals.

  4. The Dehydration of Water Worlds via Atmospheric Losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Chuanfei; Bhattacharjee, Amitava [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Huang, Zhenguang; Tóth, Gábor; Gombosi, Tamas [Center for Space Environment Modeling, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lingam, Manasvi, E-mail: dcfy@princeton.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We present a three-species multi-fluid magnetohydrodynamic model (H{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, and e {sup −}), endowed with the requisite atmospheric chemistry, that is capable of accurately quantifying the magnitude of water ion losses from exoplanets. We apply this model to a water world with Earth-like parameters orbiting a Sun-like star for three cases: (i) current normal solar wind conditions, (ii) ancient normal solar wind conditions, and (iii) one extreme “Carrington-type” space weather event. We demonstrate that the ion escape rate for (ii), with a value of 6.0 × 10{sup 26} s{sup −1}, is about an order of magnitude higher than the corresponding value of 6.7 × 10{sup 25} s{sup −1} for (i). Studies of ion losses induced by space weather events, where the ion escape rates can reach ∼10{sup 28} s{sup −1}, are crucial for understanding how an active, early solar-type star (e.g., with frequent coronal mass ejections) could have accelerated the depletion of the exoplanet’s atmosphere. We briefly explore the ramifications arising from the loss of water ions, especially for planets orbiting M-dwarfs where such effects are likely to be significant.

  5. The Dehydration of Water Worlds via Atmospheric Losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Chuanfei; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Huang, Zhenguang; Tóth, Gábor; Gombosi, Tamas; Lingam, Manasvi

    2017-01-01

    We present a three-species multi-fluid magnetohydrodynamic model (H"+, H_2O"+, and e "−), endowed with the requisite atmospheric chemistry, that is capable of accurately quantifying the magnitude of water ion losses from exoplanets. We apply this model to a water world with Earth-like parameters orbiting a Sun-like star for three cases: (i) current normal solar wind conditions, (ii) ancient normal solar wind conditions, and (iii) one extreme “Carrington-type” space weather event. We demonstrate that the ion escape rate for (ii), with a value of 6.0 × 10"2"6 s"−"1, is about an order of magnitude higher than the corresponding value of 6.7 × 10"2"5 s"−"1 for (i). Studies of ion losses induced by space weather events, where the ion escape rates can reach ∼10"2"8 s"−"1, are crucial for understanding how an active, early solar-type star (e.g., with frequent coronal mass ejections) could have accelerated the depletion of the exoplanet’s atmosphere. We briefly explore the ramifications arising from the loss of water ions, especially for planets orbiting M-dwarfs where such effects are likely to be significant.

  6. Worldwide Eutrophication of Water Bodies: Causes, Concerns, Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepas, E. E.; Charette, T.

    2003-12-01

    Eutrophication is the nutrient enrichment of waters that stimulates an array of symptomatic changes, that can include increased phytoplankton and rooted aquatic plant (macrophyte) production, fisheries and water quality deterioration, and other undesirable changes that interfere with water uses (Bartsch, 1972). The trophic state, or degree of fertility, of water bodies ranges from oligotrophic to mesotrophic to eutrophic with increasing supply of nutrients and organic matter ( Table 1). Eutrophication is most often the result of an elevated supply of nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, to surface waters that results in enhanced production of primary producers, particularly phytoplankton and aquatic plants. Table 1. Mean annual values for the trophic classification system Total phosphorus (μg L-1)Chlorophyll a (μg L-1)Secchi disk depth (m) Ultra-oligotrophic12 Oligotrophic6 Mesotrophic10-352.5-86-3 Eutrophic35-1008-253-1.5 Hypertrophic>100>25fish kills, millions of dollars in losses to seafood-related industries, human memory loss, paralysis, and even death (Van den Hoeck et al., 1995; Silbergeld et al., 2000). Bloom-forming species of cyanobacteria can produce potent hepato-(liver) toxins termed microcystins that have been implicated in poisonings of domestic livestock, pets, wildlife, and susceptible humans ( Codd, 1995; Dunn, 1996). In addition, an accumulation of dead phytoplankton in bottom waters of eutrophic systems can lead to high decomposition rates by bacteria. Dissolved oxygen consumption by decomposers, combined with a barrier to gas exchange (thermocline or ice cover), can reduce (hypoxia) or eliminate (anoxia) dissolved oxygen in bottom waters. (A thermocline is the junction between an upper layer of warm, less dense water (the epilimnion) and a deeper layer of cold water (the hypolimnion). When this stratification is in place, the typically oxygen-rich waters of the epilimnion do not mix with the waters of the hypolimnion.) Oxygen

  7. Reducing phosphorus loss in tile water with managed drainage in a claypan soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Patrick R; Nelson, Kelly A; Motavalli, Peter P; Nathan, Manjula; Dudenhoeffer, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Installing subsurface tile drain systems in poorly drained claypan soils to improve corn ( L.) yields could potentially increase environmental phosphorus (P) loss through the tile drainage system. The objectives of the study were to quantify the average concentration and loss of ortho-P in tile drain water from a claypan soil and to determine whether managed subsurface drainage (MD) could reduce ortho-P loss in tile water compared with free subsurface drainage (FD). Flow-weighted ortho-P concentration in the tile water was significantly lower with MD (0.09 mg L) compared with that of FD (0.15 mg L). Ortho-P loss in the tile water of this study was reduced with MD (36 g ha) by 80% compared with FD (180 g ha). Contrary to previous research, reduced ortho-P loss observed over the 4-yr study was not solely due to the reduced amount of water drained annually (63%) with MD compared with FD. During the spring period, when flow was similar between MD and FD, the concentration of ortho-P in the tile water generally was lower with MD compared with FD, which resulted in significantly less ortho-P loss with MD. We speculate that MD's ability to conserve water during the dry summer months increased corn's uptake of water and P, which reduced the amount of P available for leaching loss in the subsequent springs. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. LOSS OF WATER IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF MGSU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Any public building is a consumer of water resources. A huge amount of clean drinking water is used for various needs especially in buildings where there are a large number of people, for example, institutions of higher education. It should be noted that today all buildings must meet requirements for water conservation. This is because a large amount of drinking water is wasted. The author considers the problems characteristic of public buildings, because of which losses of water in the inner water supply systems happen. The variants are offered how to reduce wasteful expenses by installing contactless water intake devices, wastewater intake as well as water-saving headers and waterless urinals. The use of polymer materials and copper pipelines during reconstruction of the system in order to reduce water losses is justified.

  9. CARACTERISTICS OF THE LOWER DANUBE WATER BODIES BETWEEN PORTILE DE FIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ŢUCHIU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC Directive is the achievement of the “good status” of the water bodies, environmental objective which can be reached through elaboration and implementation of the River Basin Management Plan. According to the legal requirements, at the 22nd of December 2009, Romania has elaborated the first National Management Plan – synthesis of the River Basin Management Plans. This process assumes the types identification and water bodies delineation on the basis of some abiotic and biotic parameters, such: water category, abiotic and biotic typology, physical features, water status, pressures and their impacts, as well as protected areas. Therefore, for the lower Danube sector between Bazias and Isaccea 4 water bodies have been delineated: 2 reservoirs (Portile de Fier/Iron Gates and Ostrov and 2 river sectors (Ostrov – Chiciu, Chiciu – Isaccea. The procedure for assessment of the environmental objectives risk failing (on the basis of pressures and impacts has shown that all 4 water bodies have been identified at risk from the point of view of organic substances, nutrients, hazardous substances and hydro-morphological alterations. The Water Framework Directive defines the surface water status through: the ecological status - 5 classes (based on biological, hydro-morphological and physic-chemical elements and chemical status – 2 classes (based on priority substances. In present, the 4 water bodies identified on the lower Danube sector do not reach the good status, being designated as heavily modified water bodies.

  10. Leakage Detection and Estimation Algorithm for Loss Reduction in Water Piping Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kazeem B. Adedeji; Yskandar Hamam; Bolanle T. Abe; Adnan M. Abu-Mahfouz

    2017-01-01

    Water loss through leaking pipes constitutes a major challenge to the operational service of water utilities. In recent years, increasing concern about the financial loss and environmental pollution caused by leaking pipes has been driving the development of efficient algorithms for detecting leakage in water piping networks. Water distribution networks (WDNs) are disperse in nature with numerous number of nodes and branches. Consequently, identifying the segment(s) of the network and the exa...

  11. Decreased hedonic responsiveness following chronic mild stress is not secondary to loss of body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, P; Moreau, J L; Nielsen, C K; Papp, M; Sluzewska, A

    1996-07-01

    Chronic exposure to mild unpredictable stress (CMS) has previously been found to decrease hedonic responsiveness, as measured by the consumption of palatable sweet solutions or sensitivity to brain stimulation reward. These effects are reversed by chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs, and the CMS procedure has been proposed as a relatively valid animal model of depression. It has recently been suggested that the behavioural effects of CMS may be secondary to loss of body weight. This article collates data from five laboratories using the CMS procedure. Data are presented from seven studies using five different rat strains, as well as CD1 mice. Three-week exposure to CMS significantly decreased sucrose consumption by Lister hooded, PVG hooded, Wistar, and Wistar WU rats, and by CD1 mice, and sensitivity to brain stimulation reward in Ibm:Ro Ro rats. Weight loss in different experiments varied between 0 and 10%. Hedonic sensitivity relative to body weight (e.g., mg sucrose/g body weight) decreased significantly in all experiments. Animals maintained on a restricted feeding regime lost weight but did not show decreases in sucrose intake. It is concluded that decreased hedonic sensitivity following chronic mild stress cannot be attributed to loss of body weight.

  12. METHODS OF ESTIMATION TECHNOGENIC POLLUTION OF WATER BODIES IN URBANIZED TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurochkina Valentina Aleksandrovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors consider the problem of the impact of man-caused load on river hydraulics processes and on the properties of river sediments that determine river channels evolution and general ecological state of water bodies. The interrelation between ecological state of water bodies, the quality of water in them and the level of contamination of sediments was determined. It is established that the conditions of long-term aquatic life as a whole and of water quality in particular directly depend on the contamination level of sediments. It is shown that the rate and volume of sediments accumulation, as well as contamination level of sediment layers, vary throughout the lifecycle of water body, which allows using sediments as the main indicator of the ecological state of water body reflecting the level of technogenic impact on aquatic ecosystems.

  13. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Water vapour loss measurements on human skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Petrus Gerardus Maria van der

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of a series of investigations into the barrier function of human skin are presented. In these investigations, the barrier function was assessed by water vapour loss measurements of the skin using a method based on gradient estimation.... Zie: Summary and conclusions

  15. A method for the measurement of physiologic evaporative water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-10-01

    The precise measurement of evaporative water loss is essential to an accurate evaluation of this avenue of heat loss in acute and chronic exposures to heat. In psychological studies, the quantitative measurement of palmar sweating plays an equally im...

  16. Whole body cooling by immersion in water at moderate temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, F; Booth, J

    1998-06-01

    This study investigated the potential use of whole body cooling by water immersion for lowering body temperatures prior to endurance exercise. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), oxygen consumption (VO2), and ventilation (VE) were measured in 7 male and 3 female subjects who were immersed in a water bath for up to 60 min. Initial water temperature was 28.8+/-1.5 degrees C and decreased to 23.8+/-1.1 degrees C by the end of immersion. Pre-immersion Tre of 37.34+/-0.36 degrees C was not altered by 60 min water immersion but decreased to 36.64+/-0.34 degrees C at 3 min post immersion (p immersion. Reductions in Tre and Tsk resulted in reduced body heat content (Hc) of approximately 545 kJ (p immersion. VO2 and VE increased from pre-immersion values of 0.34+/-0.08 L x min(-1) and 6.2+/-1.4 L x min(-1) to 0.54+/-0.09 L x min(-) and 11.5+/-5.4 L x min(-1) at the end of immersion, respectively. Heart rate remained unchanged throughout immersion. These results indicate that whole body immersion in moderately cold water temperatures is an effective cooling maneuver for lowering body temperatures and body Hc in the absence of severe physiological responses generally associated with sudden cold stress.

  17. Reducing water losses via intelligent pressure management; Reduzierung von Wasserverlusten durch intelligentes Druckmanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppinger, Peter [VAG-Armaturen GmbH, Mannheim (Germany). Marketing

    2008-03-15

    Leaks in water pipes and leaking municipal water-transmission and piping systems, particularly in developing and threshold countries account for water-losses of up to 50% of the water supplied by the waterworks. This article examines three different solutions for effective pressure management on the basis of an intelligent control system, by means of which water-losses can be reduced to a stable and economically rational level. (orig.)

  18. Bacteriological physicochemical quality of recreational water bodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tinsae

    logical quality, and there are no guidelines (standards) towards the safe use and quality control of recreational water. Under this circumstances, it is neither possible to know the gravity of the problem, nor simple to manage the possible health related risks that are associated with the use of recreational water bodies.

  19. Autonomous profiling device to monitor remote water bodies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhan, R.; Dabholkar, N.A.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Prabhudesai, S.P.

    implications to human health, and requires frequent and effective monitoring, particularly during summer months (March–May) when water consumption is highest. These water bodies are frequently located in remote areas away from human habitation, making...

  20. Reduction of water losses in the water utilities and in industrial plants. Senkung der Wasserverluste in oeffentlichen Versorgungen und Industrieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolte, O.G.; Hammerer, M.; Heide, G.F.; Heydenreich, M.; Hoch, W.; Holtschulte, H.; Lienhard, K.; Sewerin, P.

    1987-01-01

    Although municipal and rural supply structures have little changed in principle, the reduction of water losses has become a topical subject to be coped with. The paper deals with the causes and implications of water losses, the influx analysis, water loss analysis, influx analysis in the case of large-scale water supply systems, the pressure feeding method, the detection of leaks with the help of correlation analyses, the quantitave measurement of drinking water supplies and a method serving to detect least defects. In each case reference is made to the limitations of the respective methods and processes. With 95 figs..

  1. Relative specificities of water and ammonia losses from backbone fragments in collision-activated dissociation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savitski, Mikhail M; Kjeldsen, Frank; Nielsen, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    isotope of the water loss and the monoisotope of the ammonia loss to be distinguished. Contrary to a popular belief, water losses from y' ions are not specific enough to rely upon for detecting the presence of amino acids with oxygen in the side chains. At the same time, ammonia loss from b ions...

  2. Further psychometric validation of the BODY-Q: ability to detect change following bariatric surgery weight gain and loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Anne F; Cano, Stefan J; Kaur, Manraj; Breitkopf, Trisia; Pusic, Andrea L

    2017-11-25

    Recent systematic reviews have identified that current patient-reported outcome instruments have content limitations when used to measure change following bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to measure change after bariatric surgery using the BODY-Q, a PRO instrument designed for weight loss and body contouring. The BODY-Q is composed of 18 independently functioning scales and an obesity-specific symptom checklist that measure appearance, health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) and experience of health-care. The sample for this study included patients who were exploring or seeking bariatric surgery in Hamilton (Canada) at the time of the BODY-Q field-test study and who agreed to further contact from the research team. These patients were invited to complete 12 BODY-Q scales and the symptom checklist between 7 June 2016 and 29 November 2016. Data were collected online (REDCap) and via postal surveys. Clinical change was measured using paired t-tests with effect sizes and standardized response means. The survey was completed by 58 of 89 (65%) pre-bariatric participants from the original BODY-Q field-test sample. The non-participants did not differ from participants in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, BMI or initial BODY-Q scale scores. Participants who had undergone bariatric surgery had a mean BMI of 49 (SD = 7) at time 1 and 35 (SD = 7) at time 2. Time since bariatric surgery was on average 2 years (SD = 0.5) (range 0.4 to 3 years). Percentage total weight loss ranged from 12 to 51 (mean 31, SD = 9). The difference in the proportion of patients to report an obesity-specific symptom on the BODY-Q checklist was significantly lower at follow-up for 5 of 10 symptoms. Participants improved on BODY-Q scales measuring appearance (of abdomen, back, body, buttocks, hips/outer thighs, inner thigh), body image and physical function (p weight loss. BODY-Q scales were responsive to measuring clinical change associated with weight loss 2 years after

  3. In-vivo determination of total body water and lean body mass in subjects by deuterium dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blagojevic, N.; Allen, B.J.; Baur, L.; Gaskin, K.

    1988-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) estimation is one of a number of basic techniques required for the determination of body composition in normal and malnourished subjects. When combined with total body nitrogen (TBN) analysis by prompt gamma neutron activation, an accurate compartmental model of in vivo body composition can be formed, providing valuable nutritional and other data. This study examines the role of TBW on its own in evaluating lean body mass. Total body water was studied in six male and five female subjects using deuterium oxide and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The lean body mass calculated from the results was compared with the lean body mass deduced from established total body nitrogen measurements. A four-compartment model was also used to calculate lean body mass. Excellent agreement was shown between lean body mass derived from TBW, the four-compartment model and TBN. Hence, TBW can provide a fast, cost-efficient method for evaluating normal subjects. However, for disease-induced malnutrition, or highly developed athletes, both TBN and TBW measurements are essential to establish an accurate picture of their body composition. TBW measurements alone can monitor the hydration state of patients and as such have a useful diagnostic value

  4. In-vivo determination of total body water and lean body mass in subjects by deuterium dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagojevic, N; Allen, B J; Baur, L; Gaskin, K

    1988-12-01

    Total body water (TBW) estimation is one of a number of basic techniques required for the determination of body composition in normal and malnourished subjects. When combined with total body nitrogen (TBN) analysis by prompt gamma neutron activation, an accurate compartmental model of in vivo body composition can be formed, providing valuable nutritional and other data. This study examines the role of TBW on its own in evaluating lean body mass. Total body water was studied in six male and five female subjects using deuterium oxide and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The lean body mass calculated from the results was compared with the lean body mass deduced from established total body nitrogen measurements. A four-compartment model was also used to calculate lean body mass. Excellent agreement was shown between lean body mass derived from TBW, the four-compartment model and TBN. Hence, TBW can provide a fast, cost-efficient method for evaluating normal subjects. However, for disease-induced malnutrition, or highly developed athletes, both TBN and TBW measurements are essential to establish an accurate picture of their body composition. TBW measurements alone can monitor the hydration state of patients and as such have a useful diagnostic value.

  5. Anthropogenic change in water bodies in the southern part of the Silesian Upland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machowski Robert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the anthropogenic change in water bodies in the southern part of the Silesian Upland as exemplified by the town of Knurów. The assessment was based on topographic maps from the years 1827-1828, 1928-1936, 1960 and 1993, and on a 2011 orthophotomap. The cartographic materials used were processed as required for analysis purposes. Maps were calibrated in the Quantum GIS program on the basis of map corner coordinates and using the common points method. In Knurów, four main types of water bodies were distinguished with respect to their origins: reservoirs impounded by dams, flooded mineral workings, industrial water bodies and water bodies in subsidence basins and hollows. Historically, the first water bodies to appear were reservoirs impounded by dams, which dominated until the 1930s. They later fell into disuse and were completely dismantled. Water bodies in mineral workings formed in the early 20th century and were associated with the excavation of raw materials for producing bricks. The period of their greatest significance were the 1960s, when they constituted slightly more than 46% of water bodies in total and accounted for nearly 40% of overall surface area. At the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century, industrial reservoirs began to appear. Within the town of Knurów, those were sedimentation tanks that held mine water, washery effluent, backfill and cooling water, fire-fighting water pools and tanks, tanks at sewage treatment plants, industrial water tanks and others. Presently, these account for 41.4% (29 of the total number of water bodies and have a total surface area of 32.0 ha (25,2%. Within the study area, water bodies in subsidence basins and hollows only began to form in the second half of the 20th century. In 2011, such water bodies numbered 38 (54.3% and occupied an area of 90.4 ha (71.2%.

  6. The 2014 water release into the arid Colorado River delta and associated water losses by evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daesslé, L.W., E-mail: walter@uabc.edu.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, CarreteraTranspeninsular Tijuana-Ensenada No. 3917, Fraccionamiento Playitas, CP 22860 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Geldern, R. van [Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Orozco-Durán, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, CarreteraTranspeninsular Tijuana-Ensenada No. 3917, Fraccionamiento Playitas, CP 22860 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Barth, J.A.C. [Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    For the first time in history, water was intentionally released for environmental purposes into the final, otherwise dry, 160-km stretch of the Colorado River basin, south of the Mexican border. Between March and May 2014 three pulses of water with a total volume of 132 × 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} were released to assess the restoration potential of endemic flora along its course and to reach its estuary. The latter had not received a sustained input of fresh water and nutrients from its main fluvial source for over 50 years because of numerous upstream dam constructions. During this pulse flow large amounts of water were lost and negligible amounts reached the ocean. While some of these water losses can be attributed to plant uptake and infiltration, we were able to quantify evaporation losses between 16.1 to 17.3% of the original water mass % within the first 80 km after the Morels Dam with water stable isotope data. Our results showed no evidence for freshwater reaching the upper Colorado River estuary and it is assumed that the pulse flow had only negligible influences on the coastal ecosystem. Future water releases that aim on ecological restoration need to become more frequent and should have larger volumes if more significant effects are to be established on the area. - Highlights: • Isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen quantify water lost through evaporation. • Evaporation losses between 16.1 and 17.3% during the 2014 Colorado River • Larger water volumes are required to influence the estuary ecosystem.

  7. The 2014 water release into the arid Colorado River delta and associated water losses by evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daesslé, L.W.; Geldern, R. van; Orozco-Durán, A.; Barth, J.A.C.

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in history, water was intentionally released for environmental purposes into the final, otherwise dry, 160-km stretch of the Colorado River basin, south of the Mexican border. Between March and May 2014 three pulses of water with a total volume of 132 × 10"6 m"3 were released to assess the restoration potential of endemic flora along its course and to reach its estuary. The latter had not received a sustained input of fresh water and nutrients from its main fluvial source for over 50 years because of numerous upstream dam constructions. During this pulse flow large amounts of water were lost and negligible amounts reached the ocean. While some of these water losses can be attributed to plant uptake and infiltration, we were able to quantify evaporation losses between 16.1 to 17.3% of the original water mass % within the first 80 km after the Morels Dam with water stable isotope data. Our results showed no evidence for freshwater reaching the upper Colorado River estuary and it is assumed that the pulse flow had only negligible influences on the coastal ecosystem. Future water releases that aim on ecological restoration need to become more frequent and should have larger volumes if more significant effects are to be established on the area. - Highlights: • Isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen quantify water lost through evaporation. • Evaporation losses between 16.1 and 17.3% during the 2014 Colorado River • Larger water volumes are required to influence the estuary ecosystem.

  8. A new approach to inventorying bodies of water, from local to global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartout, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Having reliable estimates of the number of water bodies on different geographical scales is of great importance to better understand biogeochemical cycles and to tackle the social issues related to the economic and cultural use of water bodies. However, limnological research suffers from a lack of reliable inventories; the available scientific references are predominately based on water bodies of natural origin, large in size and preferentially located in previously glaciated areas. Artificial, small and randomly distributed water bodies, especially ponds, are usually not inventoried. Following Wetzel’s theory (1990, some authors included them in global inventories by using remote sensing or mathematical extrapolation, but fieldwork on the ground has been done on a very limited amount of territory. These studies have resulted in an explosive increase in the estimated number of water bodies, going from 8.44 million lakes (Meybeck 1995 to 3.5 billion water bodies (Downing 2010. These numbers raise several questions, especially about the methodology used for counting small-sized water bodies and the methodological treatment of spatial variables. In this study, we use inventories of water bodies for Sweden, Finland, Estonia and France to show incoherencies generated by the “global to local” approach. We demonstrate that one universal relationship does not suffice for generating the regional or global inventories of water bodies because local conditions vary greatly from one region to another and cannot be offset adequately by each other. The current paradigm for global estimates of water bodies in limnology, which is based on one representative model applied to different territories, does not produce sufficiently exact global inventories. The step-wise progression from the local to the global scale requires the development of many regional equations based on fieldwork; a specific equation that adequately reflects the actual relationship

  9. Hybrid Wing Body Model Identification Using Forced-Oscillation Water Tunnel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Kramer, Brian; Kerho, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Static and dynamic testing of the NASA 0.7 percent scale Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration was conducted in the Rolling Hills Research Corporation water tunnel to investigate aerodynamic behavior over a large range of angle-of-attack and to develop models that can predict aircraft response in nonlinear unsteady flight regimes. This paper reports primarily on the longitudinal axis results. Flow visualization tests were also performed. These tests provide additional static data and new dynamic data that complement tests conducted at NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. HWB was developed to support the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project goals of lower noise, emissions, and fuel burn. This study also supports the NASA Aviation Safety Program efforts to model and control advanced transport configurations in loss-of-control conditions.

  10. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  11. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  12. A Controlled Pharmacogenetic Trial of Sibutramine on Weight Loss and Body Composition in Obese or Overweight Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudell, April B.M.; Sweetser, Seth; Camilleri, Michael; Eckert, Deborah J.; Vazquez-Roque, Maria I.; Carlson, Paula J.; Burton, Duane D.; Braddock, Autumn E.; Clark, Matthew M.; Graszer, Karen M.; Kalsy, Sarah A.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    Background/ Aim Weight loss in response to sibutramine is highly variable. We assessed the association of specific markers of polymorphisms of candidate a2A adrenoreceptor, 5-HT transporter and GNβ3 genes and weight loss with sibutramine. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, pharmacogenetic study of behavioral therapy and sibutramine (10 or 15 mg daily) or placebo for 12 weeks in 181 overweight or obese participants. We measured body weight, BMI, body composition, gastric emptying and genetic variation (α2A C1291G, 5-HTTLPR, and GNβ3 C825T genotypes). ANCOVA was used to assess treatment effects on, and associations of the specific markers of candidate genes with weight loss and body composition. Results Sibutramine, 10 and 15 mg, caused significant weight loss (p = 0.009); there was a statistically significant gene by dose interaction for GNβ3 genotype. For each candidate gene, significant treatment effects at 12 weeks were observed (psibutramine doses versus placebo): α2A CC genotype ( Δ ~5kg), GNβ3 TC/TT genotype (Δ ~6kg), and 5-HTTLPR LS/SS (Δ ~4.5kg). Gene pairs resulted in significantly greater sibutramine treatment effects on weight (both psibutramine also resulted in significantly greater reduction of body fat for specific α2A CC and GNβ3 TC/TT genotype variants individually (both psibutramine and behavioral therapy. PMID:18725220

  13. Effect of water content in a canned food on voluntary food intake and body weight in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Alfreda; Fascetti, Andrea J; Villaverde, Cecilia; Wong, Raymond K; Ramsey, Jon J

    2011-07-01

    To determine whether water content in a canned food diet induces decreases in voluntary energy intake (EI) or body weight (BW) in cats fed ad libitum. 16 sexually intact male domestic shorthair cats. Maintenance EI was determined for 2 months in 10 weight-stable cats consuming a control diet (typical colony diet). Cats were allocated into 2 groups of equal BW and fed a canned diet (with-water [WW] diet) or a freeze-dried version of the canned diet (low-water [LW] diet) twice daily. Diets were identical in nutrient profile on a dry-matter basis. Each dietary treatment period of the crossover experiment lasted 3 weeks, with a 3-week washout period between diets. Body composition measurements were determined by use of deuterium oxide at the end of each dietary treatment. Daily food intake was measured for determination of dry-matter intake and EI. Six other cats were used in preference tests for the 3 diets. EI was significantly decreased for the WW diet (mean ± SD, 1,053.0 ± 274.9 kJ/d), compared with EI for the LW diet (1,413.8 ± 345.8 kJ/d). Cats had a significant decrease in BW during consumption of the WW diet. Body composition was unaltered by diet. In short-term preference tests, cats ate significantly more of the WW than the LW diet. Bulk water in the WW diet stimulated decreases in EI and BW in cats. The impact of water content on energy density and food consumption may help promote weight loss in cats.

  14. The Influence of Water and Mineral Oil On Volumetric Losses in a Hydraulic Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śliwiński Pawel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper volumetric losses in hydraulic motor supplied with water and mineral oil (two liquids having significantly different viscosity and lubricating properties are described and compared. The experimental tests were conducted using an innovative hydraulic satellite motor, that is dedicated to work with different liquids, including water. The sources of leaks in this motor are also characterized and described. On this basis, a mathematical model of volumetric losses and model of effective rotational speed have been developed and presented. The results of calculation of volumetric losses according to the model are compared with the results of experiment. It was found that the difference is not more than 20%. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that this model well describes in both the volumetric losses in the motor supplied with water and oil. Experimental studies have shown that the volumetric losses in the motor supplied with water are even three times greater than the volumetric losses in the motor supplied with oil. It has been shown, that in a small constant stream of water the speed of the motor is reduced even by half in comparison of speed of motor supplied with the same stream of oil.

  15. Thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and metabolic parameters in response to weight loss diets: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Liang, L; Bray, G A; Qi, L; Hu, F B; Rood, J; Sacks, F M; Sun, Q

    2017-06-01

    The role of thyroid hormones in diet-induced weight loss and subsequent weight regain is largely unknown. To examine the associations between thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight loss setting. Data analysis was conducted among 569 overweight and obese participants aged 30-70 years with normal thyroid function participating in the 2-year Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) LOST randomized clinical trial. Changes in body weight and RMR were assessed during the 2-year intervention. Thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), total T3, total T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)), anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, 6 months and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.6 kg of body weight during the first 6 months and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight over the remaining period from 6 to 24 months. Baseline free T3 and total T3 were positively associated, whereas free T4 was inversely associated, with baseline body weight, body mass index and RMR. Total T4 and TSH were not associated with these parameters. Higher baseline free T3 and free T4 levels were significantly associated with a greater weight loss during the first 6 months (Ppressure, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin at 6 months and 24 months (all P<0.05). In this diet-induced weight loss setting, higher baseline free T3 and free T4 predicted more weight loss, but not weight regain among overweight and obese adults with normal thyroid function. These findings reveal a novel role of thyroid hormones in body weight regulation and may help identify individuals more responsive to weight loss diets.

  16. Apparent losses due to domestic water meter under-registration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... water in terms of volume, but 69% in terms of financial loss to the utility ... trative errors to vary between 2% and 10% of billed metered consumption. ... important from a water management perspective, but fell out- side the ...

  17. Tritium content in tissue free water of Japanese bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujeno, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Aoki, T.; Kurihara, N.

    1986-01-01

    The tritium content of tissue free water was measured in fresh, non-diseased organs (brain, lungs, liver, kidneys and muscle) removed by forensic autopsy from 4 male and 4 female bodies. Tissue free water was extracted by freeze drying and distillation and tritium measured in the absence of background radon gas. A typical count was approximately 2.70 cpm. The mean tritium content of tissue free water in all the organs examined was 2.50 + - 0.67 Bq.1/sup -1/ (67.6 + -18.2 pCi1/sup -1/). This value was much lower than that obtained for tissues from Italian bodies: the value was, however, similar to that obtained for tap water (70.2 + -28.0 pCi.1/sup -1/), rain water (77.8 + - 47.4 pCi.1/sup -1/) and tissue free water of foods (55.6 + - 26.2 pCi.1/sup -1/).

  18. Heat loss may explain bill size differences between birds occupying different habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Greenberg

    Full Text Available Research on variation in bill morphology has focused on the role of diet. Bills have other functions, however, including a role in heat and water balance. The role of the bill in heat loss may be particularly important in birds where water is limiting. Song sparrows localized in coastal dunes and salt marsh edge (Melospiza melodia atlantica are similar in size to, but have bills with a 17% greater surface area than, those that live in mesic habitats (M. m. melodia, a pattern shared with other coastal sparrows. We tested the hypotheses that sparrows can use their bills to dissipate "dry" heat, and that heat loss from the bill is higher in M. m. atlantica than M. m. melodia, which would indicate a role of heat loss and water conservation in selection for bill size.Bill, tarsus, and body surface temperatures were measured using thermal imaging of sparrows exposed to temperatures from 15-37°C and combined with surface area and physical modeling to estimate the contribution of each body part to total heat loss. Song sparrow bills averaged 5-10°C hotter than ambient. The bill of M. m atlantica dissipated up to 33% more heat and 38% greater proportion of total heat than that of M. m. melodia. This could potentially reduce water loss requirements by approximately 7.7%.This >30% higher heat loss in the bill of M. m. atlantica is independent of evaporative water loss and thus could play an important role in the water balance of sparrows occupying the hot and exposed dune/salt marsh environments during the summer. Heat loss capacity and water conservation could play an important role in the selection for bill size differences between bird populations and should be considered along with trophic adaptations when studying variation in bill size.

  19. Datasets related to in-land water for limnology and remote sensing applications: distance-to-land, distance-to-water, water-body identifier and lake-centre co-ordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrea, Laura; Embury, Owen; Merchant, Christopher J

    2015-11-01

    Datasets containing information to locate and identify water bodies have been generated from data locating static-water-bodies with resolution of about 300 m (1/360 ∘ ) recently released by the Land Cover Climate Change Initiative (LC CCI) of the European Space Agency. The LC CCI water-bodies dataset has been obtained from multi-temporal metrics based on time series of the backscattered intensity recorded by ASAR on Envisat between 2005 and 2010. The new derived datasets provide coherently: distance to land, distance to water, water-body identifiers and lake-centre locations. The water-body identifier dataset locates the water bodies assigning the identifiers of the Global Lakes and Wetlands Database (GLWD), and lake centres are defined for in-land waters for which GLWD IDs were determined. The new datasets therefore link recent lake/reservoir/wetlands extent to the GLWD, together with a set of coordinates which locates unambiguously the water bodies in the database. Information on distance-to-land for each water cell and the distance-to-water for each land cell has many potential applications in remote sensing, where the applicability of geophysical retrieval algorithms may be affected by the presence of water or land within a satellite field of view (image pixel). During the generation and validation of the datasets some limitations of the GLWD database and of the LC CCI water-bodies mask have been found. Some examples of the inaccuracies/limitations are presented and discussed. Temporal change in water-body extent is common. Future versions of the LC CCI dataset are planned to represent temporal variation, and this will permit these derived datasets to be updated.

  20. Path loss variation of on-body UWB channel in the frequency bands of IEEE 802.15.6 standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Dayananda; Sarma, Kanak C; Mahanta, Anil

    2016-06-01

    The wireless body area network (WBAN) has gaining tremendous attention among researchers and academicians for its envisioned applications in healthcare service. Ultra wideband (UWB) radio technology is considered as excellent air interface for communication among body area network devices. Characterisation and modelling of channel parameters are utmost prerequisite for the development of reliable communication system. The path loss of on-body UWB channel for each frequency band defined in IEEE 802.15.6 standard is experimentally determined. The parameters of path loss model are statistically determined by analysing measurement data. Both the line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight channel conditions are considered in the measurement. Variations of parameter values with the size of human body are analysed along with the variation of parameter values with the surrounding environments. It is observed that the parameters of the path loss model vary with the frequency band as well as with the body size and surrounding environment. The derived parameter values are specific to the particular frequency bands of IEEE 802.15.6 standard, which will be useful for the development of efficient UWB WBAN system.

  1. The Effect of Acute Weight Loss on Body Composition, Self-Esteem and Appearance Esteem before Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Gülsüm; Özdemir, Mehmet; Tanir, Halil; Salim, Emrullah

    2016-01-01

    Weight loss in human body accompanies physical and psychological differences. In this study, it was aimed to see whether acute weight loss (dehydration) affected self-esteem and appearance esteem in the elite wrestlers before competitions. 38 professional wrestlers who had international competition experiences and were required to be in a lower…

  2. Response of water deficit regime and soil amelioration on evapotranspiration loss and water use efficiency of maize ( Zea mays l.) in subtropical northeastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwein, M. A.; Choudhury, B. U.; Chakraborty, D.; Kumar, M.; Das, A.; Rajkhowa, D. J.

    2017-05-01

    Rainfed maize production in the hilly ecosystem of Northeastern Himalayas often suffers from moisture and soil acidity induced abiotic stresses. The present study measured evapotranspiration loss (ETc) of maize crop under controlled condition (pot experiment) of water deficit (W25-25 % and W50-50 % of field capacity soil moistures) and well watered (W100 = 100 % of field capacity (FC)) regimes in strong acid soils (pH = 4.3) of the Northeastern Himalayan Region of India. The response of soil ameliorants (lime) and phosphorus (P) nutrition under differential water regimes on ETc losses and water use efficiency was also studied. The measured seasonal ETc loss varied from 124.3 to 270.9 mm across treatment combinations. Imposition of water deficit stress resulted in significant ( p < 0.05) reduction (by 33-50 %) of seasonal ETc losses but was at the cost of delay in tasseling to silking, 47-65 % reduction in dry matter accumulation (DMA), 12-22 days shortening of grain formation period, and complete kernel abortion. Liming @ 4 t ha-1 significantly ( p < 0.05) increased ETc losses and DMA across water regimes but the magnitude of increase was higher in severely water deficit (W25) regime. Unlike lime, P nutrition improved DMA only in well-watered regimes (W100) while seasonal ETc loss was unaffected. Vegetative stage (tillering to tasseling) contributed the maximum ETc losses while weekly crop ETc loss was estimated highest during 11th-14th week after sowing (coincided with blistering stage) and then declined. Water use efficiency estimated from dry matter produced per unit ETc losses and irrigation water used varied from 4.33 to 9.43 g dry matter kg-1 water and 4.21 to 8.56 g dry matter kg-1, respectively. Among the input factors (water, P, and lime), water regime most strongly influenced the ETc loss, growth duration, grain formation, and water use efficiency of maize.

  3. Response of water deficit regime and soil amelioration on evapotranspiration loss and water use efficiency of maize (Zea mays l.) in subtropical northeastern Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwein, M A; Choudhury, B U; Chakraborty, D; Kumar, M; Das, A; Rajkhowa, D J

    2017-05-01

    Rainfed maize production in the hilly ecosystem of Northeastern Himalayas often suffers from moisture and soil acidity induced abiotic stresses. The present study measured evapotranspiration loss (ET c ) of maize crop under controlled condition (pot experiment) of water deficit (W 25 -25 % and W 50 -50 % of field capacity soil moistures) and well watered (W 100  = 100 % of field capacity (FC)) regimes in strong acid soils (pH = 4.3) of the Northeastern Himalayan Region of India. The response of soil ameliorants (lime) and phosphorus (P) nutrition under differential water regimes on ET c losses and water use efficiency was also studied. The measured seasonal ET c loss varied from 124.3 to 270.9 mm across treatment combinations. Imposition of water deficit stress resulted in significant (p losses but was at the cost of delay in tasseling to silking, 47-65 % reduction in dry matter accumulation (DMA), 12-22 days shortening of grain formation period, and complete kernel abortion. Liming @ 4 t ha -1 significantly (p losses and DMA across water regimes but the magnitude of increase was higher in severely water deficit (W 25 ) regime. Unlike lime, P nutrition improved DMA only in well-watered regimes (W 100 ) while seasonal ET c loss was unaffected. Vegetative stage (tillering to tasseling) contributed the maximum ET c losses while weekly crop ET c loss was estimated highest during 11th-14th week after sowing (coincided with blistering stage) and then declined. Water use efficiency estimated from dry matter produced per unit ET c losses and irrigation water used varied from 4.33 to 9.43 g dry matter kg -1  water and 4.21 to 8.56 g dry matter kg -1 , respectively. Among the input factors (water, P, and lime), water regime most strongly influenced the ET c loss, growth duration, grain formation, and water use efficiency of maize.

  4. Thermal effects of whole head submersion in cold water on nonshivering humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Thea; Bristow, Gerald K; Steinman, Alan M; Giesbrecht, Gordon G

    2006-08-01

    This study isolated the effect of whole head submersion in cold water, on surface heat loss and body core cooling, when the confounding effect of shivering heat production was pharmacologically eliminated. Eight healthy male subjects were studied in 17 degrees C water under four conditions: the body was either insulated or uninsulated, with the head either above the water or completely submersed in each body-insulation subcondition. Shivering was abolished with buspirone (30 mg) and meperidine (2.5 mg/kg), and subjects breathed compressed air throughout all trials. Over the first 30 min of immersion, exposure of the head increased core cooling both in the body-insulated conditions (head out: 0.47 +/- 0.2 degrees C, head in: 0.77 +/- 0.2 degrees C; P body-exposed conditions (head out: 0.84 +/- 0.2 degrees C and head in: 1.17 +/- 0.5 degrees C; P body surface area) in the body-exposed conditions increased total heat loss by only 10%. In both body-exposed and body-insulated conditions, head submersion increased core cooling rate much more (average of 42%) than it increased total heat loss. This may be explained by a redistribution of blood flow in response to stimulation of thermosensitive and/or trigeminal receptors in the scalp, neck and face, where a given amount of heat loss would have a greater cooling effect on a smaller perfused body mass. In 17 degrees C water, the head does not contribute relatively more than the rest of the body to surface heat loss; however, a cold-induced reduction of perfused body mass may allow this small increase in heat loss to cause a relatively larger cooling of the body core.

  5. Reducing nitrate loss in tile drainage water with cover crops and water-table management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, C F; Tan, C S; Welacky, T W; Reynolds, W D; Zhang, T Q; Oloya, T O; McLaughlin, N B; Gaynor, J D

    2014-03-01

    Nitrate lost from agricultural soils is an economic cost to producers, an environmental concern when it enters rivers and lakes, and a health risk when it enters wells and aquifers used for drinking water. Planting a winter wheat cover crop (CC) and/or use of controlled tile drainage-subirrigation (CDS) may reduce losses of nitrate (NO) relative to no cover crop (NCC) and/or traditional unrestricted tile drainage (UTD). A 6-yr (1999-2005) corn-soybean study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of CC+CDS, CC+UTD, NCC+CDS, and NCC+UTD treatments for reducing NO loss. Flow volume and NO concentration in surface runoff and tile drainage were measured continuously, and CC reduced the 5-yr flow-weighted mean (FWM) NO concentration in tile drainage water by 21 to 38% and cumulative NO loss by 14 to 16% relative to NCC. Controlled tile drainage-subirrigation reduced FWM NO concentration by 15 to 33% and cumulative NO loss by 38 to 39% relative to UTD. When CC and CDS were combined, 5-yr cumulative FWM NO concentrations and loss in tile drainage were decreased by 47% (from 9.45 to 4.99 mg N L and from 102 to 53.6 kg N ha) relative to NCC+UTD. The reductions in runoff and concomitant increases in tile drainage under CC occurred primarily because of increases in near-surface soil hydraulic conductivity. Cover crops increased corn grain yields by 4 to 7% in 2004 increased 3-yr average soybean yields by 8 to 15%, whereas CDS did not affect corn or soybean yields over the 6 yr. The combined use of a cover crop and water-table management system was highly effective for reducing NO loss from cool, humid agricultural soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Climate change reduces water availability for agriculture by decreasing non-evaporative irrigation losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Keyvan; Adam, Jennifer C.; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Peters, R. Troy

    2018-06-01

    Irrigation efficiency plays an important role in agricultural productivity; it affects farm-scale water demand, and the partitioning of irrigation losses into evaporative and non-evaporative components. This partitioning determines return flow generation and thus affects water availability. Over the last two decades, hydrologic and agricultural research communities have significantly improved our understanding of the impacts of climate change on water availability and food productivity. However, the impacts of climate change on the efficiency of irrigation systems, particularly on the partitioning between evaporative and non-evaporative losses, have received little attention. In this study, we incorporated a process-based irrigation module into a coupled hydrologic/agricultural modeling framework (VIC-CropSyst). To understand how climate change may impact irrigation losses, we applied VIC-CropSyst over the Yakima River basin, an important agricultural region in Washington State, U.S. We compared the historical period of 1980-2010 to an ensemble of ten projections of climate for two future periods: 2030-2060 and 2060-2090. Results averaged over the watershed showed that a 9% increase in evaporative losses will be compensated by a reduction of non-evaporative losses. Therefore, overall changes in future efficiency are negligible (-0.4%) while the Evaporative Loss Ratio (ELR) (defined as the ratio of evaporative to non-evaporative irrigation losses) is enhanced by 10%. This higher ELR is associated with a reduction in return flows, thus negatively impacting downstream water availability. Results also indicate that the impact of climate change on irrigation losses depend on irrigation type and climate scenarios.

  7. Thermoregulation and evaporative water loss in growing African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, Private Bag X5890, Upington, 8800 Republic of South AfricaWith an increase in mass, weaned giant rat pups Cricetomys gambianus, showed a corresponding decline in mass specific metabolism, conductance and evaporative water loss. The decline in metabolism correlates better with ...

  8. COMMERCIAL FISH HARVEST IN INLAND WATER BODIES OF GERMANY (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Didenko

    2016-10-01

    practice not only the traditional methods of artificial stocking of some valuable fish species, but also shooting of cormorants. Originality. The review describes and summarizes organizational aspects, regulation, catch amounts and species compositions of commercial fishery in inland water bodies of Germany and some aspects are compared to those practiced in Ukraine. Practical value. The obtained objective information on the organization of inland fishery in Germany shows the importance of commercial fishery in inland waters as a real sector of economy, which allows creating new working places in rural and touristic regions, contributing to food security and providing the population with high-quality fresh fish products. German experience adapted to Ukrainian conditions may substantially contribute to the real economy sector of Ukraine that is necessary in modern conditions. This can ensure a steady improvement in economic performance and long-term fishery exploitation of inland water bodies. On the contrary, prohibition of commercial fishing in inland waters can result in an increase in the size of shadow economy, reduction in budget revenues and loss of working places that will have quite a negative impact on the welfare of Ukraine. Therefore, a decision on the ban of commercial fishing should be taken based on scientific justification and best international practices and not by intuitive impulses.

  9. Water quality monitoring for high-priority water bodies in the Sonoran Desert network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry W. Sprouse; Robert M. Emanuel; Sara A. Strorrer

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a network monitoring program for “high priority” water bodies in the Sonoran Desert Network of the National Park Service. Protocols were developed for monitoring selected waters for ten of the eleven parks in the Network. Park and network staff assisted in identifying potential locations of testing sites, local priorities, and how water quality...

  10. An anthropometric classification of body contour deformities after massive weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Martin; Butron, Patricia; Abarca, Leonardo; Perez-Monzo, Mario F; de Rienzo-Madero, Beatriz

    2010-08-01

    Deformities caused by massive weight loss were originally subsidized at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán." This caused great economical losses, which led to the development of a classification to select patients with functional problems secondary to massive weight loss. The parameter used is the size of the pannus in relation to fixed anatomic structures within the following anatomic regions: abdomen, arms, thighs, mammary glands, lateral thoracic area, back, lumbar region, gluteal region, sacrum, and mons pubis. Grade 3 deformities are candidates for body contouring surgery because they constitute a functional problem. Grade 2 deformities reevaluated whether the patient has comorbidities. Lesser grades are considered aesthetic procedures and are not candidates for surgical rehabilitation at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán." This classification allowed an improvement in communication between the different surgical-medical specialties; therefore, we suggest its application not only for surgical-administrative reasons but also for academic purposes.

  11. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  12. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation

  13. Relatively high-protein or 'low-carb' energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Bonomi, Alberto G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Scholte, Jolande; Thijssen, Myriam A M A; van Berkum, Frank; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2012-10-10

    'Low-carb' diets have been suggested to be effective in body weight (BW) management. However, these diets are relatively high in protein as well. To unravel whether body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein or the 'low-carb' component of the diet. Body-weight (BW), fat mass (FM), blood- and urine-parameters of 132 participants (age=50 ± 12 yr; BW=107 ± 20 kg; BMI=37 ± 6 kg/m(2); FM=47.5 ± 11.9 kg) were compared after 3 and 12 months between four energy-restricted diets with 33% of energy requirement for the first 3 months, and 67% for the last 9 months: normal-protein normal-carbohydrate (NPNC), normal-protein low-carbohydrate (NPLC); high-protein normal-carbohydrate (HPNC), high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC); 24h N-analyses confirmed daily protein intakes for the normal-protein diets of 0.7 ± 0.1 and for the high-protein diets of 1.1 ± 0.2g/kg BW (pvs. NP (-11.5 ± 4 kg; -9.3 ± 0.7 kg) (pvs. NC (-12.3 ± 3 kg; -10.3 ± 1.1 kg) (ns). Diet × time interaction showed HPLC (-14.7 ± 5 kg; -11.9 ± 1.6 kg) vs. HPNC (-13.8 ± 3 kg; -11.9 ± 1.8 kg) (ns); NPLC (-12.2 ± 4 kg; -10.0 ± 0.8 kg) vs. NPNC (-10.7 ± 4 kg; -8.6 ± 0.7 kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (pvs. NPNC (pvs. NP (-8.9 ± 3 kg; -7.7 ± 0.6 kg) (pvs. NC (11.1 ± 3 kg; 9.3 ± 0.7 kg) (ns). Diet × time interaction showed HPLC (-11.6 ± 5 kg ; -8.2 ± 0.7 kg) vs. HPNC (-14.1 ± 4 kg; -10.0 ± 0.9 kg) (ns); NPNC (-8.2 ± 3 kg; -6.7 ± 0.6 kg) vs. NPLC (-9.7 ± 3 kg; -8.5 ± 0.7 kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (pvs. NPNC (pvs. all other diets reduced diastolic blood pressure more. Relationships between changes in BW, FM, FFM or metabolic parameters and energy percentage of fat in the diet were not statistically significant. Metabolic profile and fat-free-mass were improved following weight-loss. Body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein, but not on the 'low-carb' component of the diet, while it is unrelated to the concomitant fat-content of the diet. Copyright

  14. Loss of deuterium in faecal solids and by sequestration in reindeer: effect on doubly labelled water studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Gotaas

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available An underlying assumption when estimating total energy expenditure (TEE using doubly labelled water (DLW is that the injected isotopes (lsO and 2H leave the body only in the form of CO, and H20. However, both isotopes have additional routes of loss. We quantified the loss of 2H (i attached to faecal solids and (ii by sequestration into newly synthesised fat in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus. Estimates of the errors caused by these processes were applied to data from DLW studies with reindeer in summer and in winter. Given the net rate of faecal dry matter output and lipid synthesis in the present study, ignoring both sources of error caused the TEE of reindeer to be underestimated by approximately 5% in winter and approximately 9% in summer. The separate effect of each source of error was evaluated in summer. If ignored, loss of 2H through sequestration alone caused TEE to be underestimated by approximately 3.7%. Similarly, if ignored, loss of 2H attached to faecal solids alone caused TEE to be underestimated by approximately 5.9%.

  15. Loss of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is linked to gene body hypermethylation in kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Zhang, Jing; Guo, Zhongqiang; Ma, Qin; Xu, Zhengzheng; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Xu, Ziying; Li, Zhongwu; Liu, Yiqiang; Ye, Xiongjun; Li, Xuesong; Yuan, Bifeng; Ke, Yuwen; He, Chuan; Zhou, Liqun; Liu, Jiang; Ci, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Both 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and its oxidized form 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) have been proposed to be involved in tumorigenesis. Because the readout of the broadly used 5mC mapping method, bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq), is the sum of 5mC and 5hmC levels, the 5mC/5hmC patterns and relationship of these two modifications remain poorly understood. By profiling real 5mC (BS-seq corrected by Tet-assisted BS-seq, TAB-seq) and 5hmC (TAB-seq) levels simultaneously at single-nucleotide resolution, we here demonstrate that there is no global loss of 5mC in kidney tumors compared with matched normal tissues. Conversely, 5hmC was globally lost in virtually all kidney tumor tissues. The 5hmC level in tumor tissues is an independent prognostic marker for kidney cancer, with lower levels of 5hmC associated with shorter overall survival. Furthermore, we demonstrated that loss of 5hmC is linked to hypermethylation in tumors compared with matched normal tissues, particularly in gene body regions. Strikingly, gene body hypermethylation was significantly associated with silencing of the tumor-related genes. Downregulation of IDH1 was identified as a mechanism underlying 5hmC loss in kidney cancer. Restoring 5hmC levels attenuated the invasion capacity of tumor cells and suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model. Collectively, our results demonstrate that loss of 5hmC is both a prognostic marker and an oncogenic event in kidney cancer by remodeling the DNA methylation pattern.

  16. Impact of highway construction on water bodies: a geospatial assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Kushwaha, Vikash K; Mardikar, Trupti; Labhasetwar, P K

    2017-08-01

    India has witnessed a massive infrastructure boom in the past few years. One of such projects is National Highway-7 (NH-7), a North-South highway connecting Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, to Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, traversing many water bodies. The present study aims to assess the pre- and post-construction impact due to existing, new and widened NH-7 on the physical status of the water bodies, using remote sensing techniques. Satellite images spanning 22 years were procured and analysed for change detection in land use and land cover within the waterbodies. The study indicates that construction activities have led to transformation within the water bodies regarding reduction in area and inter-changing of land use and land cover classes, in turn leading to siltation and reduction of recharge.

  17. Apparent losses due to domestic water meter under-registration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By combining these results with the average age of meters in South Africa, estimated from the National Water Demand Archive, it was possible to estimate the average meter under-registration due to meter aging. The study concluded that apparent losses due to water meter under-registration are around 5% of consumption ...

  18. Ingested water equilibrates isotopically with the body water pool of a shorebird with unrivaled water fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G.H.; Dekinga, A; Achterkamp, B.; Piersma, T.

    We investigated the applicability of H-2 to measure the amount of body water (TBW) and water fluxes in relation to diet type and level of food intake in a mollusk-eating shorebird, the Red Knot (Calidris canutus). Six birds were exposed to eight experimental indoor conditions. Average fractional H-2

  19. Influence of Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Lifestyle Behaviors on Plasma Adipokines: A Randomized Weight Loss Trial in Older Men and Women with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate effects of weight loss on adipokines and health measures in obese older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to either weight loss (WL (men: 12, women: 14 or weight stable (WS group (men: 12, women: 13. WL intervention included meal replacements and structured exercise training. Measurements of leptin, adiponectin, soluble leptin receptor, lifestyle behaviors, and body composition were collected at baseline and 6 months. Univariate analysis of covariance was performed on 6 month variables, and Spearman and partial correlations were made between variables. Results. Weight loss was 13.0% and 6.7% in WL for men and women, respectively. Women in WL had lower whole body and trunk fat than WS. The leptin : adiponectin ratio was lower for women in WL than WS at 6 months, with no group differences in adipokines for men. Leptin and free leptin index correlated with body fat in both genders at baseline. Interestingly, only women showed reductions in leptin (P<0.100 and correlations between the percentage change leptin and trunk fat and the percentage changes in free leptin index with total fat and trunk fat. Partial correlations between 6 month adipokines after adjustments for covariates and group/time period show potential multivariate influences. Conclusions. In the presence of an effective weight loss intervention in older obese adults, there are significant relationships between weight and fat loss and leptin in women, but not men, suggesting gender-specific features of adipokine metabolism in this age group.

  20. Time course of cortisol loss in hair segments under immersion in hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jifeng; Xie, Qiaozhen; Gao, Wei; Xu, Youyun; Wang, Shuang; Deng, Huihua; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-02-18

    Hair cortisol is supposed to be a good biomarker of chronic stress. Major loss of hair cortisol in long-term exposure to environmental factors affected strongly its proper assessment of chronic stress in human. However, there was no research on time course of hair cortisol loss during the long-term exposure. Hair samples with longer than 1cm in the posterior vertex region were cut as close as possible to the scalp. The 1-cm hair samples were treated by ultraviolet irradiation or immersion in shampoo solution or water immersion at 40, 65 and 80°C. Hair cortisol content was determined with high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Ultraviolet irradiation and immersion in shampoo solution and hot water gave rise to the significant cortisol loss in hair. Hair cortisol content was sharply decreased with water immersion duration during initial stage and slowly decreased in the following stage. The 2-stage loss process with water immersion duration modeled to some extent time course of hair cortisol loss in long-term exposure to external environments. Cortisol from hair samples closest to the scalp in the posterior vertex could represent more accurately central hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with radioactive heavy metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhen; Yuan Shichao; Ling Hui; Xie Shuibo

    2012-01-01

    The sources of the radioactive heavy metal in the water bodies were analyzed. The factors that affect phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were discussed. The plant species, mechanism and major technology of phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were particularly introduced. The prospective study was remarked. (authors)

  2. Accuracy of body image perception and preferred weight loss strategies in schizophrenia: a controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, C; Meyer, J M; Leckband, S G

    2008-02-01

    Obesity in severely mentally ill (SMI) populations is an increasing problem, but there is no controlled data regarding the relationship between SMI and weight perception. Fifty patients with schizophrenia and 50 demographically matched control participants were recruited. Weight, height, and body image accuracy were assessed for all participants, and assessments of mood, psychotic symptom severity and anxiety, and preferred modes of weight loss were assessed for the schizophrenia sample. Patients with schizophrenia were significantly more likely to be obese than controls (46% vs. 18%, P < 0.005), and most patients expressed an interest in losing weight. Obese participants with schizophrenia underestimated their body size (11.0%) more than controls (4.9%) (P < 0.05). Patients with schizophrenia are more likely to underestimate their body size, independent of the effects of obesity. However, they also express concern about weight issues and willingness to participate in psychoeducational groups targeted at weight loss.

  3. An experimental evolution study confirms that discontinuous gas exchange does not contribute to body water conservation in locusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talal, Stav; Ayali, Amir; Gefen, Eran

    2016-12-01

    The adaptive nature of discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) in insects is contentious. The classic 'hygric hypothesis', which posits that DGE serves to reduce respiratory water loss (RWL), is still the best supported. We thus focused on the hygric hypothesis in this first-ever experimental evolution study of any of the competing adaptive hypotheses. We compared populations of the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) that underwent 10 consecutive generations of selection for desiccation resistance with control populations. Selected locusts survived 36% longer under desiccation stress but DGE prevalence did not differ between these and control populations (approx. 75%). Evolved changes in DGE properties in the selected locusts included longer cycle and interburst durations. However, in contrast with predictions of the hygric hypothesis, these changes were not associated with reduced RWL rates. Other responses observed in the selected locusts were higher body water content when hydrated and lower total evaporative water loss rates. Hence, our data suggest that DGE cycle properties in selected locusts are a consequence of an evolved increased ability to store water, and thus an improved capacity to buffer accumulated CO 2 , rather than an adaptive response to desiccation. We conclude that DGE is unlikely to be an evolutionary response to dehydration challenge in locusts. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Water entry of cylindrical bodies with various aspect ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nayoung; Park, Hyungmin

    2017-11-01

    We experimentally investigate the water entry of cylindrical bodies with different aspect ratio (1.0-8.0), focusing on the deformation of free surface and resulting phenomena over and under the surface. The experiment is performed using a high-speed imaging (upto 10000 fps) and PIV. The head and tail of bodies are hemispherical and the nose part is additionally roughened with a sandpaper to see the effect of roughness as well. The release height is also adjusted to change the impact velocity at the free surface (Reynolds number is order of 105). For smooth surface (without cavity formation), a thin liquid film rises up the body after impacting, gathers at the pole and forms a jet over the free surfaces. The jet is created in the form of a thick and thin jet. The thin jet is produced by a water film riding up the surface of an object, and a thick jet is produced by rising water from underwater as the object sinks. However, as the aspect ratio increases, the liquid film does not fully ride up the body and cannot close, so there is an empty space below the free surface. With roughness (with cavity), the liquid film is detached from the body and splash/dome is formed above the free surface. The splash height and its collapsing time decrease with increasing the aspect ratio. Supported by Grants (MPSS-CG-2016-02, NRF-2017R1A4A1015523) of the Korea government.

  5. What Happens Where the Water and the Rock Touch in Small Space Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, P. K.; Regensburger, P. V.; Klimczak, C.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Dombard, A. J.; Hauck, S. A., II

    2017-12-01

    There are several small space bodies that go around bigger worlds that might have a layer of water under a layer of ice. Lots of study has been done to understand the outside ice layer of these small space bodies, because the ice can tells us important things about the big water layer under it. Some of these small space bodies are very interesting because the right things for life—water, hot rock, and food—might be at the bottom of the water layer, where it touches the top of the next layer down, which is made of rock. But it is very hard to understand what this rock at the bottom of the water is like, because we can't see it. So, we are imagining what this rock is like by thinking about what the rock is like under the water layer on our own world. If hot rock comes out of the rock layer through cracks under the water, the cold of the water makes the hot rock go very cold very fast, and it makes funny rolls as it does so. This might happen on some small space bodies that are hot enough on the inside to make hot rock. We know that on our own world the rock layer under the water is wet to as far down as cracks can go, so it makes sense that this is true for small space bodies, too. We did some thinking about numbers and found out that the cracks can go a few ten hundred steps into the rock layer on small space bodies, but for bigger (well, not quite so small) space bodies, the cracks can go at least tens of ten hundred steps into the rock layer. This means that water goes into the rock layer this much, too. But get this: some small bodies are not really that small—one of them is bigger than the first world from the Sun! And on a few of these big (small) bodies, the layer of water is so heavy that the bottom of that water is pushed together from all sides and turns into a type of hot ice. This means that, for these big (small) worlds, the water can't get into the rock layer through cracks (since there is a layer of hot ice in the way), and so these bodies are

  6. Development of fauna of water beetles (Coleoptera in waters bodies of a river valley – habitat factors, landscape and geomorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakulnicka Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to identify the beetle fauna of a small lowland river valley against its spatial arrangement and the directions of beetle migrations between habitats, as well as to determine which environmental factors affect the characteristics of water beetle populations in a river valley's lentic water bodies. The field studies were carried out in various types of water bodies. 112 species of beetles with various ecological characteristics were identified. It was demonstrated that the diversity of water bodies in the valley is conducive to high local species richness. At the same time, the observed high degree of faunistic individualism may be regarded as a sign of poor symmetry in the directions of fauna propagation, particularly that of stagnobionts. The authors argue that high individualism is the consequence of poor hydrological contact between the water bodies due to topography and rare instances of high tide in the river, which, in turn, is the reason for active overflights remaining the main mean of migration between those water bodies. The factors restricting migration of fauna between the water bodies include certain landscape characteristics of the catchment which form topographical obstacles, mainly numerous and dense forest areas. The character of fauna in the respective types of water bodies is affected also by internal environmental factors, particularly the degree to which they are overgrown with macrophytes, type of bottom, type of mineral and organic matter as well as physical parameters of water, such as saturation, pH, temperature and biological oxygen demand.

  7. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Body Fat and Weight Loss in Women Long After Bariatric Surgery: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Gomes, Daniela; Moehlecke, Milene; Lopes da Silva, Fernanda Bassan; Dutra, Eliane Said; D'Agord Schaan, Beatriz; Baiocchi de Carvalho, Kenia Mara

    2017-02-01

    The ideal nutritional approach for weight regain after bariatric surgery remains unclear. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of whey protein supplementation on weight loss and body composition of women who regained weight 24 or more months after bariatric surgery. This is a 16-week open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial of women who regained at least 5 % of their lowest postoperative weight after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). A total of 34 participants were treated with hypocaloric diet and randomized (1:1) to receive or not supplementation with whey protein, 0.5 g/kg of the ideal body weight. The primary outcomes were changes in body weight, fat free mass (FFM), and fat mass (FM), evaluated by tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Secondary outcomes included resting energy expenditure, blood glucose, lipids, adiponectin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and cholecystokinin levels. Statistical analyses included generalized estimating equations adjusted for age and physical activity. Fifteen patients in each group were evaluated: mean age was 45 ± 11 years, body mass index (BMI) was 35.7 ± 5.2 kg/m 2 , and time since surgery was 69 ± 23 months. Protein intake during follow-up increased by approximately 75 % in the intervention group (p = 0.01). The intervention group presented more body weight loss (1.86 kg, p = 0.017), accounted for FM loss (2.78, p = 0.021) and no change in FFM, as compared to controls (gain of 0.42 kg of body weight and 0.6 kg of FM). No differences in secondary outcomes were observed between groups. Whey protein supplementation promoted body weight and FM loss in women with long-term weight regain following RYGB.

  8. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Parsons, Eugene P.; Popopvsky, Sigal; Lohrey, Gregory T.; Lu, Shiyou; Alkalai-Tuvia, Sharon; Perzelan, Yaacov; Paran, Ilan; Fallik, Elazar; Jenks, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC2F2, was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC2F2 fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C16 monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss. © 2012 Physiologia Plantarum.

  9. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Parsons, Eugene P.

    2012-03-05

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC2F2, was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC2F2 fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C16 monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss. © 2012 Physiologia Plantarum.

  10. A Study on the Rate of Events and Water Loss in Water Distribution Network of Azna, Lorstan, Iran during 2008-2014 and Its Associated Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Adeli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: One of the problems of water distribution systems is loss of large volumes of water due to the occurrence of various events, which incurs a huge financial loss. Regarding this, the aim of the present study was to investigate the rate of events and water loss in the water distribution system and its related factors in Azna, Lorestan province, Iran, during 2008-2014. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using census method, surveys, and field data collection. The amount of water production and consumption, the volumes of water loss, the number of accidents, type of pipe, pressure zone, as well as the age and length of the pipes recorded during 2008- 2014 were studied and analyzed. Results: According to the results, the highest (34.48% and lowest (20.57% amount of water losses happened in 2008 and 2014, respectively. High pressures in water systems had significant relationship with the number of events as well as the amount of water loss and water consumption. In addition, higher length and age of the pipes had a direct correlation with increased number of events and water loss. Furthermore, the maximum number of events were found to occur in the pipe embranchment and galvanized pipes. Conclusion: This study showed that of events was directly related to the length and age of the pipes, the water pressure, and number of branches. Also water loss quantity can be reduced by applying suitable management techniques in different sections. Furthermore, the water loss can be significantly controlled by taking such measures as reducing the pressure in the high-pressure zones, timely replacement of old and inappropriate pipes, appropriate fixing of the pipes, replacement of the galvanized pipe, and standard implementation of pipes and fittings.

  11. Variation in body mass dynamics among sites in Black Brant Branta bernicla nigricans supports adaptivity of mass loss during moult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondell, Thomas F.; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Schamber, Jason L.; Nicolai, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Birds employ varying strategies to accommodate the energetic demands of moult, one important example being changes in body mass. To understand better their physiological and ecological significance, we tested three hypotheses concerning body mass dynamics during moult. We studied Black Brant in 2006 and 2007 moulting at three sites in Alaska which varied in food availability, breeding status and whether geese undertook a moult migration. First we predicted that if mass loss during moult were simply the result of inadequate food resources then mass loss would be highest where food was least available. Secondly, we predicted that if mass loss during moult were adaptive, allowing birds to reduce activity during moult, then birds would gain mass prior to moult where feeding conditions allowed and mass loss would be positively related to mass at moult initiation. Thirdly, we predicted that if mass loss during moult were adaptive, allowing birds to regain flight sooner, then across sites and groups, mass at the end of the flightless period would converge on a theoretical optimum, i.e. the mass that permits the earliest possible return to flight. Mass loss was greatest where food was most available and thus our results did not support the prediction that mass loss resulted from inadequate food availability. Mass at moult initiation was positively related to both food availability and mass loss. In addition, among sites and years, variation in mass was high at moult initiation but greatly reduced at the end of the flightless period, appearing to converge. Thus, our results supported multiple predictions that mass loss during moult was adaptive and that the optimal moulting strategy was to gain mass prior to the flightless period, then through behavioural modifications use these body reserves to reduce activity and in so doing also reduce wing loading. Geese that undertook a moult migration initiated moult at the highest mass, indicating that they were more than able to

  12. The influence of loss and gain of body mass on ovarian activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovarian activity was studied in 36 dry, Bos taurus cows fed to achieve different rates of body mass loss and gain in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment. Cows were fed hay to supply either 70% (Treatments 1, 2) or 40% (Treatments. 3,4) of their ME requirements for maintenance until they became anoestrus. Following a 90-day ...

  13. Innate recognition of water bodies in echolocating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Stefan; Siemers, Björn M

    2010-11-02

    In the course of their lives, most animals must find different specific habitat and microhabitat types for survival and reproduction. Yet, in vertebrates, little is known about the sensory cues that mediate habitat recognition. In free flying bats the echolocation of insect-sized point targets is well understood, whereas how they recognize and classify spatially extended echo targets is currently unknown. In this study, we show how echolocating bats recognize ponds or other water bodies that are crucial for foraging, drinking and orientation. With wild bats of 15 different species (seven genera from three phylogenetically distant, large bat families), we found that bats perceived any extended, echo-acoustically smooth surface to be water, even in the presence of conflicting information from other sensory modalities. In addition, naive juvenile bats that had never before encountered a water body showed spontaneous drinking responses from smooth plates. This provides the first evidence for innate recognition of a habitat cue in a mammal.

  14. [Effects of strip planting and fallow rotation on the soil and water loss and water use efficiency of slope farmland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xian-Qing; Li, Rong; Han, Qing-Fang; Jia, Zhi-Kuan; Wang, Wei; Yan, Bo; Yang, Bao-Ping

    2012-08-01

    In order to enhance the soil water-retaining capacity of slope farmland and reduce its soil and water loss, a field study was conducted in 2007-2010 to examine the effects of strip planting and fallow rotation on the soil water regime, soil and water loss characteristics, and water use efficiency of a 10 degrees-15 degrees slope farmland in the arid area of southern Ningxia, Northwest China. Compared with the traditional no-strip planting, strip planting and fallow rotation increased the soil water content in 0-200 cm layer significantly, with an increment of 4.9% -7.0%. Strip planting and fallow rotation pattern could also effectively conserve the soil water in rain season, and obviously improve the soil water regime at crops early growth stages. As compared to no-strip planting, strip planting and fallow rotation increased the soil water content in 0-200 cm layer by 5.4%-8.5%, decreased the surface runoff by 0.7-3.2 m3 x hm(-2), sediment runoff by 0.2-1.9 t x hm(-2), and soil total N loss by 42.1% -73.3%, while improved the crop water use efficiency by 6.1% -24.9% and the precipitation use efficiency by 6.3% -15.3%.

  15. Water-body preferences of dominant calanoid copepod species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of five dominant calanoid copepods was related to different water masses in the Angola-Benguela Front system. Five water bodies were identified by principal component analysis, on the basis of abiotic parameters such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, silicate, nitrate and nitrite.

  16. Diet change and food loss reduction: What is their combined impact on global water use and scarcity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Mika; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Kummu, Matti; Porkka, Miina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2016-03-01

    There is a pressing need to improve food security and reduce environmental impacts of agricultural production globally. Two of the proposed measures are diet change from animal-based to plant-based foodstuffs and reduction of food losses and waste. These two measures are linked, as diet change affects production and consumption of foodstuffs and consequently loss processes through their different water footprints and loss percentages. This paper takes this link into account for the first time and provides an assessment of the combined potential contribution of diet change and food loss reduction for reducing water footprints and water scarcity. We apply scenarios in which we change diets to follow basic dietary recommendations, limit animal-based protein intake to 25% of total protein intake, and halve food losses to study single and combined effects of diet change and loss reduction. Dietary recommendations alone would achieve 6% and 7% reductions of blue and green water consumption, respectively, while changing diets to contain less animal products would result in savings of 11% and 18%, respectively. Halving food loss would alone achieve 12% reductions for both blue and green water. Combining the measures would reduce water consumption by 23% and 28%, respectively, lowering water scarcity in areas with a population of over 600 million. At a global scale, effects of diet change and loss reduction were synergistic with loss reductions being more effective under changed diet. This demonstrates the importance of considering the link between diet change and loss reduction in assessments of food security and resource use.

  17. Changes in body composition during weight loss in obese subjects in the NUGENOB study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdich, C.; Barbe, P.; Petersen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    AIM: We studied the accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess changes in body composition during moderate weight loss in obese subjects. METHODS: Estimates of changes in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) by BIA were compared with those by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA...... DPX-IQ at two centres, Hologic QDR 2000 at another centre) at baseline (n=131) and at week 10 (n=105) after a mean weight loss of -5.7kg. RESULTS: At baseline, BIA significantly overestimated FFM and underestimated FM (by 1-3kg on average) compared with DXA, and the limits of agreement were wide (mean......±7-8.5kg). For body-composition changes, although biases were generally non-significant, the limits of agreement were also wide (mean±3.7-4.6kg). An FFM prediction equation for BIA data was developed in subjects scanned with Lunar instruments and cross-validated in an independent sample of 31 obese...

  18. Fusion of radar and optical data for mapping and monitoring of water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenerowicz, Agnieszka; Siok, Katarzyn

    2017-10-01

    Remote sensing techniques owe their great popularity to the possibility to obtain of rapid, accurate and information over large areas with optimal time, spatial and spectral resolutions. The main areas of interest for remote sensing research had always been concerned with environmental studies, especially water bodies monitoring. Many methods that are using visible and near- an infrared band of the electromagnetic spectrum had been already developed to detect surface water reservoirs. Moreover, the usage of an image obtained in visible and infrared spectrum allows quality monitoring of water bodies. Nevertheless, retrieval of water boundaries and mapping surface water reservoirs with optical sensors is still quite demanding. Therefore, the microwave data could be the perfect complement to data obtained with passive optical sensors to detect and monitor aquatic environment especially surface water bodies. This research presents the methodology to detect water bodies with open- source satellite imagery acquired with both optical and microwave sensors. The SAR Sentinel- 1 and multispectral Sentinel- 2 imagery were used to detect and monitor chosen reservoirs in Poland. In the research Level, 1 Sentinel- 2 data and Level 1 SAR images were used. SAR data were mainly used for mapping water bodies. Next, the results of water boundaries extraction with Sentinel-1 data were compared to results obtained after application of modified spectral indices for Sentinel- 2 data. The multispectral optical data can be used in the future for the evaluation of the quality of the reservoirs. Preliminary results obtained in the research had shown, that the fusion of data obtained with optical and microwave sensors allow for the complex detection of water bodies and could be used in the future quality monitoring of water reservoirs.

  19. Chironomidae (Diptera, Chironomidae) as biological indicators of water bodies ecological condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtin, M.M.; Sejsebaev, A.T.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents data confirming that Chironomidae are good to be used as an indicative criterion when classifying lakes. It was found that their quantity and presence of certain species could serve as an index in assessment of water body ecological condition. Results of cytotaxonomic analysis helped to reveal the nature of Chironomini species diversity in STS water bodies. (author)

  20. Water balance and ad libitum water intake in football players during a training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that hydration plays a crucial performance in sports performance. But a great number of studies assessing hydration during football practice have shown that many players have a dehydration state prior to this sport and that most players are not able to replace water loss by sweating with ad libitum water intake. Objectives: To analyze ad libitum water consumption, water balance, thirst sensation and rate of perceived exertion on a sample of young football players during a training session. Material and Methods: A total of 57 players from three teams in the youth category voluntary participated in this study. Weight was collected at the beginning and at the end of training; thirst sensation, rate of perceived exertion and quantification of ingested water were assessed. We used descriptive statistics, correlational and ratio analysis. Results: Mean global intake of players studied was 844.74±351.95mL and an average loss of body water 1274.56±385.82mL. Average rate of dehydration of the initial weight was 0.63%. Average score of 2.81±1.32 on the scale of thirst sensation was obtained. Discussion and conclusions: Rate of loss of body water similar to previous studies is obtained. The players were not able to replace water loss by drinking liquid ad libitum, so the intake of an amount previously scheduled could become helpful.

  1. Hepatic and visceral adipose tissue 11βHSD1 expressions are markers of body weight loss after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardina, Eva; Baena-Fustegueras, Juan Antonio; Fort, José Manuel; Ferrer, Roser; Rossell, Joana; Esteve, Montserrat; Peinado-Onsurbe, Julia; Grasa, Mar

    2015-09-01

    Cortisolemia and 11βHSD1 in liver and adipose tissue are altered in obesity. However, their participation in the development of obesity remains unclear. This study analyzed these parameters in the transition from morbid to type 1 obesity after bariatric surgery. A group of 34 patients with morbid obesity and 22 nonobese subjects were recruited. Initial hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) basal activity and 11βHSD1 mRNA expression in liver, subcutaneous (SAT), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were evaluated. A year after bariatric surgery (weight loss of 48 kg), these parameters were reappraised in plasma, SAT, and liver. Body weight loss was accompanied by a downshift in basal HPA activity and 11βHSD1 expression in SAT. In patients with morbid obesity, 11βHSD1 expression correlated positively with BMI in VAT and negatively in liver at 6 and 12 months after surgery. In SAT, a correlation was observed with body weight only when patients showed type 1 obesity. Insulin, glucose, and HOMA correlated positively with all the HPA indicators and 11βHSD1 expression in SAT. Body weight loss after bariatric surgery is accompanied by a downshift in basal HPA activity. Hepatic and VAT 11βHSD1 expressions in morbid obesity are predictors of body weight loss. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  2. [Remote sensing monitoring and screening for urban black and odorous water body: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qian; Zhu, Li; Cao, Hong Ye

    2017-10-01

    Continuous improvement of urban water environment and overall control of black and odorous water body are not merely national strategic needs with the action plan for prevention and treatment of water pollution, but also the hot issues attracting the attention of people. Most previous researches concentrated on the study of cause, evaluation and treatment measures of this phenomenon, and there are few researches on the monitoring using remote sensing, which is often a strain to meet the national needs of operational monitoring. This paper mainly summarized the urgent research problems, mainly including the identification and classification standard, research on the key technologies, and the frame of remote sensing screening systems for the urban black and odorous water body. The main key technologies were concluded too, including the high spatial resolution image preprocessing and extraction technique for black and odorous water body, the extraction of water information in city zones, the classification of the black and odorous water, and the identification and classification technique based on satellite-sky-ground remote sensing. This paper summarized the research progress and put forward research ideas of monitoring and screening urban black and odorous water body via high spatial resolution remote sensing technology, which would be beneficial to having an overall grasp of spatial distribution and improvement progress of black and odorous water body, and provide strong technical support for controlling urban black and odorous water body.

  3. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu......A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK......). These measurements were compared with bioimpedance analysis (BIA) by applying 11 predictive BIA equations published in the literature. Predictive equations for the present study population were developed, with the use of fat-free mass (FFM) as assessed by TBK and DXA as references in multiple regression analysis....... The results of the BIA equations varied widely; FFM was generally overestimated by BIA as compared with DXA and TBK before and after weight loss. During weight loss, the FFM did not change, as estimated by DXA (1.3 +/- 2.3 kg, p > 0.05) and TBK (0.9 +/- 2.9 kg, p > 0.05). The recorded change in impedance (R...

  4. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N = 130; 58 male (M, 72 female (F; BMI = 32.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2 middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500 kcal/d diets providing protein at 1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO or 0.8 g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB. LM and fat mass (FM were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2 ± 7.1 %, F:-9.9 ± 6.0 %, as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7 ± 6.8 %, CARB:-10.1 ± 6.2 %, with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0 ± 12.8 %, F:-7.3 ± 8.1 %, p  Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident.

  5. Detection of Water Bodies from AVHRR Data—A TIMELINE Thematic Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas J. Dietz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of water body dynamics is not only in itself a topic of strong demand, but the presence of water bodies is important information when it comes to the derivation of products such as land surface temperature, leaf area index, or snow/ice cover mapping from satellite data. For the TIMELINE project, which aims to derive such products for a long time series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR data for Europe, precise water masks are therefore not only an important stand-alone product themselves, they are also an essential interstage information layer, which has to be produced automatically after preprocessing of the raw satellite data. The respective orbit segments from AVHRR are usually more than 2000 km wide and several thousand km long, thus leading to fundamentally different observation geometries, including varying sea surface temperatures, wave patterns, and sediment and algae loads. The water detection algorithm has to be able to manage these conditions based on a limited amount of spectral channels and bandwidths. After reviewing and testing already available methods for water body detection, we concluded that they cannot fully overcome the existing challenges and limitations. Therefore an extended approach was implemented, which takes into account the variations of the reflectance properties of water surfaces on a local to regional scale; the dynamic local threshold determination will train itself automatically by extracting a coarse-scale classification threshold, which is refined successively while analyzing subsets of the orbit segment. The threshold is then interpolated by fitting a minimum curvature surface before additional steps also relying on the brightness temperature are included to reduce possible misclassifications. The classification results have been validated using Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data and proven an overall accuracy of 93.4%, with the majority of

  6. Reciprocal effects of exercise and nutrition treatment-induced weight loss with improved body image and physical self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Porter, Kandice J

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in self-image and mood are often reported as outcomes of obesity interventions. However, they may also concurrently influence weight loss, suggesting a reciprocal effect. Although previously reported for overweight women, such relationships were untested in morbidly obese women whose psychosocial responses to treatment may be different, and health-risks greater. Women (N = 161, Meanage = 42 years) with morbid obesity (MeanBMI = 45.1 kg/m(2)) participated in a 6-month, behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment. Significant within-group improvements in weight-loss behaviors (physical activity and eating), weight, body satisfaction, physical self-concept, and depression were found. After controlling for age, mediation analyses indicated that, as a result of the treatment, weight loss was both an outcome and mediator of improvements in body-areas satisfaction and physical self-concept (reciprocal effects), but not depression. Results replicated findings from women with lower degrees of overweight, and suggested that weight-loss treatments emphasize changes in self-perception.

  7. Hormonal control of integumentary water-loss: evidence for a novel neuroendocrine system in an insect (Periplaneta americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treherne, J E; Willmer, P G

    1975-08-01

    An accelerated water-loss was observed in decapitated individuals, no equivalent increase being obtained following severance of the nervous connectives in the neck. Injection of brain and, to a lesser extent, corpus cardiacum extract resulted in a significant reduction in the rate of loss of water from decapitated individuals. The accelerated water-loss observed following decapitation appeared not to result from significant increase in excretory output or loss of water through the spiracles. It is suggested that integumentary transpiration may be affected by a blood-borne factor, or factors, which originate in the brain and corpus cardiacum.

  8. Ramadan Fasting Decreases Body Fat but Not Protein Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrial Syam, Ari; Suryani Sobur, Cecep; Abdullah, Murdani; Makmun, Dadang

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown various results regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition in healthy individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy Indonesian medical staff. In this study, we examined the influence of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy medical staff. The longitudinal study was performed during and after Ramadan fasting in 2013 (August to October). Fourty-three medical staff members (physicians, nurses and nutritionists) at the Internal Medicine Ward of the Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital were measured to compare their calorie intake, weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body composition, including body fat, protein, minerals and water, on the first and 28(th) days of Ramadan and also 4-5 weeks after Ramadan fasting. Measurements were obtained for all 43 subjects on the 28(th) day of Ramadan, but they were obtained for only 25 subjects 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan. By the 28(th) day of Ramadan, it was found that the body weight, BMI, body fat, water and mineral measures had decreased significantly (-0.874 ± 0.859 kg, P Ramadan, body weight and composition had returned to the same levels as on the first day of Ramadan. Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss even it was only a temporary effect, as the weight was quickly regained within one month after fasting. The catabolism catabolic state, which is related to protein loss, was not triggered during Ramadan fasting. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of weight loss during Ramadan fasting in healthy individuals.

  9. Cold-water acclimation does not modify whole-body fluid regulation during subsequent cold-water immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, J M; Patterson, M J; Hyde, D E; Jenkins, A B; Mittleman, K D; Taylor, N A S

    2004-06-01

    We investigated the impact of cold-water acclimation on whole-body fluid regulation using tracer-dilution methods to differentiate between the intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments. Seven euhydrated males [age 24.7 (8.7) years, mass 74.4 (6.4) kg, height 176.8 (7.8) cm, sum of eight skinfolds 107.4 (20.4) mm; mean (SD)] participated in a 14-day cold-water acclimation protocol, with 60-min resting cold-water stress tests [CWST; 18.1 (0.1) degrees C] on days 1, 8 and 15, and 90-min resting cold-water immersions [18.4 (0.4) degrees C] on intervening days. Subjects were immersed to the 4th intercostal space. Intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments, and plasma protein, electrolyte and hormone concentrations were investigated. During the first CWST, the intracellular fluid (5.5%) and plasma volumes were reduced (6.1%), while the interstitial fluid volume was simultaneously expanded (5.4%). This pattern was replicated on days 8 and 15, but did not differ significantly among test days. Acclimation did not produce significant changes in the pre-immersion distribution of total body water, or changes in plasma osmolality, total protein, electrolyte, atrial natriuretic peptide or aldosterone concentrations. Furthermore, a 14-day cold-water acclimation regimen did not elicit significant changes in body-fluid distribution, urine production, or the concentrations of plasma protein, electrolytes or the fluid-regulatory hormones. While acclimation trends were not evident, we have confirmed that fluid from extravascular cells is displaced into the interstitium during acute cold-water immersion, both before and after cold acclimation.

  10. Buoyancy driven flow in a hot water tank due to standby heat loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank due to standby heat loss of the tank are presented. The effect of standby heat loss on temperature distribution in the tank is investigated experimentally on a slim 150l tank...... show that the CFD model predicts satisfactorily water temperatures at different levels of the tank during cooling by standby heat loss. It is elucidated how the downward buoyancy driven flow along the tank wall is established by the heat loss from the tank sides and how the natural convection flow...... with a height to diameter ratio of 5. A tank with uniform temperatures and with thermal stratification is studied. A detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the tank is developed to calculate the natural convection flow in the tank. The distribution of the heat loss coefficient for the different...

  11. A one-year resistance training program following weight loss has no significant impact on body composition and energy expenditure in postmenopausal women living with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Luzia Jaeger; Messier, Virginie; Lavoie, Marie-Ève; Brochu, Martin; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Prud'homme, Denis; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Doucet, Éric

    2018-05-15

    Resistance training (RT) has been shown to decrease fat mass (FM), and increase fat-free mass (FFM), which can be a useful for weight loss maintenance. To examine the effects of a 1-year RT intervention on weight loss maintenance following a 6-month dietary weight loss intervention. Following a 6-month dietary weight loss intervention (-6% ± 5.8; 5.05 kg ± 4.45), 70 postmenopausal women living with overweight or obesity were randomized to a control group (n = 34) or a RT group (n = 36) (3×/week first 6 months, 2×/week last 6 months, 70-80% of 1-repetition maximum). Body composition (DXA), abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (CT scan), resting energy expenditure (EE) (indirect calorimetry), physical activity EE and total daily EE were measured (doubly-labelled water). A total of 54 participants completed the study (control group n = 29; RT group n = 25) and compliance to the RT program was on average 64%. Significant regains were noted for body weight 0.98 (3.71) kg vs. 1.33 (3.94) kg and FM regain 1.32 (2.69) kg vs. 0.81 (3.26) kg in control and RT groups after the 1-year weight maintenance phase. No group differences were noted. Resting EE and total daily EE did not change after the weight maintenance phase, and no differences were observed between groups. Both groups had significantly greater than predicted decrease in resting EE after the 6-month dietary intervention and at the end of the 1-year weight-loss maintenance phase. Our results suggest that a 1-year RT intervention following a 6-month dietary weight loss intervention does not improve weight loss maintenance, body composition or EE in post-menopausal women living with overweight or obesity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of pioglitazone and resistance training on body composition in older men and women undergoing hypocaloric weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M Kyla; Nicklas, Barbara J; Marsh, Anthony P; Houston, Denise K; Miller, Gary D; Isom, Scott; Miller, Michael E; Carr, J Jeffrey; Lyles, Mary F; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2011-08-01

    Age-related increases in ectopic fat accumulation are associated with greater risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, and physical disability. Reducing skeletal muscle fat and preserving lean tissue are associated with improved physical function in older adults. PPARγ-agonist treatment decreases abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and resistance training preserves lean tissue, but their effect on ectopic fat depots in nondiabetic overweight adults is unclear. We examined the influence of pioglitazone and resistance training on body composition in older (65-79 years) nondiabetic overweight/obese men (n = 48, BMI = 32.3 ± 3.8 kg/m(2)) and women (n = 40, BMI = 33.3 ± 4.9 kg/m(2)) during weight loss. All participants underwent a 16-week hypocaloric weight-loss program and were randomized to receive pioglitazone (30 mg/day) or no pioglitazone with or without resistance training, following a 2 × 2 factorial design. Regional body composition was measured at baseline and follow-up using computed tomography (CT). Lean mass was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Men lost 6.6% and women lost 6.5% of initial body mass. The percent of fat loss varied across individual compartments. Men who were given pioglitazone lost more visceral abdominal fat than men who were not given pioglitazone (-1,160 vs. -647 cm(3), P = 0.007). Women who were given pioglitazone lost less thigh subcutaneous fat (-104 vs. -298 cm(3), P = 0.002). Pioglitazone did not affect any other outcomes. Resistance training diminished thigh muscle loss in men and women (resistance training vs. no resistance training men: -43 vs. -88 cm(3), P = 0.005; women: -34 vs. -59 cm(3), P = 0.04). In overweight/obese older men undergoing weight loss, pioglitazone increased visceral fat loss and resistance training reduced skeletal muscle loss. Additional studies are needed to clarify the observed gender differences and evaluate how these changes in body composition influence functional status.

  13. Intensified water storage loss by biomass burning in Kalimantan: Detection by GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiancheng; Tangdamrongsub, Natthachet; Hwang, Cheinway; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.

    2017-03-01

    Biomass burning is the principal tool for land clearing and a primary driver of land use change in Kalimantan (the Indonesian part of Borneo island). Biomass burning here has consumed millions of hectares of peatland and swamp forests. It also degrades air quality in Southeast Asia, perturbs the global carbon cycle, threatens ecosystem health and biodiversity, and potentially affects the global water cycle. Here we present the optimal estimate of water storage changes over Kalimantan from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Over August 2002 to December 2014, our result shows a north-south dipole pattern in the long-term changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) and groundwater storage (GWS). Both TWS and GWS increase in the northern part of Kalimantan, while they decrease in the southern part where fire events are the most severe. The loss rates in TWS and GWS in the southern part are 0.56 ± 0.11 cm yr-1 and 0.55 ± 0.10 cm yr-1, respectively. We use GRACE estimates, burned area, carbon emissions, and hydroclimatic data to study the relationship between biomass burning and water storage losses. The analysis shows that extensive biomass burning results in excessive evapotranspiration, which then increases long-term water storage losses in the fire-prone region of Kalimantan. Our results show the potentials of GRACE and its follow-on missions in assisting water storage and fire managements in a region with extensive biomass burning such as Kalimantan.

  14. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre R

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK and low-fat (LF diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE in overweight/obese men and women. Design Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%. Subjects 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean ± s.e.m.: age 33.2 ± 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 ± 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 ± 1.1 kg/m2 and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 ± 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 ± 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2. Measurements Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure (REE were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. Results Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28% and the LF (~58:22:20% were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake. The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during

  15. Dew-point hygrometry system for measurement of evaporative water loss in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariagno, R L; Glotzbach, S F; Baldwin, R B; Rector, D M; Bowley, S M; Moffat, R J

    1997-03-01

    Evaporation of water from the skin is an important mechanism in thermal homeostasis. Resistance hygrometry, in which the water vapor pressure gradient above the skin surface is calculated, has been the measurement method of choice in the majority of pediatric investigations. However, resistance hygrometry is influenced by changes in ambient conditions such as relative humidity, surface temperature, and convection currents. We have developed a ventilated capsule method that minimized these potential sources of measurement error and that allowed second-by-second, long-term, continuous measurements of evaporative water loss in sleeping infants. Air with a controlled reference humidity (dew-point temperature = 0 degree C) is delivered to a small, lightweight skin capsule and mixed with the vapor on the surface of the skin. The dew point of the resulting mixture is measured by using a chilled mirror dew-point hygrometer. The system indicates leaks, is mobile, and is accurate within 2%, as determined by gravimetric calibration. Examples from a recording of a 13-wk-old full-term infant obtained by using the system give evaporative water loss rates of approximately 0.02 mgH2O.cm-2.min-1 for normothermic baseline conditions and values up to 0.4 mgH2O.cm-2. min-1 when the subject was being warmed. The system is effective for clinical investigations that require dynamic measurements of water loss.

  16. Measurement of transepidermal water loss in localized scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďurčanská, Veronika; Jedličková, Hana; Vašků, Vladimír

    2016-05-01

    Localized scleroderma (LS) is a disease characterized by fibrotic changes in the dermis. Connective tissue growth factor and transforming growth factor β2 are the main mediators of fibrogenesis; this, along with excessive connective tissue production, affects epidermal keratinocytes, and thereby contributes to the changed quality of skin barrier. The objective of this article was to study the objective measurement of the skin barrier quality in LS with transepidermal water loss (TEWL) meter. The measurements of TEWL were performed on LS plaques in all three stages of various body locations. Control measurements were made on the contralateral side of healthy skin. The difference between TEWL in LS area and the contralateral side of the healthy skin was evaluated. A higher average TEWL 7.86 g/m(2) /h (SD 5.29) was observed on LS plaques compared with the control measurements on healthy skin 6.39 g/m(2) /h (SD 2.77). TEWL average values decreased from the inflammatory stage, through the sclerotic and to the atrophic stage. The mean difference 1.301 g/m(2) /h (SD 5.16) was found between TEWL on LS plaques and on the contralateral healthy skin in 82 measurements, i.e., a higher TEWL was observed in LS. The difference was statistically significant with p = 0.0250. Although fibrogenesis in scleroderma is localized in dermis, the skin barrier changes can be detected. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Water concentration/activity and loss of vitamins B1 and E in pork due to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.B. Jr.; Lakritz, L.; Kohout, K.M.; Thayer, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    When irradiated, increasing the water content of pork by partial rehydration of freeze-dried L. dorsi muscle resulted in increasing rate of thiamin loss from zero in dry tissue to ca 6%/kGy of irradiation in tissue with 70% water. Conversely, the rate of loss of alpha-tocopherol decreased from 44%/kGy at 0% to 32%/kGy at 70% water. Decreasing water activity in buffers or in ground or freeze-dried pork by salt or sucrose had no effect on rate of loss of either vitamin following irradiation. Salt decreased the loss of both vitamins in pork due to competition for the hydroxyl radical by chloride ions

  18. Evaluation of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determination of deuterium abundance in body fluids: application to measurement of total-body water in human infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebouche, C.J.; Pearson, G.A.; Serfass, R.E.; Roth, C.W.; Finley, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to quantitate abundance of 2H in body water of human infants. This method provides precise measurement of total-body water without the extensive sample preparation requirements of previously described methods for determination of 2H content in body fluids. 2H2O (1 g/kg body weight) was administered to infants and saliva and urine were collected for up to 5 h. An internal standard was added directly to the fluid specimen and 2H enrichment in water was measured by NMR spectroscopy. Working range of deuterium abundance was 0.04-0.32 atom %. Coefficients of variation for saliva samples at 0.20 atom % 2H was 1.97%. 2H content in urine and saliva water reached a plateau by 4 h after administration, and amounts in the two fluids were virtually identical. Mean total-body water determination for six infants was 58.3 +/- 5.8% of body weight (range 53-66%)

  19. Effect of ramadan fasting on body water status markers after a rugby sevens match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Khaled; Rebai, Haithem; El-Abed, Kais; Stannard, Stephen R; Khannous, Hamdi; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Hakim, Ahmed; Fellman, Nicole; Tabka, Zouhair

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body water status markers of rugby players at basal condition and following a simulation of rugby sevens match. TWELVE RECREATIONAL RUGBY SEVENS PLAYERS PLAYED THREE MATCHES: one day before Ramadan (before Ramadan), at the end of the first week of Ramadan (Beg-R) and at the end of Ramadan (End-R). Before and immediately after each match, body weight was determined and blood samples were taken for the measurement of body water status markers. Total body water was measured with an impedancemeter only before matches. At rest, an increase in hematocrit (+4.4%, P=0.03), hemoglobin (+3.4%, P=0.01) and plasma osmolarity (+2.8%, PRamadan. Total body water measured before Ramadan did not differ significantly from that of Ramadan. After the match, values of hematocrit and plasma osmolarity increased significantly at End-R (+1.4%, P=0.02; +3.1%, PRamadan. Although, hemoglobin measured after matches occurring during Ramadan did not differ from those of before Ramadan. In response to matches, the change of percentage of body water status markers did not differ during each period of the investigation. The present results show that Ramadan fasting induces dehydration at basal conditions. Also, rugby sevens match played during Ramadan did not exacerbate the magnitude of responses to matches of blood and body water status markers.

  20. Improvement in Obstructive Sleep Apnea With Weight Loss is Dependent on Body Position During Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Simon A; Khoo, Jun K; Edwards, Bradley A; Landry, Shane A; Naughton, Matthew T; Dixon, John B; Hamilton, Garun S

    2017-05-01

    Weight loss fails to resolve obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in most patients; however, it is unknown as to whether weight loss differentially affects OSA in the supine compared with nonsupine sleeping positions. We aimed to determine if weight loss in obese patients with OSA results in a greater reduction in the nonsupine apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) compared with the supine AHI, thus converting participants into supine-predominant OSA. Post hoc analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of weight loss (bariatric surgery vs. medical weight loss) on OSA in 60 participants with obesity (body mass index: >35 and sleep study at 2 years. Eight of 37 (22%) patients demonstrated a normal nonsupine AHI (sleep avoidance may cure their OSA. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. DRINKING WATER CONSUMPTION AND LOSS IN ALGERIA THE CASE OF NETWORKS WITH LOW LEVEL COUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Masmoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand for drinking domestic water is continuously increasing specially in urban centres which experience high demographic expansion. The decrease of water losses in water supply networks can help preserve such a rare resource. Low number of water meters and intermittent supply make it difficult to quantify the leaking volumes of water. This article presents an analysis of the consumption for drinking water based on an extrapolation from a sample of consumers on whom data are available. Comparison of the volumes of water produced allows a determination of the losses in the water supply system. This analysis is completed by measurements of night flows. The results obtained may be relied on for an evaluation of the needs for drinking water in the South of Algeria, and for future regional development. The study indicates a high rate of water losses in the distribution network, reaching about 40%, and over-consumption due to an insufficient number of water meters and discontinuous supply. It is recommended that water meters come into general use and defective parts of the network are rehabilitated. We will try then to make the necessary recommendations in order to better functioning of the water supply systems in Algeria.

  2. Water loss in table grapes: model development and validation under dynamic storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericsem PEREIRA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Water loss is a critical problem affecting the quality of table grapes. Temperature and relative humidity (RH are essential in this process. Although mathematical modelling can be applied to measure constant temperature and RH impacts, it is proved that variations in storage conditions are normally encountered in the cold chain. This study proposed a methodology to develop a weight loss model for table grapes and validate its predictions in non-constant conditions of a domestic refrigerator. Grapes were maintained under controlled conditions and the weight loss was measured to calibrate the model. The model described the water loss process adequately and the validation tests confirmed its predictive ability. Delayed cooling tests showed that estimated transpiration rates in subsequent continuous temperature treatment was not significantly influenced by prior exposure conditions, suggesting that this model may be useful to estimate the weight loss consequences of interruptions in the cold chain.

  3. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for

  4. Recovery of insulin sensitivity and optimal body composition after rapid weight loss in obese dogs fed a high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, A; Leriche, I; Chaix, G; Thorin, C; Burger, M; Nguyen, P

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of an experimental high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet (protein level, 46% metabolizable energy, ME). First, postprandial plasma glucose and insulin kinetics were determined in steady-state overweight/obese Beagle dogs (28%-41% excess body weight) for an experimental high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet (protein level, 46% ME) and a commercial high-carbohydrate medium-protein diet (protein level, 24%ME) in obese dogs. Secondly, all the dogs were included in a weight loss programme. They were fed the high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet, and the energy allocation was gradually reduced until they reached their optimal body weight. Insulin sensitivity and body composition were evaluated before and after weight loss using a euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp and the deuterium oxide dilution technique respectively. For statistical analysis, linear mixed effect models were used with a significance level of 5%. Postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were substantially lower with the high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet than the high-carbohydrate medium-protein diet. These differences can be explained mainly by the difference in carbohydrate content between the two diets. Energy restriction (35% lower energy intake than in the obese state) resulted in a 2.23 ± 0.05% loss in body weight/week, and the dogs reached their optimal body weight in 12-16 weeks. Weight loss was associated with a significant increase in insulin sensitivity. The high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet allowed fat-free mass preservation despite a relatively high rate of weekly weight loss. The increase in insulin sensitivity indicated improved control of carbohydrate metabolism, possible due to weight loss and to the nature of the diet. Thus, a high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet is a good nutritional solution for managing the weight of overweight dogs. This diet may improve glycaemic control, which could be beneficial for preventing or

  5. Variable Scheduling to Mitigate Channel Losses in Energy-Efficient Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavy Libman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider a typical body area network (BAN setting in which sensor nodes send data to a common hub regularly on a TDMA basis, as defined by the emerging IEEE 802.15.6 BAN standard. To reduce transmission losses caused by the highly dynamic nature of the wireless channel around the human body, we explore variable TDMA scheduling techniques that allow the order of transmissions within each TDMA round to be decided on the fly, rather than being fixed in advance. Using a simple Markov model of the wireless links, we devise a number of scheduling algorithms that can be performed by the hub, which aim to maximize the expected number of successful transmissions in a TDMA round, and thereby significantly reduce transmission losses as compared with a static TDMA schedule. Importantly, these algorithms do not require a priori knowledge of the statistical properties of the wireless channels, and the reliability improvement is achieved entirely via shuffling the order of transmissions among devices, and does not involve any additional energy consumption (e.g., retransmissions. We evaluate these algorithms directly on an experimental set of traces obtained from devices strapped to human subjects performing regular daily activities, and confirm that the benefits of the proposed variable scheduling algorithms extend to this practical setup as well.

  6. How Does Tree Density Affect Water Loss of Peatlands? A Mesocosm Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, J.; Holmgren, M.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Karofeld, E.; Berendse, F.

    2014-01-01

    Raised bogs have accumulated more atmospheric carbon than any other terrestrial ecosystem on Earth. Climate-induced expansion of trees and shrubs may turn these ecosystems from net carbon sinks into sources when associated with reduced water tables. Increasing water loss through tree

  7. Water loss at normal enamel histological points during air drying at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Medeiros, R C G; De Lima, T A S; Gouveia, C R; De Sousa, F B

    2013-06-01

    This in vitro study aimed to quantify water loss at histological points in ground sections of normal enamel during air drying at room temperature (25°C) and relative humidity of 50%. From each of 10 ground sections of erupted permanent human normal enamel, three histological points (n = 30) located at 100, 300 and 500 μm from enamel surface and along a transversal following prisms paths were characterized regarding the mineral, organic and water volumes. Water loss during air drying was from 0 to 48 h. Drying occurred with both falling and constant-drying rates, and drying stabilization times (Teq ) ranged from 0.5 to 11 h with a mean 0.26 (±0.12)% weight loss. In some samples (n = 5; 15 points), Teq increased as a function of the distance from the enamel surface, and drying occurred at an apparent diffusion rate of 3.47 × 10⁻⁸ cm² s⁻¹. Our data provide evidence of air drying resulting in air replacing enamel's loosely bound water in prisms sheaths following a unidirectional water diffusion rate of 3.47 × 10⁻⁸ cm² s⁻¹ (from the original enamel surface inward), not necessarily resulting in water evaporating directly into air, with important implications for transport processes and optical and mechanical properties. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2013 Royal Microscopical Society.

  8. 7 CFR 610.12 - Equations for predicting soil loss due to water erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (a) The equation for predicting soil loss due to erosion for both the USLE and the RUSLE is A = R × K... 22161.) (b) The factors in the USLE equation are: (1) A is the estimation of average annual soil loss in... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equations for predicting soil loss due to water...

  9. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/d deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (≤45 points per 1000 kcal; n=40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n=29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (Phypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P=0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (Pdiet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. PMID:23671029

  10. PERBEDAAN SKIN CAPACITANCE DAN TRANSEPIDERMAL WATER LOSS PADA KULIT NON-LESI PASIEN PITIRIASIS VERSIKOLOR DENGAN NON-PITIRIASIS VERSIKOLOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Wydya Yenny

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPada pitiriasis versikolor sering timbul kekambuhan, diduga salah satu penyebabnya adalah kelembaban kulit yang tinggi. Kelembaban kulit dipengaruhi oleh skin capacitance dan transepidermal water loss.Mengetahui skin capacitance dan transepidermal water loss kulit pasien pitiriasis versikolor dan perbedaannya dengan non-pitiriasis versikolor.Penelitian ini merupakan studi potong lintang perbandingan antar kelompok, yang dilakukan pada bulan September sampai dengan Nopember 2004 di Rumah Sakit Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo. Subyek penelitian pasien pitiriasis versikolor dan kontrol non-pitiriasis versikolor yang dipasangkan dalam hal umur dan jenis kelamin dan dilakukan pemeriksaan skin capacitance dan transepidermal water loss pada kulit yang tampak normal di punggung menggunakan alat Tewameter/Corneometer 350.Dalam kurun waktu tersebut telah diperiksa sebanyak 32 pasien pitiriasis versikolor dan 32 kontrol non-pitiriasis versikolor. Skin capacitance pasien pitiriasis versikolor secara statistik tidak berbeda dengan kontrol non-pitiriasis versikolor (p = 0,730. Transepidermal water loss pasien pitiriasis versikolor secara bermakna lebih rendah dari pada kelompok kontrol non-pitiriasis versikolor (p = 0,000.Tidak ada perbedaan skin capacitance kulit pasien pitiriasis versikolor dengan non-pitiriasis versikolor. Transepidermal water loss kulit pasien pitiriasis versikolor lebih rendah daripada non-pitiriasis versikolor.Kata kunci: pitiriasis versikolor, skin capacitance, transepidermal water lossAbstractThe recurrence of pityriasis versicolor is high, it could be caused by high skin hydration. Skin hydration was influenced by skin capacitance and transepidermal water loss.ARTIKEL PENELITIAN168The purpose of this study was to compare the differences of the skin capacitance and transepidermal water loss between the pityriasis versicolor skin and healthy non-pityriasis versicolor skin.The design of this study was comparative cross-sectional study

  11. The Impact Analysis of Water Body Landscape Pattern on Urban Heat Island: A Case Study of Wuhan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the LST and the landscape metrics of water body with remote sensing technique and spatial analysis, the relationship between the mean LST and the attributes of water body was revealed via Pearson’s correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. Result showed that, in 32 class-based metrics we selected, the proportion of water body, average water body size, the isolation and fragmentation of water body, and other eight metrics have high correlation with the LST. As a resultant force, the quantity, shape, and spatial distribution of water body affect the forming of temperature. We found that the quantity and spatial pattern of city water body could be allocated reasonably to maximize its cooling effect.

  12. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08.

  13. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915measuredsamples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rateand heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08. PMID:26624613

  14. Effects of weight loss with a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet on body composition, voluntary physical activity, and fecal microbiota of obese cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotto, Marissa R; de Godoy, Maria R C; Holscher, Hannah D; Buff, Preston R; Swanson, Kelly S

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of restriction feeding of a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet on loss of body weight (BW), voluntary physical activity, body composition, and fecal microbiota of overweight cats. ANIMALS 8 neutered male adult cats. PROCEDURES After BW maintenance for 4 weeks (week 0 = last week of baseline period), cats were fed to lose approximately 1.5% of BW/wk for 18 weeks. Food intake (daily), BW (twice per week), body condition score (weekly), body composition (every 4 weeks), serum biochemical analysis (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16), physical activity (every 6 weeks), and fecal microbiota (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16) were assessed. RESULTS BW, body condition score, serum triglyceride concentration, and body fat mass and percentage decreased significantly over time. Lean mass decreased significantly at weeks 12 and 16. Energy required to maintain BW was 14% less than National Research Council estimates for overweight cats and 16% more than resting energy requirement estimates. Energy required for weight loss was 11% more, 6% less, and 16% less than American Animal Hospital Association recommendations for weight loss (80% of resting energy requirement) at weeks 1 through 4, 5 through 8, and 9 through 18, respectively. Relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased and Bacteroidetes decreased with weight loss. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Restricted feeding of a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet appeared to be a safe and effective means for weight loss in cats. Energy requirements for neutered cats may be overestimated and should be reconsidered.

  15. Whole-body protein turnover response to short-term high-protein diets during weight loss: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Determine whole-body protein turnover responses to high protein diets during weight loss. Design: Thirty-nine adults (age, 21 ± 1 yr; VO2peak, 48 ± 1 ml'kg-1'min-1; body mass index, 25 ± 1 kg•m2) were randomized to diets providing protein at the recommend dietary allowance (RDA), 2X-RD...

  16. Leakage Detection and Estimation Algorithm for Loss Reduction in Water Piping Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem B. Adedeji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Water loss through leaking pipes constitutes a major challenge to the operational service of water utilities. In recent years, increasing concern about the financial loss and environmental pollution caused by leaking pipes has been driving the development of efficient algorithms for detecting leakage in water piping networks. Water distribution networks (WDNs are disperse in nature with numerous number of nodes and branches. Consequently, identifying the segment(s of the network and the exact leaking pipelines connected to this segment(s where higher background leakage outflow occurs is a challenging task. Background leakage concerns the outflow from small cracks or deteriorated joints. In addition, because they are diffuse flow, they are not characterised by quick pressure drop and are not detectable by measuring instruments. Consequently, they go unreported for a long period of time posing a threat to water loss volume. Most of the existing research focuses on the detection and localisation of burst type leakages which are characterised by a sudden pressure drop. In this work, an algorithm for detecting and estimating background leakage in water distribution networks is presented. The algorithm integrates a leakage model into a classical WDN hydraulic model for solving the network leakage flows. The applicability of the developed algorithm is demonstrated on two different water networks. The results of the tested networks are discussed and the solutions obtained show the benefits of the proposed algorithm. A noteworthy evidence is that the algorithm permits the detection of critical segments or pipes of the network experiencing higher leakage outflow and indicates the probable pipes of the network where pressure control can be performed. However, the possible position of pressure control elements along such critical pipes will be addressed in future work.

  17. Effect of National-Scale Afforestation on Forest Water Supply and Soil Loss in South Korea, 1971–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Sun Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation of forests in South Korea may provide an example of the benefit of afforestation on precipitation storage and erosion control. In this study, we presented the effects of afforestation on water supply and soil loss prevention. A spatio-temporal simulation of forest water yield and soil loss was performed from 1971–2010 using InVEST water yield and SWAT models. A forest stock change map was produced by combining land cover data and National Forest Inventory data. The forest water yield increased about twice with changes in forest stock and climate from 1971–2010 and showed a spatially homogeneous water supply capacity. In the same period, the soil loss decreased more than three times, and the volatility of soil loss, in the 2010s, was smaller than before. The analysis of the change in forest stock without considering climate change showed an increase of 43% in forest water yield and a decrease of 87% in soil loss. An increase in precipitation increased the water yield, but also increased the soil loss volume. A change in forest stock led to positive changes in both. This study presents functional positive effects of the afforestation program in South Korea that can be useful in various afforestation programs in other countries.

  18. A survey of preharvest conditions affecting the regulation of water loss during vase life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanourakis, D.; Velez-Ramirez, A.I.; In, B.C.; Barendse, H.; Meeteren, van U.; Woltering, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Vase life (VL) tests on cut roses obtained from commercial sources were conducted at FloraHolland. Water stress symptoms were the most important criterion terminating VL in 46 out of 50 assessed cultivars. These symptoms appear when water loss exceeds water uptake. Inadequate control of water

  19. Assessment of electrical stunning in fresh water of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and chilling in ice water for loss of consciousness and sensibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Kloosterboer, R.J.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The overall objective of the study was to evaluate loss of consciousness and sensibility after electrical stunning in fresh water and live chilling in ice water for slaughter of African catfish using measurement of electrical brain and heart activity. To provoke immediate loss of consciousness and

  20. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E; Gower, Barbara A

    2013-06-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/day deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (75 points per 1000 kcal, n = 29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P lean mass and baseline fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  1. The impact of rate of weight loss on body composition and compensatory mechanisms during weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; With, Emilie; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Rapid weight loss (WL) has been associated with a larger loss of fat free mass and a disproportional reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR), but the evidence is inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate the impact of WL rate on body composition and compensatory mechanisms activated...... with WL (reduced RMR, increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite), both during negative and neutral energy balance (EB). METHODS: Thirty-five participants with obesity were randomized to lose a similar weight rapidly (4 weeks) or gradually (8 weeks), and afterwards to maintain it (4 weeks). Body...... weight and composition, RMR, ExEff (10, 25 and 50 W), appetite feelings and appetite-regulating hormones (active ghrelin, cholecystokinin, total peptide YY (PYY), active glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin), in fasting and every 30 min up to 2.5 h, were measured at baseline and after each phase. RESULTS...

  2. Drainage water management combined with cover crop enhances reduction of soil phosphorus loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T Q; Tan, C S; Zheng, Z M; Welacky, T; Wang, Y T

    2017-05-15

    Integrating multiple practices for mitigation of phosphorus (P) loss from soils may enhance the reduction efficiency, but this has not been studied as much as individual ones. A four-year study was conducted to determine the effects of cover crop (CC) (CC vs. no CC, NCC) and drainage water management (DWM) (controlled drainage with sub-irrigation, CDS, vs. regular free tile drainage, RFD) and their interaction on P loss through both surface runoff (SR) and tile drainage (TD) water in a clay loam soil of the Lake Erie region. Cover crop reduced SR flow volume by 32% relative to NCC, regardless of DWM treatment. In contrast, CC increased TD flow volume by 57 and 9.4% with CDS and RFD, respectively, compared to the corresponding DWM treatment with NCC. The total (SR+TD) field water discharge volumes were comparable amongst all the treatments. Cover crop reduced flow-weighted mean (FWM) concentrations of particulate P (PP) by 26% and total P (TP) by 12% in SR, while it didn't affect the FWM dissolved reactive P (DRP) concentration, regardless of DWM treatments. Compared with RFD, CDS reduced FWM DRP concentration in TD water by 19%, while CC reduced FWM PP and TP concentrations in TD by 21 and 17%, respectively. Total (SR+TD) soil TP loss was the least with CDS-CC followed by RFD-CC, CDS-NCC, and RFD-NCC. Compared with RFD-NCC, currently popular practice in the region, total TP loss was reduced by 23% with CDS-CC. The CDS-CC system can be an effective practice to ultimately mitigate soil P loading to water resource. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Eutrophication and cyanobacteria in South Africa's standing water bodies: A view from space

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Mark W.; Bernard, Stewart

    2015-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing can make a significant contribution to monitoring water quality in South African standing water bodies. Eutrophication, defined as enrichment by nutrients, and toxin-producing cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) blooms pose a significant threat to the quality of South African surface water bodies. The status and trends of chlorophyll a (chl-a, a proxy for eutrophication), cyanobacterial blooms and cyanobacterial surface scum were determined for South Africa’s 50 largest ...

  4. Water and the thermal evolution of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, R.E.; Mcsween, H.Y. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Two hypotheses are proposed for the aqueous alteration of carbonaceous chondrites within their parent bodies, in which respectively the alteration occurs (1) throughout the parent body interior, or (2) in a postaccretional surface regolith; both models assume an initially homogeneous mixture of ice and rock that is heated through the decay of Al-26. Water is seen to exert a powerful influence on chondrite evolution through its role of thermal buffer, permitting substitution of a low temperature aqueous alteration for high temperature recrystallization. It is quantitatively demonstrated that liquid water may be introduced by either hydrothermal circulation, vapor diffusion from below, or venting due to fracture. 104 refs

  5. Measurement of transepidermal water loss in Tanzanian cot-nursed neonates and its relation to postnatal weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, HFH; Massawe, AW; Okken, A; Coenraads, PJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Huisman, M; Boersma, ER

    In healthy cot-nursed Tanzanian neonates (n = 92, gestation 26-42 weeks) measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and weight change were performed during the first 24 h after birth at an average ambient humidity of 70% and an environmental temperature of 32 degrees C. Urine production on day

  6. Analysis of loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldaschl, H.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors -Quantification of the influence of leak size, control assembly worth, boron concentration and initial power by a dynamic operations criterion. Neutronic and thermohydraulic behaviour of a pressurized water reactor during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is mainly influenced by -change of fuel temperature, -void in the primary coolant. They cause a local stabilization of power density, that means that also in the case of small leaks local void is the main stabilization effect. As a consequence the increase of fuel temperature remains very small even under extremely hypothetical assumptions: small leak, positive reactivity feedback (positive coolant temperature coefficient, negative density coefficient) at the beginning of the accident and all control assemblies getting stuck. Restrictions which have been valid up to now for permitted start-up conditions to fulfill inherent safety requirements can be lossened substantially by a dynamic operations criterion. Burnable poisons for compensation of reactivity theorefore can be omitted. (orig.)

  7. Loss of the CNA I secured river water system: analysis and effect evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berra, Sandra; Guala, Mariana I.; Lorenzo, Andrea T.; Raffo Calderon, Maria C.; Urrutia, Guillermo

    1999-01-01

    In this work the evolution of the plant parameters is evaluated in the case of a loss of the secured circuit of river water (system UK). In particular the systems which are affected for this loss were studied. It was evaluated the functional degradation of these systems. (author)

  8. Winter reduction in body mass in a very small, nonhibernating mammal: consequences for heat loss and metabolic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jan R E; Rychlik, Leszek; Churchfield, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Low temperatures in northern winters are energetically challenging for mammals, and a special energetic burden is expected for diminutive species like shrews, which are among the smallest of mammals. Surprisingly, shrews shrink their body size in winter and reduce body and brain mass, an effect known as Dehnel's phenomenon, which is suggested to lower absolute energy intake requirements and thereby enhance survival when food availability is low. Yet reduced body size coupled with higher body-surface-to-mass ratio in these tiny mammals may result in thermoregulatory heat production at a given temperature constituting a larger proportion of the total energy expenditure. To evaluate energetic consequences of reduced body size in winter, we investigated common shrews Sorex araneus in northeastern Poland. Average body mass decreased by 19.0% from summer to winter, and mean skull depth decreased by 13.1%. There was no difference in Dehnel's phenomenon between years despite different weather conditions. The whole-animal thermal conductance (proportional to absolute heat loss) in shrews was 19% lower in winter than in summer; the difference between the two seasons remained significant after correcting for body mass and was caused by improved fur insulation in winter. Thermogenic capacity of shrews, although much enhanced in winter, did not reach its full potential of increase, and this corresponded with relatively mild subnivean temperatures. These findings indicate that, despite their small body size, shrews effectively decrease their costs of thermoregulation. The recorded decrease in body mass from summer to winter resulted in a reduction of overall resting metabolic rate (in thermoneutrality) by 18%. This, combined with the reduced heat loss, should translate to food requirements that are substantially lower than would be the case if shrews did not undergo seasonal decrease in body mass.

  9. Quantitative nanoscale water mapping in frozen-hydrated skin by low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, Sergey [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Misra, Manoj; Shi, Shanling [Unilever Research and Development, Trumbull, CT 06611 (United States); Firlar, Emre [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Libera, Matthew, E-mail: mlibera@stevens.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Spatially resolved low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is a powerful method to quantitatively determine the water distribution in frozen-hydrated biological materials at high spatial resolution. However, hydrated tissue, particularly its hydrophilic protein-rich component, is very sensitive to electron radiation. This sensitivity has traditionally limited the achievable spatial resolution because of the relatively high noise associated with low-dose data acquisition. We show that the damage caused by high-dose data acquisition affects the accuracy of a multiple-least-squares (MLS) compositional analysis because of inaccuracies in the reference spectrum used to represent the protein. Higher spatial resolution combined with more accurate compositional analysis can be achieved if a reference spectrum is used that better represents the electron-beam-damaged protein component under frozen-hydrated conditions rather than one separately collected from dry protein under low-dose conditions. We thus introduce a method to extract the best-fitting protein reference spectrum from an experimental spectrum dataset. This method can be used when the MLS-fitting problem is sufficiently constrained so that the only unknown is the reference spectrum for the protein component. We apply this approach to map the distribution of water in cryo-sections obtained from frozen-hydrated tissue of porcine skin. The raw spectral data were collected at doses up to 10{sup 5} e/nm{sup 2} despite the fact that observable damage begins at doses as low as 10{sup 3} e/nm{sup 2}. The resulting spatial resolution of 10 nm is 5-10 times better than that in previous studies of frozen-hydrated tissue and is sufficient to resolve sub-cellular water fluctuations as well as the inter-cellular lipid-rich regions of skin where water-mediated processes are believed to play a significant role in the phenotype of keratinocytes in the stratum corneum.

  10. Quantitative nanoscale water mapping in frozen-hydrated skin by low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovlev, Sergey; Misra, Manoj; Shi, Shanling; Firlar, Emre; Libera, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Spatially resolved low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is a powerful method to quantitatively determine the water distribution in frozen-hydrated biological materials at high spatial resolution. However, hydrated tissue, particularly its hydrophilic protein-rich component, is very sensitive to electron radiation. This sensitivity has traditionally limited the achievable spatial resolution because of the relatively high noise associated with low-dose data acquisition. We show that the damage caused by high-dose data acquisition affects the accuracy of a multiple-least-squares (MLS) compositional analysis because of inaccuracies in the reference spectrum used to represent the protein. Higher spatial resolution combined with more accurate compositional analysis can be achieved if a reference spectrum is used that better represents the electron-beam-damaged protein component under frozen-hydrated conditions rather than one separately collected from dry protein under low-dose conditions. We thus introduce a method to extract the best-fitting protein reference spectrum from an experimental spectrum dataset. This method can be used when the MLS-fitting problem is sufficiently constrained so that the only unknown is the reference spectrum for the protein component. We apply this approach to map the distribution of water in cryo-sections obtained from frozen-hydrated tissue of porcine skin. The raw spectral data were collected at doses up to 10 5 e/nm 2 despite the fact that observable damage begins at doses as low as 10 3 e/nm 2 . The resulting spatial resolution of 10 nm is 5-10 times better than that in previous studies of frozen-hydrated tissue and is sufficient to resolve sub-cellular water fluctuations as well as the inter-cellular lipid-rich regions of skin where water-mediated processes are believed to play a significant role in the phenotype of keratinocytes in the stratum corneum.

  11. Impacts of Soil and Water Conservation Practices on Crop Yield, Run-off, Soil Loss and Nutrient Loss in Ethiopia: Review and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Langan, Simon; Johnston, Robyn; Mekuria, Wolde; Amede, Tilahun

    2017-01-01

    Research results published regarding the impact of soil and water conservation practices in the highland areas of Ethiopia have been inconsistent and scattered. In this paper, a detailed review and synthesis is reported that was conducted to identify the impacts of soil and water conservation practices on crop yield, surface run-off, soil loss, nutrient loss, and the economic viability, as well as to discuss the implications for an integrated approach and ecosystem services. The review and synthesis showed that most physical soil and water conservation practices such as soil bunds and stone bunds were very effective in reducing run-off, soil erosion and nutrient depletion. Despite these positive impacts on these services, the impact of physical soil and water conservation practices on crop yield was negative mainly due to the reduction of effective cultivable area by soil/stone bunds. In contrast, most agronomic soil and water conservation practices increase crop yield and reduce run-off and soil losses. This implies that integrating physical soil and water conservation practices with agronomic soil and water conservation practices are essential to increase both provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. Additionally, effective use of unutilized land (the area occupied by bunds) by planting multipurpose grasses and trees on the bunds may offset the yield lost due to a reduction in planting area. If high value grasses and trees can be grown on this land, farmers can harvest fodder for animals or fuel wood, both in scarce supply in Ethiopia. Growing of these grasses and trees can also help the stability of the bunds and reduce maintenance cost. Economic feasibility analysis also showed that, soil and water conservation practices became economically more viable if physical and agronomic soil and water conservation practices are integrated.

  12. Deviation from goal pace, body temperature and body mass loss as predictors of road race performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M; Hosokawa, Yuri; Belval, Luke N; Huggins, Robert A; Stearns, Rebecca L; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between pacing, gastrointestinal temperature (T GI ), and percent body mass loss (%BML) on relative race performance during a warm weather 11.3km road race. Observational study of a sample of active runners competing in the 2014 Falmouth Road Race. Participants ingested a T GI pill and donned a GPS enabled watch with heart rate monitoring capabilities prior to the start of the race. Percent off predicted pace (% OFF ) was calculated for seven segments of the race. Separate linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between pace, T ​GI , and %BML on relative race performance. One-way ANOVA was used to analyse post race T GI (≥40°C vs 0.05). There was a trend in a slower pace (p=0.055) and greater % OFF (p=0.056) in runners finishing the race with a T GI >40°C. Overall, finish time was influenced by greater variations in pace during the first two miles of the race. In addition, runners who minimized fluid losses and had lower T GI were associated with meeting self-predicted goals. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamics of organic carbon losses by water erosion after biocrust removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantón Yolanda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semiarid ecosystems, plant interspaces are frequently covered by communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses, known as biocrusts. These crusts often act as runoff sources and are involved in soil stabilization and fertility, as they prevent erosion by water and wind, fix atmospheric C and N and contribute large amounts of C to soil. Their contribution to the C balance as photosynthetically active surfaces in arid and semiarid regions is receiving growing attention. However, very few studies have explicitly evaluated their contribution to organic carbon (OC lost from runoff and erosion, which is necessary to ascertain the role of biocrusts in the ecosystem C balance. Furthermore, biocrusts are not resilient to physical disturbances, which generally cause the loss of the biocrust and thus, an increase in runoff and erosion, dust emissions, and sediment and nutrient losses. The aim of this study was to find out the influence of biocrusts and their removal on dissolved and sediment organic carbon losses. One-hour extreme rainfall simulations (50 mm h-1 were performed on small plots set up on physical soil crusts and three types of biocrusts, representing a development gradient, and also on plots where these crusts were removed from. Runoff and erosion rates, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and organic carbon bonded to sediments (SdOC were measured during the simulated rain. Our results showed different SdOC and DOC for the different biocrusts and also that the presence of biocrusts substantially decreased total organic carbon (TOC (average 1.80±1.86 g m-2 compared to physical soil crusts (7.83±3.27 g m-2. Within biocrusts, TOC losses decreased as biocrusts developed, and erosion rates were lower. Thus, erosion drove TOC losses while no significant direct relationships were found between TOC losses and runoff. In both physical crusts and biocrusts, DOC and SdOC concentrations were higher during the first minutes after runoff

  14. Turnover of body water in relation to the hydric diet studied with tritiated water in Locusta migratoria migratorioides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscarlet, L.A.; Proux, Jacques

    1975-01-01

    The elimination of triated water injected in a locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides is described by an exponential function of the cumulative water diet and fits a one-compartment model. This result shows that body water occupies a single pool the mass of which is kept constant by an equilibrium between the water diet and the water elimination rate [fr

  15. Water Table Management Reduces Tile Nitrate Loss in Continuous Corn and in a Soybean-Corn Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig F. Drury

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Water table management systems can be designed to alleviate soil water excesses and deficits, as well as reduce nitrate leaching losses in tile discharge. With this in mind, a standard tile drainage (DR system was compared over 8 years (1991 to 1999 to a controlled tile drainage/subirrigation (CDS system on a low-slope (0.05 to 0.1% Brookston clay loam soil (Typic Argiaquoll in southwestern Ontario, Canada. In the CDS system, tile discharge was controlled to prevent excessive drainage, and water was pumped back up the tile lines (subirrigation to replenish the crop root zone during water deficit periods. In the first phase of the study (1991 to 1994, continuous corn (Zea mays, L. was grown with annual nitrogen (N fertilizer inputs as per local soil test recommendations. In the second phase (1995 to 1999, a soybean (Glycine max L., Merr.-corn rotation was used with N fertilizer added only during the two corn years. In Phase 1 when continuous corn was grown, CDS reduced total tile discharge by 26% and total nitrate loss in tile discharge by 55%, compared to DR. In addition, the 4-year flow weighted mean (FWM nitrate concentration in tile discharge exceeded the Canadian drinking water guideline (10 mg N l–1 under DR (11.4 mg N l–1, but not under CDS (7.0 mg N l–1. In Phase 2 during the soybean-corn rotation, CDS reduced total tile discharge by 38% and total nitrate loss in tile discharge by 66%, relative to DR. The 4-year FWM nitrate concentration during Phase 2 in tile discharge was below the drinking water guideline for both DR (7.3 mg N l–1 and CDS (4.0 mg N l–1. During both phases of the experiment, the CDS treatment caused only minor increases in nitrate loss in surface runoff relative to DR. Hence CDS decreased FWM nitrate concentrations, total drainage water loss, and total nitrate loss in tile discharge relative to DR. In addition, soybean-corn rotation reduced FWM nitrate concentrations and total nitrate loss in tile discharge

  16. Crack modelling for the assessment of stiffness loss of reinforced concrete structures under mechanical loading - determination of the permeability of the micro-cracked body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongue Boma, M.

    2007-12-01

    We propose a model describing the evolution of mechanical and permeability properties of concrete under slow mechanical loading. Calling upon the theory of continua with microstructure, the kinematic of the domain is enriched by a variable characterising size and orientation of the crack field. We call upon configurational forces to deal with crack propagation and we determine the balance equations governing both strain and propagation. The geometry of the microstructure is representative of the porous media: the permeability is obtained from the resolution of Stokes equations in an elementary volume. An example has been treated: we considered simple assumptions (uniform crack field, application of linear fracture mechanics...) and we determined the behaviour of a body under tensile loading. Strain, crack propagation and stiffness loss are completely assessed. Finally the evolution of permeability is plotted: once activated, crack propagation is the main cause of water tightness loss. (author)

  17. Water temperature, body mass and fasting heat production of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Fredy A A; Cruz, Thaline M P DA; Mourão, Gerson B; Cyrino, José Eurico P

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on fasting heat production (HEf) of fish is key to develop bioenergetics models thus improving feeding management of farmed species. The core of knowledge on HEf of farmed, neotropical fish is scarce. This study assessed the effect of body mass and water temperature on standard metabolism and fasting heat production of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, an omnivore, Neotropical fresh water characin important for farming and fisheries industries all through South American continent. An automated, intermittent flow respirometry system was used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR) of pacu (17 - 1,050 g) at five water temperatures: 19, 23, 26, 29 and 33 °C. Mass specific SMR increased with increasing water temperature but decreased as function of body mass. The allometric exponent for scaling HEf was 0.788, and lied in the range recorded for all studied warm-water fish. The recorded van't Hoff factor (Q10) for pacu (2.06) shows the species low response to temperature increases. The model HEf = 0.04643×W0.7882×T1.837 allows to predict HEf (kJ d-1) from body mass (W, kg) and water temperature (T, °C), and can be used in bioenergetical models for the species.

  18. Water temperature, body mass and fasting heat production of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDY A.A. AGUILAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge on fasting heat production (HEf of fish is key to develop bioenergetics models thus improving feeding management of farmed species. The core of knowledge on HEf of farmed, neotropical fish is scarce. This study assessed the effect of body mass and water temperature on standard metabolism and fasting heat production of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, an omnivore, Neotropical fresh water characin important for farming and fisheries industries all through South American continent. An automated, intermittent flow respirometry system was used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR of pacu (17 - 1,050 g at five water temperatures: 19, 23, 26, 29 and 33 °C. Mass specific SMR increased with increasing water temperature but decreased as function of body mass. The allometric exponent for scaling HEf was 0.788, and lied in the range recorded for all studied warm-water fish. The recorded van't Hoff factor (Q10 for pacu (2.06 shows the species low response to temperature increases. The model HEf = 0.04643×W0.7882×T1.837 allows to predict HEf (kJ d-1 from body mass (W, kg and water temperature (T, °C, and can be used in bioenergetical models for the species.

  19. Shivering heat production and body fat protect the core from cooling during body immersion, but not during head submersion: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Thea; Lix, Lisa; Giesbrecht, Gordon

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies showed that core cooling rates are similar when only the head or only the body is cooled. Structural equation modeling was used on data from two cold water studies involving body-only, or whole body (including head) cooling. Exposure of both the body and head increased core cooling, while only body cooling elicited shivering. Body fat attenuates shivering and core cooling. It is postulated that this protection occurs mainly during body cooling where fat acts as insulation against cold. This explains why head cooling increases surface heat loss with only 11% while increasing core cooling by 39%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. EffectS of non-nutritive sWeetened beverages on appetITe during aCtive weigHt loss (SWITCH): Protocol for a randomized, controlled trial assessing the effects of non-nutritive sweetened beverages compared to water during a 12-week weight loss period and a follow up weight maintenance period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Christiansen, P; Cuthbertson, D J; Hardman, C A; Robinson, E; Halford, J C G

    2017-02-01

    Acute and medium-term intervention studies suggest that non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are beneficial for weight loss, however there is limited human data on the long-term effects of consuming NNS on weight loss, maintenance, and appetite. Further research is therefore required to elucidate the prolonged impact of NNS consumption on these outcome measures. A randomized parallel groups design will be used to assess whether regular NNS beverage intake is equivalent to a water control in promoting weight loss over 12-weeks (weekly weight loss sessions; Phase I), then supporting weight maintenance over 40-weeks (monthly sessions; Phase II) and subsequently independent weight maintenance over 52-weeks (Phase III) in 432 participants. A subset of these participants (n=116) will complete laboratory-based appetite probe days (15 sessions; 3 sessions each at baseline, at the start of phase I and the end of each phase). A separate subset (n=50) will complete body composition scans (DXA) at baseline and at the end of each phase. All participants will regularly be weighed and will complete questionnaires and cognitive tasks to assess changes in body weight and appetitive behaviours. Measures of physical activity and biochemical markers will also be taken. The trial will assess the efficacy of NNS beverages compared to water during a behavioural weight loss and maintenance programme. We aim to understand whether the impact of NNS on weight, dietary adherence and well-being are beneficial or transient and effects on prolonged successful weight loss and weight maintenance through sustained changes in appetite and eating behaviour. Clinical Trials: NCT02591134; registered: 23.10.2015. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Whole-field macro- and micro-deformation characteristic of unbound water-loss in dentin hard tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenning; Nadeau, Bobby; Yu, Kevin; Shao, Xinxing; He, Xiaoyuan; Goh, M Cynthia; Kishen, Anil

    2018-04-06

    High-resolution deformation measurements in a functionally graded hard tissue such as human dentin are essential to understand the unbound water-loss mediated changes and their role in its mechanical integrity. Yet a whole-field, 3-dimensional (3D) measurement and characterization of fully hydrated dentin in both macro- and micro-scales remain to be a challenge. This study was conducted in 2 stages. In stage-1, a stereo-digital image correlation approach was utilized to determine the water-loss and load-induced 3D deformations of teeth in a sagittal section over consecutively acquired frames, from a fully hydrated state to nonhydrated conditions for a period up to 2 hours. The macroscale analysis revealed concentrated residual deformations at the dentin-enamel-junction and the apical regions of root in the direction perpendicular to the dentinal tubules. Significant difference in the localized deformation characteristics was observed between the inner and outer aspects of the root dentin. During quasi-static loadings, further increase in the residual deformation was observed in the dentin. In stage-2, dentin microstructural variations induced by dynamic water-loss were assessed with environmental scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM), showing that the dynamic water-loss induced distention of dentinal tubules with concave tubular edges, and concurrent contraction of intertubular dentin with convex profile. The findings from the current macro- and micro-scale analysis provided insight on the free-water-loss induced regional deformations and ultrastructural changes in human dentin. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Soil, water and nutrient losses by interrill erosion from green cane cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilka Rocha Vasconcelos da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Interrill erosion occurs by the particle breakdown caused by raindrop impact, by particle transport in surface runoff, by dragging and suspension of particles disaggregated from the soil surface, thus removing organic matter and nutrients that are essential for agricultural production. Crop residues on the soil surface modify the characteristics of the runoff generated by rainfall and the consequent particle breakdown and sediment transport resulting from erosion. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum amount of mulch that must be maintained on the soil surface of a sugarcane plantation to reduce the soil, water and nutrient losses by decreasing interrill erosion. The study was conducted in Pradópolis, São Paulo State, in 0.5 x 1.0 m plots of an Oxisol, testing five treatments in four replications. The application rates were based on the crop residue production of the area of 1.4 kg m-2 (T1- no cane trash; T2-25 % of the cane trash; T3- 50 % trash; T4-75 % trash; T5-100 % sugarcane residues on the surface, and simulated rainfall was applied at an intensity of 65 mm h-1 for 60 min. Runoff samples were collected in plastic containers and soon after taken to the laboratory to quantify the losses of soil, water and nutrients. To minimize soil loss by interrill erosion, 75 % of the cane mulch must be maintained on the soil, to control water loss 50 % must be maintained and 25 % trash controls organic matter and nutrient losses. This information can contribute to optimize the use of this resource for soil conservation on the one hand and the production of clean energy in sugar and alcohol industries on the other.

  3. Discrete simulations of spatio-temporal dynamics of small water bodies under varied stream flow discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daya Sagar, B. S.

    2005-01-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns of small water bodies (SWBs) under the influence of temporally varied stream flow discharge are simulated in discrete space by employing geomorphologically realistic expansion and contraction transformations. Cascades of expansion-contraction are systematically performed by synchronizing them with stream flow discharge simulated via the logistic map. Templates with definite characteristic information are defined from stream flow discharge pattern as the basis to model the spatio-temporal organization of randomly situated surface water bodies of various sizes and shapes. These spatio-temporal patterns under varied parameters (λs) controlling stream flow discharge patterns are characterized by estimating their fractal dimensions. At various λs, nonlinear control parameters, we show the union of boundaries of water bodies that traverse the water body and non-water body spaces as geomorphic attractors. The computed fractal dimensions of these attractors are 1.58, 1.53, 1.78, 1.76, 1.84, and 1.90, respectively, at λs of 1, 2, 3, 3.46, 3.57, and 3.99. These values are in line with general visual observations.

  4. Discrete simulations of spatio-temporal dynamics of small water bodies under varied stream flow discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Daya Sagar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatio-temporal patterns of small water bodies (SWBs under the influence of temporally varied stream flow discharge are simulated in discrete space by employing geomorphologically realistic expansion and contraction transformations. Cascades of expansion-contraction are systematically performed by synchronizing them with stream flow discharge simulated via the logistic map. Templates with definite characteristic information are defined from stream flow discharge pattern as the basis to model the spatio-temporal organization of randomly situated surface water bodies of various sizes and shapes. These spatio-temporal patterns under varied parameters (λs controlling stream flow discharge patterns are characterized by estimating their fractal dimensions. At various λs, nonlinear control parameters, we show the union of boundaries of water bodies that traverse the water body and non-water body spaces as geomorphic attractors. The computed fractal dimensions of these attractors are 1.58, 1.53, 1.78, 1.76, 1.84, and 1.90, respectively, at λs of 1, 2, 3, 3.46, 3.57, and 3.99. These values are in line with general visual observations.

  5. Water Quality Protection from Nutrient Pollution: Case ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water bodies and coastal areas around the world are threatened by increases in upstream sediment and nutrient loads, which influence drinking water sources, aquatic species, and other ecologic functions and services of streams, lakes, and coastal water bodies. For example, increased nutrient fluxes from the Mississippi River Basin have been linked to increased occurrences of seasonal hypoxia in northern Gulf of Mexico. Lake Erie is another example where in the summer of 2014 nutrients, nutrients, particularly phosphorus, washed from fertilized farms, cattle feedlots, and leaky septic systems; caused a severe algae bloom, much of it poisonous; and resulted in the loss of drinking water for a half-million residents. Our current management strategies for point and non-point source nutrient loadings need to be improved to protect and meet the expected increased future demands of water for consumption, recreation, and ecological integrity. This presentation introduces management practices being implemented and their effectiveness in reducing nutrient loss from agricultural fields, a case analysis of nutrient pollution of the Grand Lake St. Marys and possible remedies, and ongoing work on watershed modeling to improve our understanding on nutrient loss and water quality. Presented at the 3rd International Conference on Water Resource and Environment.

  6. Extraction of Urban Water Bodies from High-Resolution Remote-Sensing Imagery Using Deep Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate information on urban surface water is important for assessing the role it plays in urban ecosystem services in the context of human survival and climate change. The precise extraction of urban water bodies from images is of great significance for urban planning and socioeconomic development. In this paper, a novel deep-learning architecture is proposed for the extraction of urban water bodies from high-resolution remote sensing (HRRS imagery. First, an adaptive simple linear iterative clustering algorithm is applied for segmentation of the remote-sensing image into high-quality superpixels. Then, a new convolutional neural network (CNN architecture is designed that can extract useful high-level features of water bodies from input data in a complex urban background and mark the superpixel as one of two classes: an including water or no-water pixel. Finally, a high-resolution image of water-extracted superpixels is generated. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieved higher accuracy for water extraction from the high-resolution remote-sensing images than traditional approaches, and the average overall accuracy is 99.14%.

  7. Weighing women down: messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women's health and fitness magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Laura E; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to idealized body images has been shown to lower women's body satisfaction. Yet some studies found the opposite, possibly because real-life media (as opposed to image-only stimuli) often embed such imagery in messages that suggest thinness is attainable. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current content analysis investigated editorial body-shaping and weight-loss messages in popular women's health and fitness magazines. About five thousand magazine pages published in top-selling U.S. women's health and fitness magazines in 2010 were examined. The findings suggest that body shaping and weight loss are a major topic in these magazines, contributing to roughly one-fifth of all editorial content. Assessing standards of motivation and conduct, as well as behaviors promoted by the messages, the findings reflect overemphasis on appearance over health and on exercise-related behaviors over caloric reduction behaviors and the combination of both behaviors. These accentuations are at odds with public health recommendations.

  8. The effect of fibers on the loss of water by evaporation and shrinkage of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. P. Pillar

    Full Text Available Shrinkage is one of the least desirable attributes in concrete. Large areas of exposed concrete surfaces , such as in shotcrete tunnel linings, where it is practically impossible to make a moist cure, are highly susceptible to plastic shrinkage at early ages. The autogenous and drying shrinkage can lead to states of greater than threshold strength, causing fracture, mechanical damage and lack of durability of concrete structures. The addition of fibers can greatly reduce plastic shrinkage, but has limited effect in mitigating autogenous and drying shrinkage. To evaluate the performance of polypropylene and steel fibers to understand their effect on shrinkage of concrete, a study was carried out to relate the loss of water from the paste and the shrinkage during the first 28 days of age, and compare it with a control mix without fiber. The loss of water was obtained by the weight loss of the specimens at different ages, since the only component that could contribute for the loss of weight was the water lost by the paste of the concrete. And the paste itself is the only source of shrinkage. Uniaxial compressive tests from very early ages enabled the determination of time when plastic shrinkage ended. It was observed that the control concrete mix lost three times more water and developed plastic and drying shrinkage 60 % higher than the fiber reinforced concrete mixes. It was possible to demonstrate that the reduced loss of water caused by the incorporation of fibers is related to the mitigation of plastic shrinkage. It was observed that the fibers are effective to restrain the movement of water through the cement paste in the plastic state, however such effect is limited after concrete starts the hardening state.

  9. Body mass management of lightweight rowers: nutritional strategies and performance implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Gary; Rice, Anthony; Jenkins, David; Hahn, Allan

    2014-11-01

    The majority of lightweight rowers undertake acute weight loss prior to competition. Given the competitive advantage afforded to larger, more muscular rowers over their smaller counterparts, the use of moderate, acute weight loss may be justified, at least among larger, leaner athletes who struggle to achieve the specified body mass requirement and have limited potential for further body mass loss via reductions in body fat. The performance implications of moderate acute weight loss appear to be small on the ergometer and may be even less on water, at least when aggressive recovery strategies are adopted between weigh-in and racing. Furthermore, any performance implications of acute weight loss are not exacerbated when such weight loss is undertaken repeatedly throughout the course of a regatta, and may even be eliminated when aggressive recovery strategies are introduced before and after racing. The combination of adequate sodium, fluid and carbohydrate in line with current guidelines results in the best performances. While the performance implications of modest acute weight loss may still need to be considered in regard to competition outcome, chronic body mass strategies may not be without performance implications. This is especially the case for athletes who have very low levels of body fat and/or athletes who decrease their body mass too quickly. Further studies are needed to address the degree of weight loss that can be tolerated with minimal health and/or performance implications, and the optimal time frame over which this should occur. Possible adaptation to the physiological state that accompanies acute weight loss also warrants investigation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Method and apparatus for recovering oil from an oil spill on the surface of a body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, R.W.; Patel, K.P.; Lau, P.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method of recovering a hydrophobic hydrocarbon oil from the surface of a body of water, the body of water having a water temperature, the oil having a specific gravity which is less than the specific gravity of the water in the body of water and a viscosity which is greater than approximately 80 centipoise at the water temperature. It comprises continuously withdrawing a feed oil-water mixture from the surface of the body of water; continuously adjusting the viscosity of the oil in the feed oil-water mixture to a level below approximately 80 centipoise to form an adjusted oil-water mixture; and continuously passing the adjusted oil-water mixture through an oil-water coalescer to separate the oil in the adjusted oil-water mixture from the water in the adjusted oil-water mixture

  11. Full body photography in the massive weight loss population: an inquiry to optimize patient-centered care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasicek, Philip; Kaswan, Sumesh; Messing, Susan; Gusenoff, Jeffrey A

    2013-11-01

    Medical photography of body contouring patients often requires complete nudity, placing patients in a vulnerable situation. We investigated patient perspectives on full body photography in an effort to better protect the patients and enhance comfort with the photography process. Sixty-five massive weight loss patients were identified who underwent body contouring surgery with full body photography. Photographs were taken at the time of initial consult, time of marking, and postoperatively. A retrospective chart review was performed to assess body mass indices and comorbidities, and a telephone survey inquired about several aspects of the photographic process. Fifty-six (86%) patients participated. Patients were more comfortable at the time of markings (P = 0.0004) and at the postoperative session (P = 0.0009). Patients' perception of positive body image increased after body contouring surgery (P photography improves quickly as they move through the surgical process. Maintaining professionalism is the most important factor in achieving patient trust and comfort. Limiting the number of observers in the room, providing explicit details of the photography process, and having at least 1 person of the same sex in the room can optimize patient safety and comfort.

  12. Energy Deficit Required for Rapid Weight Loss in Elite Collegiate Wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Emi; Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Yosuke; Shiose, Keisuke; Osawa, Takuya; Motonaga, Keiko; Ouchi, Shiori; Kamei, Akiko; Nakajima, Kohei; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Okamura, Koji

    2018-04-26

    To determine energy density for rapid weight loss (RWL) of weight-classified sports, eight male elite wrestlers were instructed to lose 6% of body mass (BM) within 53 h. Energy deficit during the RWL was calculated by subtracting total energy expenditure (TEE) determined using the doubly labeled water method (DLW) from energy intake (EI) assessed with diet records. It was also estimated from body composition change estimated with the four-component model (4C) and other conventional methods. BM decreased significantly by 4.7 ± 0.5 kg (6.4 ± 0.5%). Total body water loss was the major component of the BM loss (71.0 ± 7.6%). TEE was 9446 ± 1422 kcal, and EI was 2366 ± 1184 kcal during the RWL of 53-h; therefore, the energy deficit was 7080 ± 1525 kcal. Thus, energy density was 1507 ± 279 kcal/kg ∆BM during the RWL, comparable with values obtained using the 4C, three-component model, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and stable isotope dilution. Energy density for RWL of wrestlers is lower than that commonly used (7400 or 7700 kcal/kg ΔBM). Although RWL is not recommended, we propose that commonly practiced extreme energy restriction such as 7400 or 7700 kcal/kg ΔBM during RWL appears to be meaningless.

  13. Energy Deficit Required for Rapid Weight Loss in Elite Collegiate Wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Kondo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To determine energy density for rapid weight loss (RWL of weight-classified sports, eight male elite wrestlers were instructed to lose 6% of body mass (BM within 53 h. Energy deficit during the RWL was calculated by subtracting total energy expenditure (TEE determined using the doubly labeled water method (DLW from energy intake (EI assessed with diet records. It was also estimated from body composition change estimated with the four-component model (4C and other conventional methods. BM decreased significantly by 4.7 ± 0.5 kg (6.4 ± 0.5%. Total body water loss was the major component of the BM loss (71.0 ± 7.6%. TEE was 9446 ± 1422 kcal, and EI was 2366 ± 1184 kcal during the RWL of 53-h; therefore, the energy deficit was 7080 ± 1525 kcal. Thus, energy density was 1507 ± 279 kcal/kg ∆BM during the RWL, comparable with values obtained using the 4C, three-component model, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and stable isotope dilution. Energy density for RWL of wrestlers is lower than that commonly used (7400 or 7700 kcal/kg ΔBM. Although RWL is not recommended, we propose that commonly practiced extreme energy restriction such as 7400 or 7700 kcal/kg ΔBM during RWL appears to be meaningless.

  14. Loss of coolant accident at boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez G, R.

    1975-01-01

    A revision is made with regard to the methods of thermohydraulic analysis which are used at present in order to determine the efficiency of the safety systems against loss of coolant at boiling water reactors. The object is to establish a program of work in the INEN so that the personnel in charge of the safety of the nuclear plants in Mexico, be able to make in a near future, independent valuations of the safety systems which mitigate the consequences of the above mentioned accident. (author)

  15. Importance of body-water circulation for body-heat dissipation in hot-humid climates: a distinctive body-water circulation in swamp buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chanpongsang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermo-regulation in swamp buffaloes has been investigated as an adaptive system to hot-humid climates, and several distinctive physiological responses were noted. When rectal temperature increased in hot conditions, blood volume, blood flow to the skin surface and skin temperature markedly increased in buffaloes relatively to cattle. On the other hand, the correlation between blood volume and plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin (AVP was compared between buffaloes and cattle under dehydration. Although plasma AVP in cattle increased immediately for reducing urine volume against a decrease in blood volume as well as the response observed in most animal species, the increase in plasma AVP was delayed in buffaloes, even after a large decrease in blood volume. In buffaloes, a marked increase in blood volume facilitated the dissipation of excess heat from the skin surface during wallowing. In addition, the change in plasma AVP observed in buffaloes was consistent with that of other animals living in habitats with the high availability of water. These results suggest that the thermo-regulatory system in buffaloes accelerates body-water circulation internally and externally. This system may be adaptive for heat dissipation in hot-humid climates, where an abundance of water is common.

  16. When land breezes collide: Converging diurnal winds over small bodies of water

    OpenAIRE

    Gille, ST; Llewellyn Smith, SG

    2014-01-01

    © 2013 Royal Meteorological Society. Over enclosed and semi-enclosed bodies of water, the land-breeze/sea-breeze circulation is expected to be modified by the presence of opposing coastlines. These effects are studied using satellite scatterometer surface wind observations from the QuikSCAT and ADEOS-2 tandem mission from April-October 2003. Winds are studied for six bodies of water: the Red Sea, the Gulf of California, the Mediterranean, the Adriatic Sea, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. T...

  17. Parasitic amoebae found in water bodies of Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsyuk, Marina

    2017-12-01

    Two parasitic amoebian species are found in mollusks of the water bodies of Ukraine. Vahlkampfia sp. is found in hepatopankreas of Unio conus Spengler, 1793, and Acanthamoeba sp. is observed in mantle cavity of Viviparus viviparus Linnaeus, 1758. For these protist species, the mollusks are shown to be intermediate hosts where amoebae feed and reproduce. An experimental infection with Vahlkampfia sp. and Acanthamoeba sp. was not successful, no pathological changes in mollusks were observed. These amoebae are successfully cultured in fresh water and agar medium, hence we can safely consider them free-living. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quadratic head loss approximations for optimisation problems in water supply networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pecci, Filippo; Abraham, E.; I, Stoianov

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel analysis of the accuracy of quadratic approximations for the Hazen–Williams (HW) head loss formula, which enables the control of constraint violations in optimisation problems for water supply networks. The two smooth polynomial approximations considered here minimise the

  19. Solid Cattle Manure Less Prone to Phosphorus Loss in Tile Drainage Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y T; Zhang, T Q; Tan, C S; Qi, Z M; Welacky, T

    2018-03-01

    Forms (e.g., liquid and solid) of manure influence the risk of P loss after land application. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of P-based application of various forms of cattle manure (liquid, LCM; or solid, SCM) or inorganic P as triple superphosphate (IP) on soil P losses in tile drainage water. A 4-yr field experiment was conducted in a clay loam soil with a corn ( L.)-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation in the Lake Erie basin. Over the 4 yr, the dissolved reactive P (DRP) flow-weighted mean concentration (FWMC) in tile drainage water was greater under SCM fertilization than under either IP or LCM fertilization. Despite its lower value on an annual basis, DRP FWMC rose dramatically immediately after LCM application. However, the differences in DRP FWMC did not result in detectable differences in DRP loads. Regarding particulate P and total P losses during the 4 yr, they were 68 and 47%, respectively, lower in the soils amended with SCM than in those with IP, whereas both values were similar between IP and LCM treatments. Overall, the P contained in solid cattle manure was less prone to P loss after land application. Accordingly, the present results can provide a basis for manure storage and application of best management practices designed to reduce P losses and improve crop growth. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Experimental justification of indicative microbiological values for the safety of water bodies in the recreation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е.V. Drozdova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the assessment of the microbiological values of water bodies if they are used for recreational purposes and distinguishes the epidemiologically significant parameters. In order to validate the indicative safety values taking into account the existing conditions of the recreational use of water we conducted the hygienic assessment of water in the water bodies used for recreational purposes under the indicative microbiological values (total microbial count, thermotolerant coliform bacteria, E. coli; enterococcus, spores of sulfite-reducing Clostridia; coliphages; Ps. aeruginosa and the content of pathogenic microorganisms; also the microbiological profile of water was identified. The obtained data will be used to improve the system for monitoring of water bodies in the recreation areas.

  1. Simulation model of pollution spreading in the water bodies affected by mining mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinkina Natalia Mikhailovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Water bodies of the northern Karelia are polluted by liquid wastes of Kostomukshsky iron ore-dressing mill. The main components of these wastes are potassium ions. The processes of the potassium spreading in lake-river system of the River Kenty were studied using simulation modeling. For water bodies, where chemical observations were not carried out, the reconstruction of data was realized. The parameters of the model (constants of potassium transfer for seven lakes were calculated. These constants reflect the hydrological regime of water bodies and characterize high-speed transfer of potassium in the upstream and downstream, and low transfer rate - in the middle stream. It is shown that the vast majority of potassium (70% is carried out of the system Kenty and enters the lake Srednee Kuito

  2. An artificial water body provides habitat for an endangered estuarine seahorse species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassens, Louw

    2016-10-01

    Anthropogenic development, especially the transformation of natural habitats to artificial, is a growing concern within estuaries and coastal areas worldwide. Thesen Islands marina, an artificial water body, added 25 ha of new estuarine habitat to the Knysna Estuary in South Africa, home to the Knysna seahorse. This study aimed to answer: (I) Can an artificial water body provide suitable habitat for an endangered seahorse species? And if so (II) what characteristics of this new habitat are important in terms of seahorse utilization? Four major habitat types were identified within the marina canals: (I) artificial reno mattress (wire baskets filled with rocks); (II) Codium tenue beds; (III) mixed vegetation on sediment; and (IV) barren canal floor. Seahorses were found throughout the marina system with significantly higher densities within the reno mattress habitat. The artificial water body, therefore, has provided suitable habitat for Hippocampus capensis, a noteworthy finding in the current environment of coastal development and the increasing shift from natural to artificial.

  3. Neural Control Mechanisms and Body Fluid Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alan Kim

    1998-01-01

    The goal of the proposed research was to study the nature of afferent signals to the brain that reflect the status of body fluid balance and to investigate the central neural mechanisms that process this information for the activation of response systems which restore body fluid homeostasis. That is, in the face of loss of fluids from intracellular or extracellular fluid compartments, animals seek and ingest water and ionic solutions (particularly Na(+) solutions) to restore the intracellular and extracellular spaces. Over recent years, our laboratory has generated a substantial body of information indicating that: (1) a fall in systemic arterial pressure facilitates the ingestion of rehydrating solutions and (2) that the actions of brain amine systems (e.g., norepinephrine; serotonin) are critical for precise correction of fluid losses. Because both acute and chronic dehydration are associated with physiological stresses, such as exercise and sustained exposure to microgravity, the present research will aid in achieving a better understanding of how vital information is handled by the nervous system for maintenance of the body's fluid matrix which is critical for health and well-being.

  4. Long-lasting improvements in liver fat and metabolism despite body weight regain after dietary weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17-36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions.

  5. European perspectives on regional estimates of standing water bodies and the relevance of man-made ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasmaa, Jaanus; Bartout, Pascal; Marzecova, Agata; Touchart, Laurent; Koff, Tiiu; Choffel, Quentin; Kapanen, Galina; Maleval, Véronique; Millot, Camille; Qsair, Zoubida; Vandel, Egert

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, the small water bodies have been disregarded in the environmental management and protection policies. For example, the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC proposes the threshold surface area of water bodies for typology and reporting as 50 ha. The inventories on state level or scientific studies took into account smaller water bodies (e.g. third higher than officially registered inventories. Also, in Estonia, the water bodies with a surface area below 1 ha are almost 50 times more abundant than those above 1 ha and 92% of all standing water bodies are smaller than 0.2 ha. Using the OpenStreetMap database we will discuss the differences between global inventories and EU-level analysis. We will show the alternative regional estimates of water bodies with the surface size threshold limit 0.01 ha which will illustrate the quantitative importance of very small often man-made ponds, which are however, abundant cultural heritage in many parts of Europe. Secondly, by comparing detailed national inventories compiled for France and Estonia, we will introduce usefulness of the the 'local to global' approach in which the local databases may significantly strengthen the precision of the regional (EU) level analysis. Overall, we will disss that all standing water bodies - including small and man-made ponds - play an important role in ecosystem services and require careful management to avoid hydrological and environmental deterioration. References: Verpoorter et al. (2014) Geophysical Research Letters, 41. Bartout & Touchart,(2013) Annales de Géographie, 691. Downing et al., (2006) Limnology and Oceanography, 51(5). Kuusisto & Raatikainen, (1988) Terra, 102. Meybeck, (1995) in Lerman et al., Physics and chemistry of lakes. Rjanžin, (2005) Priroda, 4.

  6. SPH for impact force and ricochet behavior of water-entry bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Pourya; Farghadani, Omid; Nikeghbali, Pooyan

    The numerical modeling of fluid interaction with a bouncing body has many applications in scientific and engineering application. In this paper, the problem of water impact of a body on free-surface is investigated, where the fixed ghost boundary condition is added to the open source code SPHysics2D1 to rectify the oscillations in pressure distributions with the repulsive boundary condition. First, after introducing the methodology of SPH and the option of boundary conditions, the still water problem is simulated using two types of boundary conditions. It is shown that the fixed ghost boundary condition gives a better result for a hydrostatics pressure. Then, the dam-break problem, which is a bench mark test case in SPH, is simulated and compared with available data. In order to show the behavior of the hydrostatics forces on bodies, a fix/floating cylinder is placed on free surface looking carefully at the force and heaving profile. Finally, the impact of a body on free-surface is successfully simulated for different impact angles and velocities.

  7. Comparison of body composition methods during weight loss in obese women using herbal formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Jun; Gallagher, Dympna; Song, Mi-Yeon

    2005-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), a device that analyzes the current conduction differences between the fat and water components is widely used for reasons that include convenience of use, non-invasiveness, safety, and low cost. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) allows for the assessment of total body and regional lean and fat tissues and bone mineral content (BMC). The objective of this study was to compare body composition assessments by BIA and DXA before and after a 6-week herbal diet intervention program in 50 pre-menopausal women [mean +/- SD: age 30.58 +/- 6.15, body mass index (BMI) 31.72 +/- 3.78]. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was measured by BIA and anthropometry. Lean body mass (LBM), body fat (BF), BMC and percent body fat (%BF) were measured by BIA and DXA. Highly significant correlations were observed between BIA and DXA measurements for LBM, BF, BMC and %BF (r = 0.73, 0.93, 0.53, 0.79, respectively) before the intervention. Differences between BIA and DXA measurements were observed in LBM, BF, %BF and BMC before intervention (p produce statistically comparable results in pre-menopausal Korean women and therefore should not be used interchangeably when measuring body composition.

  8. The role of pyridoxine as a countermeasure for in-flight loss of lean body mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Joyce A.

    1992-01-01

    Ground based and in flight research has shown that humans, under conditions of microgravity, sustain a loss of lean body tissue (protein) and changes in several biological processes including, reductions in red blood cell mass, and neurotransmitters. The maintenance of muscle mass, the major component of lean body mass, is required to meet the needs of space station EVAs. Central to the biosynthesis of amino acids, the building blocks of protein, is pyridoxine (vitamin B-6). Muscle mass integrity requires the availability of vitamin B-6 for protein metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis. Furthermore, the formation of red blood cells require pyridoxine as a cofactor in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen to tissues. In its active form, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), vitamin B-6 serves as a link between amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism through intermediates of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, PLP is involved in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin and neurotransmitter which are necessary for neurological functions. Alterations in pyridoxine metabolism may affect countermeasures designed to overcome some of these biochemical changes. The focus of this research is to determine the effects of microgravity on the metabolic utilization of vitamin B-6, integrating nutrition as an integral component of the countermeasure (exercise) to maintain lean body mass and muscle strength. The objectives are: 1) to determine whether microgravity effects the metabolic utilization of pyridoxine and 2) to quantitate changes in B-6 vitamer distribution in tissue and excreta relative to loss of lean body tissue. The rationale for this study encompasses the unique challenge to control biochemical mechanisms effected during space travel and the significance of pyridoxine to maintain and counter muscle integrity for EVA activities. This experiment will begin to elucidate the importance of biochemical

  9. Evaluating radon loss from water during storage in standard PET, bio-based PET, and PLA bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchetti, Carlo; De Simone, Gabriele; Galli, Gianfranco; Tuccimei, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA) bottles were tested to evaluate radon loss from water during 15 days of storage. PET bottles (lower surface/volume-ratio vials) lost 0.4–7.1% of initial radon, whereas PLA bottles lost 3.7% of it. PET bottles with volume of 0.5 L, lower surface/weight ratio, and hence higher thickness display proportionally reduced radon loss. Corrections for dissolved radium are needed during analyses. Formulas for calculating degassing efficiency and water interference on electrostatic collections are developed. - Highlights: • Radon loss from water during storage in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA) bottles was evaluated. • Surface/volume ratio and thickness of plastic materials were studied. • A correction for dissolved radium concentration was applied to estimate gas loss. • Proper corrections for degassing efficiency of aerators were developed. • The interference of H 2 O on radon daughter electrostatic collection was quantified.

  10. Adaptation of metabolism and evaporative water loss along an aridity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, BI; Williams, JB; Bloomer, P

    2003-01-01

    Broad-scale comparisons of birds indicate the possibility of adaptive modification of basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) in species from desert environments, but these might be confounded by phylogeny or phenotypic plasticity. This study relates variation in avian BMR

  11. Water loss in horticultural products. Modelling, data analysis and theoretical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Jacob, S.; Schouten, R.E.; Fernandez-Trujillo, J.P.; Dos-Santos, N.; Vangdal, E.; Pagan, E.; Perez Pastor, A.

    2010-01-01

    The water loss of individual fruit (melon, plum and mandarin) was analysed using the traditional diffusion based approach and a kinetic approach. Applying simple non linear regression, both approaches are the same, resulting in a quite acceptable analysis. However, by applying mixed effects non

  12. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Body Water Status Markers after a Rugby Sevens Match

    OpenAIRE

    Trabelsi, Khaled; Rebai, Haithem; el-Abed, Kais; Stannard, Stephen R.; Khannous, Hamdi; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Hakim, Ahmed; Fellman, Nicole; Tabka, Zouhair

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body water status markers of rugby players at basal condition and following a simulation of rugby sevens match. Methods Twelve recreational rugby sevens players played three matches: one day before Ramadan (before Ramadan), at the end of the first week of Ramadan (Beg-R) and at the end of Ramadan (End-R). Before and immediately after each match, body weight was determined and blood samples were taken for the measurement of body water status...

  13. Comparative analysis of doses to aquatic biota in water bodies impacted by radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, A.I.; Sazykina, T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative analysis of doses to the reference species of freshwater biota was performed for the following water bodies in Russia or former USSR: Chernobyl NPPs cooling pond, Lakes Uruskul and Berdenish located in the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace, Techa River, Yenisei River. It was concluded that the doses to biota were considerably different in the acute and chronic periods of radioactive contamination. The most vulnerable part of all considered aquatic ecosystems was benthic trophic chain. A numerical scale on the “dose rate – effects” relationships for fish was formulated. Threshold dose rates above which radiation effects can be expected in fish were evaluated to be the following: 1 mGy d −1 for appearance of the first morbidity effects in fish; 5 mGy d −1 for the first negative effects on reproduction system; 10 mGy d −1 for the first effects on life shortening of fish. The results of dose assessment to biota were compared with the scale “dose rate – effects” and the literature data on the radiobiological effects observed in the considered water bodies. It was shown that in the most contaminated water bodies the dose rates were high enough to cause the radiobiological effects in fish. - Highlights: ► Comparative analysis of dose rates to biota in different water bodies was performed. ► A numerical scale on the dose rates – effects relationships for fish was formulated. ► Results of assessment of exposure to biota were compared with the dose rates – effects scale. ► In the most contaminated water bodies the doses were high enough to cause radiobiological effects in fish. ► Current dose rates to biota in all considered water bodies are below the safety level of 1 mGy/day.

  14. Water ages of 20 groundwater bodies and its relevance for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Martin; Brielmann, Heike; Humer, Franko; Grath, Johannes; Sültenfuß, Jürgen; Philippitsch, Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    The 'Mean Residence Time' (MRT) of groundwater is required to develop reliable hydrogeological concepts of groundwater bodies as a prerequisite for a qualified monitoring and risk assessment. MRTs from monitoring wells help to assess if groundwater bodies are 'at risk' or 'not at risk' failing to meet good groundwater quantitative and chemical status according to the Water Framework Directive and therefore not being able to use the groundwater as drinking water or industrial water resource. A combination of 18O/2H, 3H, 3H/3He and in some cases additional CFC, SF6, 85Kr and 35S measurements allow to calculate reliable MRTs in 20 groundwater bodies covering 13% (approx.10719 km2) of the Austrian territory. Altogether 401 groundwater wells and springs from the existing groundwater monitoring network were analysed for δ18O (n=1500), 3H (n=800) and 3He (n=327) since 2006. Considering both the fact that monitoring wells may have multiple or long well screens and the inherent uncertainties of groundwater age dating techniques, age estimations were classified into 5 categories of short ( 50years) mean residence times for each monitoring site. Subsequently, median values of the MRT categories were assigned to each investigated groundwater body. These are valuable information to fix extraction rates, to set measures to improve the land use and groundwater protection and to validate hydrogeological concepts. Generally, MRTs of groundwater bodies increase from shallow Alpine groundwater bodies over deeper Alpine valley-aquifers to longer MRTs in the Pannonian climate range in the east of Austria.

  15. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu...

  16. Environmental monitoring and assessment of the water bodies of a pre-construction urban wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Shengpeng; Wan, Kun; Zhou, Shoubiao; Ye, Liangtao; Ma, Sumin

    2014-11-01

    It is planned that the Dayanghan Wetland in China will be transformed into a national park but little is known about its current water quality and pollution status. Thus, we monitored the physical and chemical characteristics of the Dayanghan Wetland, which showed that the water quality was generally good. However, the chemical oxygen demand was more than double the reference value, which may be attributable to previous tillage for vegetable crops and other farmlands. In addition, nickel and chromium caused low-level pollution in the water bodies of the Dayanghan Wetland. The mean trophic level index and nutrient quality index were 39.1 and 2.69, respectively. Both indices suggest that the water bodies of the Dayanghan Wetland are in a mesotrophic state and that no eutrophication has occurred. The study would provide a precise report on the status of environmental quality of the water bodies of a typical pre-construction wetland for the administration and decision of the local government and the planning agent.

  17. Gauging leaf-level contributions to landscape-level water loss within a Western US dryland fores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P.; Potts, D. L.; Minor, R. L.; Hamerlynck, E. P.; Sutter, L., Jr.; Barron-Gafford, G.

    2017-12-01

    Western US forests represent a large constituent of the North American water and carbon cycles, yet the primary controls on water loss from these ecosystems remains unknown. In dryland forests, such as those found in the Southwestern US, water availability is key to ecosystem function, and the timing and magnitude of water loss can have lasting effects on the health of these communities. One poorly defined part of the water balance in these forests is the partitioning of evapotranspiration (ET) into evaporation (E; blue flow) to transpiration (T; green flow). A study of water fluxes at multiple scales in a semiarid montane forest in Southern Arizona speaks to the partitioning of these two water flows. Within the footprint of an eddy covariance system, which estimates ecosystem ET, we have examined the impacts of variation in climate, species makeup, and topographic position on E and T. This was done using leaf-level measures of T, pedon-scale measures of E, and whole-tree water loss by way of sap flux sensors. Where available, we have examined E, T, and ET fluxes across multiple seasons and years of highly variable precipitation records. Understanding the partitioning of ET is crucial, considering that projected changes to dryland ecosystems include longer periods of drought separated by heavier precipitation events. At a moment when potential impacts of changing climate on dryland structure and function are poorly understood, a stronger comprehension of these blue and green water flows is necessary to forecast the productivity of Western US forests into the future.

  18. Providing Longitudinal Connection In Case Of Cross Sluicing On Water Bodies In Banat Hydrographic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoancă Diana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available On Banat Hydrographic Area level, there are a series of works which put hydrological pressures on bodies of water: accumulations, damming, water diversions, regulations, shore protection, etc. These works were created in order to ensure water demand, defend against floods, regulate discharges, and combat humidity excess. Speaking justly, they have an important socioeconomic role. Among the negative effects of longitudinal connection interruption of water bodies we can mention, the risk of not achieving the positive ecological potential of water bodies in accordance with the Water Framework Directive, the reduction of the aquatic biodiversity, the reduction or even extinction of certain aquatic species and the alteration of the flow process. Because the negative effects of the hydromorphological alterations, especially those due to the interruption of the longitudinal connection, have a significant impact on the aquatic biodiversity. At Banat Hydrographic Area level, a series of measures, have been identified for the rehabilitation of the affected water courses: the removal of the hydrotechnical constructions from the water body if they have lost their functional features, building of passages for the migration of the ichthyofauna, reconnecting of the affluents and the disconnected arms as well as other measures intended to bring things back to their natural state. The implementation of these measures is made according to the importance and the extent of their positive impact as opposed to the negative effect that might occur as a consequence of their application. Analyzing the measures aforementioned and taking into consideration the characteristics of the hydromorphological pressures on water bodies in Banat Hydrographic Area, a number of measures regarding control are supplied in this paper.

  19. Oblique water entry of a three dimensional body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scolan Yves-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the oblique water entry of a three dimensional body is considered. Wagner theory is the theoretical framework. Applications are discussed for an elliptic paraboloid entering an initially flat free surface. A dedicated experimental campaign yields a data base for comparisons. In the present analysis, pressure, force and dynamics of the wetted surface expansion are assessed.

  20. Pythium species in 13 various types of water bodies of N-E Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pythium species and environmental factors in various types of water bodies (2 springs, 2 rivers, 3 ponds and 6 different trophic lakes were studied. Samples of water were collected every two months (springs, rivers, ponds and every three months (lakes in the years 1996-1999 for hydrochemical analysis and in order to determine the Pythium species content. From springs rivers and ponds collected were also ice blocks for determinations of presence of Pythium species. Buckwheatand hemp-seeds, cellophane and snake exuviae were used as bait. Forty-five species of Pythium were found in various types of water bodies. Pythium acanthicum, P. complectens, P. complens, P. diameson, P. dissimile, P. elongatum, P. lucens, P. megalacanthum, P. nagae, P. oedochilum, P. oryzae, P. palingenes, P. periilum and P. polysporum were recorded for the first time in Poland. The largest mean number of species was observed in spring Cypisek, a bit fewer in spring Jaroszówka and lake Białe (oligotrophic-like waters. The lowest mean number of Pythium species was noted in pond Akcent and Pałacowy (polytrophic waters. In all types of water bodies the higest mean number of species was found in winter, and the lowest in summer.

  1. Phosphorus loss to runoff water twenty-four hours after application of liquid swine manure or fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Hadi

    2003-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) added to soil from fertilizer or manure application could pose a threat to water quality due to its role in eutrophication of fresh water resources. Incorporating such amendments into the soil is an established best management practice (BMP) for reducing soluble P losses in runoff water, but could also lead to higher erosion. The objective of this study was to test whether incorporation of manure or fertilizer 24 h before an intense rain could also reduce sediment-bound and total phosphorus (TP) losses in runoff. A rainfall simulation study was conducted on field plots (sandy loam with 6-7% slope, little surface residue, recently cultivated) that received two application rates of liquid swine manure or liquid ammonium polyphosphate fertilizer, using either surface-broadcast or incorporated methods of application. Incorporation increased the total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations in runoff but mass losses were not affected. Incorporation also reduced flow-weighted concentrations and losses of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and TP by as much as 30 to 60% depending on source (fertilizer vs. manure) and application rate. Phosphorus is moved below the mixing zone of interaction on incorporation, and thus the effect of the amount and availability of P in this zone is more important than cultivation on subsequent P losses in runoff. Incorporating manure or fertilizer in areas of intense erosive rain, recent extensive tillage, and with little or no surface residue is therefore a best management practice that should be adhered to in order to minimize contamination of surface water. Results also show comparatively lower P losses from manure than fertilizer.

  2. Neonatal body water turnover: a putative index of perinatal morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLennan, A.H.; Millington, G.; Grieve, A.; McIntosh, J.E.; Seamark, R.F.; Cox, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    The water metabolism of 46 newborn babies was determined during a 10 day period by means of an isotope dilution technique, and correlations were sought with the clinical assessment of the babies by multiple obstetric and pediatric clinical criteria. The babies, 48 to 72 hours of age, were given a single oral dose (2 ml/kg) of deuterated water (D 2 O), a nonradioactive tracer, and the urinary excretion rate was followed by means of infrared spectrophotometry. After a period of equilibration of the D 2 O with body water (20 hours), the rate of D2O clearance was found to be a single exponential decay process, thus allowing the fraction of total body water lost each hour (the rate constant) to be calculated for each baby. The median values of the rate constants X 10(4)(h-1) for 14 growth-retarded babies ws 104 (98% confidence limits, 97.8 to 122) compared with 76.3 (67.0 to 80.2) for 16 normal mature babies and 82.1 (73.4 to 90.6) for 16 normal premature babies. These data indicate that, compared with normal mature or normal premature babies, growth-retarded infants have a significantly (P less than 0.05) faster turnover of water during the first 10 days of postnatal life. Since there was little overlap in results between the normally grown and the retarded infants, the measurement of water turnover may provide a useful index of perinatal morbidity

  3. Influence of ionic strength on the viscosities and water loss of bentonite suspensions containing polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Viana Amorim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of the influence of ionic strength (S on the apparent (AV and plastic (PV viscosities and water loss (WL of sodium bentonite suspension with polymers. Na-bentonite was dispersed in water (4.86% w/w of different ionic strengths (S = 0.0, 0.015, 0.030 and 0.045 M followed by the addition of polymer. Three polymer samples were studied, i.e., low viscosity carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC BV, polyanionic cellulose (PAC, and partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM. The results indicated that the presence of salts and increased salinity greatly influence the apparent and plastic viscosities and water loss of bentonite suspensions with polymer.

  4. Intertidal beach sands as monitors for heavy metal pollution in coastal water bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, L.D. de; Pfeiffer, W.C.; Fiszman, M.

    Intertidal beach sands were investigated for their use as indicators of metal transport in a contaminated water body, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and are proposed as an alternative and rapid screening method to determine metal pollution status of coastal areas. The results showed that, at least for Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb, beach sands can be included in the existing environmental monitoring programs for heavy metal pollution in water bodies. (Author) [pt

  5. Calorie Estimation in Adults Differing in Body Weight Class and Weight Loss Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth E; Canning, Karissa L; Fung, Michael; Jiandani, Dishay; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    Ability to accurately estimate calories is important for weight management, yet few studies have investigated whether individuals can accurately estimate calories during exercise or in a meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status. Fifty-eight adults who were either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW), and either attempting (WL) or not attempting weight loss (noWL), exercised on a treadmill at a moderate (60% HRmax) and a vigorous intensity (75% HRmax) for 25 min. Subsequently, participants estimated the number of calories they expended through exercise and created a meal that they believed to be calorically equivalent to the exercise energy expenditure. The mean difference between estimated and measured calories in exercise and food did not differ within or between groups after moderate exercise. After vigorous exercise, OW-noWL overestimated energy expenditure by 72% and overestimated the calories in their food by 37% (P food compared with both WL groups (P food. There was a wide range of underestimation and overestimation of calories during exercise and in a meal. Error in calorie estimation may be greater in overweight adults who are not attempting weight loss.

  6. Water requirement and total body water estimation as affected by species, pregnancy and lactation using tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.; El Banna, I.M.; Ayad, M.A.; Kotby, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Radiotracer dilution technique was used to determine total body water (TBW) and the water turnover rate (WTR) estimate of water requirements in water buffaloe, Red Dannish cattle, fat tailed Osemi sheep and Camellus Dromedarius. Water buffaloes were found to have highest TBW, followed by camels, sheep and cattle in a descending order. The WTR ranking was highest for sheep followed by water buffaloe endurance to heat was found inseperable to high water usage, while in camels, an intericate water retention mechanism help animals to thrive in deserts. Fat tailled Osemi sheep and cattle failed to cope with high environmental temperature resulting in temporary dehydration. TBW was 17% and 6% higher in pregnant cattle and sheep than non-pregnant animals respectively, while there was no observed change in pregnant buffaloes. Water retention of pregnant cattle was associated with an appriciable increase in WTR, which was not noticable in buffaloe or sheep. Lactating buffaloe have had a higher TBW and WTR than lactating cattle. Milk yield per day during the period of measurement was higher in buffalo than cattle. Wallowing of buffalo in water pools during grazing, represents a behavioural adaptation for life in hot regions, aside of tendency for higher WTR with concomitant water retention

  7. Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes Case Study: Addressing Multifamily Piping Losses with Solar Hot Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Springer, M. Seitzler, and C. Backman

    2016-12-01

    Sun Light & Power, a San Francisco Bay Area solar design-build contractor, teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America partner the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) to study this heat-loss issue. The team added three-way valves to the solar water heating systems for two 40-unit multifamily buildings. In these systems, when the stored solar hot water is warmer than the recirculated hot water returning from the buildings, the valves divert the returning water to the solar storage tank instead of the water heater. This strategy allows solar-generated heat to be applied to recirculation heat loss in addition to heating water that is consumed by fixtures and appliances.

  8. Reducing Nutrient Losses with Directed Fertilization of Degraded Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, E.; Walter, M. T.; Schneider, R.

    2016-12-01

    Degraded soils around the world are stunting agricultural productivity in places where people need it the most. In China, hundreds of years of agriculture and human activity have turned large swaths of productive grasslands into expanses of sandy soils where nothing can grow. Returning soils such as these to healthy productive landscapes is crucial to the livelihoods of rural families and to feeding the expanding population of China and the world at large. Buried wood chips can be used to improve the soils' water holding capacity but additional nutrient inputs are crucial to support plant growth and completely restore degraded soils in China and elsewhere. Improperly applied fertilizer can cause large fluxes of soluble nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to pollute groundwater, and reach surface water bodies causing harmful algal blooms or eutrophication. Similarly, fertilization can create increases in nutrient losses in the form of greenhouse gases (GHGs). It is imperative that nutrient additions to this system be done in a way that fosters restoration and a return to productivity, but minimizes nutrient losses to adjacent surface water bodies and the atmosphere. The primary objective of this study is to characterize soluble and gaseous N and P losses from degraded sandy soils with wood chip and fertilizer amendments in order to identify optimal fertilization methods, frequencies, and quantities for soil restoration. A laboratory soil column study is currently underway to begin examining these questions results of this study will be presented at the Fall Meeting.

  9. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Seitzler, Matt [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Backman, Christine [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  10. Nutrition and Healthy Eating: How Much Water Should You Drink Each Day?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body to function properly, you must replenish its water supply by consuming beverages and foods that contain water. ... makes you sweat, you need to drink extra water to cover the fluid loss. It's important to drink water before, during and ...

  11. The tracer function of isotope composition and deuterium excess parameter of water bodies on prospecting for geothermal water: taking the prospecting for geothermal water in Sanjianshui, Sichuan for example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Yin Guan

    2003-01-01

    Based on the isotope composition features of water bodies in Sanjiashui area, this paper use the theory of deuterium excess parameter (d) to discuss and cause of formulation, recharge source, removed patch, detained time and dynamics feature on ground water. These discussed problems have far-reaching meaning on evaluating the size of geothermal water, exploited potential of thermal spring and find new thermal spring in neighboring area. We analyze the relation of d and tritium content (T) on different water bodies in Sanjianshui area and draw some conclusions. Firstly, all water bodies in Sanjianshui origin from precipitation. Secondly, precipitation of northwest mountain area that have long removed patch and long detained time is the recharge resource of groundwater in basin. In addition, we demonstrate the possibility of existence of geothermal water in several positions of Sanjianshui area. (authors)

  12. Long-Lasting Improvements in Liver Fat and Metabolism Despite Body Weight Regain After Dietary Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C.; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17–36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. RESULTS Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. CONCLUSIONS A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions. PMID:23963894

  13. A review of the (Revised) Universal Soil Loss Equation (R/USLE): with a view to increasing its global applicability and improving soil loss estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Benavidez, Rubianca; Jackson, Bethanna; Maxwell, Deborah; Norton, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major problem around the world because of its effects on soil productivity, nutrient loss, siltation in water bodies, and degradation of water quality. By understanding the driving forces behind soil erosion, we can more easily identify erosion-prone areas within a landscape and use land management and other strategies to effectively manage the problem. Soil erosion models have been used to assist in this task. One of the most commonly used soil erosion models is the Univers...

  14. Extreme learning machine: a new alternative for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Li, Hao; Tang, Xindong; Zhang, Xinyu; Lin, Fan; Cheng, Kewei

    2016-01-01

    Heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial indicators for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, wasting too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we previously used artificial neural networks and support vector machine to develop precise knowledge-based models for predicting the heat collection rates and heat loss coefficients of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters, setting the properties measured by "portable test instruments" as the independent variables. A robust software for determination was also developed. However, in previous results, the prediction accuracy of heat loss coefficients can still be improved compared to those of heat collection rates. Also, in practical applications, even a small reduction in root mean square errors (RMSEs) can sometimes significantly improve the evaluation and business processes. As a further study, in this short report, we show that using a novel and fast machine learning algorithm-extreme learning machine can generate better predicted results for heat loss coefficient, which reduces the average RMSEs to 0.67 in testing.

  15. Quantification of surface energy fluxes from a small water body using scintillometry and eddy covariance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGloin, Ryan; McGowan, Hamish; McJannet, David

    2014-01-01

    Accurate quantification of evaporation from small water storages is essential for water management and planning, particularly in water-scarce regions. In order to ascertain suitable methods for direct measurement of evaporation from small water bodies, this study presents a comparison of eddy......% greater than eddy covariance measurements. We suggest possible reasons for this difference and provide recommendations for further research for improving measurements of surface energy fluxes over small water bodies using eddy covariance and scintillometry. Key Points Source areas for Eddy covariance...... and scintillometry were on the water surface Reasonable agreement was shown between the sensible heat flux measurements Scintillometer estimates of latent heat flux were greater than eddy covariance...

  16. Down-regulation of POLYGALACTURONASE1 alters firmness, tensile strength and water loss in apple (Malus x domestica) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Ross G; Sutherland, Paul W; Johnston, Sarah L; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Hallett, Ian C; Mitra, Deepali; Brummell, David A; Schröder, Roswitha; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J

    2012-08-02

    While there is now a significant body of research correlating apple (Malus x domestica) fruit softening with the cell wall hydrolase ENDO-POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1), there is currently little knowledge of its physiological effects in planta. This study examined the effect of down regulation of PG1 expression in 'Royal Gala' apples, a cultivar that typically has high levels of PG1, and softens during fruit ripening. PG1-suppressed 'Royal Gala' apples harvested from multiple seasons were firmer than controls after ripening, and intercellular adhesion was higher. Cell wall analyses indicated changes in yield and composition of pectin, and a higher molecular weight distribution of CDTA-soluble pectin. Structural analyses revealed more ruptured cells and free juice in pulled apart sections, suggesting improved integrity of intercellular connections and consequent cell rupture due to failure of the primary cell walls under stress. PG1-suppressed lines also had reduced expansion of cells in the hypodermis of ripe apples, resulting in more densely packed cells in this layer. This change in morphology appears to be linked with reduced transpirational water loss in the fruit. These findings confirm PG1's role in apple fruit softening and suggests that this is achieved in part by reducing cellular adhesion. This is consistent with previous studies carried out in strawberry but not with those performed in tomato. In apple PG1 also appears to influence other fruit texture characters such as juiciness and water loss.

  17. Electron-induced hydrogen loss in uracil in a water cluster environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, M.; Kohanoff, J.; Fabrikant, I. I.

    2014-01-01

    Low-energy electron-impact hydrogen loss due to dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to the uracil and thymine molecules in a water cluster environment is investigated theoretically. Only the A ′ -resonance contribution, describing the near-threshold behavior of DEA, is incorporated. Calculations are based on the nonlocal complex potential theory and the multiple scattering theory, and are performed for a model target with basic properties of uracil and thymine, surrounded by five water molecules. The DEA cross section is strongly enhanced when the attaching molecule is embedded in a water cluster. This growth is due to two effects: the increase of the resonance lifetime and the negative shift in the resonance position due to interaction of the intermediate negative ion with the surrounding water molecules. A similar effect was earlier found in DEA to chlorofluorocarbons

  18. Gas exchange patterns and water loss rates in the Table Mountain cockroach, Aptera fusca (Blattodea: Blaberidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Berlizé; Bazelet, Corinna S; Potter, C Paige; Terblanche, John S

    2013-10-15

    The importance of metabolic rate and/or spiracle modulation for saving respiratory water is contentious. One major explanation for gas exchange pattern variation in terrestrial insects is to effect a respiratory water loss (RWL) saving. To test this, we measured the rates of CO2 and H2O release ( and , respectively) in a previously unstudied, mesic cockroach, Aptera fusca, and compared gas exchange and water loss parameters among the major gas exchange patterns (continuous, cyclic, discontinuous gas exchange) at a range of temperatures. Mean , and per unit did not differ among the gas exchange patterns at all temperatures (P>0.09). There was no significant association between temperature and gas exchange pattern type (P=0.63). Percentage of RWL (relative to total water loss) was typically low (9.79±1.84%) and did not differ significantly among gas exchange patterns at 15°C (P=0.26). The method of estimation had a large impact on the percentage of RWL, and of the three techniques investigated (traditional, regression and hyperoxic switch), the traditional method generally performed best. In many respects, A. fusca has typical gas exchange for what might be expected from other insects studied to date (e.g. , , RWL and cuticular water loss). However, we found for A. fusca that expressed as a function of metabolic rate was significantly higher than the expected consensus relationship for insects, suggesting it is under considerable pressure to save water. Despite this, we found no consistent evidence supporting the conclusion that transitions in pattern type yield reductions in RWL in this mesic cockroach.

  19. Validation of the doubly-labeled water (H3H18O) method for measuring water flux and energy metabolism in tenebrionid beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    Doubly-labeled water (H 3 H 18 O) has been used to determine water flux and energy metabolism in a variety of vertebrates. This study examines the applicability of this technique to arthropods. The theory of the technique depends upon the assumption that doubly-labeled water introduced into the animal's body water equilibrates with water and carbon dioxide by the action of carbonic anhydrase. Tritium ( 3 H) is lost from the animal only with water while oxygen-18 is lost with both water and carbon dioxide. The difference bwtween the rates of loss of the two isotopes is proportional to CO 2 loss rate. Validation of the use of tritiated water for measuring water flux was accomplished by comparing gravimetric measurements of water gain with flux rates determined by loss of tritiated water. At room humidity, an overestimate for influx calculated from labeled water calculations was found, averaging 12 mg H 2 O (g.d) -1 . Comparison of CO 2 loss rate determined isotopically with rates of CO 2 loss determined by standard metabolic rates also yielded overestimates for the isotopic technique, overestimates ranging between 20 and 30%. The relevance of this for studies using labeled water for studying water fluxes and free metabolism of free-ranging arthropods is discussed

  20. Residual volume on land and when immersed in water: effect on percent body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demura, Shinichi; Yamaji, Shunsuke; Kitabayashi, Tamotsu

    2006-08-01

    There is a large residual volume (RV) error when assessing percent body fat by means of hydrostatic weighing. It has generally been measured before hydrostatic weighing. However, an individual's maximal exhalations on land and in the water may not be identical. The aims of this study were to compare residual volumes and vital capacities on land and when immersed to the neck in water, and to examine the influence of the measurement error on percent body fat. The participants were 20 healthy Japanese males and 20 healthy Japanese females. To assess the influence of the RV error on percent body fat in both conditions and to evaluate the cross-validity of the prediction equation, another 20 males and 20 females were measured using hydrostatic weighing. Residual volume was measured on land and in the water using a nitrogen wash-out technique based on an open-circuit approach. In water, residual volume was measured with the participant sitting on a chair while the whole body, except the head, was submerged . The trial-to-trial reliabilities of residual volume in both conditions were very good (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.98). Although residual volume measured under the two conditions did not agree completely, they showed a high correlation (males: 0.880; females: 0.853; P body fat computed using residual volume measured in both conditions was very good for both sexes (males: r = 0.902; females: r = 0.869, P body fat: -3.4 to 2.2% for males; -6.3 to 4.4% for females). We conclude that if these errors are of no importance, residual volume measured on land can be used when assessing body composition.

  1. A Preliminary Study on Rainfall Interception Loss and Water Yield Analysis on Arabica Coffee Plants in Central Aceh Regency, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Benara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall interception loss from plants or trees can reduce a net rainfall as source of water yield. The amount of rainfall interception loss depends on kinds of plants and hydro-meteorological characteristics. Therefore, it is important to study rainfall interception loss such as from Arabica Coffee plantation which is as main agricultural commodity for Central Aceh Regency. In this study, rainfall interception loss from Arabica Coffee plants was studied in Kebet Village of Central Aceh Regency, Indonesia from January 20 to March 9, 2011. Arabica coffee plants used in this study was 15 years old, height of 1.5 m and canopy of 4.567 m2. Rainfall interception loss was determined based on water balance approach of daily rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow data. Empirical regression equation between rainfall interception loss and rainfall were adopted as a model to estimate rainfall interception loss from Arabica Coffee plantation, which the coefficient of correlation, r is 0.98. In water yield analysis, this formula was applied and founded that Arabica Coffee plants intercept 76% of annual rainfall or it leaved over annual net rainfall 24% of annual rainfall. Using this net rainfall, water yield produced from Paya Bener River which is the catchment area covered by Arabica Coffee plantation was analyzed in a planning of water supply project for water needs domestic of 3 sub-districts in Central Aceh Regency. Based on increasing population until year of 2025, the results showed that the water yield will be not enough from year of 2015. However, if the catchment area is covered by forest, the water yield is still enough until year of 2025

  2. Homeostasis in leaf water potentials on leeward and windward sides of desert shrub crowns: water loss control vs. high hydraulic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iogna, Patricia A; Bucci, Sandra J; Scholz, Fabián G; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2013-11-01

    Phenotypic plasticity in morphophysiological leaf traits in response to wind was studied in two dominant shrub species of the Patagonian steppe, used as model systems for understanding effects of high wind speed on leaf water relations and hydraulic properties of small woody plants. Morpho-anatomical traits, hydraulic conductance and conductivity and water relations in leaves of wind-exposed and protected crown sides were examined during the summer with nearly continuous high winds. Although exposed sides of the crowns were subjected to higher wind speeds and air saturation deficits than the protected sides, leaves throughout the crown had similar minimum leaf water potential (ΨL). The two species were able to maintain homeostasis in minimum ΨL using different physiological mechanisms. Berberis microphylla avoided a decrease in the minimum ΨL in the exposed side of the crown by reducing water loss by stomatal control, loss of cell turgor and low epidermal conductance. Colliguaja integerrima increased leaf water transport efficiency to maintain transpiration rates without increasing the driving force for water loss in the wind-exposed crown side. Leaf physiological changes within the crown help to prevent the decrease of minimum ΨL and thus contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis, assuring the hydraulic integrity of the plant under unfavorable conditions. The responses of leaf traits that contribute to mechanical resistance (leaf mass per area and thickness) differed from those of large physiological traits by exhibiting low phenotypic plasticity. The results of this study help us to understand the unique properties of shrubs which have different hydraulic architecture compared to trees.

  3. Effects of meal frequency on weight loss and body composition: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aragon, Alan Albert; Krieger, James W

    2015-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that eating small, frequent meals enhances fat loss and helps to achieve better weight maintenance. Several observational studies lend support to this hypothesis, with an inverse relationship noted between the frequency of eating and adiposity. The purpose of this narrative review is to present and discuss a meta-analysis with regression that evaluated experimental research on meal frequency with respect to changes in fat mass and lean mass. A total of 15 studies were identified that investigated meal frequency in accordance with the criteria outlined. Feeding frequency was positively associated with reductions in fat mass and body fat percentage as well as an increase in fat-free mass. However, sensitivity analysis of the data showed that the positive findings were the product of a single study, casting doubt as to whether more frequent meals confer beneficial effects on body composition. In conclusion, although the initial results of this meta-analysis suggest a potential benefit of increased feeding frequencies for enhancing body composition, these findings need to be interpreted with circumspection. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Effects of a popular exercise and weight loss program on weight loss, body composition, energy expenditure and health in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magrans-Courtney Teresa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of altering the ratio of carbohydrate and protein in low-energy diets in conjunction with a popular exercise program in obese women. Design Matched, prospective clinical intervention study to assess efficacy of varying ratios of carbohydrate and protein intake in conjunction with a regular exercise program. Participants One-hundred sixty one sedentary, obese, pre-menopausal women (38.5 ± 8.5 yrs, 164.2 ± 6.7 cm, 94.2 ± 18.8 kg, 34.9 ± 6.4 kg·m-2, 43.8 ± 4.2% participated in this study. Participants were weight stable and not participating in additional weight loss programs. Methods Participants were assigned to either a no exercise + no diet control (CON, a no diet + exercise group (ND, or one of four diet + exercise groups (presented as kcals; % carbohydrate: protein: fat: 1 a high energy, high carbohydrate, low protein diet (HED [2,600; 55:15:30%], 2 a very low carbohydrate, high protein diet (VLCHP [1,200 kcals; 63:7:30%], 3 a low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet (LCMP [1,200 kcals; 50:20:30%] and 4 a high carbohydrate, low protein diet (HCLP [1,200 kcals; 55:15:30%]. Participants in exercise groups (all but CON performed a pneumatic resistance-based, circuit training program under supervision three times per week. Measurements Anthropometric, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE, fasting blood samples and muscular fitness assessments were examined at baseline and weeks 2, 10 and 14. Results All groups except CON experienced significant reductions (P P P P P Conclusion Exercise alone (ND appears to have minimal impact on measured outcomes with positive outcomes apparent when exercise is combined with a hypoenergetic diet. Greater improvements in waist circumference and body composition occurred when carbohydrate is replaced in the diet with protein. Weight loss in all diet groups (VLCHP, LCMP and HCLP was primarily fat and stimulated improvements in markers of

  5. Maintenance of water uptake and reduced water loss contribute to water stress tolerance of Spiraea alba Du Roi and Spiraea tomentosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Kelly M; Mickelbart, Michael V

    2014-01-01

    Two primarily eastern US native shrubs, Spiraea alba Du Roi and Spiraea tomentosa L., are typically found growing in wet areas, often with standing water. Both species have potential for use in the landscape, but little is known of their environmental requirements, including their adaptation to water stress. Two geographic accessions of each species were evaluated for their response to water stress under greenhouse conditions. Above-ground biomass, water relations and gas exchange were measured in well-watered and water stress treatments. In both species, water stress resulted in reduced growth, transpiration and pre-dawn water potential. However, both species also exhibited the ability to osmotically adjust to lower soil water content, resulting in maintained midday leaf turgor potential in all accessions. Net CO2 assimilation was reduced only in one accession of S. alba, primarily due to large reductions in stomatal conductance. S. tomentosa lost a larger proportion of leaves than S. alba in response to water stress. The primary water stress tolerance strategies of S. alba and S. tomentosa appear to be the maintenance of water uptake and reduced water loss.

  6. [Motivation for weight loss among weight loss treatment participants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeglédi, Edit

    2017-12-01

    Unrealistic expectations about weight goal and about weight loss-related benefits can hinder the effort for a successful long-term weight control. To explore weight loss-related goals and their background among overweight/obese patients. Study sample consisted of patients who participated in the inpatient weight loss treatment in the Lipidological Department of Szent Imre Hospital (n = 339, 19% men). Mean age: 50.2 years (SD = 13.47 years), mean BMI: 38.6 (SD = 7.58). self-reported anthropometric data, type and number of treated illnesses, Goals and Relative Weights Questionnaire, Motivations for Weight Loss Scale, Body Shape Questionnaire. Participants would feel disappointed with a possible 10% weight loss in a half-year time span. The acceptable weight loss percentage was higher among women, younger participants and among those who had more excess weight. Motivation regarding the increase in social desirability by weight loss is in association with body dissatisfaction, health related motivation is in association with the number of treated illnesses. Our results are contributing to the understanding of motivational factors behind weight reduction efforts, considering these can improve treatment success rates. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(49): 1960-1967.

  7. A global, 30-m resolution land-surface water body dataset for 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, M.; Sexton, J. O.; Huang, C.; Song, D. X.; Song, X. P.; Channan, S.; Townshend, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Inland surface water is essential to terrestrial ecosystems and human civilization. The distribution of surface water in space and its change over time are related to many agricultural, environmental and ecological issues, and are important factors that must be considered in human socioeconomic development. Accurate mapping of surface water is essential for both scientific research and policy-driven applications. Satellite-based remote sensing provides snapshots of Earth's surface and can be used as the main input for water mapping, especially in large areas. Global water areas have been mapped with coarse resolution remotely sensed data (e.g., the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)). However, most inland rivers and water bodies, as well as their changes, are too small to map at such coarse resolutions. Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) and ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus) imagery has a 30m spatial resolution and provides decades of records (~40 years). Since 2008, the opening of the Landsat archive, coupled with relatively lower costs associated with computing and data storage, has made comprehensive study of the dynamic changes of surface water over large even global areas more feasible. Although Landsat images have been used for regional and even global water mapping, the method can hardly be automated due to the difficulties on distinguishing inland surface water with variant degrees of impurities and mixing of soil background with only Landsat data. The spectral similarities to other land cover types, e.g., shadow and glacier remnants, also cause misidentification. We have developed a probabilistic based automatic approach for mapping inland surface water bodies. Landsat surface reflectance in multiple bands, derived water indices, and data from other sources are integrated to maximize the ability of identifying water without human interference. The approach has been implemented with open-source libraries to facilitate processing large

  8. Loss of Ia-bearing splenic adherent cells after whole body ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letvin, N.L.; Nepom, J.T.; Greene, M.I.; Benacerraf, B.; Germain, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    Daily uv irradiation of mice results in a marked decrease in the antigen-presenting capability of SAC from these mice after 1 wk of uv exposure. To directly examine this cell population, we developed a technique for purifying SAC that involves passing mouse splenocytes through two cycles of glass adherence with an intervening incubation on rabbit anti-mouse Ig-coated dishes. SAC from externally uv irradiated mice prepared by this method, when pulsed with antigen, activate primed T cells to proliferate much less efficiently than SAC from normal mice. Both the proportion and absolute number of Ia-bearing cells in this purified SAC population from uv irradiated mice are considerably smaller than that seen in similarly prepared populations from normal mice. Previous adjuvant immunization was shown to override functional defects elicited by external uv irradiation. This demonstration of a uv irradiation induced selective loss of Ia bearing splenic adherent cells and the functional consequences of this loss provide further evidence for the importance of Ia-bearing accessory cells in antigen presentation of T dependent antigens, and provides insight into the origin of the immunologic defects induced by whole body uv irradiation

  9. Modeling the movement and equilibrium of water in the body of ruminants in relation to estimating body composition by deuterium oxide dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    Deuterium oxide (D 2 O) dilution was evaluated for use in estimating body composition of ruminants. Empty body composition of cattle could not be accurately estimated by two- or three-compartment models when solved on the basis of clearance of D 2 O from blood. A 29-compartment blood-flow model was developed from measured blood flow rates and water volumes of tissues of sheep. The rates of equilibration of water in tissues that were simulated by the blood-flow model were much faster than actual rates measured in sheep and cattle. The incorporation of diffusion hindrances for movement of water into tissues enabled the blood flow model to simulate the measured equilibration rates in tissues, but the values of the diffusion coefficients were different for each tissue. The D 2 O-disappearance curve for blood simulated by the blood-flow model with diffusion limitations was comprised for four exponential components. The tissues and gastrointestinal tract contents were placed into five groups based upon the rate of equilibration. Water in the organs of the body equilibrated with water in blood within 3 min. Water in visceral fat, head, and some of the gastrointestinal tract tissues equilibrated within 8 to 16 min. Water in skeletal muscle, fat, and bone and the contents of some segments of the gastrointestinal tract equilibrated within 30 to 36 min. Water in the tissues and contents of the cecum and upper-large intestine equilibrated within 160 to 200 min. Water in ruminal tissue and contents equilibrated within 480 min

  10. Nutrient and Organic Carbon Losses, Enrichment Rate, and Cost of Water Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil erosion from water causes loss of nutrients and organic carbon, enriches the environment outside the erosion site, and results in costs. The no-tillage system generates increased nutrient and C content in the topsoil and, although it controls erosion, it can produce a more enriched runoff than in the conventional tillage system. This study was conducted in a Humic Cambisol in natural rainfall from 1997 to 2012 to quantify the contents and total losses of nutrients and organic C in soil runoff, and to calculate the enrichment rates and the cost of these losses. The treatments evaluated were: a soil with a crop, consisting of conventional tillage with one plowing + two harrowings (CT, minimum tillage with one chisel plowing + one harrowing (MT, and no tillage (NT; and b bare soil: one plowing + two harrowings (BS. In CT, MT, and NT, black oat, soybean, vetch, corn, turnip, and black beans were cultivated. Over the 15 years, 15.5 Mg ha-1 of limestone, 525 kg ha-1 of N (urea, 1,302 kg ha-1 of P2O5 (triple superphosphate, and 1,075 kg ha-1 of K2O (potassium chloride were used in the soil. The P, K, Ca, Mg, and organic C contents in the soil were determined and also the P, K, Ca, and Mg sediments in the runoff water. From these contents, the total losses, the enrichment rates (ER, and financial losses were calculated. The NT increased the P, K, and organic C contents in the topsoil. The nutrients and organic C content in the runoff from NT was greater than from CT, showing that NT was not a fully conservationist practice for soil. The linear model y = a + bx fit the data within the level of significance (p≤0.01 when the values of P, K, and organic C in the sediments from erosion were related to those values in the soil surface layer. The nutrient and organic C contents were higher in the sediments from erosion than in the soil where the erosion originated, generating values of ER>1 for P, K, and organic C. The value of the total losses

  11. Water intake and consumption in sheep differing in growth potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (water intake&g weight gain) than the Dorper and Mutton Merino, respectively. By means of ... To avoid obesity they were exercised ... Body weights, weight gain, means for cumulative feed and ..... water loss, may provide a logical explanation.

  12. Shivering heat production and core cooling during head-in and head-out immersion in 17 degrees C water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Thea; Cahill, Farrell; Kocay, Sheila; Giesbrecht, Gordon G

    2008-05-01

    Many cold-water scenarios cause the head to be partially or fully immersed (e.g., ship wreck survival, scuba diving, cold-water adventure swim racing, cold-water drowning, etc.). However, the specific effects of head cold exposure are minimally understood. This study isolated the effect of whole-head submersion in cold water on surface heat loss and body core cooling when the protective shivering mechanism was intact. Eight healthy men were studied in 17 degrees C water under four conditions: the body was either insulated or exposed, with the head either out of the water or completely submersed under the water within each insulated/exposed subcondition. Submersion of the head (7% of the body surface area) in the body-exposed condition increased total heat loss by 11% (P < 0.05). After 45 min, head-submersion increased core cooling by 343% in the body-insulated subcondition (head-out: 0.13 +/- 0.2 degree C, head-in: 0.47 +/- 0.3 degree C; P < 0.05) and by 56% in the body-exposed subcondition (head-out: 0.40 +/- 0.3 degree C and head-in: 0.73 +/- 0.6 degree C; P < 0.05). In both body-exposed and body-insulated subconditions, head submersion increased the rate of core cooling disproportionally more than the relative increase in total heat loss. This exaggerated core-cooling effect is consistent with a head cooling induced reduction of the thermal core, which could be stimulated by cooling of thermosensitive and/or trigeminal receptors in the scalp, neck, and face. These cooling effects of head submersion are not prevented by shivering heat production.

  13. [Differences of inherent optical properties of inland lake water body in typical seasons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, De-Yong; Li, Yun-Mei; Wang, Qiao; Le, Cheng-Fen; Huang, Chang-Chun; Wang, Li-Zhen

    2008-05-01

    Inherent optical property is one of the important properties of water body, which lays the foundation for the establishment of water color analytical models. By using quantity filter technology (QFT) and BB9 backscattering meter, the absorption coefficients of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and total suspended matters (TSM) and the backscattering coefficient of TSM in the water body at Meiliang Bay of Taihu Lake were measured in summer and winter. Based on the spectral comparison of the absorption and backscattering coefficients, their differences between the two seasons were demonstrated, and the reasons that caused these differences were also explored in the context of their relations to the changes in water quality. Consequently, water environment condition could be revealed by using the inherent optical property. The relationship between the backscattering coefficient and the TSM concentration was established, which could provide supporting coefficients to the analytical models to be developed.

  14. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal stratification and natural convection in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank during standby periods are presented. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by heat loss are investigated...... on the natural buoyancy resulting in downward flow along the tank side walls due to heat loss of the tank and the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank...... by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and by thermal measurements. A tank with uniform temperatures and thermal stratification is studied. The distribution of the heat loss coefficient for the different parts of the tank is measured by tests and used as input to the CFD model. The investigations focus...

  15. Safety and Efficacy of Glucomannan for Weight Loss in Overweight and Moderately Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce K. Keithley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few safe and effective dietary supplements are available to promote weight loss. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of glucomannan, a water-soluble fiber supplement, for achieving weight loss in overweight and moderately obese individuals consuming self-selected diets. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to take 1.33 grams of glucomannan or identically looking placebo capsules with 236.6 mL (8 ounces of water one hour before breakfast, lunch, and dinner for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was change in body weight after 8 weeks. Other efficacy outcomes were changes in body composition, hunger/fullness, and lipid and glucose concentrations. Safety outcomes included gastrointestinal symptoms/tolerance and serum liver enzymes and creatinine levels. Results. A total of 53 participants (18–65 years of age; BMI 25–35 kg/m2 were enrolled and randomized. The two groups did not differ with respect to baseline characteristics and compliance with the study supplement. At 8 weeks, there was no significant difference between the glucomannan and placebo groups in amount of weight loss (−.40±.06 and −.43±.07, resp. or other efficacy outcomes or in any of the safety outcomes. Conclusions. Glucomannan supplements administered over 8 weeks were well tolerated but did not promote weight loss or significantly alter body composition, hunger/fullness, or lipid and glucose parameters. This trial is registered with NCT00613600.

  16. Water metabolism in Australian marsupials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, I.D.

    1982-01-01

    Several studies are discussed in which tritiated water (TOH) has been used to investigate water metabolism in Australian marsupials, particularly arid-zone species. Equilibration of injected TOH in large kangaroos was slower than in smaller marsupials and similar to that in ruminants and camels, presumably because of the high gut water space of all large forestomach fermenters. Loss of TOH in urine, faeces and insensible water during equilibration was also similar to that in ruminants. Total body water (TBW) was similar whether estimated by equilibration or extrapolation. TBW of small marsupial species (16 g to 6.5 kg body weight) was usually in the range found for small eutherian mammals (56 to 68% of body weight). However, in the larger kangaroos TBW ranged from 73 to 78% of body weight, possibly due to the low body fat content and the high ratio of gut contents to total body weight of kangaroos. In general, the water turnover rate of marsupials is about 30% below that of eutherians; this has been related to their lower metabolic rate. Nevertheless, significant differences in water turnover have been found between some species. It has been suggested that there may be a correlation between the water turnover rates measured under ad libitum water availability and the aridity of the animal's habitat. However, this is not always so; differences in behaviour and in the water content of the natural diet explain why some marsupials with high ad libitum water turnovers can survive in desert environments. The physiological state of the animals (e.g. lactation) has also been shown to affect water turnover, both in the laboratory and in the field. (author)

  17. Water deprivation induces appetite and alters metabolic strategy in Notomys alexis: unique mechanisms for water production in the desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshio; Bartolo, Ray C; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Ueta, Yoichi; Donald, John A

    2012-07-07

    Like many desert animals, the spinifex hopping mouse, Notomys alexis, can maintain water balance without drinking water. The role of the kidney in producing a small volume of highly concentrated urine has been well-documented, but little is known about the physiological mechanisms underpinning the metabolic production of water to offset obligatory water loss. In Notomys, we found that water deprivation (WD) induced a sustained high food intake that exceeded the pre-deprivation level, which was driven by parallel changes in plasma leptin and ghrelin and the expression of orexigenic and anorectic neuropeptide genes in the hypothalamus; these changed in a direction that would stimulate appetite. As the period of WD was prolonged, body fat disappeared but body mass increased gradually, which was attributed to hepatic glycogen storage. Switching metabolic strategy from lipids to carbohydrates would enhance metabolic water production per oxygen molecule, thus providing a mechanism to minimize respiratory water loss. The changes observed in appetite control and metabolic strategy in Notomys were absent or less prominent in laboratory mice. This study reveals novel mechanisms for appetite regulation and energy metabolism that could be essential for desert rodents to survive in xeric environments.

  18. Pre-treatment microbial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides ratio, determines body fat loss success during a 6-month randomized controlled diet intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, M F; Roager, Henrik Munch; Larsen, T. M.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the abundance of specific bacterial genera, the human gut microbiota can be divided into two relatively stable groups that might play a role in personalized nutrition. We studied these simplified enterotypes as prognostic markers for successful body fat loss on two different diets. A total....... divided by Bacteroides spp. (P/B ratio) obtained by quantitative PCR analysis. Modifications of dietary effects of pre-treatment P/B group were examined by linear mixed models. Among individuals with high P/B the NND resulted in a 3.15 kg (95%CI 1.55;4.76, Pfat loss compared to ADD...... to lose body fat on diets high in fiber and wholegrain than subjects with a low P/B-ratio....

  19. Diurnal Variation in Gas Exchange: The Balance between Carbon Fixation and Water Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jack S A; Vialet-Chabrand, Silvere R M; Lawson, Tracy

    2017-06-01

    Stomatal control of transpiration is critical for maintaining important processes, such as plant water status, leaf temperature, as well as permitting sufficient CO 2 diffusion into the leaf to maintain photosynthetic rates ( A ). Stomatal conductance often closely correlates with A and is thought to control the balance between water loss and carbon gain. It has been suggested that a mesophyll-driven signal coordinates A and stomatal conductance responses to maintain this relationship; however, the signal has yet to be fully elucidated. Despite this correlation under stable environmental conditions, the responses of both parameters vary spatially and temporally and are dependent on species, environment, and plant water status. Most current models neglect these aspects of gas exchange, although it is clear that they play a vital role in the balance of carbon fixation and water loss. Future efforts should consider the dynamic nature of whole-plant gas exchange and how it represents much more than the sum of its individual leaf-level components, and they should take into consideration the long-term effect on gas exchange over time. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Determinants of weight loss after vertical banded gastroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, K R; Saris, W H; Soeters, P B; ten Hoor, F

    1991-08-01

    Weight loss after gastric partition is highly variable even when the operation itself has been successful. We studied changes in body composition in relation to energy expenditure before and one year after surgery in one woman and five men, age 20-38 years, and BMI 42-62 kg/m2. Observations were performed shortly before, and 6, 12, 27 and 54 weeks after surgery. Body composition was measured with hydrostatic weighing and isotope dilution, and energy expenditure over 24 h (24EE) and during complete rest (sleeping metabolic rate (SMR)) with a respiration chamber and in five of the six subjects under daily living conditions over two-week intervals with doubly labeled water (average daily metabolic rate (ADMR). Weight loss and fat loss over the full observation period until 54 weeks after surgery was 54 +/- 8 and 43 +/- 9 kg (mean +/- s.e.m.), respectively. There was a more than three-fold difference in fat loss between the subject losing most, i.e. 70 kg, and the subject losing least, i.e. 20 kg. Fat loss was not related to initial fat mass in this group of six subjects but there was a significant negative relation with the loss of protein mass. There was a strong negative relation between fat loss and activity level of the subjects expressed as the quotient ADMR/SMR. These results show the contrary from what would be expected. Reduction of fat mass after successful gastric partition is highest in those subjects having the lowest physical activity level (before and) after surgery; these subjects lose less fat-free mass.

  1. Electron-induced hydrogen loss in uracil in a water cluster environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, M.; Kohanoff, J. [Atomistic Simulation Centre, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Fabrikant, I. I., E-mail: ifabrikant1@unl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588, USA and Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-14

    Low-energy electron-impact hydrogen loss due to dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to the uracil and thymine molecules in a water cluster environment is investigated theoretically. Only the A{sup ′}-resonance contribution, describing the near-threshold behavior of DEA, is incorporated. Calculations are based on the nonlocal complex potential theory and the multiple scattering theory, and are performed for a model target with basic properties of uracil and thymine, surrounded by five water molecules. The DEA cross section is strongly enhanced when the attaching molecule is embedded in a water cluster. This growth is due to two effects: the increase of the resonance lifetime and the negative shift in the resonance position due to interaction of the intermediate negative ion with the surrounding water molecules. A similar effect was earlier found in DEA to chlorofluorocarbons.

  2. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Antonio F. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90m g.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene revealed lowefficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga, T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.

  3. Weight loss and survival of Biomphalaria Glabrata deprived of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Vianey-Liaud

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Immature and mature Biomphalaria glabrata are kept out of water at relative humidities varying from 0 to 100%. When snails are submitted to a saturated atmosphere, they show a slow weight loss and survival may be long. If relative humidity (RH decreases, weight loss becomes important and survival is short. A reduced RH (0 to 65% produces similar effects. During desiccation, fasting has no noticeable effect; survival depends essentially on weight loss.Biomphalaria glabrata maduros ou imaturos são mantidos fora da água, variando a umidade de 0 a 100%. Quando caramujos são submetidos a uma atmosfera saturada, sofrem uma lenta perda de peso e a sobrevivência pode ser longa. Se a umidade relativa decresce, a perda de peso será importante e a sobrevida será abreviada. Uma umidade relativa de 0 a 65% pode produzir efeitos similares. Durante a dessecação, a privação de alimento não tem efeito notável, a sobrevivência dependendo essencialmente da perda de peso.

  4. Perfluoroalkyl substances and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate in response to weight-loss diets: A prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Jeremy D.; Liang, Liming; Qi, Lu; Bray, George A.; DeJonge, Lilian; Coull, Brent

    2018-01-01

    Background The potential endocrine-disrupting effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been demonstrated in animal studies, but whether PFASs may interfere with body weight regulation in humans is largely unknown. This study aimed to examine the associations of PFAS exposure with changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight-loss setting. Methods and findings In the 2-year POUNDS Lost randomized clinical trial based in Boston, Massachusetts, and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, that examined the effects of energy-restricted diets on weight changes, baseline plasma concentrations of major PFASs were measured among 621 overweight and obese participants aged 30–70 years. Body weight was measured at baseline and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. RMR and other metabolic parameters, including glucose, lipids, thyroid hormones, and leptin, were measured at baseline and 6 and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.4 kg of body weight during the first 6 months (weight-loss period) and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight during the period of 6–24 months (weight regain period). After multivariate adjustment, baseline PFAS concentrations were not significantly associated with concurrent body weight or weight loss during the first 6 months. In contrast, higher baseline levels of PFASs were significantly associated with a greater weight regain, primarily in women. In women, comparing the highest to the lowest tertiles of PFAS concentrations, the multivariate-adjusted mean weight regain (SE) was 4.0 (0.8) versus 2.1 (0.9) kg for perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) (Ptrend = 0.01); 4.3 (0.9) versus 2.2 (0.8) kg for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (Ptrend = 0.007); 4.7 (0.9) versus 2.5 (0.9) kg for perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (Ptrend = 0.006); 4.9 (0.9) versus 2.7 (0.8) kg for perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) (Ptrend = 0.009); and 4.2 (0.8) versus 2.5 (0.9) kg for perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (Ptrend = 0.03). When

  5. Pitot tube and drag body measurements in transient steam--water flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, J.R.; Deason, V.A.; Dacus, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    The use of full-flow drag devices and rakes of water-cooled Pitot tubes to measure the transient two-phase mass flow during loss-of-coolant experiments in pressurized water reactor (PWR) environments has been developed. Mass flow rate measurements have been obtained in high temperature and pressure environments, similar to PWRs, under transient conditions. Comparisons of the measured time integrated value of mass flow to the known system mass before depressurization are made

  6. The lower body muscle activation of intermediate to experienced kayakers when navigating white water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Misha; Brooks, Darrell; Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    In white-water kayaking, the legs play a vital part in turning, stabilising and bracing actions. To date, there has been no reported information on neuromuscular activation of the legs in an authentic white-water environment. The aim of the current study was to identify lower body muscle activation, using 'in-boat' electromyography (EMG), whilst navigating a white-water run. Ten experienced male kayakers (age 31.5 ± 12.5 yr, intermediate to advanced experience) completed three successful runs of an international standard white-water course (grade 3 rapids), targeting right and left sides of the course, in a zigzag formation. Surface EMG (sEMG) outputs were generated, bilaterally, for the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius, expressed as a percentage of a dynamic maximal voluntary contraction (dMVC). Only RF showed significantly higher activation than any muscle on the left side of the body, and only on the left side of the course (P = .004; ETA(2) = 0.56). Other results showed no significant difference between muscle activation in the right and left legs during each run, nor when assessed at either the right or left side of the course (P > .05). These findings indicate that contralateral symmetry in lower limb muscle activation is evident during white-water kayaking. This symmetry may provide a stable base to allow more asymmetrical upper body and trunk movements to be fully optimised. Lower body symmetry development should be considered useful in targeted training programmes for white-water kayakers.

  7. The Historical Distribution of Main Malaria Foci in Spain as Related to Water Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Sousa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible connectivity between the spatial distribution of water bodies suitable for vectors of malaria and endemic malaria foci in Southern Europe is still not well known. Spain was one of the last countries in Western Europe to be declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization (WHO in 1964. This study combines, by means of a spatial-temporal analysis, the historical data of patients and deceased with the distribution of water bodies where the disease-transmitting mosquitos proliferate. Therefore, data from historical archives with a Geographic Information System (GIS, using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW interpolation method, was analyzed with the aim of identifying regional differences in the distribution of malaria in Spain. The reasons, why the risk of transmission is concentrated in specific regions, are related to worse socioeconomic conditions (Extremadura, the presence of another vector (Anopheles labranchiae besides A. atroparvus (Levante or large areas of water bodies in conditions to reproduce theses vectors (La Mancha and Western Andalusia. In the particular case of Western Andalusia, in 1913, the relatively high percentage of 4.73% of the surface, equal to 202362 ha, corresponds to wetlands and other unhealthy water bodies. These wetlands have been reduced as a result of desiccation policies and climate change such as the Little Ice Age and Global Climate Change. The comprehension of the main factors of these wetland changes in the past can help us interpret accurately the future risk of malaria re-emergence in temperate latitudes, since it reveals the crucial role of unhealthy water bodies on the distribution, endemicity and eradication of malaria in southern Europe.

  8. PSB-VVER simulation of Kozloduy NPP 'loss of feed water transient'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groudev, P.P. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Tzarigradsko Shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: pavlinpg@inrne.bas.bg; Stefanova, A.E. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Tzarigradsko Shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: antoanet@inrne.bas.bg; Gencheva, R.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Tzarigradsko Shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: roseh@inrne.bas.bg; Pavlova, M.P. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Tzarigradsko Shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: pavlova@inrne.bas.bg

    2005-04-01

    This paper provides a comparison between the PSB test facility experimental results obtained during the simulation of loss of feed water transient (LOFW) and the calculation results received by INRNE computer model of the same test facility. Integral thermal-hydraulic PSB-VVER test facility located at Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Center on NPPs Safety (EREC) was put in operation in 1998. The structure of the test facility allows experimental studies under steady state, transient and accident conditions. RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code has been used to simulate the loss of feed water transient in a PSB-VVER model. This model was developed at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy for simulation of loss of feed water transient. The objective of the experiment 'loss of feed water', which has been performed at PSB-VVER test facility is simulation of Kozloduy NPP LOFW transient. One of the main requirements to the experiment scenario has been to reproduce all main events and phenomena that occurred in Kozloduy NPP during the LOFW transient. Analyzing the PSB-VVER test with a RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code as a standard problem allows investigating the phenomena included in the VVER code validation matrix as 'integral system effects' and 'natural circulation'. For assessment of the RELAP5 capability to predict the 'Integral system effect' phenomenon the following RELAP5 quantities are compared with external trends: the primary pressure and the hot and cold leg temperatures. In order to assess the RELAP5 capability to predict the 'Natural circulation' phenomenon the hot and cold leg temperatures behavior have been investigated. This report was possible through the participation of leading specialists from Kozloduy NPP and with the support of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), under the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP) of the United States Department of Energy.

  9. Antecedent conditions control carbon loss and downstream water quality from shallow, damaged peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand-Clement, E; Luscombe, D J; Anderson, K; Gatis, N; Benaud, P; Brazier, R E

    2014-09-15

    Losses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from drained peatlands are of concern, due to the effects this has on the delivery of ecosystem services, and especially on the long-term store of carbon and the provision of drinking water. Most studies have looked at the effect of drainage in deep peat; comparatively, little is known about the behaviour of shallow, climatically marginal peatlands. This study examines water quality (DOC, Abs(400), pH, E4/E6 and C/C) during rainfall events from such environments in the south west UK, in order to both quantify DOC losses, and understand their potential for restoration. Water samples were taken over a 19 month period from a range of drains within two different experimental catchments in Exmoor National Park; data were analysed on an event basis. DOC concentrations ranging between 4 and 21 mg L(-1) are substantially lower than measurements in deep peat, but remain problematic for the water treatment process. Dryness plays a critical role in controlling DOC concentrations and water quality, as observed through spatial and seasonal differences. Long-term changes in depth to water table (30 days before the event) are likely to impact on DOC production, whereas discharge becomes the main control over DOC transport at the time scale of the rainfall/runoff event. The role of temperature during events is attributed to an increase in the diffusion of DOC, and therefore its transport. Humification ratios (E4/E6) consistently below 5 indicate a predominance of complex humic acids, but increased decomposition during warmer summer months leads to a comparatively higher losses of fulvic acids. This work represents a significant contribution to the scientific understanding of the behaviour and functioning of shallow damaged peatlands in climatically marginal locations. The findings also provide a sound baseline knowledge to support research into the effects of landscape restoration in the future. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by

  10. RAPID WATER LOSS CAN EXTEND THE LIFETIME OF PLANETARY HABITABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Takanori; Abe, Yutaka [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Genda, Hidenori [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Zahnle, Kevin J., E-mail: koda@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames Research Center, California 94035 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Two habitable planetary states are proposed: an aqua planet like the Earth and a land planet that has a small amount of water. Land planets keep liquid water under larger solar radiation compared to aqua planets. Water loss may change an aqua planet into a land planet, and the planet can remain habitable for a longer time than if it had remained an aqua planet. We calculate planetary evolution with hydrogen escape for different initial water inventories and different distances from the central star. We find that there are two conditions necessary to evolve an aqua planet into a land planet: the critical amount of water on the surface (M{sub ml}) consistent with a planet being a land planet, and the critical amount of water vapor in the atmosphere (M{sub cv}) that defines the onset of the runaway greenhouse state. We find that Earth-sized aqua planets with initial oceans <10% of the Earth's can evolve into land planets if M{sub cv} = 3 m in precipitable water and M{sub ml} = 5% of the Earth's ocean mass. Such planets can keep liquid water on their surface for another 2 Gyr. The initial amount of water and M{sub cv} are shown to be important dividing parameters of the planetary evolution path. Our results indicate that massive hydrogen escape could give a fresh start as another kind of habitable planet rather than the end of its habitability.

  11. RAPID WATER LOSS CAN EXTEND THE LIFETIME OF PLANETARY HABITABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Takanori; Abe, Yutaka; Genda, Hidenori; Zahnle, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Two habitable planetary states are proposed: an aqua planet like the Earth and a land planet that has a small amount of water. Land planets keep liquid water under larger solar radiation compared to aqua planets. Water loss may change an aqua planet into a land planet, and the planet can remain habitable for a longer time than if it had remained an aqua planet. We calculate planetary evolution with hydrogen escape for different initial water inventories and different distances from the central star. We find that there are two conditions necessary to evolve an aqua planet into a land planet: the critical amount of water on the surface (M ml ) consistent with a planet being a land planet, and the critical amount of water vapor in the atmosphere (M cv ) that defines the onset of the runaway greenhouse state. We find that Earth-sized aqua planets with initial oceans <10% of the Earth's can evolve into land planets if M cv = 3 m in precipitable water and M ml = 5% of the Earth's ocean mass. Such planets can keep liquid water on their surface for another 2 Gyr. The initial amount of water and M cv are shown to be important dividing parameters of the planetary evolution path. Our results indicate that massive hydrogen escape could give a fresh start as another kind of habitable planet rather than the end of its habitability

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF SALMONELLA SPECIES FROM WATER BODIES IN DAR-ES-SALAAM CITY, TANZANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya Kweka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water-borne diseases are the most common cause of illness and death among the poor population from developing countries. The majority of the people are inadequately aware that aquatic environment is a major source of salmonellosis. Dar es Salaam city is among the cities with most of its population live in squatter. Typhoid fever ranks second with 14.3% of all notifiable disease cases in the city. The city experience water scarcity which forces water wells and rivers to become the main sources of water for domestic use and livestock. This study therefore, characterized Salmonella strains from different water bodies of city as possible sources for enteric diseases endemicity. Methods: The Salmonella Chromogenic Agar (SC Agar and Kligler Iron Agar (KIA media were used for isolation and enumeration of the strains. The inoculated cultures were incubated at 370C for 24 hours. Salmonella colonies were confirmed by magenta colorations and hydrogen sulfide production on SC Agar and KIA Agar, respectively. The Analytical Profile Index 20 Enterobacteriaceae kit (API 20E kit was used to identify Salmonella species. Results: Based on the API 20E kit, the identified Salmonella species from different water bodies were Salmonella ser. paratyphi A (96.9%, Salmonella cholelaesuis spp choleraesuis (99.5% and Salmonella typhi (99.9%. Conclusion: This study shows that shallow wells and rivers which are mainly used by the city dwellers were highly contaminated with Salmonella and were more contaminated than deep wells and marine water bodies. This warrants further investigation on the disease mapping in the urban and peri-urban areas.

  13. Satellite monitoring at high spatial resolution of water bodies used for irrigation purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baup, F.; Flanquart, S.; Marais-Sicre, C.; Fieuzal, R.

    2012-04-01

    In a changing climate context, with an increase of the need for food, it becomes increasingly important to improve our knowledge for monitoring agricultural surfaces by satellite for a better food management and to reduce the waste of natural resources (water storages and shortages, irrigation management, increase of soil and water salinity, soil erosion, threats on biodiversity). The main objective of this study is to evaluate the potentialities of multi-spectral and multi-resolution satellites for monitoring the temporal evolution of water bodies surfaces (mainly used for irrigation purposes). This analysis is based on the use of a series of images acquired between the years 2003 and 2011. The year 2010 is considered as a reference, with 110 acquisitions performed during the MCM'10 campaign (Multispectral Crop Monitoring 2010, http://www.cesbio.ups-tlse.fr/us/mcm.html). Those images are provided by 8 satellites (optical, thermal and RADAR) such as ALOS, TERRASAR-X, RADARSAT-2, FORMOSAT-2, SPOT-2, SPOT-4, SPOT-5, LANDSAT-5. The studied area is situated in the South-West of Toulouse in France; in a region governed by a temperate climate. The irrigated cultures represent almost 12% of the cultivated surface in 2009. The method consists in estimating the water bodies surfaces by using a generic approach suitable for all images, whatever the wavelength (optical, infrared, RADAR). The supervised parallelepiped classification allows discriminating four types of surfaces coverage: forests, water expanses, crops and bare soils. All RADAR images are filtered (Gamma) to reduce speckle effects and false detections of water bodies. In the context if the "South-West" project of the CESBIO laboratory, two spatial coverages are analyzed: SPOT 4 (4800km2) and FORMOSAT 2 (576km2). At these scales, 154 and 38 water bodies are identify. They respectively represent 4.85 km2 (0.10% of the image cover) and 2.06 km2 (0.36% of the image cover). Statistical analyses show that 8% of lakes

  14. Predicting hydrocarbon potential of an earth formation underlying a body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, I.R.; Demaison, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for the on-site collection and examination of small concentrations of methane dissolved in water so as to predict hydrocarbon potential of an earth formation underlying a body of water, said formation being a source of said methane, comprises: (i) sampling the water; (ii) continuously vacuum separating said water into liquid and gas phases; (iii) quantitatively separating interfering gas species from methane; (iv) quantitatively oxidising said methane; (v) cryogenically trapping the resulting gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor at a trapping station, and (vi) isotopically examining said trapped carbon dioxide and water vapour for carbon and deuterium distribution. (author)

  15. Application of MUSLE for the prediction of phosphorus losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Hamze; Mirnia, Seyed Khalagh; Fazli, Somaye; Raisi, Mohamad Bagher; Vafakhah, Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    Soil erosion in forestlands affects not only land productivity but also the water body down stream. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) has been applied broadly for the prediction of soil loss from upland fields. However, there are few reports concerning the prediction of nutrient (P) losses based on the USLE and its versions. The present study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of the deterministic model Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) to estimation of phosphorus losses in the Kojor forest watershed, northern Iran. The model was tested and calibrated using accurate continuous P loss data collected during seven storm events in 2008. Results of the original model simulations for storm-wise P loss did not match the observed data, while the revised version of the model could imitate the observed values well. The results of the study approved the efficient application of the revised MUSLE in estimating storm-wise P losses in the study area with a high level of agreement of beyond 93%, an acceptable estimation error of some 35%.

  16. 7 CFR 760.611 - Qualifying losses, eligible causes and types of loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... final planting date; (4) The cause of loss was due to water contained or released by any governmental... containment or release of the water; (5) The cause of loss was due to conditions or events occurring outside...) Losses caused by a failure of power supply or brownout as defined in § 760.602; (2) Losses caused by the...

  17. Body water distribution and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a healthy population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikoline Nygård; Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Ward, Leigh Cordwin

    2014-01-01

    Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent.......Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent....

  18. Weight Loss Strategies in Combat Sports and Concerning Habits in Mixed Martial Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Oliver R; Chapman, Dale W; Abbiss, Chris R

    2017-12-28

    Combat sports are typically divided into weight classes and body mass manipulation to reach a weight class is commonplace. Previous research suggests that mixed martial arts (MMA) weight loss practices may be more extreme than other combat sports. We sought to investigate the magnitude of weight lost and prevalence of weight loss strategies in different combat sports. Competitors (n=637) from Brazilian jiu jitsu (BJJ), boxing, judo, MMA, muay Thai/kickboxing (MT/K), taekwondo (TKD) and wrestling completed an online questionnaire seeking information regarding their weight loss practices. Body mass manipulation was commonly undertaken by all combat sports athletes, with a particularly high incidence of gradual dieting, increased exercise and fluid restriction. Skipping meals was higher in TKD and wrestling (84%) compared with the other combat sports (~58%), whilst training in heated rooms and forced oral fluid loss (spitting) was higher in wrestling (83% and 47%, respectively) compared with other combat sports (~45% and ~19%, respectively). MMA athletes reported the highest usage of sauna (76%) and water loading (67%) whilst also reporting the second highest use of training in rubber/plastic suits (63%). Body mass manipulation was present in all combat sports with the prevalence and magnitude of acute weight loss greater in MMA. The incidence of and practices reported will assist support staff to be fully aware of the variety of methods these athletes and coaches may use to achieve weight loss. Additionally, the results could aid regulatory bodies in the further development of policies on weight cutting.

  19. Apparent losses due to domestic water meter under-registration in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Couvelis, FA; van Zyl, JE

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the extent of apparent losses due to water meter under-registration in South Africa. This was done by first estimating the under-registration of new meters due to on-site leakage, and then the additional under-registration due to meter aging. The extent and flow distributions of on-site leakage were determined through field studies in Cape Town, Mangaung and Johannesburg, by measuring the flow through new water meters when no legitimate consumption occurred on the prop...

  20. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy of Liquid Water through "First-Principles" Many-Body Molecular Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medders, Gregory R; Paesani, Francesco

    2015-03-10

    Vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful technique to probe the structure and dynamics of water. However, deriving an unambiguous molecular-level interpretation of the experimental spectral features remains a challenge due to the complexity of the underlying hydrogen-bonding network. In this contribution, we present an integrated theoretical and computational framework (named many-body molecular dynamics or MB-MD) that, by systematically removing uncertainties associated with existing approaches, enables a rigorous modeling of vibrational spectra of water from quantum dynamical simulations. Specifically, we extend approaches used to model the many-body expansion of interaction energies to develop many-body representations of the dipole moment and polarizability of water. The combination of these "first-principles" representations with centroid molecular dynamics simulations enables the simulation of infrared and Raman spectra of liquid water under ambient conditions that, without relying on any ad hoc parameters, are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental results. Importantly, since the many-body energy, dipole, and polarizability surfaces employed in the simulations are derived independently from accurate fits to correlated electronic structure data, MB-MD allows for a systematic analysis of the calculated spectra in terms of both electronic and dynamical contributions. The present analysis suggests that, while MB-MD correctly reproduces both the shifts and the shapes of the main spectroscopic features, an improved description of quantum dynamical effects possibly combined with a dissociable water potential may be necessary for a quantitative representation of the OH stretch band.

  1. Effects of cropping systems on water runoff, soil erosion and nutrient loss in the Moldavian Plateau, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailincai, C.; Jitareanu, G.; Bucur, D.; Ailincai, D.; Raus, L.; Filipov, F.

    2009-07-01

    The experiments carried out at the Podu-lloaiei Agricultural Research Sation, during 1986-2008, had the following objectives: the study of water runoff and soil losses, by erosion, in different crops; the annual rate of erosion process under the influence of anti-erosion protection of different crops; the influence of water runoff and soil erosion on losses of organic matter and mineral elements from soil. (Author) 7 refs.

  2. Effects of cropping systems on water runoff, soil erosion and nutrient loss in the Moldavian Plateau, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ailincai, C.; Jitareanu, G.; Bucur, D.; Ailincai, D.; Raus, L.; Filipov, F.

    2009-01-01

    The experiments carried out at the Podu-lloaiei Agricultural Research Sation, during 1986-2008, had the following objectives: the study of water runoff and soil losses, by erosion, in different crops; the annual rate of erosion process under the influence of anti-erosion protection of different crops; the influence of water runoff and soil erosion on losses of organic matter and mineral elements from soil. (Author) 7 refs.

  3. How close do we live to water? A global analysis of population distance to freshwater bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Kummu

    Full Text Available Traditionally, people have inhabited places with ready access to fresh water. Today, over 50% of the global population lives in urban areas, and water can be directed via tens of kilometres of pipelines. Still, however, a large part of the world's population is directly dependent on access to natural freshwater sources. So how are inhabited places related to the location of freshwater bodies today? We present a high-resolution global analysis of how close present-day populations live to surface freshwater. We aim to increase the understanding of the relationship between inhabited places, distance to surface freshwater bodies, and climatic characteristics in different climate zones and administrative regions. Our results show that over 50% of the world's population lives closer than 3 km to a surface freshwater body, and only 10% of the population lives further than 10 km away. There are, however, remarkable differences between administrative regions and climatic zones. Populations in Australia, Asia, and Europe live closest to water. Although populations in arid zones live furthest away from freshwater bodies in absolute terms, relatively speaking they live closest to water considering the limited number of freshwater bodies in those areas. Population distributions in arid zones show statistically significant relationships with a combination of climatic factors and distance to water, whilst in other zones there is no statistically significant relationship with distance to water. Global studies on development and climate adaptation can benefit from an improved understanding of these relationships between human populations and the distance to fresh water.

  4. Effect of slope and plant cover on run-off, soil loss and water use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An average of 6,2t/ha soil loss and 80,6% run-off of the amount of water applied occurred from the pioneer veld (0,7% basal cover) on the steepest slope. In all the successional stages more run-off and less soil loss occurred from wet soil than from dry soil. Significant (P<0,01) relationships between basal and canopy cover ...

  5. Effect of the common -866G/A polymorphism of the uncoupling protein 2 gene on weight loss and body composition under sibutramine therapy in an obese Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Tun-Jen; Wu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin; Hwang, Yuchi; Huang, Shih-Yi; Lin, Eugene

    2010-04-01

    Sibutramine, a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is used as an anti-obesity drug. Several pharmacogenetic studies have shown correlations between sibutramine effects and genetic variants, such as the 825C/T (rs5443) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the guanine nucleotide binding protein beta polypeptide 3 (GNB3) gene. In this study, our goal was to investigate whether a common SNP, -866G/A (rs659366), in the uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) gene could influence weight reduction and body composition under sibutramine therapy in an obese Taiwanese population. The study included 131 obese patients, 44 in the placebo group and 87 in the sibutramine group. We assessed the measures of weight loss and body fat reduction at the end of a 12-week treatment period by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models using gender, baseline weight, and body fat percentage at baseline as covariates. By comparing the placebo and sibutramine groups with ANCOVA, our data showed a strong effect of sibutramine on weight loss in the combined UCP2 -866 AA + GA genotype groups (p sibutramine on body fat percentage loss was found for individuals with the AA or GA genotypes (p sibutramine had no significant effect on weight loss (p = 0.063) or body fat percentage loss (p = 0.194) for individuals with the wild-type GG genotype, compared with the placebo group of the same genotype. Moreover, a potential gene-gene interaction between UCP2 and GNB3 was identified by multiple linear regression models for the weight loss (p sibutramine. The results suggest that the UCP2 gene may contribute to weight loss and fat change in response to sibutramine therapy in obese Taiwanese patients.

  6. Body Composition Changes after Weight-Loss Interventions among Obese Females: A Comparison of Three Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate body composition changes after use of three different types of obesity management protocols: dietary measures and physical activity; acupuncture or laser acupuncture with healthy diet; aiming at achieving stable weight loss among obese Egyptian females. METHODS:  A randomized longitudinal prospective study included 76 obese adult females; aged 26 up to 55 years. Anthropometric, body composition, ultrasonographic and biochemical assessments were done. RESULTS: The three types of obesity management protocols showed significant improvement in body composition (decrease in fat% and increases in FFM and TBW and visceral fat by US. However, nutritional intervention showed highly significant improvement in the skin fold thickness at triceps and biceps sites and peripheral adiposity index.  Acupuncture intervention showed highly significant improvement in fasting blood glucose (decreased and lipid profile (decreased triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and increased HDL. Laser intervention showed highly significant improvement in all the skin fold thickness and some parameters of lipid profile (decreased total cholesterol and LDL. CONCLUSIONS: The three obesity management protocols have significant effect on body composition, but acupuncture has the best effect in improving the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. In addition, Laser intervention was recommended to improve skin fold thickness and subcutaneous fat.

  7. Dynamic regulation and dysregulation of the water channel aquaporin-2: a common cause of and promising therapeutic target for water balance disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yumi

    2014-08-01

    The human body is two-thirds water. The ability of ensuring the proper amount of water inside the body is essential for the survival of mammals. The key event for maintenance of body water balance is water reabsorption in the kidney collecting ducts, which is regulated by aquaporin-2 (AQP2). AQP2 is a channel that is exclusively selective for water molecules and never allows permeation of ions or other small molecules. Under normal conditions, AQP2 is restricted within the cytoplasm of the collecting duct cells. However, when the body is dehydrated and needs to retain water, AQP2 relocates to the apical membrane, allowing water reabsorption from the urinary tubule into the cell. Its impairments result in various water balance disorders including diabetes insipidus, which is a disease characterized by a massive loss of water through the kidney, leading to severe dehydration in the body. Dysregulation of AQP2 is also a common cause of water retention and hyponatremia that exacerbate the prognosis of congestive heart failure and hepatic cirrhosis. Many studies have uncovered the regulation mechanisms of AQP2 at the single-molecule level, the whole-body level, and the clinical level. In clinical practice, urinary AQP2 is a useful marker for body water balance (hydration status). Moreover, AQP2 is now attracting considerable attention as a potential therapeutic target for water balance disorders which commonly occur in many diseases.

  8. β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) attenuates muscle and body weight loss in experimental cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversa, Zaira; Bonetto, Andrea; Costelli, Paola; Minero, Valerio Giacomo; Penna, Fabio; Baccino, Francesco Maria; Lucia, Simone; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2011-03-01

    β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), a leucine metabolite, improves muscle mass and function. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of HMB administration in an experimental in vivo model of cancer cachexia (CC). Wistar rats were randomized to receive standard or 4% HMB-enriched chow. Rats from both groups were randomized to receive an i.p. inoculum of AH-130 cells (TB). All rats were weighed and sacrificed at day 24. Liver, heart and muscles were dissected and weighed. The protein levels of p-p70S6k, p-eIf2α, p-mTOR and p-4-EB-P1 were evaluated by Western blotting on gastrocnemius muscle (GSN). As expected, the growth of the AH-130 ascites hepatoma induced significant carcass weight and GSN muscle loss. HMB treatment significantly increased GSN and heart weight in controls (p=0.002 and pHMB-treated TB, body weight was not lost but significantly (p=0.003) increased, and GSN loss was significantly (p=0.04) attenuated with respect to TB. Phosphorylated eIF2α markedly decreased in TB-rats vs. C. Feeding the HMB-enriched diet resulted in decreased p-eIF2α levels in control animals, while no changes could be observed in the TB group. Phosphorylated p70S6K and phosphorylated mTOR were markedly increased by HMB treatment in controls and further increased in TB. Phosphorylated 4-EB-P1 was markedly increased in TB but substantially unaffected by HMB treatment. Administration of HMB attenuates body weight and muscle loss in experimental CC. Increased phosphorylation of key anabolic molecules suggests that these actions are mediated by improved protein anabolism in muscle.

  9. Heat loss in air of an Antarctic marine mammal, the Weddell seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellish, Jo-Ann; Hindle, Allyson; Skinner, John; Horning, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The conflicting needs of homeostasis in air versus water complicate our understanding of thermoregulation in marine mammals. Large-scale modeling efforts directed at predicting the energetic impact of changing sea ice conditions on polar ecosystems require a better understanding of thermoregulation in air of free-ranging animals. We utilized infrared imaging as an indirect approach to determine surface temperatures of dry, hauled-out Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, n = 35) of varying age and body condition during the Antarctic summer. The study groups provided a fivefold range in body mass and a threefold range in blubber depth. Surface temperature (T s) did not vary by body region (head, shoulder, axilla, torso, hip, flippers). Average seal T s (mean 13.9 ± 11.2 °C) was best described through a combination of the physical traits of body mass and environmental variables of ambient temperature T air, and wind speed. Additional factors of ice temperature (T ice), relative humidity and cloud cover did not improve the model. Heat transfer model estimates suggested that radiation contributed 56.6 ± 7.7 % of total heat loss. Convection and conduction accounted for the remaining 15.7 ± 12.3 and 27.7 ± 9.3 %, respectively. Heat loss by radiation was primarily influenced by body mass and wind speed, whereas convective heat loss was influenced primarily by blubber depth and wind speed. Conductive heat loss was modeled largely as a function of physical traits of mass and blubber depth rather than any environmental covariates, and therefore was substantially higher in animals in leaner condition.

  10. Down-regulation of POLYGALACTURONASE1 alters firmness, tensile strength and water loss in apple (Malus x domestica fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson Ross G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is now a significant body of research correlating apple (Malus x domestica fruit softening with the cell wall hydrolase ENDO-POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1, there is currently little knowledge of its physiological effects in planta. This study examined the effect of down regulation of PG1 expression in ‘Royal Gala’ apples, a cultivar that typically has high levels of PG1, and softens during fruit ripening. Results PG1-suppressed ‘Royal Gala’ apples harvested from multiple seasons were firmer than controls after ripening, and intercellular adhesion was higher. Cell wall analyses indicated changes in yield and composition of pectin, and a higher molecular weight distribution of CDTA-soluble pectin. Structural analyses revealed more ruptured cells and free juice in pulled apart sections, suggesting improved integrity of intercellular connections and consequent cell rupture due to failure of the primary cell walls under stress. PG1-suppressed lines also had reduced expansion of cells in the hypodermis of ripe apples, resulting in more densely packed cells in this layer. This change in morphology appears to be linked with reduced transpirational water loss in the fruit. Conclusions These findings confirm PG1’s role in apple fruit softening and suggests that this is achieved in part by reducing cellular adhesion. This is consistent with previous studies carried out in strawberry but not with those performed in tomato. In apple PG1 also appears to influence other fruit texture characters such as juiciness and water loss.

  11. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents numerical investigations of thermal stratification in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank established by standby heat loss from the tank. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by standby heat loss are calculated by means of validated...... computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The measured heat loss coefficient for the different parts of the tank is used as input to the CFD model. Parametric studies are carried out using the validated models to investigate the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow...... the heat loss from the tank sides will be distributed at different levels of the tank at different thermal conditions. The results show that 20–55% of the side heat loss drops to layers below in the part of the tank without the presence of thermal stratification. A heat loss removal factor is introduced...

  12. Abundance and diversity of Odonata in temporary water bodies of Coimbatore and Salem districts in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arulprakash

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Odonata diversity was assessed in 13 temporary water bodies of Coimbatore and Salem districts in Tamil Nadu. Assessment revealed the presence of 21 species of Odonata (14 species of Anisoptera and seven species of Zygoptera belonging to 17 genera under four families. Libellulidae (Anisoptera was represented by the maximum number of species and individuals. Pantala flavescens (Libellulidae was the most abundant among 21 species. Among the temporary water bodies, the maximum number of individuals as well as species was recorded from Utkulam tank (Coimbatore district. Odonata diversity was higher in Kamalapuram tanks 1 and 2 (Salem district and lower in Ukkadam tank (Coimbatore District. Diplacodes trivialis (Rambur, Orthetrum sabina (Drury and Pantala flavescens (Fabricius were identified as temporary water body specialists because of their presence in all the 13 temporary water bodies sampled.

  13. Water flux in animals: analysis of potential errors in the tritiated water method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, K.A.; Costa, D.

    1979-03-01

    Laboratory studies indicate that tritiated water measurements of water flux are accurate to within -7 to +4% in mammals, but errors are larger in some reptiles. However, under conditions that can occur in field studies, errors may be much greater. Influx of environmental water vapor via lungs and skin can cause errors exceeding +-50% in some circumstances. If water flux rates in an animal vary through time, errors approach +-15% in extreme situations, but are near +-3% in more typical circumstances. Errors due to fractional evaporation of tritiated water may approach -9%. This error probably varies between species. Use of an inappropriate equation for calculating water flux from isotope data can cause errors exceeding +-100%. The following sources of error are either negligible or avoidable: use of isotope dilution space as a measure of body water volume, loss of nonaqueous tritium bound to excreta, binding of tritium with nonaqueous substances in the body, radiation toxicity effects, and small analytical errors in isotope measurements. Water flux rates measured with tritiated water should be within +-10% of actual flux rates in most situations

  14. Water flux in animals: analysis of potential errors in the tritiated water method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, K.A.; Costa, D.

    1979-03-01

    Laboratory studies indicate that tritiated water measurements of water flux are accurate to within -7 to +4% in mammals, but errors are larger in some reptiles. However, under conditions that can occur in field studies, errors may be much greater. Influx of environmental water vapor via lungs and skin can cause errors exceeding +-50% in some circumstances. If water flux rates in an animal vary through time, errors approach +-15% in extreme situations, but are near +-3% in more typical circumstances. Errors due to fractional evaporation of tritiated water may approach -9%. This error probably varies between species. Use of an inappropriate equation for calculating water flux from isotope data can cause errors exceeding +-100%. The following sources of error are either negligible or avoidable: use of isotope dilution space as a measure of body water volume, loss of nonaqueous tritium bound to excreta, binding of tritium with nonaqueous substances in the body, radiation toxicity effects, and small analytical errors in isotope measurements. Water flux rates measured with tritiated water should be within +-10% of actual flux rates in most situations.

  15. Tritium water as a marker for the measurement of body water turnover rates in desert livestock, rodent and bird species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Ghosh, P.K.; Bohra, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Tritiated water has been used for estimating body water turnover rates (BWTRs) in desert livestock, rodent and birds. BWTRs in relation to adaption of these animal species to desert environment have been discussed. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Characterization of Salmonella species from water bodies in Dar-Es-Salaam city, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya Kweka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water-borne diseases are the most common cause of illness and death among the poor population from developing countries. The majority of the people are inadequately aware that aquatic environment is a major source of salmonellosis. Dar es Salaam city is among the cities with most of its population live in squatter. Typhoid fever ranks second with 14.3% of all notifiable disease cases in the city. The city experience water scarcity which forces water wells and rivers to become the main sources of water for domestic use and livestock. This study therefore, characterized Salmonella strains from different water bodies of city as possible sources for enteric diseases endemicity. Methods: The Salmonella Chromogenic Agar (SC Agar and Kligler Iron Agar (KIA media were used for isolation and enumeration of the strains. The inoculated cultures were incubated at 370C for 24 hours. Salmonella colonies were confirmed by magenta colorations and hydrogen sulfide production on SC Agar and KIA Agar, respectively. The Analytical Profile Index 20 Enterobacteriaceae kit (API 20E kit was used to identify Salmonella species. Results: Based on the API 20E kit, the  identified Salmonella species from different water bodies were Salmonella ser. paratyphi A (96.9%, Salmonella cholelaesuis spp choleraesuis (99.5% and Salmonella typhi (99.9%. Conclusion: This study shows that shallow wells and rivers which are mainly used by the city dwellers were highly contaminated with Salmonella and were more contaminated than deep wells and marine water bodies. This warrants further investigation on the disease mapping in the urban and peri-urban areas.

  17. Sprectroradiometric characteristics of inland water bodies infestated by Oscillatoria rubescens algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo; Maltese, Antonino

    2010-10-01

    In December 2006 blooms of Oscillatoria rubescens were found in the reservoir Prizzi in Sicily. Oscillatoria is a genus of filamentous alga comprising approximately 6 species, between these the O. rubescens is sadly famous since this organism produces microcystins which are powerful hepatotoxins. Firstly found in Europe in 1825 on Geneva lake, recently (2006) those algae has been find out in Pozzillo, Nicoletti e Ancipa reservoirs (Enna Province), as well as in Prizzi (Palermo Province) and Garcia reservoirs (Trapani Province). Toxins produced by those bacteria (usually called microcystine LR-1 and LR-2) are highly toxic since they can activate oncogenes cells causing cancer pathologies on liver and gastrointestinal tract. Even if water treatment plants should ensure the provision of safe drinking water from surface waters contaminated with those toxic algae blooms, the contamination of reservoirs used for civil and agricultural supply highlights human health risks. International literature suggests a threshold value of 0.01 μgl-1 to avoid liver cancer using water coming from contaminated water bodies for a long period. Since O. rubescens activities is strongly related to phosphate and nitrogen compounds as well as to temperature and light transmission within water, the paper presents the comparison between optical properties of the water of an infested reservoir and those of a reservoir characterized by clear water. Field campaigns were carried out in February-March 2008 in order to quantify the spectral transparencies of two water bodies through the calculation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient, measuring underwater downwelling irradiance at different depths as well as water spectral reflectance. Results show that diffuse attenuation coefficient is reduced by approximately 15% reducing light penetration in the water column; coherently reflectance spectral signature generally decreases, exhibiting a characteristic peak around 703 nm not present in

  18. Metabolic rate and evaporative water loss of Mexican Spotted and Great Horned Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Russell P. Balda; Rudy M. King

    1993-01-01

    We measured rates of oxygen consumption and evaporative water loss (EWL) of Mexican Spotted (Strix occidentalis lucida) and Great Horned (Bubo virginianus) owls in Arizona. Basal metabolic rate averaged 0.84 ccO2. g-1. h-1...

  19. Metabolism and thermoregulation during fasting in king penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus, in air and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, A; Schmidt, A; Handrich, Y; Woakes, A J; Butler, P J

    2005-09-01

    We measured oxygen consumption rate (Vo(2)) and body temperatures in 10 king penguins in air and water. Vo(2) was measured during rest and at submaximal and maximal exercise before (fed) and after (fasted) an average fasting duration of 14.4 +/- 2.3 days (mean +/- 1 SD, range 10-19 days) in air and water. Concurrently, we measured subcutaneous temperature and temperature of the upper (heart and liver), middle (stomach) and lower (intestine) abdomen. The mean body mass (M(b)) was 13.8 +/- 1.2 kg in fed and 11.0 +/- 0.6 kg in fasted birds. After fasting, resting Vo(2) was 93% higher in water than in air (air: 86.9 +/- 8.8 ml/min; water: 167.3 +/- 36.7 ml/min, P water in fed animals (air: 117.1 +/- 20.0 ml O(2)/min; water: 114.8 +/- 32.7 ml O(2)/min, P > 0.6). In air, Vo(2) decreased with M(b), while it increased with M(b) in water. Body temperature did not change with fasting in air, whereas in water, there were complex changes in the peripheral body temperatures. These latter changes may, therefore, be indicative of a loss in body insulation and of variations in peripheral perfusion. Four animals were given a single meal after fasting and the temperature changes were partly reversed 24 h after refeeding in all body regions except the subcutaneous, indicating a rapid reversal to a prefasting state where body heat loss is minimal. The data emphasize the importance in considering nutritional status when studying king penguins and that the fasting-related physiological changes diverge in air and water.

  20. Simulation of heavy metal contamination of fresh water bodies: toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    www.bioline.org.br/ja. Simulation of heavy metal contamination of fresh water bodies: toxic effects in the ... 96 hours (though sampling was done at the 48th hour). Biochemical markers of ... silver, while enhancing the bioavailability of mercury in Ceriodaphnia ..... Biochemical and molecular disorders of bilirubin metabolism.

  1. Identification of Water Bodies in a Landsat 8 OLI Image Using a J48 Decision Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Tri Dev; Lee, Dong Ha; Yang, In Tae; Lee, Jae Kang

    2016-07-12

    Water bodies are essential to humans and other forms of life. Identification of water bodies can be useful in various ways, including estimation of water availability, demarcation of flooded regions, change detection, and so on. In past decades, Landsat satellite sensors have been used for land use classification and water body identification. Due to the introduction of a New Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor on Landsat 8 with a high spectral resolution and improved signal-to-noise ratio, the quality of imagery sensed by Landsat 8 has improved, enabling better characterization of land cover and increased data size. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the most appropriate and practical water identification methods that take advantage of the improved image quality and use the fewest inputs based on the original OLI bands. The objective of the study is to explore the potential of a J48 decision tree (JDT) in identifying water bodies using reflectance bands from Landsat 8 OLI imagery. J48 is an open-source decision tree. The test site for the study is in the Northern Han River Basin, which is located in Gangwon province, Korea. Training data with individual bands were used to develop the JDT model and later applied to the whole study area. The performance of the model was statistically analysed using the kappa statistic and area under the curve (AUC). The results were compared with five other known water identification methods using a confusion matrix and related statistics. Almost all the methods showed high accuracy, and the JDT was successfully applied to the OLI image using only four bands, where the new additional deep blue band of OLI was found to have the third highest information gain. Thus, the JDT can be a good method for water body identification based on images with improved resolution and increased size.

  2. Evaluation of significantly modified water bodies in Vojvodina by using multivariate statistical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Svetlana R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the utility of multivariate statistical techniques for analysis and interpretation of water quality data sets and identification of pollution sources/factors with a view to get better information about the water quality and design of monitoring network for effective management of water resources. Multivariate statistical techniques, such as factor analysis (FA/principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis (CA, were applied for the evaluation of variations and for the interpretation of a water quality data set of the natural water bodies obtained during 2010 year of monitoring of 13 parameters at 33 different sites. FA/PCA attempts to explain the correlations between the observations in terms of the underlying factors, which are not directly observable. Factor analysis is applied to physico-chemical parameters of natural water bodies with the aim classification and data summation as well as segmentation of heterogeneous data sets into smaller homogeneous subsets. Factor loadings were categorized as strong and moderate corresponding to the absolute loading values of >0.75, 0.75-0.50, respectively. Four principal factors were obtained with Eigenvalues >1 summing more than 78 % of the total variance in the water data sets, which is adequate to give good prior information regarding data structure. Each factor that is significantly related to specific variables represents a different dimension of water quality. The first factor F1 accounting for 28 % of the total variance and represents the hydrochemical dimension of water quality. The second factor F2 accounting for 18% of the total variance and may be taken factor of water eutrophication. The third factor F3 accounting 17 % of the total variance and represents the influence of point sources of pollution on water quality. The fourth factor F4 accounting 13 % of the total variance and may be taken as an ecological dimension of water quality. Cluster analysis (CA is an

  3. Cannabinoid CB1 /CB2 receptor agonists attenuate hyperactivity and body weight loss in a rat model of activity-based anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherma, Maria; Satta, Valentina; Collu, Roberto; Boi, Maria Francesca; Usai, Paolo; Fratta, Walter; Fadda, Paola

    2017-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric condition characterized by excessive body weight loss and disturbed perceptions of body shape and size, often associated with excessive physical activity. There is currently no effective drug-related therapy of this disease and this leads to high relapse rate. Clinical data suggest that a promising therapy to treat and reduce reoccurrence of AN may be based on the use of drugs that target the endocannabinoid (EC) system, which appears dysregulated in AN patients. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) rodent model mimics the severe body weight loss and increased physical activity, as well as the neuroendocrine disturbances (i.e. hypoleptinaemia and hypercortisolaemia) in AN. This study investigated whether cannabinoid agonists can effectively modify anorexic-like behaviours and neuroendocrine changes in rats subjected to a repeated ABA regime that mimics the human condition in which patients repeatedly undergo a recovery and illness cycle. Our data show that subchronic treatment with both the natural CB 1 /CB 2 receptor agonist Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and the synthetic CB 1 /CB 2 receptor agonist CP-55,940 significantly reduced body weight loss and running wheel activity in ABA rats. These behavioural effects were accompanied by an increase in leptin signalling and a decrease in plasma levels of corticosterone. Taken together, our results further demonstrate the involvement of the EC system in AN pathophysiology and that strategies which modulate EC signalling are useful to treat this disorder, specifically in patients where physical hyperactivity plays a central role in its progression and maintenance. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Water body and riparian buffer strip characteristics in a vineyard area to support aquatic pesticide exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohliger, Renja; Schulz, Ralf

    2010-10-15

    The implementation of a geodata-based probabilistic pesticide exposure assessment for surface waters in Germany offers the opportunity to base the exposure estimation on more differentiated assumptions including detailed landscape characteristics. Since these characteristics can only be estimated using field surveys, water body width and depth, hydrology, riparian buffer strip width, ground vegetation cover, existence of concentrated flow paths, and riparian vegetation were characterised at 104 water body segments in the vineyard region Palatinate (south-west Germany). Water body segments classified as permanent (n=43) had median values of water body width and depth of 0.9m and 0.06m, respectively, and the determined median width:depth ratio was 15. Thus, the deterministic water body model (width=1m; depth=0.3m) assumed in regulatory exposure assessment seems unsuitable for small water bodies in the study area. Only 25% of investigated buffer strips had a dense vegetation cover (>70%) and allow a laminar sheet flow as required to include them as an effective pesticide runoff reduction landscape characteristic. At 77 buffer strips, bordering field paths and erosion rills leading into the water body were present, concentrating pesticide runoff and consequently decreasing buffer strip efficiency. The vegetation type shrubbery (height>1.5m) was present at 57 (29%) investigated riparian buffer strips. According to their median optical vegetation density of 75%, shrubberies may provide a spray drift reduction of 72±29%. Implementing detailed knowledge in an overall assessment revealed that exposure via drift might be 2.4 and via runoff up to 1.6 fold higher than assumed by the deterministic approach. Furthermore, considering vegetated buffer strips only by their width leads to an underestimation of exposure by a factor of as much as four. Our data highlight that the deterministic model assumptions neither represent worst-case nor median values and therefore cannot

  5. Groundwater recharge in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam: effect of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Hayashi, Takeshi; Do, An Thuan; Canh, Vu Duc; Nga, Tran Thi Viet; Funabiki, Ayako; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2017-05-01

    Over-exploited groundwater is expected to remain the predominant source of domestic water in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam. In order to evaluate the effect on groundwater recharge, of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change caused by urbanization, the relevant groundwater systems and recharge pathways must be characterized in detail. To this end, water levels and water quality were monitored for 3 years regarding groundwater and adjacent surface-water bodies, at two typical suburban sites in Hanoi. Stable isotope (δ18O, δD of water) analysis and hydrochemical analysis showed that the water from both aquifers and aquitards, including the groundwater obtained from both the monitoring wells and the neighboring household tubewells, was largely derived from evaporation-affected surface-water bodies (e.g., ponds, irrigated farmlands) rather than from rivers. The water-level monitoring results suggested distinct local-scale flow systems for both a Holocene unconfined aquifer (HUA) and Pleistocene confined aquifer (PCA). That is, in the case of the HUA, lateral recharge through the aquifer from neighboring ponds and/or irrigated farmlands appeared to be dominant, rather than recharge by vertical rainwater infiltration. In the case of the PCA, recharge by the above-lying HUA, through areas where the aquitard separating the two aquifers was relatively thin or nonexistent, was suggested. As the decrease in the local surface-water bodies will likely reduce the groundwater recharge, maintaining and enhancing this recharge (through preservation of the surface-water bodies) is considered as essential for the sustainable use of groundwater in the area.

  6. Method for reducing heat loss during injection of hot water into an oil stratum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evgenev, A E; Kalashnikov, V N; Raiskii, Yu D

    1968-07-01

    A method is described for reduction of heat loss during the injection of hot water into an oil stratum. During the transportation of the hot water to the face of the bore holes, it has high-molecular polymers added to it. The high-molecular polymer may be guanidine or polyoxyethylene in the quantity of 0.01 to 0.03% by wt.

  7. Variation in C-reactive protein following weight loss in obese insulin resistant postmenopausal women: is there an independent contribution of lean body mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalani, R; Riesco, É; Perreault, K; Imbeault, P; Brochu, M; Dionne, I J

    2015-03-01

    We showed that obese insulin resistant postmenopausal women are characterized by higher lean body mass and elevated C-reactive protein. Although counterintuitive, we hypothesized that losses in muscle mass following caloric restriction and increase in muscle quality will be associated with improvements in glucose homeostasis through decreases in C-reactive protein. To determine 1) if improvements in C-reactive protein concentrations occurs through losses in lean body mass; and 2) if decreases in C-reactive protein levels contribute to improvements in insulin sensitivity. 50 postmenopausal women (body mass index>26 kg/m(²)) with impaired glucose disposal (program. Outcome measures were: Glucose disposal rate: M value (by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp), body composition (total, trunk, and appendicluar). LBM and FM by DXA), LBM index (LBM (kg)/height (m(2)), body fat distribution (VAT and SAT by CT scan) and plasma high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin-6 (Il-6). Significant correlations were observed between Δ hsCRP levels with Δ Il-6 (r=0.33, p≤0.05), Δ total LBM index (r=0.44, p≤0.01), Δ trunk LBM (r=0.38, p≤0.01) Δ SAT (r=0.35, p≤0.05) and ∆ glucose disposal rate (r=- 0.44, p≤0.01). After including all the correlated variables in Stepwise linear regression model, Δ LBM index was the only independent predictor of the reduction in hsCRP levels (R(2)=0.20, p≤0.01). Losses in total lean body mass are independently associated with improvements in inflammatory state (CRP levels) in obese postmenopausal women with impaired glucose disposal. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. On the variability of the Priestley-Taylor coefficient over water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Li, Dan; Tyler, Scott; Tanny, Josef; Cohen, Shabtai; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Parlange, Marc; Katul, Gabriel G.

    2016-01-01

    Deviations in the Priestley-Taylor (PT) coefficient αPT from its accepted 1.26 value are analyzed over large lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands where stomatal or soil controls are minimal or absent. The data sets feature wide variations in water body sizes and climatic conditions. Neither surface temperature nor sensible heat flux variations alone, which proved successful in characterizing αPT variations over some crops, explain measured deviations in αPT over water. It is shown that the relative transport efficiency of turbulent heat and water vapor is key to explaining variations in αPT over water surfaces, thereby offering a new perspective over the concept of minimal advection or entrainment introduced by PT. Methods that allow the determination of αPT based on low-frequency sampling (i.e., 0.1 Hz) are then developed and tested, which are usable with standard meteorological sensors that filter some but not all turbulent fluctuations. Using approximations to the Gram determinant inequality, the relative transport efficiency is derived as a function of the correlation coefficient between temperature and water vapor concentration fluctuations (RTq). The proposed approach reasonably explains the measured deviations from the conventional αPT = 1.26 value even when RTq is determined from air temperature and water vapor concentration time series that are Gaussian-filtered and subsampled to a cutoff frequency of 0.1 Hz. Because over water bodies, RTq deviations from unity are often associated with advection and/or entrainment, linkages between αPT and RTq offer both a diagnostic approach to assess their significance and a prognostic approach to correct the 1.26 value when using routine meteorological measurements of temperature and humidity.

  9. The use of biomarkers as integrative tools for transitional water bodies monitoring in the Water Framework Directive context - A holistic approach in Minho river transitional waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capela, R; Raimundo, J; Santos, M M; Caetano, M; Micaelo, C; Vale, C; Guimarães, L; Reis-Henriques, M A

    2016-01-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) provides an important legislative opportunity to promote and implement an integrated approach for the protection of inland surface waters, transitional waters, coastal waters and groundwaters. The transitional waters constitute a central piece as they are usually under high environmental pressure and by their inherent characteristics present monitoring challenges. Integrating water quality monitoring with biological monitoring can increase the cost-effectiveness of monitoring efforts. One way of doing this is with biomarkers, which effectively integrate physical-chemical status and biological quality elements, dealing holistically with adverse consequences on the health of water bodies. The new Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) already incorporates the biomarker approach. Given the recent activities of OSPAR and HELCOM to harmonize existing monitoring guidelines between MSFD and WFD the use of similar methodologies should be fostered. To illustrate the potential of the biomarker approach, juveniles of flounder (Platichthys flesus) were used to evaluate the quality of the Minho river-estuary water bodies. The use of juveniles instead of adults eliminates several confounding factors such changes on the biological responses associated with reproduction. Here, a panel of well-established biomarkers, EROD, AChE, SOD, CAT, GST, LPO, ENA and FACs (1-Hydroxyrene) were selected and measured along with a gradient of different physical conditions, and integrated with trace elements characterization on both biota and sediments. In general, a clear profile along the water bodies was found, with low seasonal and spatial variation, consistent with a low impacted area. Overall, the results support the use of both the battery of biomarkers and the use of juvenile flounders in the monitoring of the water quality status within the WFD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbamazepine and diclofenac: removal in wastewater treatment plants and occurrence in water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun; Geissen, Sven-Uwe; Gal, Carmen

    2008-11-01

    In the aquatic environment, pharmaceuticals have been widely found. Among them, carbamazepine and diclofenac were detected at the highest frequency. To evaluate the worldwide environmental impacts of both drugs, their global consumption volumes are estimated, based on the dose per capita. The metabolites of these pharmaceuticals are also of environmental concerns, especially trans-10,11-dihydro-10,11- dihydroxycarbamazepine (CBZ-diol) which probably has a similar concentration in water bodies to that of its parent drug. The removal efficiencies and mechanisms of both drugs in the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are discussed with the actual state of knowledge. The occurrences of both drugs are examined in various water bodies including WWTP effluents, surface waters, groundwater and drinking water. Their chemical, physical and pharmacological properties are also addressed in context, which can largely influence their environmental behaviors. The ecotoxicological studies of both drugs imply that they do not easily cause acute toxic effects at their environmental concentrations. However their chronic effects need cautious attention.

  11. CNE (Embalse nuclear power plant): probabilistic safety study. Loss of service water. Probabilistic evaluation and analysis through events sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto, A.J.; Perez, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    This work is part of a study on the service water systems of the Embalse nuclear power plant from a safety point of view. The faults of service water systems of high and low pressure that can lead to situations threatening the plant safety were analyzed in a previous report. The event 'total loss of low pressure service water' causes the largest number of such conditions. Such event is an operational incident that can lead to an accident situation due to faults in the required process systems or by omission of a procedure. The annual frequency of the event 'total loss of low pressure service water' is calculated. The main contribution comes from pump failure. The evaluation of the accident sequences shows that the most direct way to the liberation of fission products is the loss of steam generators as heat sink. The contributions to small and large LOCA and electric supply loss are analyzed. The sequence that leads to tritium release through boiling of moderator is also evaluated. (Author)

  12. Respiratory water loss during rest and flight in European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Sophia; Suthers, Roderick A.; Biebach, Herbert; Visser, G. Henk

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory water loss in Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) at rest and during flight at ambient temperatures (T-amb) between 6 and 25 degrees C was calculated from respiratory airflow and exhaled air temperature. At rest, breathing frequency f(1.4 +/- 0.3 Hz) and tidal volume V-t (1.9 +/- 0.4 ml) were

  13. Assessing Many-Body Effects of Water Self-Ions. I: OH-(H2O) n Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Colin K; Paesani, Francesco

    2018-04-10

    The importance of many-body effects in the hydration of the hydroxide ion (OH - ) is investigated through a systematic analysis of the many-body expansion of the interaction energy carried out at the CCSD(T) level of theory, extrapolated to the complete basis set limit, for the low-lying isomers of OH - (H 2 O) n clusters, with n = 1-5. This is accomplished by partitioning individual fragments extracted from the whole clusters into "groups" that are classified by both the number of OH - and water molecules and the hydrogen bonding connectivity within each fragment. With the aid of the absolutely localized molecular orbital energy decomposition analysis (ALMO-EDA) method, this structure-based partitioning is found to largely correlate with the character of different many-body interactions, such as cooperative and anticooperative hydrogen bonding, within each fragment. This analysis emphasizes the importance of a many-body representation of inductive electrostatics and charge transfer in modeling OH - hydration. Furthermore, the rapid convergence of the many-body expansion of the interaction energy also suggests a rigorous path for the development of analytical potential energy functions capable of describing individual OH - -water many-body terms, with chemical accuracy. Finally, a comparison between the reference CCSD(T) many-body interaction terms with the corresponding values obtained with various exchange-correlation functionals demonstrates that range-separated, dispersion-corrected, hybrid functionals exhibit the highest accuracy, while GGA functionals, with or without dispersion corrections, are inadequate to describe OH - -water interactions.

  14. Nitrogen losses and greenhouse gas emissions under different N and water management in a subtropical double-season rice cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kaiming; Zhong, Xuhua; Huang, Nongrong; Lampayan, Rubenito M; Liu, Yanzhuo; Pan, Junfeng; Peng, Bilin; Hu, Xiangyu; Fu, Youqiang

    2017-12-31

    Nitrogen non-point pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission are major challenges in rice production. This study examined options for both economic and environmental sustainability through optimizing water and N management. Field experiments were conducted to examine the crop yields, N use efficiency (NUE), greenhouse gas emissions, N losses under different N and water management. There were four treatments: zero N input with farmer's water management (N0), farmer's N and water management (FP), optimized N management with farmer's water management (OPT N ) and optimized N management with alternate wetting and drying irrigation (OPT N +AWD). Grain yields in OPT N and OPT N +AWD treatments increased by 13.0-17.3% compared with FP. Ammonia volatilization (AV) was the primary pathway for N loss for all treatments and accounted for over 50% of the total losses. N losses mainly occurred before mid-tillering. N losses through AV, leaching and surface runoff in OPT N were reduced by 18.9-51.6% compared with FP. OPT N +AWD further reduced N losses from surface runoff and leaching by 39.1% and 6.2% in early rice season, and by 46.7% and 23.5% in late rice season, respectively, compared with OPT N . The CH 4 emissions in OPT N +AWD were 20.4-45.4% lower than in OPT N and FP. Total global warming potential of CH 4 and N 2 O was the lowest in OPT N +AWD. On-farm comparison confirmed that N loss through runoff in OPT N +AWD was reduced by over 40% as compared with FP. OPT N and OPT N +AWD significantly increased grain yield by 6.7-13.9%. These results indicated that optimizing water and N management can be a simple and effective approach for enhancing yield with reduced environmental footprints. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Soil loss by water erosion in areas under maize and jack beans intercropped and monocultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Terra Lima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adequate soil management can create favorable conditions to reduce erosion and water runoff, consequently increase water soil recharge. Among management systems intercropping is highly used, especially for medium and small farmers. It is a system where two or more crops with different architectures and vegetative cycles are explored simultaneously at the same location. This research investigated the effects of maize intercropped with jack bean on soil losses due to water erosion, estimate C factor of Universal Soil Losses Equation (USLE and how it can be affected by soil coverage. The results obtained also contribute to database generation, important to model and estimate soil erosion. Total soil loss by erosion caused by natural rain, at Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were: 4.20, 1.86, 1.38 and 1.14 Mg ha-1, respectively, for bare soil, maize, jack bean and the intercropping of both species, during evaluated period. Values of C factor of USLE were: 0.039, 0.054 and 0.077 Mg ha Mg-1 ha-1 for maize, jack bean and intercropping between both crops, respectively. Maize presented lower vegetation cover index, followed by jack beans and consortium of the studied species. Intercropping between species showed greater potential on soil erosion control, since its cultivation resulted in lower soil losses than single crops cultivation, and this aspect is really important for small and medium farmers in the studied region.

  16. [Retaining and transformation of incoming soil N from highland to adjacent terrestrial water body in riparian buffer zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-cheng; Yu, Hong-li; Yao, Qin; Han, Zhuang-xing; Qiao, Shu-liang

    2007-11-01

    Highland soil nitrogen can enter adjacent water body via erosion and leaching, being one of the important pollutants in terrestrial water bodies. Riparian buffer zone is a transitional zone between highland and its adjacent water body, and a healthy riparian buffer zone can retain and transform the incoming soil N through physical, biological, and biochemical processes. In this paper, the major pathways through which soil nitrogen enters terrestrial water body and the mechanisms the nitrogen was retained and transformed in riparian buffer zone were introduced systematically, and the factors governing the nitrogen retaining and transformation were analyzed from the aspects of hydrological processes, soil characters, vegetation features, and human activities. The problems existing in riparian buffer zone study were discussed, and some suggestions for the further study in China were presented.

  17. Use of a Spacer Vest to Increase Evaporative Cooling Under Military Body Armor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Endrusick, Thomas L; Berglund, Larry G; Gonzalez, Julio A; Gallimore, Richard; Zheng, James

    2006-01-01

    ...); with the IBA over the TBDU; and with the IBA over the various SV and the TBDU. TM results were used as input to a computer model predicting core temperature, skin temperature, heart rate, sweat rate, skin wettedness, and total body water loss...

  18. Transepidermal water loss in cats: comparison of three differently clipped sites to assess the influence of hair coat on transepidermal water loss values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Yutaka; Shimada, Kenichiroh; Takami, Akina; Akaogi, Harumi; Takasaki, Mariko; Mimura, Kana; Azakami, Daigo; Ishioka, Katsumi; Nakamura, Yuka; Sako, Toshinori

    2013-08-01

    The measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is one of the parameters that can be used to assess skin barrier function. The variability and reliability of TEWL measurements in dogs have been controversial, and the hair coat has been considered as one of the factors that may cause variation of TEWL values. The aims of the study were to establish a suitable procedure for measuring feline TEWL, to evaluate the influence of hair coat on TEWL measurements and to assess variations of TEWL at different anatomical sites. Transepidermal water loss was measured using a closed-chamber evaporimeter, the VapoMeter(®). We compared three adjacent sites in the groin area of 10 clinically normal, domestic short hair cats. One site was unclipped, the second was trimmed with scissors and the third was shaved using electric clippers. Values of TEWL were obtained for 48 h after trimming with scissors and clippers. Five sites were clipped (upper back, lumbar back, lateral thigh, axillae and groin), and the TEWL was measured. The mean and SD of TEWL values of the clipper-trimmed site were the smallest, followed in order by the site trimmed with scissors and the unclipped site. The TEWL values were statistically constant in the clipper-trimmed site, while the values in the unclipped sites were not. There was no statistically significant difference in TEWL values between all of the anatomical sites except for the axillae. Hair clipping of sites with electric clippers is recommended for TEWL measurement in cats. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  19. THERMAL CONDUCTANCE IN AQUATIC BIRDS IN RELATION TO THE DEGREE OF WATER CONTACT, BODY-MASS, AND BODY-FAT - ENERGETIC IMPLICATIONS OF LIVING IN A STRONG COOLING ENVIRONMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, J; VANEERDEN, MR

    1995-01-01

    Thermal conductance of carcasses of 14 aquatic bird species was determined by the warming constant technique. The effect on thermal conductance of body mass, age sex, fat deposits, and the degree of contact with water were studied. Only body mass and the degree of submergence in water had an effect.

  20. Eutrophication and cyanobacteria in South Africa’s standing water bodies: A view from space

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matthews, MW

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing can make a significant contribution to monitoring water quality in South African standing water bodies. Eutrophication, defined as enrichment by nutrients, and toxin-producing cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) blooms pose a...

  1. Effects of a stimulant-free dietary supplement on body weight and fat loss in obese adults: a six-week exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Derek E; Conquer, Julie A

    2003-04-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and stroke. Stimulants, such as ephedrine and caffeine and their herbal counterparts, have proved effective in facilitating body weight loss, but their use is controversial due to their undesired effects. Other nutraceuticals have shown moderate success in reducing body weight, whereas several other compounds have demonstrated little or no effect. Therefore, a tolerable and effective nutraceutical that can increase energy expenditure and/or decrease caloric intake is desirable for body weight reduction. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the tolerability and effectiveness of a novel, stimulant-free, dietary supplement containing glucomannan, chitosan, fenugreek, Gymnema sylvestre, and vitamin C on body weight and fat loss and change in body composition in obese adults. In this single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted at the University of Guelph (Guelph, Ontario, Canada), obese adults (aged 20-50 years; body mass index [BMI], ≥30 kg/m(2)) were randomized to the treatment or placebo group. The treatment group received 6 capsules of a dietary supplement containing a proprietary blend of glucomannan, chitosan, fenugreek, G sylvestre, and vitamin C daily for 6 weeks, and the placebo group received 6 capsules of rice flour daily for 6 weeks. Body weight; percentage of body fat; absolute fat mass; lean body mass; BMI; upper abdominal, waist, and hip circumference; and anthropometric measurements were recorded at baseline and at study end. Patients completed daily dietary intake records on days 1 to 3 and days 40 to 42. They also completed weekly activity logs throughout the study. Twenty-four subjects (mean [SD] age, 37.0 [8.2] years [range, 21-48years]; mean [SD] BMI, 35.7 [6.2] kg/m(2) [range, 28.9-50.9 kg/m(2)]) were assigned to the treatment group (8 women, 4 men) or the placebo

  2. Phosphate dosing of mains water : novel approaches to water loss reduction through leakage detection and policy [abstract

    OpenAIRE

    Ascott, M.J.; Gooddy, D.C.; Lapworth, D.J.; Stuart, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Detection and t racing of leakage in the environment are essential component s of water loss reduction strategies. Industry standard techniques for tracing leaks include analysis of chlorine and trihalomethane concentrations, but levels of these determinands can fall belo w detection limits due to their volatile nature 1 . Consequently additional tools to trace leakage in the environment are a useful step ...

  3. Rates of Water Loss and Uptake in Recalcitrant Fruits of Quercus Species Are Determined by Pericarp Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ke; Daws, Matthew I.; Stuppy, Wolfgang; Zhou, Zhe-Kun; Pritchard, Hugh W.

    2012-01-01

    Desiccation-sensitive recalcitrant seeds and fruits are killed by the loss of even moderate quantities of water. Consequently, minimizing the rate of water loss may be an important ecological factor and evolutionary driver by reducing the risk of mortality during post-dispersal dry-spells. For recalcitrant fruits of a range of Quercus species, prolonged drying times have been observed previously. However, the underlying mechanism(s) for this variation is unknown. Using nine Quercus species we investigated the major route(s) of water flow into and out of the fruits and analysed the relative importance of the different pericarp components and their anatomy on water uptake/loss. During imbibition (rehydration), the surface area of the cupule scar and the frequency and area of the vascular bundles contained therein were significantly correlated with the rates of water uptake across the scar. The vascular bundles serving the apex of the fruit were a minor contributor to overall water. Further, the rate of water uptake across the remainder of the pericarp surface was significantly correlated with the thickness of the vascularised inner layer in the pericarp. Fruits of Q. franchetii and Q. schottkyana dried most slowly and had a comparatively small scar surface area with few vascular bundles per unit area. These species inhabit drier regions than the other species studied, suggesting these anatomical features may have ecological value by reducing the risk of desiccation stress. However, this remains to be tested in the field. PMID:23071795

  4. The use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate total body water in young children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kristie L; Boyd, Roslyn N; Walker, Jacqueline L; Stevenson, Richard D; Davies, Peter S W

    2013-08-01

    Body composition assessment is an essential component of nutritional evaluation in children with cerebral palsy. This study aimed to validate bioelectrical impedance to estimate total body water in young children with cerebral palsy and determine best electrode placement in unilateral impairment. 55 young children with cerebral palsy across all functional ability levels were included. Height/length was measured or estimated from knee height. Total body water was estimated using a Bodystat 1500MDD and three equations, and measured using the gold standard, deuterium dilution technique. Comparisons were made using Bland Altman analysis. For children with bilateral impairment, the Fjeld equation estimated total body water with the least bias (limits of agreement): 0.0 L (-1.4 L to 1.5 L); the Pencharz equation produced the greatest: 2.7 L (0.6 L-4.8 L). For children with unilateral impairment, differences between measured and estimated total body water were lowest on the unimpaired side using the Fjeld equation 0.1 L (-1.5 L to 1.6 L)) and greatest for the Pencharz equation. The ability of bioelectrical impedance to estimate total body water depends on the equation chosen. The Fjeld equation was the most accurate for the group, however, individual results varied by up to 18%. A population specific equation was developed and may enhance the accuracy of estimates. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) number: ACTRN12611000616976. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. Chili pepper as a body weight-loss food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Sharon; Kubatka, Peter; Rodrigo, Luis; Gazdikova, Katarina; Caprnda, Martin; Fedotova, Julia; Zulli, Anthony; Kruzliak, Peter; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2017-06-01

    Chili has culinary as well as medical importance. Studies in humans, using a wide range of doses of chili intake (varying from a single meal to a continuous uptake for up to 12 weeks), concluded that it facilitates weight loss. In regard to this, the main targets of chili are fat metabolism, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis. To induce weight loss, the active substance of chili, capsaicin, activates Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel sub-family V member 1 (TRPV1) channels) receptors causing an increase in intracellular calcium levels and triggering the sympathetic nervous system. Apart from TRPV1, chili directly reduces energy expenditure by activating Brown Adipose Tissue. Weight loss by chili is also the result of an improved control of insulin, which supports weight management and has positive effects for treatment for diseases like obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review summarizes the major pathways by which chili contributes to ameliorating parameters that help weight management and how the consumption of chili can help in accelerating weight loss through dietary modifications.

  6. Measurement of evaporative water loss in small animals by dew-point hygrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, M H; Hudson, D M; Stearns, J M; Hoyt, R W

    1977-08-01

    This paper presents the procedures and equations to be utilized for measurement of evaporative water loss (mw), by use of the dew-point hygrometer, in small animals exposed to air containing water vapor in an open-flow system. The system accounted accurately for the water evaporated from a bubble flask. In addition, hygrometric measurements of pulmocutaneous mw in pigeons (Columba livia, mean mass 0.31 kg) agreed closely with simultaneous gravimetric measurements, utilizing a desiccant in the sample stream, in a manner independently of air temperature (Ta, 20 or 40 degrees C), ambient water vapor pressure (PW, 4-16 10(2) Pa), or mw (5-66 mg-min-1). Evaporation in pigeons was independent of PW at 20 degrees C, but increased with decreasing PW at 40 degrees C, suggesting differences in ventilatory adjustments to changes in PW at the two temperatures.

  7. Studies on the physico-chemical parameters of Omi water body of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Omi water body, the physico-chemical parameters such as dissolved oxygen ranged from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/L; pH, 6.7 to 7.2; temperature, 26.5 to 31.5°C; alkalinity, 24.2 to 25.4 ppm; conductivity, 23.0 to 28.3 Ohms/cm; turbidity 0.11 to 0.15 m; and free carbon dioxide from 3.5 to 4.5 mg/L. Dissolved oxygen, pH and water ...

  8. Determination of the Relative Sediment Concentration in Water Bodies Using Remote Sensing Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Vargas Cuervo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies for the determination of the relative concentration of sediments (RCS in bodies of water such as rivers, marshes and river deltas require specialized equipment, field work and laboratory analyses of samples, all with high economic costs. Remote sensing, in regions of the optical electromagnetic spectrum, particularly in the visible range between 0.4 and 0.6 µm, shows radiometric contrasts associated with the relative concentration of sediments in water bodies. This work presents an analysis of the principal spectral, spatial and radiometric properties or characteristics of remote sensors for the determination of the relative concentration of sediments in bodies of water, a methodological process for its cartography at a given time or an established period of time. This cartography is based on digital processing of images rather than direct measurements in the field. Lastly, applications are presented for the delta coast of the southwestern area of the Colombian Caribbean between Barranquilla and Punta Piedra and in the lacustrine area of the Guajaro Reservoir and the Jobo and Capote Wetlands in the upper Canal del Dique, Colombia.

  9. Loss of Propiconazole and Its Four Stereoisomers from the Water Phase of Two Soil-Water Slurries as Measured by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca D. Miller

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Propiconazole is a chiral fungicide used in agriculture for control of many fungal diseases on a variety of crops. This use provides opportunities for pollution of soil and, subsequently, groundwater. The rate of loss of propiconazole from the water phase of two different soil-water slurries spiked with the fungicide at 50 mg/L was followed under aerobic conditions over five months; the t1/2 was 45 and 51 days for the two soil slurries. To accurately assess environmental and human risk, it is necessary to analyze the separate stereoisomers of chiral pollutants, because it is known that for most such pollutants, both biotransformation and toxicity are likely to be stereoselective. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC, the mode of capillary electrophoresis used for analysis of neutral chemicals, was used for analysis of the four propiconazole stereoisomers with time in the water phase of the slurries. MEKC resulted in baseline separation of all stereoisomers, while GC-MS using a chiral column gave only partial separation. The four stereoisomers of propiconazole were lost from the aqueous phase of the slurries at experimentally equivalent rates, i.e., there was very little, if any, stereoselectivity. No loss of propiconazole was observed from the autoclaved controls of either soil, indicating that the loss from active samples was most likely caused by aerobic biotansformation, with a possible contribution by sorption to the non-autoclaved active soils. MEKC is a powerful tool for separation of stereoisomers and can be used to study the fate and transformation kinetics of chiral pesticides in water and soil.

  10. Mycorrhizal fungi enhance plant nutrient acquisition and modulate nitrogen loss with variable water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Timothy M; Jackson, Louise E; Cavagnaro, Timothy R

    2018-01-01

    Climate change will alter both the amount and pattern of precipitation and soil water availability, which will directly affect plant growth and nutrient acquisition, and potentially, ecosystem functions like nutrient cycling and losses as well. Given their role in facilitating plant nutrient acquisition and water stress resistance, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi may modulate the effects of changing water availability on plants and ecosystem functions. The well-characterized mycorrhizal tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genotype 76R (referred to as MYC+) and the mutant mycorrhiza-defective tomato genotype rmc were grown in microcosms in a glasshouse experiment manipulating both the pattern and amount of water supply in unsterilized field soil. Following 4 weeks of differing water regimes, we tested how AM fungi affected plant productivity and nutrient acquisition, short-term interception of a 15NH4+ pulse, and inorganic nitrogen (N) leaching from microcosms. AM fungi enhanced plant nutrient acquisition with both lower and more variable water availability, for instance increasing plant P uptake more with a pulsed water supply compared to a regular supply and increasing shoot N concentration more when lower water amounts were applied. Although uptake of the short-term 15NH4+ pulse was higher in rmc plants, possibly due to higher N demand, AM fungi subtly modulated NO3- leaching, decreasing losses by 54% at low and high water levels in the regular water regime, with small absolute amounts of NO3- leached (<1 kg N/ha). Since this study shows that AM fungi will likely be an important moderator of plant and ecosystem responses to adverse effects of more variable precipitation, management strategies that bolster AM fungal communities may in turn create systems that are more resilient to these changes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Agarwood Waste as A New Fluid Loss Control Agent in Water-based Drilling Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlinda Azizi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Agarwood has been used widely in various ways, including traditional medicine and art. The usage of agarwood has grown broader in modern times include in therapeutic medicines and perfumery. In this paper the agarwood waste has been explored to be used as a fluid loss control agent to control fluid loss without affecting the drilling fluid rheological properties which are density, pH, viscosity, yield point and gel strength. Agarwood waste was used as an additive in the drilling fluid system due to its unique characteristic. Rheological and filtration measurements were performed on the formulated water-based drilling fluid. Formulations of a base solution of fresh water, sodium hydroxide, bentonite, barite, and xanthan gum were presented. The performance of the agarwood waste as the fluid loss control agent was compared with based fluid formulation and water-based drilling fluid with treating with conventional fluid loss control agent (starch. The filtrate volume of drilling fluid with agarwood waste was about 13 ml while for drilling fluid with conventional fluid loss control agent, starch gave 12 ml of filtrate volume after undergoing filtration test by using LPLT filter press. The performance of drilling fluid with agarwood was efficient as drilling fluid with starch. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso

  12. Structural investigation of water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from the fruit bodies of Coprinus comatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Bo; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P.

    2013-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharide material, extracted from the stipes of the fruit bodies of Coprinus comatus by hot water, was fractionated by sequential weak anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. The relevant fractions were subjected to structural analysis, including (D/L)

  13. Effects of combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers plus nitrification inhibitor DMPP on nitrogen runoff loss in vegetable soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiaogang; Ma, Junwei; Zou, Ping; Lin, Hui; Sun, Wanchun; Yin, Jianzhen; Fu, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    The application of nitrogen fertilizers leads to various ecological problems such as large amounts of nitrogen runoff loss causing water body eutrophication. The proposal that nitrification inhibitors could be used as nitrogen runoff loss retardants has been suggested in many countries. In this study, simulated artificial rainfall was used to illustrate the effect of the nitrification inhibitor DMPP (3,4-dimethyl pyrazole phosphate) on nitrogen loss from vegetable fields under combined organic and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer application. The results showed that during the three-time simulated artificial rainfall period, the ammonium nitrogen content in the surface runoff water collected from the DMPP application treatment increased by 1.05, 1.13, and 1.10 times compared to regular organic and inorganic combined fertilization treatment, respectively. In the organic and inorganic combined fertilization with DMPP addition treatment, the nitrate nitrogen content decreased by 38.8, 43.0, and 30.1% in the three simulated artificial rainfall runoff water, respectively. Besides, the nitrite nitrogen content decreased by 95.4, 96.7, and 94.1% in the three-time simulated artificial rainfall runoff water, respectively. A robust decline in the nitrate and nitrite nitrogen surface runoff loss could be observed in the treatments after the DMPP addition. The nitrite nitrogen in DMPP addition treatment exhibited a significant low level, which is near to the no fertilizer application treatment. Compared to only organic and inorganic combined fertilizer treatment, the total inorganic nitrogen runoff loss declined by 22.0 to 45.3% in the organic and inorganic combined fertilizers with DMPP addition treatment. Therefore, DMPP could be used as an effective nitrification inhibitor to control the soil ammonium oxidation in agriculture and decline the nitrogen runoff loss, minimizing the nitrogen transformation risk to the water body and being beneficial for the ecological environment.

  14. Multi-temporal image analysis of historical aerial photographs and recent satellite imagery reveals evolution of water body surface area and polygonal terrain morphology in Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necsoiu, Marius; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L; Walter, Gary R; Stothoff, Stuart A; Larsen, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Multi-temporal image analysis of very-high-resolution historical aerial and recent satellite imagery of the Ahnewetut Wetlands in Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska, revealed the nature of thaw lake and polygonal terrain evolution over a 54-year period of record comprising two 27-year intervals (1951–1978, 1978–2005). Using active-contouring-based change detection, high-precision orthorectification and co-registration and the normalized difference index, surface area expansion and contraction of 22 shallow water bodies, ranging in size from 0.09 to 179 ha, and the transition of ice-wedge polygons from a low- to a high-centered morphology were quantified. Total surface area decreased by only 0.4% during the first time interval, but decreased by 5.5% during the second time interval. Twelve water bodies (ten lakes and two ponds) were relatively stable with net surface area decreases of ≤10%, including four lakes that gained area during both time intervals, whereas ten water bodies (five lakes and five ponds) had surface area losses in excess of 10%, including two ponds that drained completely. Polygonal terrain remained relatively stable during the first time interval, but transformation of polygons from low- to high-centered was significant during the second time interval. (letter)

  15. Spatial-temporal particularities of the ecological status of surface water bodies and pollution sources from Siret river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan DĂSCĂLIȚA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The ecological status of surface water bodies from Siret River Basin is monitored systematically and spatial in accordance with the requirements of European Directives in the water area. Analysis temporary and spatial of qualitative and quantitative status of surface waters (rivers, lakes is achieved according to the specificities of each body of water resulting from physical and geographical conditions, climatic and hydromorphological regimes of river basin and from human activities.In order to know of those features, there are needed specific monitoring systems of water bodies. The parametersunderlying the assessment of ecological status of rivers and lakes are monitored systematically and temporary: daily, monthly, quarterly, annually, according to these characteristics. In this context, the daily variations in environmental condition, expresses the current status of surface waters. Monthly changes are correlated with climate change and characterize the seasonal variations. On annual basis are identified the mean, minimum and maximum for each parameter and the trends (increase, decrease, regularity, periodicity, changes, etc.. Based on this information, extensive to multiannual level, itcan achieve medium and long term forecasts and it might be issued the concepts and strategies for maintaining a balance and sustainable development of water resources.In this paper we have presented some issues related to the synthesis of spatial-temporal ecological status of water bodies managed by Administration of Siret Water Basin(ABAS. Results of studies on the ecological status of water bodies have been presented for the year 2009. Also, in this paper it was presented an evolution of the quantities ofpollutants from wastewater discharged in surface receptors and their purification by water users from of activity of ABAS area in 1999-2009 periods.

  16. Optimized evaporative cooling for sodium Bose-Einstein condensation against three-body loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shobu, Takahiko; Yamaoka, Hironobu; Imai, Hiromitsu; Morinaga, Atsuo; Yamashita, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    We report on a highly efficient evaporative cooling optimized experimentally. We successfully created sodium Bose-Einstein condensates with 6.4x10 7 atoms starting from 6.6x10 9 thermal atoms trapped in a magnetic trap by employing a fast linear sweep of radio frequency at the final stage of evaporative cooling so as to overcome the serious three-body losses. The experimental results such as the cooling trajectory and the condensate growth quantitatively agree with the numerical simulations of evaporative cooling on the basis of the kinetic theory of a Bose gas carefully taking into account our specific experimental conditions. We further discuss theoretically a possibility of producing large condensates, more than 10 8 sodium atoms, by simply increasing the number of initial thermal trapped atoms and the corresponding optimization of evaporative cooling.

  17. Genetic risk scores for body fat distribution attenuate weight loss in women during dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, M; Allin, K H; Sørensen, T I A

    2018-01-01

    to lose weight. We aimed to study the effect of weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) on weight loss based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with waist-hip-ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI). METHOD: We included 707 participants (533 women and 174 men) from the NUGENOB multi......-center 10 week diet intervention study with weekly weight measurements. We created 3 GRSs, one including all reported WHRadjBMI SNPs (GRStotal), one including only SNPs with genome wide significance in women or with significantly greater effect in women (GRSwomen), and one excluding SNPs in the GRSwomen...... (GRSmen). The data was analyzed in a mixed linear model framework. RESULTS: The GRStotal and GRSwomen attenuated weight loss in women. The effect was strongest for the GRSwomen with an effect of 2.21 g/risk allele/day [95% CI (0.90;3.52), P=0.0009]. Adjustment for WHR, basal metabolic rate or diet...

  18. Fluctuating water depths affect American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) body condition in the Everglades, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Laura A.; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful restoration of wetland ecosystems requires knowledge of wetland hydrologic patterns and an understanding of how those patterns affect wetland plant and animal populations.Within the Everglades, Florida, USA restoration, an applied science strategy including conceptual ecological models linking drivers to indicators is being used to organize current scientific understanding to support restoration efforts. A key driver of the ecosystem affecting the distribution and abundance of organisms is the timing, distribution, and volume of water flows that result in water depth patterns across the landscape. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are one of the ecological indicators being used to assess Everglades restoration because they are a keystone species and integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations through all life stages. Alligator body condition (the relative fatness of an animal) is one of the metrics being used and targets have been set to allow us to track progress. We examined trends in alligator body condition using Fulton’s K over a 15 year period (2000–2014) at seven different wetland areas within the Everglades ecosystem, assessed patterns and trends relative to restoration targets, and related those trends to hydrologic variables. We developed a series of 17 a priori hypotheses that we tested with an information theoretic approach to identify which hydrologic factors affect alligator body condition. Alligator body condition was highest throughout the Everglades during the early 2000s and is approximately 5–10% lower now (2014). Values have varied by year, area, and hydrology. Body condition was positively correlated with range in water depth and fall water depth. Our top model was the “Current” model and included variables that describe current year hydrology (spring depth, fall depth, hydroperiod, range, interaction of range and fall depth, interaction of range and hydroperiod). Across all models, interaction

  19. The daily radon dose in body organs caused by drinking milk and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoureh Mansour Bahmani; Mohammad Reza Rezaie; Elham Rezvan Nejad; Hassan Reza Dehghan

    2014-01-01

    Milk is considered as the richest nutrition, being used by people. When drinking milk or water the radon gas will transfer from air to them rapidly. Since milk is majorly composed of water, probably radon existence in livestock consumable water could be the main cause of its presence in milk. Different portion of milk changed by radon gamma ray and consumption of radon included water or milk has its effects on the human body. For investigation the effect of radon in water or milk on human organs, this study has been done in two phases with MCNPX software. In the first phase, the dose rate of absorbed gamma ray by different portion of milk which is indoctrinated by 1 Bq/m 3 of radon during a day is calculated. Moreover, the effects shown by milk and its components in radon gamma spectrum, which is demonstrator of milk absorption spectrum, are also surveyed. In the second phase as well, according to the human body phantom, the absorbed gamma dose caused by daily consumption of indoctrinated water or milk with 1 Bq/m 3 radon is calculated. The production rate of free radicals in milk and its different components are derived according to escape data of MCNPX code. (author)

  20. Simulation of small break loss of coolant accident in pressurized water reactor (PWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abass, N. M. N.

    2012-02-01

    A major safety concern in pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) design is the loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA),in which a break in the primary coolant circuit leads to depressurization, boiling of the coolant, consequent reduced cooling of the reactor core, and , unless remedial measures are taken, overheating of the fuel rods. This concern has led to the development of several simulators for safety analysis. This study demonstrates how the passive and active safety systems in conventional and advanced PWR behave during the small break loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA). The consequences of SBOLOCA have been simulated using IAEA Generic pressurized Water Reactor Simulator (GPWRS) and personal Computer Transient analyzer (PCTRAN) . The results were presented and discussed. The study has confirmed the major safety advantage of passive plants versus conventional PWRs is that the passive safety systems provide long-term core cooling and decay heat removal without the need for operator actions and without reliance on active safety-related system. (Author)

  1. Consumption of low-moderate level arsenic contaminated water does not increase spontaneous pregnancy loss: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Michael S; Neamtiu, Iulia A; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Lupsa, Ioana Rodica; Anastasiu, Doru; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Gurzau, Eugen S

    2014-10-13

    Previous work suggests an increased risk for spontaneous pregnancy loss linked to high levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water sources (>10 μg/L). However, there has been little focus to date on the impact of low-moderate levels of iAs in drinking water (control study in Timis County, Romania. We recruited women with incident spontaneous pregnancy loss of 5-20 weeks completed gestation as cases (n = 150), and women with ongoing pregnancies matched by gestational age (±1 week) as controls (n = 150). Participants completed a physician-administered questionnaire and we collected water samples from residential drinking sources. We reconstructed residential drinking water exposure histories using questionnaire data weighted by iAs determined using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). Logistic regression models were used to generate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between iAs exposure and loss, conditioned on gestational age and adjusted for maternal age, cigarette smoking, education and prenatal vitamin use. We explored potential interactions in a second set of models. Drinking water arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.0 to 175.1 μg/L, with median 0.4 μg/L and 90th%tile 9.4 μg/L. There were no statistically significant associations between loss and average or peak drinking water iAs concentrations (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.01), or for daily iAs intake (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.98-1.02). We detected modest evidence for an interaction between average iAs concentration and cigarette smoking during pregnancy (P = 0.057) and for daily iAs exposure and prenatal vitamin use (P = 0.085). These results suggest no increased risk for spontaneous pregnancy loss in association with low to moderate level drinking water iAs exposure. Though imprecise, our data also raise the possibility for increased risk among cigarette smokers. Given the low exposures overall, these data should reassure pregnant

  2. The Significance of Epidermal Lipid Metabolism in Whole-Body Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Vibeke; Neess, Ditte; Færgeman, Nils J

    2017-01-01

    The skin is the largest sensory organ of the human body. The skin not only prevents loss of water and other components of the body, but also is involved in regulation of body temperature and serves as an essential barrier, protecting mammals from both routine and extreme environments. Given...... the importance of the skin in temperature regulation, it is surprising that adaptive alterations in skin functions and morphology only vaguely have been associated with systemic physiological responses. Despite that impaired lipid metabolism in the skin often impairs the epidermal permeability barrier...... and insulation properties of the skin, its role in regulating systemic physiology and metabolism is yet to be recognized....

  3. Loss of lean body mass affects low bone mineral density in patients with rheumatoid arthritis - results from the TOMORROW study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Tadashi; Inui, Kentaro; Tada, Masahiro; Sugioka, Yuko; Mamoto, Kenji; Wakitani, Shigeyuki; Koike, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-11-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the complications for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Rheumatoid cachexia, the loss of lean body mass, is another. However, the relationship between decreased lean body mass and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with RA has not been well studied. This study included 413 participants, comprising 208 patients with RA and 205 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Clinical data, BMD, bone metabolic markers (BMM) and body composition, such as lean body mass and percent fat, were collected. Risk factors for osteoporosis in patients with RA including the relationship BMD and body composition were analyzed. Patients with RA showed low BMD and high BMM compared with controls. Moreover, lean body mass was lower and percent fat was higher in patients with RA. Lean body mass correlated positively and percent fat negatively with BMD. Lean body mass was a positive and disease duration was a negative independent factor for BMD in multivariate statistical analysis. BMD and lean body mass were significantly lower in patients with RA compared to healthy controls. Lean body mass correlated positively with BMD and decreased lean body mass and disease duration affected low BMD in patients with RA. [UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ , UMIN000003876].

  4. Building America Case Study: Addressing Multifamily Piping Losses with Solar Hot Water, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  5. Preoperative unintended weight loss and low body mass index in relation to complications and length of stay after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M. W.; de Vos, Rien; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M. M. J.; Haaring, Cees; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.

    Background: Several studies reported increased adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery in patients with low body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)). Little is known yet, however, about the effect of preoperative unintended weight loss (UWL) in cardiac surgery patients. Objective: We explored the prevalence

  6. Preoperative unintended weight loss and low body mass index in relation to complications and length of stay after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M. W.; de Vos, Rien; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M. M. J.; Haaring, Cees; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies reported increased adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery in patients with low body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)). Little is known yet, however, about the effect of preoperative unintended weight loss (UWL) in cardiac surgery patients. OBJECTIVE: We explored the prevalence

  7. A Novel Approach to Extract Water Body from ASAR Dual-Polarized Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jianwei; Song, Xiaoning; Leng, Pei; Zhou, Fangcheng; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaotao

    2014-01-01

    SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) has become a useful and efficient method for monitoring flood extent due to its capability of 24-hour and all weather observation. In this paper, a novel approach is proposed to extract water bodies from ASAR dual-polarized images. Firstly, a new SAR image was created from ASAR Dual-Polarized data using a discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) fusion method. Then, a modified Otsu threshold method was used to extract water bodies of Poyang Lake with the new fused image. Next, this image was compared with the one extracted from ETM+ data. The result showed that the fused image was feasible and more accurate. Besides, it could reduce the influences of shadow and noise. Moreover, the approach could be conducted automatically, which is very important under urgent condition for flood monitoring

  8. Effect of cuticular abrasion and recovery on water loss rates in queens of the desert harvester ant Messor pergandei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert A; Kaiser, Alexander; Quinlan, Michael; Sharp, William

    2011-10-15

    Factors that affect water loss rates (WLRs) are poorly known for organisms in natural habitats. Seed-harvester ant queens provide an ideal system for examining such factors because WLRs for mated queens excavated from their incipient nests are twofold to threefold higher than those of alate queens. Indirect data suggest that this increase results from soil particles abrading the cuticle during nest excavation. This study provides direct support for the cuticle abrasion hypothesis by measuring total mass-specific WLRs, cuticular abrasion, cuticular transpiration, respiratory water loss and metabolic rate for queens of the ant Messor pergandei at three stages: unmated alate queens, newly mated dealate queens (undug foundresses) and mated queens excavated from their incipient nest (dug foundresses); in addition we examined these processes in artificially abraded alate queens. Alate queens had low WLRs and low levels of cuticle abrasion, whereas dug foundresses had high WLRs and high levels of cuticle abrasion. Total WLR and cuticular transpiration were lowest for alate queens, intermediate for undug foundresses and highest for dug foundresses. Respiratory water loss contributed ~10% of the total WLR and was lower for alate queens and undug foundresses than for dug foundresses. Metabolic rate did not vary across stages. Total WLR and cuticular transpiration of artificially abraded alate queens increased, whereas respiratory water loss and metabolic rate were unaffected. Overall, increased cuticular transpiration accounted for essentially all the increased total water loss in undug and dug foundresses and artificially abraded queens. Artificially abraded queens and dug foundresses showed partial recovery after 14 days.

  9. Evaluation of fluid intake, weight loss and sweat rate in young triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Sellés López de Castro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Triathlon is an endurance sport comprising three disciplines: swimming, cycling and running. It is necessary to purpose guidelines in order to avoid dehydration during training or competition and keep good hydration before, during and after physical activity. The aim of this study is to evaluation of fluid intake, weight loss and sweat rate in young triathletes, during different trainings.Material and Methods: A descriptive-observational study in 14 triathletes (7 boys and 7 girls during a session of swimming, other session of cycling, another session of running. Fluid intake, weight loss, % of total body water, % dehydration and sweat rate, were assessed. Triathletes drank water in their drums of 750 ml and urine measurement was performed in containers.Results: The results of our study following the next order: swimming, cycling and running. Water intake 2.66±1.94ml/min, 7.91±7.69ml/min y 7.08±4.13ml/min in boys and 3.43±1.53ml/min, 6.39±5.36ml/min y 8.33±2.74ml/min in girls; weight loss 0.83±0.5kg, 0.47±0.3kg y 0.98±0.4kg in boys and 0.79±0.3kg, 0.47±0.58kg y 0.28±0.21kg in girls; and sweating rate 4.44±4.9ml/ min, 11.81±6.46ml/min y 5.29±3.13ml/min in boys and 3.89±2.4ml/min, 4.69±4.20ml/min and 7.96±5.06ml/min in girls.Conclusions: The percentage of body water and dehydration, loss of weight and sweat rate were compared with other studies and it´s shown that our results are lower than others studies, being below the recommendations of liquid intake in athletes.

  10. Evaluation of Body Weight, Body Condition, and Muscle Condition in Cats with Hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M E; Castellano, C A; Rishniw, M

    2016-11-01

    The contribution of fat loss versus muscle wasting to the loss of body weight seen in hyperthyroid cats is unknown. To investigate body weight, body condition score (BCS), and muscle condition score (MCS) in hyperthyroid cats. Four hundred sixty-two cats with untreated hyperthyroidism, 117 of which were reevaluated after treatment. Prospective cross-sectional and before-after studies. Untreated hyperthyroid cats had body composition evaluated (body weight, BCS, and MCS). A subset of these cats were reevaluated 3-12 months after treatment when euthyroid. Pretreatment body weight (median, 4.36 kg; IQR, 3.5 to 5.2 kg) was lower than premorbid weight (5.45 kg; IQR, 4.6 to 6.4 kg, P loss of muscle mass. Cats showed increases in body weight (median, 4.1 kg to 5.0 kg), BCS (median, 3/5 to 3.5/5), and MCS (2/3 to 3/3) after treatment (P hyperthyroid cats lose body weight but maintain an ideal or overweight BCS, with only a third being underweight. As in human hyperthyroid patients, this weight loss is associated with muscle wasting, which affects >75% of hyperthyroid cats. Successful treatment leads to weight gain and increase of BCS in most cats, but almost half fail to regain normal muscle mass. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Clinical symptoms, signs and tests for identification of impending and current water-loss dehydration in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Attreed, Natalie J; Campbell, Wayne W; Channell, Adam M; Chassagne, Philippe; Culp, Kennith R; Fletcher, Stephen J; Fortes, Matthew B; Fuller, Nigel; Gaspar, Phyllis M; Gilbert, Daniel J; Heathcote, Adam C; Kafri, Mohannad W; Kajii, Fumiko; Lindner, Gregor; Mack, Gary W; Mentes, Janet C; Merlani, Paolo; Needham, Rowan A; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Perren, Andreas; Powers, James; Ranson, Sheila C; Ritz, Patrick; Rowat, Anne M; Sjöstrand, Fredrik; Smith, Alexandra C; Stookey, Jodi J D; Stotts, Nancy A; Thomas, David R; Vivanti, Angela; Wakefield, Bonnie J; Waldréus, Nana; Walsh, Neil P; Ward, Sean; Potter, John F; Hunter, Paul

    2015-04-30

    There is evidence that water-loss dehydration is common in older people and associated with many causes of morbidity and mortality. However, it is unclear what clinical symptoms, signs and tests may be used to identify early dehydration in older people, so that support can be mobilised to improve hydration before health and well-being are compromised. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of state (one time), minimally invasive clinical symptoms, signs and tests to be used as screening tests for detecting water-loss dehydration in older people by systematically reviewing studies that have measured a reference standard and at least one index test in people aged 65 years and over. Water-loss dehydration was defined primarily as including everyone with either impending or current water-loss dehydration (including all those with serum osmolality ≥ 295 mOsm/kg as being dehydrated). Structured search strategies were developed for MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), CINAHL, LILACS, DARE and HTA databases (The Cochrane Library), and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). Reference lists of included studies and identified relevant reviews were checked. Authors of included studies were contacted for details of further studies. Titles and abstracts were scanned and all potentially relevant studies obtained in full text. Inclusion of full text studies was assessed independently in duplicate, and disagreements resolved by a third author. We wrote to authors of all studies that appeared to have collected data on at least one reference standard and at least one index test, and in at least 10 people aged ≥ 65 years, even where no comparative analysis has been published, requesting original dataset so we could create 2 x 2 tables. Diagnostic accuracy of each test was assessed against the best available reference standard for water-loss dehydration (serum or plasma osmolality cut-off ≥ 295 mOsm/kg, serum osmolarity or weight change) within each study. For

  12. Urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate spaces and their relationship to total body water during chronic hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, F.; Odar-Cederloef, I.E.; Eriksson, C.G.; Lindgren, S.; Kjellstrand, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors determined total body water (TBW) with tritium in 11 patients on chronic hemodialysis and compared this space to that estimated by 60% of body weight, and removal spaces of urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate (PO 4 ). The latter spaces were determined by dividing the total amount of substance (measured in total dialysate) by pre- minus post-dialysis concentrations. Body water X 0.6 was more than 10% less than the tritium space, and showed a maximal variation of 10 liters, or 24%. The removal space of urea was 80% of the tritium space, but correlated closely with it. The difference between total body water and urea removal space was variable and dependent on fluid excess (edema) in the patients. Creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate removal spaces were highly variable and not correlated to total body water. The authors suggest that actual measured TBW should be used, rather than estimations using BW X 0.6, for V in K X T/V, where K = clearance, T = duration of dialysis, and V = the removal space of urea. Furthermore, one may need to introduce a correction factor for urea removal space over TBW in the equation to allow better quantification of dialysis in edematous patients and during very fast dialyses

  13. STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURES AND WATER LOSS FROM MOIST GREENHOUSE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasting, James F.; Kopparapu, Ravi K. [Department of Geosciences, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16801 (United States); Chen, Howard, E-mail: jfk4@psu.edu, E-mail: hwchen@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a moist greenhouse explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing inverse climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1D models.

  14. STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURES AND WATER LOSS FROM MOIST GREENHOUSE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasting, James F.; Kopparapu, Ravi K.; Chen, Howard

    2015-01-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a moist greenhouse explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing inverse climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1D models

  15. Changes in body temperature in king penguins at sea: the result of fine adjustments in peripheral heat loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander; Alard, Frank; Handrich, Yves

    2006-09-01

    To investigate thermoregulatory adjustments at sea, body temperatures (the pectoral muscle and the brood patch) and diving behavior were monitored during a foraging trip of several days at sea in six breeding king penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus. During inactive phases at sea (water temperature: 4-7 degrees C), all tissues measured were maintained at normothermic temperatures. The brood patch temperature was maintained at the same values as those measured when brooding on shore (38 degrees C). This high temperature difference causes a significant loss of heat. We hypothesize that high-energy expenditure associated with elevated peripheral temperature when resting at sea is the thermoregulatory cost that a postabsorptive penguin has to face for the restoration of its subcutaneous body fat. During diving, mean pectoral temperature was 37.6 +/- 1.6 degrees C. While being almost normothermic on average, the temperature of the pectoral muscle was still significantly lower than during inactivity in five out of the six birds and underwent temperature drops of up to 5.5 degrees C. Mean brood patch temperature was 29.6 +/- 2.5 degrees C during diving, and temperature decreases of up to 21.6 degrees C were recorded. Interestingly, we observed episodes of brood patch warming during the descent to depth, suggesting that, in some cases, king penguins may perform active thermolysis using the brood patch. It is hypothesized that functional pectoral temperature may be regulated through peripheral adjustments in blood perfusion. These two paradoxical features, i.e., lower temperature of deep tissues during activity and normothermic peripheral tissues while inactive, may highlight the key to the energetics of this diving endotherm while foraging at sea.

  16. Antioxidant activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes enriched with selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Milena D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiitake (Lentinus edodes belongs to medically important and delicious fungi. It is recognizable for its healing properties, excellent taste and rich aroma. According to the traditional Japanese and Chinese medicine, shiitake mushroom significantly increases the strength and vitality of the body. Shiitake contains immunostimulants, compounds that lower cholesterol, prevents clogging of blood vessels, regulates the pressure, balances blood sugar levels, regulates digestion, and improves the performance of respiratory organs by its antirheumatic and antiallergic activities. Shiitake is recommended to use as food, prevention and cure, usually in a form of a spice (dried and ground or tea. It can be consumed fresh, too. The objective of this study was to test the effect of enrichment in selenium on antioxidant, reducing and free radical scavenging activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes. The fungus was enhanced by adding organic selenium, zinc (II complex with the ligand 2.6-bis diacetylpyridine (selenosemicarbazon and inorganic compounds (Na2SeO3 of selenium in nutritional substrate where the fungus was grown. The total selenium content in fruit body was around 50 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium originating from organic sources, and 80 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium from inorganic sources. Samples were prepared by extraction of fruiting bodies in heated water. The results indicated that water extracts of whole fruit bodies, from both control and mushrooms supplemented with selenium, had quite good antioxidant activity. However, there was no significant difference between the samples supplemented with selenium content and those that were not.

  17. The Effect of Different Water Temperatures on Retention Loss and Material Degradation of Locator Attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Lillian Pui Yuk; Vitale, Nicola Di; Petridis, Haralampos; McDonald, Ailbhe

    2017-08-01

    To examine the changes in Locator attachments after exposure to different water temperatures and cyclic loading. Four groups of pink Locator attachments (3.0 lb. light retention replacement patrix attachments; 10 per group) were soaked for the equivalent of 5 years of use in distilled water at the following temperatures: 20°C, 37°C, 60°C. One group was kept dry to test the effect of water. A universal testing machine was used to measure the retention force of each treated attachment during 5500 insertion and removal cycles, simulating approximately 5 years of use. The results were compared using Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA by ranks. Surface changes of tested attachments were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The exposure to 60°C water significantly increased the percentage of retention loss in Locator attachments (p < 0.05) compared to the 20°C water group and significantly reduced the final retention force compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). SEM examinations revealed severe cracking and material degradation in Locator attachments after exposure to 60°C water and cyclic loading, which were not evident in other groups. Cracking was observed after exposure to 60˚C water before cyclic loading. Exposure to 60°C water, potentially similar to denture cleansing procedures, could cause cracking in Locator attachments. Cracking is associated with hydrolytic degradation of nylon at 60°C. The change in structure could result in a significant loss of retention. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  18. Effects of Zinc Compound on Body Weight and Recovery of Bone Marrow in Mice Treated with Total Body Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yii Huang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if zinc compound would have effects on body weight loss and bone marrow suppression induced by total body irradiation (TBI. ICR mice were divided randomly into two groups and treated with test or control compounds. The test compound contained zinc (amino acid chelated with bovine prostate extract, and the control was reverse osmosis pure water (RO water. One week after receiving the treatment, mice were unirradiated, or irradiated with 6 or 3 Gy by 6MV photon beams to the total body. Body weight changes were examined at regular intervals. Three and 5 weeks after the radiation, animals were sacrificed to examine the histologic changes in the bone marrow. Lower body weight in the period of 1-5 weeks after radiation and poor survival rate were found after the 6 Gy TBI, as compared with the 3 Gy groups. The median survival time after 6 Gy and 3 Gy TBI for mice given the test compound were 26 and 76 days, respectively, and the corresponding figures were 14 and 70 days, respectively, for mice given the control compound (p < 0.00001. With zinc supplement, the mean body weight in mice which received the same dose of radiation was 7-8 g heavier than in the water-supplement groups during the second and third weeks (p < 0.05. Hence, there was no statistically significant difference in survival rate between zinc and water supplement in mice given the same dose of irradiation. Histopathologically there was less recovery of bone marrow cells in the 6Gy groups compared with the 3Gy groups. In the 3 Gy water-supplement group, the nucleated cells and megakaryocytes were recovered in the fifth week when recovery was still not seen in the 6Gy group. With zinc supplement, these cells were recovered in the third week. In this study, we found that zinc is beneficial to body weight in mice treated with TBI. Histologic examination of bone marrow showed better recovery of bone marrow cells in groups of mice fed with zinc. This study

  19. Prolonged whole body immersion in cold water: hormonal and metabolic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D J; Deuster, P A; Ryan, C J; Doubt, T J

    1990-03-01

    To characterize metabolic and hormonal responses during prolonged whole body immersion, 16 divers wearing dry suits completed four immersions in 5 degrees C water during each of two 5-day air saturation dives at 6.1 meters of sea water. One immersion began in the AM (1000 h) and one began in the PM (2200 h) to evaluate diurnal variations. Venous blood samples were obtained before and after completion of each immersion. Cortisol and ACTH levels demonstrated diurnal variation, with larger increases occurring after PM immersions. A greater than three-fold postimmersion increase occurred in norepinephrine (NE). There were significant increases in triiodothyronine (T3) uptake and epinephrine, but no change in T3, thyroxine, thyrotrophic hormone, and dopamine. Postimmersion free fatty acid levels increased 409% from preimmersion levels; glucose levels declined, and lactate increased significantly. Only changes in NE correlated significantly with changes in rectal temperature. In summary, when subjects are immersed in cold water for prolonged periods, with a slow rate of body cooling afforded by thermal protection and intermittent exercise, hormonal and metabolic changes occur that are similar in direction and magnitude to short-duration unprotected exposures. Except for cortisol and ACTH, none of the other measured variables exhibited diurnal alterations.

  20. Effects of canagliflozin on body weight and body composition in patients with type 2 diabetes over 104 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonde, Lawrence; Stenlöf, Kaj; Fung, Albert; Xie, John; Canovatchel, William; Meininger, Gary

    2016-05-01

    Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has been associated with weight loss in a broad range of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This analysis further evaluated changes in body weight and composition with canagliflozin in two 104-week, Phase 3 studies. In Study 1, patients aged 18-80 years (N = 1,450) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or glimepiride as add-on to metformin for a 52-week core treatment period, followed by a 52-week extension period. In Study 2, patients aged 55-80 years (N = 714) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or placebo added to stable background antihyperglycemic agents for a 26-week core treatment period, followed by a 78-week extension period. Percent change from baseline in body weight; proportion of patients with any weight loss, ≥5% weight loss, and ≥10% weight loss; change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference; change in body weight across weight-loss quartiles; and changes in body composition were evaluated in both studies. Canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided sustained weight loss versus either glimepiride or placebo over 104 weeks. More patients experienced any weight loss and ≥5% weight loss with canagliflozin versus comparator. Across the 3 highest weight-loss quartiles, canagliflozin provided greater weight loss versus glimepiride or placebo. BMI and waist circumference reductions were observed with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus either glimepiride or placebo over 104 weeks; more patients had BMI or waist circumference reductions with canagliflozin versus comparator. Body composition analysis indicated that the majority of weight loss was due to loss of fat mass. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated, with increased incidence of adverse events related to the SGLT2 inhibition mechanism. Canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided sustained reductions in body weight, BMI, and waist circumference in a greater proportion of patients with T2DM versus

  1. The role of hyperthermia in the water economy of desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, B.I.; Williams, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    A number of authors have suggested that hyperthermia, the elevation of body temperature (T-b) 2 degrees-4 degrees C above normal, contributes to a reduction in total evaporative water loss (TEWL) in birds. Information about the role of hyperthermia in the water economy of birds is scattered

  2. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the ... lose bone faster than it can be replaced. Menopause—the time when menstrual periods end, which usually ...

  3. Impacts of soil conditioners and water table management on phosphorus loss in tile drainage from a clay loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T Q; Tan, C S; Zheng, Z M; Welacky, T W; Reynolds, W D

    2015-03-01

    Adoption of waste-derived soil conditioners and refined water management can improve soil physical quality and crop productivity of fine-textured soils. However, the impacts of these practices on water quality must be assessed to ensure environmental sustainability. We conducted a study to determine phosphorus (P) loss in tile drainage as affected by two types of soil conditioners (yard waste compost and swine manure compost) and water table management (free drainage and controlled drainage with subirrigation) in a clay loam soil under corn-soybean rotation in a 4-yr period from 1999 to 2003. Tile drainage flows were monitored and sampled on a year-round continuous basis using on-site auto-sampling systems. Water samples were analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP), particulate P (PP), and total P (TP). Substantially greater concentrations and losses of DRP, PP, and TP occurred with swine manure compost than with control and yard waste compost regardless of water table management. Compared with free drainage, controlled drainage with subirrigation was an effective way to reduce annual and cumulative losses of DRP, PP, and TP in tile drainage through reductions in flow volume and P concentration with control and yard waste compost but not with swine manure compost. Both DRP and TP concentrations in tile drainage were well above the water quality guideline for P, affirming that subsurface loss of P from fine-textured soils can be one critical source for freshwater eutrophication. Swine manure compost applied as a soil conditioner must be optimized by taking water quality impacts into consideration. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. The impact of aging, hearing loss, and body weight on mouse hippocampal redox state, measured in brain slices using fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbings, Kevin A; Choi, Hyun W; Ravindra, Aditya; Llano, Daniel Adolfo

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between oxidative stress in the hippocampus and other aging-related changes such as hearing loss, cortical thinning, or changes in body weight are not yet known. We measured the redox ratio in a number of neural structures in brain slices taken from young and aged mice. Hearing thresholds, body weight, and cortical thickness were also measured. We found striking aging-related increases in the redox ratio that were isolated to the stratum pyramidale, while such changes were not observed in thalamus or cortex. These changes were driven primarily by changes in flavin adenine dinucleotide, not nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride. Multiple regression analysis suggested that neither hearing threshold nor cortical thickness independently contributed to this change in hippocampal redox ratio. However, body weight did independently contribute to predicted changes in hippocampal redox ratio. These data suggest that aging-related changes in hippocampal redox ratio are not a general reflection of overall brain oxidative state but are highly localized, while still being related to at least one marker of late aging, weight loss at the end of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. TECHNICAL FACT SHEET: A Systematic Evaluation of Dissolved Metals Loss during Water Sample Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research study examined how water quality collection and filtration approaches, including commonly used capsule and disc syringe filters, may cause losses in the amounts of soluble lead and copper found in a sample. A variety of commercially available filter materials with a...

  6. ITER SAFETY TASK NID-5D: Operational tritium loss and accident investigation for heat transport and water detritiation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyanam, K.M.; Fong, C.; Moledina, M.; Natalizio, A.

    1995-02-01

    The task objectives are to: a) determine major pathways for tritium loss during normal operation of the cooling systems and water detritiation system, b) estimate operational losses and environmental tritium releases from the heat transport and water detritiation systems of ITER, and c) prepare a preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) for the ITER Water Detritiation System. The analysis will be used to estimate chronic environmental tritium releases (airborne and waterborne) for the ITER Cooling Systems and Water Detritiation System. The assessment will form the basis for demonstrating the acceptability of ITER for siting in the Early Safety and Environmental Characterization Study (ESECS), to be issued in early 1995. (author). 7 refs., 10 tabs., 11 figs

  7. Doubly labeled water method: in vivo oxygen and hydrogen isotope fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeller, D.A.; Leitch, C.A.; Brown, C.

    1986-01-01

    The accuracy and precision of the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure are influenced by isotope fractionation during evaporative water loss and CO 2 excretion. To characterize in vivo isotope fractionation, we collected and isotopically analyzed physiological fluids and gases. Breath and transcutaneous water vapor were isotopically fractionated. The degree of fractionation indicated that the former was fractionated under equilibrium control at 37 0 C, and the latter was kinetically fractionated. Sweat and urine were unfractionated. By use of isotopic balance models, the fraction of water lost via fractionating routes was estimated from the isotopic abundances of body water, local drinking water, and dietary solids. Fractionated water loss averaged 23% (SD = 10%) of water turnover, which agreed with our previous estimates based on metabolic rate, but there was a systematic difference between the results based on O 2 and hydrogen. Corrections for isotopic fractionation of water lost in breath and (nonsweat) transcutaneous loss should be made when using labeled water to measure water turnover or CO 2 production

  8. Validity of air-displacement plethysmography in the assessment of body composition changes in a 16-month weight loss program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hull Holly R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the accuracy of air displacement plethysmography (ADP and dual energy x-ray absorptionmetry (DXA in tracking changes in body composition after a 16 month weight loss intervention in overweight and obese females. Methods 93 healthy female subjects (38.9 ± 5.7 yr, 159.8 ± 5.6 cm, 76.7 ± 9.9 kg, 30.0 ± 3.4 kg/m2 completed a 16 month weight loss intervention. Eligible subjects attended 15 treatment sessions occurring over the course of 4 months with educational content including topics relating to physical activity and exercise, diet and eating behavior, and behavior modification. In the remaining 12 months, subjects underwent a lifestyle program designed to increase physical activity and improve eating habits. Before and after the intervention, subjects had their percent body fat (%fat, fat mass (FM, and fat-free mass (FFM assessed by DXA and ADP. Results Significant differences (p ≤ 0.001 were found between DXA and ADP at baseline %fat (46.0 % fat vs. 42.0 % fat, FM (35.3 kg vs. 32.5 kg and FFM (40.8 kg vs. 44.2 kg as well as at post intervention for %fat (42.1% fat vs. 38.3 % fat, FM (30.9 kg vs. 28.4 kg and FFM (41.7 kg vs. 44.7 kg. At each time point, ADP %fat and total FM was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.001 than DXA while FFM was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.001. However, both techniques tracked %fat changes similarly considering that there were no differences between the two means. Furthermore, a Bland-Altman analysis was performed and no significant bias was observed, thus demonstrating the ability of ADP to measure body fat across a wide range of fatness. Conclusion At baseline and post weight loss, a significant difference was found between ADP and DXA. However, the results indicate both methods are highly related and track changes in %fat similarly after a weight loss program in overweight and obese females. Additionally, the mean changes in %fat were similar between the two techniques, suggesting

  9. Do psychological factors help to reduce body mass in obesity or is it vice versa? Selected psychological aspects and effectiveness of the weight-loss program in the obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bąk-Sosnowska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the strength and direction of the correlation between cognitive appraisal, emotional state, social functioning and the effectiveness of a weight-loss program undertaken by obese subjects. The out-patient weight-loss program encompassed 150 obese women. Assessments were carried out at four time points: at the start of the weight-loss program and then after a 5%, 10% and a 15% reduction of the initial body mass. The research tools used were: a survey, the Situation Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ, the Emotional State Questionnaire (ESQ, and the Q-Sort Social Functioning Questionnaire. The cognitive appraisal, emotional state and social functioning of the study group changed significantly (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with a 15% body mass reduction, as compared with individuals with no body mass reduction, had an early obesity onset, i.e. at the age of <10 years old (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with no body mass reduction, compared with individuals with a 15% reduction, had a later obesity onset, i.e. between the ages of 20 and 30 (P<0.001 and between 50 and 60 (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with a 15% body mass reduction, compared with individuals with no mass reduction, had previously experienced the jojo effect (P<0.001 and had successfully lost weight (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with no body mass reduction, compared with individuals with a15% reduction, had a history of unsuccessful attempts at reducing body mass (P<0.001. We conclude that the attitude of obese patients towards a weight-loss program is not a deciding factor for its effectiveness. As body mass reduces, the attitude improves.

  10. Potential of a novel airborne hydrographic laser scanner for capturing shallow water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandlburger, G.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Steinbacher, F.; Pfeifer, N.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present the general design of a hydrographic laser scanner (prototype instrument) manufactured by the company Riegl Laser Measurement Systems in cooperation with the University of Innsbruck, Unit of Hydraulic Engineering. The instrument utilizes very short laser pulses (1 ns) in the green wavelength domain (λ=532 nm) capable of penetrating the water column. The backscattered signal is digitized in a waveform recorder at high frequency enabling sophisticated waveform processing, both, online during the flight and in post processing. In combination with a traditional topographic airborne laser scanner (λ=1500 nm) mounted on the same platform a complete hydrographic and topographic survey of the riparian foreland, the water surface and river bed can be carried out in a single campaign. In contrast to existing bathymetric LiDAR systems, the presented system uses only medium pulse energy but a high pulse repetition rate of up to 250 kHz and, thus, focuses on a detailed description of shallow water bodies under clear water conditions. Different potential fields of applications of the instrument (hydraulic modelling, hydro-morphology, hydro-biology, ecology, river restoration and monitoring) are discussed and the results of first real-world test flights in Austria and Germany are presented. It is shown that: (i) the high pulse repetition rate enables a point density on the ground of the water body of 10-20 pts/m2, (ii) the short laser pulses together with waveform processing enable a discrimination between water and ground reflections at a water depth of less than 25 cm, (iii) the combination of a topographic and hydrographic laser scanner enable the acquisition of the geometry data for hydraulic modeling in a single survey, thus, providing a much more homogeneous data basis compared to traditional techniques, and (iv) the high point density and the ranging accuracy of less than 10 cm enable a detailed and precise description of the river bed

  11. Prolonged whole-body cold water immersion: fluid and ion shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuster, P A; Smith, D J; Smoak, B L; Montgomery, L C; Singh, A; Doubt, T J

    1989-01-01

    To characterize fluid and ion shifts during prolonged whole-body immersion, 16 divers wearing dry suits completed four whole-body immersions in 5 degrees C water during each of two 5-day air saturation dives at 6.1 msw. One immersion was conducted at 1000 (AM) and one at 2200 (PM) so that diurnal variations could be evaluated. Fifty-four hours separated the immersions, which lasted up to 6 h; 9 days separated each air saturation dive. Blood was collected before and after immersion; urine was collected for 12 h before, during, and after immersion for a total of 24 h. Plasma volume decreased significantly and to the same extent (approximately 17%) during both AM and PM immersions. Urine flow increased by 236.1 +/- 38.7 and 296.3 +/- 52.0%, urinary excretion of Na increased by 290.4 +/- 89.0 and 329.5 +/- 77.0%, K by 245.0 +/- 73.4 and 215.5 +/- 44.6%, Ca by 211.0 +/- 31.4 and 241.1 +/- 50.4%, Mg by 201.4 +/- 45.9 and 165.3 +/- 287%, and Zn by 427.8 +/- 93.7 and 301.9 +/- 75.4% during AM and PM immersions, respectively, compared with preimmersion. Urine flow and K excretion were significantly higher during the AM than PM. In summary, when subjects are immersed in cold water for prolonged periods, combined with a slow rate of body cooling afforded by thermal protection and enforced intermittent exercise, there is diuresis, decreased plasma volume, and increased excretions of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Zn.

  12. Radionuclide transport in the "sediments - water - plants" system of the water bodies at the Semipalatinsk test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidarkhanova, A K; Lukashenko, S N; Larionova, N V; Polevik, V V

    2018-04-01

    This paper provides research data on levels and character of radionuclide contamination distribution in the «sediments- water - plants » system of objects of the Semipalatinsk test site (STS). As the research objects there were chosen water bodies of man-made origin which located at the territory of "Experimental Field", "Balapan", "Telkem" and "Sary-Uzen" testing sites. For research the sampling of bottom sediments, water, lakeside and water plants was taken. Collected samples were used to determine concentration of anthropogenic radionuclides 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, 137 Cs. The distribution coefficient (K d ) was calculated as the ratio of the content of radionuclides in the sediments to the content in water, and the concentration ratio (F V ) was calculated as the ratio of radionuclide content in plants to the content in sediments or soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Growth hormone and prolactin responses during partial and whole body warm-water immersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, J; Rovensky, J; Zimanova, T; Vigas, M

    2003-05-01

    To elucidate the role of core and skin thermoreceptors in the release of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL), a sequence of two experiments using whole-body (head-out) and partial (one forearm) hot water immersions was performed. Experiment 1: Nine healthy men were exposed to head-out and partial water immersions (25 min, 38-39 degrees C). Head-out immersion increased the core temperature (38.0 +/- 0.1 vs. 36.7 +/- 0.1 degrees C, P immersion the core temperature was slightly elevated (36.8 +/- 0.1 vs. 36.6 +/- 0.1, P immersed one forearm once in 39 degrees C and once in 38 degrees C water. The measurements were performed in 5-min intervals. The GH concentration increased gradually from the beginning of the immersions (min 10; 39 degrees C: 1.9 +/- 1.0 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.3 ng mL(-1), P Immersion in 38 degrees C water did not induce core temperature changes. Peripheral thermoreceptors are involved in GH release when the body is exposed to elevated environmental temperature while a substantial elevation of core temperature is a precondition of PRL release.

  14. Impact of palmitic acid coating on the water uptake and loss of ammonium sulfate particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Garland

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available While water insoluble organics are prevalent in the atmosphere, it is not clear how the presence of such species alters the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols. Here we use a combination of FTIR spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS to characterize ammonium sulfate particles coated with palmitic acid. Coated aerosols were generated by atomizing pure ammonium sulfate, mixing the particles with a heated flow of nitrogen with palmitic acid vapor, and then flowing the mixture through an in-line oven to create internally mixed particles. The mixing state of the particles was probed using the AMS data and images from the TEM. Both of these probes suggest that the particles were internally mixed. Water uptake by the mixed particles was then probed at 273 K. It was found that for ammonium sulfate containing ~20 wt% palmitic acid the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH was the same as for pure ammonium sulfate (80±3% RH. For particles with ~50 wt% palmitic acid however, the mixed particles began to take up water at relative humidities as low at 69% and continued to slowly take up water to 85% RH without fully deliquescing. In addition to studies of water uptake, water loss was also investigated. Here coatings of up to 50 wt% had no impact on the efflorescence relative humidity. These studies suggest that even if insoluble substances coat salt particles in the atmosphere, there may be relatively little effect on the resulting water uptake and loss.

  15. Soil, water, and nutrient losses from management alternatives for degraded pasture in Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha Junior, Paulo Roberto da; Andrade, Felipe Vaz; Mendonça, Eduardo de Sá; Donagemma, Guilherme Kangussú; Fernandes, Raphael Bragança Alves; Bhattharai, Rabin; Kalita, Prasanta Kumar

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate sediment, water and nutrient losses from different pasture managements in the Atlantic Rainforest biome. A field study was carried out in Alegre Espiríto Santo, Brazil, on a Xanthic Ferralsol cultivated with braquiaria (Brachiaria brizantha). The six pasture managements studied were: control (CON), chisel (CHI), fertilizer (FER), burned (BUR), plowing and harrowing (PH), and integrated crop-livestock (iCL). Runoff and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and organic carbon contents. Soil physical attributes and above and below biomass were also evaluated. The results indicated that higher water loss was observed for iCL (129.90mm) and CON (123.25mm) managements, and the sediment losses were higher for CON (10.24tha -1 ) and BUR (5.20tha -1 ) managements when compared to the other managements. Majority of the nutrients losses occurred in dissolved fraction (99% of Ca, 99% of Mg, 96% of K, and 65% of P), whereas a significant fraction of organic carbon (80%) loss occurred in a particulate form. Except for P, other nutrients (Ca, Mg and K) and organic carbon losses were higher in coarse sediment compared to fine sediment. The greater losses of sediment, organic carbon, and nutrients were observed for CON followed by BUR management (plosses from various practices, to reduce pasture degradation, farmers should adopt edaphic practices by applying lime and fertilize to improve pasture growth and soil cover, and reducing soil erosion in the hilly Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest biome. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W. T.; Wallace, S. L.; Gazda, D. B.; Lewis, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. One major aspect of that is ensuring that microbial growth is minimized. Historically, this challenge has been addressed through the use of biocides. When using biocides, the choice of materials for the storage containers is important, because surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system (ionic silver) will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting of the system. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  17. Contaminant transport modelling in tidal influenced water body for low level liquid waste discharge out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sanjay; Naidu, Velamala Simhadri

    2018-01-01

    Low level liquid waste is generated from nuclear reactor operation and reprocessing of spent fuel. This waste is discharged into the water body after removing bulk of its radioactivity. Dispersion of contaminant mainly depends on location of outfall and hydrodynamics of water body. For radiological impact assessment, in most of the analytical formulations, source term is taken as continuous release. However, this may not be always true as the water level is influenced by tidal movement and the selected outfall may come under intertidal zone in due course of the tidal cycle. To understand these phenomena, a case study has been carried out to evaluate hydrodynamic characteristics and dilution potential of outfall located in inter-tidal zone using numerical modelling

  18. Weight loss in orthognathic surgery: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Douglas; Williams, Rhodri W; Juj, Kiranjit; O'Connell, Susan; Isherwood, Grant; Hammond, Nichola

    2015-09-01

    To analyse weight change, body composition change and Body Mass Index change in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery. A service evaluation was undertaken in orthognathic patients pre-operatively and at 4 weeks post-surgery. Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham outpatient department. Thirty-one patients scheduled for single- or two-jaw orthognathic surgery and rigid internal fixation. Immediately pre-operatively and at 4 weeks post-surgery the following information was gathered: (1) patient height; (2) patient weight (kg); (3) Patient Body Mass Index; and (4) patient body fat percentage. In the 4-week post-operative period, the average weight loss was -4·96 kg (range: -9·6 to +3·0 kg), with a body fat reduction of -3·07% (range: -5·80% to +2·30%) and an average reduction in Body Mass Index of -1·63 (range: -3·4 to +0·8). There was no statistically significant difference in weight loss (P = 0·1562) or body fat composition change (P = 0·2391) between single- or two-jaw surgery. There was no statistically significant difference in weight loss (P = 0·4858) or body fat composition change (P = 0·5321) between male and female patients. Weight loss observed was similar to that reported in studies using inter-maxillary fixation. Closer psychological and dietetic support is needed for patients who have a low normal or underweight Body Mass Index. Better and more bespoke tailored Oral Nutritional Supplementation must be provided for all orthognathic surgery patients to potentially reduce this significant weight