WorldWideScience

Sample records for body upright exercise

  1. Maximal muscular vascular conductances during whole body upright exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Jensen-Urstad, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2004-01-01

    (VO(2,max)) 5.1 +/- 0.1 l min(-1) participated in the study. Femoral and subclavian vein blood flows, intra-arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, as well as blood gases in the femoral and subclavian vein, right atrium and femoral artery were determined during skiing (roller skis) at approximately...... 76% of VO(2,max) and at VO(2,max) with different techniques: diagonal stride (combined arm and leg exercise), double poling (predominantly arm exercise) and leg skiing (predominantly leg exercise). During submaximal exercise cardiac output (26-27 l min(-1)), mean blood pressure (MAP) (approximately......That muscular blood flow may reach 2.5 l kg(-1) min(-1) in the quadriceps muscle has led to the suggestion that muscular vascular conductance must be restrained during whole body exercise to avoid hypotension. The main aim of this study was to determine the maximal arm and leg muscle vascular...

  2. Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST

  3. A Comparison of the Physiology and Mechanics of Exercise in LBNP and Upright Gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, W. L.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Chang, D.; Looft-Wilson, R.; Hargens, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    Bone, muscular strength, aerobic capacity, and normal fluid pressure gradients within the body are lost during bed rest and spaceflight. Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) exercise may create musculoskeletal and cardiovascular strains equal to a greater than those experienced on Earth and elucidate some of the mechanisms for maintaining bone integrity. LBNP exercise simulates gravity during supine posture by using negative pressure to pull subjects inward against a treadmill generating footward forces and increasing transmural pressures. Footward forces are generated which equal the product of the pressure differential and the cross-sectional area of the LBNP waist seal. Subjects lie supine within the chamber with their legs suspended from one another via cuffs, bungee cords, and pulleys, such that each leg acts as a counterweight to the other leg during the gait cycle. The subjects then walk or run on a treadmill which is positioned vertically within the chamber. Supine orientation allows only footward force production due to the negative pressure within the chamber. The purpose of this study was to determine if the kinematics, kinetics, and metabolic rate during supine walking and slow running on a vertical treadmill within LBNP are similar to those on a treadmill in 1-g environment in an upright posture.

  4. Balance Maintenance in the Upright Body Position: Analysis of Autocorrelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stodolka¹ Jacek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to analyze values of the autocorrelation function measured for different time values of ground reaction forces during stable upright standing. It was hypothesized that if recording of force in time depended on the quality and way of regulating force by the central nervous system (as a regulator, then the application of autocorrelation for time series in the analysis of force changes in time function would allow to determine regulator properties and its functioning. The study was performed on 82 subjects (students, athletes, senior and junior soccer players and subjects who suffered from lower limb injuries. The research was conducted with the use of two Kistler force plates and was based on measurements of ground reaction forces taken during a 15 s period of standing upright while relaxed. The results of the autocorrelation function were statistically analyzed. The research revealed a significant correlation between a derivative extreme and velocity of reaching the extreme by the autocorrelation function, described as gradient strength. Low correlation values (all statistically significant were observed between time of the autocorrelation curve passing through 0 axis and time of reaching the first peak by the said function. Parameters computed on the basis of the autocorrelation function are a reliable means to evaluate the process of flow of stimuli in the nervous system. Significant correlations observed between the parameters of the autocorrelation function indicate that individual parameters provide similar properties of the central nervous system.

  5. Sex-related differences in the normal cardiac response to upright exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginbotham, M.B.; Morris, K.G.; Coleman, R.E.; Cobb, F.R.

    1984-01-01

    In previous studies from this laboratory, it was found that approximately 30% of women with chest pain and normal coronary arteries demonstrated either a decrease in or a failure to increase radionuclide ejection fraction during exercise. To examine the hypothesis that this apparent abnormality in left ventricular function represents a physiologic difference between men and women, a prospective study was made of central and peripheral cardiovascular responses to exercise in 31 age-matched healthy volunteers (16 women and 15 men). A combination of quantitative radionuclide (technetium) angiography and expired-gas analysis was used to measure ejection fraction and relative changes in end-diastolic counts, stroke counts, count output, and arteriovenous oxygen difference during symptom-limited upright bicycle exercise. Normal male and female volunteers demonstrated comparable baseline left ventricular function and similar aerobic capacity, as determined by weight-adjusted peak oxygen consumption. However, their cardiac responses to exercise were significantly different. The ejection fraction increased by 5 points or more in 14 of 15 men, but in only seven of the 16 women. End-diastolic counts increased by 30% in women, but was unchanged in men. Because decreases in ejection fraction were matched by increases in end-diastolic counts, relative increases in stroke counts and count output were the same for men and women. These data demonstrate a basic difference between men and women with respect to the mechanism by which they achieve a normal response of stroke volume to exercise; these differences must be taken into account when measurements of cardiac function during exercise stress are used for diagnostic purposes

  6. Effects of short-term training combining strength and balance exercises on maximal strength and upright standing steadiness in elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzer, Félix; Duchateau, Jacques; Baudry, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two training programmes of 6 weeks combining strength and balance exercises in different proportions. One training programme [n=10; 71.4 (6.3) years] consisted mainly of strength exercises (ST) and the other programme [n=8; 71.4 (6.4) years] included a majority of balance exercises (BT). Maximal strength of lower leg muscles and centre of pressure (CoP) steadiness during upright stance in various sensory conditions were measured before and after training. The input-output relation of motor evoked potential (MEP) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation and H reflex was also assessed in soleus during upright standing. The maximal strength of the ankle plantar flexor muscles increased after training programmes (pstrength was positively correlated with the increase in voluntary activation (ptraining programmes decreased maximal amplitude and mean fluctuations of CoP displacements recorded in the backward-forward direction when standing on a foam mat (pmuscles during upright standing decreased (ptraining but not for the tibialis anterior. Results obtained for H reflex and MEP input-output relations suggest an increased efficacy of Ia afferents to activate low-threshold motor neurones and a decrease in corticospinal excitability after training. This study indicates that short-term training combining strength and balance exercises increases maximal strength and induces change in the neural control of lower leg muscles during upright standing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Force direction patterns promote whole body stability even in hip-flexed walking, but not upper body stability in human upright walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Roy; Rode, Christian; Aminiaghdam, Soran; Vielemeyer, Johanna; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2017-11-01

    Directing the ground reaction forces to a focal point above the centre of mass of the whole body promotes whole body stability in human and animal gaits similar to a physical pendulum. Here we show that this is the case in human hip-flexed walking as well. For all upper body orientations (upright, 25°, 50°, maximum), the focal point was well above the centre of mass of the whole body, suggesting its general relevance for walking. Deviations of the forces' lines of action from the focal point increased with upper body inclination from 25 to 43 mm root mean square deviation (RMSD). With respect to the upper body in upright gait, the resulting force also passed near a focal point (17 mm RMSD between the net forces' lines of action and focal point), but this point was 18 cm below its centre of mass. While this behaviour mimics an unstable inverted pendulum, it leads to resulting torques of alternating sign in accordance with periodic upper body motion and probably provides for low metabolic cost of upright gait by keeping hip torques small. Stabilization of the upper body is a consequence of other mechanisms, e.g. hip reflexes or muscle preflexes.

  8. MOLAR UPRIGHTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Erwansyah

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The mesial tipping of molar is frequently found in orthodontic cases. This molar malposition must be corrected since it may cause periodontal disorders, occlusal interferences, and temporomandibular joint dysfunction, and is often needed in planning a fixed bridge. This paper is a literature study to discuss about appliance designs, indication, and contraindications, and complication and treatment protocols of molar uprighting by fixed orthodontic appliances. By knowing the techniques of molar uprighting, the moments mentioned above can be avoided.

  9. Quantitative radionuclide angiography in assessment of hemodynamic changes during upright exercise: observations in normal subjects, patient with coronary artery disease and patients with aortic regurgitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Kane, S.A.; Segal, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative radionuclide angiography was used to evaluate hemodynamic changes in three subject groups during symptom-limited upright exercise. The 12 normal subjects had significant increases in heart rate, stroke volume, left ventricular ejection fraction and cardiac output during exercise; changes in end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were not significant. In the 24 patients with coronary artery disease there were significant increases in heart rate and cardiac output during exercise, but insignificant changes in end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes and ejection fraction. The change in diastolic volume in these patients was determined by the extent of coronary artery disease, propranolol therapy, end point of exercise and presence of collateral vessels. Furthermore, patients with previous myocardial infarction had a lower ejection fraction and higher end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes during exercise than those without myocardial infarction. In the 12 patients with chronic aortic regurgitation of moderate to severe degree, there was a decrease in the end-diastolic volume during exercise. This response was distinctly different from that of the normal subjects or the patients with coronary artery disease. All three groups had a significant decrease in pulmonary transit time during exercise. It is concluded that changes in cardiac output in normal subjects during upright exercise are related to augmentation of stroke volume and tachycardia, whereas in patients with coronary artery disease they are related mainly to tachycardia

  10. Quantification of pulmonary thallium-201 activity after upright exercise in normal persons: importance of peak heart rate and propranolol usage in defining normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Okada, R.D.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-nine normal patients (34 angiographically normal and 25 clinically normal by Bayesian analysis) underwent thallium-201 imaging after maximal upright exercise. Lung activity was quantitated relative to myocardial activity and a lung/myocardial activity ratio was determined for each patient. Stepwise regression analysis was then used to examine the influence of patient clinical characteristics and exercise variables on the lung/myocardium ratio. Peak heart rate during exercise and propranolol usage both showed significant negative regression coefficients (p less than 0.001). No other patient data showed a significant relation. Using the regression equation and the estimated variance, a 95% confidence level upper limit of normal could be determined for a give peak heart rate and propranolol status. Sixty-one other patients were studied to validate the predicted upper limits of normal based on this model. None of the 27 patients without coronary artery disease had an elevated lung/myocardial ratio, compared with 1 of 8 with 1-vessel disease (difference not significant), 6 of 14 with 2-vessel disease (p less than 0.005), and 6 of 12 with 3-vessel disease (p less than 0.0001). Thus, lung activity on upright exercise thallium-201 studies can be quantitated relative to myocardial activity, and is inversely related to peak heart rate and propranolol use. Use of a regression analysis allows determination of a 95% confidence upper limit of normal to be anticipated in an individual patient

  11. Clinical evaluation of exercise thallium-201 whole body scintigraphy in ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Kenzo; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Takeshi

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate whole body distribution and kinetics of Thallium-201 at exercise and redistribution, whole body scintigraphy (WB-S) was performed on 12 normal subjects (N), 19 patients with angina pectoris (AP) and 18 patients with old myocardial infarction (MI). WB-S was obtained using a gamma camera OMEGA 500 and analized by ADAC System IV. We estimated the following parameters from WB-S; 1) %Distribution (%D): the ratio of whole body counts to organ counts 2) washout rate (WR) in each organ. %D of the heart in N, AP and MI was similar at rest and exercise. At exercise, %D of the lung and the liver decreased and %D of thighs increased remarkably than at rest. At supine exercise, the lung indicated high %D and thinghs indicated low %D compared with at upright exercise. WR of the heart in AP and MI was significantly lower than in N (p<0.005, p<0.01) and further decreased proportionally to the number of stenotic coronary arteries and related to the ischemic ST depression of exercise ECG. WR of the heart was not correlation with pressure rate product and this finding suggested that WR of the heart was not prescribed by the tolerance of exercise but related to coronary flow at exercise a certain degree. WR of the lung in MI was significantly higher (p<0.025) and WR of thighs in AP and MI was significantly lower (p<0.025, p<0.05) compared with N. (author)

  12. Cardiovascular control during whole body exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Secher, Niels H.

    2016-01-01

    It has been considered whether during whole body exercise the increase in cardiac output is large enough to support skeletal muscle blood flow. This review addresses four lines of evidence for a flow limitation to skeletal muscles during whole body exercise. First, even though during exercise...... the blood flow achieved by the arms is lower than that achieved by the legs (=160 vs. 385 mlmin1100 g1), the muscle mass that can be perfused with such flow is limited by the capacity to increase cardiac output (42 l/min, highest recorded value). Secondly, activation of the exercise pressor reflex during...... fatiguing work with one muscle group limits flow to other muscle groups. Another line of evidence comes from evaluation of regional blood flow during exercise where there is a discrepancy between flow to a muscle group when it is working exclusively and when it works together with other muscles. Finally...

  13. Recumbent vs. upright bicycles: 3D trajectory of body centre of mass, limb mechanical work, and operative range of propulsive muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telli, Riccardo; Seminati, Elena; Pavei, Gaspare; Minetti, Alberto Enrico

    2017-03-01

    Recumbent bicycles (RB) are high performance, human-powered vehicles. In comparison to normal/upright bicycles (NB) the RB may allow individuals to reach higher speeds due to aerodynamic advantages. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the non-aerodynamic factors that may potentially influence the performance of the two bicycles. 3D body centre of mass (BCoM) trajectory, its symmetries, and the components of the total mechanical work necessary to sustain cycling were assessed through 3D kinematics and computer simulations. Data collected at 50, 70, 90 110 rpm during stationary cycling were used to drive musculoskeletal modelling simulation and estimate muscle-tendon length. Results demonstrated that BCoM trajectory, confined in a 15-mm side cube, changed its orientation, maintaining a similar pattern across all cadences in both bicycles. RB displayed a reduced additional mechanical external power (16.1 ± 9.7 W on RB vs. 20.3 ± 8.8 W on NB), a greater symmetry on the progression axis, and no differences in the internal mechanical power compared to NB. Simulated muscle activity revealed small significant differences for only selected muscles. On the RB, quadriceps and gluteus demonstrated greater shortening, while biceps femoris, iliacus, and psoas exhibited greater stretch; however, aerodynamics still remains the principal benefit.

  14. Effect of sixteen weeks of combined exercise on body composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , including 40min of resistance exercise, 40min of aerobic exercise and10min warm-up and cool-down. The CG did not participate in any exercise or physical activity. Body composition variables (weight, body mass index, fat-free mass, percent ...

  15. Upper Body Exercise: 'Jarming' Instead of Jogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cindy Christian

    1986-01-01

    The virtues of "armchair exercise" and "jarming" (jogging with the arms) are being extolled far and wide. The relative merits of arm and leg exercise are discussed. People who could benefit from arm exercise are described. (MT)

  16. Effects of Upright and Recumbent Cycling on Executive Function and Prefrontal Cortex Oxygenation in Young Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, James; Lambrick, Danielle; Kaufmann, Sebastian; Stoner, Lee

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the acute effects of posture (upright vs recumbent) during moderate-intensity cycle exercise on executive function and prefrontal cortex oxygenation in young healthy adults. Seventeen physically active men (24.6 ± 4.3 years) completed 2 30-minute submaximal exercise tests (conditions: upright and recumbent cycle ergometry). Executive function was assessed using the "color" and "word" Stroop task, preexercise (resting) and postexercise. Regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) to the prefrontal cortex was continuously monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy. Significant improvements in executive function (Stroop color and word tasks) were observed after 30 minutes of exercise for both upright and recumbent cycling (P cycling conditions (P > .05). A significant increase in rSO2 was recorded immediately postexercise compared with preexercise for both conditions (P cycling compared with upright cycling (81.9% ± 6.5% cf 79.7% ± 9.3%, respectively). Although submaximal cycling exercise acutely improves cognitive performance and prefrontal oxygenation, changes in cognition are not perceived to be dependent on body posture in young, healthy men.

  17. Whole body vibration exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; van der Spuy, Ina; Tupper, Susan; Kim, Soo Y; Boden, Catherine

    2017-09-26

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for adults with fibromyalgia. We defined whole body vibration (WBV) exercise as use of a vertical or rotary oscillating platform as an exercise stimulus while the individual engages in sustained static positioning or dynamic movements. The individual stands on the platform, and oscillations result in vibrations transmitted to the subject through the legs. This review is one of a series of reviews that replaces the first review published in 2002. To evaluate benefits and harms of WBV exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PEDro, Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, AMED, WHO ICTRP, and ClinicalTrials.gov up to December 2016, unrestricted by language, to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with the diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria including a WBV intervention versus control or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, performed risk of bias assessments, and assessed the quality of evidence for major outcomes using the GRADE approach. We used a 15% threshold for calculation of clinically relevant differences. We included four studies involving 150 middle-aged female participants from one country. Two studies had two treatment arms (71 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise plus relaxation versus mixed exercise plus relaxation and placebo WBV versus control, and WBV plus mixed exercise versus mixed exercise and control; two studies had three treatment arms (79 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise versus control and mixed relaxation placebo WBV. We judged the overall risk of bias as low for selection (random sequence generation), detection (objectively

  18. Body talk among undergraduate women: why conversations about exercise and weight loss differentially predict body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylkiw, Louise; Butler, Nicole A

    2014-08-01

    Undergraduate women (N = 143) completed self-reports on exercise behavior, body orientation, body appreciation, and body-related talk. Results showed that conversations about weight loss/dieting and conversations about exercise differentially predicted body appreciation. Importantly, multiple regression analyses showed that the relationship between talk type and body appreciation was explained by the object-process dichotomy: Conversations about exercise oriented women to consider what their bodies can do which, in turn, predicted appreciation of one's body. In contrast, the relationship between conversations about weight loss/dieting and body appreciation was mediated by negative attitudes about one's body but not by an object orientation. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Viewing television shows containing ideal and neutral body images while exercising: does type of body image content influence exercise performance and body image in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Eric E; Baird, Seanna A; Gilbert, Danielle N; Miller, Paul C; Bixby, Walter R

    2011-09-01

    This study examined how exposure to media containing different body image content while exercising influenced exercise performance and feelings concerning appearance. 41 females completed two sessions of cycling (30 minutes). During exercise, participants viewed a television show that contained either media-portrayed ideal or neutral female body images. There were no differences in exercise performance between conditions. Physical appearance state anxiety (PASA) decreased post-exercise. After viewing ideal bodies, participants scored higher on appearance and comparison processing. The high internalization group scored higher on appearance and comparison processing and PASA increased following ideal body image content while the low internalization group decreased.

  20. Complementary mechanisms for upright balance during walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettrow, Tyler D.; Thompson, Elizabeth D.; Agada, Peter; McFadyen, Bradford J.; Jeka, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Lateral balance is a critical factor in keeping the human body upright during walking. Two important mechanisms for balance control are the stepping strategy, in which the foot placement is changed in the direction of a sensed fall to modulate how the gravitational force acts on the body, and the lateral ankle strategy, in which the body mass is actively accelerated by an ankle torque. Currently, there is minimal evidence about how these two strategies complement one another to achieve upright balance during locomotion. We use Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) to induce the sensation of a fall at heel-off during gait initiation. We found that young healthy adults respond to the illusory fall using both the lateral ankle strategy and the stepping strategy. The stance foot center of pressure (CoP) is shifted in the direction of the perceived fall by ≈2.5 mm, starting ≈247 ms after stimulus onset. The foot placement of the following step is shifted by ≈15 mm in the same direction. The temporal delay between these two mechanisms suggests that they independently contribute to upright balance during locomotion, potentially in a serially coordinated manner. Modeling results indicate that without the lateral ankle strategy, a much larger step width is required to maintain upright balance, suggesting that the small but early CoP shift induced by the lateral ankle strategy is critical for upright stability during locomotion. The relative importance of each mechanism and how neurological disorders may affect their implementation remain an open question. PMID:28234936

  1. Complementary mechanisms for upright balance during walking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Reimann

    Full Text Available Lateral balance is a critical factor in keeping the human body upright during walking. Two important mechanisms for balance control are the stepping strategy, in which the foot placement is changed in the direction of a sensed fall to modulate how the gravitational force acts on the body, and the lateral ankle strategy, in which the body mass is actively accelerated by an ankle torque. Currently, there is minimal evidence about how these two strategies complement one another to achieve upright balance during locomotion. We use Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS to induce the sensation of a fall at heel-off during gait initiation. We found that young healthy adults respond to the illusory fall using both the lateral ankle strategy and the stepping strategy. The stance foot center of pressure (CoP is shifted in the direction of the perceived fall by ≈2.5 mm, starting ≈247 ms after stimulus onset. The foot placement of the following step is shifted by ≈15 mm in the same direction. The temporal delay between these two mechanisms suggests that they independently contribute to upright balance during locomotion, potentially in a serially coordinated manner. Modeling results indicate that without the lateral ankle strategy, a much larger step width is required to maintain upright balance, suggesting that the small but early CoP shift induced by the lateral ankle strategy is critical for upright stability during locomotion. The relative importance of each mechanism and how neurological disorders may affect their implementation remain an open question.

  2. The effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle activation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... The effect of whole body vibration exercise (WBV) on muscle activation has recently been a topic for discussion amongst some researchers. ... Participants then performed two different exercises: standing calf raises and prone bridging, without and with WBV.

  3. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Maxi; Havinga, Rick; Boverhof, Renze; Kema, Ido; Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert

    MEISSNER, M., R. HAVINGA, R. BOVERHOF, I. KEMA, A. K. GROEN, and F. KUIPERS. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 8, pp. 1460-1468, 2010. Purpose: Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular risk in humans by reducing cholesterol levels, but

  4. How much gravity is needed to establish the perceptual upright?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Laurence R; Herpers, Rainer; Hofhammer, Thomas; Jenkin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Might the gravity levels found on other planets and on the moon be sufficient to provide an adequate perception of upright for astronauts? Can the amount of gravity required be predicted from the physiological threshold for linear acceleration? The perception of upright is determined not only by gravity but also visual information when available and assumptions about the orientation of the body. Here, we used a human centrifuge to simulate gravity levels from zero to earth gravity along the long-axis of the body and measured observers' perception of upright using the Oriented Character Recognition Test (OCHART) with and without visual cues arranged to indicate a direction of gravity that differed from the body's long axis. This procedure allowed us to assess the relative contribution of the added gravity in determining the perceptual upright. Control experiments off the centrifuge allowed us to measure the relative contributions of normal gravity, vision, and body orientation for each participant. We found that the influence of 1 g in determining the perceptual upright did not depend on whether the acceleration was created by lying on the centrifuge or by normal gravity. The 50% threshold for centrifuge-simulated gravity's ability to influence the perceptual upright was at around 0.15 g, close to the level of moon gravity but much higher than the threshold for detecting linear acceleration along the long axis of the body. This observation may partially explain the instability of moonwalkers but is good news for future missions to Mars.

  5. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  6. The Begg's uprighting spring - Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinay; Sundareswaran, Shobha

    2015-01-01

    Uprighting springs, an integral part of the Begg ligsht wire differential force technique is gaining more and more popularity, as a useful adjunct in contemporary preadjusted edgewise appliance systems as well. It can be used with brackets containing vertical slots for mesiodistal crown uprighting, or as braking auxiliaries providing additional anchorage while protracting posteriors. Here, we present a simple and quick chair side method of fabricating and customizing uprighting springs according to the required crown/root movement for correction. This communication would serve as a ready reckoner during fabrication of the springs, thus dispelling the confusion that usually arises regarding direction and position of the coil and active arm.

  7. Relation between exercise, depression and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vasconcelos-Raposo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between physical exercise, depression, and body mass index (BMI. The sample of the study consisted of 175 participants (43 male and 132 female with ages between the 18 and 27 years. The used instruments were: an adapted and validated Portuguese version of the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI and an adaptation of the physical exercise scale developed by Prochaska, Sallis and Long (2001. The results suggested a negative correlation between the physical exercise and depression, with statistical significance. The group that does not reach the recommended level of physical exercise presents higher scores of depression in comparison with the group that reaches. This study corroborates previous studies that suggested positive effects of physical exercise on depression.

  8. Exercise affects body composition but not weight in postmenopausal women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, M.J.; Schuit, A.J.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Monninkhof, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-month moderate-to-vigorous exercise program combining aerobic and muscle strength training on body composition among sedentary, postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 189 sedentary

  9. Hamstring activation during lower body resistance training exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, William P

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in hamstring activation during lower body resistance training exercises. This study also sought to assess differences in hamstring-to-quadriceps muscle activation ratios and gender differences therein. A randomized repeated measures design was used to compare six resistance training exercises that are commonly believed to train the hamstrings, including the squat, seated leg curl, stiff leg dead lift, single leg stiff leg dead lift, good morning, and Russian curl. Subjects included 34 college athletes. Outcome measures included the biceps femoris (H) and rectus femoris (Q) electromyography (EMG) and the H-to-Q EMG ratio, for each exercise. Main effects were found for the H (P ratio when analyzed for all subjects (P ratios of men, for the exercises assessed. In a separate analysis of strength matched women and men, women achieved between 35.9 to 76.0% of the H-to-Q ratios of men, for these exercises. Hamstring resistance training exercises offer differing degrees of H and Q activation and ratios. Women compared with men, are less able to activate the hamstrings and/or more able to activate the quadriceps. Women may require disproportionately greater training for the hamstrings compared with the quadriceps.

  10. Full Body Loading for Small Exercise Devices Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Meghan; Hanson, Andrea; Newby, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    Protecting astronauts' spine, hip, and lower body musculoskeletal strength will be critical to safely and efficiently perform physically demanding vehicle egress, exploration, and habitat building activities necessary to expand human presence in the solar system. Functionally limiting decrements in musculoskeletal health are likely during Mars proving-ground and Earth-independent missions given extended transit times and the vehicle limitations for exercise devices (low-mass, small volume). Most small exercise device concepts are designed with single-cable loading, which inhibits the ability to perform full body exercises requiring two-point loading at the shoulders. Shoulder loading is critical to protect spine, hip, and lower body musculoskeletal strength. We propose a novel low-mass, low-maintenance, and rapid deploy pulley-based system that can attach to a single-cable small exercise device to enable two-point loading at the shoulders. This attachment could protect astronauts' health and save cost, space, and energy during all phases of the Journey to Mars.

  11. Can Handgrip Strength Improve Following Body Mass-Based Lower Body Exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yaginuma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Knee extension strength (KES improves following body mass-based lower body exercise training; however, it is unknown whether this type of exercise increases handgrip strength (HGS as a result of a cross-education effect in older individuals. Our aim was to investigate the effect of a body mass-based exercise intervention on HGS and KES in older adults. At baseline, 166 subjects started a 12-week intervention program, and 160 (108 women and 52 men subjects completed the study. A self-selected group of 37 older adults (21 women and 16 men served as a control group. HGS, KES, and ultrasound-derived anterior thigh muscle thickness (anterior thigh MT were measured at baseline and post-testing, and relative strength of the knee extensor (KES/anterior thigh MT was calculated. A linear regression model controlling for baseline values of body–mass index, % body fat, fat-free mass, HGS, chair stand time, anterior thigh MT, and KES/body mass ratio found a significant difference between control and training groups for KES post-testing values (p = 0.001 and anterior thigh MT post-testing values (p = 0.012, but not for HGS post-testing values (p = 0.287. Our results suggest that increases in lower body strength and muscle size following a 12-week lower body mass-based exercise intervention fail to translate into improvements in HGS.

  12. Aging and exercise: Perceptions of the active lived-body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougner, Marit; Bergland, Astrid; Lund, Anne; Debesay, Jonas

    2018-03-30

    Exploring older people's evocation of their positive experiences of aging has been proposed as a counterweight to the Western stereotype of aging as a process of decline. The aim of this article is to explore how aging women, who participate regularly in group exercise classes, perceive their own bodies and the bodies of others. This article reports on the findings from interviews with 16 women between the age of 70 and 85. We analyzed the data using qualitative content analysis. Two overarching and interrelated themes concerning body perception emerged from the interviews: "The aging body and appearance" and "The body as subject and object." The binary discourse of old age, as either a decline or a success appears in our findings. The training contributes to a sense of well-being experienced through perceived increased physical abilities, self- image and self-esteem. Physical ability was perceived as being more important than appearance by the participants in this study, considering their preconception of an association between declining health, abilities, and older age. Involvement in physical activity appears to play a significant role in the perception of the women's own aging. Although physical attractiveness is a desirable outcome, the most important positive impact of the group exercise was related to increased social belonging and well-being, physical abilities, and capabilities. Thus implications for practice suggests that an intensive group training contributes to the opinion that an aging body is not necessarily a barrier to positive and successful aging.

  13. Upper Body Aerobic Exercise as a Possible Predictor of Lower Body Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, Carl J; Broxterman, Ryan M; Craig, Jesse C; Schlup, Susanna J; Wilcox, Samuel L; Barstow, Thomas J

    2015-07-01

    Aerobic exercise capacity provides information regarding cardiorespiratory health and physical capacity. However, in many populations the ability to measure whole-body or leg aerobic exercise capacity is limited due to physical disability or lack of appropriate equipment. Clinically there is a need to evaluate aerobic capacity in individuals who cannot use their legs for locomotion. In astronauts the habitable space for exercise testing in the next generation of space exploration systems may be restricted and may not support the traditional lower body testing. Therefore, the purpose was to determine if upper body physical performance could estimate lower body aerobic capacity. Maximal O₂uptake (Vo(2max)), gas exchange threshold (GET), and the highest sustainable rate of aerobic metabolism [arm cranking critical power ((A)CP) and lower body critical speed ((L)CS)] were determined in 55 conditioned men and women during arm-cranking and treadmill running. Vo(2max) and GET (48.6 ± 7.6 and 29.0 ± 4.8 ml · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹, respectively) were significantly lower during arm-cranking exercise compared to running (27.1 ± 7.6 and 13.5 ± 2.6 ml · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹, respectively). The Vo₂at ACP was significantly lower than the Vo₂at the (L)CS (18.4 ± 5.01 vs. 39.5 ± 8.1 ml · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹, respectively). There was a significant correlation between arm-cranking and lower body Vo2max, GET, and the Vo₂at (L)CS and ACP. Backward stepwise regression analyses revealed that arm-cranking physical fitness could explain 67%, 40%, and 49% of the variance in lower body Vo(2max), GET, and (L)CS, respectively. Results suggest arm-cranking exercise can be used to obtain an approximation of lower body aerobic capacity.

  14. Whole-body vibration exercise in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Rajek, Magdalena; Mieszkowski, Jan; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Ciechanowska, Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    The report of the World Health Organization (WHO) of 2008 defines osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is connected to the decrease in estrogens concentration as a result of malfunction of endocrine ovarian function. Low estrogens concentration causes increase in bone demineralization and results in osteoporosis. Physical activity, as a component of therapy of patients with osteoporosis, has been used for a long time now. One of the forms of safe physical activity is the vibration training. Training is to maintain a static position or execution of specific exercises involving the appropriate muscles on a vibrating platform, the mechanical vibrations are transmitted to the body of the patient. According to the piezoelectric theory, pressure induces bone formation in the electrical potential difference, which acts as a stimulant of the process of bone formation. Whole body vibration increases the level of growth hormone and testosterone in serum, preventing sarcopenia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to review the literature on vibration exercise in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis based on the PubMed and Medline database. While searching the database, the following key words were used 'postmenopausal osteoporosis' and 'whole-body vibration exercise'.

  15. Exercise for Individuals with Lewy Body Dementia: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Inskip

    Full Text Available Individuals with Lewy body Dementia (LBD, which encompasses both Parkinson disease dementia (PDD and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB experience functional decline through Parkinsonism and sedentariness exacerbated by motor, psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. Exercise may improve functional outcomes in Parkinson's disease (PD, and Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, the multi-domain nature of the LBD cluster of symptoms (physical, cognitive, psychiatric, autonomic results in vulnerable individuals often being excluded from exercise studies evaluating physical function in PD or cognitive function in dementia to avoid confounding results. This review evaluated existing literature reporting the effects of exercise interventions or physical activity (PA exposure on cluster symptoms in LBD.A high-sensitivity search was executed across 19 databases. Full-length articles of any language and quality, published or unpublished, that analysed effects of isolated exercise/physical activity on indicative Dementia with Lewy Bodies or PD-dementia cohorts were evaluated for outcomes inclusive of physical, cognitive, psychiatric, physiological and quality of life measures. The protocol for this review (Reg. #: CRD42015019002 is accessible at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/.111,485 articles were initially retrieved; 288 full articles were reviewed and 89.6% subsequently deemed ineligible due to exclusion of participants with co-existence of dementia and Parkinsonism. Five studies (1 uncontrolled trial, 1 randomized controlled trial and 3 case reports evaluating 16 participants were included. Interventions were diverse and outcome homogeneity was low. Habitual gait speed outcomes were measured in 13 participants and increased (0.18m/s, 95% CI -0.02, 0.38m/s, exceeding moderate important change (0.14m/s for PD cohorts. Other outcomes appeared to improve modestly in most participants.Scarce research investigating exercise in LBD exists. This review confirms

  16. The Prospective Association between Different Types of Exercise and Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Sagner, Michael; Shook, Robin P; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N

    2015-12-01

    Despite the widely accepted benefits of exercise on chronic disease risk, controversy remains on the role of exercise in weight loss. This study examined the effect of different exercise types on measures of adiposity across different fat categories. A total of 348 young adults (49% male; 28 ± 4 yr), participating in an ongoing observational study provided valid data over a period of 12 months. Fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) were measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry every 3 months. Percent body fat was calculated and used to differentiate between normal-fat, "overfat," and obese participants. At each measurement time point, participants reported engagement (min·wk) in aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and other forms of exercise. Most participants (93%) reported some exercise participation during the observation period. Total exercise or specific exercise types did not significantly affect subsequent body mass index after adjusting for sex, ethnicity, age, and baseline values of adiposity and exercise. Resistance exercise affected LM (P participants (P participants, FM was reduced with increasing resistance exercise (P ≤ 0.02) but not with aerobic exercise (P ≥ 0.09). Additionally adjusting for objectively assessed total physical activity level did not change these results. Despite the limited effects on body mass index, exercise was associated with beneficial changes in body composition. Exercise increased LM in normal-fat participants and reduced FM in overfat and obese adults. Adults with excess body fat may benefit particularly from resistance exercise.

  17. The Effects of Different Exercise Programmes on Female Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Costa de Mendonça Rosa Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of 16 weeks of practicing different exercise programmes on body composition. This is an exploratory and descriptive study of 89 women aged 25 to 55 years (41.42 ± 9.23 years. The subjects were randomly divided into three experimental groups (EG: practitioners of strength training (SG, dance (DG, hydrogymnastics (HG, and a control group (CG with sedentary women. Measurements of body mass and height, circumferences of the chest, waist, abdomen, hips, thighs, calves, and skinfolds of the triceps, suprailiac and thigh were registered in three different moments: prior to the commencement of the training program, again after 8 weeks of training, and finally after 16 weeks of training. Body density was estimated by using the trifold protocol by Jackson, Pollock and Ward. The ANOVA and deltas of change (Δ% were used for data analysis. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. The effects of greater statistical significance on body composition related the variables "time", "group" and the interaction between the two (time x group were observed for the percentage of fat - F% (F (1.79, 152.52 = 24.59, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.22, fat mass - FM (F (1.75, 149.01 = 12.65, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.13 and lean mass - LM (F (1.77, 150.66 = 47.38, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.36. The HG and SG were more beneficial in reducing F%. It was observed that the EG indicated healthier anthropometric aspects compared to the CG, regardless of the type of exercise programmes practiced. The time factor was more representative over the effects of exercise on anthropometric dimensions.

  18. Whole-body vibration exercise in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Weber-Rajek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The report of the World Health Organization (WHO of 2008 defines osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is connected to the decrease in estrogens concentration as a result of malfunction of endocrine ovarian function. Low estrogens concentration causes increase in bone demineralization and results in osteoporosis. Physical activity, as a component of therapy of patients with osteoporosis, has been used for a long time now. One of the forms of safe physical activity is the vibration training. Training is to maintain a static position or execution of specific exercises involving the appropriate muscles on a vibrating platform, the mechanical vibrations are transmitted to the body of the patient. According to the piezoelectric theory, pressure induces bone formation in the electrical potential difference, which acts as a stimulant of the process of bone formation. Whole body vibration increases the level of growth hormone and testosterone in serum, preventing sarcopenia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to review the literature on vibration exercise in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis based on the PubMed and Medline database. While searching the database, the following key words were used ‘postmenopausal osteoporosis’ and ‘whole-body vibration exercise’.

  19. Comparison of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise to improve isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance and balance of female volleyball players

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise on female volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly allocated to two exercise groups (whole-body vibration exercise group and plyometric exercise group). The exercise was conducted three times each week for 8 weeks. Isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance were measured before starting the exercise and after finishing the 8 weeks o...

  20. Similar metabolic response to lower- versus upper-body interval exercise or endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Monique E; Graham, Matthew J; Parr, Evelyn B; Rehrer, Nancy J; Lucas, Samuel J E; Stavrianeas, Stasinos; Cotter, James D

    2017-03-01

    To compare energy use and substrate partitioning arising from repeated lower- versus upper-body sprints, or endurance exercise, across a 24-h period. Twelve untrained males (24±4 y) completed three trials in randomized order: (1) repeated sprints (five 30-s Wingate, 4.5-min recovery) on a cycle ergometer (SIT Legs ); (2) 50-min continuous cycling at 65% V̇O 2 max (END); (3) repeated sprints on an arm-crank ergometer (SIT Arms ). Respiratory gas exchange was assessed before and during exercise, and at eight points across 22h of recovery. Metabolic rate was elevated to greater extent in the first 8h after SIT Legs than SIT Arms (by 0.8±1.1kJ/min, p=0.03), and tended to be greater than END (by 0.7±1.3kJ/min, p=0.08). Total 24-h energy use (exercise+recovery) was equivalent between SIT Legs and END (p = 0.55), and SIT Legs and SIT Arms (p=0.13), but 24-h fat use was higher with SIT Legs than END (by 26±38g, p=0.04) and SIT Arms (by 27±43g, p=0.05), whereas carbohydrate use was higher with SIT Arms than SIT Legs (by 32±51g, p=0.05). Plasma volume-corrected post-exercise and fasting glucose and lipid concentrations were unchanged. Despite much lower energy use during five sprints than 50-min continuous exercise, 24-h energy use was not reliably different. However, (i) fat metabolism was greater after sprints, and (ii) carbohydrate metabolism was greater in the hours after sprints with arms than legs, while 24-h energy usage was comparable. Thus, sprints using arms or legs may be an important adjunct exercise mode for metabolic health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioimpedance identifies body fluid loss after exercise in the heat: a pilot study with body cooling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Gatterer

    Full Text Available Assessment of post-exercise changes in hydration with bioimpedance (BI is complicated by physiological adaptations that affect resistance (R and reactance (Xc values. This study investigated exercise-induced changes in R and Xc, independently and in bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, when factors such as increased skin temperature and blood flow and surface electrolyte accumulation are eliminated with a cold shower.Healthy males (n = 14, 24.1±1.7 yr; height (H: 182.4±5.6 cm, body mass: 72.3±6.3 kg exercised for 1 hr at a self-rated intensity (15 BORG in an environmental chamber (33°C and 50% relative humidity, then had a cold shower (15 min. Before the run BI, body mass, hematocrit and Posm were measured. After the shower body mass was measured; BI measurements were performed continuously every 20 minutes until R reached a stable level, then hematocrit and Posm were measured again.Compared to pre-trial measurements body mass decreased after the run and Posm, Hct, R/H and Xc/H increased (p<0.05 with a corresponding lengthening of the impedance vector along the major axis of the tolerance ellipse (p<0.001. Changes in Posm were negatively related to changes in body mass (r = -0.564, p = 0.036 and changes in Xc/H (r = -0.577, p = 0.041.Present findings showed that after a bout of exercise-induced dehydration followed by cold shower the impedance vector lengthened that indicates fluid loss. Additionally, BI values might be useful to evaluate fluid shifts between compartments as lower intracellular fluid loss (changed Xc/R indicated greater Posm increase.

  2. The prospective association between different types of exercise and body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A.; Sagner, Michael; Shook, Robin P.; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite the widely accepted benefits of exercise on chronic disease risk, there remains controversy on the role of exercise in weight loss. This study examined the effect of different exercise types on measures of adiposity across different fat categories. Methods A total of 348 young adults (49% male; 28±4 years), participating in an ongoing observational study, provided valid data over a period of 12 months. Fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) were measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry every 3 months. Percent body fat (BF) was calculated and used to differentiate between normal fat, over fat and obese participants. At each measurement time point participants reported engagement (min/week) in aerobic exercise, resistance exercise and other exercise. Results Most participants (93%) reported some exercise participation during the observation period. Total exercise or specific exercise types did not significantly affect subsequent BMI after adjusting for sex, ethnicity, age and baseline values of adiposity and exercise. Resistance exercise affected lean mass (pexercise only affected fat mass (pexercise type positively affected lean mass in normal fat participants (pexercise (p≤0.02) but not with aerobic exercise (p≥0.09). Additionally adjusting for objectively assessed total physical activity level did not change these results. Conclusion Despite the limited effects on BMI, exercise was associated with beneficial changes in body composition. Exercise increased lean mass in normal fat participants and reduced fat mass in overfat and obese adults. Adults with excess body fat may benefit particularly from resistance exercise. PMID:25970664

  3. The Effect of Lower-Body Positive Pressure on the Cardiorespiratory Response at Rest and during Submaximal Running Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Stucky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-gravity treadmills facilitate locomotion by lower-body positive pressure (LBPP. Effects on cardiorespiratory regulation are unknown. Healthy men (30 ± 8 y, 178.3 ± 5.7 cm, 70.3 ± 8.0 kg; mean ± SD stood upright (n = 10 or ran (n = 9 at 9, 11, 13, and 15 km.h−1 (5 min stages with LBPP (0, 15, 40 mmHg. Cardiac output (CO, stroke volume (SV, heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP, peripheral resistance (PR, and oxygen uptake (VO2 were monitored continuously. During standing, LBPP increased SV [by +29 ± 13 (+41% and +42 ± 15 (+60% ml, at 15 and 40 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.05] and decreased HR [by −15 ± 6 (−20% and −22 ± 9 (−29% bpm (p < 0.05] resulting in a transitory increase in CO [by +1.6 ± 1.0 (+32% and +2.0 ± 1.0 (+39% l.min−1 (p < 0.05] within the first seconds of LBPP. This was accompanied by a transitory decrease in end-tidal PO2 [by −5 ± 3 (−5% and −10 ± 4 (−10% mmHg (p < 0.05] and increase in VO2 [by +66 ± 53 (+26% and +116 ± 64 (+46% ml.min−1 (p < 0.05], suggesting increased venous return and pulmonary blood flow. The application of LBPP increased baroreflex sensitivity (BRS [by +1.8 ± 1.6 (+18% and +4.6 ± 3.7 (+47% at 15 and 40 mmHg LBPP, respectively P < 0.05]. After reaching steady-state exercise CO vs. VO2 relationships remained linear with similar slope and intercept for each participant (mean R2 = 0.84 ± 0.13 while MAP remained unchanged. It follows that (1 LBPP affects cardiorespiratory integration at the onset of exercise; (2 at a given LBPP, once reaching steady-state exercise, the cardiorespiratory load is reduced proportionally to the lower metabolic demand resulting from the body weight support; (3 the balance between cardiovascular response, oxygen delivery to the exercising muscles and blood pressure regulation is maintained at exercise steady-state; and (4 changes in baroreflex sensitivity may be involved in the regulation of cardiovascular parameters during LBPP.

  4. The effects of Cross-fit, Pilates and Zumba exercise on body composition and body image of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsüm BAŞTUĞ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate body composition and body image of women doing CrossFit, Pilates and Zumba exercises. Material and Methods: This study was carried out to investigate body composition and body areas satisfaction of women doing CrossFit, Pilates and Zumba exercises, 80 women voluntarily being in an average age of 42.74±8.47 voluntarily participated in the research. The women were grouped into two such as experimental (n=45 and control (n=35. The women in experimental group were applied 30-70min mixed exercises (CrossFit, Plates, Zumba for 4 days in a week throughout 12 weeks to have target heart rate of 50-60%. Results: A significant difference was found between body weight and BMI pre-test and post-test values of women who were applied mixed exercise program (CrossFit, Pilates, Zumba. There was a decrease in both body weight and average means of BMI of women. A significant difference was found between body areas satisfaction pre-test and post-test values of women who were applied CrossFit, Pilates, Zumba exercise program. While pre-test value of body areas satisfaction of women who were applied mixed exercise program was determined as 31.68±6.11, its post-test value was 35.68±5.02. It is remarkable that while body weight and BMI of women doing exercises decreased, their body areas satisfaction values increased. It was indicated that the body areas satisfaction of women having weight loss increased. A significant difference was not found between body weight, BMI and body areas satisfaction pre-test and post-test values of women in control group. Conclusion: It was concluded that there were positive effects on body weight, BMI and body image.

  5. Effects of upright and recumbent cycling on executive function and prefrontal cortex oxygenation in young, healthy, men

    OpenAIRE

    Faulkner, J.; Lambrick, D.; Kaufmann, S.; Stoner, L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: \\ud \\ud The purpose of this study was to assess the acute effects of posture (upright vs recumbent) during moderate-intensity cycle exercise on executive function and prefrontal cortex oxygenation in young healthy adults.\\ud \\ud METHODS: \\ud \\ud Seventeen physically active men (24.6 ± 4.3 years) completed 2 30-minute submaximal exercise tests (conditions: upright and recumbent cycle ergometry). Executive function was assessed using the "color" and "word" Stroop task, preexercise (...

  6. The role of body awareness and mindfulness in the relationship between exercise and eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rachel; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the potential mediating roles of mindfulness and body awareness in the relationship between exercise and eating behavior. Female exercisers (N = 159) recruited from fitness centers, yoga centers, and the community completed a questionnaire incorporating measures of exercise behavior, body awareness, trait mindfulness, mindful eating, dietary intake, and disordered eating symptoms. Participation in yoga was associated with significantly lower disordered eating (mediated by body awareness), whereas the amount of time spent participating in cardio-based exercise was associated with greater eating disturbance. The relationships between amount of exercise and actual food intake were not mediated by trait mindfulness or body awareness. The differential findings for dietary intake and disordered eating indicate that the body awareness cultivated in different forms of exercise may be more beneficial for clinical populations or those at risk for eating disorders than for modifying actual dietary intake in the general population.

  7. Comparison of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise to improve isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance and balance of female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise on female volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly allocated to two exercise groups (whole-body vibration exercise group and plyometric exercise group). The exercise was conducted three times each week for 8 weeks. Isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance were measured before starting the exercise and after finishing the 8 weeks of exercise. [Results] Measurements of isokinetic muscular strength revealed that the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group had no significant increase in lumbar flexion, extension, and knee flexion. Measurements of vertical jumping revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group had no significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group showed significant increase. Measurements of balance revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase. However, the plyometric exercise group showed no significant increase. [Conclusion] Although both whole-body vibration and plyometric exercises are effective intervention methods, the two methods have different effects on the improvement of isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance of female volleyball players.

  8. Relevance of whole body vibration exercise in sport: a short review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Whole body vibration exercise (WBVE) has been used as a safe and accessible exercise and important reviews have been published about the use of this exercise to manage diseases and to improve physical conditions of athletes The aim of this paper is to highlight the relevance of WBVE to soccer players, ...

  9. Metabolism and Whole-Body Fat Oxidation Following Post-Exercise Carbohydrate or Protein Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ulrika Andersson; Pettersson, Stefan; Edin, Fredrik

    2018-01-01

    : Protein supplementation immediately post-exercise did not affect the doubling in whole body fat oxidation seen during a subsequent exercise trial 2 hours later. Neither did it affect resting fat oxidation during the post-exercise period despite increased insulin levels and attenuated ketosis. Carbohydrate...

  10. The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

  11. Effect of Rest Interval Length on the Volume Completed During Upper Body Resistance Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Humberto; Simão, Roberto; Moreira, Leonardo Marmo; de Souza, Renato Aparecido; de Souza, João Antônio Alves; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Willardson, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to compare the workout volume (sets x resistance x repetitions per set) completed during two upper body resistance exercise sessions that incorporated 1 minute versus 3 minute rest intervals between sets and exercises. Twelve trained men completed two experimental sessions that consisted of 5 upper body exercises (i.e. barbell bench press, incline barbell bench press, pec deck flye, barbell lying triceps extension, triceps pushdown) performed for three sets with an 8-RM load. The two experimental sessions differed only in the length of the rest interval between sets and exercises; one session with a 1-minute and the other session with a 3-minute rest interval. The results demonstrated that for each exercise, significantly greater workout volume was completed when resting 3 minutes between sets and exercises (p < 0.05). These results indicate that during a resistance exercise session, if sufficient time is available, resting 3 minutes between sets and exercises allows greater workout volume for the upper body exercises examined. Key points The length of the rest interval between sets is an important variable when designing a resistance exercise program and may vary depending on the characteristic being emphasized (i.e. maximal strength, hypertrophy, localized muscular endurance, power). Although acknowledged, this variable is rarely monitored precisely in field settings. Previous studies that examined rest interval lengths from 1 to 5 minutes between sets for single exercises demonstrated significant differences in repetition performance and the exercise volume completed. There is a need for further research to compare the workout volume (sets x resistance x repetitions per set) completed over an entire resistance exercise session with different rest intervals between sets. The results of the current study indicate that during a resistance exercise session, if sufficient time is available, resting 3 minutes between sets and

  12. Mexican American Female Adolescent Self-Esteem: The Effect of Body Image, Exercise Behavior, and Body Fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Semper, Tom; Jorgensen, Layne

    1997-01-01

    A study of 254 Mexican American eighth-grade girls in south Texas found that girls' self-esteem was positively related to body image and exercise involvement and negatively related to body fatness. This population displayed somewhat distorted body image, which was the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Contains 43 references. (SV)

  13. Effects of social comparisons with peers on women's body satisfaction and exercise behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilenko, Kari A; Kulik, James A; Wanic, Rebekah A

    2007-12-01

    Although exposure to thin-ideal females in the media has been shown to increase women's body dissatisfaction, only a few studies have examined the effects of comparisons with peers, and no prior work has studied the effects of peer comparisons in a naturalistic setting or on objective behavior. Female undergraduates (n = 45) in a campus gym who exercised on a target apparatus were assigned to have a fit-peer, unfit-peer, or no-peer (control) exercise within their view on a nearby apparatus. Objective time spent exercising and body satisfaction reports were collected. Exposure to a fit peer had undermining effects on women's body satisfaction and exercise duration, whereas an unfit peer produced no compensating greater body satisfaction but did elicit longer exercise duration relative to controls. Incidental comparisons with fit versus unfit peers can affect women's body satisfaction and fitness-related behavior in a naturalistic setting. (c) 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Perceptions of masculinity and body image in men with prostate cancer: the role of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langelier, David Michael; Cormie, Prue; Bridel, William; Grant, Christopher; Albinati, Natalia; Shank, Jena; Daun, Julia Teresa; Fung, Tak S; Davey, Colin; Culos-Reed, S Nicole

    2018-04-13

    The goal of this study was to explore the association between levels of exercise and patterns of masculinity, body image, and quality of life in men undergoing diverse treatment protocols for prostate cancer. Fifty men with prostate cancer (aged 42-86) completed self-report measures. Self-reported measures included the following: the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ), Masculine Self-esteem Scale (MSES), Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ), Body Image Scale (BIS), and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P). Masculinity, body image, and quality of life scores were compared between men obtaining recommended levels of exercise (aerobic or resistance) and those not obtaining recommended level of exercise. Secondary outcomes included the association between masculinity, body image, and quality of life scores as they relate to exercise levels. There were significantly higher scores of masculinity (p aerobic exercise. In the 48% of men who had never received androgen deprivation therapy, significantly higher levels of masculinity, body image, and quality of life were observed in those meeting aerobic guidelines. Whether treatment includes androgen deprivation or not, men who participate in higher levels of aerobic exercises report higher levels of masculinity, improved body image, and quality of life than those who are inactive. Future longitudinal research is required evaluating exercise level and its effect on masculinity and body image.

  15. Health effects from exercise versus those from body fat loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess whether body weight confounds the relationships between physical activity and its health benefits. Data sources: Eighty reports from population based studies (Category C) of physical activity or fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or coronary heart disease (CHD).Data synthesis: Eleven of 64 reports found no relationship between physical activity and disease. Of the remaining 53 reports, 11 did not address the possible confounding effects of body weight, 9 cited reasons that weight differences should not explain their observed associations, and 32 statistically adjusted for weight (as required). Only 3 of these changed their associations from significant to nonsignificant when adjusted. Ten of 15 reports on cardiorespiratory fitness and CHD or CVD used statistical adjustment, and none of these changed their findings to nonsignificant. Population studies show that vigorously active individuals also have higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, a major risk factor for CHD and CVD, than sedentary individuals when statistically adjusted for weight. In contrast intervention studies, which relate dynamic changes in weight and HDL, suggest that adjustment for weight loss largely eliminates the increase in HDL-cholesterol in sedentary men who begin exercising vigorously. Adjusting the cross-sectional HDL-cholesterol differences for the dynamic effects of weight loss eliminates most of the HDL-cholesterol difference between active and sedentary men. Conclusion: Thus population studies show that the lower incidence of CHD and CVD and higher HDL of fit, active individuals are not due to lean, healthy individuals choosing to be active (i.e., self-selection bias). Nevertheless, metabolic processed associated weight loss may be primarily responsible for the HDL differences between active and sedentary men, and possibly their differences in CHD and CVD.

  16. The effect of Pilates exercise on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şavkin, Raziye; Aslan, Ummuhan B

    2017-11-01

    Pilates is a popular exercise approach among women. Still there is poor empirical quantitative evidence indicating a positive effect of Pilates exercises on body composition. The aim of our study is to determine the effects of Pilates exercises on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women. Thirty-seven women, aged between 30 to 50 (43.79±4.88) years, included the study. Subjects are randomly divided into Pilates group (N.=19) and control group (N.=18). Pilates exercises was given for 90 minutes, 3 times/week, for 8 week with a gradual strength increase of 11-17 in the Rating of Perceived Exercise. Control group did not participate in any physical activity program. Bioelectric Impedance Analysis was used for determine the body composition of participants. Weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), body fat mass, lean body mass, waist, abdomen and hip circumference were measured at pre- and post-training period. In Pilates group, weight, BMI, fat percentage, waist, abdomen and hip circumference decreased significantly after training (P0.05). In control group, abdomen and hip circumference increased significantly (PPilates exercises have positive effects on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women. Pilates exercises can be applied for improving body composition.

  17. Effects of exercise on fluid exchange and body composition in man during 14-day bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.; Morse, J. T.; Staley, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of an investigation in which body composition, fluid intake, and fluid and electrolyte losses were measured in seven normal, healthy men during three 2-wk bed-rest periods, separated by two 3-wk recovery periods. During bed rest the subjects remained in the horizontal position continuously. During the dietary control periods, body mass decreased significantly with all three regimens, including no exercise, isometric exercise, and isotonic excercise. During bed rest, body mass was essentially unchanged with no exercise, but decreased significantly with isotonic and isometric exercise. With one exception, there were no statistically significant changes in body density, lean body mass, or body fat content by the end of each of the three bed-rest periods.

  18. Influence of Regular Exercise on Body Fat and Eating Patterns of Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    OpenAIRE

    Leicht, Anthony; Crowther, Robert; Golledge, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of regular supervised exercise on body fat, assessed via anthropometry, and eating patterns of peripheral arterial disease patients with intermittent claudication (IC). Body fat, eating patterns and walking ability were assessed in 11 healthy adults (Control) and age- and mass-matched IC patients undertaking usual care (n = 10; IC-Con) or supervised exercise (12-months; n = 10; IC-Ex). At entry, all groups exhibited similar body fat and eating patterns. Maximal ...

  19. The effects of exercise and body armor on cognitive function in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Aaron P J; Cole, Jon C

    2013-05-01

    Police officers routinely wear body armor to protect themselves against the threat posed by firearms and edged weapons, yet little is known of the cognitive effects of doing so. Two studies investigated the effects of exercise and body armor on working memory function in healthy volunteers. In study 1, male undergraduates were assigned to one of four groups: (i) brief exercise, (ii) brief exercise wearing body armor, (iii) extended exercise, and (iv) extended exercise wearing body armor. In study 2, university gym members were assigned to one of two groups: (i) wearing body armor and (ii) not wearing body armor. In both studies, heart rate and oral temperature were measured before, immediately after, and 5 minutes after exercise. The phonemic verbal fluency task and digits backward test were administered at the same time points. In both studies, a mixed analysis of variance revealed statistically significant changes to the cognitive functioning of participants. A change in cognitive strategy was observed, reflected by a decrease in executive function (switches) and an increase in nonexecutive function (cluster size). These data suggest that the cognitive effects of exercise and body armor may have profound implications for police officers' ability to make tactical decisions. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  20. Exercise body surface potential mapping in single and multiple coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montague, T.J.; Witkowski, F.X.; Miller, R.M.; Johnstone, D.E.; MacKenzie, R.B.; Spencer, C.A.; Horacek, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    Body surface ST integral maps were recorded in 36 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients at: rest; peak, angina-limited exercise; and, 1 and 5 min of recovery. They were compared to maps of 15 CAD patients who exercised to fatigue, without angina, and eight normal subjects. Peak exercise heart rates were similar (NS) in all groups. With exercise angina, patients with two and three vessel CAD had significantly (p less than 0.05) greater decrease in the body surface sum of ST integral values than patients with single vessel CAD. CAD patients with exercise fatigue, in the absence of angina, had decreased ST integrals similar (NS) to patients with single vessel CAD who manifested angina and the normal control subjects. There was, however, considerable overlap among individuals; some patients with single vessel CAD had as much exercise ST integral decrease as patients with three vessel CAD. All CAD patients had persistent ST integral decreases at 5 min of recovery and there was a direct correlation of the recovery and peak exercise ST changes. Exercise ST changes correlated, as well, with quantitative CAD angiographic scores, but not with thallium perfusion scores. These data suggest exercise ST integral body surface mapping allows quantitation of myocardium at ischemic risk in patients with CAD, irrespective of the presence or absence of ischemic symptoms during exercise. A major potential application of this technique is selection of CAD therapy guided by quantitative assessment of ischemic myocardial risk

  1. Exercising for Life? Energy Metabolism, Body Composition, and Longevity in Mice Exercising at Different Intensities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Daan, Serge; Garland, Theodore; Visser, G. Henk; Garland Jr., Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Studies that have found a positive influence of moderate, non-exhaustive exercise on life expectancy contradict the rate-of-living theory, which predicts that high energy expenditure in exercising animals should shorten life. We investigated effects of exercise on energy metabolism and life span in

  2. Effect of physical exercise interventions on musculoskeletal pain in all body regions among office workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Christensen, Karl Bang; Holtermann, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated effects of physical exercise on musculoskeletal pain symptoms in all regions of the body, as well as on other musculoskeletal pain in association with neck pain. A single blind randomized controlled trial testing a one-year exercise intervention was performed among 549...... office workers; specific neck/shoulder resistance training, all-round physical exercise, or a reference intervention. Pain symptoms were determined by questionnaire screening of twelve selected body regions. Case individuals were identified for each body region as those reporting pain intensities...... group (Pphysical...

  3. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment.

  4. EFFECT OF REST INTERVAL LENGTH ON THE VOLUME COMPLETED DURING UPPER BODY RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Miranda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to compare the workout volume (sets x resistance x repetitions per set completed during two upper body resistance exercise sessions that incorporated 1 minute versus 3 minute rest intervals between sets and exercises. Twelve trained men completed two experimental sessions that consisted of 5 upper body exercises (i.e. barbell bench press, incline barbell bench press, pec deck flye, barbell lying triceps extension, triceps pushdown performed for three sets with an 8-RM load. The two experimental sessions differed only in the length of the rest interval between sets and exercises; one session with a 1-minute and the other session with a 3-minute rest interval. The results demonstrated that for each exercise, significantly greater workout volume was completed when resting 3 minutes between sets and exercises (p < 0.05. These results indicate that during a resistance exercise session, if sufficient time is available, resting 3 minutes between sets and exercises allows greater workout volume for the upper body exercises examined

  5. Comparative effects of horse exercise versus traditional exercise programs on gait, muscle strength, and body balance in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-García, Silvia; Iricibar, Albert; Planas, Antoni; Prat-Subiran, Joan A; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the separate effect and retention of 12-week traditional (TE) and horse (HE) exercise programs on physical function in healthy older participants (61 to 87 years old). Thirty-eight participants were randomly assigned to three groups: TE (n = 17), HE (n = 10), and control group (n = 11). TE and HE underwent a supervised exercise program (3 day/week). Maximal gait speed, muscle strength, and body balance were assessed at weeks 0, 12, and 16. Only TE and HE displayed significant improvements (P strength, and only HE had faster gait speed. Marginal balance improvements were found only in HE in the medial-lateral direction. However, TE showed larger improvements in handgrip than HE. The largest retention was in knee extensor strength but most of the exercise effects were lost in the follow-up. Besides TE, exercise with a horse may be an alternative option to older adults, provided that they want to interact with the animal.

  6. Dietary supplements and physical exercise affecting bone and body composition in frail elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de N.; Chin A Paw, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2000-01-01

    This study determined the effect of enriched foods and all-around physical exercise on bone and body composition in frail elderly persons. Methods. A 17-week randomized, controlled intervention trial, following a 2 x 2 factorial design—(1) enriched foods, (2) exercise, (3) both, or (4) neither— was

  7. Dynamic Leg Exercise Improves Tolerance to Lower Body Negative Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Stout, M. S.; Murthy, G.; Whalen, R. T.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    These results clearly demonstrate that dynamic leg exercise against the footward force produced by LBNP substantially improves tolerance to LBNP, and that even cyclic ankle flexion without load bearing also increases tolerance. This exercise-induced increase of tolerance was actually an underestimate, because subjects who completed the tolerance test while exercising could have continued for longer periods. Exercise probably increases LBNP tolerance by multiple mechanisms. Tolerance was increased in part by skeletal muscle pumping venous blood from the legs. Rosenhamer and Linnarsson and Rosenhamer also deduced this for subjects cycling during centrifugation, although no measurements of leg volume were made in those studies: they found that male subjects cycling at 98 W could endure 3 Gz centrifugation longer than when they remained relaxed during centrifugation. Skeletal muscle pumping helps maintain cardiac filling pressure by opposing gravity-, centrifugation-, or LBNP-induced accumulation of blood and extravascular fluid in the legs.

  8. Upright CBCT: A novel imaging technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenia J Fave

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We present a method for acquiring and correcting upright images using the on board CBCT imager. An upright imaging technique would allow for the introduction of upright radiation therapy treatments, which would benefit a variety of patients including those with thoracic cancers whose lung volumes are increased in an upright position and those who experience substantial discomfort during supine treatment positions.Methods: To acquire upright CBCT images, the linac head was positioned at 0 degrees, the KV imager and detector arms extended to their lateral positions, and the couch placed at 270 degrees. The KV imager was programmed to begin taking continuous fluoroscopic projections as the couch rotated from 270 to 90 degrees. The FOV was extended by performing this procedure twice, once with the detector shifted 14.5 cm towards the gantry and once with it shifted 14.5 cm away from the gantry. The two resulting sets of images were stitched together prior to reconstruction. The imaging parameters were chosen to deliver the some dose as that delivered during a simulation CT. A simulation CT was deformably registered to an upright CBCT reconstruction in order to evaluate the possibility of correcting the HU values via mapping.Results: Both spatial linearity and high contrast resolution were maintained in upright CBCT when compared to a simulation CT. Low contrast resolution and HU linearity decreased. Streaking artifacts were caused by the limited 180 degree arc angle and a sharp point artifact in the center of the axial slices resulted at the site of the stitching. A method for correcting the HUs was shown to be robust against these artifacts.Conclusion: Upright CBCT could be of great benefit to many patients. This study demonstrates its feasibility and presents solutions to some of its first hurdles before clinical implementation.--------------------------Cite this article as:Fave X, Yang J, Balter P, Court L. Upright CBCT: A novel imaging

  9. How do you define body image? Exploring conceptual gaps in understandings of body image at an exercise facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Gammage, Kimberley L; van Ingen, Cathy

    2017-12-01

    The definition of body image has evolved within research; however, less is known about the layperson's understanding of the construct. This study explored how members and student trainees of an exercise facility (designed for older adults, people with physical disability, and those with cardiac complications) defined body image. Nineteen participants completed a one-on-one interview, and seven of those participants took part in six additional focus group meetings. The following main themes were found: stereotypical assumptions about body image (e.g., it is solely a person's weight or merely a woman's issue), body image continua for positive and negative body image, degree of complexity of body image dimensions, broad considerations of body image (e.g., it is self-esteem), and limited knowledge about body image. These findings suggest a need for knowledge translation between researchers and the general public which informs future body image program design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. LOCALISED MUSCLE TISSUE OXYGENATION DURING DYNAMIC EXERCISE WITH WHOLE BODY VIBRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Robbins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing use of whole body vibration during exercise an understanding of the exact role of vibration and the supporting physiological mechanisms is still limited. An important aspect of exercise analysis is the utilisation of oxygen, however, there have been limited studies considering tissue oxygenation parameters, particularly during dynamic whole body vibration (WBV exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of adding WBV during heel raise exercises and assessing changes in tissue oxygenation parameters of the lateral gastrocnemius using Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS. Twenty healthy subjects completed ten alternating sets of 15 heel raises (vibration vs. no vibration. Synchronous oxygenation and motion data were captured prior to exercise to determine baseline levels, for the duration of the exercise and 20 sec post exercise for the recovery period. Both vibration and no vibration conditions elicited a characteristic increase in deoxyhaemoglobin and decreases in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, tissue oxygenation index and normalised tissue haemoglobin index which are indicative of local tissue hypoxia. However, the addition of vibration elicited significantly lower (p < 0. 001 depletions in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, normalised tissue haemoglobin index but no significant differences in deoxyhaemoglobin. These findings suggest that addition of vibration to exercise does not increase the cost of the exercise for the lateral gastrocnemius muscle, but does decrease the reduction in local muscle oxygenation parameters, potentially resulting from increased blood flow to the calf or a vasospastic response in the feet. However, further studies are needed to establish the mechanisms underlying these findings

  11. Extracellular hyperosmolality and body temperature during physical exercise in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, S.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Turlejska, E.; Nazar, K.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that thermoregulation during exercise can be affected by extracellular fluid hyperosmolality without changing the plasma Na(+) concentration. The effects of preexercise venous infusions of hypertonic mannitol and NaCl solutions on rectal temperature responses were compared in dogs running at moderate intensity for 60 min on a treadmill. Plasma Na(+) concentration was increased by 12 meq after NaCl infusion, and decreased by 9 meq after mannitol infusion. Both infusions increased plasma by 15 mosmol/kg. After both infusions, rectal temperature was essentially constant during 60 min rest. However, compared with the noninfusion exercise increase in osmolality of 1.3 C, rectal temperature increased by 1.9 C after both postinfusion exercise experiments. It was concluded that inducing extracellular hyperosmolality, without elevating plasma, can induce excessive increases in rectal temperature during exericse but not at rest.

  12. Beneficial effects of exercise: shifting the focus from body weight to other markers of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N A; Hopkins, M; Caudwell, P; Stubbs, R J; Blundell, J E

    2009-12-01

    Exercise is widely promoted as a method of weight management, while the other health benefits are often ignored. The purpose of this study was to examine whether exercise-induced improvements in health are influenced by changes in body weight. Fifty-eight sedentary overweight/obese men and women (BMI 31.8 (SD 4.5) kg/m(2)) participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise intervention (70% heart rate max, five times a week, 500 kcal per session). Body composition, anthropometric parameters, aerobic capacity, blood pressure and acute psychological response to exercise were measured at weeks 0 and 12. The mean reduction in body weight was -3.3 (3.63) kg (pweight loss estimated from individuals' exercise-induced energy expenditure. Their mean weight loss was only -0.9 (1.8) kg (pweight reduction, these individuals experienced significant increases in aerobic capacity (6.3 (6.0) ml/kg/min; pweight loss. A less successful reduction in body weight does not undermine the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise. From a public health perspective, exercise should be encouraged and the emphasis on weight loss reduced.

  13. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Body Image Attitudes in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sareh Zar-Shenas; Ashraf Karbalaaei-Nouri; Seyyed-Ali Hosseini; Mahdi Rahgozar; Reza Seyed-Nour; Nahaleh Moshtagh

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Sociocultural emphasis and increased interest in physical attractiveness and current attitudes body structure have increased body image dissatisfaction among women. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is linked with various psychological disorders and disturbances such as low self-esteem, depression and other disorders. The present study investigated the short program aerobic exercise effects on body image among women. Materials & Methods: In this interventional and qu...

  14. The Effect of Short-Term Aerobic Exercise on Depression and Body Image in Iranian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Zarshenas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of short-term aerobic exercise on depression symptoms and body image attitudes among Iranian women. In this quasiexperimental study, 82 females were assigned to experimental group (aerobic exercise group, or control group (waiting list, and evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II and Multidimensional Body Self-Relation Questionnaire (MBSRQ, respectively. The experimental group received four-week aerobic exercise program, and control group had been asked to wait for the next four weeks. Results of this study confirmed the significant decrease in depression symptoms at the experimental group compared to control group . For the body image dependent variables, significant improvement was also found in appearance evaluation, appearance orientation, health orientation, and illness orientation in aerobic exercise group .

  15. Personality traits and appearance-ideal internalization: Differential associations with body dissatisfaction and compulsive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shelby J; Racine, Sarah E

    2017-12-01

    Thin-ideal internalization is a robust risk factor for body dissatisfaction and eating pathology. Conversely, athletic-ideal internalization is often unrelated to body dissatisfaction, but predicts compulsive exercise (i.e., rigid, rule-driven exercise that is continued despite adverse consequences). Distinct personality traits could relate to internalization of different appearance ideals, which may be associated with divergent eating disorder outcomes. Past research has shown that neuroticism is related to body dissatisfaction, whereas extraversion and conscientiousness have been associated with regular and problematic exercise. The current study examined associations among personality traits (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness), appearance-ideal internalization (i.e., thin- and athletic-ideal), and eating disorder cognitions/behaviors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, compulsive exercise) among 531 college men and women. Moreover, we tested whether appearance-ideal internalization mediated the relationships between personality traits with body dissatisfaction and compulsive exercise. As expected, body dissatisfaction was positively related to neuroticism, and compulsive exercise was positively associated with extraversion. Thin-ideal internalization positively correlated with neuroticism, athletic-ideal internalization positively correlated with conscientiousness, and both thin- and athletic-ideal internalization were positively related to extraversion. After controlling for gender, body mass index, the other appearance-ideal internalization, and the remaining personality traits, the indirect effects of both neuroticism and extraversion on body dissatisfaction through thin-ideal internalization were significant. Extraversion and conscientiousness were indirectly related to compulsive exercise through athletic-ideal internalization, whereas the indirect effect of neuroticism was dependent on covariates. As such, personality traits may be related to

  16. Monitoring Change of Body Fluid during Physical Exercise using Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Finite Element Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Röthlingshöfer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Athletes need a balanced body composition in order to achieve maximum performance. Especially dehydration reduces power and endurance during physical exercise. Monitoring the body composition, with a focus on body fluid, may help to avoid reduction in performance and other health problems.For this, a potential measurement method is bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS. BIS is a simple, non-invasive measurement method that allows to determine different body compartments (body fluid, fat, fat-free mass. However, because many physiological changes occur during physical exercise that can influence impedance measurements and distort results, it cannot be assumed that the BIS data are related to body fluid loss alone.To confirm that BIS can detect body fluid loss due to physical exercise, finite element (FE simulations were done. Besides impedance, also the current density contribution during a BIS measurement was modeled to evaluate the influence of certain tissues on BIS measurements.Simulations were done using CST EM Studio (Computer Simulation Technology, Germany and the Visible Human Data Set (National Library of Medicine, USA. In addition to the simulations, BIS measurements were also made on athletes. Comparison between the measured bioimpedance data and simulation data, as well as body weight loss during sport, indicates that BIS measurements are sensitive enough to monitor body fluid loss during physical exercise.doi:10.5617/jeb.178 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 79-85, 2011

  17. Whole-body vibration exercise improves functional parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have abnormal bone modelling and resorption. The bone tissue adaptation and responsivity to dynamic and mechanical loading may be of therapeutic use under controlled circumstances. Improvements due to the wholebody vibration (WBV) exercises have been ...

  18. Metabolism of ketone bodies during exercise and training: physiological basis for exogenous supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark; Cogan, Karl E; Egan, Brendan

    2017-05-01

    Optimising training and performance through nutrition strategies is central to supporting elite sportspeople, much of which has focused on manipulating the relative intake of carbohydrate and fat and their contributions as fuels for energy provision. The ketone bodies, namely acetoacetate, acetone and β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), are produced in the liver during conditions of reduced carbohydrate availability and serve as an alternative fuel source for peripheral tissues including brain, heart and skeletal muscle. Ketone bodies are oxidised as a fuel source during exercise, are markedly elevated during the post-exercise recovery period, and the ability to utilise ketone bodies is higher in exercise-trained skeletal muscle. The metabolic actions of ketone bodies can alter fuel selection through attenuating glucose utilisation in peripheral tissues, anti-lipolytic effects on adipose tissue, and attenuation of proteolysis in skeletal muscle. Moreover, ketone bodies can act as signalling metabolites, with βHB acting as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, an important regulator of the adaptive response to exercise in skeletal muscle. Recent development of ketone esters facilitates acute ingestion of βHB that results in nutritional ketosis without necessitating restrictive dietary practices. Initial reports suggest this strategy alters the metabolic response to exercise and improves exercise performance, while other lines of evidence suggest roles in recovery from exercise. The present review focuses on the physiology of ketone bodies during and after exercise and in response to training, with specific interest in exploring the physiological basis for exogenous ketone supplementation and potential benefits for performance and recovery in athletes. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  19. Space exercise and Earth benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Brandon R; Groppo, Eli R; Eastlack, Robert K; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Lee, Stuart M C; Schneider, Suzanne M; Boda, Wanda L; Smith, Scott M; Cutuk, Adnan; Pedowitz, Robert A; Meyer, R Scott; Hargens, Alan R

    2005-08-01

    The detrimental impact of long duration space flight on physiological systems necessitates the development of exercise countermeasures to protect work capabilities in gravity fields of Earth, Moon and Mars. The respective rates of physiological deconditioning for different organ systems during space flight has been described as a result of data collected during and after missions on the Space Shuttle, International Space Station, Mir, and bed rest studies on Earth. An integrated countermeasure that simulates the body's hydrostatic pressure gradient, provides mechanical stress to the bones and muscles, and stimulates the neurovestibular system may be critical for maintaining health and well being of crew during long-duration space travel, such as a mission to Mars. Here we review the results of our studies to date of an integrated exercise countermeasure for space flight, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treadmill exercise, and potential benefits of its application to athletic training on Earth. Additionally, we review the benefits of Lower Body Positive Pressure (LBPP) exercise for rehabilitation of postoperative patients. Presented first are preliminary data from a 30-day bed rest study evaluating the efficacy of LBNP exercise as an integrated exercise countermeasure for the deconditioning effects of microgravity. Next, we review upright LBNP exercise as a training modality for athletes by evaluating effects on the cardiovascular system and gait mechanics. Finally, LBPP exercise as a rehabilitation device is examined with reference to gait mechanics and safety in two groups of postoperative patients.

  20. heat storage in upper and lower body during high-intensity exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    work at 80% of peak heart rate (HR) in room temperature . However, upper-body skin .... exercise (ACE) test to determine VO2 peak with gas exchange in- .... Lower-body heat storage was calculated using ∆Trec and ∆Tsk, which was calculated using the mean skin temperature (thigh 70% and calf 30%) from the formula of ...

  1. High-intensity interval training using whole-body exercises: training recommendations and methodological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Alexandre F; Baker, Julien S; Figueira Junior, Aylton J; Bocalini, Danilo S

    2017-05-04

    HIIT whole body (HWB)-based exercise is a new calisthenics exercise programme approach that can be considered an effective and safe method to improve physical fitness and body composition. HWB is a method that can be applied to different populations and ages. The purpose of this study was to describe possible methodologies for performing physical training based on whole-body exercise in healthy subjects. The HWB sessions consist of a repeated stimulus based on high-intensity exercise that also include monitoring time to effort, time to recuperation and session time. The exercise intensity is related to the maximal number of movements possible in a given time; therefore, the exercise sessions can be characterized as maximal. The intensity can be recorded using ratings of perceived exertion. Weekly training frequency and exercise selection should be structured according to individual subject functional fitness. Using this simple method, there is potential for greater adherence to physical activity which can promote health benefits to all members of society. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Chair rising exercise is more effective than one-leg standing exercise in improving dynamic body balance: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, F; Iwamoto, J; Osugi, T; Yamazaki, M; Takakuwa, M

    2012-06-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare the effect of a one-leg standing exercise and a chair-rising exercise on body balance in patients with locomotive disorders. Thirty ambulatory patients (mean age: 66.6 years) were randomly divided into two groups (n=15 in each group): a one-leg standing exercise group and a chair-rising exercise group. All the participants performed calisthenics of the major muscles, a tandem gait exercise, and a stepping exercise. The exercises were performed 3 days per week, and the study period was 5 months. Physical function was evaluated at baseline and at one-month intervals. No significant differences in the baseline characteristics were observed between the two groups. After the 5-month exercise program, the timed up and go, one-leg standing time, and tandem gait time improved significantly in the one-leg standing exercise group, while the walking time and chair-rising time in addition to above parameters improved significantly in the chair-rising exercise group. The improvements in the walking time, chair-rising time, and tandem gait time were significantly greater in the chair-rising exercise group than in the one-leg standing exercise group. The present study showed that the chair-rising exercise was more effective than the one-leg standing exercise for improving walking velocity and dynamic body balance.

  3. Impact of exercise on quality of life and body-self perception of patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Esra; Topsakal, Nuri; Atilgan, Oya Erkut; Alcalar, Nilufer; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Niyazoglu, Mutlu; Cotuk, Hasan Birol; Kadioglu, Pinar

    2014-02-01

    In acromegaly the impact of therapy on well-being and self-perception of patients is not clearly defined. The data existing on the effect of treatment on health-related quality of life in patients with acromegaly is inconclusive. In this study we addressed the effect of exercise on health-related quality of life, symptoms of depression and perception of body image in patients with acromegaly. Patients with acromegaly were stratified into two groups according to their participation in a prescheduled program of exercise. Participants in the study group performed exercise for 75 min a day for 3 days a week during cosecutive 3 months. Warming, cardio, strength, balance and stretching moves applied in every course. Both the exercise group and control group were asked to complete a questionnaire on quality of life, symptoms of depression and self-perception of body image. Each questionnaire was answered by both groups before the beginning of the exercise program (at month-0) and after the completion of the program (at month-3). In exercise group after the completion of exercise period there was a tendency towards decreament in body mass index and IGF-I, although not statistically significant (p = 0.08 and p = 0.09). Self-assessment of body image improved significantly after participation in the exercise program (p = 0.01). Present findings support that exercise may be an adjunctive method for patients with acromegaly to improve self esteem and perception.

  4. Body image dissatisfaction: gender differences in eating attitudes, self-esteem, and reasons for exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Badmin, Nicola; Sneade, Ian

    2002-11-01

    Two hundred and thirty-five adolescents completed a questionnaire on the subject of eating attitudes, self-esteem, reasons for exercise, and their ideal versus current body size and shape. As predicted, boys were as likely to want to be heavier as lighter, whereas very few girls desired to be heavier. Only girls associated body dissatisfaction with the concept of self-esteem. Male self-esteem was not affected by body dissatisfaction. Specific reasons for exercise were found to correlate with low self-esteem and disordered eating, regardless of sex. The results are discussed in relation to burgeoning published research in this area.

  5. Disordered eating attitudes and body shame among athletes, exercisers and sedentary female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankauskiene, R; Pajaujiene, S

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the disordered eating attitudes and sociocultural body ideals internalization among university athletes (N.=98), exercisers (N.=125) and sedentary (N.=81) undergraduate female students. The mean age (SD) of the sample was 20.17 (2.00). The students completed Eating Attitude Test - 26, Body Areas Satisfaction subscale of the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, Body Shame subscale from the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale, Appearance subscale from the Motives for Physical Activity Measure--Revised, reported their physical activity and fluid manipulation-related behaviour. We observed no significant differences in disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem and fluid manipulation-related behaviour among athletes, exercisers and sedentary female students. Body shame predicted disordered eating in all groups of women. Students high in body shame reported higher levels of disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, appearance-related exercise motives, fluid manipulation-related behaviour and lower self-esteem, regardless of their physical activity level. The results show that internalization of the sociocultural body standards provide a mechanism through which different physical activity levels are associated with negative eating and physical activity-related outcomes in college-aged women.

  6. Influence of Upper-Body Exercise on the Fatigability of Human Respiratory Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    TILLER, NICHOLAS B.; CAMPBELL, IAN G.; ROMER, LEE M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Diaphragm and abdominal muscles are susceptible to contractile fatigue in response to high-intensity, whole-body exercise. This study assessed whether the ventilatory and mechanical loads imposed by high-intensity, upper-body exercise would be sufficient to elicit respiratory muscle fatigue. Methods Seven healthy men (mean ± SD; age = 24 ± 4 yr, peak O2 uptake [V˙O2peak] = 31.9 ± 5.3 mL·kg−1·min−1) performed asynchronous arm-crank exercise to exhaustion at work rates equivalent to 30% (heavy) and 60% (severe) of the difference between gas exchange threshold and V˙O2peak. Contractile fatigue of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles was assessed by measuring pre- to postexercise changes in potentiated transdiaphragmatic and gastric twitch pressures (Pdi,tw and Pga,tw) evoked by supramaximal magnetic stimulation of the cervical and thoracic nerves, respectively. Results Exercise time was 24.5 ± 5.8 min for heavy exercise and 9.8 ± 1.8 min for severe exercise. Ventilation over the final minute of heavy exercise was 73 ± 20 L·min−1 (39% ± 11% maximum voluntary ventilation) and 99 ± 19 L·min−1 (53% ± 11% maximum voluntary ventilation) for severe exercise. Mean Pdi,tw did not differ pre- to postexercise at either intensity (P > 0.05). Immediately (5–15 min) after severe exercise, mean Pga,tw was significantly lower than pre-exercise values (41 ± 13 vs 53 ± 15 cm H2O, P < 0.05), with the difference no longer significant after 25–35 min. Abdominal muscle fatigue (defined as ≥15% reduction in Pga,tw) occurred in 1/7 subjects after heavy exercise and 5/7 subjects after severe exercise. Conclusions High-intensity, upper-body exercise elicits significant abdominal, but not diaphragm, muscle fatigue in healthy men. The increased magnitude and prevalence of fatigue during severe-intensity exercise is likely due to additional (nonrespiratory) loading of the thorax. PMID:28288012

  7. Differences for gender, weight and exercise in body image disturbance and eating disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnado-Sullivan, P J; Horton, R; Savoy, S

    2006-09-01

    Differences for gender, weight, exercise frequency and type for eating disorder symptoms and body image disturbance were examined. Further understanding of male body image disturbance was the primary goal. Males (n=200) and females (n=233) completed measures to assess eating disorder symptoms and multiple components of body image disturbance. Measures were modified to be more appropriate for males. Females endorsed higher levels of eating and body concerns. Males were divided between a desire to maintain, increase or decrease their size. Higher weight and exercise frequency was associated with increased body image concern and eating disorder symptoms, particularly for males. Exercise frequency was also linked to higher self-esteem for males. Males who used muscle-enhancing supplements indicated increased social pressures and concern for appearance, and a desire to increase their size. The findings support that weight and exercise frequency affect eating disorder symptoms and body image disturbance. Males appear to exhibit body image disturbance, which is related to their current weight status. Results support the call for further development of measures that more adequately address male concerns.

  8. Body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic exercise in adolescents: are they related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Laus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated if boys and girls who practice exercises with aesthetic propose report higher levels of body dissatisfaction compared to their inactive peers. A total of 199 adolescents (89 boys, mean age 16.1 years, completed measures of body dissatisfaction and psychological commitment to exercise. Results demonstrated that active boys presented lower dissatisfaction than their inactive peers; and active girls were significantly more dissatisfied than inactive ones. Active boys were more satisfied than active girls. The majority of active girls reported a desire for a slimmer silhouette; while active boys were equally divided between those who desired a heavier silhouette and those who were satisfied. Psychological commitment to exercise did not differ between satisfied and dissatisfied active adolescents. Thus, girls who practice aesthetic exercises must be looked at as a high risk population to the development of health harmful behaviors and eating disorders.

  9. The effects of dance music jump rope exercise on pulmonary function and body mass index after music jump rope exercise in overweight adults in 20’s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, KyoChul

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a dance music jump rope exercise on changes Pulmonary Function and body mass index in female overweight subjects in their 20’s. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to the dance music jump rope exercise group and the stationary cycle exercise group. All subjects have conducted the exercises three times a week for four weeks. Pulmonary function was evaluated using a spirometer, and body mass index was evaluated using an InBody 3.0. [Results] The findings of this study showed significant improvements in the voluntary capacity and body mass index of the experimental groups. Vital capacity was higher in the music jump rope exercise group than the stationary cycle exercise group, and body mass index was lower in the music jump rope exercise group than the stationary cycle exercise group. [Conclusion] This study showed that the dance music jump rope exercise can be used to improve vital capacity and body mass index. PMID:28878460

  10. The effects of dance music jump rope exercise on pulmonary function and body mass index after music jump rope exercise in overweight adults in 20's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, KyoChul

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a dance music jump rope exercise on changes Pulmonary Function and body mass index in female overweight subjects in their 20's. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to the dance music jump rope exercise group and the stationary cycle exercise group. All subjects have conducted the exercises three times a week for four weeks. Pulmonary function was evaluated using a spirometer, and body mass index was evaluated using an InBody 3.0. [Results] The findings of this study showed significant improvements in the voluntary capacity and body mass index of the experimental groups. Vital capacity was higher in the music jump rope exercise group than the stationary cycle exercise group, and body mass index was lower in the music jump rope exercise group than the stationary cycle exercise group. [Conclusion] This study showed that the dance music jump rope exercise can be used to improve vital capacity and body mass index.

  11. Does Body Mass Index Influence Behavioral Regulations, Dispositional Flow and Social Physique Anxiety in Exercise Setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Ersöz, Ersin Altiparmak, F. Hülya Aşçı

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow, social physique anxiety of exercisers in terms of body mass index (BMI. 782 university students participated in this study. Dispositional Flow State Scale-2, Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, Social Physique Anxiety Scale and Physical Activity Stages of Change Questionnaire were administered to participants. After controlling for gender, analysis indicated significant differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow and social physique anxiety of exercise participants with regards to BMI. In summary, the findings demonstrate that normal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons while underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation. Additionally, participants who are underweight had higher dispositional flow and lower social physique anxiety scores than other BMI classification.

  12. Adipocytokine responses to acute exercise in athletes with different body fat content and sedentary controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Sumarac Dumanovic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent research in the biology of adipose tissue indicates that it is far more than a simply an energy storage organ, and it is in fact an active endocrine organ secreting numerous bioactive mediators, called adipokines, including leptin, adiponectin and visfatin (Galic, 2010. To date, less attention has been focused on the kinetics of adipokines levels during and after high intensity exercise. Several reports pointed at the metabolic role of adipokines during exercise in elite athletes, but the data are currently equivocal (Bouassida et al., 2010; Jürimäe et al., 2011. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate adipocytokine responses to a single bout acute exercise in elite athletes with low percentage of body fat, elite athletes with a high percentage of body fat and sedentary controls. Methods: Sixteen athletes with low percentage of body fat (volleyball players, low fat athletes group, LFAG, fifteen athletes with high percentage of body fat (water polo players, high fat athletes group, HFAG and fifteen sedentary subjects participated in this study (age [years] 20±2; 20±2; 20±1, respectively. All subjects were exposed to: anthropometric measurements; exercise test on treadmill in order to examine acute changes of adipocytokines; blood samples were obtained at baseline levels, immediately after the exercise test and 30 minutes after recovery. Separated serum or plasma were used for hormone (leptin, adiponectin and visfatin ELISA analysis. Results: In athletes in LFAG, baseline leptin concentration was significantly lower, but adiponectin and visfatin concentrations were significantly higher, compared to sedentary controls and athletes in HFAG (p0.05. Conclusions: Our findings show leptin and visfatin levels, but not adiponectin respond to acute exercise. Acute exercise elicited an inverse visfatin response in athletes in HFAG and controls. Also, these results suggest that leptin is altered after acute exercise

  13. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Body Image Attitudes in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Zar-Shenas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sociocultural emphasis and increased interest in physical attractiveness and current attitudes body structure have increased body image dissatisfaction among women. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is linked with various psychological disorders and disturbances such as low self-esteem, depression and other disorders. The present study investigated the short program aerobic exercise effects on body image among women. Materials & Methods: In this interventional and quasi experimental study, 82 females among 150 women (18-45 years old referred to Enghelab and Gol sports clubs in Tehran were selected by convenient and simple sampling based on inclusive and exclusive criteria and randomly divided into two intervention and control groups. They did not participate in any exercise in last 3 months and also they did not have any physical disease and meet criteria for deficit of body image attitudes. Data collection was done by using demographic and Multidimensional Body Self-Relation Questionnaire. The intervention group participated in aerobic exercise program. These sessions lasted 3 hours per week for 4 weeks. Data were analyzed by Chi–Square, Paired T and Independent T tests. Results: There were significant differences between two groups after intervention in sub items of body image including: self-appearance evaluation (P<0.001, self-appearance orientation (P<0.001, health orientation (P=0.003, illness orientation (P=0.002, but their fitness evaluation (P=0.141, self-fitness orientation (P=0.888, health evaluation (P=0.072, self-body satisfaction (P=0.082, overweight preoccupations (P=0.167 and self-assesed weight (P=0.156 did not change clearly. Conclusion: Short periods of aerobic exercise can effectively promote body image attitudes among women, and exercise can be used as a method of treatment in occupational therapy of the disorder.

  14. The relationship between body esteem, exercise motivations, depression, and social support among female free clinic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Christensen, Nancy; Al-Obaydi, Sarah; Solis, Silvia Patricia; Ashby, Jeanie; Greenwood, Jessica L J; Reel, Justine J

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health problem in women's health. This study examined relationship between body esteem, exercise motivations, depression, and social support among female free clinic patients. Low-income women who are at risk for obesity and other health concerns would benefit from health education efforts. We compared 299 female and 164 male free clinic patients 18 years or older using assessments for body esteem, motivation to exercise, depression, and social support. Although female participants reported lower levels of body esteem and higher levels of depression compared with male participants (p depression lowers levels of body esteem (p body image and physical activity. It is important for health educators to engage a myriad of physical activity motives to increase the likelihood that clients will experience enjoyment and sustained adoption of exercise into their lifestyle. Future practice and research should warrant the implementation of body image and physical activity programs and the potential impact of using exercise to reducing depression among female patients at free clinics. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Do different groups have different risk factors for dieting and exercise as body management strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behshid Garrusi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim – Body change strategies are activities that could be potentially harmful. Individuals may use different methods for achieving advertised ideal body. Some of demographic and psychosocial contributing factors could be affect decision regarding body management activities. In Iran there is a few research about this matter, therefore the aim of this study was exploring risk factors in body management. Materials and Methods – In this cross sectional study, 400 people participated that including general population, university students and body building clubs attainders. The self administrated questionnaire based on reliable sources of body image that evaluated its validity and validity. Statistical analysis was done by using central indexes and distribution and logistic regression. Data analysis was done by software of SPSS 16. Results – Marital status, education, economic status, age and BMI had no relation with body management strategies. Birthplace effects on choose of diet and exercise. Gender is only had effect on exercise choosing. Use of Western TV had effect on doing exercise. Pressure of relatives was an important factor in decision about dieting. Self steam and compare of appearance with others affected choosing of dieting. There were no differences between selected groups. Conclusion – In spite of similarities between body dissatisfaction and its management strategies with other studies in Iran, there is necessity for future studies.

  16. Effects of regular aerobic exercise on physical characteristics, body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... did not participate in any special kind of physical activity. In addition to administering the Body Image Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Self-efficacy Scale, anthropometric variables were assessed before the commencement of the study and again immediately afterwards. The data were analysed by a one-way ANCOVA.

  17. Effect of whole-body vibration training on body composition, exercise performance and biochemical responses in middle-aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-I; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Kan, Nai-Wen; Wei, Li; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2015-09-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential benefits of WBV on aging-associated changes in body composition, exercise performance, and fatigue are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the beneficial effects of WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related and biochemical responses in middle-aged mice. In total, 24 male C57BL/6 mice aged 15 months old were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=8 per group): sedentary control (SC), relatively low-frequency WBV (5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g) (LV), and relatively high-frequency WBV (13 Hz, 2 mm, 0.68 g) (HV). Mice in the LV and HV groups were placed inside a vibration platform and vibrated at different frequencies and fixed amplitude (2 mm) for 15 min, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Exercise performance, core temperature and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise, as were changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. Relative muscle and brown adipose tissue weight (%) was significantly higher for the HV than SC mice, but relative liver weight (%) was lower. On trend analysis, WBV increased grip strength, aerobic endurance and core temperature in mice. As well, serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels were dose-dependently decreased with vibration frequency after the swimming test. Fasting serum levels of albumin and total protein were increased and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and creatinine decreased dose-dependently with vibration frequency. Moreover, WBV training improved the age-related abnormal morphology of skeletal muscle, liver and kidney tissues. Therefore, it could improve exercise performance and

  18. Cellular Stress Response Gene Expression During Upper and Lower Body High Intensity Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanowicz, Andrzej; Sawczyn, Stanisław; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Mieszkowski, Jan; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to compare the effect of upper and lower body high-intensity exercise on chosen genes expression in athletes and non-athletes. Method Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (EAG) aged 20.6 ± 3.3 years and 14 physically active men (PAM) aged 19.9 ± 1.0 years performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests. Blood samples were collected before, 5 and 30 minutes after each effort to assess gene expression via PCR. Results Significantly higher mechanical parameters after lower body exercise was observed in both groups, for relative power (8.7 ± 1.2 W/kg in gymnasts, 7.2 ± 1.2 W/kg in controls, p = 0.01) and mean power (6.7 ± 0.7 W/kg in gymnasts, 5.4 ± 0.8 W/kg in controls, p = 0.01). No differences in lower versus upper body gene expression were detected for all tested genes as well as between gymnasts and physical active man. For IL-6 m-RNA time-dependent effect was observed. Conclusions Because of no significant differences in expression of genes associated with cellular stress response the similar adaptive effect to exercise may be obtained so by lower and upper body exercise. PMID:28141870

  19. Effects of intermittent fasting and chronic swimming exercise on body composition and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Ruan Carlos Macedo de; Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Ferraz, Alex Soares Marreiros; da Silva, Tiago Eugênio Oliveira; Marocolo, Moacir

    2017-12-01

    Intermittent fasting protocol (IFP) has been suggested as a strategy to change body metabolism and improve health. The effects of IFP seem to be similar to aerobic exercise, having a hormetic adaptation according to intensity and frequency. However, the effects of combining both interventions are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of IFP with and without endurance-exercise training on body composition, food behavior, and lipid metabolism. Twenty-week-old Wistar rats were kept under an inverted circadian cycle of 12 h with water ad libitum and assigned to 4 different groups: control group (ad libitum feeding and sedentary), exercise group (ad libitum feeding and endurance training), intermittent fasting group (IF; intermittent fasting and sedentary), and intermittent fasting and exercise group (IFEX; intermittent fasting and endurance training). After 6 weeks, the body weight of IF and IFEX animals decreased without changes in food consumption. Yet, the body composition between the 2 groups was different, with the IFEX animals containing higher total protein and lower total fat content than the IF animals. The IFEX group also showed increases in total high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased intramuscular lipid content. The amount of brown adipose tissue was higher in IF and IFEX groups; however, the IFEX group showed higher expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 in this tissue, indicating a greater thermogenesis. The IFP combined with endurance training is an efficient method for decreasing body mass and altering fat metabolism, without inflicting losses in protein content.

  20. Body-related sport and exercise motives and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Lanfranchi, Marie-Christine; Therme, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Motives underlying sport and exercise involvement have recently been hypothesized as potential factors influencing the positive association between sports/exercises involvement and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours (DEAB) among adolescents. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined this hypothesis or the moderating role of gender, context of practice, performance levels and sport type on these relationships. In this study, these questions were addressed among 168 male and 167 female French adolescents involved in various types, contexts and performance levels of sport and exercise. Participants were asked to indicate their main motives for involvement in sport practice and to self-report DEAB (generic DEAB, vomiting-purging behaviours, and eating-related control) on a French adaptation of the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results shared positive associations between body-related sport and exercise motives and most of the DEAB subscales. Furthermore, they show that the relationship between body-related sport and exercise motives and Vomiting-Purging Behaviours differs according to involvement in individual and competitive sports and exercises. Copyright ©2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  1. Effect of exercise and feed restriction on body weight and lipogenesis in the male Wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellwo, M.; Wright, D.L.; Beauchene, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were swum for either 1.5 or 3.0 hours per day from 6 through 32 weeks of age. At 32 weeks of age, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with 3 H 2 O and sacrificed 1 hour later. Liver activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (MF) were also measured. Feed intakes of exercised rats were slightly higher, whereas their body weights were slightly lower when compared to those of non-exercised ad libitum-fed rats (controls). Liver ME and G6PD activities of exercised rats were 30% and 50% higher, respectively, than those of control rats. Non-exercised rats, whose body weights were controlled by feed restriction to match those of exercised rats, also showed increases in liver ME and G6PD activities (30%). The relationship between rates of incorporation of 3 H 2 O into liver fat and activities of liver ME and G6PD as affected by exercise and feed restriction will be discussed

  2. Effect of exercise and feed restriction on body weight and lipogenesis in the male Wistar rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellwo, M.; Wright, D.L.; Beauchene, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    Male Wistar rats were swum for either 1.5 or 3.0 hours per day from 6 through 32 weeks of age. At 32 weeks of age, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and sacrificed 1 hour later. Liver activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (MF) were also measured. Feed intakes of exercised rats were slightly higher, whereas their body weights were slightly lower when compared to those of non-exercised ad libitum-fed rats (controls). Liver ME and G6PD activities of exercised rats were 30% and 50% higher, respectively, than those of control rats. Non-exercised rats, whose body weights were controlled by feed restriction to match those of exercised rats, also showed increases in liver ME and G6PD activities (30%). The relationship between rates of incorporation of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O into liver fat and activities of liver ME and G6PD as affected by exercise and feed restriction will be discussed.

  3. A U-Shaped Relation between Sitting Ability and Upright Face Processing in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashon, Cara H.; Ha, Oh-Ryeong; Allen, Casey L.; Barna, Amelia Cevelle

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research indicates connections exist between action, perception, and cognition in infants. In this study, associated changes between sitting ability and upright face processing were tested in 111 infants. Using the visual habituation "switch" task (C. H. Cashon & L. B. Cohen, 2004; L. B. Cohen & C. H. Cashon, 2001), holistic…

  4. Comparison of human and humanoid robot control of upright stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable recent interest in developing humanoid robots. An important substrate for many motor actions in both humans and biped robots is the ability to maintain a statically or dynamically stable posture. Given the success of the human design, one would expect there are lessons to be learned in formulating a postural control mechanism for robots. In this study we limit ourselves to considering the problem of maintaining upright stance. Human stance control is compared to a suggested method for robot stance control called zero moment point (ZMP) compensation. Results from experimental and modeling studies suggest there are two important subsystems that account for the low- and mid-frequency (DC to approximately 1Hz) dynamic characteristics of human stance control. These subsystems are (1) a "sensory integration" mechanism whereby orientation information from multiple sensory systems encoding body kinematics (i.e. position, velocity) is flexibly combined to provide an overall estimate of body orientation while allowing adjustments (sensory re-weighting) that compensate for changing environmental conditions and (2) an "effort control" mechanism that uses kinetic-related (i.e., force-related) sensory information to reduce the mean deviation of body orientation from upright. Functionally, ZMP compensation is directly analogous to how humans appear to use kinetic feedback to modify the main sensory integration feedback loop controlling body orientation. However, a flexible sensory integration mechanism is missing from robot control leaving the robot vulnerable to instability in conditions where humans are able to maintain stance. We suggest the addition of a simple form of sensory integration to improve robot stance control. We also investigate how the biological constraint of feedback time delay influences the human stance control design. The human system may serve as a guide for improved robot control, but should not be directly copied because the

  5. Resistance exercise dosage in older adults: single- versus multiset effects on physical performance and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Daniel A; Taaffe, Dennis R

    2005-12-01

    To determine whether variation in resistance exercise volume affects muscle function and physical performance response in older adults. A randomized trial with subjects assigned to a single-set (1-SET) or three-set (3-SET) exercise group. An exercise facility at the University of Queensland. Twenty-eight community-dwelling men and women aged 65 to 78. Progressive resistance training consisting of seven exercises targeting the major muscle groups of the upper and lower body performed on exercise machines twice weekly for 20 weeks at eight-repetition maximum (RM) intensity. Muscle function included isotonic muscle strength (1-RM) of the seven exercises, isokinetic and isometric knee extensor strength, and muscle endurance for the chest press and leg press exercises. Physical performance included timed chair rise, usual and fast 6-m walk, 6-m backwards walk, 400-m walk, floor rise to standing, and stair climbing ability. In addition, body composition was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Isotonic muscle strength increased in both exercise groups for all seven exercises (P<.01), with the gain in the 3-SET group greater (P<.05) for the seated row, triceps extension, and knee extension (analysis of covariance). Similarly, muscle endurance gains were greater for the 3-SET than the 1-SET group (P<.01), with no significant difference between groups for isokinetic and isometric knee extensor strength. Both groups improved (P<.05) in the chair rise (1-SET, 10.1%; 3-SET, 13.6%), 6-m backwards walk (1-SET, 14.3%; 3-SET, 14.8%), 400-m walk (1-SET, 3.8%; 3-SET, 7.4%), and stair climbing test (1-SET, 7.7%; 3-SET, 6.4%), with the only difference between groups for the 400-m walk (P<.05). There was no difference between groups for change in body composition. Resistance training consisting of only single-set exercises is sufficient to significantly enhance muscle function and physical performance, although muscle strength and endurance gains are greater with higher

  6. Smoking Status and Body Composition, Exercise, Dietary Intake, and Alcohol/Caffeine Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    cholesterol , cigarette smoking, and body weight. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 200, 470-485. Hodgdon, J.A., Beckett, M.B. (1984a). Prediction of percent body...Cigarette smoking, exercise, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol . Atherosclerosis, 52, 73-83. Stamford, B.A., Matter, S., Fell, R.D...milk, cream, cheeses, ice cream) 6. eat low-fat dairy products (e.g., low-fat milk or cottage cheere, yogurt ) 7. eat (or cook with) butter, lard, or

  7. Effect of body weight gain on insulin sensitivity after retirement from exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.

  8. Exercise training decreases body mass index in subjects aged 50 years and over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatio Rika Haryono

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training can improve blood pressure in normotensive, prehypertensive, and hypertensive subjects. One of the mechanisms of blood pressure reduction in hypertensive patients with obesity is through weight loss. This study aimed to examine the effect of exercise training on bodyweight and the relationship between weight loss and reduction of blood pressure. An experimental pre-post test design without controls was used to evaluate the effect of exercise training on weight loss. The study involved 89 elderly aged 50 years or more, consisting of 40 men and 49 women, who were members of Senayan Sport Fitness Club and had been exercising for at least three months. Exercise training was programmed and performed three times a week, consisting of aerobic (walking, jogging, static cycling, and resistance exercise. All exercise was performed for one to two hours with mild to moderate intensity. Blood pressure and body weight were obtained from medical records. Paired t-test showed that systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, pulse pressure (PP, and body mass index (BMI were significantly lower after training [(systolic, 126.3 ± 2.9 vs 122.3 ± 2.7, p=0.02, (diastolic, 80.2 ± 3.1 vs 77.2 ± 2.4, p=0.00, (MAP, 95.6 ± 4.6 vs 92.2 ± 3.4, p=0.00, (PP, 46.1 ± 4.2 vs 45.1 ± 3.6, p=0.04, (BMI, 24.5 ± 2.9 vs 23.6 ± 2.9, p=0.04]. Duration of training was the most influential factor affecting rBMI, (Beta = 0.38; p=0.00. Exercise training could lower BMI and the reduction in diastolic blood pressure was higher for the subjects aged 70 years and over.

  9. Effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in females with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trans, T; Aaboe, J; Henriksen, M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in female patients with osteoarthritis in the knee (knee-OA). A single blinded, randomised, controlled trial was performed in an outpatient clinic on 52 female patients...

  10. Exercise program affects body composition but not weight in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, M.J.; Schuit, A.J.; Peeters, P.H.; Monninkhof, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-month moderate-to-vigorous exercise program combining aerobic and muscle strength training on body composition among sedentary, postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 189 sedentary

  11. Potential effects of whole-body vibration exercises on blood flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feasible clinical strategies such as whole-body vibration exercise (WBVE) are being used without a clear understanding of its effects. The aim of the present study is to review the effects of the WBVE on blood flow kinetics and its feasibility in different populations. Material and Methods: The level of evidence (LE) of selected ...

  12. Stress Reduction and Mood Enhancement in Four Exercise Modes: Swimming, Body Conditioning, Hatha Yoga, and Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Bonnie G.; Owen, David R.

    1988-01-01

    Differences in mood before and after class of college students taking different courses (swimming, body conditioning, hatha yoga, fencing exercise, and lecture) were analyzed using the Profile Mood States and the State Anxiety Inventory. Results suggest that courses which meet four requirements involving aerobics, noncompetitiveness,…

  13. The effect of body awareness therapy and aerobic exercises on pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of body awareness therapy and aerobic exercises on pain and quality of life in the patients with tension type headache. ... Pain severity of the individuals was evaluated by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and pain diary, disability with ache; by Pain Disability Index (PDI) and Headache Impact Tests (HIT) and quality of ...

  14. Whole-body vibration exercise is well tolerated in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by a defective gene located on the X-chromosome, responsible for the production of the dystrophin protein. Complications in the musculoskeletal system have been previously described in DMD patients. Whole body vibration exercise (WBVE) is a treatment that ...

  15. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J

    2013-01-01

    biking at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps muscle were obtained before and immediately after the exercise bout. Postmenopausal women had 33% [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 12-55] lower whole body fat oxidation (P = 0.005) and 19% (CI...

  16. Using Bench Press Load to Predict Upper Body Exercise Loads in Physically Active Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P.; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A.; Smith, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m-2) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key points The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations. 6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. PMID:24149723

  17. Exercise and physical therapy help restore body and self in clients with severe anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolnes, Liv-Jorunn

    2017-07-01

    Exercise in the context of anorexia nervosa is a multifaceted endeavour surrounded by controversy and uncertainty. A broader comprehension of this poorly understood phenomenon is required. Informed by the findings of a body examination of six individuals with anorexia nervosa, as well as exercise science, phenomenology and neurocognition, the purpose of this article is to elaborate on the potential role of exercise and physical therapy in the treatment of anorexia nervosa. The findings of the body assessment include constriction of posture, muscles and pattern of breathing. These bodily restraints are not necessarily merely associated with high levels of exercise, they may also reflect psychological strain accompanying the illness. The restricted breathing in particular is assumed to be associated with difficult thoughts and suppressed feelings. Based on the results of the body examination, as well as medical and psychological considerations accompanying the illness, it is suggested that interventions should focus on improving postural stability and restoring related muscular function. Integral to engaging in these activities, the potential to integrate proprioceptive information in this process may generate a more coherent experience of the body, as well as of the self, in these clients. Accordingly, constrictions of the body may have a vital role in constraining the experience of the self. As such, addressing bodily restraints in these clients may facilitate the experience of being the subject causing and controlling the movements. This is in marked contrast to clients' previous exercise experiences, which were associated with compulsion, rigidity and the absence of coherence and control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Perception of Upright: Multisensory Convergence and the Role of Temporo-Parietal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmand, Amir; Winnick, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    We inherently maintain a stable perception of the world despite frequent changes in the head, eye, and body positions. Such “orientation constancy” is a prerequisite for coherent spatial perception and sensorimotor planning. As a multimodal sensory reference, perception of upright represents neural processes that subserve orientation constancy through integration of sensory information encoding the eye, head, and body positions. Although perception of upright is distinct from perception of body orientation, they share similar neural substrates within the cerebral cortical networks involved in perception of spatial orientation. These cortical networks, mainly within the temporo-parietal junction, are crucial for multisensory processing and integration that generate sensory reference frames for coherent perception of self-position and extrapersonal space transformations. In this review, we focus on these neural mechanisms and discuss (i) neurobehavioral aspects of orientation constancy, (ii) sensory models that address the neurophysiology underlying perception of upright, and (iii) the current evidence for the role of cerebral cortex in perception of upright and orientation constancy, including findings from the neurological disorders that affect cortical function. PMID:29118736

  19. Perception of Upright: Multisensory Convergence and the Role of Temporo-Parietal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Kheradmand

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We inherently maintain a stable perception of the world despite frequent changes in the head, eye, and body positions. Such “orientation constancy” is a prerequisite for coherent spatial perception and sensorimotor planning. As a multimodal sensory reference, perception of upright represents neural processes that subserve orientation constancy through integration of sensory information encoding the eye, head, and body positions. Although perception of upright is distinct from perception of body orientation, they share similar neural substrates within the cerebral cortical networks involved in perception of spatial orientation. These cortical networks, mainly within the temporo-parietal junction, are crucial for multisensory processing and integration that generate sensory reference frames for coherent perception of self-position and extrapersonal space transformations. In this review, we focus on these neural mechanisms and discuss (i neurobehavioral aspects of orientation constancy, (ii sensory models that address the neurophysiology underlying perception of upright, and (iii the current evidence for the role of cerebral cortex in perception of upright and orientation constancy, including findings from the neurological disorders that affect cortical function.

  20. Body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise and eating behavior in young athletes from aesthetic sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of inadequate eating behavior is high in athletes. However, little is known about the factors that affect this phenomenon in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of body dissatisfaction and level of psychological commitment to exercise (LPCE with inadequate eating behavior in young athletes from aesthetic sports. Forty-seven female athletes practicing aesthetic sports (artistic gymnastics, synchronized swimming and high diving, ranging in age from 12 to 16 years, participated in the study. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES were used to evaluate the risk behavior for eating disorders, body dissatisfaction and LPCE, respectively. Skinfold thickness was measured to calculate body fat percentage of the athletes. The results revealed a significant association between body dissatisfaction and eating behavior and between LPCE and risk behavior for eating disorders. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that all variables, except for fat percentage, influenced the eating behavior of young athletes. This analysis also indicated an influence of body fat percentage and body dissatisfaction on CES scores. It was concluded that body dissatisfaction and LPCE are factors that predispose to risky eating behaviors in athletes from aesthetic sports.

  1. Effect of aerobic exercise on the atherogenic index of plasma in middle-aged Chinese men with various body weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shiwei; Lu, Yun; Dang, Yingjie; Qi, Huajin; Shen, Zhenhai; Wu, Liuxin; Li, Feng; Yang, Chengjian; Qiang, Dongchang; Yang, Yan; Shui, Kedong; Bao, Yanying

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between aerobic exercise and the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in middle-aged Chinese men stratified by body weight. A cross-sectional study, which recruited 26,701 middle-aged Chinese men undergoing health examinations in our hospital from 1st January 2014 to 30th June 2015 was performed, and the associations between body weight and AIP, and aerobic exercise and AIP were evaluated. The mean AIP levels were -0.016±0.305, 0.138±0.3171 and 0.211±0.3243 in normal weight, overweight and obese subjects, respectively, and appeared to rise with body weight. Significantly higher AIP levels were observed in subjects with a weekly aerobic exercise period ≥90min than in those with a weekly aerobic exercise period aerobic exercise period ≥90min and aerobic exercise significantly reduced AIP after adjustment for age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose and uric acid. Lowering body weight and/or increasing aerobic exercise time may reduce AIP, and lowering body weight results in a greater reduction in AIP than aerobic exercise. Weight control combined with increased aerobic exercise time may cause a synergistic effect on the reduction of AIP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Importance of Intercomparison Exercises in Assessment of Internal Exposure by Whole-Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrasi, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Basic requirement for any kind of measurement is to check and prove the reliability and correctness of the measured results. Quality assurance programmes require several activities among which the participation in intercomparison exercises plays an important role. Since the determination of radioactive materials in the human body by whole-body counting technique implies many sources of uncertainties the reliability of calibration data and consequently the measured results have to be checked by participation in intercomparison quality control programmes. In these programmes mostly different kinds of phantoms simulating the human body are circulated among the participating laboratories, however sometimes contaminated persons are also subjects of intercomparison measurements. There are guidelines in several countries laid down concerning the requirements of whole-body counter measurements where the performance criteria for the relative bias, precision and minimum detectable amounts are formulated. These quantities are mostly the subject of intercomparison programmes. The whole body counter laboratory of the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute participated in intercomparison exercises several times in the last few years. The lessons learned during these activities helped in checking the capabilities of applied methods and measuring geometry as well as contributed in improving the accuracy of the measured results. A short overview on the previous international intercomparison exercises their main characteristics the results obtained and conclusions drawn are discussed in the paper with special attention to those in which also our laboratory participated. (author)

  3. Is athletic really ideal? An examination of the mediating role of body dissatisfaction in predicting disordered eating and compulsive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Hayley S; Donovan, Caroline L; Ramme, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Investigations into female body image have suggested that rather than thinness, preference is now being given to a female "athletic ideal" characterised by a toned abdomen, firmer lower body and muscular upper body. This study sought to investigate a) whether greater internalization of the athletic-ideal is associated with higher body dissatisfaction, dieting, bulimic symptoms and compulsive exercise, and b) whether body dissatisfaction mediates the relationship between athletic-ideal internalization and the disordered eating and exercise behaviours of dieting, bulimic symptoms and compulsive exercise. Participants were 388 females aged between 17 and 35years. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires measuring athletic-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, compulsive exercise and bulimic symptoms. Athletic-ideal internalization was not found to be associated with body dissatisfaction, but was found to predict dieting, bulimic symptoms and compulsive exercise directly. Body dissatisfaction did not mediate the relationship between athletic-ideal internalization and any of the disordered eating and exercise behaviours. The study was limited by its cross sectional design which precluded conclusions being drawn about the direction of causality and temporal associations. Athletic-ideal internalization, while not associated with body dissatisfaction, was associated with a range of disordered eating and exercise behaviours. Results from the study suggest that the female athletic-ideal is an equally unrealistic and problematic ideal for women to strive towards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. USING BENCH PRESS LOAD TO PREDICT UPPER BODY EXERCISE LOADS IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del P. Wong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m-2 were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p < 0.01. The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p < 0.01. Linear regression revealed that the bench press load was a significant (R2 range from 0.64 to 0.86, p < 0.01 predictor for the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a Hammer curl = Bench press load (0.28 + 6.30 kg, (b Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33 + 6.20 kg, (c Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33 - 0.60 kg, and (d Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42 + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  5. Perceived body weight, eating and exercise problems of different groups of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Elise; Telfer, James; Abraham, Suzanne

    2012-10-01

    To compare prevalence of problems with body weight, eating and exercise (past or present) of female psychiatric inpatients with routine care, gynaecological and obstetric female outpatients, and eating disorder inpatients. One thousand and thirty-eight females aged 18-55 years from routine care (n=99), gynaecological (n=263) and obstetric (n=271) outpatient clinics, and eating disorder (n=223) and general psychiatric units (n=182) participated. Participants self-reported past or current problems with weight, eating and exercise using a short survey. A sub-sample of women completed the Eating and Exercise Examination (EEE) which includes the Quality of Life for Eating Disorders (QOL ED). The prevalence of self-reported problems controlling weight (52%), disordered eating and eating disorders (43%) for the psychiatric patients was significantly greater than for the routine care and gynaecological and obstetrics outpatients. The psychiatric group had a significantly higher mean body mass index (BMI) of 27.3 kg/m(2) (standard deviation (SD)=6.7) and prevalence of self-reported obesity (28%) than the other groups. Treatment of women with psychiatric problems should include assessment and concurrent attention to body weight, eating disorder and exercise problems in association with appropriate medical, psychiatric, psychological and medication treatment of their presenting disorder.

  6. Effects of whole-body vibration after eccentric exercise on muscle soreness and muscle strength recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timon, Rafael; Tejero, Javier; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Crespo, Carmen; Olcina, Guillermo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not a single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise can reduce muscle soreness and enhance muscle recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty untrained participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a vibration group (n=10) and control group (n=10). Participants performed eccentric quadriceps training of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 120% 1RM, with 4 min rest between sets. After that, the vibration group received 3 sets of 1 min whole body vibration (12 Hz, 4 mm) with 30 s of passive recovery between sets. Serum creatine kinase, blood urea nitrogen, muscle soreness (visual analog scale) and muscle strength (peak isometric torque) were assessed. [Results] Creatine kinase was lower in the vibration group than in the control group at 24 h (200.2 ± 8.2 vs. 300.5 ± 26.1 U/L) and at 48 h (175.2 ± 12.5 vs. 285.2 ± 19.7 U/L) post-exercise. Muscle soreness decreased in vibration group compared to control group at 48 h post-exercise (34.1 ± 11.4 vs. 65.2 ± 13.2 mm). [Conclusion] Single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise reduced delayed onset muscle soreness but it did not affect muscle strength recovery.

  7. The effects of regular physical exercise on the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavrić Fahrudin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical activities should be an integral part of an active lifestyle and the proper use of one's time. Programs including such activities are more effectively being applied in the prevention and elimination of health problems, especially those that are the result of decreased movement, inadequate nutrition and excessive nervous tension. Numerous studies have revealed new information about the link between physical activity and quality of life. Each person would have to be involved in physical activity of moderate intensity most days for 30 to 60 minutes, because active people are more healthier and have higher endurance levels, have a positive attitude towards work and cope with everyday stress better. Activity helps you look better, makes you happier and more vital. Studies have clearly shown that physical activity affects health and reduces the risk of many diseases. An active life increases energy, vitality, helps change bad habits, improves health, and strengthens one's energy and desire for life. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of regular physical activity on the human body. The subject matter of this study is the collection and analysis of results which the authors of various studies have obtained. The reviewed literature was collected using a web browser, and consisted of research work available in the Kobson database, through Google Scholar and in journals available in the field of sports science. The method of treatment is descriptive because the studies involved a variety of training programs, people of different ages, and tests carried out by different measuring instruments, so there is no possibility of a comparison of the results by other means.

  8. A Data Set of Human Body Movements for Physical Rehabilitation Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakanski, Aleksandar; Jun, Hyung-Pil; Paul, David; Baker, Russell

    2018-03-01

    The article presents University of Idaho - Physical Rehabilitation Movement Data (UI-PRMD) - a publically available data set of movements related to common exercises performed by patients in physical rehabilitation programs. For the data collection, 10 healthy subjects performed 10 repetitions of different physical therapy movements, with a Vicon optical tracker and a Microsoft Kinect sensor used for the motion capturing. The data are in a format that includes positions and angles of full-body joints. The objective of the data set is to provide a basis for mathematical modeling of therapy movements, as well as for establishing performance metrics for evaluation of patient consistency in executing the prescribed rehabilitation exercises.

  9. The Effect of High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Body Composition of Overweight Young Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heydari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of a 12-week high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE intervention on total body, abdominal, trunk, visceral fat mass, and fat free mass of young overweight males. Participants were randomly assigned to either exercise or control group. The intervention group received HIIE three times per week, 20 min per session, for 12 weeks. Aerobic power improved significantly (P0.05 occurred in levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood lipids. Twelve weeks of HIIE resulted in significant reductions in total, abdominal, trunk, and visceral fat and significant increases in fat free mass and aerobic power.

  10. Effect of a combination of whole body vibration exercise and squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osugi T

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Osugi,1 Jun Iwamoto,2 Michio Yamazaki,1 Masayuki Takakuwa3 1Department of Rehabilitation, Takakuwa Orthopaedic Nagayama Clinic, Asahikawa, Hokkaido, 2Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Takakuwa Orthopaedic Nagayama Clinic, Asahikawa, Hokkaido, Japan Abstract: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to clarify the beneficial effect of whole body vibration (WBV exercise plus squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly with knee osteoarthritis and/or spondylosis. Of 35 ambulatory patients (14 men and 21 women who were recruited at our outpatient clinic, 28 (80.0%, 12 men and 16 women participated in the trial. The subjects (mean age 72.4 years were randomly divided into two groups (n=14 in each group, ie, a WBV exercise alone group and a WBV exercise plus squat training group. A 4-minute WBV exercise (frequency 20 Hz was performed 2 days per week in both groups; squat training (20 times per minute was added during the 4-minute WBV training session in the WBV exercise plus squat training group. The duration of the trial was 6 months. The exercise and training program was safe and well tolerated. WBV exercise alone improved indices of body balance and walking velocity from baseline values. However, WBV exercise plus squat training was more effective for improving tandem gait step number and chair-rising time compared with WBV exercise alone. These results suggest the benefit and safety of WBV exercise plus squat training for improving physical function in terms of body balance and muscle power in the elderly. Keywords: whole body vibration exercise, squat training, body balance, walking velocity, muscle power

  11. Endurance exercise training blunts the deleterious effect of high-fat feeding on whole body efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Cameron J.; Murray, Andrew J.; Knight, Nicholas S.; Carter, Emma E.; Kemp, Graham J.; Thompson, Campbell H.; Tyler, Damian J.; Neubauer, Stefan; Robbins, Peter A.; Clarke, Kieran

    2011-01-01

    We recently showed that a week-long, high-fat diet reduced whole body exercise efficiency in sedentary men by >10% (Edwards LM, Murray AJ, Holloway CJ, Carter EE, Kemp GJ, Codreanu I, Brooker H, Tyler DJ, Robbins PA, Clarke K. FASEB J 25: 1088–1096, 2011). To test if a similar dietary regime would blunt whole body efficiency in endurance-trained men and, as a consequence, hinder aerobic exercise performance, 16 endurance-trained men were given a short-term, high-fat (70% kcal from fat) and a moderate carbohydrate (50% kcal from carbohydrate) diet, in random order. Efficiency was assessed during a standardized exercise task on a cycle ergometer, with aerobic performance assessed during a 1-h time trial and mitochondrial function later measured using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The subjects then underwent a 2-wk wash-out period, before the study was repeated with the diets crossed over. Muscle biopsies, for mitochondrial protein analysis, were taken at the start of the study and on the 5th day of each diet. Plasma fatty acids were 60% higher on the high-fat diet compared with moderate carbohydrate diet (P < 0.05). However, there was no change in whole body efficiency and no change in mitochondrial function. Endurance exercise performance was significantly reduced (P < 0.01), most probably due to glycogen depletion. Neither diet led to changes in citrate synthase, ATP synthase, or mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3. We conclude that prior exercise training blunts the deleterious effect of short-term, high-fat feeding on whole body efficiency. PMID:21632846

  12. The influence of Pilates exercises on body balance in the standing position of hearing impaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walowska, Jagoda; Bolach, Bartosz; Bolach, Eugeniusz

    2017-11-13

    Hearing impairment may affect the body posture maintenance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of modified Pilates exercise program on the body posture maintenance in hearing impaired people. Eighty students (aged 13-24) were enrolled and randomly allocated into two groups: test group (n = 41) which attended an original program based on modified Pilates exercises and control group (n = 39) which attended standard physical education classes. Stabilographic tests were conducted at baseline and after 6-week training program. Both groups showed improved control of body balance in a standing position manifested in reductions of the length of path, surface area, and speed of deflection. Modified Pilates program was significantly more effective in improving body balance control in relaxed posture and with feet together than standard physical education classes. The greater efficiency of the modified Pilates program was expressed in a significant improvement in balance control parameters, i.e., path length, surface area, and speed of deflection. The modified Pilates program was more effective in improving body balance control in the hearing impaired people than standard physical education classes. Modification of physical activity recommendations for hearing impaired students may be considered; however, further research is required. Implications for Rehabilitation Hearing impairment impacts the mental, social and, physical spheres of life as well as deteriorates equivalent reactions and the way body posture is maintained. In hearing impaired people, control of body balance and muscle coordination is often disturbed, thus more attention should be paid to exercises associated with balance which may improve the ability to learn and develop motor skills. Modified Pilates program was significantly more effective in improving body balance control than standard physical education classes in hearing impaired people.

  13. EFFECT OF ADDING AN EXERCISE REGIMEN TO DIET THERAPY IN DECREASING BODY FAT PERCENTAGE AND BODY MASS INDEX AMONG OBESE FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeena Haneefa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obesity is one among the leading health problems in many developing countries including India. Lifestyle modifications, which include diet therapy and regular exercises are considered as the mainstay in the management of this health issue. Brisk walking is the preferred socially and economically acceptable mode of exercise. This randomised controlled trial tries to evaluate the efficacy of adding an exercise regimen to diet therapy in reducing body fat percentage and Body Mass Index (BMI among obese females. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred female patients aged between 20 and 60 years with BMI greater than 25 were recruited for this study of 6 months duration. Participants were randomised into either diet therapy alone group or diet therapy with exercise group. All participants were prescribed a low-calorie diet of 1500 kcal per day. The exercise intervention group was subjected to a home-based exercise regimen; walking for 30 minutes 5 days a week. Outcomes were measured by BMI and body fat percentage, documented every month. RESULTS Both groups showed significant reduction in body fat percentage and BMI, but the reduction was more in the exercise with diet therapy group (p value <0.001. CONCLUSION Adding a simple exercise like walking to other lifestyle modification measures can more efficiently bring down BMI and body fat percentage in turn significantly reducing the cardiovascular risk, morbidity and mortality in women.

  14. Relationship of exercise, oral contraceptive use, and body fat to concentrations of plasma lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merians, D R; Haskell, W L; Vranizan, K M; Phelps, J; Woods, P D; Superko, R

    1985-06-01

    To investigate the relationship of exercise and oral contraceptive use to plasma lipids and lipoproteins, a cross-sectional study was designed to compare lipid levels in 96 exercising and non-exercising women who used or did not use oral contraceptives. Exercisers had significantly lower plasma triglyceride concentrations and low-density/high-density lipoprotein ratios than non-exercisers after adjustment for differences in pill type distribution between groups. Women using progestin-dominant pills had significantly lower plasma triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein concentrations and significantly higher low-density/high-density lipoprotein ratios compared with women using estrogen/progestin-balanced pills. As body fat was significantly associated with both pill type and physical activity, it is unclear how much of these lipoprotein differences were due to body fat, exercise, or pill use. Regular physical activity together with reduced body fat partially compensated for plasma lipoprotein differences associated with oral contraceptive use.

  15. The Effect of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Power Output for the Upper Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Harvey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine and measure high intensity, intermittent upper body performance, in addition to identifying areas of the body that affect the variance in total work done during the 5 × 6 s sprint test. Fifteen males completed an upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test on a modified electro-magnetically braked cycle ergometer, which consisted of five maximal effort sprints, each 6 s in duration, separated by 24 s of passive recovery. A fly wheel braking force corresponding to 5% of the participants’ body weight was used as the implemented resistance level. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Percent (% decrement was calculated as 100 − (Total work/ideal work × 100. Significant (P < 0.05 differences were found between sprints for both absolute and relative (W, W·kg−1, W·kg−1 Lean body mass (LBM and W·kg−1 Upper body lean body mass (UBLBM peak (PP and mean (MP power. The % decrement in total work done over the five sprints was 11.4%. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that UBLBM accounts for 87% of the variance in total work done during the upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test. These results provide a descriptive analysis of upper body, high intensity intermittent exercise, demonstrating that PP and MP output decreased significantly during the upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test.

  16. Comparison of body composition, exercise and nutritional profiles of female and male body builders at competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, W M; Heyward, V H; Lyons, T M

    1989-03-01

    Limited research information is available on the training programs and dietary practices of competitive male and female body builders. Information on body composition, training programs, and nutritional profiles of eleven competitive male and female body builders were obtained 48 hours prior to competition. Body composition was assessed by hydrostatic weighing. Skinfold data were obtained to assess the distribution of subcutaneous fat. Questionnaires concerning training programs and a three day food intake record were collected. The female body builders achieved a degree of leanness similar to the males. The relative training volumes for the women were greater than those of the men for all body regions. Gender differences were found in regional deposition of subcutaneous fat between males and females, with the males showing a more uniform distribution of subcutaneous fat. The nutritional profiles of male and female body builders were similar. The pre-competitive diets were low in kilocalories, and the relative energy intakes for men and women were 28.6 kcal/kg and 29.2 kcal/kg respectively. Both men and women consumed low fat and high protein foods. All of the vitamin/mineral intakes of the body builders exceeded the RDA's with the exceptions of calcium for men and women and iron for women only.

  17. CALCULATION ON THE UPRIGHTING PROCESS OF A CAPSIZED SHIP

    OpenAIRE

    De-wei Pan; Cheng-xin Lin; Zhi-jie Liu; De-ping Sun

    2016-01-01

    The processes of marine salvage require firstly the uprighting of the capsized ship, essentially bringing the deck to point up. Analysis and computation are the keys for the success in the application of the design schemes. Up to date, there are few researches on calculation methods for uprighting process of capsized ships at China and abroad. Researches about the effect of flooding quantity and the variation of the longitudinal strength during the uprighting process of capsized and damaged s...

  18. Comparison of supine, upright, and prone positions for liver scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harolds, J.A.; Brill, A.B.; Patton, J.A.; Touya, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    We compared liver scan interpretations based on anterior images obtained in the upright, prone, and supine positions. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were generated for three well trained observers. Results showed that reading the three different views together was more accurate than the reading of any individual image. Furthermore, interpretations based on either the prone or upright view were superior to those using the supine view alone. The prone and upright views should be used more often in liver scanning

  19. Effects of aquatic exercise and nutritional guidance on the body composition of obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Eisfeld Milano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of aquatic exercise and nutritionalguidance on the body composition of obese children and adolescents. Thirty obese childrenaged 10 to 16 years, with a body mass index (BMI above the 95th percentile according to theclassification proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2000, weredivided into two groups: the first group started learning to swim (GSwim, n = 10 and the secondgroup underwent a deep water running program (GDeep, n = 20. Weight, height, BMI, BMIZ-scores, relative and absolute fat, and relative and absolute lean body mass were evaluated atbaseline and after 12 weeks. The program consisted of 12 meetings for nutritional guidance (oncea week and 36 sessions of exercise (three times per week. MANOVA and Fisher’s exact testwere used for statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. After 12 weeks,GDeep showed a significant reduction in BMI, BMI Z-scores and relative and absolute fat,and an increase in relative and absolute lean body mass. Significant differences were observedbetween GDeep and GSwim in terms of the reduction in body fat (p = 0.014 and the increasein lean mass (p = 0.006. A program of deep water running together with nutritional guidancemay promote significant changes in the body composition of obese children and adolescents dueto the cyclic characteristic of this physical activity.

  20. Body image in obese children: Effects produced by physical exercise program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Romero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Body image self-perception in obese children is important since it can encourage behaviors leading to social isolation and cause an increase in food intake. The objective of this study was to determine the changes produced in the level of body image satisfaction and the variation in anthropometric indicators of young children in the State of Sonora, Mexico after participating in a program of 40 sessions of physical exercise with an average caloric expenditure of 267 Kcal per session. 119 children were enrolled in the program; they were between the ages of 8 and 11 with a body mass index (BMI of 26.59 ± 4.2 (kg/m2. They were evaluated before and after the physical activity intervention by means of a Body Image Satisfaction (BIS Test. The results with significant changes (p ≤ 0.05 between the pre-test and post-test are in weight and height. There are also significant changes observed in self-image in 15 parts of evaluated body segments, mainly in the abdomen, chest, thighs, buttocks, waist, and hips in all children from the experimental group. The results conclude that physical exercise, in spite of not producing significant changes in BMI, can positively modify body image perception.

  1. Treadmill Exercise with Increased Body Loading Enhances Post Flight Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. Given the importance of body-support loading we set out to determine if there is a relationship between the load experienced during inflight treadmill exercise (produced by a harness and bungee system) and postflight functional performance. ISS crewmembers (n=13) were tested using the FTT protocol before and after 6 months in space. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. To determine how differences in body

  2. Water- versus land-based exercise in elderly subjects: effects on physical performance and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea; Tolomio, Silvia; Berton, Linda; Sergi, Giuseppe; Zaccaria, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise protocol carried out in geothermal spring water to improve overall physical function and muscle mass in a group of healthy elderly subjects. A further aim was to compare this water-based protocol with a land-based protocol and a control group. For this purpose, 59 subjects were recruited and randomly allocated to three groups: aquatic group (AG), land group (LG), and control group (CG). AG and LG followed a 6-month, twice-weekly, multimodality exercise intervention. AG underwent the protocol in hot-spring water (36°C) while LG did it in a land-based environment. After the intervention, knee-extension strength was maintained in AG and LG. The 8-foot up-and-go test showed a reduction in both exercise groups (AG -19.3%, P decrease in AG. The back-scratch test revealed an improvement only in AG (25.8%; P decreased by 9.2% (P flexibility. Aquatic exercise appeared a better activity to improve dynamic balance. Thermal swimming pools and the use of rating of perceived exertion as a method of exercise monitoring should be considered potentially useful tools to enhance physical performance and body composition in healthy elderly.

  3. Interleukin-6 release is higher across arm than leg muscles during whole-body exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn W; Klein, Ditte K; Andersen, Thor Munch

    2011-01-01

    ± 7 and 47 ± 7 µmol min(-1) (kg lean limb mass)(-1)) were lower, glucose uptake similar (51 ± 12 and 41 ± 8 mmol min(-1) (kg lean limb mass)(-1)) and lactate release higher (82 ± 32 and -2 ± 12 µmol min(-1) (kg lean limb mass)(-1)) in arms than legs, respectively, during exercise (P ....05). No correlations were present between IL-6 release and exogenous substrate uptakes. Muscle glycogen was similar in arms and legs before exercise (388 ± 22 and 428 ± 25 mmol (kg dry weight)(-1)), but after exercise it was only significantly lower in the leg (219 ± 29 mmol (kg dry weight)(-1)). The novel finding......Exercising muscle releases interleukin-6 (IL-6), but the mechanisms controlling this process are poorly understood. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that the IL-6 release differs in arm and leg muscle during whole-body exercise, owing to differences in muscle metabolism. Sixteen...

  4. Associations between depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, eating styles, exercise and body mass index in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clum, Gretchen A; Rice, Janet C; Broussard, Marsha; Johnson, Carolyn C; Webber, Larry S

    2014-08-01

    This article explores cross-sectional associations between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in women working in schools in the Greater New Orleans area. Self-efficacy for eating and exercise, eating styles, and exercise are examined as potential pathways. This is a secondary data analysis of 743 women who were participating in a workplace wellness randomized controlled trial to address environmental factors influencing eating and exercise behaviors using baseline data prior to the intervention. BMI was the primary outcome examined. Path analysis suggested that increased depressive symptoms were associated with increased BMI in women. Indirect effects of depressive symptoms on BMI were found for increased healthy eating self-efficacy, increased emotional eating, and decreased exercise self-efficacy. The association between greater healthy eating self efficacy and BMI was unexpected, and may indicate a suppressor effect of eating self-efficacy in the relationship between depressive symptoms and BMI in women. The findings suggest the importance of depressive symptoms to BMI in women. Targets for interventions to reduce BMI include targeting depressive symptoms and related sequelae including self-efficacy for exercise, and emotional eating. Further investigation of eating self-efficacy and BMI are recommended with particular attention to both efficacy for health eating and avoidance of unhealthy foods.

  5. Body Temperatures During Exercise in Deconditioned Dogs: Effect of NACL and Glucose Infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Usciko, H.

    2000-01-01

    Infusion of glucose (Glu) into normal exercising dogs attenuates the rise in rectal temperature (Delta-Tre) when compared with delta-Tre during FFA infusion or no infusion. Rates of rise and delta-=Tre levels are higher during exercise after confinement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if Glu infusion would attenuate the exercise-induced excess hyperthermia after deconditioning. Rectal and quadricep femoris muscle temperatures (Tmu) were measured in 7 male, mongrel dogs dogs (19.6 +/- SD 3.0 kg) during 90 minutes of treadmill exercise (3.1 +/-SD 0.2 W/kg) with infusion (30ml/min/kg) of 40% Glu or 0.9% NaCL before BC) and after confinement (AC) in cages (40 x 110 x 80 cm) for 8 wk. Mean (+/-SE body wt. were 19.6 +/- 1.1 kg BC and 19.5 +/- 1.1kg AC, exercise VO2 were not different (40.0 - 42.0 mi/min/kg-1). With NaCl AC, NaCl BC, GluAC, and GluBC: Delta-Tre were, 1.8, 1.4, 1.3 and 0.9C respectively; and Delta-Tmu were 2.3, 1.9, 1.6, and 1.4C. respectively (Pbody temperature with Glu infusion must affect avenues of heat dissipation.

  6. My mother told me: the roles of maternal messages, body image, and disordered eating in maladaptive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, Haidee J; Doley, Joanna R; Bond, Malcolm J

    2016-09-01

    The current study examined the relevance of familial environment (negative maternal messages) to the phenomenon of maladaptive (obligatory) exercise, defined as exercise fixation. Weight/shape concerns and exercise frequency were examined as potential mediators, evaluated both with and without eating disorder symptoms as a covariate. Self-report data comprising sociodemographic details and measures of parental weight messages, body image, obligatory exercise, and disordered eating symptoms were completed by 298 young female attendees of health and fitness centres. The frequency of negative maternal messages demonstrated significant associations with all of weight/shape concerns, exercise frequency, exercise fixation, and eating disorder symptoms. In the initial model, partial mediation of maternal messages to exercise fixation was evident as negative maternal messages continued to have a direct effect on exercise fixation. In the second model, with the inclusion of eating disorder symptoms as a covariate, this direct effect was maintained while mediation was no longer evident. The data provide further support for the association between disordered eating symptoms and maladaptive exercise, as defined by exercise fixation. Nevertheless, the importance of negative maternal messages as a key environmental enabler of exercise fixation has been demonstrated, even after the effects of weight/shape concerns and exercise frequency were accounted for. Clinically, addressing weight-related talk in the family home may reduce the incidence of problematic cognitions and behaviours associated with both maladaptive exercise and disordered eating symptoms.

  7. Long-term exercise in mice has sex-dependent benefits on body composition and metabolism during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Rachel C; Kelly, Scott A; Hua, Kunjie; Buckley, Brian K; Faber, James E; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Pomp, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Aging is associated with declining exercise and unhealthy changes in body composition. Exercise ameliorates certain adverse age-related physiological changes and protects against many chronic diseases. Despite these benefits, willingness to exercise and physiological responses to exercise vary widely, and long-term exercise and its benefits are difficult and costly to measure in humans. Furthermore, physiological effects of aging in humans are confounded with changes in lifestyle and environment. We used C57BL/6J mice to examine long-term patterns of exercise during aging and its physiological effects in a well-controlled environment. One-year-old male (n = 30) and female (n = 30) mice were divided into equal size cohorts and aged for an additional year. One cohort was given access to voluntary running wheels while another was denied exercise other than home cage movement. Body mass, composition, and metabolic traits were measured before, throughout, and after 1 year of treatment. Long-term exercise significantly prevented gains in body mass and body fat, while preventing loss of lean mass. We observed sex-dependent differences in body mass and composition trajectories during aging. Wheel running (distance, speed, duration) was greater in females than males and declined with age. We conclude that long-term exercise may serve as a preventive measure against age-related weight gain and body composition changes, and that mouse inbred strains can be used to characterize effects of long-term exercise and factors (e.g. sex, age) modulating these effects. These findings will facilitate studies on relationships between exercise and health in aging populations, including genetic predisposition and genotype-by-environment interactions. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  8. Body composition and reproductive function exert unique influences on indices of bone health in exercising women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Rebecca J; Williams, Nancy I; Hill, Brenna R; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2013-09-01

    Reproductive function, metabolic hormones, and lean mass have been observed to influence bone metabolism and bone mass. It is unclear, however, if reproductive, metabolic and body composition factors play unique roles in the clinical measures of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone geometry in exercising women. This study compares lumbar spine bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and estimates of femoral neck cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) and cross-sectional area (CSA) between exercising ovulatory (Ov) and amenorrheic (Amen) women. It also explores the respective roles of reproductive function, metabolic status, and body composition on aBMD, lumbar spine BMAD and femoral neck CSMI and CSA, which are surrogate measures of bone strength. Among exercising women aged 18-30 years, body composition, aBMD, and estimates of femoral neck CSMI and CSA were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Lumbar spine BMAD was calculated from bone mineral content and area. Estrone-1-glucuronide (E1G) and pregnanediol glucuronide were measured in daily urine samples collected for one cycle or monitoring period. Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of leptin and total triiodothyronine. Ov (n = 37) and Amen (n = 45) women aged 22.3 ± 0.5 years did not differ in body mass, body mass index, and lean mass; however, Ov women had significantly higher percent body fat than Amen women. Lumbar spine aBMD and BMAD were significantly lower in Amen women compared to Ov women (p bone mass at a site composed of primarily trabecular bone. However, lean mass is one of the most influential predictors of bone mass and bone geometry at weight-bearing sites, such as the hip. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of quadriceps strength after static and dynamic whole-body vibration exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Jill A; Blog, Gabriel L; Kang, Jie; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ratamess, Nicholas A

    2015-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown performance benefits including whole-body vibration (WBV) as a training modality or an acute exercise protocol when used as a component of the resistance training program. Some studies have indicated that performing dynamic exercises as compared with static position exercises while exposed to WBV might be beneficial; however, evidence is lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if an acute bout of dynamic versus static squats performed during WBV results in increase in quadriceps force production by means of dynamic isokinetic knee extension and flexion exercise. Nonresistance-trained healthy young men and women (N = 21) of 18-25 years participated in 4 protocols with 2-week rest in-between. Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 10 dynamic squats without vibration; Protocol 2: 5 sets of 30-second static squats without vibration; Protocol 3: 5 sets of 10 dynamic squats with 30-Hz WBV for a total of 2.5 minutes; and Protocol 4: 5 sets of 30-second static squats with 30-Hz WBV for a total of 2.5 minutes. Prestrength tests (1 set of 4 repetitions at 100° · s(-1) for the knee extension exercise) was performed within 5 minutes of starting each protocol, and poststrength testing was performed within 1 minute of completing each protocol. Strength outcomes were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance with a significance level set at p ≤ 0.05. A significant decrease in strength was observed after dynamic and static squats without WBV (p = 0.002); an increase in strength after dynamic squats with WBV (p = 0.003); and a decrease in strength after static squats with WBV (p = 0.003). The inclusion of WBV to dynamic resistance exercise can be an added modality to increase strength. Whole-body vibration can have varied effects in altering muscle strength in untrained individuals according to the type of resistance training performed. As a dynamic squat with WBV seems to immediately potentiate neuromuscular functioning, the

  10. Mechanical Characteristics of Reflex Durign Upright Posture in Paralyzed Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongchul; Youm, Youngil; Lee, Bumsuk; Kim, Youngho; Choi, Hyeonki

    The characteristics of flexor reflexes have been investigated in the previous studies with human subjects who were seated or supine position. However, researchers did not describe how the spinal circuits are used in different hip angles for paralyzed subjects, such as the standing position with walker or cane. In upright posture the compatibility between a flexor reflex of leg and body balance is a special problem for lower limb injured subjects. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hip angle change on the flexor reflex evoked in standing paralyzed subjects supported by walker. In this study, six spinal cord injured and four stroke subjects were recruited through the inpatient physical therapy clinics of Korea national rehabilitation hospital. A single axis electronic goniometer was mounted on the lateral side of the hip joint of the impaired limb to record movements in the sagittal plane at this joint. The electronic goniometer was connected to a data acquisition system, through amplifiers to a computer. Since subject' posture influenced characteristics of the flexion reflex response, the subjects were supported in an upright posture by the help of parallelogram walder. Two series of tests were performed on each leg. The first series of the tests investigated the influence of hip angle during stationary standing posture on flexion reflex response. The hip angle was adjusted by the foot plate. The second examined the effect of the voluntary action of subject on swing motion during the gait. The electrically induced flexion reflex simultaneously produced the flexion of the hip, knee and dorsiflexion of the ankle enabling the swing phase of walking. Form the experimental results we observed that the reflex response of hip joint was largerwith the hip in the extended position than in the flexed position during standing posture. Under voluntary movement on flexion reflex during gaint, the peak hip angle induced by stimulation was

  11. Upright folding during extensional and transtensional tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssier, Christian; Fossen, Haakon; Rey, Patrice F.; Whitney, Donna L.

    2017-04-01

    Upright folds are common structures that develop in response to horizontal shortening in layered material, for example in foreland basins that surround orogens. While the contractional nature of these folds is not in doubt, interpretation of their tectonic setting needs careful consideration. Here we focus on two examples: (1) folds developed in transtension; and (2) folds developed during the flow of deep crust in response to lithospheric extension. In both cases we consider folding of nearly horizontal layers that are either primary (bedding) or secondary (foliation). Strain theory inspired by John Ramsay's work makes predictions for the behavior of material lines and planes as well as strain axes (instantaneous, finite) during transtensional deformation. Results show: folds can form in transtension; fold hinges rotate toward the direction of divergence (and not the shear zone boundary as they do in transpression), providing unique insight into ancient plate motions; fold tightness is controlled by the obliquity of divergence and not finite strain; hinge parallel stretching is always greater than hinge-perpendicular shortening, resulting in constriction strain and boudinage of fold hinges. Taken together these results provide a rigorous framework for interpreting field observations where structures are complex and boundary conditions unclear. These principles are applied to various tectonic settings ranging from active tectonic regions of oblique divergence in western North America to ancient folding that developed during oblique extension of the Western Gneiss Region, deposition of Devonian basins, and exhumation of ultrahigh-pressure rocks in the Norwegian Caledonides. The other class of upright folds that form during extension may require revision of the tectonic interpretation of structural overprints in orogenic cores, for example in gneiss/migmatite domes. Dynamic modeling of extension of thick/hot crust predicts a positive feedback between extension of

  12. "Exercise to be fit, not skinny": The effect of fitspiration imagery on women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Zaccardo, Mia

    2015-09-01

    Fitspiration is an online trend designed to inspire viewers towards a healthier lifestyle by promoting exercise and healthy food. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of fitspiration images on women's body image. Participants were 130 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of Instagram fitspiration images or a control set of travel images presented on an iPad. Results showed that acute exposure to fitspiration images led to increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction and decreased state appearance self-esteem relative to travel images. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the effects of image type were mediated by state appearance comparison. Thus it was concluded that fitspiration can have negative unintended consequences for body image. The results offer support to general sociocultural models of media effects on body image, and extend these to "new" media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cortical control of upright stance in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Recep A; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L; Paloski, William H

    2018-01-01

    This study examined differences between young and elderly volunteers in cortical involvement to human posture control during quiet stance with normal and altered sensory stimulation (Experiment-1), and biomechanical perturbations (Experiment-2). The primary focus of the first part was to monitor changes in cortical activity when unexpectedly altering the sensory conditions of upright stance, such as switching from stable (eyes open, fixed support surface) to less-stable (eyes closed, sway-referenced support surface) conditions. Our results demonstrate increased cortical activations in delta (0.2-4 Hz) and gamma (30-50 Hz) oscillations, primarily over central-frontal, central, and central parietal cortices during challenging postural conditions. While increased delta rhythms were observed in both groups during challenging sensory conditions, elderly individuals also showed increased gamma band activity over sensorimotor and parietal cortices, when compared to the younger group. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show age differences in balance related cortical activations during continuous postural tasks with challenging sensory conditions. Preliminary correlations also suggest that increased cerebral activity became more relevant to the control of Center of Mass (COM) dynamics when upright stance is threatened. The results of Experiment-2 also showed for the first time that oscillatory rhythms of the cortex are coherent with muscle firing characteristics suggesting increased corticospinal drive from leg motor cortex to lower limb motoneurons following postural perturbations. Finally, perturbation evoked potential (PEP) analyses suggest that, rather than motor system malfunctioning, impairments in perceptual processing of sensory afference forms the basis of prolonged muscle response delays during perturbed balance in the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Influence of an 8-week exercise intervention on body composition, physical fitness, and mental health in female nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Yamada, Hisao; Morikawa, Sachiko

    2013-03-01

    To determine the effectiveness of habitual exercise on the health promotion of college students, we measured the body composition and physical fitness of female nursing students before (Pre) and after (Post) an 8-week low-intensity exercise intervention. We also conducted a questionnaire survey of their mental health condition before and at every 4 weeks during the intervention. The quantity of physical exercise increased (P exercise intervention did not alter the body weight, but decreased the body fat (Pre, 26.8 ± 0.5%; Post, 24.9 ± 0.5%, P mental health were significantly raised by the intervention. These results suggest that habitual exercise for 8 weeks was effective for the promotion of physical and mental health in female nursing students.

  15. Modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for whole-body scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini Ghomi, Reza; Bredella, Miriam A.; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Miller, Karen K. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Neuroendocrine Unit, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-10-15

    To develop a modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for muscle testing using a clinical 3 T MR scanner. An exercise device to provide isotonic resistance to plantar- or dorsiflexion was constructed from nonferrous materials and designed for easy setup and use in a clinical environment. Validation tests were performed during dynamic MR acquisitions. For this purpose, the device was tested on the posterior lower leg musculature of five subjects during 3 min of exercise at 30% of maximum voluntary plantarflexion during 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy ({sup 31}P-MRS). Measures of muscle phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), and pH were obtained before, during, and after the exercise protocol. At the end of exercise regimen, muscle PCr showed a 28% decrease from resting levels (to 21.8 {+-} 3.9 from 30.4 {+-} 3.0 mM) and the average PCr recovery rate was 35.3 {+-} 8.3 s. Muscle Pi concentrations increased 123% (to 14.6 {+-} 4.7 from 6.5 {+-} 3.3 mM) and pH decreased 1.5% (to 7.06 {+-} 0.14 from 7.17 {+-} 0.07) from resting levels. The described MR-compatible lower leg exercise was an effective tool for data acquisition during dynamic MR acquisitions of the calf muscles. The modular design allows for adaptation to other whole-body MR scanners and incorporation of custom-built mechanical or electronic interfaces and can be used for any MR protocol requiring dynamic evaluation of calf muscles. (orig.)

  16. Modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for whole-body scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Ghomi, Reza; Bredella, Miriam A; Thomas, Bijoy J; Miller, Karen K; Torriani, Martin

    2011-10-01

    To develop a modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for muscle testing using a clinical 3 T MR scanner. An exercise device to provide isotonic resistance to plantar- or dorsiflexion was constructed from nonferrous materials and designed for easy setup and use in a clinical environment. Validation tests were performed during dynamic MR acquisitions. For this purpose, the device was tested on the posterior lower leg musculature of five subjects during 3 min of exercise at 30% of maximum voluntary plantarflexion during 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS). Measures of muscle phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), and pH were obtained before, during, and after the exercise protocol. At the end of exercise regimen, muscle PCr showed a 28% decrease from resting levels (to 21.8 ± 3.9 from 30.4 ± 3.0 mM) and the average PCr recovery rate was 35.3 ± 8.3 s. Muscle Pi concentrations increased 123% (to 14.6 ± 4.7 from 6.5 ± 3.3 mM) and pH decreased 1.5% (to 7.06 ± 0.14 from 7.17 ± 0.07) from resting levels. The described MR-compatible lower leg exercise was an effective tool for data acquisition during dynamic MR acquisitions of the calf muscles. The modular design allows for adaptation to other whole-body MR scanners and incorporation of custom-built mechanical or electronic interfaces and can be used for any MR protocol requiring dynamic evaluation of calf muscles.

  17. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel W D; Abou Sawan, Sidney; Mazzulla, Michael; Williamson, Eric; Moore, Daniel R

    2017-07-11

    No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h) and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD)) performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey) or an energy-matched placebo (CHO) immediately post-exercise (0 h), and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery). A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest). Participants ingested [ 15 N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO ( P = 0.064; effect size (ES) = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO) during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO ( P = 0.036) but not in CHO ( P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO), which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76), REP (ES = 0.44), and peak power (ES = 0.55). In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of exercise performance after a strenuous bout of resistance exercise.

  18. Human thermoregulation and measurement of body temperature in exercise and clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chin Leong; Byrne, Chris; Lee, Jason Kw

    2008-04-01

    This review discusses human thermoregulation during exercise and the measurement of body temperature in clinical and exercise settings. The thermoregulatory mechanisms play important roles in maintaining physiological homeostasis during rest and physical exercise. Physical exertion poses a challenge to thermoregulation by causing a substantial increase in metabolic heat production. However, within a non-thermolytic range, the thermoregulatory mechanisms are capable of adapting to sustain physiological functions under these conditions. The central nervous system may also rely on hyperthermia to protect the body from "overheating." Hyperthermia may serve as a self-limiting signal that triggers central inhibition of exercise performance when a temperature threshold is achieved. Exposure to sub-lethal heat stress may also confer tolerance against higher doses of heat stress by inducing the production of heat shock proteins, which protect cells against the thermolytic effects of heat. Advances in body temperature measurement also contribute to research in thermoregulation. Current evidence supports the use of oral temperature measurement in the clinical setting, although it may not be as convenient as tympanic temperature measurement using the infrared temperature scanner. Rectal and oesophagus temperatures are widely accepted surrogate measurements of core temperature (Tc), but they cause discomfort and are less likely to be accepted by users. Gastrointestinal temperature measurement using the ingestible temperature sensor provides an acceptable level of accuracy as a surrogate measure of Tc without causing discomfort to the user. This form of Tc measurement also allows Tc to be measured continuously in the field and has gained wider acceptance in the last decade.

  19. The Effect of Exercise on Body Satisfaction and Self-Esteem as a Function of Gender and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Williamson, Samantha

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between amount of exercise and psychological wellbeing, surveying people age 16-60 years. Women had lower body satisfaction and self-esteem than men. While there was generally a positive relationship between exercise and wellbeing, for women age 16-21 years, there was a significant negative relationship. Women…

  20. The Impact of Central and Peripheral Cyclooxygenase Enzyme Inhibition on Exercise-Induced Elevations in Core Body Temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltmeijer, M.T.W.; Veeneman, D.; Bongers, C.C.W.G.; Netea, M.G.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Exercise increases core body temperature (TC) due to metabolic heat production. However, the exercise-induced release of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6) may also contribute to the rise in TC by increasing the hypothalamic temperature set point. This study investigated

  1. Effects of circuit-based exercise programs on the body composition of elderly obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocalini DS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Danilo Sales Bocalini,1 Lucas S Lima,3 Socrates de Andrade,4 Angelo Madureira,4 Roberta L Rica,4,5 Rodrigo Nolasco dos Santos,4 Andrey Jorge Serra,1,2 Jose Antonio Silva Jr,2 Daniel Rodriguez,6 Aylton Figueira Jr,6 Francisco Luciano Pontes Jr31Departamenteo de Educação Física e, 2Ciências da Reabilitação da Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 3Curso de Gerontologia, Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades da Universidade de São Paulo (EACH, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 4Universidade Gama Filho (UGF, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil; 5Departamento de Educação Física, Colegio Arbos, São Bernardo do Campo, SP, Brazil; 6Departamento de Educação Física. Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT, São Paulo, SP, BrazilAim: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of circuit-based exercise on the body composition in obese older women by focusing on physical exercise and body weight (BW gain control in older people.Methods: Seventy older women (>60 years old voluntarily took part in the study. Participants were randomized into six different groups according to body mass index (BMI: appropriate weight (AW control (AWC and trained (AWT groups, overweight (OW control (OWC and trained (OWT groups, and obesity (O control (OC and trained (OT groups. The exercise program consisted of 50 minutes of exercise three times per week for 12 weeks. The exercises were alternated between upper and lower body using rest between sets for 40 seconds with intensity controlled by heart rate (70% of work. The contraction time established was 5 seconds to eccentric and concentric muscular action phase. The following anthropometric parameters were evaluated: height (m, body weight (BW, kg, body fat (BF, %, fat mass (FM, kg, lean mass (LM, kg, and BMI (kg/m2.Results: The values (mean ± standard deviation [SD] of relative changes to BW (−8.0% ± 0.8%, BF (−21.4% ± 2.1%, LM (3.0% ± 0.3%, and FM (−31.2% ± 3.0% to the OT group were higher

  2. Muscle activity and spine load during anterior chain whole body linkage exercises: the body saw, hanging leg raise and walkout from a push-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart; Andersen, Jordan; Cannon, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined anterior chain whole body linkage exercises, namely the body saw, hanging leg raise and walkout from a push-up. Investigation of these exercises focused on which particular muscles were challenged and the magnitude of the resulting spine load. Fourteen males performed the exercises while muscle activity, external force and 3D body segment motion were recorded. A sophisticated and anatomically detailed 3D model used muscle activity and body segment kinematics to estimate muscle force, and thus sensitivity to each individual's choice of motor control for each task. Gradations of muscle activity and spine load characteristics were observed across tasks. On average, the hanging straight leg raise created approximately 3000 N of spine compression while the body saw created less than 2500 N. The hanging straight leg raise created the highest challenge to the abdominal wall (>130% MVC in rectus abdominis, 88% MVC in external oblique). The body saw resulted in almost 140% MVC activation of the serratus anterior. All other exercises produced substantial abdominal challenge, although the body saw did so in the most spine conserving way. These findings, along with consideration of an individual's injury history, training goals and current fitness level, should assist in exercise choice and programme design.

  3. Pulmonary Artery Wedge Pressure Relative to Exercise Work Rate in Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiari, Sam; Wright, Stephen P; Goodman, Jack M; Sasson, Zion; Mak, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    An augmented pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) response may explain exercise intolerance in some humans. However, routine use of exercise hemodynamic testing is limited by a lack of data from normal older men and women. Our objective was to evaluate the exercise PAWP response and the potential for sexual dimorphism in healthy, nondyspneic older adults. Thirty-six healthy volunteers (18 men [54 ± 7 yr] and 18 women [58 ± 6 yr]) were studied at rest (control) and during two stages of semi-upright cycle ergometry, at heart rates of 100 bpm (light exercise) and 120 bpm (moderate exercise). Right heart catheterization was performed to measure pulmonary pressures. The PAWP response to exercise was assessed in context of exercise work rate and body size. At control, PAWP was similar between men and women. Work rates were significantly smaller in women at comparable HR (P exercise, with no further increase at moderate exercise. When indexed to work rate alone or work rate adjusted to body weight and height, the PAWP response at light and moderate exercise was significantly elevated in women compared with men (P exercise. The similar rise in the PAWP response to submaximal exercise occurs despite lower work rate in healthy older women compared with men, even when adjusted for smaller body size. It is important to consider sex in the development of normal reference ranges for exercise hemodynamic testing.

  4. Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Departments Clinical Research & Science Education & Training Home Conditions Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD: Overview COPD: Lifestyle Management COPD: Exercises COPD: Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a Question Reviewed by Barry J. Make, ...

  5. Exercise body surface mapping in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy; Comparison with stress thallium scans (SPECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Hidenori; Hagiwara, Hidenori; Ihara, Keiko; Shiraki, Teruo; Yamanari, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Katashi; Saito, Daiji; Tsuji, Takao; Haraoka, Shoichi (Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-09-01

    To evaluate exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in patients with electrocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), including ST{center dot}T changes, body surface maps (QRST area maps) were recorded using 87 lead points before and after exercise. The patterns of the subtraction QRST area maps (S-maps) were compared with the findings of stress thallium (Tl) scans in 31 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and in five with essential hypertension. All 18 patients whose S-maps revealed changes less than -40 {mu}VS or only an increase over the anterior chest region showed no positive findings on the stress Tl scans. However, there were clearly positive findings on stress Tl scans in eight (89%) of nine patients whose S-maps revealed changes greater than -40 {mu}VS over a wide precordial region or in six (67%) of nine patients whose S-maps revealed increases over the anterior chest region and had accompanying changes greater than -40 {mu}VS somewhere over the precordial region. These results suggested that exercise QRST area maps could differentiate exercise-induced myocardial ischemia from LVH with ST{center dot}T changes. (author).

  6. Tai chi chuan: mind-body practice or exercise intervention? Studying the benefit for cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansky, Patrick; Sannes, Tim; Wallerstedt, Dawn; Ge, Adeline; Ryan, Mary; Johnson, Laura Lee; Chesney, Margaret; Gerber, Lynn

    2006-09-01

    Tai chi chuan (TCC) has been used as a mind-body practice in Asian culture for centuries to improve wellness and reduce stress and has recently received attention by researchers as an exercise intervention. A review of the English literature on research in TCC published from 1989 to 2006 identified 20 prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trials in a number of populations, including elderly participants (7 studies), patients with cardiovascular complications (3 studies), patients with chronic disease (6 studies), and patients who might gain psychological benefit from TCC practice (2 studies). However, only the studies of TCC in the elderly and 2 studies of TCC for cardiovascular disease had adequate designs and size to allow conclusions about the efficacy of TCC. Most (11 studies) were small and provided limited information on the benefit of TCC in the settings tested. There is growing awareness that cancer survivors represent a population with multiple needs related to physical deconditioning, cardiovascular disease risk, and psychological stress. TCC as an intervention may provide benefit to cancer survivors in these multiple areas of need based on its characteristics of combining aspects of meditation and aerobic exercise. However, little research has been conducted to date to determine the benefit of TCC in this population. We propose a model to study the unique characteristics of TCC compared to physical exercise that may highlight characteristic features of this mind-body intervention in cancer survivors.

  7. Exercise Training in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Comparison of Recumbent Stepping and Body Weight–Supported Treadmill Training

    OpenAIRE

    Pilutti, Lara A.; Paulseth, John E.; Dove, Carin; Jiang, Shucui; Rathbone, Michel P.; Hicks, Audrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence of the benefits of exercise training in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, few studies have been conducted in individuals with progressive MS and severe mobility impairment. A potential exercise rehabilitation approach is total-body recumbent stepper training (TBRST). We evaluated the safety and participant-reported experience of TBRST in people with progressive MS and compared the efficacy of TBRST with that of body weight–supported treadmill training (BWSTT) on ...

  8. The effects of visual control whole body vibration exercise on balance and gait function of stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eon-Tak; Kim, Yong-Nam; Cho, Woon-Soo; Lee, Dong-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aims to verify the effects of visual control whole body vibration exercise on balance and gait function of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 22 stroke patients were randomly assigned to two groups; 11 to the experimental group and 11 to the control group. Both groups received 30 minutes of Neuro-developmental treatment 5 times per week for 4 weeks. The experimental group additionally performed 10 minutes of visual control whole body vibration exercise 5 t...

  9. Incongruent changes in heart rate variability and body weight after discontinuing aerobic exercise in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Chih; Liang, Chih-Sung; Tai, Yueh-Ming; Cheng, Shu-Li

    2016-11-01

    A bidirectional connection exists between obesity and altered heart rate variability (HRV). Schizophrenia has been associated with a high risk of obesity and decreased vagal modulation. Few studies have examined the link between obesity and HRV in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on body weight and HRV, and if so, whether these effects could be sustained after discontinuation of exercise training. A total of 18 overweight patients with schizophrenia completed an 8-week moderate-intensity aerobic exercise program conducted twice weekly for 50min. Body weight and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, week 8, and 4weeks after discontinuation of exercise training. Compared with the control group (15 overweight patients with schizophrenia without exercise training), the exercise group had reduced 2.3kg at week 8. Furthermore, the exercise program increased the low frequency, high frequency, and low frequency plus high frequency of HRV. However, after discontinuation of the exercise program for 4weeks, the changes in body weight and the HRV parameters diverged. All of the HRV parameters returned to their baseline values, but no change was seen in the reduced body weight. This suggests that HRV analysis is a more sensitive tool to detect health conditions in patients with schizophrenia. Although exercise is an easy and effective way to prevent and improve health problems, mental health providers might have underestimated the benefits of exercise in daily clinical practice. A regular exercise program should be considered as an essential part of treatment strategies for patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationships between physical exercise practice, dietary behaviour and body composition in female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, E; Di Blasio, A; Di Donato, F; Di Gregorio, S; Di Renzo, D; Ripari, P

    2010-09-01

    The relationship between female body composition, total energy expenditure and physical exercise energy expenditure is not very strong because women can compensate by increasing their energy intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between total minutes of exercise per week, dietary habits and body composition in female university students using physical activity and the habit to cook as covariates. Fifty-one female university students were investigated for body composition, dietary habits, aerobic fitness, physical activity and physical exercise practice. Participants were grouped in three sub-samples (1, 2 and 3) according to the 33rd and 66th percentiles of weekly minutes (min/wk) of training. Group 1 had 0.00 min/wk, group 2 had 95±35.59 min/wk and group 3 had 231.66±85.97 min/wk of training. Sub-samples did not differ for IPAQ parameters while differed for aerobic fitness (P=0.001). Group 3 had a higher energy intake (EI) (P=0.008), a higher intake of lipids (P=0.017), saturated (P=0.042) and monounsaturated fat (P=0.024) and a lower intake of carbohydrates (P=0.007). Group 3 maintained the higher EI and the worse composition of lipid intake considering the habit to cook as covariate. Group 3 also had higher muscle mass. In order to positively affect body composition, in the sedentary women it is enough to control the energy balance, whereas in those that trained regularly it is necessary to control both energy balance and composition of daily meals.

  11. Benefits of different intensity of aerobic exercise in modulating body composition among obese young adults: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chih-Hui; Ko, Ming-Chen; Wu, Long-Shan; Yeh, Ding-Peng; Kan, Nai-Wen; Lee, Po-Fu; Hsieh, Jenn-Woei; Tseng, Ching-Yu; Ho, Chien-Chang

    2017-08-24

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of different aerobic exercise intensities and energy expenditures on the body composition of sedentary obese college students in Taiwan. Forty-eight obese participants [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 27 kg/m 2 , age 18-26 years] were randomized into four equal groups (n = 12): light-intensity training group (LITG), 40%-50% heart rate reserve (HRR); middle-intensity training group (MITG), 50%-70% HRR; high-intensity training group (HITG), 70%-80% HRR; and control group (CG). The aerobic exercise training program was conducted for 60 min per day on a treadmill 3 days per week for 12 weeks. All participant anthropometric data, blood biochemical parameters, and health-related physical fitness components were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. At baseline, the anthropometric indices did not differ significantly among the four groups (p > 0.05). After 12-week exercise intervention, the HITG and MITG had significantly more changes in body weight, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) than the LITG. The changes in BMI and body fat percentage differed among all four groups (p exercise intervention with high energy expenditure can considerably reduce body weight, body fat, WC, WHR, and WHtR, whereas a light-intensity exercise intervention can significantly reduce body weight and body fat. Current Controlled Trials TPECTR09831410900 , registered on 24 th Dec 2009.

  12. Insulin resistance, exercise capacity and body composition in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Dige-Petersen, H; Ibsen, H

    1999-01-01

    -ray absorptiometry; (4) an exercise test with gas exchange analysis; and (5) investigation of composition of usual diet by diet registration for 5 days. RESULTS: The 24-h diastolic blood pressure was higher in subjects predisposed to hypertension compared with the controls: 78.1 versus 74.0 mmHg (confidence interval......OBJECTIVE: To study insulin resistance in subjects with strong genetic predisposition to essential hypertension, compared with non-disposed subjects. SUBJECTS: Thirty normotensive subjects aged 18-35 years whose parents both had essential hypertension, and 30 age- and sex matched subjects whose...... for the difference between the means; -0.5; -7.9), but the insulin sensitivity index was similar: 312 versus 362 I(2) min(-1) pmol(-1) kg(-1) (28; -129). The two groups were similar in terms of body composition, exercise capacity and composition of usual diet. Resting and 24-h diastolic blood pressures were...

  13. Aerobic Exercise and Whole-Body Vibration in Offsetting Bone Loss in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and its associated fractures are common complications of aging and most strategies to prevent and/or treat bone loss focused on antiresorptive medications. However, aerobic exercise (AEX and/or whole-body vibration (WBV might have beneficial effect on bone mass and provide an alternative approach to increase or maintain bone mineral density (BMD and reduce the risk of fractures. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the potential benefits of AEX and WBV on BMD in older population and discuss the possible mechanisms of action. Several online databases were utilized and based on the available literature the consensus is that both AEX and WBV may increase spine and femoral BMD in older adults. Therefore, AEX and WBV could serve as nonpharmacological and complementary approaches to increasing/maintaining BMD. However, it is uncertain if noted effects could be permanent and further studies are needed to investigate sustainability of either type of the exercise.

  14. A Data Set of Human Body Movements for Physical Rehabilitation Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Vakanski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents University of Idaho-Physical Rehabilitation Movement Data (UI-PRMD, a publically available data set of movements related to common exercises performed by patients in physical rehabilitation programs. For the data collection, 10 healthy subjects performed 10 repetitions of different physical therapy movements with a Vicon optical tracker and a Microsoft Kinect sensor used for the motion capturing. The data are in a format that includes positions and angles of full-body joints. The objective of the data set is to provide a basis for mathematical modeling of therapy movements, as well as for establishing performance metrics for evaluation of patient consistency in executing the prescribed rehabilitation exercises.

  15. Plasma steroids, body composition, and fat distribution: effects of age, sex, and exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zihong; Rankinen, Tuomo; Leon, Arthur S; Skinner, James S; Tchernof, André; Bouchard, Claude

    2018-03-05

    Plasma steroid hormone levels vary between men and women, but their associations with BMI and adiposity are controversial. Furthermore, little is known about the role of exercise programs on the relationship between steroid hormones and adiposity. This report evaluates these relationships for plasma levels of adrenal, gonadal, and conjugated steroids with body composition and fat distribution in sedentary men and women, aged 17-65 years, and their responses to an exercise program. In the sedentary state, 270 men (29% Blacks) and 304 women (34% Blacks) from the HERITAGE Family Study were available. Among them, 242 men and 238 women completed a 20-week fully standardized exercise program. Fourteen steroid hormones and SHBG concentrations were assayed in a fasted state and were compared for their associations with adiposity in men and women and in response to the exercise program. Covariates adjusted for in partial correlation analysis were age, ancestry, menopause status (women), and oral contraceptives/hormone replacement treatment status (women) at baseline, as well as baseline value of the trait for the training response. Differences among normal weight, overweight, and obese subjects were also considered. Statistical significance was set at P testosterone (TESTO) were negatively associated with fat mass and abdominal fat (P fat-free mass in men or women, but was significantly associated with % fat-free mass in men. No association was detected between baseline steroid hormone levels and changes in adiposity traits in response to 20 weeks of exercise. In men, low DHT, OHPROG, SHBG, and TESTO were associated with higher adiposity and abdominal and visceral fat. A similar adiposity profile was observed in women with low SHBG.

  16. Relation between heart rate recovery after exercise testing and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Lins, Tereza Cristina; Valente, Lucila Maria; Sobral Filho, Dário Celestino; Barbosa e Silva, Odwaldo

    2015-01-01

    Impaired heart rate (HR) recovery after exercise testing is considered a predictor of cardiovascular mortality as it reflects vagus nerve dysfunction. To assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and HR recovery after exercise. We analyzed the records of 2443 patients of both sexes, aged between 20 and 59 years, in sinus rhythm, not using negative chronotropic agents and with no myocardial ischemic response to exercise testing carried out at a specialist clinic, between 2005 and 2011. BMI was categorized as normal (18.5-30 kg/m(2)). The different BMI groups were compared in terms of HR recovery after exercise, which was calculated as the difference between maximum HR during exercise and in the first minute of recovery. Recovery was considered impaired when the difference was ≤12 bpm. Eighty-seven (3.6%) patients presented impaired recovery, which was three times more prevalent in the obese group and twice as prevalent in the overweight group compared with the normal group (p<0.001 and p=0.010, respectively). Obese patients presented higher basal HR and lower maximum HR, as well as reduced chronotropic reserve (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, impaired HR recovery was associated with overweight (relative risk [RR]=1.8; p=0.035), obesity (RR=2; p=0.016), number of metabolic equivalents (RR=0.82; p<0.001) and resting HR (RR=1.05; p<0.001). The hazard ratio for hypertension was 2 (p=0.083, NS). Impaired HR recovery was associated with higher BMI, demonstrating that obese individuals present vagus nerve dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Mood after various brief exercise and sport modes: aerobics, hip-hop dancing, ice skating, and body conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungwoon; Kim, Jingu

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the potential psychological benefits of brief exercise and sport activities on positive mood alterations, 45 Korean high school and 232 undergraduate students enrolled in physical education and stress management classes voluntarily participated and were randomly assigned to one of four activities: aerobic exercise, body conditioning, hip-hop dancing, and ice skating. Mood changes from before to after exercise (2 pm to 3 pm) were measured based on a Korean translation of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale. The findings suggested that the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups rated positive well-being higher than the body conditioning and ice skating groups. Immediately after exercise, psychological distress was rated lower in the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups, as was fatigue.

  18. Water- versus land-based exercise in elderly subjects: effects on physical performance and body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergamin M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Marco Bergamin,1 Andrea Ermolao,1 Silvia Tolomio,1 Linda Berton,2 Giuseppe Sergi,2 Marco Zaccaria1 1Sports Medicine Division, 2Geriatrics Division, University of Padova, Padua, Italy Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise protocol carried out in geothermal spring water to improve overall physical function and muscle mass in a group of healthy elderly subjects. A further aim was to compare this water-based protocol with a land-based protocol and a control group. For this purpose, 59 subjects were recruited and randomly allocated to three groups: aquatic group (AG, land group (LG, and control group (CG. AG and LG followed a 6-month, twice-weekly, multimodality exercise intervention. AG underwent the protocol in hot-spring water (36°C while LG did it in a land-based environment. After the intervention, knee-extension strength was maintained in AG and LG. The 8-foot up-and-go test showed a reduction in both exercise groups (AG −19.3%, P < 0.05; LG −12.6%, P < 0.05, with a significantly greater decrease in AG. The back-scratch test revealed an improvement only in AG (25.8%; P < 0.05, while the sit-and-reach test improved in all groups. Finally, AG reduced fat mass by 4% (P < 0.05, and dominant forearm fat decreased by 9.2% (P < 0.05. In addition, calf muscle density increased by 1.8% (P < 0.05. In summary, both water- and land-based activities were beneficial in maintaining strength and in improving lower-body flexibility. Aquatic exercise appeared a better activity to improve dynamic balance. Thermal swimming pools and the use of rating of perceived exertion as a method of exercise monitoring should be considered potentially useful tools to enhance physical performance and body composition in healthy elderly. Keywords: aging, multimodality exercise, performance, muscle mass

  19. PROGRAMMED CORRECTIVE EXERCISES IN PCYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES AND LORDOTIC BAD BODY POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Bogdanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the research was the influence of specially program medphysical education instruction with specific complexes of exercises of corrective gymnastics at the 5th grade pupils at those with lordotic bad body position established by measuring. The aims were to define the number of children with lordotic bad body position and to eliminate or alleviate the existing disturbance until the end of the experimental programme. The experimental programme was carried out among the 5th grade pupils. Total number of pupils included in this experiment was 434. The methods that were used for the estimation of lordotic bad body position are somatoscopy and somatometry. The plumb, ruler and dermograph were necessary instruments. For the estimation of the states of bad body position, the average value of mild criterion is applied. It can be concluded that during experimental programme even 85.93% of the subjects successfully corrected their bad body position; more exactly completely corrected lordotic bad body position. That percentage is certificate of justification and necessity of application of experimental programme of corrective gymnastics with all his organizational characteristics (the setting, the scope of work, load intensity, directing and controlling the experiment. Muscular-bone system of boys shows the high level of adaptation on the applied experimental factor of corrective gymnastics.

  20. Longitudinal changes in body composition and metabolic profile between exercise clinical trials in men with chronic spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgey, Ashraf S.; Martin, Heather; Metz, Alyse; Khalil, Refka E.; Dolbow, David R.; Gater, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Study design Longitudinal design. Objectives The study was undertaken to determine the effects of cessation of exercise interventions on body composition and metabolic profiles in men with chronic SCI. Settings Clinical trials within a Medical Center. Methods Eleven men with motor complete SCI were followed on average over a period of 2.5 years. Six men were involved in two different exercise interventions (functional electrical stimulation cycling versus arm cycling ergometer), 5 days/week for 16 weeks (exercise group), and five men served as a control (control group). Anthropometrics and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were captured to measure changes in lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), percentage FM before, immediately after exercise, and after a period of 2.5 years. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) and lipid panel were also measured. Results Thigh circumference increased by 8.5% following exercise (P = 0.042) and remained 6.4% greater than baseline measurements (P = 0.012). Leg LM increased by 9% following the exercise intervention (P = 0.03) and decreased by 16% in the follow-up visit (P = 0.02). Percentage trunk and total body FM increased by 4.5% (P = 0.008) and 3.5% (P = 0.019) in the follow-up visit, respectively, and whole body LM increased by 8.4% and decreased back by 5.4% following a 2.5 year-period. BMR significantly decreased by 15.5% following the exercise (P = 0.029) interventions. Conclusion Exercise training is accompanied with positive changes in body composition as well as compensatory decrease in BMR, that regressed back following 2.5 years of exercise cessation. Participation in an exercise trial is unlikely to confound the measurements of a follow-up trial. PMID:27077574

  1. Effects of vigorous walking exercise on core body temperature and inhibitory control in thermosensitive persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Motl, Robert W; Davis, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    Acute, moderate intensity aerobic exercise might improve cognition in multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is unknown if increases in core body temperature (Ctemp) that negates those effects in thermosensitive persons with MS. Fourteen fully ambulatory, thermosensitive persons with MS completed 20-min bouts of vigorous intensity treadmill walking exercise and seated quiet rest in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Ctemp was measured throughout each experimental condition. Inhibitory control (i.e., an executive function) was measured immediately prior to and following each condition. Ctemp was elevated (~0.6 °C) with vigorous exercise versus quiet rest (p control for vigorous exercise versus quiet rest (ηp(2) = 0.29). Exercise-related increases in Ctemp do not nullify the potential acute exercise benefits on inhibitory control in MS.

  2. Influence of body composition on physiological responses to post-exercise hydrotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Jessica M; Halson, Shona L; Miller, Joanna; Slater, Gary J; Askew, Christopher D

    2018-05-01

    This study examined the influence of body composition on temperature and blood flow responses to post-exercise cold water immersion (CWI), hot water immersion (HWI) and control (CON). Twenty-seven male participants were stratified into three groups: 1) low mass and low fat (LM-LF); 2) high mass and low fat (HM-LF); or 3) high mass and high fat (HM-HF). Experimental trials involved a standardised bout of cycling, maintained until core temperature reached 38.5°C. Participants subsequently completed one of three 15-min recovery interventions (CWI, HWI, or CON). Core, skin and muscle temperatures, and limb blood flow were recorded at baseline, post-exercise, and every 30 min following recovery for 240 min. During CON and HWI there were no differences in core or muscle temperature between body composition groups. The rate of fall in core temperature following CWI was greater in the LM-LF (0.03 ± 0.01°C/min) group compared to the HM-HF (0.01 ± 0.001°C/min) group (P = 0.002). Muscle temperature decreased to a greater extent during CWI in the LM-LF and HM-LF groups (8.6 ± 3.0°C) compared with HM-HF (5.1 ± 2.0°C, P < 0.05). Blood flow responses did not differ between groups. Differences in body composition alter the thermal response to post-exercise CWI, which may explain some of the variance in the responses to CWI recovery.

  3. Associations between Thermal and Physiological Responses of Human Body during Exercise

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    Suleyman Zora

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, thermal behaviours of the athletes were investigated with respect to thermal comfort and exercise intensity. The relationship between an index for analysing thermal comfort (Predicted Mean Vote: PMV and Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE which shows exercise intensity and exhaustion level was evaluated. Eleven moderately trained male athletes ( V ˙ O2max 54 ± 9.9 mL∙min−1∙kg−1 had volunteered for the study (age: 22.2 ± 3.7 years; body mass: 73.8 ± 6.9 kg; height: 181 ± 6.3 cm; Body surface area (BSA: 1.93 ± 0.1 m2; body fat: 12.6% ± 4.2%; V ˙ O2max: 54 ± 9.9 mL∙min−1∙kg−1. Experiments were carried out by using a cycle ergometer in an air-conditioned test chamber which provided fresh air and had the ability to control the temperature and relative humidity. The study cohort was divided into two groups according to maximal oxygen consumption levels of the participants. Statistical analyses were conducted with the whole study cohort as well as the two separated groups. There was a moderate correlation between PMV and RPE for whole cohort (r: −0.51. When the whole cohort divided as low and high aerobic power groups, an average correlation coefficient at high oxygen consumption cohort decreased to r: −0.21, while the average correlation coefficient at low oxygen consumption cohort increased to r: −0.77. In conclusion, PMV and RPE have a high correlation in less trained participants, but not in the more trained ones. The case may bring to mind that thermal distribution may be better in high aerobic power group in spite of high RPE and thus the relation between PMV and RPE is affected by exercise performance status.

  4. Coronary microvascular function, insulin sensitivity and body composition in predicting exercise capacity in overweight patients with coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürs, Anders; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Olsen, Rasmus Huan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) has a negative impact on exercise capacity. The aim of this study was to determine how coronary microvascular function, glucose metabolism and body composition contribute to exercise capacity in overweight patients with CAD and without diabetes. METHODS...... by a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Body composition was determined by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and magnetic resonance imaging. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessed by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was used as a measure of microvascular function. RESULTS: Median BMI was 31.3 and 72......: Sixty-five non-diabetic, overweight patients with stable CAD, BMI 28-40 kg/m(2) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) above 35 % were recruited. A 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test was used to evaluate glucose metabolism. Peak aerobic exercise capacity (VO2peak) was assessed...

  5. Effects of two programs of exercise on body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome

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    Bruna Barboza Seron

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of a 12 week aerobic and resistance exercise on body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome. Methods: A quasi-experimental study with 41 adolescents with Down syndrome, aged 15.5±2.7 years, divided into three groups: Aerobic Training Group (ATG; n=16, Resisted Training Group (RTG; n=15 and Control Group (CG; n=10. There were two types of training: aerobic, with intensity of 50-70% of the heart rate reserve 3 times/week, and resisted, with intensity of 12 maximum repetitions 2 times week. Both trainings were applied during a 12-week period. The percentage of fat evaluation was performed using plethysmography with Bod Pod(r equipment. Waist circumference (WC, body weight and height were also measured. Paired t-test was used to compare variables before and after the exercise program. Results: The percentage of body fat did not change significantly for both groups that participated in the training intervention. However, CG showed a significant increase in this variable (31.3±7.2 versus 34.0±7.9. On the other hand, body mass index (BMI and WC were significantly reduced for ATG (BMI: 27.0±4.4 and 26.5±4.2; WC: 87.3±11.1 and 86.2±9.7, while RTG and GC showed no differences in these variables. Conclusions: The aerobic and resisted training programs maintained body fat levels. ATG significantly reduced BMI and WC measures. Individuals who did not attend the training intervention increased their percentage of fat.

  6. Long-term calorie restriction, but not endurance exercise, lowers core body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, Andreea; Cangemi, Roberto; Omodei, Daniela; Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of body temperature has been proposed to contribute to the increased lifespan in calorie restricted animals and mice overexpressing the uncoupling protein-2 in hypocretin neurons. However, nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of calorie restriction (CR) with adequate nutrition on body temperature in humans. In this study, 24-hour core body temperature was measured every minute by using ingested telemetric capsules in 24 men and women (mean age 53.7±9.4 yrs) consuming a CR diet for an average of 6 years, 24 age- and sex-matched sedentary (WD) and 24 body fat-matched exercise-trained (EX) volunteers, who were eating Western diets. The CR and EX groups were significantly leaner than the WD group. Energy intake was lower in the CR group (1769±348 kcal/d) than in the WD (2302±668 kcal/d) and EX (2798±760 kcal/d) groups (Pbody temperatures were all significantly lower in the CR group than in the WD and EX groups (P≤0.01). Long-term CR with adequate nutrition in lean and weight-stable healthy humans is associated with a sustained reduction in core body temperature, similar to that found in CR rodents and monkeys. This adaptation is likely due to CR itself, rather than to leanness, and may be involved in slowing the rate of aging. PMID:21483032

  7. Whole Body Vibration Exercises and the Improvement of the Flexibility in Patient with Metabolic Syndrome

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    Danúbia da Cunha Sá-Caputo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrations produced in oscillating/vibratory platform generate whole body vibration (WBV exercises, which are important in sports, as well as in treating diseases, promoting rehabilitation, and improving the quality of life. WBV exercises relevantly increase the muscle strength, muscle power, and the bone mineral density, as well as improving the postural control, the balance, and the gait. An important number of publications are found in the PubMed database with the keyword “flexibility” and eight of the analyzed papers involving WBV and flexibility reached a level of evidence II. The biggest distance between the third finger of the hand to the floor (DBTFF of a patient with metabolic syndrome (MS was found before the first session and was considered to be 100%. The percentages to the other measurements in the different sessions were determined to be related to the 100%. It is possible to see an immediate improvement after each session with a decrease of the %DBTFF. As the presence of MS is associated with poorer physical performance, a simple and safe protocol using WBV exercises promoted an improvement of the flexibility in a patient with MS.

  8. Body armour: the effect of load, exercise and distraction on landing forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paddy C; Handcock, Phil J; Rehrer, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of added load and intense exercise on jump and landing performance and ground reaction force (GRF) during landings where attentional demand was varied. Fifty-two males (37 ± 9.2 years, 180.7 ± 6.1 cm, 90.2 ± 11.6 kg, maximal aerobic fitness (VO(₂max)) 50 ± 8.5 ml (.) kg(-1 .) min(-1), BMI 27.6 ± 3.1, mean ± s) completed a VO(₂max) test. Experimental sessions were completed (≥4 days in between) in a randomised counterbalanced order, one while wearing body armour and appointments (loaded) and one without load (unloaded). A vertical jump, a drop landing concentrating on safe touchdown, a drop jump and a drop landing with an attentional distraction were performed. These were repeated 1 min after a 5-min treadmill run. Mean jump height decreased by 12% (P < 0.001) with loading and a further by 6% following the running task. Peak GRFs were increased by 13-19% with loading (P < 0.001) depending on the landing task demands and a further by 4-9% following intense exercise. The distracted drop landing had significantly higher GRFs compared to all other landings. Results demonstrate that added load impacts on jumping and landing performance, an effect that is amplified by prior intense exercise, and distraction during landing. Such increases in GRF apply to police officer performance in their duties and may increase the risk of injury.

  9. The Comparison of Traditional Exercises & Body Weight Supported Training (BWST Exercises on Sensory-Motor Function, Quality and Quantity of Walking in Paraplegic Spinal Cord Injured Persons

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    Mehdi Raeisi-dehkordi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was the comparison of traditional exercises & body weight supported training (BWST exercises on sensory-motor function, quality and quantity of walking in paraplegic spinal cord injured persons. Materials & Methods: 17 voluntary paraplegic spinal cord injured persons (Asia B,C, age 32.53±1.793 years, height 175.71±1.658 cm, weight 71.59±2.442 kg, and body mass index (BMI 23.18 ± 0.828 kg/m2 availability. The subjects were randomly assigned to BWSTT group (N=10 and Traditional exercises group (N=7 according to sensory and motor score. The subjects trained for 12 weeks, four times per week and 60 min per session. BWSTT include 15 min warm-up on fixed gear bike, 45 min BWSTT with 50% body weight and 10 min cold-down finally. 10% load was added each week. Traditional exercises included 15 min warm-up plus 45 min stretch exercise and resistance training. Results: The data showed that there were significant differences in changes of sensory function Pin score (P=0.002 and Light Score (P=0.002 sensory function, motor function (P=0.000, Walking index Spinal cord injury (WISCI (P=0.002, 6 min walking test (P=0.001 and 10 meter walking (P=0.001 between BWSTT and traditional exercise. Conclusion: BWSTT in comparison with traditional exercise can improve sensory-motor function and quality and quantity of walking in paraplegic spinal cord injured persons.

  10. Effects of Four-Month Exercise Program on Correction of Body Posture of Persons with Different Visual Impairment

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    Damira Vranesic-Hadzimehmedovic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a four-month specific exercise program on correcting the posture of persons with different visual impairment. The sample consisted of 20 elementary students with visual impairment diagnosis, 11 boys and 9 girls aged 9-14 (12±0.6. The classification of the examinees was performed according to the established degree of visual impairment, 10 blind persons and 10 partially sighted persons. The pupils voluntarily participated in the exercise program. The exercise program was structured of two phases: exercise on dryland and exercise in water. A total of 36 exercise units were completed during four months period. Seven tests were used to evaluate the body posture, based on the determination of segmental dimensions and the visual projection of the marked points. The contents of the program were performed with the aim of preventing and correcting the observed irregularities of the body posture. The t-test scores indicated statistically significant differences between two measurements (p<0.05, p<0.01. It can be concluded that elementary movements, performed through dryland and especially water exercises, had a good effect on correcting the body's posture of blind and partially sighted persons.

  11. [Overweight and obesity in young adults: relevance of job-related changes of exercise on fat, lean body and body mass in students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Kohl, Matthias; Bebenek, Michael; von Stengel, Simon

    2015-03-01

    Early adulthood is related to changes in lifestyle that negatively affect body weight and health. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of exercise changes on the development of weight and body composition in college students.Sixty-one randomly selected dental (ZMS) and 53 sport students (SLS) were accompanied over 5 years. Body mass, fat and lean body mass (LBM) were determined via DXA-technique. Exercise and physical activity were assessed by questionnaires and interviews.All exercise indices significantly increased in the SLS and significantly decreased in the ZMS. Physical activity slightly increased in both groups. Both cohorts comparably gained body mass, however, the increase in the SLS group can be attributed to LBM-changes with minor changes of fat-mass (2.4 % ± 3.3 % vs. 0.1 ± 1.0 %) whereas ZMS gained fat and LBM in a proportion of 2:1.Maintenance/increase of exercise compensate the negative effects of lifestyle changes on body composition during young adulthood.

  12. [Effects of a exercise program on body composition, physical fitness and lipid metabolism for middle-aged obese women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun Ja

    2005-12-01

    This study was to examine the effects of an exercise program for middle-aged obese women. The exercise program combined folk dance and resistance training. The subjects group consisted of 85 middle-aged obese women between 40 and 60 years of age. Three 8 week sessions consisted of a 55-80% maximum heart rate (MHR) exercise for 60-90 minutes a day and 3 times a week from March to November, 2004. Data was collected through a pre- and post-exercise test before and after each session. Data was collected with Inbody, dynamometer and blood. This data was analyzed by descriptive statistics, and a paired t-test with an SPSS/PC (10.0 version) program. There were significant positive changes in body weight, body fat mass, body mass index, percent body fat, muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, and balance quality, but no significant positive changes in skeletal mass, fat free mass, percent abdominal fat (waist-hip ratio), visceral fat area, agility, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, or triglycerides. This study showed that an exercise program has partially positive effects for middle-aged obese women. The results of this study show that exercise at community health centers should continue for middle-aged obese women's health.

  13. Physical exercise-induced changes in the core body temperature of mice depend more on ambient temperature than on exercise protocol or intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Costa, Kátia Anunciação; Soares, Anne Danieli Nascimento; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2014-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying physical exercise-induced hyperthermia may be species specific. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise intensity and ambient temperature on the core body temperature ( T core) of running mice, which provide an important experimental model for advancing the understanding of thermal physiology. We evaluated the influence of different protocols (constant- or incremental-speed exercises), treadmill speeds and ambient temperatures ( T a) on the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. To measure T core, a telemetric sensor was implanted in the abdominal cavity of male adult Swiss mice under anesthesia. After recovering from the surgery, the animals were familiarized to running on a treadmill and then subjected to the different running protocols and speeds at two T a: 24 °C or 34 °C. All of the experimental trials resulted in marked increases in T core. As expected, the higher-temperature environment increased the magnitude of running-induced hyperthermia. For example, during incremental exercise at 34 °C, the maximal T core achieved was increased by 1.2 °C relative to the value reached at 24 °C. However, at the same T a, neither treadmill speed nor exercise protocol altered the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. We conclude that T core of running mice is influenced greatly by T a, but not by the exercise protocols or intensities examined in the present report. These findings suggest that the magnitude of hyperthermia in running mice may be regulated centrally, independently of exercise intensity.

  14. Long-term Tai Chi exercise increases body stability of the elderly during stair ascent under high and low illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qipeng; Wang, Shen; Wong, Del P; Zhou, Jingyi; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Cui; Gu, Houxin; Mao, Dewei

    2017-09-07

    The effects of long-term Tai Chi exercise on body stability of the elderly during stair ascent under high and low illumination were investigated. Forty-five healthy elderly women were divided into three groups, namely, Tai Chi exercise group, brisk walking group and no-exercise control group. All the participants ascended a staircase, during which force platforms and a motion capture system collected the data. Under the high illumination, Tai Chi exercise participants exhibited higher loading rate and anteroposterior centre of pressure (COP ap ) displacement as well as a lower braking impulse than no-exercise group. Under the low illumination, Tai Chi exercise participants demonstrated higher COP ap and mediolateral centre of pressure (COP ml ) displacements as well as lower braking and lateral impulses compared with no-exercise participants. The centre of mass (COM) ml sway in Tai Chi and no exercise participants were higher, the loading rates in Tai Chi and walking participants were higher, and the lateral impulse in no exercise participants was higher under low illumination than under high illumination. Thus, low illumination increases the risk of falling. Tai Chi participants increased their foot clearance, head inclination angle and COP ap displacement under low illumination to increase their stability during stair ascent.

  15. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study

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    Daniel W. D. West

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey or an energy-matched placebo (CHO immediately post-exercise (0 h, and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery. A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest. Participants ingested [15N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO (P = 0.064; effect size (ES = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO (P = 0.036 but not in CHO (P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO, which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO < CHO; P < 0.01. Exercise decreased repetitions to failure (REP, maximal strength (MVC, peak and mean power, and countermovement jump performance (CMJ at 0 h (all P < 0.05 vs. Pre. At 10 h, there were small-to-moderate effects for enhanced recovery of the MVC (ES = 0.56, mean power (ES = 0.49, and CMJ variables (ES: 0.27–0.49 in PRO. At 24 h, protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76, REP (ES = 0.44, and peak power (ES = 0.55. In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of

  16. The effects of coconut oil supplementation on the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Nathália M; Félix, Henrique R; Soré, Murillo R; M M, Aníbal; Campos, Kleber E; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2016-05-13

    This study aims to verify the effects of coconut oil supplementation (COS) in the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise. The animals (n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to: G1=Sedentary and Non-supplemented (Control Group), G2=Sedentary and Supplemented, G3=Exercised and Non-supplemented and G4=Exercised and Supplemented. The COS protocol used was 3 mL/Kg of body mass by gavage for 28 days. The physical exercise was the vertical jumping training for 28 days. It was determined the body mass parameters, Lee Index, blood glucose and lipid profile. The COS did not interfere with body mass, but the lean body mass was lower in G3 compared to G2. The final Lee Index classified G1 and G2 as obese (>30g/cm). The lipid profile showed total cholesterol was decreased in G3, LDL-c concentration was decreased in G2, triglycerides, VLDL-c and HDL-c concentrations were increased in G2 and G4 in relation to G1 and G3. The COS decreased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In conclusion, the COS associated or not to physical exercise worsen others lipid parameters, like triglycerides and VLDL-c level, showing the care with the use of lipid supplements.

  17. Effectiveness of exercise and protein supplementation intervention on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Suzana; Kamaruddin, Norshafarina Shari; Badrasawi, Manal; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohamed; Abd Manaf, Zahara; Yassin, Zaitun; Joseph, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia, characterized as muscle loss that occurs with aging, is a major health problem in an aging population, due to its implications on mobility, quality of life, and fall risk. Protein supplementation could improve the physical fitness by increasing protein anabolism, and exercise has a documented evidence of positive effect on functional status among the elderly. However, the combined effect of both protein supplementation and exercise has not been investigated among sarcopenic elderly in the Asian population. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercise intervention and protein supplementation either alone or in combination for 12 weeks, on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia. Sixty five sarcopenic elderly Malays aged 60-74 years were assigned to the control group, exercise group (ExG), protein supplementation group (PrG), or the combination of exercise and protein supplementation group. A significant interaction effect between body weight and body mass index (BMI) was observed, with the PrG (-2.1% body weight, -1.8% BMI) showing the highest reductions. Further, there was a decrease in % body fat (-4.5%) and an increase in fat-free mass (kg) (+5.7%) in the ExG after 12 weeks (P Malaysia.

  18. The effects of coconut oil supplementation on the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATHÁLIA M. RESENDE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to verify the effects of coconut oil supplementation (COS in the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise. The animals (n=6 per group were randomly assigned to: G1=Sedentary and Non-supplemented (Control Group, G2=Sedentary and Supplemented, G3=Exercised and Non-supplemented and G4=Exercised and Supplemented. The COS protocol used was 3 mL/Kg of body mass by gavage for 28 days. The physical exercise was the vertical jumping training for 28 days. It was determined the body mass parameters, Lee Index, blood glucose and lipid profile. The COS did not interfere with body mass, but the lean body mass was lower in G3 compared to G2. The final Lee Index classified G1 and G2 as obese (>30g/cm. The lipid profile showed total cholesterol was decreased in G3, LDL-c concentration was decreased in G2, triglycerides, VLDL-c and HDL-c concentrations were increased in G2 and G4 in relation to G1 and G3. The COS decreased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In conclusion, the COS associated or not to physical exercise worsen others lipid parameters, like triglycerides and VLDL-c level, showing the care with the use of lipid supplements.

  19. The effects of strength exercise and walking on lumbar function, pain level, and body composition in chronic back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Seok; Kang, Suh-Jung

    2016-10-01

    The beneficial effects of a strength exercise program and a combined exercise program of strength training plus walking were examined in overweight with chronic back pain patients. The participants were randomly placed in the strength exercise group (SEG, n=15), combined exercise group (CEG, n=15), and control group (CG, n=6). All subjects performed exercise twice per week, 50 min per session with a professional instructors for 12 weeks. In order to evaluate exercise intervention effects, lumbar function was measured by back strength and flexibility. Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ) and visual analogue scale (VAS) were used to evaluate pain level. Fat and muscle mass were measured to compare body composition changes. All measurements were performed before and after 12 weeks of exercise program. Lumbar function: Back strength was significantly different over time, and significant time×group differences were found between SEG and CG and, CEG and CG. Pain disorder degree: VAS showed a significant group difference, and significant time×group differences were shown between SEG and CG, and CEG and CG. Also, RMDG showed a significant difference between CEG and CG. Body composition: Fat mass was significantly different over time×group between SEG and CG. In conclusion, participating in strength and walking exercises were beneficial to improve lumbar function. Also, the combined exercise program was more effective for reducing pain levels than the strength exercise. Finally, fat mass was reduced in this study and this may play a possible role in the improvement of lumbar function and reduction in low back pain.

  20. Relative Humidity of 40% Inhibiting the Increase of Pulse Rate, Body Temperature, and Blood Lactic Acid During Exercise

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    Nengah Sandi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive sweating of the body is a reaction to decrease the heat caused by prolonged exercise at high relative humidity (RH. This situation may cause an increase in pulse rate (PR, body temperature (BT, and blood lactic acid (BLA workout. Objective: This study aimed to prove that a RH of 40% better than a RH of 50% and 60% RH in inhibiting the increase of PR, BT, and BLA during exercise. Methods: The study was conducted on 54 samples randomly selected from the IKIP PGRI Bali students. The samples were divided into three groups, and each group was given cycling exercise with a load of 80 Watt for 2 x 30 minutes with rest between sets for five minutes. Group-1 of cycling at 40% of RH, Group-2 at a RH of 50%, and the Group-3 at a RH of 60%. Data PR, BT, and BLA taken before and during exercise. The mean difference between groups before and during exercise were analyzed by One-way Anova and a further test used Least Significant Difference (LSD. Significance used was α = 0.05. Results: The mean of PR during exercise was significantly different between groups with p = 0.045, the mean of BT during exercises was significantly different between groups with p = 0.006, and the mean of BLA during exercises was significantly different between groups with p = 0.005 (p <0.05. Also found that PR, BT, and BLA during exercise at 40% RH was lower than 50% RH and 60% RH (p <0.05. Conclusion: Thus, the RH of 40% was better than RH of 50% and 60 % in inhibiting the increase of PR, BT, and BLA during exercise. Therefore, when practiced in a closed room is expected at 40% relative humidity.

  1. The effect of programmed exercise on body compositions and heart rate of 11-13 years-old male students

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    Mohammad H. Dashti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different forms of physical activities can play a very important role in improving health and physical fitness. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the programmed exercise on students’ body compositions and heart rate at rest.Materials and Method: Two groups each consisting of 15students, aged averagely 12.6 years were the subjects of this experimental study. The experimental group in each session took part in an exercise program consisting of 20 minutes of aerobic activity (running, 10 minutes of aerobic exercise, 30 minutes of local training and 5 minutes of free exercise. The experiment last for 24 sessions. Control group didn’t do any special practice. In both groups, weight, fat mass, fat percentage, lean body mass and heart rate were measured during rest period before and after the experiment. Results: Results showed that the fat percentage, weight, fat mass and heart rate had decreased after 8 weeks of programmed exercise in the experimental group unlike the control group. However, no significant difference was observed in lean body mass.Conclusion: The exercise program used in this study may help loosing weight and make the heart stronger

  2. Validity of Devices That Assess Body Temperature During Outdoor Exercise in the Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa, Douglas J; Becker, Shannon M; Ganio, Matthew S; Brown, Christopher M; Yeargin, Susan W; Roti, Melissa W; Siegler, Jason; Blowers, Julie A; Glaviano, Neal R; Huggins, Robert A; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2007-01-01

    Context: Rectal temperature is recommended by the National Athletic Trainers' Association as the criterion standard for recognizing exertional heat stroke, but other body sites commonly are used to measure temperature. Few authors have assessed the validity of the thermometers that measure body temperature at these sites in athletic settings. Objective: To assess the validity of commonly used temperature devices at various body sites during outdoor exercise in the heat. Design: Observational field study. Setting: Outdoor athletic facilities. Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen men and 10 women (age = 26.5 ± 5.3 years, height = 174.3 ± 11.1 cm, mass = 72.73 ± 15.95 kg, body fat = 16.2 ± 5.5%). Intervention(s): We simultaneously tested inexpensive and expensive devices orally and in the axillary region, along with measures of aural, gastrointestinal, forehead, temporal, and rectal temperatures. Temporal temperature was measured according to the instruction manual and a modified method observed in medical tents at local road races. We also measured forehead temperatures directly on the athletic field (other measures occurred in a covered pavilion) where solar radiation was greater. Rectal temperature was the criterion standard used to assess the validity of all other devices. Subjects' temperatures were measured before exercise, every 60 minutes during 180 minutes of exercise, and every 20 minutes for 60 minutes of postexercise recovery. Temperature devices were considered invalid if the mean bias (average difference between rectal temperature and device temperature) was greater than ±0.27°C (±0.5°F). Main Outcome Measure(s): Temperature from each device at each site and time point. Results: Mean bias for the following temperatures was greater than the allowed limit of ±0.27°C (±0.5°F): temperature obtained via expensive oral device (−1.20°C [−2.17°F]), inexpensive oral device (−1.67°C [−3.00°F]), expensive axillary device (−2.58°C [−4

  3. Association of Trans-theoretical Model (TTM based Exercise Behavior Change with Body Image Evaluation among Female Iranian Students

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    Sahar Rostami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBody image is a determinant of individual attractiveness and physical activity among the young people. This study was aimed to assess the association of Trans-theoretical model based exercise behavior change with body image evaluation among the female Iranian students.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted in Sanandaj city, Iran in 2016. Using multistage sampling method, a total of 816 high school female students were included in the study. They completed a three-section questionnaire, including demographic information, Trans-theoretical model constructs and body image evaluation. The obtained data were fed into SPSS version 21.0.  ResultsThe results showed more than 60% of participants were in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages of exercise behavior. The means of perceived self-efficacy, barriers and benefits were found to have a statistically significant difference during the stages of exercise behavior change (P

  4. Keto-adaptation enhances exercise performance and body composition responses to training in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Fionn T; Wardrop, Bruce; Hyde, Parker N; Lafountain, Richard A; Volek, Jeff S; Doyle, Lorna

    2018-04-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets have recently grown in popularity among endurance athletes, yet little is known about the long-term (>4wk) performance implications of consuming a low-carbohydrate high fat ketogenic diet (LCKD) in well-trained athletes. Twenty male endurance-trained athletes (age 33±11y, body mass 80±11kg; BMI 24.7±3.1kg/m 2 ) who habitually consumed a carbohydrate-based diet, self-selected into a high-carbohydrate (HC) group (n=11, %carbohydrate:protein:fat=65:14:20), or a LCKD group (n=9, 6:17:77). Both groups performed the same training intervention (endurance, strength and high intensity interval training (HIIT)). Prior to and following successful completion of 12-weeks of diet and training, participants had their body composition assessed, and completed a 100km time trial (TT), six second (SS) sprint, and a critical power test (CPT). During post-intervention testing the HC group consumed 30-60g/h carbohydrate, whereas the LCKD group consumed water, and electrolytes. The LCKD group experienced a significantly greater decrease in body mass (HC -0.8kg, LCKD -5.9kg; P=0.006, effect size (ES): 0.338) and percentage body fat percentage (HC -0.7%, LCKD -5.2%; P=0.008, ES: 0.346). Fasting serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) significantly increased from 0.1 at baseline to 0.5mmol/L in the LCKD group (P=0.011, ES: 0.403) in week 12. There was no significant change in performance of the 100km TT between groups (HC -1.13min·s, LCKD -4.07min·s, P=0.057, ES: 0.196). SS sprint peak power increased by 0.8 watts per kilogram bodyweight (w/kg) in the LCKD group, versus a -0.1w/kg reduction in the HC group (P=0.025, ES: 0.263). CPT peak power decreased by -0.7w/kg in the HC group, and increased by 1.4w/kg in the LCKD group (P=0.047, ES: 0.212). Fat oxidation in the LCKD group was significantly greater throughout the 100km TT. Compared to a HC comparison group, a 12-week period of keto-adaptation and exercise training, enhanced body composition, fat oxidation during

  5. Whole-body fat oxidation determined by graded exercise and indirect calorimetry: a role for muscle oxidative capacity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, P; Saltin, B; Helge, J W

    2006-01-01

    During whole-body exercise, peak fat oxidation occurs at a moderate intensity. This study investigated whole-body peak fat oxidation in untrained and trained subjects, and the presence of a relation between skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity and whole-body peak fat oxidation. Healthy male...... subjects were recruited and categorized into an untrained (N=8, VO(2max) 3.5+/-0.1 L/min) and a trained (N=8, VO(2max) 4.6+/-0.2 L/min) group. Subjects performed a graded exercise test commencing at 60 W for 8 min followed by 35 W increments every 3 min. On a separate day, muscle biopsies were obtained...... oxidation was determined. The body composition was determined by DEXA. Whole-body peak fat oxidation (250+/-25 and 462+/-33 mg/min) was higher (Ptrained compared with untrained subjects, respectively. Muscle...

  6. In vivo spinal posture during upright and reclined sitting in an office chair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, Roland; Taylor, William R; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of people spend the majority of their working lives seated in an office chair. Musculoskeletal disorders, in particular low back pain, resulting from prolonged static sitting are ubiquitous, but regularly changing sitting position throughout the day is thought to reduce back problems. Nearly all currently available office chairs offer the possibility to alter the backrest reclination angles, but the influence of changing seating positions on the spinal column remains unknown. In an attempt to better understand the potential to adjust or correct spine posture using adjustable seating, five healthy subjects were analysed in an upright and reclined sitting position conducted in an open, upright MRI scanner. The shape of the spine, as described using the vertebral bodies' coordinates, wedge angles, and curvature angles, showed high inter-subject variability between the two seating positions. The mean lumbar, thoracic, and cervical curvature angles were 29 ± 15°, -29 ± 4°, and 13 ± 8° for the upright and 33 ± 12°, -31 ± 7°, and 7 ± 7° for the reclined sitting positions. Thus, a wide range of seating adaptation is possible through modification of chair posture, and dynamic seating options may therefore provide a key feature in reducing or even preventing back pain caused by prolonged static sitting.

  7. A Scott bench with ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad improves body posture during preacher arm curl exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Andrea; Benvenuti, Paolo; Busti, Daniele; Zanuso, Silvano

    2016-05-01

    We assessed whether the use of an ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad, during the preacher arm curl exercise, could significantly reduce the excessive shoulder protraction and thoracic kyphosis induced by the standard flat pad built into the existing preacher arm curl equipment. A 3D motion capture system and inclinometers were used to measure shoulder protraction and thoracic kyphosis in 15 subjects performing preacher arm curl with a plate-loaded machine provided with the standard flat pad. The same measures were repeated after replacing the flat pad with a new ergonomic pad, specifically designed to accommodate the thorax profile and improve body posture. Pad replacement significantly (p ergonomic pad may potentially allow a more effective training, prevent musculoskeletal discomfort and reduce the risk of injury. Practitioner summary: We have designed an ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad for the preacher arm curl exercise. The new ergonomic pad improves the poor posture conditions induced by the standard flat pad and may potentially allow a more effective training, prevent musculoskeletal discomfort, improve the breathing function and reduce the risk of injury.

  8. Insulin resistance, exercise capacity and body composition in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Dige-Petersen, H; Ibsen, H

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study insulin resistance in subjects with strong genetic predisposition to essential hypertension, compared with non-disposed subjects. SUBJECTS: Thirty normotensive subjects aged 18-35 years whose parents both had essential hypertension, and 30 age- and sex matched subjects whose...... parents were both normotensive, were studied. Subjects or parents with diabetes and morbid obesity were excluded. METHODS: The study comprised (1) a frequent sampling oral glucose tolerance test; (2) an isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study; (3) an analysis of body composition by dual-energy X......-ray absorptiometry; (4) an exercise test with gas exchange analysis; and (5) investigation of composition of usual diet by diet registration for 5 days. RESULTS: The 24-h diastolic blood pressure was higher in subjects predisposed to hypertension compared with the controls: 78.1 versus 74.0 mmHg (confidence interval...

  9. Effect of whole-body vibration exercise in preventing falls and fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Ditte Beck; Thomsen, Katja; Hansen, Stinus

    2017-01-01

    of retrieved publications. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Randomised controlled trials examining the effect of WBV on fracture risk in adults ≥50 years of age. The primary outcomes were fractures, fall rates and the proportion of participants who fell. Secondary outcomes were bone mineral density......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of whole-body vibration exercise (WBV) on fracture risk in adults ≥50 years of age. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis calculating relative risk ratios, fall rate ratio and absolute weighted mean difference using random effects models. Heterogeneity...... (BMD), bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers and calcaneal broadband attenuation (BUA). RESULTS: 15 papers (14 trials) met the inclusion criteria. Only one study had fracture data reporting a non-significant fracture reduction (risk ratio (RR)=0.47, 95% CI 0.14 to 1.57, P=0.22) (moderate...

  10. Effect of whole-body vibration exercise in preventing falls and fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Ditte Beck; Thomsen, Katja; Hansen, Stinus

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of whole-body vibration exercise (WBV) on fracture risk in adults ≥50 years of age. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis calculating relative risk ratios, fall rate ratio and absolute weighted mean difference using random effects models. Heterogeneity...... of retrieved publications. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Randomised controlled trials examining the effect of WBV on fracture risk in adults ≥50 years of age. The primary outcomes were fractures, fall rates and the proportion of participants who fell. Secondary outcomes were bone mineral density...... was estimated using I2statistics, and the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool and the GRADE approach were used to evaluate quality of evidence and summarise conclusions. DATA SOURCES: The databases PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register from inception to April 2016 and reference lists...

  11. Neuroenhancement of memory for children with autism by a mind-body exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S eChan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The memory deficits found in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD may be caused by the lack of an effective strategy to aid memory. The executive control of memory processing is mediated largely by the timely coupling between frontal and posterior brain regions. The present study aimed to explore the potential effect of a Chinese mind-body exercise, namely Nei Gong, for enhancing learning and memory in children with ASD, and the possible neural basis of the improvement. Sixty-six children with ASD were randomly assigned to groups receiving Nei Gong training (NGT, progressive muscle relaxation (PMR training, or no training for one month. Before and after training, the participants were tested individually on a computerized visual memory task while EEG signals were acquired during the memory encoding phase. Children in the NGT group demonstrated significantly enhanced memory performance and more effective use of a memory strategy, which was not observed in the other two groups. Furthermore, the improved memory after NGT was consistent with findings of elevated EEG theta coherence between frontal and posterior brain regions, a measure of functional coupling. The scalp EEG signals were localized by the sLORETA method and found to originate from a neural network that promotes effective memory processing, including the prefrontal cortex, the parietal cortex, and the medial and inferior temporal cortex. This alteration in neural processing was not found in children receiving PMR or in those who received no training. The present findings suggest that the mind-body exercise program may have the potential effect on modulating neural functional connectivity underlying memory processing and hence enhance memory functions in individuals with autism.

  12. Comparing a Yoga Class with a Resistance Exercise Class: Effects on Body Satisfaction and Social Physique Anxiety in University Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, Kimberley L; Drouin, Breanne; Lamarche, Larkin

    2016-11-01

    The current study compared a single yoga group exercise class and a resistance group exercise class for their effects on state body satisfaction and social physique anxiety in women. A pretest-posttest design was used. Participants (N = 46) completed both a resistance exercise class and yoga class in a counterbalanced order. Measures of body satisfaction and social physique anxiety were completed immediately before and after each class. A 2 (time) × 2 (class type) repeatedmeasures multiple analysis of variance showed a significant overall Time × Class Type interaction (F 2,44 = 5.69, P class. After both classes, there was a significant decrease in social physique anxiety, but the magnitude of the change was larger after the yoga class than after the resistance class. Both types of exercise class were associated with improvements in body image, but there were greater improvements after the yoga class. This study provided evidence of the positive effects of yoga for reducing state social physique anxiety and increasing state body satisfaction, adding to correlational evidence suggesting that yoga is particularly beneficial for improving body image-related outcomes in women.

  13. Whole-Body Vibration Mimics the Metabolic Effects of Exercise in Male Leptin Receptor-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wenger, Karl H; Misra, Sudipta; Davis, Catherine L; Pollock, Norman K; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Ding, Kehong; Isales, Carlos M; Hamrick, Mark W; Wosiski-Kuhn, Marlena; Arounleut, Phonepasong; Mattson, Mark P; Cutler, Roy G; Yu, Jack C; Stranahan, Alexis M

    2017-05-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has gained attention as a potential exercise mimetic, but direct comparisons with the metabolic effects of exercise are scarce. To determine whether WBV recapitulates the metabolic and osteogenic effects of physical activity, we exposed male wild-type (WT) and leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice to daily treadmill exercise (TE) or WBV for 3 months. Body weights were analyzed and compared with WT and db/db mice that remained sedentary. Glucose and insulin tolerance testing revealed comparable attenuation of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in db/db mice following TE or WBV. Both interventions reduced body weight in db/db mice and normalized muscle fiber diameter. TE or WBV also attenuated adipocyte hypertrophy in visceral adipose tissue and reduced hepatic lipid content in db/db mice. Although the effects of leptin receptor deficiency on cortical bone structure were not eliminated by either intervention, exercise and WBV increased circulating levels of osteocalcin in db/db mice. In the context of increased serum osteocalcin, the modest effects of TE and WBV on bone geometry, mineralization, and biomechanics may reflect subtle increases in osteoblast activity in multiple areas of the skeleton. Taken together, these observations indicate that WBV recapitulates the effects of exercise on metabolism in type 2 diabetes.

  14. Whole body hyperthermia, but not skin hyperthermia, accelerates brain and locomotor limb circulatory strain and impairs exercise capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Kalsi, Kameljit K

    2017-01-01

    with exercise capacity, blood temperature (TB), oxygen uptake (V̇O2), brain perfusion (MCA Vmean), locomotor limb hemodynamics, and hematological parameters were assessed during incremental cycling exercise with elevated skin (mild hyperthermia; HYPmild), combined core and skin temperatures (moderate...... conditions, whereas only TB was greater in HYPmod At exhaustion, oxygen uptake and exercise capacity were reduced in HYPmod in association with lower leg blood flow, MCA Vmean and mean arterial pressure (MAP), but similar maximal heart rate and TB The attenuated brain and leg perfusion with hyperthermia......-body hyperthermia, but not skin hyperthermia, compromises exercise capacity in heat-stressed humans through the early attenuation of brain and active muscle blood flow....

  15. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P Swimming exercise decreases body fat mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  16. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  17. Partner Influence in Diet and Exercise Behaviors: Testing Behavior Modeling, Social Control, and Normative Body Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Brady, Christy Freadreacea; Garcia, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented social contagion in obesity and related health behaviors, but less is known about the social processes underlying these patterns. Focusing on married or cohabitating couples, we simultaneously explore three potential social mechanisms influencing obesity: normative body size, social control, and behavior modeling. We analyze the association between partner characteristics and the obesity-related health behaviors of focal respondents, comparing the effects of partners’ body type, partners’ attempts to manage respondents’ eating behaviors, and partners’ own health behaviors on respondents’ health behaviors (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and fast food consumption). Data on 215 partners are extracted from a larger study of social mechanisms of obesity in family and community contexts conducted in 2011 in the United States. Negative binomial regression models indicate that partner behavior is significantly related to respondent behavior (p social control in this sample, though generalizations about the relevance of these processes may be inappropriate. These results underscore the importance of policies and interventions that target dyads and social groups, suggesting that adoption of exercise or diet modifications in one individual is likely to spread to others, creating a social environment characterized by mutual reinforcement of healthy behavior. PMID:28033428

  18. Acute Effect of Lower-Body Vibration as a Recovery Method After Fatiguing Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Nepocatych

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare three recovery methods: control (CON, lower-body vibration (LBV and LBV+ local muscle cooling (LBVC on lower-body performance, perceived recovery, and muscle soreness. Physically active male volunteers (n=8 in a repeated-measures, counterbalanced design, completed three sets of squats to fatigue, each recovery treatment, and two Wingate Anaerobic Tests. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE, and heart rate (HR were measured after fatiguing exercise, recovery treatment and Wingate Anaerobic tests. Peak and mean power, fatigue index, Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS, and comfort levels were compared between each treatment. In Wingate 1, no significant differences (p=0.42 were found among CON, LBV, or LBVC regarding peak power (1119±239, 1097±225, and 1146±260 W, respectively, mean power (p=0.32, or fatigue index (p=0.47. In Wingate 2, no significant (p=0.17 differences were found among CON, LBV, or LBVC regarding peak power (1042±228, 1078±233, and 1110±268 W, respectively, mean power (p=0.38, or fatigue index (p=0.15. A significantly better (p=0.01 perceived recovery was observed after LBV (6±1 and LBVC (6±1 compared to CON (4±1. The study findings support psychological but not performance enhancing benefits after the use of LBV and LBVC as recovery methods.

  19. Exercise Training in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Comparison of Recumbent Stepping and Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilutti, Lara A; Paulseth, John E; Dove, Carin; Jiang, Shucui; Rathbone, Michel P; Hicks, Audrey L

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence of the benefits of exercise training in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, few studies have been conducted in individuals with progressive MS and severe mobility impairment. A potential exercise rehabilitation approach is total-body recumbent stepper training (TBRST). We evaluated the safety and participant-reported experience of TBRST in people with progressive MS and compared the efficacy of TBRST with that of body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) on outcomes of function, fatigue, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods: Twelve participants with progressive MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale scores, 6.0-8.0) were randomized to receive TBRST or BWSTT. Participants completed three weekly sessions (30 minutes) of exercise training for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes included safety assessed as adverse events and patient-reported exercise experience assessed as postexercise response and evaluation of exercise equipment. Secondary outcomes included the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite, the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, and the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire scores. Assessments were conducted at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results: Safety was confirmed in both exercise groups. Participants reported enjoying both exercise modalities; however, TBRST was reviewed more favorably. Both interventions reduced fatigue and improved HRQOL (P ≤ .05); there were no changes in function. Conclusions: Both TBRST and BWSTT seem to be safe, well tolerated, and enjoyable for participants with progressive MS with severe disability. Both interventions may also be efficacious for reducing fatigue and improving HRQOL. TBRST should be further explored as an exercise rehabilitation tool for patients with progressive MS.

  20. Effects of Indoor Rowing Exercise on the Body Composition and the Scoliosis of Visually Impaired People: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ka-Young; Choi, Eun-Hi; Lim, Jong-Youb; Cho, Ah-Ra; Lim, Young-Ho

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of rowing exercise on body composition, laboratory data, fitness and scoliosis in visually impaired people. The majority of visually impaired people do not participate in active sports due to efficiency and safety issues. Rowing is a safe whole-body exercise with aerobic and anaerobic components. Twenty subjects were recruited from among those admitted to a facility for visually impaired people (16 men and 4 women). Laboratory data, body composition, physical fitness, Cobb's angle, and fall index were checked before and after 6 weeks (5 days a week) of indoor rowing using Concept2 Model E. After the training, fat mass and total body fat percent decreased significantly. In the fitness test, back strength and trunk flexion score increased significantly. Laboratory data showed significant increases in serum protein and albumin and decreases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. There were 9 subjects with scoliosis and after the training Cobb's angle decreased by 1.11°±1.55°, though this was not statistically significant. Visually impaired people frequently have abnormal body composition, low physical fitness, and scoliosis. A rowing exercise program can be helpful, with a positive effect on body composition and physical fitness; however, with respect to scoliosis, we need an earlier intervention program in visually impaired people.

  1. Effectiveness of exercise and protein supplementation intervention on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Suzana Shahar,1 Norshafarina Shari Kamaruddin,2 Manal Badrasawi,1 Noor Ibrahim Mohamed Sakian,3 Zahara Abd Manaf,1 Zaitun Yassin,4 Leonard Joseph51Dietetic Programme, 2Biomedical Programme, 3Occupational Therapy Programme, School of Healthcare Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, 4Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, 5Department of Physiotherapy, School of Healthcare Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: Sarcopenia, characterized as muscle loss that occurs with aging, is a major health problem in an aging population, due to its implications on mobility, quality of life, and fall risk. Protein supplementation could improve the physical fitness by increasing protein anabolism, and exercise has a documented evidence of positive effect on functional status among the elderly. However, the combined effect of both protein supplementation and exercise has not been investigated among sarcopenic elderly in the Asian population. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercise intervention and protein supplementation either alone or in combination for 12 weeks, on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia. Sixty five sarcopenic elderly Malays aged 60-74 years were assigned to the control group, exercise group (ExG, protein supplementation group (PrG, or the combination of exercise and protein supplementation group. A significant interaction effect between body weight and body mass index (BMI was observed, with the PrG (-2.1% body weight, -1.8% BMI showing the highest reductions. Further, there was a decrease in % body fat (-4.5% and an increase in fat-free mass (kg (+5.7% in the ExG after 12 weeks (P < 0.05. The highest increments in lower and upper body strength were observed in the Pr

  2. The effects of breathing exercise types on respiratory muscle activity and body function in patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jeong-il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Fragmentary studies on characteristics of respiratory muscles are being done to increase respiratory capacity by classifying exercises into voluntary respiratory exercise which relieves symptoms and prevents COPD and exercise using breathing exercise equipment. But this study found changes on respiratory pattern through changes on the activity pattern of agonist and synergist respiratory muscles and studied what effect they can have on body function improvement. [Subjects and Method...

  3. Acute citrulline malate supplementation improves upper- and lower-body submaximal weightlifting exercise performance in resistance-trained females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jordan M; Gray, Michelle; Wethington, Lauren N; Stone, Matthew S; Stewart, Rodger W; Moyen, Nicole E

    2017-03-01

    Citrulline malate (CM) is a nonessential amino acid that increases exercise performance in males. However, based on physiological differences between genders, these results cannot be extrapolated to females. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate effects of acute CM supplementation on upper- and lower-body weightlifting performance in resistance-trained females. Fifteen females (23 ± 3 years) completed two randomized, double-blind trials consuming either CM (8 g dextrose + 8 g CM) or a placebo (8 g dextrose). One hour after supplement consumption, participants performed six sets each of upper- (i.e., bench press) and lower-body (i.e., leg press) exercises to failure at 80 % of previously established one-repetition maximum. Immediately after each set, repetitions completed, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that subjects completed significantly (p = .045) more repetitions throughout upper-body exercise when consuming CM versus placebo (34.1 ± 5.7 vs. 32.9 ± 6.0, respectively). When consuming CM, similar significant (p = .03) improvements in total repetitions completed were observed for lower-body exercise (66.7 ± 30.5 vs. 55.13 ± 20.64, respectively). Overall RPE score was significantly lower (p = .02) in upper-body exercise when subjects consumed CM versus placebo (7.9 ± 0.3 and 8.6 ± 0.2, respectively). The supplement consumed exhibited no significant effects on heart rate at any time point. Acute CM supplementation in females increased upper- and lower-body resistance exercise performance and decreased RPE during upper-body exercise. These data indicate that athletes competing in sports with muscular endurance-based requirements may potentially improve performance by acutely supplementing CM.

  4. Referent body weight values in over ground walking, over ground jogging, treadmill jogging, and elliptical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yonatan; Barak, Yannai; Palmonovich, Ezequiel; Nyska, Meir; Witvrouw, Erik

    2014-01-01

    I. To evaluate average percentage body weight (APBW) values and weight-bearing distribution percentages (WBDP) between four common sports activities in a referent adult population. II. To suggest clinical implications. Original research study. Lerner Sports Center, Hebrew University, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel. Seventy-five asymptomatic volunteers, mean age=33.5 (19-72) years SD=15.1, mean weight (kg)=70.7 (43-113) SD=14.1. Four tests were conducted: 1. Overground walking (OGW) over a 20 m distance, 2. Overground jogging (OGJ) over a 20 m distance, 3. Treadmill jogging (TJ) at a constant speed of 8.5 km/h for a 15-second interval and 4. Elliptical exercise (EE) for a 20 second period at a resistance and incline level of 10, and a steady pace within the range of 70-95 steps/min. The Smartstep™ weight-bearing gait analysis system. The APBW value on the entire foot in OGW was 112% (SD=15.57), in OGJ, 201% (SD=31.24, in TJ, 175% (SD=25.48) and in EE, 73% (SD=13.8). Regarding WBDP, the swing phase in OGJ and TJ was significantly longer than the stance phase (p<0.05). OGW resulted in significantly less swing phase compared to OGJ and TJ (p<0.05). EE significantly reduces weight-bearing as compared to other common functional and sporting activities. These findings may assist the rehabilitation team when considering returning individuals back to early activity following certain bony or soft tissue pathologies or lower-limb surgical procedures. This information is also useful from a repetitive loading standpoint (to prevent overuse injury) or for exercise recommendations for those at greater risk for exacerbating chronic joint pathology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic ... procedure, you will sit upright while the physician passes a device from the mouth to the stomach ...

  6. The effects of milk intake and whole-body vibration exercise on bone mineral density in elderly women in nursing homes

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, So Min; Kim, Sungchul; Lim, Chae-gil

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed to investigate the effects of lactose-free milk intake and whole-body vibration exercises on bone density in elderly female nursing home residents who had difficulty exercising outdoors and had not consumed milk. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty seven elderly women aged 70 or older from 3 nursing homes located in Incheon, Korea participated in the study. The experimental group (n=13) carried out whole-body vibration exercises and drank lactose-free milk, while t...

  7. Coronary microvascular function, insulin sensitivity and body composition in predicting exercise capacity in overweight patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürs, Anders; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Snoer, Martin; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Haugaard, Steen Bendix; Prescott, Eva

    2015-11-27

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) has a negative impact on exercise capacity. The aim of this study was to determine how coronary microvascular function, glucose metabolism and body composition contribute to exercise capacity in overweight patients with CAD and without diabetes. Sixty-five non-diabetic, overweight patients with stable CAD, BMI 28-40 kg/m(2) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) above 35 % were recruited. A 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test was used to evaluate glucose metabolism. Peak aerobic exercise capacity (VO2peak) was assessed by a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Body composition was determined by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and magnetic resonance imaging. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessed by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was used as a measure of microvascular function. Median BMI was 31.3 and 72 % had impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose. VO2peak adjusted for fat free mass was correlated with CFR (r = 0.41, p = 0.0007), LVEF (r = 0.33, p = 0.008) and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) (r = 0.32, p = 0.01) while it was only weakly linked to measures of glucose metabolism and body composition. CFR, EDV and LVEF remained independent predictors of VO2peak in multivariable regression analysis. The study established CFR, EDV and LVEF as independent predictors of VO2peak in overweight CAD patients with no or only mild functional symptoms and a LVEF > 35 %. Glucose metabolism and body composition had minor impact on VO2peak. The findings suggest that central hemodynamic factors are important in limiting exercise capacity in overweight non-diabetic CAD patients.

  8. Recent Research on Eating Disorders and Body Image Distortion among Aerobic Instructors and Exercise Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; And Others

    This document reviews the research linking excessive exercise with eating disorders. Seven steps are listed that an individual follows in going from someone who starts out using exercise and aerobic dance as a stress management technique or a hobby to becoming an exercise dependent individual with addictive behavior. Studies are reviewed, the…

  9. Whole body hyperthermia, but not skin hyperthermia, accelerates brain and locomotor limb circulatory strain and impairs exercise capacity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular strain and hyperthermia are thought to be important factors limiting exercise capacity in heat-stressed humans, however, the contribution of elevations in skin (T sk ) versus whole body temperatures on exercise capacity has not been characterized. To ascertain their relationships with exercise capacity, blood temperature (T B ), oxygen uptake (V̇O 2 ), brain perfusion (MCA V mean ), locomotor limb hemodynamics, and hematological parameters were assessed during incremental cycling exercise with elevated skin (mild hyperthermia; HYP mild ), combined core and skin temperatures (moderate hyperthermia; HYP mod ), and under control conditions. Both hyperthermic conditions increased T sk versus control (6.2 ± 0.2°C; P conductance (VC). Mechanistically, the falling MCA VC was coupled to reductions in PaCO 2 , whereas the plateau in leg vascular conductance was related to markedly elevated plasma [NA] and a plateau in plasma ATP These findings reveal that whole-body hyperthermia, but not skin hyperthermia, compromises exercise capacity in heat-stressed humans through the early attenuation of brain and active muscle blood flow. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  10. Acute effects of whole-body vibration with resistance exercise on postexercise blood pressure and oxygen consumption in prehypertensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Zachary S; Swan, Pamela Diane

    2016-06-01

    Research on the acute health effects of whole-body vibration with resistance exercise (WBV + RE) for clinical populations is limited. This randomized crossover trial evaluated postexercise hypotension and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in response to three conditions: WBV + RE, RE alone, and control (CON) in 11 prehypertensive (systolic/diastolic blood pressure: 120-139/80-89 mmHg) adults. Following a 12-hour fast with no exercise for the previous 24 hours, resting VO 2 and blood pressure (BP) were measured. WBV + RE was performed while standing barefoot on a vibration platform (Pneumex Pro-Vibe) and lifting a bar of 10% body weight. Fifteen repetitions of nine exercises were performed using a 1-minute-to-30-second exercise:rest ratio. RE was identical to WBV + RE but without vibration. During CON, participants remained seated for 15 minutes. Following exercise, VO 2 was measured continuously and BP every 15 minutes for 3 hours. Postexercise hypotension and EPOC were significantly different for WBV + RE compared with RE and CON ( p EPOC was significantly ( p  EPOC.

  11. Whey protein precludes lipid and protein oxidation and improves body weight gain in resistance-exercised rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Fabiano Kenji; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Neves, Leandro Xavier; dos Santos, Rinaldo Cardoso; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2011-08-01

    Resistance exercise such as weight-lifting (WL) increases oxidation products in plasma, but less is known regarding the effect of WL on oxidative damage to tissues. Dietary compounds are known to improve antioxidant defences. Whey protein (WP) is a source of protein in a variety of sport supplements and can enhance physical performance. To evaluate the effect of WL on biomarkers of lipid and protein oxidation, on liver antioxidants and on muscle growth in the absence or presence of WP in rats. Thirty-two male Fisher rats were randomly assigned to sedentary or exercise-trained groups and were fed with control or WP diets. The WL programme consisted of inducing the animals to perform sets of jumps with weights attached to the chest. After 8 weeks, arteriovenous blood samples, abdominal fat, liver and gastrocnemius muscle were collected for analysis. WP precludes WL-mediated increases in muscle protein carbonyl content and maintains low levels of TBARS in exercised and sedentary animals. WL reduced liver CAT activity, whereas WP increased hepatic glutathione content. In addition, WL plus WP generated higher body and muscle weight than exercise without WP. These data suggest that WP improves antioxidant defences, which contribute to the reduction of lipid and protein oxidation as well as body and muscle weight gain in resistance-exercised rats.

  12. Body weight and perceived social pressure to exercise at a health club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne C; Miller, Todd A

    2009-01-01

    To determine the social pressure overweight (OW, n=1183) and normal-weight (NW, n=550) adults perceive regarding health club exercise. A 12-item survey, based on the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior, measured subjective norm toward exercising at a health club 30 min, twice a week, for the next month. OW feel more social pressure to exercise at a club than do NW, but motivation to comply is the same between groups. Exercise interventions for OW should capitalize on individual perceived social pressures to exercise by designing strategies to increase motivation to comply with these pressures.

  13. Fatigue is a brain-derived emotion that regulates the exercise behavior to ensure the protection of whole body homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy David Noakes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An influential book written by A. Mosso in the late 19th century proposed that fatigue that at first sight might appear an imperfection of our body, is on the contrary one of its most marvellous perfections. The fatigue increasing more rapidly than the amount of work done saves us from the injury which lesser sensibility would involve for the organism so that muscular fatigue also is at bottom an exhaustion of the nervous system.It has taken more than a century to confirm Mosso’s idea that both the brain and the muscles alter their function during exercise and that fatigue is predominantly an emotion, part of a complex regulation, the goal of which is to protect the body from harm. Mosso’s ideas were supplanted in the English literature by those of A.V. Hill who believed that fatigue was the result of biochemical changes in the exercising limb muscles - peripheral fatigue - to which the central nervous system makes no contribution. The past decade has witnessed the growing realization that this brainless model cannot explain exercise performance. This article traces the evolution of our modern understanding of how the CNS regulates exercise specifically to insure that each exercise bout terminates whilst homeostasis is retained in all bodily systems. The brain uses the symptoms of fatigue as key regulators to insure that the exercise is completed before harm develops. These sensations of fatigue are unique to each individual and are illusionary since their generation is largely independent of the real biological state of the athlete at the time they develop. The model predicts that attempts to understand fatigue and to explain superior human athletic performance purely on the basis of the body’s known physiological and metabolic responses to exercise must fail since subconscious and conscious mental decisions made by winners and losers, in both training and competition, are the ultimate determinants of both fatigue and athletic performance.

  14. The energy cost for balance control during upright standing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdijk, J.H.P.; Fickert, R.; van Velzen, J.; van Bennekom, C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether balance control during a static upright standing task with and without balance perturbations elicits a significant and meaningful metabolic energy demand and to test whether this energy demand correlates with conventional posturography measures for

  15. CALCULATION ON THE UPRIGHTING PROCESS OF A CAPSIZED SHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-wei Pan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The processes of marine salvage require firstly the uprighting of the capsized ship, essentially bringing the deck to point up. Analysis and computation are the keys for the success in the application of the design schemes. Up to date, there are few researches on calculation methods for uprighting process of capsized ships at China and abroad. Researches about the effect of flooding quantity and the variation of the longitudinal strength during the uprighting process of capsized and damaged ships are even rarer. In this paper, hydromechanical equations to describe the effect of flooding are established and a calculation method for the longitudinal strength is introduced with reference to the hydrostatic theory for ships. Three typical uprighting processes are summarized according to the methods of treatment of damaged compartment. The stability of the inverted ship is calculated and analyzed using the General Hydrostatics software(GHS. Reserve buoyancy, shear forces, bending moments and torques are calculated in nine positions along the ship.

  16. The evaluation of upright posture caused by simple movement test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínková, Ivana; Řorfová, Monika; Wagner, Heiko; Puta, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Actual studies show increasing poor posture especially in the cervical-thoracic spine. The aim of this study was to develop a model-based evaluation of posture and the amount of segmental spinal movement using a simple movement test. Twenty-five subjects with forward head posture were recruited. We were interested in the external humeral rotation with the adduction of the shoulder, its influence on posture of the cervical thoracic spine and the evaluation of upright posture. Upright posture was determined as the change in the gradient of the trunk from forward posture to erect posture. The kinematics of the cervical-thoracic spine and the inclination of the pelvis and thorax were measured in the sagittal plane with a motion analysis system. The kinematic model for the evaluation of upright posture and as a control the electromyography was presented. Correlation (Pearson r = 0.89; p postural quality was more important than the quantity of spinal movement. Upright posture of the cervical-thoracic spine was provoked only if there was horizontal position of the pelvis and thorax. This should be considered in clinical practice.

  17. Effects of Whole-Body Electromyostimulation versus High-Intensity Resistance Exercise on Body Composition and Strength: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Kemmler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity (resistance exercise (HIT and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS are both approaches to realize time-efficient favorable changes of body composition and strength. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of WB-EMS compared with the gold standard reference HIT, for improving body composition and muscle strength in middle-aged men. Forty-eight healthy untrained men, 30–50 years old, were randomly allocated to either HIT (2 sessions/week or a WB-EMS group (3 sessions/2 weeks that exercised for 16 weeks. HIT was applied as “single-set-to-failure protocol,” while WB-EMS was conducted with intermittent stimulation (6 s WB-EMS, 4 s rest; 85 Hz, 350 ms over 20 minutes. The main outcome parameters were lean body mass (LBM as determined via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and maximum dynamic leg-extensor strength (isokinetic leg-press. LBM changes of both groups (HIT 1.25 ± 1.44% versus WB-EMS 0.93±1.15% were significant (p=.001; however, no significant group differences were detected (p=.395. Leg-extensor strength also increased in both groups (HIT 12.7±14.7%, p=.002, versus WB-EMS 7.3±10.3%, p=.012 with no significant (p=.215 between-group difference. Corresponding changes were also determined for body fat and back-extensor strength. Conclusion. In summary, WB-EMS can be considered as a time-efficient but pricy option to HIT-resistance exercise for people aiming at the improvement of general strength and body composition.

  18. Effect of physical exercise training on muscle strength and body composition, and their association with functional capacity and quality of life in patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip Samuel; Mourier, Malene; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2012-01-01

    at 70% of maximal exercise capacity vs control. Muscle strength, exercise capacity, 6-minute walk test, lean body mass, fat percentage, and quality of life were assessed. Results: Muscle strength increased in the training group (p = 0.01), but no change was observed in controls. Lean body mass......Objective: Atrial fibrillation diminishes cardiac function, exercise tolerance and quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine whether exercise training in atrial fibrillation affects muscle strength, body composition, maximal exercise capacity and walking capacity positively......, thus improving quality of life. Design: Randomized clinical trial. Twelve weeks of physical exercise training or control. Patients: Forty-nine patients in permanent atrial fibrillation were randomized to training or control. Methods: Intervention consisted of aerobic training for 1 h 3 times per week...

  19. Effects Of Whole Body Vibration On Vertical Jump Performance Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole C. Dabbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing vertical jump performance is critical for many sports. Following high intensity training, individuals often experience exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD. Many recovery modalities have been tested with conflicting results. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV on vertical jump performance following EIMD. 27 females volunteered for 7 sessions and were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group and administered each testing day. Vertical jump performance was assessed via vertical jump height (VJH, peak power output (PPO, rate of force development (RFD, relative ground reaction force (GRFz, and peak activation ratio of the vastus medialis (VM via electromyography (EMG before and after 3 days of EIMD via split squats. Two testing sets were collected each day, consisting of pre measures followed by WBV or control, and then post second measures. A 2x8 (group x time mixed factor analysis of variance (ANOVA was conducted for each variable. No significant interactions or group differences were found in any variable. Significant main effects for time were found in any variable, indicating performance declined following muscle damage. These results indicate that WBV does not aid in muscle recovery or vertical jump performance following EIMD.

  20. Influence of resistance exercise on lean body mass in aging adults: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark D; Sen, Ananda; Gordon, Paul M

    2011-02-01

    sarcopenia plays a principal role in the pathogenesis of frailty and functional impairment that occur with aging. There are few published accounts that examine the overall benefit of resistance exercise (RE) for lean body mass (LBM) while considering a continuum of dosage schemes and/or age ranges. Therefore, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the effects of RE on LBM in older men and women while taking these factors into consideration. this study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Randomized controlled trials and randomized or nonrandomized studies among adults ≥ 50 yr were included. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed using the Cochran Q and the I statistics, and publication bias was evaluated through physical inspection of funnel plots as well as formal rank-correlation statistics. Mixed-effects meta-regression was incorporated to assess the relationship between RE dosage and changes in LBM. data from 49 studies, representing a total of 1328 participants, were pooled using random-effect models. Results demonstrated a positive effect for LBM, and there was no evidence of publication bias. The Cochran Q statistic for heterogeneity was 497.8, which was significant (P change was 1.1 kg (95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.2 kg). Meta-regression revealed that higher-volume interventions were associated (β = 0.05, P participation earlier in life may provide superior effectiveness.

  1. Predictors of students' self-esteem: The importance of body self-perception and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Ljiljana B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to explore the predictive validity of physical self-efficacy, social physique anxiety, and physical activity in the self-esteem of students, as well as to investigate potential gender differences. The Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Physical Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES, Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS, and a short questionnaire about physical activity were administered to a sample of 232 university students. The overall results show that students are moderately physically active (on the average, 2.75 times per week, have moderately high selfesteem and physical self-efficacy and lower social physique anxiety. No gender differences were detected in self-esteem. In other variables, gender differences are significant and mostly in favour of males. The analyses showed that self-esteem correlated positively with physical self-efficacy and physical activity, and negatively with social physique anxiety. The regression analyses indicated that physical selfefficacy, social physique anxiety and female gender were significant predictors of self-esteem. Physical activity was not a significant predictor of self-esteem. Future studies should investigate the relations of body self-perceptions, physical exercise, and domain-specific self-esteem.

  2. Effects of light resistance exercise using dumbbells and rubber band with mild energy restriction on body composition and physical fitness in obese Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyung-Sook; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Suzuki, Masashige

    2004-01-01

    The effects of light resistance exercise using dumbbells and rubber band with mild energy restriction on body composition and physical fitness were studied in 11 mildly obese Korean women aged 38-59 years. The subjects performed dumbbell exercises with pairs of 0.5-1 kg dumbbells and rubber band exercise 3 days per week for approximately 40 min. Subjects were restricted to approximately 80% of energy intake RDA for Korean women for 12 weeks. Subjects were measured for body composition, physical fitness, and blood and serum biochemical data before commencing the experiment and again at 12 weeks while still dieting. During the 12-week experimental period, body weight and body fat decreased significantly without reducing fat free mass. Grip and back strength increased significantly during the experimental period. These results suggest that combination of dumbbell and rubber band exercises decreases body weight and body fat without reducing FFM while increasing physical fitness.

  3. The association between physical function and lifestyle activity and exercise in the health, aging and body composition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brach, Jennifer S; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Yaffe, Kristine; Newman, Anne B

    2004-04-01

    To determine whether older adults who exercise demonstrate higher levels of physical function than those who do not exercise but are physically active throughout the day. Cross-sectional examination of baseline data from the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study. Health ABC field centers in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Memphis, Tennessee. Three thousand seventy-five well-functioning black and white men and women aged 70 to 79. Physical activity and exercise were assessed using a modified leisure-time physical activity questionnaire. Participants were classified as inactive (reporting exercise activity and physical activity), lifestyle active (reporting exercise activity and >2,719 kcal/wk of total physical activity), or exerciser (reporting> or =1,000 kcal/wk of exercise activity). Physical function measures included the Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) battery, the Health ABC battery, a 400-m walk test, and isokinetic strength testing of the knee extensors. The lifestyle active and exerciser groups had similar total activity levels (men: 6,135 kcal/wk and 6,734 kcal/wk, respectively; P=.108; women: 5,695 kcal/wk and 5,854 kcal/wk, respectively; P=.335). When examining lower extremity performance in relation to physical activity, a progressive trend was evident, with the inactive individuals most likely to have impaired performance on the EPESE battery (men: 33.7%, 24.3%, and 19.1%, Pexerciser, respectively). Progressive trends of similar magnitude were present for the Health ABC battery, time to walk 400 m, and knee extensor strength. In multivariate linear regression, those in the inactive and lifestyle active groups had poorer scores on the Health ABC performance battery than individuals in the exercise group after controlling for demographic factors and prevalent disease (men: inactive beta=-0.27, Pexercisers had similar proportions of functionally limited older persons (scoring exercise on most days

  4. Effect of body composition, aerobic performance and physical activity on exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Więcek, Magdalena; Maciejczyk, Marcin; Szymura, Jadwiga; Wiecha, Szczepan; Kantorowicz, Malgorzata; Szygula, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress could be the result of an increase in ATP resynthesis during exercise. The aim of the study was to compare prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) disturbances induced by exercise at maximal intensity in young men with differing body compositions. Thirty-nine subjects were selected from 1549 volunteers aged 18-30, based on lean body mass (LBM) and body fat percentage (%BF), and then assigned into one of the following groups: control group (CON), including subjects with average LBM (59.0-64.3 kg) and average %BF (14.0-18.5%); high body fat (HBF) group, including subjects with high %BF (>21.5%) and average LBM; and high lean body mass (HLBM) group, including subjects with high LBM (>66.3 kg) and average %BF. Participants' physical activity was determined. A running test with a gradually increased load was used. Before and 3 minutes after exercise, total oxidative status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined in the plasma, and the Oxidative Stress Index (OSI = TOS/TAC) was calculated. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was comparable in the HBF and HLBM groups (53.12±1.51 mL/kg and 50.25±1.27 mL/kg, respectively) and significantly lower compared to the CON group (58.23±1.62 mL/kg). The CON, HBF and HLBM groups showed similar significant (P0.05). There was significant negative correlation between OSI, measured before and after exercise, and participants' physical activity. There was no correlation between OSI and VO2max, BM, LBM, %BF and BMI. Exercise at maximal intensity causes a similar increase in TOS and in TAC in subjects with increased %BF and elevated content of LBM and regardless of body composition, the ratios of TOS/TAC concentrations before and after maximal-intensity exercise, have lower values in people with higher physical activity levels and are not dependent on aerobic performance (VO2max).

  5. A study of passive weight-bearing lower limb exercise effects on local muscles and whole body oxidative metabolism: a comparison with simulated horse riding, bicycle, and walking exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Kohsuke; Murase, Norio; Osada, Takuya; Kime, Ryotaro; Anjo, Mikiko; Esaki, Kazuki; Shiroishi, Kiyoshi; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2009-11-10

    We have developed an exercise machine prototype for increasing exercise intensity by means of passively exercising lower limb muscles. The purpose of the present study was to compare the passive exercise intensity of our newly-developed machine with the intensities of different types of exercises. We also attempted to measure muscle activity to study how these forms of exercise affected individual parts of the body. Subjects were 14 healthy men with the following demographics: age 30 years, height 171.5 cm, weight 68.3 kg. They performed 4 types of exercise: Passive weight-bearing lower limb exercise (PWLLE), Simulated horse riding exercise (SHRE), Bicycle exercise, and Walking exercise, as described below at an interval of one week or longer. Oxygen uptake, blood pressure, heart rate, and electromyogram (EMG) were measured or recorded during exercise. At rest prior to exercise and immediately after the end of each exercise intensity, the oxygenated hemoglobin levels of the lower limb muscles were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy to calculate the rate of decline. This rate of decline was obtained immediately after exercise as well as at rest to calculate oxygen consumption of the lower limb muscles as expressed as a ratio of a post-exercise rate of decline to a resting one. The heart rate and oxygen uptake observed in PWLLE during maximal intensity were comparable to that of a 20-watt bicycle exercise or 2 km/hr walking exercise. Maximal intensity PWLLE was found to provoke muscle activity comparable to an 80-watt bicycle or 6 km/hr walking exercise. As was the case with the EMG results, during maximal intensity PWLLE, the rectus femoris muscle consumed oxygen in amounts identical to that of an 80-watt bicycle or a 6 km/hr walking exercise. Passive weight-bearing lower limb exercise using our trial machine could provide approximately 3 MET of exercise and the thigh exhibited muscle activity equivalent to that of 80-watt bicycle or 6 km/hr walking exercise

  6. EFFECT OF SWISS BALL EXERCISE TOWARD THE BODY BALANCE TO LESS THE RISK FALL OF OLDER AT UPT SOCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Syapitri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The balance of body is one of the main factor in doing fungsional activity. In every activity, the body always need control of the body balance, because basically every phisic activity right static or dinamic will take someone on unstable position with big risk to having fell. Swiss Ball exercise as support is believed on labile surface will make spine have big chance to stabling the muscle between vebra and increase the dinamic balance to restrain the repeats stability. The research object to know The Effect of Swiss Ball Exercise toward The Body Balance to Less The Risk Fall of Older at UPT Social Service of Older and Children Under Five district Binjai and Medan in Year 2016. The research type is Quasi Experiment with pre test-post test one group only design method. Population in this research all of older at UPT Social Service district Binjai as much as 172 older with number of man is 81 and woman is 91, with Purposive sampling Technique that is 15 respondences. Data collecting using observation sheet with analysis that used is univariat: respondence characteristics, the body balance of older before and after doing Swiss Ball practice, and bivariat with Paired t-Test. The research result showing the average of body balance before doing Swiss Ball as much (Mean 38,07 and after (Mean 46,33. Conclusion: there is the effect of Swiss Ball toward body balance to less the risk fall of older (p=0,000 ; p=< 0,05. Sugessted for older to practice the balance himself more steady so that not easy to have risk fall further. Influenced, and for the next researcher can research about another factor that foregrounded the risk fall of older. Keywords    : Swiss Ball, Balance Exercise, Risk Fall

  7. Thermoregulation in boys and men exercising at the same heat production per unit body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leites, Gabriela T; Cunha, Giovani S; Obeid, Joyce; Wilk, Boguslaw; Meyer, Flavia; Timmons, Brian W

    2016-07-01

    Child-adult thermoregulatory comparisons may be biased by differences in metabolic heat production ([Formula: see text]). We compared thermoregulatory responses of boys and men exercising at two intensities prescribed to elicit either a fixed [Formula: see text] per unit body mass (BM) or a fixed absolute [Formula: see text]. Ten boys (10-12 years) and 10 men (19-25 years) performed 4 × 20-min cycling at a fixed [Formula: see text] per BM (W kg(-1)) at 35 °C and 35 % relative humidity (MENREL). Men also cycled (MENABS) at the same absolute [Formula: see text] (in W) as the boys. [Formula: see text] was lower in boys compared with MENREL, but similar to MENABS (mean ± SD, 233.6 ± 38.4, 396.5 ± 72.3, 233.6 ± 34.1 W, respectively, P < 0.001). Conversely, [Formula: see text] per unit BM was similar between boys and MENREL, and lower in MENABS (5.7 ± 1.0, 5.6 ± 0.8 and 3.3 ± 0.3 W kg(-1), respectively; P < 0.001). The change in rectal temperature was similar between boys and MENREL (0.6 ± 0.2 vs. 0.7 ± 0.2 °C, P = 0.92) but was lower in MENABS (0.3 ± 0.2 °C, P = 0.004). Sweat volume was lower in boys compared to MENABS (500 ± 173 vs. 710 ± 150 mL; P = 0.041), despite the same evaporative heat balance requirement (E req) (199.1 ± 34.2 vs. 201.0 ± 32.7 W, P = 0.87). Boys and men demonstrated similar thermoregulatory responses to 80 min of exercise in the heat performed at a fixed [Formula: see text] per unit BM. Sweat volume was lower in boys compared to men, despite similarities in absolute [Formula: see text] and E req.

  8. Building a Healthy Body After Cancer: Young Adult Lymphoma Survivors' Perspectives on Exercise After Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Brittany C; Asiedu, Gladys B; Thompson, Carrie A

    2018-04-01

    Our goals were to evaluate young adult lymphoma survivors' perceptions regarding benefits of exercise after cancer treatment, to identify barriers to exercise, and to understand the types of exercise interventions that may be useful in this patient population. Young adult lymphoma survivors were invited to participate in a survey and focus group. Questions focused on elucidating barriers to exercise as well as potential opportunities for supporting patients in adequate exercise. Focus groups were audiorecorded and transcribed, and data were coded inductively for themes and applied findings. Eight survivors participated. Findings were categorized into five main themes: barriers to exercise, facilitators of exercise, personal responsibility for being active, interconnectedness of exercise with a healthy lifestyle, and recommendations. Fatigue and frustration with postcancer physical limitations are major barriers to exercise for young adult survivors, whereas support from others, data tracking, and survivor-specific resources are facilitators. Interventions that incorporate fitness tracking technology, are individually tailored, and/or create a community with other young adult survivors may be successful in this population.

  9. Effects of different types of exercise on body composition and fat distribution in HIV-infected patients: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malita, Florin M; Karelis, Antony D; Toma, Emil; Rabasa-Lhoret, Remi

    2005-04-01

    HIV infection and its treatment is associated with unfavourable metabolic and morphological abnormalities. These metabolic abnormalities, particularly alterations in body composition and fat distribution, may increase the risk for cardiovascular and metabolic complications, as well as reduce functional independence and lower self-esteem. Thus there is an urgent need to develop interventions intended to manage secondary side effects of HIV or antiretroviral therapy-related complications. In poly-treated patients, nonpharmacological interventions are a logical first step. Exercise training in particular may help alleviate some of the metabolic adverse effects associated with antiretroviral therapy by favourably altering body composition and patterns of body fat distribution. Studies have shown that exercise training, particularly aerobic training, can help reduce total body and visceral fat, as well as normalizing lipid profiles in HIV-infected patients. The results for resistance training, however, are less conclusive. Knowledge of the use of resistance and aerobic training and its attendant effects on insulin resistance and adipocytokines may represent an effective nonpharmacologic means for treating metabolic complications of HIV-infected persons who are receiving appropriate antiretroviral therapy. In this brief review we examine the effects of aerobic and resistance training on body composition, body fat distribution, and selected metabolic outcomes.

  10. Asymmetric sensory reweighting in human upright stance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Logan

    Full Text Available To investigate sensory reweighting as a fundamental property of sensor fusion during standing, we probed postural control with simultaneous rotations of the visual scene and surface of support. Nineteen subjects were presented with pseudo-random pitch rotations of visual scene and platform at the ankle to test for amplitude dependencies in the following conditions: low amplitude vision: high amplitude platform, low amplitude vision: low amplitude platform, and high amplitude vision: low amplitude platform. Gain and phase of frequency response functions (FRFs to each stimulus were computed for two body sway angles and a single weighted EMG signal recorded from seven muscles. When platform stimulus amplitude was increased while visual stimulus amplitude remained constant, gain to vision increased, providing strong evidence for inter-modal reweighting between vision and somatosensation during standing. Intra-modal reweighting of vision was also observed as gains to vision decreased as visual stimulus amplitude increased. Such intra-modal and inter-modal amplitude dependent changes in gain were also observed in muscular activity. Gains of leg segment angle and muscular activity relative to the platform, on the other hand, showed only intra-modal reweighting. That is, changing platform motion amplitude altered the responses to both visual and support surface motion whereas changing visual scene motion amplitude did not significantly affect responses to support surface motion, indicating that the sensory integration scheme between somatosensation (at the support surface and vision is asymmetric.

  11. Superficial cooling does not decrease core body temperature before, during, or after exercise in an American football uniform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Rebecca M; Eberman, Lindsey E; Cleary, Michelle A

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of superficial cooling on thermoregulatory responses while exercising in a hot humid environment while wearing an American football uniform. Nine male and female subjects wore a superficial cooling garment while in a cooling (CS) experimental condition or a no cooling (NCS) control condition during an exercise task consisting of warm-up (WU), exercise (EX), and recovery (R). The exercise task simulated an American football conditioning session with subjects wearing a full American football uniform and performing anaerobic and aerobic exercises in a hot humid environment. Subjects were allowed to drink water ad libitum during rest breaks. During the WU, EX, and R periods, core body temperature (T(c)) was measured to assess the effect of the cooling garment. Neither baseline resting before warm-up T(c) nor after warm-up T(c) was significantly different between trials. No significant differences in exercise T(c) between conditions were found. Time to return to baseline T(c) revealed no significant differences between the experimental and control conditions. The authors found that the volume of fluid consumed was 34% less in the experimental condition (711.1 ± 188.0 ml) compared with the control condition (1,077.8 ± 204.8 ml). The findings indicate that the cooling garment was not effective in blunting the rise in T(c) during warm-up, attenuating a rise in T(c) during intermittent exercise, or in increasing a return to baseline T(c) during a resting recovery period in a hot humid environment while wearing an American football uniform.

  12. The Impact of Central and Peripheral Cyclooxygenase Enzyme Inhibition on Exercise-Induced Elevations in Core Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltmeijer, Matthijs T W; Veeneman, Dineke; Bongers, Coen C C W; Netea, Mihai G; van der Meer, Jos W; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Hopman, Maria T E

    2017-05-01

    Exercise increases core body temperature (T C ) due to metabolic heat production. However, the exercise-induced release of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6) may also contribute to the rise in T C by increasing the hypothalamic temperature set point. This study investigated whether the exercise-induced increase in T C is partly caused by an altered hypothalamic temperature set point. Fifteen healthy, active men age 36 ± 14 y were recruited. Subjects performed submaximal treadmill exercise in 3 randomized test conditions: (1) 400 mg ibuprofen and 1000 mg acetaminophen (IBU/APAP), (2) 1000 mg acetaminophen (APAP), and (3) a control condition (CTRL). Acetaminophen and ibuprofen were used to block the effect of IL-6 at a central and peripheral level, respectively. T C , skin temperature, and heart rate were measured continuously during the submaximal exercise tests. Baseline values of T C , skin temperature, and heart rate did not differ across conditions. Serum IL-6 concentrations increased in all 3 conditions. A significantly lower peak T C was observed in IBU/APAP (38.8°C ± 0.4°C) vs CTRL (39.2°C ± 0.5°C, P = .02) but not in APAP (38.9°C ± 0.4°C) vs CTRL. Similarly, a lower ΔT C was observed in IBU/APAP (1.7°C ± 0.3°C) vs CTRL (2.0°C ± 0.5°C, P exercise compared with a CTRL. This observation suggests that a prostaglandin-E2-induced elevated hypothalamic temperature set point may contribute to the exercise-induced rise in T C .

  13. The effect of 8 weeks deep-aquatic exercises on static balance and lower body strength among elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Seyed jafari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of deep aquatic exercises on lower body strength and balance among elderly men. Methods: Thirty elderly men over 65 years old were randomly divided into two equal groups including experimental and control groups. Experimental group participated in a deep aquatic exercise program that consisted of 60-minute sessions three times a week for 8 weeks while control group had no plan of exercise.  Muscle strength and balance was assessed before and after the program as pre and post-test by HHD (Hand-Held Dynamometer and BBS (Biodex Balance System respectively. Repeated measures two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed on outcome variables.(p≥0.05.  Results: deep aquatic exercises promoted significant increases in the elderly men's muscle strength and balance, as assessed using HHD (p< 0.001 and the BBS (p< 0.001. Conclusion: The present deep-aquatic exercise training for the elderly are able to improve the muscle strength and static balance.

  14. The Effect of Submaximal Exercise Preceded by Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy on the Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Blood of Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC session applied prior to submaximal exercise on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, total oxidative status, and the level of cytokines in blood of volleyball players. The study group consisted of 18 male professional volleyball players, who were subjected to extremely cold air (−130∘C prior to exercise performed on cycloergometer. Blood samples were taken five times: before WBC, after WBC procedure, after exercise preceded by cryotherapy (WBC exercise, and before and after exercise without WBC (control exercise. The activity of catalase statistically significantly increased after control exercise. Moreover, the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was lower after WBC exercise than after control exercise (P<0.001. After WBC exercise, the level of IL-6 and IL-1β was also lower (P<0.001 than after control exercise. The obtained results may suggest that cryotherapy prior to exercise may have some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The relations between the level of studied oxidative stress and inflammatory markers may testify to the contribution of reactive oxygen species in cytokines release into the blood system in response to exercise and WBC.

  15. Effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise on body composition, glycaemic and lipid profile and aerobic capacity of obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll-Risco, Irene; Aparicio, Virginia A; Nebot, Elena; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Martínez, Rosario; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; López-Jurado, María; Porres, Jesús M; Aranda, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session on body composition, and glycaemic and lipid profile in obese rats. Sixteen lean Zucker rats and sixteen obese Zucker rats were randomly divided into exercise and sedentary subgroups (4 groups, n = 8). Exercise consisted of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session. The animals trained 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Body composition, lipid and glycaemic profiles and inflammatory markers were assessed. Results showed that fat mass was reduced in both lean and obese rats following the exercise training (effect size (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 1.8 (0.5-3.0)). Plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and fasting glucose were lower in the exercise compared to the sedentary groups (d = 2.0 (0.7-3.2) and 1.8 (0.5-3.0), respectively). Plasma insulin was reduced in exercise compared to sedentary groups (d = 2.1 (0.8-3.4)). Some exercise × phenotype interactions showed that the highest decreases in insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, fasting and postprandial glucose were observed in the obese + exercise group (all, P interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise would improve body composition, and lipid and glycaemic profiles, especially in obese rats.

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. ...

  17. IMMUNE INDEXES OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN ELDERLY WOMEN DURING ACCELERATION EXERCISE (WHOLE BODY VIBRATION: A PILOT TWELVE-WEEK TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Pyatin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of a 12-week acceleration exercise program (whole body vibration were studied in 39 elderly women. Immune cell subsets, expression of lymphocyte activation markers, levels of pro-inflammatory serum cytokines (IL-8 and TNFα, and serum immunoglobulins (A, M, G were evaluated. It has been revealed that the progression-based acceleration training is not a sufficient stress factor affecting immune functions, and it does not produce any significant postexercise suppression of immune functions in elderly women.

  18. IMMUNE INDEXES OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN ELDERLY WOMEN DURING ACCELERATION EXERCISE (WHOLE BODY VIBRATION): A PILOT TWELVE-WEEK TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    V. F. Pyatin; I. V. Shirolapov; A. V. Zhestkov; O. L. Nikitin; L. V. Limareva; I. A. Zubova

    2010-01-01

    Effects of a 12-week acceleration exercise program (whole body vibration) were studied in 39 elderly women. Immune cell subsets, expression of lymphocyte activation markers, levels of pro-inflammatory serum cytokines (IL-8 and TNFα), and serum immunoglobulins (A, M, G) were evaluated. It has been revealed that the progression-based acceleration training is not a sufficient stress factor affecting immune functions, and it does not produce any significant postexercise suppression of immune func...

  19. Whole body vibration exercise combined with an extract ofCoriandrum sativummodify some biochemical/physiological parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederico, Éric H F F; Cardoso, André L B D; Guimarães, Carlos A S; Almeida, Lívia P; Neves, Rosane F; Sá-Caputo, Danúbia C; Moreira-Marconi, Eloá; Dionello, Carla F; Morel, Danielle S; Paineiras-Domingos, Laisa L; Costa-Cavalcanti, Rebeca G; Sousa-Gonçalves, Cintia R; Arnóbio, Adriano; Asad, Nasser R; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2017-06-30

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the association of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise with an aqueous extract of coriander on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate, on the concentration of some plasma biomarker, on the feed intake, on the body mass, and on the stool consistency in rats. Rats were divided in four groups and submitted to different treatments for 40 days. The control group (CON) received deionized water. The group treated with coriander (COR) received the extract of coriander. The rats that were exposed to WBV exercises (WBV-E) also received deionized water. A group of animals received coriander and was exposed to WBV (COR + WBV-E). We found in testis a decrease (0.13 ± 0.01 to 0.06 ± 0.03) of the percentages of injected radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g) in the WBV-E in comparison with the COR. There is no significant alteration on the concentrations of the plasma biomarkers. The feed intake showed a statistically significant increase in WBV-E. No significant difference on the body mass was found. The stool analysis showed a statistical difference on the consistency between COR (hard and dry, darker) and all the other groups (normal). In conclusion, it was verified that possible modifications in some biochemical/physiological parameters of the rats submitted to WBV exercise would be capable to increase the feed intake without changing the body mass, and normalizing the stool consistency altered by the coriander supplementation. Further studies are needed to try to understand better the biological effects involving the association of WBV exercise and coriander. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Creatine monohydrate and conjugated linoleic acid improve strength and body composition following resistance exercise in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Tarnopolsky

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with lower muscle mass and an increase in body fat. We examined whether creatine monohydrate (CrM and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA could enhance strength gains and improve body composition (i.e., increase fat-free mass (FFM; decrease body fat following resistance exercise training in older adults (>65 y. Men (N = 19 and women (N = 20 completed six months of resistance exercise training with CrM (5g/d+CLA (6g/d or placebo with randomized, double blind, allocation. Outcomes included: strength and muscular endurance, functional tasks, body composition (DEXA scan, blood tests (lipids, liver function, CK, glucose, systemic inflammation markers (IL-6, C-reactive protein, urinary markers of compliance (creatine/creatinine, oxidative stress (8-OH-2dG, 8-isoP and bone resorption (Nu-telopeptides. Exercise training improved all measurements of functional capacity (P<0.05 and strength (P<0.001, with greater improvement for the CrM+CLA group in most measurements of muscular endurance, isokinetic knee extension strength, FFM, and lower fat mass (P<0.05. Plasma creatinine (P<0.05, but not creatinine clearance, increased for CrM+CLA, with no changes in serum CK activity or liver function tests. Together, this data confirms that supervised resistance exercise training is safe and effective for increasing strength in older adults and that a combination of CrM and CLA can enhance some of the beneficial effects of training over a six-month period. Trial Registration. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00473902.

  1. The effects of 8 weeks of whey or rice protein supplementation on body composition and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Jordan M; Lowery, Ryan P; Wilson, Jacob M; Purpura, Martin; De Souza, Eduardo O; Wilson, Stephanie Mc; Kalman, Douglas S; Dudeck, Joshua E; Jäger, Ralf

    2013-06-20

    Consumption of moderate amounts of animal-derived protein has been shown to differently influence skeletal muscle hypertrophy during resistance training when compared with nitrogenous and isoenergetic amounts of plant-based protein administered in small to moderate doses. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine if the post-exercise consumption of rice protein isolate could increase recovery and elicit adequate changes in body composition compared to equally dosed whey protein isolate if given in large, isocaloric doses.

  2. Concurrent and aerobic exercise training promote similar benefits in body composition and metabolic profiles in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Paula Alves; Chen, Kong Y; Lira, Fabio Santos; Saraiva, Bruna Thamyres Cicotti; Antunes, Barbara Moura Mello; Campos, Eduardo Zapaterra; Freitas, Ismael Forte

    2015-11-26

    The prevalence of obesity in pediatric population is increasing at an accelerated rate in many countries, and has become a major public health concern. Physical activity, particularly exercise training, remains to be a cornerstone of pediatric obesity interventions. The purpose of our current randomized intervention trial was to compare the effects of two types of training matched for training volume, aerobic and concurrent, on body composition and metabolic profile in obese adolescents. Thus the aim of the study was compare the effects of two types of training matched for training volume, aerobic and concurrent, on body composition and metabolic profile in obese adolescents. 32 obese adolescents participated in two randomized training groups, concurrent or aerobic, for 20 weeks (50 mins x 3 per week, supervised), and were compared to a 16-subject control group. We measured the percentage body fat (%BF, primary outcome), fat-free mass, percentage of android fat by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and others metabolic profiles at baseline and after interventions, and compared them between groups using the Intent-to-treat design. In 20 weeks, both exercise training groups significantly reduced %BF by 2.9-3.6% as compare to no change in the control group (p = 0.042). There were also positive changes in lipid levels in exercise groups. No noticeable changes were found between aerobic and concurrent training groups. The benefits of exercise in reducing body fat and metabolic risk profiles can be achieved by performing either type of training in obese adolescents. RBR-4HN597.

  3. Soy versus whey protein bars: Effects on exercise training impact on lean body mass and antioxidant status

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Erin C; DiSilvestro, Robert A; Babaknia, Ari; Devor, Steven T

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Although soy protein may have many health benefits derived from its associated antioxidants, many male exercisers avoid soy protein. This is due partly to a popular, but untested notion that in males, soy is inferior to whey in promoting muscle weight gain. This study provided a direct comparison between a soy product and a whey product. Methods Lean body mass gain was examined in males from a university weight training class given daily servings of micronutrient-fortified...

  4. The effects of physical fitness and body composition on oxygen consumption and heart rate recovery after high-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, E Z; Bastos, F N; Papoti, M; Freitas Junior, I F; Gobatto, C A; Balikian Junior, P

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential relationship between excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), heart rate recovery (HRR) and their respective time constants (tvo2 and t HR) and body composition and aerobic fitness (VO2max) variables after an anaerobic effort. 14 professional cyclists (age=28.4±4.8 years, height=176.0±6.7 cm, body mass=74.4±8.1 kg, VO2max=66.8±7.6 mL·kg - 1·min - 1) were recruited. Each athlete made 3 visits to the laboratory with 24 h between each visit. During the first visit, a total and segmental body composition assessment was carried out. During the second, the athletes undertook an incremental test to determine VO2max. In the final visit, EPOC (15-min) and HRR were measured after an all-out 30 s Wingate test. The results showed that EPOC is positively associated with % body fat (r=0.64), total body fat (r=0.73), fat-free mass (r=0.61) and lower limb fat-free mass (r=0.55) and negatively associated with HRR (r= - 0.53, pEPOC after high-intensity exercise. Even in short-term exercise, the major metabolic disturbance due to higher muscle mass and total muscle mass may increase EPOC. However, body fat impedes HRR and delays recovery of oxygen consumption after effort in highly trained athletes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Does side dominance affect the symmetry of barbell end kinematics during lower-body resistance exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A; Smith, Neal A

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether ground kinetic asymmetries significantly affected measures of bar end power output during bilateral lower-body resistance exercise. Vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs) from both feet and power outputs from both ends of the bar were recorded using force platforms and high-speed cameras simultaneously during the back squat performance of 10 experienced male volunteers with 30, 60, and 90% of their 1 repetition maximum. Side dominance was determined according to perceived left- and right-side handedness, dominant left- and right-side GRFs, and barbell power output side dominance. The dominant and nondominant side average concentric phase GRFs and barbell end power outputs were compared at each loading condition using 2-way analysis of variance. Pearson product-moment correlations were also performed to assess the relationship between average GRF and bar end differences. The results showed that although differences between the dominant and nondominant side GRFs reached 21% in some cases, there were no significant differences between the left- and right-side bar end power outputs, which did not exceed 3.4%. There were no consistent correlations between the dominant and nondominant side average GRFs and average bar end power differences. In addition to this, progressive loading did not significantly affect differences between the dominant and nondominant side GRFs or bar end power output differences. It was concluded that although apparently healthy individuals demonstrate considerable side dominance at the foot-floor interface, these tend not to be reflected in the symmetry of bar end power output.

  6. Exercise Improves V˙O2max and Body Composition in Androgen Deprivation Therapy-treated Prostate Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Bradley A; GALVãO, Daniel A; Fatehee, Naeem; Taaffe, Dennis R; Spry, Nigel; Joseph, David; Hebert, Jeffrey J; Newton, Robert U

    2017-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) experience unfavorable changes in body composition and associated metabolic complications, which can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. We examined the effect of a 6-month program of aerobic and resistance exercise aimed at improving body composition and cardiorespiratory health in this population. Ninety-seven men (43-90 yr) with localized prostate cancer receiving ADT were randomized to either exercise (EX, n = 50) or usual care (CON, n = 47). Supervised exercise was undertaken twice weekly at moderate to high intensity. Measures of cardiorespiratory capacity (V˙O2max), resting metabolic rate, central blood pressure, hemodynamic variables, blood markers, and body composition were assessed. There was a significant group-time interaction present for V˙O2max (P = 0.033) with a treatment effect for EX of 0.11 L·min (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.04-0.19) (relative to body mass = 1.3 mL·kg·min, 95% CI = 0.3-2.3) and fat oxidation (P = 0.037) of 12.0 mg·min (95% CI = 2.3-21.7). Similarly, there was a significant improvement in glucose (P < 0.001) for EX of -0.5 mmol·L (95% CI = -0.8 to -0.3), with no change in prostate-specific antigen or testosterone as a result of exercise. Body composition was enhanced for EX with adjusted mean differences in lean mass (P = 0.015) of 0.8 kg (95% CI = 0.3-1.3), total fat mass (P = 0.020) of -1.1 kg (95% CI = -1.8 to -0.5), and trunk fat mass (P < 0.001) of -1.0 kg (95% CI = -1.4 to -0.6). A 6-month combined aerobic and resistance exercise program has a significant favorable effect on cardiorespiratory capacity, resting fat oxidation, glucose, and body composition despite the adverse effects of hormone suppression. Combined aerobic and resistance training should be considered a key adjuvant component in men undergoing ADT for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  7. Quality of Life and Breast Cancer: How Can Mind–Body Exercise Therapies Help? An Overview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Lunde Husebø

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer survivors experience extensive treatments, threatening their quality of life. Complementary therapies used as a supplement to cancer treatment may control symptoms, enhance quality of life, and contribute to overall patient care. Mind–body exercise therapies might motivate cancer survivors to exercise, and assist them in regaining health. The purpose of this overview study is to study benefits from mind–body exercise of yoga, tai chi chuan and qigong upon quality of life in breast cancer populations. A systematic overview of reviews was applied. Literature search in five electronic databases and in reference lists was performed during April 2017. In addition, experts in the field were consulted. Of 38 identified titles, 11 review articles, including six meta-analyses were found eligible for review. Methodological quality was high for the majority of quality domains. Yoga, the most studied mind–body therapy, was found to benefit breast cancer patients’ psychological quality of life, while less support was established concerning physical quality of life elements. The evidence of improvements of quality of life from tai chi chuan and qigong remains unclear. Breast cancer survivors’ experiences of psychological and social well-being may be enhanced by practicing yoga.

  8. Benefits of different intensity of aerobic exercise in modulating body composition among obese young adults: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Chih-Hui; Ko, Ming-Chen; Wu, Long-Shan; Yeh, Ding-Peng; Kan, Nai-Wen; Lee, Po-Fu; Hsieh, Jenn-Woei; Tseng, Ching-Yu; Ho, Chien-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of present study was to compare the effects of different aerobic exercise intensities and energy expenditures on the body composition of sedentary obese college students in Taiwan. Methods Forty-eight obese participants [body mass index (BMI) ? 27 kg/m2, age 18?26 years] were randomized into four equal groups (n = 12): light-intensity training group (LITG), 40%?50% heart rate reserve (HRR); middle-intensity training group (MITG), 50%?70% HRR; high-intensity training group (...

  9. Comparison of rectal and aural core body temperature thermometry in hyperthermic, exercising individuals: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Robert; Glaviano, Neal; Negishi, Naoki; Casa, Douglas J; Hertel, Jay

    2012-01-01

    To compare mean differences in core body temperature (T(core)) as assessed via rectal thermometry (T(re)) and aural thermometry (T(au)) in hyperthermic exercising individuals. PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library in English from the earliest entry points to August 2009 using the search terms aural, core body temperature, core temperature, exercise, rectal, temperature, thermistor, thermometer, thermometry, and tympanic. Study Selection: Original research articles that met these criteria were included: (1) concurrent measurement of T(re) and T(au) in participants during exercise, (2) minimum mean temperature that reached 38°C by at least 1 technique during or after exercise, and (3) report of means, standard deviations, and sample sizes. Nine articles were included, and 3 independent reviewers scored these articles using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale (mean = 5.1 ± 0.4). Data were divided into time periods pre-exercise, during exercise (30 to 180 minutes), and postexercise, as well as T(re) ranges 39.00°C. Means and standard deviations for both measurement techniques were provided at all time intervals reported. Meta-analysis was performed to determine pooled and weighted mean differences between T(re) and T(au). The T(re) was conclusively higher than the T(au) pre-exercise (mean difference [MD] = 0.27°C, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.15°C, 0.39°C), during exercise (MD = 0.96°C, 95% CI = 0.84°C, 1.08°C), and postexercise (MD = 0.71°C, 95% CI = 0.65°C, 0.78°C). As T(re) measures increased, the magnitude of difference between the techniques also increased with an MD of 0.59°C (95% CI = 0.53°C, 0.65°C) when T(re) was 39.0°C. The T(re) was consistently greater than T(au) when T(core) was measured in hyperthermic individuals before, during, and postexercise. As T(core) increased, T(au) appeared to underestimate T(core) as determined by T(re). Clinicians should be aware of this critical difference in

  10. Associations of physical exercise as a lifestyle habit with lean and fat body mass and handgrip strength and age in Asian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Victor H H; Hart, William G

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated how the intensity of physical exercise as a lifestyle habit is associated with age, body composition and handgrip strength. Total body composition was analyzed using DEXA. Exercise scores were derived from an administered questionnaire and the scoring was calculated using the Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET). Handgrip strength was measured using a dynamometer. Age, independent of exercise intensity, was associated with declining lean mass, and handgrip strength and with increasing total body fat. A regular physical exercise regime of intensity greater than 1230 MET-min/week was associated with higher total lean mass and lean mass in the limbs, and handgrip strength and lower fat mass in the limbs. We have shown that age was associated with lower lean mass especially in the limbs and handgrip strength and higher total fat mass. Regular physical exercise as a lifestyle habit of any type and of sufficient intensity could help improve muscle strength in the limbs.

  11. Exercise reduces body fat and improves insulin sensitivity and pancreatic β-cell function in overweight and obese male Taiwanese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Kuang-Chung; Kwok, Ching-Fai

    2018-01-01

    Background Improvements in insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell function have been shown following exercise in adults with obesity; however, few adolescent-based studies have been conducted. This study examined the impact of exercise training on body fat and insulin sensitivity and secretion in overweight and obese adolescents. Methods The effects of a 12-week exercise program on the parameters of adiposity and glucose homeostasis were investigated in 47 overweight and obese male adolesce...

  12. Mandibular molar uprighting using orthodontic miniscrew implants: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Magkavali-Trikka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this systematic review was to identify studies and present the use of miniscrew implants (MIs as an alternative treatment to mandibular molar uprighting. An electronic search and handsearching were conducted by two independent reviewers to identify relevant articles, published up to January 27, 2017. In order to methodologically assess the eligible studies, a pilot checklist consisting of 22 items was also implemented. After exclusion of all the irrelevant papers, only 17 studies were included, presenting 27 cases of mandibular molar uprighting in all planes using both direct and indirect force traction by MIs. Regarding the quality evaluation, the mean score of the included studies was 13.2, indicating a rather poor methodology implemented in the majority of the included cases. Due to many advantages, MIs provide a unique treatment alternative and constitute a reliable solution for treating tipped or impacted molars. Regarding the force application, a direct method is simpler, as it requires one MI and a single bracket or button, minimizing the patient’s discomfort and also reducing chair time compared to more complex indirect anchorage. It also eliminates the possibility of unwanted movement of the anchorage unit, which can occur even with indirect anchorage as a result of technical errors. However, direct anchorage has limitations in cases of lingually tipped or rotated molars because a single force may be insufficient to upright the tooth.

  13. Influence of body mass index and type of low-level exercise on the side effect profile of regadenoson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado-Garcia, Carlos; Jimenez-Heffernan, Amelia; Lopez-Martin, Juana; Molina-Mora, Manuela; Aroui, Tarik; Sanchez de Mora, Elena; Ramos-Font, Carlos [Hospital Juan Ramon Jimenez, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Huelva, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Huelva (Spain); Rivera de los Santos, Francisco [University of Seville, Area of Methodology of Behavioural Sciences, Seville (Spain); Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos [University of Huelva, Department of Environmental and Public Health, Huelva (Spain)

    2017-10-15

    Regadenoson, an A{sub 2A} adenosine receptor pharmacologic stress agent for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), is administered as a single, fixed dose. We studied the side effect profile of regadenoson combined with two types of low-level exercise, according to body mass index (BMI). Three hundred and fifty-six patients (46.1% men, mean age 67.7±10.7 years, range 31-90 years) underwent regadenoson stress testing combined with low-level exercise. Subjects were classified according to BMI as normal, overweight, or obese, and the type of low-level exercise performed as walking on the treadmill (TE group, n=190) or forcefully swinging legs while sitting (SS group, n=166). Patients' demographics, medical history, clinical symptoms during stress, changes in ECG, oxygen saturation (SatO{sub 2}), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Groups were comparable (p=ns) with regard to cardiovascular risks factors. The incidence of side effects was similar across BMI (p=ns), although the TE patients showed improved profiles over those with SS exercise, with a significantly lower incidence of flushing, dizziness and nausea/gastrointestinal discomfort (12.9% vs. 28.4%; 19.9% vs. 33.4%; 11.4% vs. 19.2%, respectively; all p<0.05). Regarding the hemodynamic response, we did not observe significant changes in SBP and HR after regadenoson administration across BMI categories. Comparing the TE and SS groups, no significant changes were observed in SBP, but there was a higher increase in HR in the TE group (p<0.05). Regadenoson in combination with low-level exercise is safe and well tolerated over a wide range of BMI, with TE exercise showing a better side effect profile than SS. (orig.)

  14. Influence of body mass index and type of low-level exercise on the side effect profile of regadenoson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado-Garcia, Carlos; Jimenez-Heffernan, Amelia; Lopez-Martin, Juana; Molina-Mora, Manuela; Aroui, Tarik; Sanchez de Mora, Elena; Ramos-Font, Carlos; Rivera de los Santos, Francisco; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Regadenoson, an A 2A adenosine receptor pharmacologic stress agent for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), is administered as a single, fixed dose. We studied the side effect profile of regadenoson combined with two types of low-level exercise, according to body mass index (BMI). Three hundred and fifty-six patients (46.1% men, mean age 67.7±10.7 years, range 31-90 years) underwent regadenoson stress testing combined with low-level exercise. Subjects were classified according to BMI as normal, overweight, or obese, and the type of low-level exercise performed as walking on the treadmill (TE group, n=190) or forcefully swinging legs while sitting (SS group, n=166). Patients' demographics, medical history, clinical symptoms during stress, changes in ECG, oxygen saturation (SatO 2 ), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Groups were comparable (p=ns) with regard to cardiovascular risks factors. The incidence of side effects was similar across BMI (p=ns), although the TE patients showed improved profiles over those with SS exercise, with a significantly lower incidence of flushing, dizziness and nausea/gastrointestinal discomfort (12.9% vs. 28.4%; 19.9% vs. 33.4%; 11.4% vs. 19.2%, respectively; all p<0.05). Regarding the hemodynamic response, we did not observe significant changes in SBP and HR after regadenoson administration across BMI categories. Comparing the TE and SS groups, no significant changes were observed in SBP, but there was a higher increase in HR in the TE group (p<0.05). Regadenoson in combination with low-level exercise is safe and well tolerated over a wide range of BMI, with TE exercise showing a better side effect profile than SS. (orig.)

  15. The effects of an exercise training program on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in Tunisian obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofien Regaieg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of children obesity is rising alarmingly in both developed and developing countries. Developing effective exercise programs is a strategy for decreasing this prevalence and limiting obesity-associated long-term comorbidities. Objectives: To determine whether a 16-week training program; in addition to the school physical education and without dietary intervention; could have beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity of obese children. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight obese children (16 boys, 12 girls; aged 12-14 years were enrolled and were divided into either the exercise group (EG, n = 14 or the control group (CG, n = 14. EG participated in a 16-week aerobic exercises (four 60-min sessions per week at 70-85% of HRmax (maximum heart rate, in addition to the school physical education. Fat-Free Mass (FFM and Fat Mass (FM were assessed with bioelectrical impedance equipment. To assess aerobic capacity, maximal metabolic equivalent of task (METmax and maximal workload (Wmax were estimated with an electronically braked cycle ergometer (type Ergoline 500® . Results: At baseline, there were no differences between the two groups. After the training program, only the EG showed significant reduction in BMI (body mass index and waist circumference compared with the baseline values (P < 0.001. Exercise training significantly decreased FM only in the EG. A significant increase in FFM was seen in both groups; more marked in the EG. There was a significant increase in METmax (P < 0.05 and Wmax (P = 0.02 in the EG, and no significant changes in these parameters were seen in the CG. HRmax significantly decreased only in the EG (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This training program has beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in obese children. Our intervention has the advantage of providing a sustainable and reproducible school and community approach for the management of children obesity.

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of exercise training versus hypocaloric diet: distinct effects on body weight and visceral adipose tissue.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheggen, R.J.; Maessen, M.F.; Green, D.J.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training ('exercise') and hypocaloric diet ('diet') are frequently prescribed for weight loss in obesity. Whilst body weight changes are commonly used to evaluate lifestyle interventions, visceral adiposity (VAT) is a more relevant and stronger predictor for morbidity and mortality. A

  17. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Percent Body Fat Determined by Leg-to-Leg and Segmental Bioelectrical Impedance Analyses in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreacci, Joseph L.; Nagle, Trisha; Fitzgerald, Elise; Rawson, Eric S.; Dixon, Curt B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the impact that cycle ergometry exercise had on percent body fat (%BF) estimates when assessed using either leg-to-leg or segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA; SBIA) and whether the intensity of the exercise bout impacts the %BF magnitude of change. Method: Seventy-four college-aged adults participated in this…

  18. Reliability of upright posture measurements in primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimmer Karen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct upright posture is considered to be a measure of good musculoskeletal health. Little is known about the usual variability of children's upright standing posture. The aim of this study was to assess differences between repeated measures of upright posture in a group of primary school children. Methods Sagittal plane photographs of usual, relaxed upright standing posture of 38 boys and girls aged 5–12 years were taken twice within an hour. Reflective markers were placed over the canthus, tragus, C7 spinous process, greater trochanter and lateral malleolus. Digitising software was used to calculate the x,y plane coordinates, from which five postural angles were calculated (trunk, neck, gaze, head on neck, lower limb. Height, weight, motor control estimates (as measured by the Brace Tests and presence of recent pain were recorded for each child, and the association between the first test measure of posture angles and these factors was assessed using linear regression and ANOVA models. Multiple ANOVA models were applied to analyse the effect of repeated testing, and significant predictors on the angles. Results Four of the five postural angles (trunk, neck, head on neck, lower limb were significantly influenced by age. As age was strongly associated with height (r2 = 0.84 and moderately associated with weight and motor control (r2 = 0.67, 0.56 respectively, these developmental parameters may well explain the age effect on angles. There was no relationship between age and pain reported on either the testing day, or recently, and there was no gender influence on any angle. There was no significant effect of repeated testing on any angle (ICC>0.93. None of the hypothesized predictors were associated with differences in angles from repeated testing. Conclusion This study outlined the variability of relaxed upright standing posture of children aged 5–12 years, when measured twice in an hour. Age influenced the size of the

  19. Body temperature and cold sensation during and following exercise under temperate room conditions in cold-sensitive young trained females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Aoki-Murakami, Erii; Tsuji, Bun; Kenny, Glen P; Nagashima, Kei; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated cold sensation at rest and in response to exercise-induced changes in core and skin temperatures in cold-sensitive exercise trained females. Fifty-eight trained young females were screened by a questionnaire, selecting cold-sensitive (Cold-sensitive, n  = 7) and non-cold-sensitive (Control, n  = 7) individuals. Participants rested in a room at 29.5°C for ~100 min after which ambient temperature was reduced to 23.5°C where they remained resting for 60 min. Participants then performed 30-min of moderate intensity cycling (50% peak oxygen uptake) followed by a 60-min recovery. Core and mean skin temperatures and cold sensation over the whole-body and extremities (fingers and toes) were assessed throughout. Resting core temperature was lower in the Cold-sensitive relative to Control group (36.4 ± 0.3 vs. 36.7 ± 0.2°C). Core temperature increased to similar levels at end-exercise (~37.2°C) and gradually returned to near preexercise rest levels at the end of recovery (>36.6°C). Whole-body cold sensation was greater in the Cold-sensitive relative to Control group during resting at a room temperature of 23.5°C only without a difference in mean skin temperature between groups. In contrast, cold sensation of the extremities was greater in the Cold-sensitive group prior to, during and following exercise albeit this was not paralleled by differences in mean extremity skin temperature. We show that young trained females who are sensitive to cold exhibit augmented whole-body cold sensation during rest under temperate ambient conditions. However, this response is diminished during and following exercise. In contrast, cold sensation of extremities is augmented during resting that persists during and following exercise. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  20. 3D surface imaging of the human female torso in upright to supine positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Gregory P; Merchant, Fatima; Andon, Johnny; Khatam, Hamed; Ravi-Chandar, K; Weston, June; Fingeret, Michelle C; Lane, Chris; Duncan, Kelly; Markey, Mia K

    2015-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging of breasts is usually done with the patient in an upright position, which does not permit comparison of changes in breast morphology with changes in position of the torso. In theory, these limitations may be eliminated if the 3D camera system could remain fixed relative to the woman's torso as she is tilted from 0 to 90°. We mounted a 3dMDtorso imaging system onto a bariatric tilt table to image breasts at different tilt angles. The images were validated using a rigid plastic mannequin and the metrics compared to breast metrics obtained from five subjects with diverse morphology. The differences between distances between the same fiducial marks differed between the supine and upright positions by less than 1% for the mannequin, whereas the differences for distances between the same fiducial marks on the breasts of the five subjects differed significantly and could be correlated with body mass index and brassiere cup size for each position change. We show that a tilt table-3D imaging system can be used to determine quantitative changes in the morphology of ptotic breasts when the subject is tilted to various angles. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effectiveness of Whole Body Cryotherapy Compared to Cold Water Immersion: Implications for Sport and Exercise Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Holmes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cryotherapy is the process of cooling the body, is typically used therapeutically, and is often used as a method of recovery relative to sport and exercise performance.  The purpose of this review is to compare the current literature on WBC to that of CWI and determine whether WBC provides any additional enhancements for sport and exercise recovery. These include tissue temperature reduction, markers of muscle damage, markers of inflammation, and parasympathetic reactivation. Method: Common methods of cryotherapy include cold water immersion (CWI, ice packs, ice massages, and gel or cooling creams. CWI is the most common method among athletes; however, a new form of cryotherapy, known as whole-body cryotherapy (WBC, has recently emerged.  Since its introduction, WBC has grown in popularity among practitioners and athletes. WBC involves short exposures (generally between 2-4 minutes to very cold air (-100o C to -140o C in a controlled room and setting. Furthermore, many of the studies on WBC were observational and did not contain a control group. Conclusion: Despite its growing popularity, the alleged benefits of WBC are largely based on anecdotal evidence as randomized, clinically-controlled studies regarding its efficacy are limited.  Keywords: cryotherapy, cold water immersion, exercise, recovery, muscle damage, inflammation

  2. Water exercise in coronary artery disease patients, effects on heart rate variability, and body composition: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiogbé, Elie; Ferreira, Rafaela; Sindorf, Márcio Antônio Gonçalves; Tavares, Silvia Aparecida; de Souza, Keiti Passoni; de Castro Cesar, Marcelo; Lopes, Charles Ricardo; Moreno, Marlene Aparecida

    2018-03-14

    It is important to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of water-based training programs in order to prescribe it as an alternative in cardiac rehabilitation for patients who have coronary artery disease (CAD). In these patients, autonomic dysfunction is an important physiological change strongly associated with adverse outcomes, morbidity, and mortality. Given that the beneficial effects of physical training in CAD patients have been traditionally evidenced with programs involving land-based aerobic exercises, this study aims to evaluate the effects of water aerobic exercise training (WAET) on the autonomic modulation of heart rate (HR) and body composition, in the rehabilitation of CAD patients. Twenty-six male subjects with CAD were randomly divided into a training group (n = 14), submitted to the WAET, and a control group (n = 12). The WAET consisted of 3 weekly sessions on alternate days, totalling 48 sessions. The analysis of HR variability was used to evaluate the autonomic modulation of HR, from the recording of R-R intervals for 15 min, at rest in the supine position, and the body composition was evaluated through the bioelectrical impedance analysis. Only the training group participants had improvement in the HR variability indices; patterns without variation decreased (0V, p = .005) and an increase of patterns of two different variations (p exercise training strategy in cardiac rehabilitation programs. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Does whole-body cryotherapy improve vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise bout?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Amilton Vieira,1 Martim Bottaro,1 Joao B Ferreira-Junior,1,4 Carlos Vieira,1 Vitor A Cleto,1 Eduardo L Cadore,2 Herbert G Simões,3 Jake Do Carmo,1 Lee E Brown5 1College of Physical Education, University of Brasília, Brasília, 2College of Physical Education, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 3College of Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, 4Federal Institute of Triângulo Mineiro, Paracatu, Brazil; 5Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Fullerton, CA, USA Abstract: Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC has been used as a recovery strategy following different sports activities. Thus, the aim of the study reported here was to examine the effect of WBC on vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise (HIE bout. Twelve trained men (mean ± standard deviation age = 23.9±5.9 years were randomly exposed to two different conditions separated by 7 days: 1 WBC (3 minutes of WBC at −110°C immediately after the HIE and 2 control (CON; no WBC after the HIE. The HIE consisted of six sets of ten repetitions of knee extensions at 60° · s−1 concentric and 180° · s−1 eccentric on an isokinetic dynamometer. The vertical jump test was used to evaluate the influence of HIE on lower extremity muscular performance. The vertical jump was performed on a force platform before HIE (T1 and 30 minutes after (T2 the WBC and CON conditions. As a result of HIE, jump height, muscle power, and maximal velocity (Vmax had significant decreases between T1 and T2, however no significance was found between the WBC and CON conditions. The results indicate that one session of WBC had no effect on vertical jump following an HIE compared with a CON condition. WBC may not improve muscle-function (dependent on stretch-shortening cycle recovery in very short periods (ie, 30 minutes following HIE. Keywords: functional performance, muscular recovery, countermovement jump

  4. The Effect of Submaximal Exercise Preceded by Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy on the Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Blood of Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Szpinda, Michał; Augustyńska, Beata; Woźniak, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) session applied prior to submaximal exercise on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, total oxidative status, and the level of cytokines in blood of volleyball players. The study group consisted of 18 male professional volleyball players, who were subjected to extremely cold air (−130°C) prior to exercise performed on cycloergometer. Blood samples were taken five times: before WBC, after WBC procedure, after exercise preceded by cryotherapy (WBC exercise), and before and after exercise without WBC (control exercise). The activity of catalase statistically significantly increased after control exercise. Moreover, the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was lower after WBC exercise than after control exercise (P cryotherapy prior to exercise may have some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The relations between the level of studied oxidative stress and inflammatory markers may testify to the contribution of reactive oxygen species in cytokines release into the blood system in response to exercise and WBC. PMID:24489985

  5. Repeated prolonged whole-body low-intensity exercise: effects on insulin sensitivity and limb muscle adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Mikael; Overgaard, Kristian; Damsgaard, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of prolonged whole-body low-intensity exercise on insulin sensitivity and the limb muscle adaptive response. Seven male subjects (weight, 90.2 ± 3.2 kg; age, 35 ± 3 years) completed a 32-day unsupported crossing of the Greenland icecap on cross-country skies...... was performed to establish maximal oxygen uptake. During the crossing, subjects skied for 342 ± 41 min/d. Peak oxygen uptake (4.6 ± 0.2 L/min) was decreased (P fat mass and 2.7 ± 0.2 kg lean body mass...... arbitrary units) than in the arm (54 ± 9 arbitrary units) and was not changed in the leg, but was increased (P loss of lean body mass...

  6. The functional state of cardiovascular system for boys 10 - 11 years old after static exercises with deadweight of body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proskurov E.M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of static power endurance of muscles of humeral belt, abdominal press and muscles of the back of schoolboys is investigational. Directions are selected of forming hygienically of correct pose of schoolboy, being in position sitting after an educational mestome. In research took part 50 schoolboys in age 10 years and 50 - in age 11 years. A reaction is studied cardiovascular system of students on static exercises with the deadweight of body. The features of reaction of frequency of pulse, arteriotony, cardiac troop landing and minute volume of blood of students on the static loadings are certain: handing on bent arms, exercises for muscles abdominal press lying on a stomach and on the back. It is set that the changes of functional indexes in the process of the static loading of most degree make progress for ten year schoolboys. To such indexes behave: diastole arteriotony, frequency of heart-throbs, systole arteriotony.

  7. The effects of adding single-joint exercises to a multi-joint exercise resistance training program on upper body muscle strength and size in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de França, Henrique Silvestre; Branco, Paulo Alexandre Nordeste; Guedes Junior, Dilmar Pinto; Gentil, Paulo; Steele, James; Teixeira, Cauê Vazquez La Scala

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was compare changes in upper body muscle strength and size in trained men performing resistance training (RT) programs involving multi-joint plus single-joint (MJ+SJ) or only multi-joint (MJ) exercises. Twenty young men with at least 2 years of experience in RT were randomized in 2 groups: MJ+SJ (n = 10; age, 27.7 ± 6.6 years) and MJ (n = 10; age, 29.4 ± 4.6 years). Both groups trained for 8 weeks following a linear periodization model. Measures of elbow flexors and extensors 1-repetition maximum (1RM), flexed arm circumference (FAC), and arm muscle circumference (AMC) were taken pre- and post-training period. Both groups significantly increased 1RM for elbow flexion (4.99% and 6.42% for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), extension (10.60% vs 9.79%, for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), FAC (1.72% vs 1.45%, for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), and AMC (1.33% vs 3.17% for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively). Comparison between groups revealed no significant difference in any variable. In conclusion, 8 weeks of RT involving MJ or MJ+SJ resulted in similar alterations in muscle strength and size in trained participants. Therefore, the addition of SJ exercises to a RT program involving MJ exercises does not seem to promote additional benefits to trained men, suggesting MJ-only RT to be a time-efficient approach.

  8. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of exercise training versus hypocaloric diet: distinct effects on body weight and visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, R J H M; Maessen, M F H; Green, D J; Hermus, A R M M; Hopman, M T E; Thijssen, D H T

    2016-08-01

    Exercise training ('exercise') and hypocaloric diet ('diet') are frequently prescribed for weight loss in obesity. Whilst body weight changes are commonly used to evaluate lifestyle interventions, visceral adiposity (VAT) is a more relevant and stronger predictor for morbidity and mortality. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the effects of exercise or diet on VAT (quantified by radiographic imaging). Relevant databases were searched through May 2014. One hundred seventeen studies (n = 4,815) were included. We found that both exercise and diet cause VAT loss (P training, diet caused a larger weight loss (P = 0.04). In contrast, a trend was observed towards a larger VAT decrease in exercise (P = 0.08). Changes in weight and VAT showed a strong correlation after diet (R(2)  = 0.737, P weight loss, exercise is related to 6.1% decrease in VAT, whilst diet showed virtually no change (1.1%). In conclusion, both exercise and diet reduce VAT. Despite a larger effect of diet on total body weight loss, exercise tends to have superior effects in reducing VAT. Finally, total body weight loss does not necessarily reflect changes in VAT and may represent a poor marker when evaluating benefits of lifestyle-interventions. © 2016 World Obesity.

  9. Low-Volume Whole-Body Vibration Training Improves Exercise Capacity in Subjects With Mild to Severe COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmanns, Marc; Boeselt, Tobias; Gloeckl, Rainer; Klutsch, Anja; Fischer, Henrike; Polanski, Henryk; Nell, Christoph; Storre, Jan H; Windisch, Wolfram; Koczulla, Andreas R

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the benefits of a low-volume out-patient whole-body vibration training (WBVT) program on exercise capacity in comparison with a calisthenics training program in subjects with COPD. In this single-center randomized controlled trial, 29 subjects with mild to severe COPD were randomized to WBVT or to calisthenics training, including relaxation and breathing retraining in combination with calisthenics exercises. Both groups equally exercised for a duration of 3 months with 2 sessions of 30 min/week. Outcome parameters were 6-min walk distance (6MWD, primary outcome), 5-repetition sit-to-stand test, leg press peak force, Berg balance scale, St George Respiratory Questionnaire, and COPD assessment test. Twenty-seven subjects completed the study (WBVT, n = 14; calisthenics training program, n = 13). Baseline characteristics between groups were comparable. Subjects in the WBVT group significantly improved median (interquartile range) 6MWD (+105 [45.5-133.5] m, P = .001), sit-to-stand test (-2.3 [-3.1 to -1.3] s, P = .001), peak force (28.7 [16.7-33.3] kg, P = .001), and Berg balance scale (1.5 [0.0-4.0] points, P = .055). Changes in 6MWD, sit-to-stand test, and leg press peak force were also found to be significantly different between groups in favor of the WBVT group. Only the between-group difference of the COPD assessment test score was in favor of the calisthenics training group ( P = .02). A low-volume WBVT program resulted in significantly and clinically relevant larger improvements in exercise capacity compared with calisthenics exercises in subjects with mild to severe COPD. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration DRKS9706.). Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  10. Soy versus whey protein bars: Effects on exercise training impact on lean body mass and antioxidant status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaknia Ari

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although soy protein may have many health benefits derived from its associated antioxidants, many male exercisers avoid soy protein. This is due partly to a popular, but untested notion that in males, soy is inferior to whey in promoting muscle weight gain. This study provided a direct comparison between a soy product and a whey product. Methods Lean body mass gain was examined in males from a university weight training class given daily servings of micronutrient-fortified protein bars containing soy or whey protein (33 g protein/day, 9 weeks, n = 9 for each protein treatment group. Training used workouts with fairly low repetition numbers per set. A control group from the class (N = 9 did the training, but did not consume either type protein bar. Results Both the soy and whey treatment groups showed a gain in lean body mass, but the training-only group did not. The whey and training only groups, but not the soy group, showed a potentially deleterious post-training effect on two antioxidant-related related parameters. Conclusions Soy and whey protein bar products both promoted exercise training-induced lean body mass gain, but the soy had the added benefit of preserving two aspects of antioxidant function.

  11. Effects of exercise training experience on hand grip strength, body composition and postural stability in fitness pole dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Mynarski, Arkadiusz; Powerska, Aneta; Rozpara, Michał; Garbaciak, Wiesław

    2017-09-01

    Although the growing popularity of pole dance as a leisure-time activity of people of all ages, the problem of physical effects of exercise on the pole is not considered in the scientific literature. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the hand grip strength, body composition and postural stability of fitness pole dancers with different training experience. The inclusion criteria for this study were met by 52 female pole dancers. The research program included assessment of body composition (using BC-418 Segmental Body Composition Analyzer, Tanita, Tokyo, Japan), hand grip strength by hydraulic dynamometer JAMAR, and postural stability using ALFA stabilometric platform. Significant differences depending on the pole dance advancement level were found in postural stability and hand-grip strength. The average values of the surface area and the length sway indicated by feet center of pressure were significantly decreasing with the increasing group experience (PStrength level was increasing with the consecutive advancement level (right hand χ2=9.595, P=0.008, left hand χ2=8.936, P=0.011). Regular practice of pole dance fitness can contribute to a significant increase of strength and improvement of the postural stability, which is important for the entire musculoskeletal system. However, further studies on the beneficial and negative (e.g. injuries) impact of exercises on the pole on the musculoskeletal system are required, including larger group of respondents, their diverse age and, above all, longitudinal studies.

  12. Processing facial expressions of emotion: upright vs. inverted images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eBimler

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied discrimination of briefly presented Upright vs. Inverted emotional facial expressions (FEs, hypothesising that inversion would impair emotion decoding by disrupting holistic FE processing. Stimuli were photographs of seven emotion prototypes, of a male and female poser (Ekman and Friesen, 1976, and eight intermediate morphs in each set. Subjects made speeded Same/Different judgements of emotional content for all Upright (U or Inverted (I pairs of FEs, presented for 500 ms, 100 times each pair. Signal Detection Theory revealed the sensitivity measure d' to be slightly but significantly higher for the Upright FEs. In further analysis using multidimensional scaling (MDS, percentages of Same judgements were taken as an index of pairwise perceptual similarity, separately for U and I presentation mode. The outcome was a 4D ‘emotion expression space’, with FEs represented as points and the dimensions identified as Happy–Sad, Surprise/Fear, Disgust and Anger. The solutions for U and I FEs were compared by means of cophenetic and canonical correlation, Procrustes analysis and weighted-Euclidean analysis of individual difference. Differences in discrimination produced by inverting FE stimuli were found to be small and manifested as minor changes in the MDS structure or weights of the dimensions. Solutions differed substantially more between the two posers, however. Notably, for stimuli containing elements of Happiness (whether U or I, the MDS structure revealed some signs of categorical perception, indicating that mouth curvature – the dominant feature conveying Happiness – is visually salient and receives early processing. The findings suggest that for briefly-presented FEs, Same/Different decisions are dominated by low-level visual analysis of abstract patterns of lightness and edge filters, but also reflect emerging featural analysis. These analyses, insensitive to face orientation, enable initial positive/negative Valence

  13. Do different groups have different risk factors for dieting and exercise as body management strategies?

    OpenAIRE

    Garrusi, Behshid; Baneshi, Mohammad; Amiri, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Aim – Body change strategies are activities that could be potentially harmful. Individuals may use different methods for achieving advertised ideal body. Some of demographic and psychosocial contributing factors could be affect decision regarding body management activities. In Iran there is a few research about this matter, therefore the aim of this study was exploring risk factors in body management. Materials and Methods – In this cross sectional study, 400 people participated that includin...

  14. Barbell kinematics should not be used to estimate power output applied to the Barbell-and-body system center of mass during lower-body resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A; Smith, Neal A

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare measures of power output applied to the center of mass of the barbell and body system (CM) obtained by multiplying ground reaction force (GRF) by (a) the velocity of the barbell; (b) the velocity of the CM derived from three-dimensional (3D) whole-body motion analysis, and (c) the velocity of the CM derived from GRF during lower-body resistance exercise. Ten resistance-trained men performed 3 maximal-effort single back squats with 60% 1 repetition maximum while GRF and whole-body motion were captured using synchronized Kistler force platforms and a Vicon Motus motion analysis system. Repeated measures analysis of variance of time-normalized kinematic and kinetic data obtained using the different methods showed that the barbell was displaced 13.4% (p barbell was 16.1% (p barbell was 18.7% (p barbell was significantly greater than the velocity of the trunk, upper leg, lower leg, and foot (p barbell (using inverse dynamics) or CM (GRF or 3D motion analysis). Failure to apply these suggestions could result in continued overestimation of CM power, compromising methodological integrity.

  15. Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-27

    Oct 27, 2016 ... while exercise-induced MMR is shown here to scale according to distribution network fractal dimensions. Hence, with a possibly obvious surface area explanatory cause, cold exposed MMR is left aside for present purposes. Initially developed for water flow description in river basins, network scaling laws ...

  16. Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central postulation of the present approach to metabolic rate scaling is that exercise-induced maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) is proportional to the fractal extent (V) of an animal. Total fractal extent can be calculated from the sum of the fractal extents of the capillary service units, as specified by the formula V ...

  17. A review of the benefits of whole body exercise during and after treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshbaum, Marilyn N

    2007-01-01

    A current critical review of the literature was deemed necessary to evaluate the strength of evidence to inform clinical practice. Recently, there has been a noticeable increase in empirical literature surrounding the benefits of exercise for breast cancer patients. A systematic search strategy was used to identify relevant literature. Twenty-nine articles were retained for critical review, appraised for quality and synthesized. Many early studies had limited internal and external validity. Recent studies were considerably more rigorous and robust. Consistent support for all types of aerobic exercise was most evident in studies of patients during adjuvant cancer treatments (chemotherapy and radiotherapy), compared with post-treatment studies. The evidence which suggested that aerobic exercise limits cancer-related fatigue was particularly strong. For other patient concerns, the empirical support was less robust, however, the potential for beneficial and measurable patient outcomes was indicated for cardiopulmonary function, overall quality of life, global health, strength, sleep, self-esteem and reduced weight gain, depression, anxiety and tiredness. Additional studies with higher methodological quality are required in this clinically relevant area to substantiate current indications particularly for patient subgroups (e.g. older people, those with advanced cancer and the disadvantaged). It is important for all healthcare professionals involved in the care of individuals affected by breast cancer to be aware of the evidence surrounding the benefits of exercise and to encourage patients to increase physical activity and improve their overall health and well-being.

  18. Development of a voxel phantom of Japanese adult male in upright posture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Endo, A.; Saito, K. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Noguchi, H. [Safety Administration Department, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-49 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1184 (Japan); Emoto, Y.; Koga, S. [Fujita Health University, School of Medicine, 1-98 Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake-cho, Toyoake-shi, Aichi-ken 470-1192 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    A Japanese voxel phantom in upright posture, JM2, has been developed on the basis of CT images of a healthy Japanese adult male. Body characteristics of JM2 were compared with those of the supine voxel phantom, JM, previously developed using CT images of the same person. Differences were found in the shapes of the spine and lower abdomen and the locations of several organs such as kidneys, liver and stomach between the two phantoms. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) for 24 target and 11 sources organs were calculated for monoenergetic photon ranging from 0.01 to 4 MeV. It was found that the SAFs for the kidneys as source organ and the lower large intestine wall as target organ in JM2 were significantly higher than those in JM for all photon energies. The differences of the SAFs between the two phantoms were attributed to the differences in the organ distance and organ geometry depending on the posture. (authors)

  19. Obesity, body image, and its impact on children's eating and exercise behaviors in China: A nationwide longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jungwon; Yan, Alice Fang; Wang, Vivian H C; Wang, Youfa

    2018-01-01

    Body image seems to mediate the association between obesity and health behaviors as well as weight control attempts. We examined the distribution of children's body image by demographic characteristics and their subsequent associations with eating, exercise, and weight change. Child body image and health behaviors from the China Health National Survey 2000-2011 were assessed at baseline and in follow-up for 6- to 17-year-old children during 2000-2011 using mixed models. There was a large discrepancy between children's actual weight status (overweight: 16.9%) vs. self-rated body image (fat: 2.4% in 2011). Less than 1% of children desired a fat body; girls were more likely to want to be thin (52.5% vs. 40.9%) than boys. About 11% of children needed to lose weight in order to be at their desired baseline. During follow-up, those needing weight loss to be as desired were more likely to attempt dieting to change their weight (OR, 95% CI=1.9, 1.1-3.5 in boys; 1.7, 1.1-2.5 in girls) and less likely to feel they had enough physical activity (OR, 95% CI=0.5, 0.4-0.7 in boys; 0.6, 0.5-0.9 in girls), although their weight gain had been significantly higher than those having consistent self and desired body images (β [SE]=0.4 [0.1] in boys; 0.2 [0.1] in girls, all p<0.05). However, no significant difference was shown in subsequent health behaviors among overweight children by body image discrepancy. The discrepancy in self vs. desired body image motivated children to change their obesity-related health behaviors among non-overweight children in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Do whole body vibration exercises affect lower limbs neuromuscular activity in populations with a medical condition? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionello, Carla Fontoura; de Souza, Patrícia Lopes; Sá-Caputo, Danubia; Morel, Danielle Soares; Moreira-Marconi, Eloá; Paineiras-Domingos, Laisa Liane; Frederico, Eric Heleno Freire Ferreira; Guedes-Aguiar, Eliane; Paiva, Patricia de Castro; Taiar, Redha; Chiementin, Xavier; Marín, Pedro J; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2017-01-01

    The use of surface electromyography (sEMG) to evaluate muscle activation when executing whole body vibration exercises (WBVE) in studies provide neuromuscular findings, in healthy and diseased populations. Perform a systematic review of the effects of WBVE by sEMG of lower limbs in non-healthy populations. The search using the defined keywords was performed in PubMed, PEDRo and EMBASE databases by three independent researchers. Applying the PRISMA statement several studies were selected according to eligibility criteria and organized for the review. Full papers were included if they described effects of WBVE for the treatment of illnesses, evaluated by sEMG of lower limbs independently on the year of the publication; in comparison or associated with other treatment and evaluation techniques. Seven publications were selected; two in spinal cord injury patients, one in Friedreich's ataxia patients, three in stroke patients and one study in breast cancer survivors. Reported effects of WBV in were muscle activation by sEMG and also on strength, blood flow and exercise resistance; even in paretic limbs. By the use of sEMG it was verified that WBVE elicits muscle activation in diseased population. These results may lead to the definition of exercise protocols to maintain or increase muscular activation. However, due to the heterogeneity of methods among studies, there is currently no consensus on the sEMG signal processing. These strategies might also induce effects on muscle strength, balance and flexibility in these and other illnesses.

  1. Complex network models reveal correlations among network metrics, exercise intensity and role of body changes in the fatigue process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vanessa Helena; Gama, Maria Carolina Traina; Sousa, Filipe Antônio Barros; Lewis, Theodore Gyle; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia Barros

    2015-05-21

    The aims of the present study were analyze the fatigue process at distinct intensity efforts and to investigate its occurrence as interactions at distinct body changes during exercise, using complex network models. For this, participants were submitted to four different running intensities until exhaustion, accomplished in a non-motorized treadmill using a tethered system. The intensities were selected according to critical power model. Mechanical (force, peak power, mean power, velocity and work) and physiological related parameters (heart rate, blood lactate, time until peak blood lactate concentration (lactate time), lean mass, anaerobic and aerobic capacities) and IPAQ score were obtained during exercises and it was used to construction of four complex network models. Such models have both, theoretical and mathematical value, and enables us to perceive new insights that go beyond conventional analysis. From these, we ranked the influences of each node at the fatigue process. Our results shows that nodes, links and network metrics are sensibility according to increase of efforts intensities, been the velocity a key factor to exercise maintenance at models/intensities 1 and 2 (higher time efforts) and force and power at models 3 and 4, highlighting mechanical variables in the exhaustion occurrence and even training prescription applications.

  2. Complex network models reveal correlations among network metrics, exercise intensity and role of body changes in the fatigue process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vanessa Helena; Gama, Maria Carolina Traina; Sousa, Filipe Antônio Barros; Lewis, Theodore Gyle; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia Barros

    2015-05-01

    The aims of the present study were analyze the fatigue process at distinct intensity efforts and to investigate its occurrence as interactions at distinct body changes during exercise, using complex network models. For this, participants were submitted to four different running intensities until exhaustion, accomplished in a non-motorized treadmill using a tethered system. The intensities were selected according to critical power model. Mechanical (force, peak power, mean power, velocity and work) and physiological related parameters (heart rate, blood lactate, time until peak blood lactate concentration (lactate time), lean mass, anaerobic and aerobic capacities) and IPAQ score were obtained during exercises and it was used to construction of four complex network models. Such models have both, theoretical and mathematical value, and enables us to perceive new insights that go beyond conventional analysis. From these, we ranked the influences of each node at the fatigue process. Our results shows that nodes, links and network metrics are sensibility according to increase of efforts intensities, been the velocity a key factor to exercise maintenance at models/intensities 1 and 2 (higher time efforts) and force and power at models 3 and 4, highlighting mechanical variables in the exhaustion occurrence and even training prescription applications.

  3. Mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation does not exacerbate central fatigue during subsequent whole-body endurance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin ePageaux

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation increases perception of effort and reduces performance during subsequent endurance exercise. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying these negative effects of mental fatigue are unclear. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental fatigue exacerbates central fatigue induced by whole-body endurance exercise. Twelve subjects performed 30 min of either an incongruent Stroop task to induce a condition of mental fatigue or a congruent Stroop task (control condition in a random and counterbalanced order. Both cognitive tasks (CT were followed by a whole-body endurance task (ET consisting of six minutes of cycling exercise at 80% of peak power output measured during a preliminary incremental test. Neuromuscular function of the knee extensors was assessed before and after CT, and after ET. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE was measured during ET. Both CT did not induce any decrease in maximal voluntary contraction (MVC torque (p=0.194. During ET, mentally fatigued subjects reported higher RPE (self-regulation 13.9 ± 3.0, control 13.3 ± 3.2, p=0.044. ET induced a similar decrease in MVC torque (self-regulation -17 ± 15 %, control -15 ± 11 %, p=0.001, maximal voluntary activation level (self-regulation -6 ± 9%, control -6 ± 7%, p=0.013 and resting twitch (self-regulation -30 ± 14%, control -32 ± 10%, P<0.001 in both conditions. These findings reject our hypothesis and confirm previous findings that mental fatigue does not reduce the capacity of the central nervous system to recruit the working muscles. The negative effect of mental fatigue on perception of effort does not reflect a greater development of either central or peripheral fatigue. Consequently, mentally fatigued subjects are still able to perform maximal exercise, but they are experiencing an altered performance during submaximal exercise due to higher-than-normal perception

  4. Functional synergies underlying control of upright posture during changes in head orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunse Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of human upright posture typically have stressed the need to control ankle and hip joints to achieve postural stability. Recent studies, however, suggest that postural stability involves multi degree-of-freedom (DOF coordination, especially when performing supra-postural tasks. This study investigated kinematic synergies related to control of the body's position in space (two, four and six DOF models and changes in the head's orientation (six DOF model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects either tracked a vertically moving target with a head-mounted laser pointer or fixated a stationary point during 4-min trials. Uncontrolled manifold (UCM analysis was performed across tracking cycles at each point in time to determine the structure of joint configuration variance related to postural stability or tracking consistency. The effect of simulated removal of covariance among joints on that structure was investigated to further determine the role of multijoint coordination. Results indicated that cervical joint motion was poorly coordinated with other joints to stabilize the position of the body center of mass (CM. However, cervical joints were coordinated in a flexible manner with more caudal joints to achieve consistent changes in head orientation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: An understanding of multijoint coordination requires reference to the stability/control of important performance variables. The nature of that coordination differs depending on the reference variable. Stability of upright posture primarily involved multijoint coordination of lower extremity and lower trunk joints. Consistent changes in the orientation of the head, however, required flexible coordination of those joints with motion of the cervical spine. A two-segment model of postural control was unable to account for the observed stability of the CM position during the tracking task, further supporting the need to consider multijoint coordination to

  5. A Controlled Intervention to Promote a Healthy Body Image, Reduce Eating Disorder Risk and Prevent Excessive Exercise among Trainee Health Education and Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…

  6. The effects of breathing exercise types on respiratory muscle activity and body function in patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Fragmentary studies on characteristics of respiratory muscles are being done to increase respiratory capacity by classifying exercises into voluntary respiratory exercise which relieves symptoms and prevents COPD and exercise using breathing exercise equipment. But this study found changes on respiratory pattern through changes on the activity pattern of agonist and synergist respiratory muscles and studied what effect they can have on body function improvement. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen subjects in experimental group I that respiratory exercise of diaphragm and 15 subjects in experimental group II that feedback respiratory exercise were randomly selected among COPD patients to find the effective intervention method for COPD patients. And intervention program was conducted for 5 weeks, three times a week, once a day and 30 minutes a session. They were measured with BODE index using respiratory muscle activity, pulmonary function, the six-minute walking test, dyspnea criteria and BMI Then the results obtained were compared and analyzed. [Results] There was a significant difference in sternocleidomastoid muscle and scalene muscle and in 6-minute walk and BODE index for body function. Thus the group performing feedback respiratory had more effective results for mild COPD patients. [Conclusion] Therefore, the improvement was significant regarding the activity of respiratory muscles synergists when breathing before doing breathing exercise. Although, it is valuable to reduce too much mobilization of respiratory muscles synergists through the proper intervention it is necessary to study body function regarding improvement of respiratory function for patients with COPD.

  7. BeUpright: Posture Correction Using Relational Norm Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaemyung; Huh, Jina; Kang, Bumsoo; Kim, Jinhan; Park, Taiwoo; Song, Junewha

    2016-05-01

    Research shows the critical role of social relationships in behavior change, and the advancement of mobile technologies brings new opportunities of using online social support for persuasive applications. In this paper, we propose Relational Norm Intervention (RNI) model for behavior change, which involves two individuals as a target user and a helper respectively. RNI model uses Negative Reinforcement and Other-Regarding Preferences as motivating factors for behavior change. The model features the passive participation of a helper who will undergo artificially generated discomforts (e.g., limited access to a mobile device) when a target user performs against a target behavior. Based on in-depth discussions from a two-phase design workshop, we designed and implemented BeUpright, a mobile application employing RNI model to correct sitting posture of a target user. Also, we conducted a two-week study to evaluate the effectiveness and user experience of BeUpright. The study showed that RNI model has a potential to increase efficacy, in terms of behavior change, compared to conventional notification approaches. The most influential factor of RNI model in the changing the behavior of target users was the intention to avoid discomforting their helpers. RNI model also showed a potential to help unmotivated individuals in behavior change. We discuss the mechanism of RNI model in relation to prior literature on behavior change and implications of exploiting discomfort in mobile behavior change services.

  8. Miniscrew-supported coil spring for molar uprighting: description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos de Oliveira Ruellas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since the beginning of miniscrews as orthodontic anchorage, many applications have been described in the literature. Among these, one is the uprighting of mesially inclined molars. In regard to the mechanical aspects, however, there is little information about the application of orthodontic forces using such devices. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe a miniscrew supported spring for uprighting of mesially inclined molars. With this device, one can achieve the correct use of orthodontic biomechanics, thus favoring more predictable tooth movements and preventing unwanted movements from occurring.INTRODUÇÃO: desde o surgimento dos mini-implantes como recurso de ancoragem ortodôntica, muitas aplicações têm sido descritas na literatura. Entre essas, cita-se a verticalização de molares inclinados para mesial. No entanto, pouco se fala da correta aplicação das forças ortodônticas nesses dispositivos, sob o ponto de vista mecânico. OBJETIVOS: o objetivo desse artigo foi demonstrar uma mola mini-implante suportada para verticalizar molares inclinados para mesial. Com esse dispositivo consegue-se correta aplicação da mecânica ortodôntica, favorecendo movimentos mais previsíveis e minimizando os movimentos indesejáveis.

  9. Effects of a 12-week exercise training programme on aerobic fitness, body composition, blood lipids and C-reactive protein in adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patricia C H; Chia, Michael Y H; Tsou, Ian Y Y; Wansaicheong, Gervais K L; Tan, Benedict; Wang, John C K; Tan, John; Kim, Chung Gon; Boh, Gerald; Lim, Darren

    2008-04-01

    Developing effective exercise programmes for the paediatric population is a strategy for decreasing obesity and is expected to help in eventually limiting obesity-associated long-term health and societal impact. In this study, the effects of a 12-week twice weekly additional exercise training, which comprised a combination of circuit-based resistance training and aerobic exercises, in additional to typical physical education sessions, on aerobic fitness, body composition and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipids were analysed in 13- to 14-year-old obese boys contrasted with a control group. Both the exercise group (EG, n = 12) and control group (CG, n = 12) participated in the typical 2 sessions of 40-minute physical education (PE) per week in schools, but only EG participated in additional 2 sessions per week of 45 to 60 minutes per session of exercise training, which comprised a combination of circuit-based resistance training and aerobic exercises maintained at 65% to 85% maximum heart rate (HRmax = 220 - age). Body composition was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Fasting serum CRP and blood lipids were analysed pre- and postexercise programme. Aerobic fitness was measured by an objective laboratory submaximal exercise test, PWC170 (Predicted Work Capacity at HR 170 bpm). Exercise training significantly improved lean muscle mass, body mass index, fitness, resting HR, systolic blood pressure and triglycerides in EG. Serum CRP concentrations were elevated at baseline in both groups, but training did not result in a change in CRP levels. In the CG, body weight increased significantly at the end of the 12-week period. This study supports the value of an additional exercise training programme, beyond the typical twice weekly physical education classes, to produce physiological benefits in the management of obesity in adolescents, including prevention of weight gain.

  10. Beneficial effects of training at the anaerobic threshold in addition to pharmacotherapy on weight loss, body composition, and exercise performance in women with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcelik O

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oguz Ozcelik,1 Yusuf Ozkan,2 Sermin Algul,1 Ramis Colak2,3 1Department of Physiology, 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, 3Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey Objective: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of weight loss achieved through orlistat therapy alone or a combination of orlistat and an aerobic exercise training program on aerobic fitness and body composition in obese females.Methods: Twenty-eight obese patients were randomly assigned to receive 12-week treatment with hypocaloric diet–orlistat or diet–orlistat–exercise. Each participant performed an incremental ramp exercise test every 4 weeks to measure aerobic fitness. Fourteen participants performed continuous exercise (approximately 45 minutes per session at a work rate corresponding to the anaerobic threshold three times per week.Results: A decrease in the fat mass to body weight ratio of 3.8% (P=0.006 was observed at the end of the 12 weeks in the orlistat group, while a decrease of 9.5% (P=0.001 was seen in the orlistat–exercise group. Maximal exercise capacity increased by 46.5% in the orlistat–exercise group and by 19.5% in the orlistat group.Conclusion: While orlistat therapy resulted in an improvement in body composition and aerobic fitness at the end of the 12-week period, its combination with exercise training provided improvements in the same parameters within the first 4 weeks of the study. These additional beneficial effects of combining aerobic exercise with orlistat therapy are important with regards to obesity-associated risk factors. Keywords: obesity, orlistat, body mass index, anaerobic threshold, aerobic fitness

  11. Effects of supplementation with L-glutamine and L-alanine in the body composition of rats submitted to resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Yule Coqueiro

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigated the effects of glutamine and alanine supplementation on body composition of rats submitted to resistance exercise. Wistar rats were submitted to eight-week of resistance exercise, which consisted of climbing a ladder with progressive loads (25–100% of body weight. In the last 21 days of training, animals were supplemented with L-glutamine and L-alanine, as a dipeptide or in their free form (DIP, GLN + ALA and ALA groups, or water (SED and CTRL groups. RE attenuated body weight gain and lipid contents of CTRL group (p < 0.05 vs. SED and DIP supplementation promoted an increase in tibialis muscle weight, as well as in protein content (p < 0.05 vs. CTRL. Taken together, our data indicated that resistance exercise improves body composition and dipeptide potentiated the muscle hypertrophic effect.

  12. The type of the functional cardiovascular response to upright posture is associated with arterial stiffness: a cross-sectional study in 470 volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvanainen, Anna M; Tikkakoski, Antti J; Koskela, Jenni K; Nordhausen, Klaus; Viitala, Jani M; Leskinen, Miia H; Kähönen, Mika A P; Kööbi, Tiit; Uitto, Marko T; Viik, Jari; Mustonen, Jukka T; Pörsti, Ilkka H

    2016-05-23

    In a cross-sectional study we examined whether the haemodynamic response to upright posture could be divided into different functional phenotypes, and whether the observed phenotypes were associated with known determinants of cardiovascular risk. Volunteers (n = 470) without medication with cardiovascular effects were examined using radial pulse wave analysis, whole-body impedance cardiography, and heart rate variability analysis. Based on the passive head-up tilt induced changes in systemic vascular resistance and cardiac output, the principal determinants of blood pressure, a cluster analysis was performed. The haemodynamic response could be clustered into 3 categories: upright increase in vascular resistance and decrease in cardiac output were greatest in the first (+45 % and -27 %, respectively), smallest in the second (+2 % and -2 %, respectively), and intermediate (+22 % and -13 %, respectively) in the third group. These groups were named as 'constrictor' (n = 109), 'sustainer' (n = 222), and 'intermediate' (n = 139) phenotypes, respectively. The sustainers were characterized by male predominance, higher body mass index, blood pressure, and also by higher pulse wave velocity, an index of large arterial stiffness, than the other groups (p response to upright posture could be clustered to 3 functional phenotypes. The sustainer phenotype, with smallest upright decrease in cardiac output and highest sympathovagal balance, was independently associated with increased large arterial stiffness. These results indicate an association of the functional haemodynamic phenotype with an acknowledged marker of cardiovascular risk. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01742702.

  13. Plasma pH does not influence the cerebral metabolic ratio during maximal whole body exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Rasmussen, Peter; Seifert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Exercise lowers the cerebral metabolic ratio of O2 to carbohydrate (glucose + 1/2 lactate) and metabolic acidosis appears to promote cerebral lactate uptake. However, the influence of pH on cerebral lactate uptake and, in turn, on the cerebral metabolic ratio during exercise is not known. Sodium...... bicarbonate (Bicarb, 1 m; 350–500 ml) or an equal volume of normal saline (Sal) was infused intravenously at a constant rate during a ‘2000 m' maximal ergometer row in six male oarsmen (23 ± 2 years; mean ± s.d.). During the Sal trial, pH decreased from 7.41 ± 0.01 at rest to 7.02 ± 0.02 but only to 7.36 ± 0...

  14. The effects of exercise training in addition to energy restriction on functional capacities and body composition in obese adults during weight loss: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clint T; Fraser, Steve F; Levinger, Itamar; Straznicky, Nora E; Dixon, John B; Reynolds, John; Selig, Steve E

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits.

  15. The effects of exercise training in addition to energy restriction on functional capacities and body composition in obese adults during weight loss: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint T Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. RESULTS: Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. CONCLUSION: Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits.

  16. The Effects of Exercise Training in Addition to Energy Restriction on Functional Capacities and Body Composition in Obese Adults during Weight Loss: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clint T.; Fraser, Steve F.; Levinger, Itamar; Straznicky, Nora E.; Dixon, John B.; Reynolds, John; Selig, Steve E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. Methods Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. Results Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. Conclusion Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits. PMID:24409219

  17. Effect of Post-Exercise Whole Body Vibration with Stretching on Mood State, Fatigue, and Soreness in Collegiate Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin J. Merrigan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Static stretching (SS during whole body vibration (WBV has been suggested for exercise recovery. The purpose was to compare post-exercise self-ratings of fatigue (FAT, mood state (BAM, soreness (SOR, and perceived exertion (RPE between SS and WBV+SS in swimmers (9 women, mean ± SD: 19.3 ± 1.3 year, 171 ± 5.7 cm, 67.6 ± 7.2 kg, 26.6 ± 4.1 %body fat (%BF; 10 men, mean ± SD: 19.7 ± 1.0 year, 183 ± 5.5 cm, 77.1 ± 4.2 kg, 13.1 ± 2.2 %BF. Athletes were divided by sex, event (sprint, distance, and assigned to SS or WBV+SS. Both conditions consisted of SS performed on the WBV platform with or without WBV (50 Hz, 6 mm. Sessions consisted of: pre and post measures of BAM, FAT, SOR; the condition; and RPE. Mixed factorial ANOVA were run. A significant condition by pre/post interaction was observed (p = 0.035. Post hoc analyses showed WBV+SS elicited lower post-exercise ratings of FAT (p = 0.002 and the BAM affective states, of tension (p = 0.031, and fatigue (p = 0.087. RPE did not differ between conditions. Of interest is the decrease in tension and fatigue noted by the BAM. Mood state can be indicative of how athletes adapt to training volume and intensity.

  18. The Distribution of Body Weight Force on Toe and Heel before and after Exercise Therapy in Children with Spastic Diplegia Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Sharif-Moradi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the distribution of body weight force on toe and heel before and after exercise therapy and its effects on relaxation of children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy. Materials & Methods: Ten children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy between 8 to15 years of age participated in this study. Their mean weight and height were (30.8kg ± 5.7kg and (1.35m±0.09m respectively. Subjects underwent a 12 weeks of exercise therapy. A dynamic stability platform system (BIODEX was used to measure the mean percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal. The balance tests were repeated on stable, almost stable and unstable base of support as well as with and without shoes. Results: Showed that the mean percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal after exercise therapy was not significant (p>0.05. The mean percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal was significantly decrease after exercise therapy in both with and without shoes (p<0.05. The greatest improvement achieved on almost stable and unstable conditions. Wearing shoes resulted in a balance percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal on stable situation of stability platform the percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal has no difference before and after exercise therapy. After exercise therapy strengthening the muscle of the ankle joint balance the percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal. Wearing shoes decrease the muscle stretch and therefore balance the percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal. Conclusion: The flexibility of spastic muscle and strengthening of the relax muscle must be perform. This result provides good information for physician in recognizing and therapy impacts on cerebral palsy children.

  19. Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Mike D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study's purpose investigated the impact of different macronutrient distributions and varying caloric intakes along with regular exercise for metabolic and physiological changes related to weight loss. Methods One hundred forty-one sedentary, obese women (38.7 ± 8.0 yrs, 163.3 ± 6.9 cm, 93.2 ± 16.5 kg, 35.0 ± 6.2 kg•m-2, 44.8 ± 4.2% fat were randomized to either no diet + no exercise control group (CON a no diet + exercise control (ND, or one of four diet + exercise groups (high-energy diet [HED], very low carbohydrate, high protein diet [VLCHP], low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet [LCMP] and high carbohydrate, low protein [HCLP] in addition to beginning a 3x•week-1 supervised resistance training program. After 0, 1, 10 and 14 weeks, all participants completed testing sessions which included anthropometric, body composition, energy expenditure, fasting blood samples, aerobic and muscular fitness assessments. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05 with LSD post-hoc analysis when appropriate. Results All dieting groups exhibited adequate compliance to their prescribed diet regimen as energy and macronutrient amounts and distributions were close to prescribed amounts. Those groups that followed a diet and exercise program reported significantly greater anthropometric (waist circumference and body mass and body composition via DXA (fat mass and % fat changes. Caloric restriction initially reduced energy expenditure, but successfully returned to baseline values after 10 weeks of dieting and exercising. Significant fitness improvements (aerobic capacity and maximal strength occurred in all exercising groups. No significant changes occurred in lipid panel constituents, but serum insulin and HOMA-IR values decreased in the VLCHP group. Significant reductions in serum leptin occurred in all caloric restriction + exercise groups after 14 weeks, which were unchanged in other non-diet/non-exercise

  20. The effects of quercetin supplementation on body composition, exercise performance and muscle damage indices in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Askari

    2013-01-01

    Results: Lean body mass, total body water, basal metabolic rate, and total energy expenditure increased significantly in the quercetin group after intervention. On the other hand, VO 2max increased in the "quercetin" and "quercetin + vitamin C" groups following the intervention, non-significantly. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that supplementation with quercetin in athletes may improve some indices of performance.

  1. Validity of Devices That Assess Body Temperature During Outdoor Exercise in the Heat

    OpenAIRE

    Casa, Douglas J; Becker, Shannon M; Ganio, Matthew S; Brown, Christopher M; Yeargin, Susan W; Roti, Melissa W; Siegler, Jason; Blowers, Julie A; Glaviano, Neal R; Huggins, Robert A; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2007-01-01

    Context: Rectal temperature is recommended by the National Athletic Trainers' Association as the criterion standard for recognizing exertional heat stroke, but other body sites commonly are used to measure temperature. Few authors have assessed the validity of the thermometers that measure body temperature at these sites in athletic settings.

  2. The effect of body posture during medication inhalation on exercise induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, R.; Wind, M.; de Graaf, B.J.; de Jong, F.H.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Thio, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Inhaling medication in a standard body posture leads to impaction of particles in the sharp angle of the upper airway. Stretching the upper airway by extending the neck in a forward leaning body posture may improve pulmonary deposition. A single dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)

  3. Correlations between measurement time and different expansibility of the elastic tape on the rectus femoris and body sway index with plyometric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung-Gyu

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between measurement time and different expansibility of the elastic tape on the rectus femoris and body sway index with plyometric exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 24 healthy men. C90 area, C90 angle, trace length, sway average velocity for body sway index were measured using a force plate by BT4. The collected data were analyzed using Kendall's coefficient of concordance. [Results] All of body sway index on measuring follow up 24 hours after removing tape were significantly decreased than before and right after plyometric exercise. No significant correlations were found between body sway index and different expansibility of the elastic tape. [Conclusion] It appears that different expansibility of the elastic tape does not affect the ability to body sway index. Carry over effect of taping was verified on measuring follow up 24 hours after removing tape through the decreasing body sway index.

  4. Ejection fraction response to exercise in patients with chest pain and normal coronary arteriograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, R.L.; Lee, K.L.; Cobb, F.; Jones, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    In this study we describe the ejection fraction response to upright exercise using first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography in a group of 60 patients with chest pain, normal coronary ateriograms and normal resting ventricular function. A wide range of resting function (heart rate and ejection fraction) and exercise function (heart rate, ejection fraction, peak work load and estimated peak oxygen uptake) were measured. The ejection fraction response to exercise demonstrated wide variation, ranging from a decrease of 23% to an increase of 24%. Six of 22 clinical and radionuclide angiocardiographic variables (resting ejection fraction, peak work load, age, sex, body surface area and the change in end-diastolic volume index with exercise) were significant univariate predictors of the ejection fraction response to exercise. Multivariable analysis identified resting ejection fraction, the change in end-diastolic volume index with exercise and either sex or peak work load as variables that provided significant independent predictive information. These observations indicate that the ejection fraction response to exercise is a complex response that is influenced by multiple physiologic variables. The wide variation in this population suggests that the ejection fraction response to exercise is not a reliable test for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease because of its low specificity

  5. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and body satisfaction. An application of the transtheoretical model in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guicciardi, Marco; Lecis, Romina; Anziani, Chiara; Corgiolu, Lucina; Porru, Adele; Pusceddu, Matteo; Spanu, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a relevant component of the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, to prevent its related morbidities, PA requires an immediate and lasting change of lifestyle. Exercise self-efficacy and body satisfaction were used in a sample of older adults with T2DM, classified in different stages of change, to predict levels of PA. Results show that exercise self-efficacy increases linearly from precontemplation to maintenance stage, while body satisfaction shows an inverted U shape. However, only stages of change, other than exercise self-efficacy, add a significant and noticeable contribution to prediction of levels of PA. This evidence claims a tailored approach to PA in older adults with T2DM and advises behavioural health interventions based on exercise self-efficacy.

  6. H eat storage in upper and lower body during high-intensity exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: SCI athletes experienced similar upper-body heat storage of 0.82±0.59 J.g-1 and lower-body heat storage of 0.47±0.33 J.g-1 compared with that of AB athletes at 0.80±0.61 J.g-1 and 0.27±0.22 J.g-1 for upper and lower body, respectively. There were no significant differences between groups for rectal temperature ...

  7. Salivary immunoglobulin A in healthy adolescent females: effects of maximal exercise, physical activity, body composition, and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Hermann J; Kendall, Bradley J; Fahlman, Mariane M; Gothe, Neha P; Bourbeau, Kelsey C

    2017-09-22

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute maximal exercise (VO2max test) on salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA) responses in adolescent females. A secondary aim was to examine the relationship between resting SIgA levels and VO2max, physical activity, body composition, and diet. Fifty healthy female adolescents completed a laboratory based VO2max test, assessment of body composition via hydrodensitometry, a validated physical activity questionnaire (PAQ- A), and a 3-day food diary. Unstimulated saliva was collected before, and 5-min and 120-min post VO2max testing. Absolute SIgA (μg/ml) concentration was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Secretion rate of SIgA (μg/min) was calculated by multiplying absolute SIgA concentration by saliva flow rate (SFR, μl/min). A significant increase in absolute SIgA concentration (146.8±59.2 μg/ml) was noted immediately after VO2max testing (p0.05). No significant VO2max test effects were observed for SIgA secretion rate and SFR (p>0.05). VO2max values (41.92±6.36 ml/kg/min) were correlated with body fat percentage (r= -.59; p0.05) except for dietary fiber which correlated with resting absolute SIgA concentration (r= .29; p<0.05). Findings indicate that acute graded maximal exercise results in a transient increase in absolute SIgA concentration and that these changes are associated with individual VO2max values.

  8. Exercise and physical therapy help restore body and self in clients with severe anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Kolnes, Liv-Jorunn

    2017-01-01

    I Brage finner du siste tekst-versjon av artikkelen, og den kan inneholde ubetydelige forskjeller fra forlagets pdf-versjon. Forlagets pdf-versjon finner du på www.sciencedirect.com / In Brage you'll find the final text version of the article, and it may contain insignificant differences from the journal's pdf version. The definitive version is available at www.sciencedirect.com Exercise in the context of anorexia nervosa is a multifaceted endeavour surrounded by controversy and uncertaint...

  9. Influence of body temperature on the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Tino Hoffmann

    1999-01-01

    the influence of rate of heat storage (0.10 vs. 0.05°C/min induced by a water-perfused jacket), four cyclists performed two additional exercise bouts, starting with Tes of 37.0°C. Despite different initial temperatures, all subjects fatigued at an identical level of hyperthermia (Tes = 40.1-40.2°C, muscle......, respectively, P stroke volume paralleled the rise in core temperature (36-40°C), with skin blood flow plateauing...

  10. Cerebral volumetric changes induced by prolonged hypoxic exposure and whole-body exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Rupp, Thomas; Jubeau, Marc; Lamalle, Laurent; Warnking, Jan M; Millet, Guillaume Y; Wuyam, Bernard; Esteve, François; Levy, Patrick; Krainik, Alexandre; Verges, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The present study assessed the isolated and synergetic effects of hypoxic exposure and prolonged exercise on cerebral volume and subedema and symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Twelve healthy males performed three semirandomized blinded 11-hour sessions with (1) an inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2) of 12% and 4-hour cycling, (2) FiO2=21% and 4-hour cycling, and (3) FiO2=8.5% to 12% at rest (matching arterial oxygen saturation measured during the first hypoxic session). Volumetric, ap...

  11. The effects of exercise on muscle strength, body composition, physical functioning and the inflammatory profile of older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Keliane; Forti, Louis N; Beyer, Ingo; Bautmans, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review reports the most recent literature regarding the effects of physical exercise on muscle strength, body composition, physical functioning and inflammation in older adults. All articles were assessed for methodological quality and where possible effect size was calculated. Thirty-four articles were included - four involving frail, 24 healthy and five older adults with a specific disease. One reported on both frail and nonfrail patients. Several types of exercise were used: resistance training, aerobic training, combined resistance training and aerobic training and others. In frail older persons, moderate-to-large beneficial exercise effects were noted on inflammation, muscle strength and physical functioning. In healthy older persons, effects of resistance training (most frequently investigated) on inflammation or muscle strength can be influenced by the exercise modalities (intensity and rest interval between sets). Muscle strength seemed the most frequently used outcome measure, with moderate-to-large effects obtained regardless the exercise intervention studied. Similar effects were found in patients with specific diseases. Exercise has moderate-to-large effects on muscle strength, body composition, physical functioning and inflammation in older adults. Future studies should focus on the influence of specific exercise modalities and target the frail population more.

  12. Restrictions in systemic and locomotor skeletal muscle perfusion, oxygen supply and VO2 during high-intensity whole-body exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, S.P.; Damsgaard, R.; Dawson, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Perfusion to exercising skeletal muscle is regulated to match O(2) delivery to the O(2) demand, but this regulation might be compromised during or approaching maximal whole-body exercise as muscle blood flow for a given work rate is blunted. Whether muscle perfusion is restricted when there is an......Perfusion to exercising skeletal muscle is regulated to match O(2) delivery to the O(2) demand, but this regulation might be compromised during or approaching maximal whole-body exercise as muscle blood flow for a given work rate is blunted. Whether muscle perfusion is restricted when...... there is an extreme metabolic stimulus to vasodilate during supramaximal exercise remains unknown. To examine the regulatory limits of systemic and muscle perfusion in exercising humans, we measured systemic and leg haemodynamics, O(2) transport, and , and estimated non-locomotor tissue perfusion during constant load...... supramaximal cycling (498 +/- 16 W; 110% of peak power; mean +/- S.E.M.) in addition to both incremental cycling and knee-extensor exercise to exhaustion in 13 trained males. During supramaximal cycling, cardiac output (Q), leg blood flow (LBF), and systemic and leg O(2) delivery and reached peak values after...

  13. Effects of an Exercise Programme on Functional Capacity, Body Composition and Risk of Falls in Patients with Cirrhosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Román

    Full Text Available Patients with cirrhosis often have functional limitations, decreased muscle mass, and a high risk of falls. These variables could improve with exercise. The aim was to study the effects of moderate exercise on functional capacity, body composition and risk of falls in patients with cirrhosis. Twenty-three cirrhotic patients were randomized to an exercise programme (n = 14 or to a relaxation programme (n = 9. Both programmes consisted of a one-hour session 3 days a week for 12 weeks. At the beginning and end of the study, we measured functional capacity using the cardiopulmonary exercise test, evaluated body composition using anthropometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and estimated risk of falls using the Timed Up&Go test. In the exercise group, cardiopulmonary exercise test showed an increase in total effort time (p<0.001 and ventilatory anaerobic threshold time (p = 0.009. Upper thigh circumference increased and mid-arm and mid-thigh skinfold thickness decreased. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry showed a decrease in fat body mass (-0.94 kg, 95%CI -0.48 to -1.41, p = 0.003 and an increase in lean body mass (1.05 kg, 95%CI 0.27 to 1.82, p = 0.01, lean appendicular mass (0.38 kg, 95%CI 0.06 to 0.69, p = 0.03 and lean leg mass (0.34 kg, 95%CI 0.10 to 0.57, p = 0.02. The Timed Up&Go test decreased at the end of the study compared to baseline (p = 0.02. No changes were observed in the relaxation group. We conclude that a moderate exercise programme in patients with cirrhosis improves functional capacity, increases muscle mass, and decreases body fat and the Timed Up&Go time.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01447537.

  14. Risk of jugular compression blocks in workers exposed to prolonged upright posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sio, S; Mandolesi, S; Niglio, T; D'Alessandro, Aldo; D'Alessandro, Alessandro; Vitarelli, A; Ricci, S

    2016-01-01

    The working posture affects the peripheral venous circulation, although the current literature does not report any correlation between working posture and the abnormalities of the jugular veins flow. The purpose of this preliminary research is to study, in female workers, the prevalence of Venous Compressive Syndrome (VCS) caused by total block of the internal jugular veins flow, so-called "White Compression". Due to complete compression by postural, muscular, fascial, anatomical or bone anomalies, White Compression is not visible by EchoColorDoppler (ECD) and its flow can only be detected by the rotational movements of the head or by Valsalva's maneuver. We studied a sample of female workers with ECD (n=128), in supine and upright position divided into subgroups according to the obliged posture maintained during working hours: group A, seated work (n = 61; 47.7%); group B, standing work (n = 41; 32.0%); group C, mixed (both standing and seated work) (n = 26; 20.3%). The total sample (n = 128) had the mean age of 46 ± 10 years (minimum 18 and maximum 67 years) and mean Body Mass Index (BMI) of 23 ± 4 kg/m2 (min 16 kg/m2 and a maximum of 42 kg/m2). Group A and group C did not show any White Compression in orthostatic and clinostatic position. The 9.75% (p = 0.0125) of Group B had a White Compression in orthostatic position: two female workers on the left side (4.9%) and two female workers on the right side (4.9%). We conclude that there is a risk of jugular compression blocks in female workers exposed to prolonged upright posture. Yet there is no longitudinal study that identifies the White Compressions as etiology of a chronic neurodegenerative disease. The authors hope that some wider studies can confirm the prevalence of these compressions in standing posture and their patho-physiological consequences.

  15. A comparison of hydration effect on body fluid and temperature regulation between Malaysian and Japanese males exercising at mild dehydration in humid heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Lee, Joo-Young; Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Saat, Mohamed; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2014-02-04

    This study investigated the effect of hydration differences on body fluid and temperature regulation between tropical and temperate indigenes exercising in the heat. Ten Japanese and ten Malaysian males with matched physical characteristics (height, body weight, and peak oxygen consumption) participated in this study. Participants performed exercise for 60 min at 55% peak oxygen uptake followed by a 30-min recovery at 32°C and 70% relative air humidity with hydration (4 times each, 3 mL per kg body weight, 37°C) or without hydration. Rectal temperature, skin temperature, heart rate, skin blood flow, and blood pressure were measured continuously. The percentage of body weight loss and total sweat loss were calculated from body weight measurements. The percentage change in plasma volume was estimated from hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit. Malaysian participants had a significantly lower rectal temperature, a smaller reduction in plasma volume, and a lower heart rate in the hydrated condition than in the non-hydrated condition at the end of exercise (P hydration conditions. Hydration induced a greater total sweat loss in both groups (P hydrated Malaysians was significantly less than in hydrated Japanese (P hydration conditions was observed for the percentage of mean cutaneous vascular conductance during exercise relative to baseline (P hydrated Malaysians indicated an advantage in body fluid regulation. This may enable Malaysians to reserve more blood for circulation and heat dissipation and thereby maintain lower rectal temperatures in a hydrated condition.

  16. Afferent thermosensory function in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis following exercise-induced increases in body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Chaseling, Georgia; Hoang, Phu; Barnett, Michael; Davis, Scott L; Jay, Ollie

    2017-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? Between 60 and 80% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients experience transient worsening of symptoms with increased body temperature (heat sensitivity). As sensory abnormalities are common in MS, we asked whether afferent thermosensory function is altered in MS following exercise-induced increases in body temperature. What is the main finding and its importance? Increases in body temperature of as little as ∼0.4°C were sufficient to decrease cold, but not warm, skin thermosensitivity (∼10%) in MS, across a wider temperature range than in age-matched healthy individuals. These findings provide new evidence on the impact of heat sensitivity on afferent function in MS, which could be useful for clinical evaluation of this neurological disease. In multiple sclerosis (MS), increases in body temperature result in transient worsening of clinical symptoms (heat sensitivity or Uhthoff's phenomenon). Although the impact of heat sensitivity on efferent physiological function has been investigated, the effects of heat stress on afferent sensory function in MS are unknown. Hence, we quantified afferent thermosensory function in MS following exercise-induced increases in body temperature with a new quantitative sensory test. Eight relapsing-remitting MS patients (three men and five women; 51.4 ± 9.1 years of age; Expanded Disability Status Scale score 2.8 ± 1.1) and eight age-matched control (CTR) subjects (five men and three women; 47.4 ± 9.1 years of age) rated the perceived magnitude of two cold (26 and 22°C) and two warm stimuli (34 and 38°C) applied to the dorsum of the hand before and after 30 min cycling in the heat (30°C air; 30% relative humidity). Exercise produced similar increases in mean body temperature in MS [+0.39°C (95% CI: +0.21, +0.53) P = 0.001] and CTR subjects [+0.41°C (95% CI: +0.25, +0.58) P = 0.001]. These changes were sufficient to decrease thermosensitivity significantly to all cold [26

  17. The Ottawa panel clinical practice guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis. Part one: introduction, and mind-body exercise programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, Lucie; Taki, Jade; Desjardins, Brigit; Thevenot, Odette; Fransen, Marlene; Wells, George A; Imoto, Aline Mizusaki; Toupin-April, Karine; Westby, Marie; Gallardo, Inmaculada C Álvarez; Gifford, Wendy; Laferrière, Lucie; Rahman, Prinon; Loew, Laurianne; Angelis, Gino De; Cavallo, Sabrina; Shallwani, Shirin Mehdi; Aburub, Ala'; Bennell, Kim L; Van der Esch, Martin; Simic, Milena; McConnell, Sara; Harmer, Alison; Kenny, Glen P; Paterson, Gail; Regnaux, Jean-Philippe; Lefevre-Colau, Marie-Martine; McLean, Linda

    2017-05-01

    To identify effective mind-body exercise programs and provide clinicians and patients with updated, high-quality recommendations concerning non-traditional land-based exercises for knee osteoarthritis. A systematic search and adapted selection criteria included comparative controlled trials with mind-body exercise programs for patients with knee osteoarthritis. A panel of experts reached consensus on the recommendations using a Delphi survey. A hierarchical alphabetical grading system (A, B, C+, C, D, D+, D-) was used, based on statistical significance ( P mind-body exercise programs are promising for improving the management of knee osteoarthritis. Hatha Yoga demonstrated significant improvement for pain relief (Grade B) and physical function (Grade C+). Tai Chi Qigong demonstrated significant improvement for quality of life (Grade B), pain relief (Grade C+) and physical function (Grade C+). Sun style Tai Chi gave significant improvement for pain relief (Grade B) and physical function (Grade B). Mind-body exercises are promising approaches to reduce pain, as well as to improve physical function and quality of life for individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

  18. Intrinsic motivation in two exercise interventions: Associations with fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Shepherd, Sam O; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Wagenmakers, Anton J M; Shaw, Christopher S

    2016-02-01

    To examine the motivational process through which increases in aerobic capacity and decreases in total body fat are achieved during high-intensity intermittent training (HIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) interventions. Eighty-seven physically inactive adults (65% women, age = 42 ± 12, BMI = 27.67 ± 4.99 kg/m²) took part in a 10-week randomized intervention testing group-based HIT, operationalized as repeated sprints of 15-60 s interspersed with periods of recovery cycling ≤ 25 min/session, 3 sessions/wk⁻¹, or MICT, operationalized as cycling at constant workload of ∼65% maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max, 30-45 min/session⁻¹, 5 sessions/wk⁻¹. Assessments of VO2max and total body fat were made pre- and postintervention. Motivation variables were assessed midintervention and class attendance was monitored throughout. Path analysis was employed, controlling for treatment arm and baseline values of VO2max and total body fat. The 2 groups differed in adherence only, favoring HIT. Baseline VO2max predicted intrinsic motivation midintervention. Intrinsic motivation predicted program adherence, which in turn predicted increases in VO2max and decreases in total body fat by the end of the study. Intrinsic motivation in HIT and MICT is positively linked to adherence to these programs, which can facilitate improvements in fitness and body composition. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Struggling with cancer and treatment: young athletes recapture body control and identity through exercise: qualitative findings from a supervised group exercise program in cancer patients of mixed gender undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, L.; Andersen, C.; Midtgaard, J.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer and treatment can negatively affect the body's performance and appearance. Exercise has been tested in a few studies for altered body image among middle-aged women with breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore how young pre-cancer athletes of both genders experience disease......- and treatment-related physical fitness and appearance changes while undergoing chemotherapy and participating in a 6-week group exercise intervention. A prospective, explorative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted before and at termination of the intervention. The study included 22 cancer...... patients (median age 28 years). The young athletes experienced a change from a high level of physical activity, body satisfaction and a positive self-identity to a low level of physical activity, body denial and a negative self-identity. In the program, the patients experienced increased physical strength...

  20. The Ability to Assume the Upright Position in Blind and Sighted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipsman, Sandra Curtis

    To investigate the ability of 48 blind and partially sighted children (8 to 10 and 12 to 14 years old) to assume the upright position, Ss were given six trials in which they were requested to move themselves from a tilted starting position in a specially constructed chair to an upright position. No significant differences were found between three…

  1. Very Short Gastroesophageal Acid Reflux during the Upright Position Could Be Associated with Asthma in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinori Yoshida

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: Reflux during the upright position was associated with asthmatic symptoms. The mean number of acid refluxes/h during the upright position in addition to the reflux index could be useful in the diagnosis of GERD when associated with asthma.

  2. Destabilization of the Upright Posture Through Elevation of the Center of Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dounskaia, Natalia; Peterson, Daniel; Bruhns, Ryan P

    2018-02-01

    The inverted pendulum model predicts that the major challenge for neural control of the upright posture is the inherent instability of the body due to the center of mass (COM) being above the base of support (BOS). If so, even slight elevation of the COM may substantially destabilize posture. The destabilizing effect of heavy load positioned above the COM has been demonstrated. We examined sensitivity of posture to light (1-5% of body weight) load by placing weights on the shoulders and assessing functional reach distance in the forward, right, and left directions and postural sway during quiet stance. At each load level, the quiet stance task was tested with and without vision. The 1% of body weight load significantly shortened reach distance in the forward direction. It also increased postural sway. Interestingly, additional weight did not result in further deficits. The results support high sensitivity of postural stability to COM elevation that increases the challenge for neural control of posture and that can potentially be used for early detection of declines in postural stability.

  3. Determinants of pregnancy and postpartum depression: prospective influences of depressive symptoms, body image satisfaction, and exercise behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Danielle Symons; DiNallo, Jennifer M; Kirner, Tiffany L

    2008-08-01

    Limited research has prospectively examined women's exercise and psychological health behaviors before, during, and after pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between and the extent to which depressive symptoms (DS), body image satisfaction (BIS), and exercise behavior (EB) prospectively explained trimester-specific and postpartum depression. Participants (N = 230 pregnant women) completed self-reported measures midway through their first, second, and third trimesters and at 6-weeks postpartum from 2005 to 2007. Women were also classified based on current activity guidelines as active and somewhat active to examine the moderating influence of pre-pregnancy EB on the contributions of the study variables for explaining DS. We found that : (a) DS, BIS, and EB were associated across the three pregnancy time points and postpartum, (b) DS and BIS were main determinants of later depression in pregnancy and postpartum, and (c) the moderating influence of pre-pregnancy EB was evident in early pregnancy. These preliminary findings suggest that DS and BIS are important psychological factors for intervention to improve women's pregnancy and postpartum psychological health and that EB in the pre-pregnancy period may offer women protective effects against DS in early pregnancy.

  4. WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION EXERCISE IS WELL TOLERATED IN PATIENTS WITH DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Marconi, Eloá; Sá-Caputo, Danubia C; Dionello, Carla F; Guedes-Aguiar, Eliane O; Sousa-Gonçalves, Cintia R; Morel, Danielle S; Paineiras-Domingos, Laisa L; Souza, Patricia L; Kütter, Cristiane R; Costa-Cavalcanti, Rebeca G; Costa, Glenda; Paiva, Patricia C; Figueiredo, Claudia; Brandão-Sobrinho-Neto, Samuel; Stark, Christina; Unger, Marianne; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by a defective gene located on the X-chromosome, responsible for the production of the dystrophin protein. Complications in the musculoskeletal system have been previously described in DMD patients. Whole body vibration exercise (WBVE) is a treatment that improves musculoskeletal function in movement disorders. The aim of this study was to review the effects of WBVE on functional mobility, bone and muscle in DMD patients. Four databases were searched. Three eligible studies were found; all three conclude the management of DMD patients with WBV was clinically well tolerated. The studies used a side-alternating WBV system, frequencies 7 - 24 Hz; and amplitudes 2 - 4 mm. A work indicates that a temporary increase in creatine kinase in DMD during the first days of WBV was observed, but other authors did not find changes. No significant changes in bone mass, muscle strength or bone markers. Some patients reported subjective functional improvement during training. Interpretation. It is concluded that WBV seems to be a feasible and well tolerated exercise modality in DMD patients.

  5. Body dimensions, exercise capacity and physical activity level of adolescent Nandi boys in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Bøgh; Christensen, Dirk Lund; Nolan, T

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize untrained Nandi boys (mean age 16.6 years) from a town (n = 11) and from a rural area (n = 19) in western Kenya (altitude approximately 2000 m.a.s.l.) in regard to their body dimensions, oxygen uptake and physical activity level. The town boys had a mean...... that the body dimensions of adolescent Nandi town and village boys corresponds well with findings in Kenyan elite runners. They are very slender with relatively long legs. In addition, the VO(2 max) of the village boys was higher than that of the town boys, which is probably due to a higher physical activity...

  6. Cardiac output response to changes of the atrioventricular delay in different body positions and during exercise in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhlberg, Marcus; Damgaard, Morten; Norsk, Peter

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to study the haemodynamic effect of atrioventricular delay (AVD) modifications within a narrow range in different body positions and during exercise in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). METHODS: The previously optimized AVD was shortened...... and prolonged by 40 ms in 27 CRT patients and 9 controls without heart failure. Cardiac output (CO) was measured by inert gas rebreathing (Innocor) as the average over different body positions (left-lateral, supine, sitting, standing, and exercise). In eight CRT patients with an implantable haemodynamic monitor.......61, Pnarrow range is larger in CRT patients than in normal...

  7. Cerebral volumetric changes induced by prolonged hypoxic exposure and whole-body exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Thomas; Jubeau, Marc; Lamalle, Laurent; Warnking, Jan M; Millet, Guillaume Y; Wuyam, Bernard; Esteve, François; Levy, Patrick; Krainik, Alexandre; Verges, Samuel

    2014-11-01

    The present study assessed the isolated and synergetic effects of hypoxic exposure and prolonged exercise on cerebral volume and subedema and symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Twelve healthy males performed three semirandomized blinded 11-hour sessions with (1) an inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2) of 12% and 4-hour cycling, (2) FiO2=21% and 4-hour cycling, and (3) FiO2=8.5% to 12% at rest (matching arterial oxygen saturation measured during the first hypoxic session). Volumetric, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and arterial spin labelling 3T magnetic resonance imaging sequences were performed after 30 minutes and 10 hours in each session. Thirty minutes of hypoxia at rest induced a significant increase in white-matter volume (+0.8±1.0% compared with normoxia) that was exacerbated after 10 hours of hypoxia at rest (+1.5±1.1%) or with cycling (+1.6±1.1%). Total brain parenchyma volume increased significantly after 10 hours of hypoxia with cycling only (+1.3±1.1%). Apparent diffusion coefficient was significantly reduced after 10 hours of hypoxia at rest or with cycling. No significant change in cerebral blood flow was observed. These results demonstrate changes in white-matter volume as early as after 30 minutes of hypoxia that worsen after 10 hours, probably due to cytotoxic edema. Exercise accentuates the effect of hypoxia by increasing total brain volume. These changes do not however correlate with AMS symptoms.

  8. Effects of Running Shoes with Abrasion Resistant Rubber Sole on the Exercise Capacity of the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization, rubber has been gradually used in the manufacture of sports equipment for its favourable properties. This study involved the addition of C5 petroleum resin into brominated isobutylene-isoprene rubber (BIIR and butadiene rubber (BR while manufacturing the sole of running shoes. The effects of running shoes with abrasion resistant rubber sole on the exercise capacity of the human body were investigated by analysing the skid resistance and abrasion resistance of the running shoes, and conducting biomechanical study on naked feet and feet wearing the shoes. The results demonstrated that the rubber sole had favourable slip resistance property and mechanical properties such as stretching, abrasion resistance, and hardness. Compared to naked feet, the peak pressure intensity of the whole step of feet wearing the newly developed shoes, was significantly lower than that of feet wearing ordinary shoes. In the future, rubber can bring more comfortable experience because of its favourable properties.

  9. A chinese mind-body exercise improves self-control of children with autism: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S Chan

    Full Text Available Self-control problems commonly manifest as temper outbursts and repetitive/rigid/impulsive behaviors, in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, which often contributes to learning difficulties and caregiver burden. The present study aims to compare the effect of a traditional Chinese Chan-based mind-body exercise, Nei Yang Gong, with that of the conventional Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR technique in enhancing the self-control of children with ASD. Forty-six age- and IQ-matched ASD children were randomly assigned to receive group training in Nei Yang Gong (experimental group or PMR (control group twice per week for four weeks. The participants' self-control was measured by three neuropsychological tests and parental rating on standardized questionnaires, and the underlying neural mechanism was assessed by the participants' brain EEG activity during an inhibitory-control task before and after intervention. The results show that the experimental group demonstrated significantly greater improvement in self-control than the control group, which concurs with the parental reports of reduced autistic symptoms and increased control of temper and behaviors. In addition, the experimental group showed enhanced EEG activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region that mediates self-control, whereas the PMR group did not. The present findings support the potential application of Chinese Chan-based mind-body exercises as a form of neuropsychological rehabilitation for patients with self-control problems. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry; Registration No.: ChiCTR-TRC-12002561; URL: www.chictr.org.

  10. Exercise-induced trace mineral element concentration in regional versus whole-body wash-down sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Stofan, John R; Lukaski, Henry C; Horswill, Craig A

    2011-06-01

    Simultaneous whole-body wash-down (WBW) and regional skin surface sweat collections were completed to compare regional patch and WBW sweat calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) concentrations. Athletes (4 men, 4 women) cycled in a plastic open-air chamber for 90 min in the heat. Before exercise, the subjects and cycle ergometer (covered in plastic) were washed with deionized water. After the onset of sweating, sterile patches were attached to the forearm, back, chest, forehead, and thigh and removed on saturation. After exercise, the subjects and cycle ergometer were washed with 5 L of 15-mM ammonium sulfate solution to collect all sweat minerals and determine the volume of unevaporated sweat. Control trials were performed to measure mineral contamination in regional and WBW methods. Because background contamination in the collection system was high for WBW Mn, Fe, and Zn, method comparisons were not made for these minerals. After correction for minimal background contamination, WBW sweat [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] were 44.6 ± 20.0, 9.8 ± 4.8, and 0.125 ± 0.069 mg/L, respectively, and 5-site regional (weighted for local sweat rate and body surface area) sweat [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] were 59.0 ± 15.9, 14.5 ± 4.8, and 0.166 ± 0.031 mg/L, respectively. Five-site regional [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] overestimated WBW by 32%, 48%, and 33%, respectively. No individual regional patch site or 5-site regional was significantly correlated with WBW sweat [Ca] (r = -.21, p = .65), [Mg] (r = .49, p = .33), or [Cu] (r = .17, p = .74). In conclusion, regional sweat [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] are not accurate surrogates for or significantly correlated with WBW sweat composition.

  11. Design optimization of rear uprights for UniMAP Automotive Racing Team Formula SAE racing car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmeer, M.; Basha, M. H.; Hamid, M. F.; Rahman, M. T. A.; Hashim, M. S. M.

    2017-10-01

    In an automobile, the rear upright are used to provide a physical mounting and links the suspension arms to the hub and wheel assembly. In this work, static structural and shape optimization analysis for rear upright for UniMAP’s Formula SAE racing car had been done using ANSYS software with the objective to reduce weight while maintaining the structural strength of the vehicle upright. During the shape optimization process, the component undergoes 25%, 50% and 75 % weight reduction in order to find the best optimal shape of the upright. The final design of the upright is developed considering the weight reduction, structural integrity and the manufacturability. The final design achieved 21 % weight reduction and is able to withstand several loads.

  12. Mechanical Differences between Barbell and Body Optimum Power Loads in the Jump Squat Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loturco, Irineu; Pereira, Lucas A; Zanetti, Vinicius; Kitamura, Katia; Abad, César C Cal; Kobal, Ronaldo; Nakamura, Fabio Y

    2016-12-01

    This study compared the values of bar-peak force (PF Bar ) and power (PP Bar ), body-peak force (PF Body ) and power (PPBody) and bar-mean propulsive power (MPP Bar ) in different jump-squat (JS) conditions: unloaded condition (UC); bar-loaded condition (BLC) and optimum bar-MPP condition (OBC). Twenty-five soccer players performed the JS using a bar with negligible mass (UC), using the Smith-machine bar (BLC) and using the load capable of maximizing the bar-MPP (OBC). The PF Body was significantly higher in the UC (2847.9 ± 489.1 N) than in the OBC (2655.4 ± 444.3 N). The UC presented greater PPBody (3775.9 ± 631.5 W) than the BLC (3359.7 ± 664.3 W) and OBC (3357.8 ± 625.3 W). The OBC presented higher values of PF Bar , PP Bar and MPP Bar (676.2 ± 109.4 W) than the BLC (MPP Bar = 425.8 ± 53.7 W) (all p < 0.05). In the OBC (compared to the UC), the body peak-power presented a reduction of ≈ 11%, while generating bar-power output from ≈ 59 to 73% higher than the BLC. While the fact that the body-peak power is maximized in the UC denotes a mechanical phenomenon, the bar-optimum load represents an intensity at which both components of the power equation (force and velocity) are optimized. This has important implications for sports training.

  13. Restrictions in systemic and locomotor skeletal muscle perfusion, oxygen supply and VO2 during high-intensity whole-body exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Damsgaard, Rasmus; Dawson, Ellen A; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

    2008-05-15

    Perfusion to exercising skeletal muscle is regulated to match O(2) delivery to the O(2) demand, but this regulation might be compromised during or approaching maximal whole-body exercise as muscle blood flow for a given work rate is blunted. Whether muscle perfusion is restricted when there is an extreme metabolic stimulus to vasodilate during supramaximal exercise remains unknown. To examine the regulatory limits of systemic and muscle perfusion in exercising humans, we measured systemic and leg haemodynamics, O(2) transport, and , and estimated non-locomotor tissue perfusion during constant load supramaximal cycling (498 +/- 16 W; 110% of peak power; mean +/- S.E.M.) in addition to both incremental cycling and knee-extensor exercise to exhaustion in 13 trained males. During supramaximal cycling, cardiac output (Q), leg blood flow (LBF), and systemic and leg O(2) delivery and reached peak values after 60-90 s and thereafter levelled off at values similar to or approximately 6% (P conductance, leg O(2) delivery and leg for a given power were reduced by 32-47% (P conductance. These observations suggest that limits of cardiac function and muscle vasoconstriction underlie the inability of the circulatory system to meet the increasing metabolic demand of skeletal muscles and other tissues during whole-body exercise.

  14. Increased body mass index in ankylosing spondylitis is associated with greater burden of symptoms and poor perceptions of the benefits of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durcan, Laura; Wilson, Fiona; Conway, Richard; Cunnane, Gaye; O'Shea, Finbar D

    2012-12-01

    Increased body mass index (BMI) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is associated with a greater burden of symptoms and poor perceptions of the benefits of exercise. In AS, the effect of obesity on disease characteristics and exercise perceptions is unknown. We evaluated the prevalence of obesity in AS, to assess the attitudes of patients toward exercise and to evaluate the effect of obesity on symptoms and disease activity. Demographic data and disease characteristics were collected from 46 patients with AS. Disease activity, symptomatology, and functional disability were examined using standard AS questionnaires. BMI was calculated. Comorbidity was analyzed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients' attitudes toward exercise were assessed using the Exercise Benefits and Barriers Scale (EBBS). We compared the disease characteristics, perceptions regarding exercise, and functional limitations in those who were overweight to those who had a normal BMI. The mean BMI in the group was 27.4; 67.5% of subjects were overweight or obese. There was a statistically significant difference between those who were overweight and those with a normal BMI regarding their perceptions of exercise (EBBS 124.7 vs 136.6, respectively), functional limitation (Bath AS Functional Index 4.7 vs 2.5, Health Assessment Questionnaire 0.88 vs 0.26), and disease activity (Bath AS Disease Activity Index 4.8 vs 2.9). There was no difference between the groups in terms of their comorbid conditions or other demographic variables. The majority of patients in this AS cohort were overweight. They had a greater burden of symptoms, worse perceptions regarding the benefits of exercise, and enhanced awareness of their barriers to exercising. This is of particular concern in a disease where exercise plays a crucial role.

  15. Core Temperature and Surface Heat Flux During Exercise in Heat While Wearing Body Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    other was used as a suppository (Tc2). Other data included height, weight, HF and Ts from 6 locations (forehead, sternum, pectoral muscle , scapula...from the changes in clothed weights. Instrumentation for Chamber Testing Heart rate (including ECG waveform), skin temperature, respiration ...rate (including respiration effort waveform), activity level using accelerometry data, and body core temperature were measured every 15 s by a chest

  16. Protein intake induced an increase in exercise stimulated fat oxidation during stable body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Plasqui, Guy; Smeets, Astrid J; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-12-02

    Protein-rich weight-loss diets spare fat-free mass at the cost of fat mass. The objective was to examine if there is a change in stimulated fat oxidation related to protein intake during stable body weight. Subjects' (BMI 22±2kg/m(2), age 25±8 years) maximal fat oxidation (Fat(max)) was assessed during a graded bicycle test, before and after a 3-month dietary-intervention of 2MJ/day supplements exchanged with 2MJ/d of habitual energy intake. The parallel design consisted of protein-rich supplements in the protein group and an isocaloric combination of carbohydrate and fat supplements in the control group. Daily protein intake was determined according to 24-h urine nitrogen. Body composition was measured according to a 4-compartment model by a combination of underwater-weighing technique, deuterium-dilution technique and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects were weight stable and did not change their physical activity. The protein group (n=12) increased protein intake (11±14g, Pbody weight (Pbody composition or VO(2)max. Increased stimulated fat oxidation was related to increased protein intake. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of milk intake and whole-body vibration exercise on bone mineral density in elderly women in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So Min; Kim, Sungchul; Lim, Chae-Gil

    2017-07-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed to investigate the effects of lactose-free milk intake and whole-body vibration exercises on bone density in elderly female nursing home residents who had difficulty exercising outdoors and had not consumed milk. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty seven elderly women aged 70 or older from 3 nursing homes located in Incheon, Korea participated in the study. The experimental group (n=13) carried out whole-body vibration exercises and drank lactose-free milk, while the control group (n=14) continued to live their ordinary nursing home lives. Weight, BMI, T-scores, and Z-scores were compared between the experimental and control groups after 12 weeks. [Results] The comparison of changes in weight and BMI in the control group before and after the 12-week experiment found no statistically significant differences. However, bone mineral density was significantly different, with the T-score significantly decreasing from -2.99 to -3.48 and the Z-score decreasing from -1.87 to -2.58. The other comparisons of physical changes in the control group before and after the 12-week experiment found no statistical significance. [Conclusion] The results indicate that regular consumption of lactose-free milk and performing whole-body vibration exercises can delay the progression of bone density loss in older adults in nursing homes; adequate exercise and calcium intake could eventually help prevent fractures.

  18. Exercise self-efficacy moderates the relation between anxiety sensitivity and body mass index and exercise tolerance in treatment-seeking smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farris, S.G.; Davis, M.L.; Rosenfield, D.; Kauffman, B.Y.; Baird, S.O.; Powers, M.B.; Otto, M.W.; Marcus, B.H.; Church, T.S.; Smits, J.A.J.; Zvolensky, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    There is little known about factors that contribute to the comorbidity of cigarette smoking and obesity. The current study sought to test whether exercise self-efficacy moderated the relation between anxiety sensitivity (fear of internal sensations) and BMI and exercise tolerance among cigarette

  19. Transcranial magnetic stimulation probes the excitability of the primary motor cortex: A framework to account for the facilitating effects of acute whole-body exercise on motor processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Davranche

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exercise on decision-making performance have been studied using a wide variety of cognitive tasks and exercise interventions. Although the current literature supports a beneficial influence of acute exercise on cognitive performance, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not yet been elucidated. We review studies that used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to probe the excitability of motor structures during whole-body exercise and present a framework to account for the facilitating effects of acute exercise on motor processes. Recent results suggest that, even in the absence of fatigue, the increase in corticospinal excitability classically reported during submaximal and exhausting exercises may be accompanied by a reduction in intracortical inhibition. We propose that reduced intracortical inhibition elicits an adaptive central mechanism that counteracts the progressive reduction in muscle responsiveness caused by peripheral fatigue. Such a reduction would render the motor cortex more sensitive to upstream influences, thus causing increased corticospinal excitability. Furthermore, reduction of intracortical inhibition may account for the more efficient descending drive and for the improvement of reaction time performance during exercise. The adaptive modulation in intracortical inhibition could be implemented through a general increase in reticular activation that would further account for enhanced sensory sensitivity.

  20. Does acute exercise affect the performance of whole-body, psychomotor skills in an inverted-U fashion? A meta-analytic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorris, Terry; Hale, Beverley J; Corbett, Jo; Robertson, Kevin; Hodgson, Christopher I

    2015-03-15

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine, using meta-analytical measures, whether research into the performance of whole-body, psychomotor tasks following moderate and heavy exercise demonstrates an inverted-U effect. A secondary purpose was to compare the effects of acute exercise on tasks requiring static maintenance of posture versus dynamic, ballistic skills. Moderate intensity exercise was determined as being between 40% and 79% maximum power output (ẆMAX) or equivalent, while ≥80% ẆMAX was considered to be heavy. There was a significant difference (Zdiff=4.29, p=0.001, R(2)=0.42) between the mean effect size for moderate intensity exercise (g=0.15) and that for heavy exercise size (g=-0.86). These data suggest a catastrophe effect during heavy exercise. Mean effect size for static tasks (g=-1.24) was significantly different (Zdiff=3.24, p=0.001, R(2)=0.90) to those for dynamic/ballistic tasks (g=-0.30). The result for the static versus dynamic tasks moderating variables point to perception being more of an issue than peripheral fatigue for maintenance of static posture. The difference between this result and those found in meta-analyses examining the effects of acute exercise on cognition shows that, when perception and action are combined, the complexity of the interaction induces different effects to when cognition is detached from motor performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Nutrition and Exercise Health Behaviors on Predicted Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Workers with Different Body Mass Index Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hua Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD when body mass index (BMI is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers’ cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels.

  2. Mini-implants: mechanical resource for molars uprighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susiane Allgayer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The early orthodontic treatment allows correction of skeletal discrepancies by growth control, and the elimination of deleterious habits, which are risk factors for the development of malocclusions, favoring for the correction of tooth positioning later in a second treatment stage. During development of teeth and occlusion, the mandibular second molars commonly erupt in the oral cavity after all other teeth of the anterior region. In their eruptive process there may be a condition known as tooth impaction, which precludes its complete eruption and requires proper uprighting treatment. The temporary anchorage devices allow disimpaction and movement of these teeth directly to their final position, without the need of patient compliance or reaction movements in other parts of the arch. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims at describing a case report of the treatment of a patient with Angle Class II malocclusion, performed in two phases, in which mini-implants were used for uprighting the impacted mandibular second molars.INTRODUÇÃO: o tratamento ortodôntico precoce permite a correção das discrepâncias esqueléticas por meio do controle de crescimento e a eliminação de hábitos deletérios, que são fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de más oclusões, que favorecem a correção do posicionamento dentário mais tardiamente, em uma segunda fase do tratamento. Durante o desenvolvimento da dentição e da oclusão, normalmente o segundo molar inferior chega à cavidade bucal após todos os dentes posicionados anteriormente a ele. Durante seu processo eruptivo, pode ocorrer uma condição chamada "impacção dentária", em que sua erupção completa é interrompida, exigindo tratamento apropriado para verticalização. Os dispositivos temporários de ancoragem permitem a desimpacção e a movimentação desses dentes diretamente às suas posições finais, sem a necessidade de cooperação do paciente e sem movimento de reação nas

  3. Combined whole-body vibration, resistance exercise, and sustained vascular occlusion increases PGC-1α and VEGF mRNA abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Item, Flurin; Nocito, Antonio; Thöny, Sandra; Bächler, Thomas; Boutellier, Urs; Wenger, Roland H; Toigo, Marco

    2013-04-01

    We previously reported that high load resistance exercise with superimposed whole-body vibration and sustained vascular occlusion (vibroX) markedly improves cycling endurance capacity, increases capillary-to-fibre ratio and skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity in untrained young women. These findings are intriguing, since increases in oxidative muscle phenotype and endurance capacity are typically induced by endurance but not heavy resistance exercise. Here, we tested the hypothesis that vibroX activates genes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis. Eight healthy, recreationally resistance-trained young men performed either vibroX or resistance exercise (RES) in a randomised, cross-over design. Needle biopsies (M. vastus lateralis) were obtained at rest and 3 h post-exercise. Changes in relative gene expression levels were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. After vibroX, vascular endothelial growth factor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α mRNA abundances increased to 2- and 4.4-fold, respectively, but did not significantly change above resting values after RES. Other genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis were not affected by either exercise modality. While vibroX increased the expression of hexokinase II, xanthine dehydrogenase, and manganese superoxide dismutase mRNA, there were no changes in these transcripts after RES. This study demonstrates that high load resistance exercise with superimposed whole-body vibration and sustained vascular occlusion activates metabolic and angiogenic gene programs, which are usually activated after endurance but not resistance exercise. Thus, targeted modification of high load resistance exercise by vibration and vascular occlusion might represent a novel strategy to induce endurance-type muscle adaptations.

  4. Mechanical Differences between Barbell and Body Optimum Power Loads in the Jump Squat Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loturco Irineu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the values of bar-peak force (PFBar and power (PPBar, body-peak force (PFBody and power (PPBody and bar-mean propulsive power (MPPBar in different jump-squat (JS conditions: unloaded condition (UC; bar-loaded condition (BLC and optimum bar-MPP condition (OBC. Twenty-five soccer players performed the JS using a bar with negligible mass (UC, using the Smith-machine bar (BLC and using the load capable of maximizing the bar-MPP (OBC. The PFBody was significantly higher in the UC (2847.9 ± 489.1 N than in the OBC (2655.4 ± 444.3 N. The UC presented greater PPBody (3775.9 ± 631.5 W than the BLC (3359.7 ± 664.3 W and OBC (3357.8 ± 625.3 W. The OBC presented higher values of PFBar, PPBar and MPPBar (676.2 ± 109.4 W than the BLC (MPPBar = 425.8 ± 53.7 W (all p < 0.05. In the OBC (compared to the UC, the body peak-power presented a reduction of ≈ 11%, while generating bar-power output from ≈ 59 to 73% higher than the BLC. While the fact that the body-peak power is maximized in the UC denotes a mechanical phenomenon, the bar-optimum load represents an intensity at which both components of the power equation (force and velocity are optimized. This has important implications for sports training.

  5. Insulin resistance, exercise capacity and body composition in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Dige-Petersen, H; Ibsen, H

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study insulin resistance in subjects with strong genetic predisposition to essential hypertension, compared with non-disposed subjects. SUBJECTS: Thirty normotensive subjects aged 18-35 years whose parents both had essential hypertension, and 30 age- and sex matched subjects whose...... parents were both normotensive, were studied. Subjects or parents with diabetes and morbid obesity were excluded. METHODS: The study comprised (1) a frequent sampling oral glucose tolerance test; (2) an isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study; (3) an analysis of body composition by dual-energy X...

  6. Human upright posture control models based on multisensory inputs; in fast and slow dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Ryosuke; Takakusaki, Kaoru; Ota, Jun; Yozu, Arito; Haga, Nobuhiko

    2016-03-01

    Posture control to maintain an upright stance is one of the most important and basic requirements in the daily life of humans. The sensory inputs involved in posture control include visual and vestibular inputs, as well as proprioceptive and tactile somatosensory inputs. These multisensory inputs are integrated to represent the body state (body schema); this is then utilized in the brain to generate the motion. Changes in the multisensory inputs result in postural alterations (fast dynamics), as well as long-term alterations in multisensory integration and posture control itself (slow dynamics). In this review, we discuss the fast and slow dynamics, with a focus on multisensory integration including an introduction of our study to investigate "internal force control" with multisensory integration-evoked posture alteration. We found that the study of the slow dynamics is lagging compared to that of fast dynamics, such that our understanding of long-term alterations is insufficient to reveal the underlying mechanisms and to propose suitable models. Additional studies investigating slow dynamics are required to expand our knowledge of this area, which would support the physical training and rehabilitation of elderly and impaired persons. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of a physical exercise rehabilitation group program on anxiety, depression, body image, and health-related quality of life among breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, Anja; Veers, Silke; Howaldt, Dirk; Braumann, Klaus-Michael; Koch, Uwe; Schulz, Karl-Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Since physical exercise programs have the potential to help cancer patients regain physical fitness and may exert a range of positive consequences for recovery and psychological well-being, the impact of a physical exercise program was investigated in this prospective study. Women with primary nonmetastatic breast cancer after a minimum 4-week period post chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy completion were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: intervention group (IG) (n = 30) and waiting group (WG) (n = 28). The 10-week twice weekly exercise group program consisted of gymnastics, movement games, relaxation, walking, and jogging. Anxiety, depression, body image, and quality of life were measured using standardized questionnaires. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max/kg) was assessed as a measure of physical fitness. Patients in the IG improved significantly over time with regard to anxiety (p = 0.03, d = 0.45), depression (p = 0.05, d = 0.43), individual body image (p = 0.006, d = 0.44), and VO(2)max/kg (p body image. This prospective study provided evidence for the effectiveness of a 10-week physical exercise intervention to significantly improve psychosocial wellbeing, individual body image, and physical fitness. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Gentil, Paulo; Moro, Tatiana; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ) or multi-joint exercises (MJ) on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years) exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc.) and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years) with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.). The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load) was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ), bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ), knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ) and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ). In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition. PMID:29312007

  9. Evaluation of Simulated Ventilation Techniques With the Upright and Conventional Self-Inflating Neonatal Resuscitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Indira; Mendhi, Marvesh; Bansil, Pooja; Coffey, Patricia S

    2017-11-01

    The study assessed the impact of simulated ventilation techniques using upright and conventional self-inflating neonatal resuscitators on delivered tidal volume (V T ) and pressure. We analyzed videos of participants ventilating a manikin using an upright (upright, n = 33) and a conventional resuscitator (conventional, n = 32) under normal and low lung compliance. Mask hold, number of fingers squeezing the bag, and degree of bag squeeze were compared with V T and peak inspiratory pressure (PIP). V T and PIP values were higher when using the upright resuscitator than when using the conventional resuscitator. With low compliance, differences in V T were insignificant except with the use of the OK/C hold, (upright, 29.6 ± 4.0 mL, vs conventional, 24.8 ± 6.0 mL, P = .02). PIP was significantly higher when using the upright resuscitator with the OK hold (upright, 36.3 ± 4.4 mL, vs conventional, 30.3 ± 6.6 mL, P = .009) and when the bag was squeezed by more than half (upright, 33.8 ± 16.3 mL, vs conventional, 29.3 ± 9.5 mL, P = .046). With normal compliance, V T was high with both resuscitators, being significantly higher when using the upright resuscitator with the OK hold (upright, 64.3 ± 9.5 mL, vs conventional, 45.8 ± 9.4 mL; P bag was squeezed using more than 2 fingers (upright, 58.0 ± 17.2 mL, vs conventional, 45.7 ± 12.6 mL, P = .01) and by more than half (upright, 58.7 ± 16.6 mL, vs conventional, 45.8 ± 12.2 mL, P = .004). PIP, too, was significantly higher when using the upright resuscitator with the OK hold (upright, 29.3 ± 3.5 mL, vs conventional, 21.5 ± 4.0 mL, P = bag was squeezed using more than 2 fingers (upright, 27.2 ± 7.0 mL, vs conventional, 21.6 ± 5.7 mL, P = .005), and by more than half (upright, 27.6 ± 6.6 mL, vs conventional, 21.7 ± 5.4 mL, P = .001). Improved mask design, larger bag volume, and upright orientation of the upright resuscitator likely contributed to higher V T and PIP. However, high V T was observed with both

  10. Effect of upright position on tonsillar level in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ryan K.L.; Leung, Joyce H.Y.; Chu, Winnie C.W. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, Shatin (China); Griffith, James F. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, Shatin (China); The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Shatin, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Lam, T.P.; Ng, Bobby K.W.; Cheng, Jack C.Y. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Shatin (China)

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an upright position on cerebellar tonsillar level in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Twenty-five patients with clinically diagnosed AIS and 18 normal controls were examined in both supine and upright positions using 0.25T MRI. The position of the inferior cerebellar tonsil tip relative to a reference line connecting the basion to the opisthion (BO line) was measured in millimetres. None of the 18 normal control subjects had cerebellar tonsillar descent below the BO line in either supine or the upright position. Forty-eight percent of AIS patients had tonsillar descent in the upright position, compared to 28 % in the supine position. In the upright position, cerebellar tonsillar position was lower in AIS patients than in normal subjects (mean -0.7 ± 1.5 vs. +2.1 ± 1.7, p < 0.00001). AIS patients also had a large degree of tonsillar excursion between upright and supine positions compared to normal subjects (mean -1.9 ± 2.3 vs. -0.1 ± 0.2, p < 0.00001). When considering the theoretical likelihood that a low tonsillar position may affect spinal cord function, one should bear in mind that tonsillar descent in AIS is significantly greater in the upright position. (orig.)

  11. Colpocystoproctography in the upright and supine positions correlated with dynamic MRI of the pelvic floor

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    Gufler, Hubert E-mail: hubert.gufler@radiol.med.uni-giessen.de; Ohde, Angelika; Grau, Gabriele; Grossmann, Anette

    2004-07-01

    Purpose: To test whether there are statistically significant differences between measurement results on colpocystoproctography in the upright and the supine positions, and to correlate these results with dynamic MRI. Patients and Methods: Seven patients with pelvic floor descent had received colpocystoproctography in the upright and supine positions and, additionally, dynamic MRI of the pelvic floor. Bladder neck position, angle of urethral inclination, posterior vesicourethral angle, and vaginal vault position were measured at relaxed pelvic floor and at pelvic strain. Differences between the measurement results of each parameter in the upright and supine position on colpocystoproctography were calculated and correlated with the measurement results from the dynamic MRI. Results: At pelvic strain, bladder neck position, angle of urethral inclination, posterior vesicourethral angle and vaginal vault position measurements showed no statistically significant differences between colpocystoproctography in the upright and supine positions or dynamic MRI. For the bladder neck height at pelvic floor relaxation, significant differences were found between colpocystoproctography in the upright and supine positions, and colpocystoproctography in the upright position versus dynamic MRI. Conclusion: At pelvic strain, measurement data from dynamic MRI are not statistically different from data from colpocystoproctography either in supine and upright positions.

  12. Influence of breathing exercises using method of Body Flex by Greer Childers on to the selected somatic traits of women with overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Radziejowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Overweight and obesity are without any doubts an epidemic of our times, resulting from a change in the living style of the people. Majority of the people reduces the physical activity to the minimum, because of the lack of time they have after the work. That is why we are attacked from time to time by various publications about miraculous methods how to throw away an excessive body weight. In this work is made a close investigation of the method of Greer Childers “Body Flex”, which has become very popular among other in the United States and in Russia, because of the simplicity of exercises to be done and the short time necessary to perform them. The essence of exercises of „‘Body Flex’’ type are the breathing exercises connected with isometric and stretching exercising. The main stress is applied to the lower breathing path with keeping the abdominal muscles tone as well as adding the posture muscles operations, what is as consequence to reduce the body weight, selected body circumferences and to strengthen the muscles exercised. Purpose: The aim of presented work was the comparative assessment of the selected somatic traits of the persons making regularly exercises, at least 5 times a week, using the modified „‘Body Flex’’ method as well as the assessment of effectiveness of the application of those exercises. Material and methods: The examination has covered a group of 25 persons, which was women in the age range 36 – 63, average age amounted to 58,45 +- 8,92 years, including 16 persons of them constituting the tested group and 9 persons being a control group, which has not made regular exercises. In the tested group was separated: 4 persons’ group of women with BMI indicating their obesity, 8 persons’ group of women with BMI indicating overweight and 4 persons’ group of women with BMI within the limits of the norm. Before and after 1 month’s, and for 9 persons – after 2 months’ therapy, their

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pain Other Scoliosis Back Pain and Emotional Distress Muscle Spasms Pinched Nerve Discitis Degenerative Conditions Bulge vs ... exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga ...

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... legs to touch the wall, keeping hips and knees bent. Use your hips to push your body ... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees bent. Draw abdominal wall in. Maintaining abdominal wall ...

  15. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient ... popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts ...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga ... doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from your ribs across your waist ...

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple ... use progressively heavier balls, you will experience more benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can ...

  18. Body mass index and active range of motion exercise treatment after intra-articular injection in adhesive capsulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsi-Hsien; Huang, Tung-Fu; Ma, Hsiao-Li; Liu, Chien-Lin

    2013-04-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is commonly associated with medical diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, and obesity. Intra-articular injection has been used to speed recovery and relieve pain associated with frozen shoulder. In this study, we evaluated and compared the effects of an intra-articular injection of corticosteroid and lidocaine in the treatment of primary adhesive capsulitis in overweight and normal-weight patients. This is a prospective clinical study of patients with adhesive capsulitis, in which the main treatment strategy was an intra-articular injection of corticosteroid (3 mL) and lidocaine (3 mL). Active range of motion exercise was initiated immediately after the injection and performed four times daily. The evaluation included the recording of a detailed medical and orthopedic history, and the assessment of pain and function by determining the Constant score at baseline (before injection) and every 2 weeks thereafter. Patients were classified as normal weight (body mass index [BMI] adhesive capsulitis between 2010 and 2012. In the normal-weight group, the mean Constant score increased from 35.4 to 74.6 after 8 weeks, whereas in the overweight group, the mean Constant score increased from 32.0 to 47.2. There was a significant difference in the mean Constant score between the normal-weight and overweight groups at 8 weeks. Active range of motion exercise after an intra-articular injection of corticosteroid and lidocaine improved pain and functional outcome at 8 weeks in normal-weight (BMI adhesive capsulitis. Manipulation under anesthesia may be considered a priority in overweight patients. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The Effect of Whole Body Vibration Exercise, Mental Practice on Balance of Elderly Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Ghavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: the present research aimed to study the effects of whole body vibration, mental practice and combined vibration and mental practice on static and dynamic balance of elderly men. Methods & Materials: this was a semi-experimental research. The participants included 42 healthy, elderly men aged (60-80 yrs from Mashhad who was randomly categorized into 4 groups: vibration (n=12, mental practice (n=10, combined practice (n=10 and control (n=10. The experimental groups practiced their specific protocols for 8 weeks, 3 sessions a week. The vibration group practiced 6 body positions based on the overload principle with intensity 30-35 HZ and 5 mm amplitude. The mental practice group practiced for the same duration of time as the vibration group meanwhile the control group was just engaged in their daily life routine. Static and dynamic balances were assessed using stability tests on Biobex and TUG tests, respectively. One-way ANOVA with Gabriel post Hoc was applied in order to analyze the data. The significance level was set at α0.05≥. Results: our results showed a significant difference between the control group and mental practice (P=0.005, and combined training group (P=0.026 regarding their static balance. However no difference was observed between the control group and vibration group (P=0.422 or between the two experimental groups. Results of the dynamic balance of the control group and the vibration group (P=0.001 the mental practicing group (P=0.004 and the combined training group and mental practicing group differed significantly. Conclusion: Eight weeks of mental, vibration and combined vibration and mental practice could improve dynamic balance of the participants and mental practice, and combined vibration and mental practice could improve their static balance.

  20. Genetic variation for body weight change in mice in response to physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lightfoot J Timothy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is beneficial in reducing the weight gain and associated health problems often experienced by individuals as they age, but the association of weight change with physical activity remains complex. We tested for a possible genetic basis for this association between 9-12-week body weight change (WTC and the distance, duration, and speed voluntarily run by 307 mice in an F2 population produced from an intercross of two inbred strains (C57L/J and C3H/HeJ that differed dramatically in their physical activity levels. Results In this population WTC did show the expected negative association with the physical activity traits, but only the phenotypic correlation of WTC with speed (-0.18 reached statistical significance. Using an interval mapping approach with single-nucleotide polymorphism markers, we discovered five (four suggestive and one significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs affecting body weight change, only one of which appeared to show pleiotropic effects on the physical activity traits as well. Genome-wide epistasis scans also detected several pairwise interactions of QTLs with pleiotropic effects on WTC and the physical activity traits, but these effects made a significant contribution (51% only to the covariance of WTC with speed. Conclusion It was concluded that the genetic contribution to the phenotypic association between WTC and the physical activity traits in this population of mice was primarily epistatic in origin, restricted to one measure of physical activity, and could be quite variable among different populations depending on the genetic background, experimental design and traits assessed.

  1. Whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Joseph T; Baker, Philip R A; Minett, Geoffrey M; Bieuzen, Francois; Stewart, Ian B; Bleakley, Chris

    2015-09-18

    Recovery strategies are often used with the intention of preventing or minimising muscle soreness after exercise. Whole-body cryotherapy, which involves a single or repeated exposure(s) to extremely cold dry air (below -100 °C) in a specialised chamber or cabin for two to four minutes per exposure, is currently being advocated as an effective intervention to reduce muscle soreness after exercise. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the British Nursing Index and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database. We also searched the reference lists of articles, trial registers and conference proceedings, handsearched journals and contacted experts.The searches were run in August 2015. We aimed to include randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared the use of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) versus a passive or control intervention (rest, no treatment or placebo treatment) or active interventions including cold or contrast water immersion, active recovery and infrared therapy for preventing or treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We also aimed to include randomised trials that compared different durations or dosages of WBC. Our prespecified primary outcomes were muscle soreness, subjective recovery (e.g. tiredness, well-being) and adverse effects. Two review authors independently screened search results, selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted and cross-checked data. Where appropriate, we pooled results of comparable trials. The random-effects model was used for pooling where there was substantial heterogeneity. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. Four laboratory-based randomised controlled trials were included. These reported results for 64

  2. Change in body composition following a 15-week, heart rate monitored aerobic exercise program: The TIGER study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The joint goals of the Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study are to introduce sedentary college-age individuals to regular exercise and identify genetic factors that influence physiologic response to aerobic exercise training. The purpose of the study was to examine ...

  3. Effect of body mass index and physical exercise on risk of knee and hip osteoarthritis: longitudinal data from the Norwegian HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Paul Jarle; Holtermann, Andreas; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund

    2012-08-01

    Mechanical joint stress imposed by high body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased risk of knee and hip osteoarthritis. This prospective study investigated the independent and joint association of BMI and physical exercise on risk of knee and hip osteoarthritis. The study includes 15,191 women and 14,766 men in the Norwegian HUNT Study without pain or physical impairment at baseline. Occurrence of self-reported physician-diagnosed osteoarthritis was assessed at 11 years of follow-up. BMI was positively related to risk of knee osteoarthritis (P(trend)0.34). Exercise intensity was not associated with risk of osteoarthritis in any BMI category; that is, obese persons reporting high-intensity exercise had an RR of 1.28 (95% CI 0.59 to 2.79) for severe osteoarthritis compared with inactive persons. High BMI increases the risk of knee osteoarthritis and severe osteoarthritis. Physical exercise does not increase the risk of osteoarthritis at any level of BMI, suggesting that exercise could be encouraged also among individuals with excessive body mass, without concern for an increased risk of osteoarthritis.

  4. A controlled intervention to promote a healthy body image, reduce eating disorder risk and prevent excessive exercise among trainee health education and physical education teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE&PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an 'at-risk' population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year of the study, the control group cohort (n = 49 females, 20 males) received the regular didactic health education curriculum; in the second year of the study, the Intervention 1 cohort (n = 31 females, 21 males) received a self-esteem and media literacy health education program and in the third year of the study, the Intervention 2 cohort (n = 30 females, 19 males) received a combined self-esteem, media literacy and dissonance program using online and computer-based activities. Intervention 2 produced the best results, with males improving significantly in self-esteem, body image and drive for muscularity. Intervention 2 females improved significantly on Eating Disorders Inventory Drive for Thinness, Eating Disorder Examination and excessive exercise. The improvements were consistent at 6-month follow-up for females. It is feasible to promote body image, reduce body dissatisfaction and reduce excessive exercise among trainee HE&PE teachers via a health education curriculum.

  5. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Alberto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73 competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ, counter movement jump (CMJ and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively. After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90°s-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  6. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Alberto; Mourão, Paulo; Abade, Eduardo

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ) height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73) competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively). After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90ºs-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  7. Effects of martial arts exercise on body composition, serum biomarkers and quality of life in overweight/obese premenopausal women: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyu, Ming-Chien; Zhang, Yan; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Dagda, Raul Y.; Chaung, Eugene; Von Bergen, Vera; Doctolero, Susan; Shen, Chwan-Li

    2013-01-01

    Various exercise interventions have been shown to benefit weight control and general health in different populations. However, very few studies have been conducted on martial arts exercise (MAE). The objective of this pilot study is to evaluate the efficacy of 12 weeks of MAE intervention on body composition, serum biomarkers and quality of life (QOL) in overweight/obese premenopausal women. We found that subjects in the MAE group did not lose body weight, while they significantly decreased fat-free mass and muscle mass as compared to those in the control group, who demonstrated an increase in these parameters. The MAE group demonstrated an increase in serum IGF-I concentration, but no change in others. MAE may be a feasible and effective approach to improve body composition and QOL in overweight/obese premenopausal women. Our study underscores the need for further studies using larger samples to establish possible benefits of MAE in various populations. PMID:24665215

  8. Effect of weight loss, with or without exercise, on body composition and sex hormones in postmenopausal women: the SHAPE-2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A M; Schuit, Albertine J; van der Palen, Job; May, Anne M; Iestra, Jolein A; Wittink, Harriet; Peeters, Petra H; Monninkhof, Evelyn M

    2015-09-02

    Physical inactivity and overweight are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. The effect of physical activity may be partially mediated by concordant weight loss. We studied the effect on serum sex hormones, which are known to be associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk, that is attributable to exercise by comparing randomly obtained equivalent weight loss by following a hypocaloric diet only or mainly by exercise. Overweight, insufficiently active women were randomised to a diet (N = 97), mainly exercise (N = 98) or control group (N = 48). The goal of both interventions was to achieve 5-6 kg of weight loss by following a calorie-restricted diet or an intensive exercise programme combined with only a small caloric restriction. Primary outcomes after 16 weeks were serum sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Body fat and lean mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Both the diet (-4.9 kg) and mainly exercise (-5.5 kg) groups achieved the target weight loss. Loss of body fat was significantly greater with exercise versus diet (difference -1.4 kg, P Weight loss with both interventions resulted in favourable effects on serum sex hormones, which have been shown to be associated with a decrease in postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Weight loss induced mainly by exercise additionally resulted in maintenance of lean mass, greater fitness, greater fat loss and a larger effect on (some) sex hormones. The greater fat loss likely explains the observed larger effects on sex hormones. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01511276 . Registered on 12 January 2012.

  9. Pilates versus resistance exercise on the serum levels of hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference and body mass index (BMI in elderly individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adesilda Silva Pestana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the elderly exhibit a subclinical state of inflammation associated with increased adipose tissue and several comorbidities. To compare the effects of mat Pilates based exercises and resistance exercise on the serum levels of reactive C protein of high sensitivity (hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference (AC and the body mass index (BMI in the elderly. It is a randomised clinical trial with a sample of 78 elderly individuals (median age 69 years. The active independent variable investigated was nature of treatment intervention (Pilates mat based exercises vs resistance exercise, and the dependent variables were hs-CRP level, AC and BMI. The statistical analysis used Wilcoxon signed rank and Mann-Whitney tests. The correlation between the continuous variables was assessed using Spearman’s coefficient of correlation. The data were analysed using SPSS software version 17.0, and probability values lower than 5% (p< 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Mat Pilates based exercises exhibited reductions in serum hs-CPR level (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -2.466, p = 0.01, BMI (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.295, p = 0.001 and AC (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.398, p = 0.01. Mat Pilates based exercises promoted a significant reduction of the serum hs-CRP levels and anthropometric measurements in elderly individuals.

  10. Impact of exercise training on endothelial function and body composition in young people: a study of mono- and di-zygotic twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, N D; Stratton, G; Cable, N T; Tinken, T M; Graves, L E F; Green, D J

    2012-02-01

    Flow mediated dilation (FMD) is a surrogate marker of arterial function which can be improved by exercise training. To date, no study has assessed the magnitude of FMD changes in response to exercise training between groups of mono- (MZ) and di-zygotic (DZ) twins. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare FMD in MZ- and DZ twins before and after identical exercise training interventions. At baseline, FMD was assessed using high resolution Duplex ultrasound in 12 twin pairs (6 MZ pairs 13.5 ± 0.8 years, 6 DZ pairs 13.4 ± 0.8 years). Twins completed 8 weeks of exercise training (65-85% HR(max)), consisting of three 45-min sessions per week. Change (Δ) scores were entered into twin versus twin intraclass correlation analyses by group. Change in %body fat (r = 0.63, P = 0.05) was significantly correlated in the MZ, but not the DZ group (r = 0.31, P = 0.23). Change in FMD was also highly correlated in MZ (r = 0.74, P = 0.02) but not in the DZ group (r = 0.37, P = 0.18). Heritability of ΔFMD was estimated at 0.74. Exercise induced changes in FMD were similar within sets of monozygotic twins but not dizygotic twins. These data suggest that a significant portion of the arterial function response to exercise training may be genetically determined.

  11. Exercise training utilizing body weight-supported treadmill walking with a young adult with cerebral palsy who was non-ambulatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBiasio, Paula A; Lewis, Cynthia L

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this case report is to determine the effects of exercise training using body weight-supported treadmill walking (BWSTW) with an 18-year-old male diagnosed with Cerebral palsy (CP) who was non-ambulatory and not receiving physical therapy. Outcome measures included the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion, 3-minute walk test and physiological cost index (PCI). BWSTW sessions took place twice a week for 6 weeks with a reduction of approximately 40% of the patient's weight. Over-ground 3-minute walk test distance and PCI were essentially unchanged. BWSTW exercise time increased by 67% with a 43% increase in speed while average working HR decreased by 8%. BWSTW PCI decreased by 26%. PedsQL parent report improved in all domains. PedsQL self-report demonstrated a mild decrease. PEDI showed improvements in self-care and mobility. Exercise utilizing BWSTW resulted in a positive training effect for this young adult with CP who was non-ambulatory. Developing effective and efficient protocols for exercise training utilizing BWSTW may aid in the use of this form of exercise and further quantify outcomes. Ensuring that young adults with CP have safe and feasible options to exercise and be physically active on a regular basis is an important role of a physical therapist.

  12. Discrepancy between exercise performance, body composition, and sex steroid response after a six-week detraining period in professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundourakis, Nikolaos E; Androulakis, Nikolaos E; Malliaraki, Niki; Tsatsanis, Christos; Venihaki, Maria; Margioris, Andrew N

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a six-week off-season detraining period on exercise performance, body composition, and on circulating sex steroid levels in soccer players. Fifty-five professional male soccer players, members of two Greek Superleague Teams (Team A, n = 23; Team B, n = 22), participated in the study. The first two weeks of the detraining period the players abstained from any physical activity. The following four weeks, players performed low-intensity (50%-60% of VO2max) aerobic running of 20 to 30 minutes duration three times per week. Exercise performance testing, anthropometry, and blood sampling were performed before and after the six-week experimental period. Our data showed that in both teams A and B the six-week detraining period resulted in significant reductions in maximal oxygen consumption (60,31±2,52 vs 57,67±2,54; pperiod resulted in a rapid loss of exercise performance adaptations and optimal body composition status, but did not affect sex steroid resting levels. The insignificant changes in sex steroid concentration indicate that these hormones were a non-contributing parameter for the observed negative effects of detraining on exercise performance and body composition.

  13. Physical fitness and cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, P. B.; Rohm-Young, D.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    Klein et al. (1977) have questioned the concept of endurance training as an appropriate means of preparing for prolonged space flights. Their opinion was mainly based on reports of endurance athletes who had a decreased tolerance to orthostatic or gravitational stress induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP), upright tilt, or whole body water immersion. The present investigation had the objective to determine if the hemodynamic response to LBNP is different between a high and average fit group of subjects. In addition, the discrete aspect of cardiovascular function which had been altered by chronic training was to be identified. On the basis of the results of experiments conducted with 14 young male volunteers, it is concluded that the reflex response to central hypovolemia is altered by endurance exercise training.

  14. The interaction of exercise ability and body mass index upon long-term outcomes among patients undergoing stress-rest perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uretsky, Seth; Supariwala, Azhar; Gurram, Srinivasa; Bonda, Sri Lakshmi Kala; Thota, Naganath; Bezwada, Prema; Manchireddy, Seema; Nair, Subu; Cohen, Randy; Rozanski, Alan

    2013-07-01

    The obesity paradox has been reported in several populations of patients with cardiovascular disease. Recent data have shown that physical fitness may attenuate the obesity paradox. Patients who undergo pharmacologic stress testing are known to have a higher risk of mortality than those who can exercise. The purpose of this study is to determine the interaction of obesity and exercise ability on survival among patients with a normal stress-rest single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A total of 5,203 (60 ± 13 years, male 37%) patients without a history of heart disease and a normal stress-rest SPECT between the years 1995 and 2010 were included in this analysis. Body mass index categories were defined according to the World Health Organization classification: normal weight, 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2); overweight, 25 to 29.9 kg/m(2); and obese, ≥30 kg/m(2). Patients were divided into 3 groups based on their ability to exercise: those who reached ≥6 METs on exercise, those who attained a level of stress. Patients in each of these fitness groups were further divided into 3 subgroups based on their body mass index. There were 939 (18%) deaths during a mean follow-up of 8.1 ± 4.1 years, for an overall event rate of 2.3%/y. Both exercise to ≥6 METs and being obese were associated with lower mortality. Adjusted multivariate analysis using the obese high-fit patients as the reference showed a wide heterogeneity in annualized mortality rates according to exercise and weight status, with annualized event rates which varied from 0.6%/y in the obese subjects who were physically fit to 5.3%/y among healthy subjects who underwent pharmacologic stress testing (P Stress mode and body weight impacted long-term survival in patients with a normal stress SPECT. The benefit of being physically fit was evident in all weight groups, as was the adverse effect of being unable to exercise. However, with regard to body weight, there was a paradoxical survival advantage for

  15. Effects of obesity on body temperature in otherwise-healthy females when controlling hydration and heat production during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J D; Ganio, Matthew S; Burchfield, Jenna M; Matthews, Andy C; Werner, Rachel N; Chokbengboun, Amanda J; Dougherty, Erin K; LaChance, Alex A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating body temperature responses in obese individuals during exercise in the heat fail to control metabolic heat production or hydration status during exercise. To determine if there are differences in body temperature responses between obese and non-obese females when controlling metabolic heat production during exercise. Twenty healthy females, ten obese (43.5 ± 4.5 % fat, 77.5 ± 14.4 kg) and ten non-obese (26.3 ± 6.2 % fat, 53.7 ± 6.4 kg), cycled for 60 min in a warm environment (40 °C, 30 % humidity) at a work load that elicited either 300 W of metabolic heat production (fixed heat production; FHP) or 175 W/m(2) of skin surface area (body surface area, BSA). Before and during exercise, rectal temperature (T re), mean skin temperature (T sk), oxygen uptake (VO2), and sweat rate were measured. Fluid was provided throughout exercise so that euhydration was maintained throughout. In the FHP trial, when absolute heat production was similar between obese (287 ± 15 W) and non-obese (295 ± 18 W) individuals (P > 0.05), there were no differences at the end of exercise in T re (38.26 ± 0.40 vs. 38.30 ± 0.30 °C, respectively) or T sk (36.94 ± 1.65 vs. 35.85 ± 0.67 °C) (all P > 0.05). In the BSA trials, relative heat production was similar between obese and non-obese individuals (168 ± 8 vs. 176 ± 5 W/m(2), respectively; P > 0.05). Similar to the FHP trials, there were no differences between obese and non-obese T re (38.45 ± 0.33 vs. 38.08 ± 0.29 °C, respectively) or T sk (36.82 ± 1.04 vs. 36.11 ± 0.64 °C) at the end of exercise (all P > 0.05). When obese and non-obese females exercised at a fixed metabolic heat production and euhydration was maintained, there were no differences in body temperature between groups.

  16. Learning Upright Standing on a Multiaxial Balance Board.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stella Valle

    Full Text Available Upright stance on a balance board is a skill requiring complex rearrangement of the postural control. Despite the large use of these boards in training the standing posture, a comprehensive analysis of the learning process underlying the control of these devices is lacking. In this paper learning to maintain a stable stance on a multiaxial oscillating board was studied by analyzing performance changes over short and long periods. Healthy participants were asked to keep the board orientation as horizontal as possible for 20 sec, performing two sessions of 8 trials separated by 15-min pause. Memory consolidation was tested one week later. Amplitude and variability of the oscillations around horizontal plane and area and sway path of the board displacement decreased rapidly over the first session. The performance was stable during the second session, and retained after 1 week. A similar behavior was observed in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions for amplitude and variability parameters, with less stable balance in the anterior-posterior direction. Approximate entropy and mean power frequency, assessing temporal dynamics and frequency content of oscillations, changed only in the anterior-posterior direction during the retention test. Overall, the ability to stand on a balance board is rapidly acquired, and retained for long time. The asymmetric stability between anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions replicates a structure observed in other standing stances, suggesting a possible transfer from previous postural experiences. Conversely, changes in the temporal dynamics and the frequency content could be associated with new postural strategies developed later during memory consolidation.

  17. Effects of Pilates core stability exercises on the balance abilities of archers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Min; Hyun, Gwang-Suk; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to provide fundamental data contributing to archery performance improvement and stabilization of shooting posture in archers by examining the influence of Pilates core stability (PCS) exercises on dynamic and static balance. The study was conducted from December 2015 to March 2016 on high school archers who were registered as archers in the Korea Archery Association with 5 or more years of archery experience. Twenty voluntary subjects (exercise group n=10; control group n=10) with an understanding toward the aims of this study were selected and their body composition, static and dynamic balance abilities, before and after the PCS program, were measured. As for the static balance ability, there were no significant differences between pre- and postvalues in the exercise group after completing the PCS program. Similarly, these results were also represented in the control group. In the aspect of comparisons between postvalues in both groups, there were significant improvements in only the exercise group. As for the dynamic balance ability, there were significant differences between pre- and postvalues in the exercise group, except for up-right and left postures, whereas, there were no changes or decreases between pre- and postvalues in the control group after completing the PCS program. Meanwhile, in the aspect of comparisons between postvalues in both groups, there were significant improvements in up, and up right, and down right part and overall dynamic scores of the exercise groups.

  18. [Effect of two hypocaloric diets and their combination with physical exercise on basal metabolic rate and body composition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, Noelia; Fernández, Juan Marcelo; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is diagnosed by the detection of at least three criteria (hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-C, hypertension, obesity and altered fasting glucose). Visceral fat excess would be the starting point for its development. Scientific evidence supports hypocaloric diets -mediterranean or low fat diet and rich in complex carbohydrates diet included- as the best treatment to reduce fat mass (FM), maximizing its impact by combining them with physical exercise (PE). However, the effects of these treatments on basal metabolic rate (BMR) of patients with MetS, are unknown. To study the effect of the hypocaloric diet - mediterranean or low fat diet- with or without PE on the BMR and body composition (BC) of adults with MetS. 36 volunteers, MetS, both sexes, > 50 years, meeting the inclusion criteria. They were randomly assigned to a group of intervention (3 months) of hypocaloric diet: mediterranean diet (MED), low fat and rich in complex carbohydrates diet (CHO) and both combined with PE (MEDE and CHOE respectively). Anthropometric data was taken (weight, muscle mass (MM) and FM) and BMR was determined by indirect calorimetry, before and after intervention. The addition of PE to both hypocaloric treatments produced greater FM loss and weight loss than dieting alone, being this loss in CHOE > MEDE (p CHOE (p Mediterranean diet with or without PE lost MM (p MED CONCLUSIONS: CHOE induces less reduction of BMR while supporting a better profile of BC than MEDE. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Aging and selective sensorimotor strategies in the regulation of upright balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugnariu, Nicoleta; Fung, Joyce

    2007-06-20

    The maintenance of upright equilibrium is essentially a sensorimotor integration task. The central nervous system (CNS) has to generate appropriate and complex motor responses based on the selective and rapid integration of sensory information from multiple sources. Since each sensory system has its own coordinate framework, specific time delay and reliability, sensory conflicts may arise and represent situations in which the CNS has to recalibrate the weight attributed to each particular sensory input. The resolution of sensory conflicts may represent a particular challenge for older adults given the age-related decline in the integrity of many postural regulating systems, including musculoskeletal and sensory systems, as well as neural processing and conduction of information. The effects of aging and adaptation (by repeated exposures) on the capability of the CNS to select pertinent sensory information and resolve sensory conflicts were thus investigated with virtual reality (VR) in the present study. Healthy young and older adults maintained quiet stance while immersed in a virtual environment (VE) for 1 hour during which transient visual and/or surface perturbations were randomly presented. Visual perturbations were induced by sudden pitch or roll plane tilts of the VE viewed through a helmet-mounted display, and combined with or without surface perturbations presented in a direction that was either identical or opposite to the visual perturbations. Results showed a profound influence of aging on postural adjustments measured by electromyographic (EMG) responses and displacements of the center of pressure (COP) and body's center of mass (COM) in the recovery of upright stance, especially in the presence of sensory conflicts. Older adults relied more on vision as compared to young adults. Aging affects the interaction of the somatosensory and visual systems on the control of equilibrium during standing and the ability of CNS to resolve sensory conflicts

  20. Aging and selective sensorimotor strategies in the regulation of upright balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugnariu Nicoleta

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maintenance of upright equilibrium is essentially a sensorimotor integration task. The central nervous system (CNS has to generate appropriate and complex motor responses based on the selective and rapid integration of sensory information from multiple sources. Since each sensory system has its own coordinate framework, specific time delay and reliability, sensory conflicts may arise and represent situations in which the CNS has to recalibrate the weight attributed to each particular sensory input. The resolution of sensory conflicts may represent a particular challenge for older adults given the age-related decline in the integrity of many postural regulating systems, including musculoskeletal and sensory systems, as well as neural processing and conduction of information. The effects of aging and adaptation (by repeated exposures on the capability of the CNS to select pertinent sensory information and resolve sensory conflicts were thus investigated with virtual reality (VR in the present study. Methods Healthy young and older adults maintained quiet stance while immersed in a virtual environment (VE for 1 hour during which transient visual and/or surface perturbations were randomly presented. Visual perturbations were induced by sudden pitch or roll plane tilts of the VE viewed through a helmet-mounted display, and combined with or without surface perturbations presented in a direction that was either identical or opposite to the visual perturbations. Results Results showed a profound influence of aging on postural adjustments measured by electromyographic (EMG responses and displacements of the center of pressure (COP and body's center of mass (COM in the recovery of upright stance, especially in the presence of sensory conflicts. Older adults relied more on vision as compared to young adults. Aging affects the interaction of the somatosensory and visual systems on the control of equilibrium during standing and the

  1. Temporal parameter change of human postural control ability during upright swing using recursive least square method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Akifumi; Ishida, Mizuri; Sagawa, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to derive quantitative assessment indicators of the human postural control ability. An inverted pendulum is applied to standing human body and is controlled by ankle joint torque according to PD control method in sagittal plane. Torque control parameters (KP: proportional gain, KD: derivative gain) and pole placements of postural control system are estimated with time from inclination angle variation using fixed trace method as recursive least square method. Eight young healthy volunteers are participated in the experiment, in which volunteers are asked to incline forward as far as and as fast as possible 10 times over 10 [s] stationary intervals with their neck joint, hip joint and knee joint fixed, and then return to initial upright posture. The inclination angle is measured by an optical motion capture system. Three conditions are introduced to simulate unstable standing posture; 1) eyes-opened posture for healthy condition, 2) eyes-closed posture for visual impaired and 3) one-legged posture for lower-extremity muscle weakness. The estimated parameters Kp, KD and pole placements are applied to multiple comparison test among all stability conditions. The test results indicate that Kp, KD and real pole reflect effect of lower-extremity muscle weakness and KD also represents effect of visual impairment. It is suggested that the proposed method is valid for quantitative assessment of standing postural control ability.

  2. The upright posture improves plantar stepping and alters responses to serotonergic drugs in spinal rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sławińska, Urszula; Majczyński, Henryk; Dai, Yue; Jordan, Larry M

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies on the restoration of locomotion after spinal cord injury have employed robotic means of positioning rats above a treadmill such that the animals are held in an upright posture and engage in bipedal locomotor activity. However, the impact of the upright posture alone, which alters hindlimb loading, an important variable in locomotor control, has not been examined. Here we compared the locomotor capabilities of chronic spinal rats when placed in the horizontal and upright postures. Hindlimb locomotor movements induced by exteroceptive stimulation (tail pinching) were monitored with video and EMG recordings. We found that the upright posture alone significantly improved plantar stepping. Locomotor trials using anaesthesia of the paws and air stepping demonstrated that the cutaneous receptors of the paws are responsible for the improved plantar stepping observed when the animals are placed in the upright posture. We also tested the effectiveness of serotonergic drugs that facilitate locomotor activity in spinal rats in both the horizontal and upright postures. Quipazine and (±)-8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) improved locomotion in the horizontal posture but in the upright posture either interfered with or had no effect on plantar walking. Combined treatment with quipazine and 8-OH-DPAT at lower doses dramatically improved locomotor activity in both postures and mitigated the need to activate the locomotor CPG with exteroceptive stimulation. Our results suggest that afferent input from the paw facilitates the spinal CPG for locomotion. These potent effects of afferent input from the paw should be taken into account when interpreting the results obtained with rats in an upright posture and when designing interventions for restoration of locomotion after spinal cord injury. PMID:22351637

  3. The Dose-Response Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Body Composition and Breast Tissue among Women at High Risk for Breast Cancer: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C; Kontos, Despina; Schnall, Mitchell D; Wu, Shandong; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2016-07-01

    Observational data indicate that behaviors that shift energetic homeostasis, such as exercise, may decrease the risk of developing breast cancer by reducing the amount of energy-dense, metabolically active adipose tissue. Between December 2008 and April 2013, we conducted a single-blind, 5-month, clinical trial that randomized premenopausal women at high risk of developing breast cancer to one of three groups: 150 min/wk of aerobic exercise (low dose), 300 min/wk of aerobic exercise (high dose), or control. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) was quantified using computerized algorithms on breast dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Over 5 months, compared with the control group: the low-dose and high-dose groups lost -1.5 ± 0.5 and -1.3 ± 0.5 kg of body mass (linear Ptrend = 0.032); -1.5 ± 0.4 and -1.4 ± 0.3 kg of fat mass (linear Ptrend = 0.003); -1.3 ± 0.3 and -1.4 ± 0.3% of body fat (linear Ptrend breast cancer. Additional adequately powered studies are needed to confirm and expand upon our findings that changes in body composition are associated with changes in BPE. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 581-8. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Systematic review of physical activity and exercise interventions on body mass indices, subsequent physical activity and psychological symptoms in overweight and obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Kyngäs, Helvi; Tammelin, Tuija; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-11-01

    To examine the effects of physical activity and exercise interventions on body mass index, subsequent physical activity and psychological symptoms for overweight and obese adolescents (12-18 years). Overweight and obesity have increased among adolescents globally and physical activity has decreased. Healthcare systems face challenges promoting physical activity and in treating obesity. Promotion of physical activity must be effective and school nurses should be equipped with the information and resources required to implement counselling for overweight and obese adolescents. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted according to procedures by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and the Joanna Briggs Institute. Research studies published between 1950-2013 were identified from the following databases. CINAHL, MEDLINE (Ovid) and PsycINFO. Selected studies were reviewed for quality and a risk-of-bias assessment was conducted for the included studies. A narrative synthesis was used to report results, while a fixed-effect meta-analysis was used to analyse the interventions effects on physical activity and body mass index. Fourteen published studies were included to this review. Supervised exercise interventions most affected adolescents' body mass index. The interventions effect on adolescents' physical activity was small and heterogeneous. Two interventions positively affected psychological symptoms. Interventions were complex, with more than one component and the aspect that effectively promotes physical activity in obese adolescents was not clear. However, it seems that exercise interventions affect the body mass index of overweight or obese adolescents. Interventions that include a component for promoting physical activity with or without supervised exercise can affect subsequent physical activity and body mass index. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Restrictions in systemic and locomotor skeletal muscle perfusion, oxygen supply and VO2 during high-intensity whole-body exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, S.P.; Damsgaard, R.; Dawson, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    supramaximal cycling (498 +/- 16 W; 110% of peak power; mean +/- S.E.M.) in addition to both incremental cycling and knee-extensor exercise to exhaustion in 13 trained males. During supramaximal cycling, cardiac output (Q), leg blood flow (LBF), and systemic and leg O(2) delivery and reached peak values after...... 60-90 s and thereafter levelled off at values similar to or approximately 6% (P cycling, while upper body blood flow remained unchanged (approximately 5.5 l min(-1)). In contrast, Q and LBF increased linearly until exhaustion during one-legged knee-extensor exercise accompanying...... increases in non-locomotor tissue blood flow to approximately 12 l min(-1). At exhaustion during cycling compared to knee-extensor exercise, Q, LBF, leg vascular conductance, leg O(2) delivery and leg for a given power were reduced by 32-47% (P

  6. Exercise may reduce depression but not anxiety in self-referred cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Post-hoc analysis of data from the 'Body & Cancer' trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Julie; Stage, Maria; Møller, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background. The diagnosis and treatment of cancer may cause clinically significant and persistent psychological morbidity. The objective of this study was to determine the short-term effect of a six week exercise intervention on anxiety and depression in cancer patients undergoing...... chemotherapy (The 'Body & Cancer' trial). Methods. Two hundred and nine self-referred patients (52 males, 157 females, mean age 47 years) were randomised into an intervention group and a waiting-list control group. Anxiety and depression was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results.......021). Conclusion. Anti-depressant effects could be caused by exercise in self-referred cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Dedicated trials and follow-up studies are needed to clarify the optimal duration and content of exercise interventions to meet the needs of clinically depressive or anxious patients....

  7. Effects of a popular exercise and weight loss program on weight loss, body composition, energy expenditure and health in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magrans-Courtney Teresa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of altering the ratio of carbohydrate and protein in low-energy diets in conjunction with a popular exercise program in obese women. Design Matched, prospective clinical intervention study to assess efficacy of varying ratios of carbohydrate and protein intake in conjunction with a regular exercise program. Participants One-hundred sixty one sedentary, obese, pre-menopausal women (38.5 ± 8.5 yrs, 164.2 ± 6.7 cm, 94.2 ± 18.8 kg, 34.9 ± 6.4 kg·m-2, 43.8 ± 4.2% participated in this study. Participants were weight stable and not participating in additional weight loss programs. Methods Participants were assigned to either a no exercise + no diet control (CON, a no diet + exercise group (ND, or one of four diet + exercise groups (presented as kcals; % carbohydrate: protein: fat: 1 a high energy, high carbohydrate, low protein diet (HED [2,600; 55:15:30%], 2 a very low carbohydrate, high protein diet (VLCHP [1,200 kcals; 63:7:30%], 3 a low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet (LCMP [1,200 kcals; 50:20:30%] and 4 a high carbohydrate, low protein diet (HCLP [1,200 kcals; 55:15:30%]. Participants in exercise groups (all but CON performed a pneumatic resistance-based, circuit training program under supervision three times per week. Measurements Anthropometric, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE, fasting blood samples and muscular fitness assessments were examined at baseline and weeks 2, 10 and 14. Results All groups except CON experienced significant reductions (P P P P P Conclusion Exercise alone (ND appears to have minimal impact on measured outcomes with positive outcomes apparent when exercise is combined with a hypoenergetic diet. Greater improvements in waist circumference and body composition occurred when carbohydrate is replaced in the diet with protein. Weight loss in all diet groups (VLCHP, LCMP and HCLP was primarily fat and stimulated improvements in markers of

  8. Effects of Different Modes of Exercise Training on Body Composition and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Middle-aged Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Hamid Reza; Khoshnam, Mohammad Sadegh; Khoshnam, Ebrahim

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that exercise training improves body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks of aerobic, strength and combined training on body composition, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in sedentary middle-aged men. Forty-seven male aged 40-60 years voluntarily participated in this study and were divided in four groups: aerobic ( n = 12), strength ( n = 12), combined ( n = 11), and control ( n = 12) groups randomly. Body composition, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CRP were measured before and after 12 weeks. Data were analyzed using paired t -test and analysis of variance statistical methods. There were significant differences in body weight between aerobic and strength training ( P = 0.004) and aerobic and control groups ( P = 0.018), body mass index between combined and strength training ( P = 0.004) and combined and control groups ( P = 0.001), fat percentage between aerobic training and control group ( P = 0.017) and combined training and control groups ( P = 0.004), and finally, fat-free mass between aerobic and strength training ( P = 0.024), aerobic and combined training ( P = 0.0001), strength and control groups ( P = 0.035), and combined and control groups ( P = 0.0001). The results indicated that 12-week workout, 20-60 min/session, 3 days a week of moderate intensity exercise improved body composition, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CRP compared to those who did not participate in any training. However, all three types of exercises had small benefits on body composition, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CRP in sedentary middle-aged men, and the importance of combined training required further investigations.

  9. Effects of different modes of exercise training on body composition and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Mohammadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have indicated that exercise training improves body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks of aerobic, strength and combined training on body composition, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and C-reactive protein (CRP in sedentary middle-aged men. Methods: Forty-seven male aged 40–60 years voluntarily participated in this study and were divided in four groups: aerobic (n = 12, strength (n = 12, combined (n = 11, and control (n = 12 groups randomly. Body composition, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CRP were measured before and after 12 weeks. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and analysis of variance statistical methods. Results: There were significant differences in body weight between aerobic and strength training (P = 0.004 and aerobic and control groups (P = 0.018, body mass index between combined and strength training (P = 0.004 and combined and control groups (P = 0.001, fat percentage between aerobic training and control group (P = 0.017 and combined training and control groups (P = 0.004, and finally, fat-free mass between aerobic and strength training (P = 0.024, aerobic and combined training (P = 0.0001, strength and control groups (P = 0.035, and combined and control groups (P = 0.0001. Conclusions: The results indicated that 12-week workout, 20–60 min/session, 3 days a week of moderate intensity exercise improved body composition, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CRP compared to those who did not participate in any training. However, all three types of exercises had small benefits on body composition, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CRP in sedentary middle-aged men, and the importance of combined training required further investigations.

  10. Energy-matched moderate and high intensity exercise training improves nonalcoholic fatty liver disease risk independent of changes in body mass or abdominal adiposity - A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Nathan C; Liu, Ying; Rector, R Scott; Parks, Elizabeth J; Ibdah, Jamal A; Kanaley, Jill A

    2018-01-01

    Exercise training is commonly prescribed for individuals diagnosed with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, consensus regarding the volume and intensity of exercise for optimal benefits is lacking. Thus, we determined whether high intensity interval exercise training (HIIT) produced greater reductions in intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content and NAFLD risk factors compared with energy-matched moderate intensity continuous exercise training (MICT) in obese adults with liver steatosis. Eighteen obese adults were randomized to either 4weeks of HIIT (4min 80% VO 2 peak/3min, 50% VO 2 peak) or MICT (55% VO 2 peak, ~60min), matched for energy expenditure (~400kcal/session) and compared to five non-exercising age-matched control subjects. IHL was measured by 1 H-MRS and frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose, insulin, c-peptide, and NEFA levels during a liquid meal test (180min) to characterize metabolic phenotype. Baseline body weight, visceral abdominal adiposity, and fasting insulin concentrations were greater in the MICT vs HIIT group (P0.05), albeit higher than control subjects (Pexercise training intervention (P>0.05). Both HIIT and MICT lowered IHL (HIIT, -37.0±12.4%; MICT, -20.1±6.6%, Pexercise intensities (P=0.25). Furthermore, exercise training decreased postprandial insulin, c-peptide, and lipid peroxidation levels (iAUC, Pexercise are effective at decreasing IHL and NAFLD risk that is not contingent upon reductions in abdominal adiposity or body mass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exercise and Fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, Wim; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    2009-01-01

    Physical exercise affects the equilibrium of the internal environment. During exercise the contracting muscles generate force or power and heat. So physical exercise is in fact a form of mechanical energy. This generated energy will deplete the energy stocks within the body. During exercise,

  12. 75 FR 32806 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Certain Upright and Recumbent Exercise Bikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... resistor/bracket/cable assembly; the PCB/ battery assembly; the reed switch/bracket subassembly; the shroud...; (alternator-pulley assembly) 9. Assembling resistor, resistor brackets, resistor rod and covering the assembly with cardboard insulator; (rear resistor/ bracket/cable assembly) 10. Installing wire harness to the...

  13. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical help is necessary to resolve the physical problems associated with overexercising before they cause long-term damage to the body. Make a Positive Change Girls and guys who exercise compulsively may have a distorted body image and low self-esteem. They may see themselves as overweight or out ...

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening ... your hips to push your body back to a standing position, then extend your ...

  15. Short Duration Small Sided Football and to a Lesser Extent Whole Body Vibration Exercise Induce Acute Changes in Markers of Bone Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bowtell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to study whether short-duration vibration exercise or football sessions of two different durations acutely changed plasma markers of bone turnover and muscle strain. Inactive premenopausal women (n=56 were randomized to complete a single bout of short (FG15 or long duration (FG60 small sided football or low magnitude whole body vibration training (VIB. Procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP was increased during exercise for FG15 (51.6±23.0 to 56.5±22.5 μg·L−1, mean ± SD, P0.05. An increase in osteocalcin was observed 48 h after exercise (P<0.05, which did not differ between exercise groups. C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen was not affected by exercise. Blood lactate concentration increased during exercise for FG15 (0.6±0.2 to 3.4±1.2 mM and FG60 (0.6±0.2 to 3.3±2.0 mM, but not for VIB (0.6±0.2 to 0.8±0.4 mM (P<0.05. Plasma creatine kinase increased by 55±63% and 137±119% 48 h after FG15 and FG60 (P<0.05, but not after VIB (26±54%, NS. In contrast to the minor elevation in osteocalcin in response to a single session of vibration exercise, both short and longer durations of small sided football acutely increased plasma P1NP, osteocalcin, and creatine kinase. This may contribute to favorable effects of chronic training on musculoskeletal health.

  16. Physical Exercise Combined with Whole-Body Cryotherapy in Evaluating the Level of Lipid Peroxidation Products and Other Oxidant Stress Indicators in Kayakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Sutkowy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of exercise combined with whole-body cryotherapy (WBC on the oxidant/antioxidant balance in healthy men was assessed. The study included 16 kayakers of the Polish National Team, aged 22.7 ± 2.6, subjected to WBC (−120°C–−145°C; 3 min twice a day for the first 10 days of a 19-day physical training cycle: pre exercise morning stimulation and post exercise afternoon recovery. Blood samples were taken on Day 0 (baseline and on Days 5, 11 and 19. The serum concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA, conjugated dienes (CD, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, protein carbonyls, vitamin E, urea, cortisol, and testosterone were determined, along with the glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC, and morphological blood parameters. On 5th day of exercise/WBC, the baseline GPx activity decreased by 15.1% (P<0.05, while on 19th day, it increased by 19.7% (P<0.05 versus Day 5. On Day 19 TBARS concentration decreased versus baseline and Day 5 (by 15.9% and 17.4%, resp.; P<0.01. On 19 Day urea concentration also decreased versus 11 Day; however, on 5th and 11th days the level was higher versus baseline. Combining exercise during longer training cycles with WBC may be advantageous.

  17. Association of the Composite Inflammatory Biomarker GlycA, with Exercise-Induced Changes in Body Habitus in Men and Women with Prediabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Bartlett

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available GlycA is a new composite measure of systemic inflammation and a predictor of many inflammatory diseases. GlycA is the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-derived signal arising from glucosamine residues on acute-phase proteins. This study aimed to evaluate how exercise-based lifestyle interventions modulate GlycA in persons at risk for type 2 diabetes. GlycA, fitness, and body habitus were measured in 169 sedentary adults (45–75 years with prediabetes randomly assigned to one of four six-month exercise-based lifestyle interventions. Interventions included exercise prescription based on the amount (energy expenditure (kcal/kg weight/week (KKW and intensity (%VO2peak. The groups were (1 low-amount/moderate-intensity (10KKW/50% exercise; (2 high-amount/moderate-intensity (16KKW/50% exercise; (3 high-amount/vigorous-intensity (16KKW/75% exercise; and (4 a Clinical Lifestyle (combined diet plus low-amount/moderate-intensity exercise intervention. Six months of exercise training and/or diet-reduced GlycA (mean Δ: −6.8 ± 29.2 μmol/L; p=0.006 and increased VO2peak (mean Δ: 1.98 ± 2.6 mL/kg/min; p<0.001. Further, visceral (mean Δ: −21.1 ± 36.6 cm2 and subcutaneous fat (mean Δ: −24.3 ± 41.0 cm2 were reduced, while liver density (mean Δ: +2.3 ± 6.5HU increased, all p<0.001. When including individuals in all four interventions, GlycA reductions were associated with reductions in visceral adiposity (p<0.03. Exercise-based lifestyle interventions reduced GlycA concentrations through mechanisms related to exercise-induced modulations of visceral adiposity. This trial is registered with Clinical Trial Registration Number NCT00962962.

  18. Why Exercise Is Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kickball at school, you are exercising. What else counts as exercise? Playing sports, dancing, and doing push-ups. Even reaching down to touch your toes! When you exercise, you make your body stronger. So be active every day. Your body will thank you! Make ...

  19. The Effects of Exercise Training in Addition to Energy Restriction on Functional Capacities and Body Composition in Obese Adults during Weight Loss: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Clint T.; Fraser, Steve F.; Levinger, Itamar; Straznicky, Nora E.; Dixon, John B.; Reynolds, John; Selig, Steve E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy ...

  20. Effects of whole body vibration on pulmonary function, functional exercise capacity and quality of life in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaotian; Zhou, Yujing; Wang, Pu; He, Chengqi; He, Hongchen

    2016-05-01

    To examine the effect of whole-body vibration in enhancing pulmonary function, functional exercise capacity and quality of life in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and examine its safety. Randomized controlled trials examining the effects of whole body vibration among people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were identified by two independent researchers. Articles were excluded if they were studies on people with other primary diagnosis, abstracts published in the conferences or books. PEDro scale was used to assess the methodological quality of the selected studies. We evaluated the level of evidence by using the GRADE approach. The results were extracted by two researchers and confirmed by the third researcher if disagreement existed. Sources included Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PEDro, AMED, PsycINFO, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials and reference lists of all relevant articles. Four studies involving 206 participants were included in this systematic review. Methodological quality was rated as good for two studies. No great benefits on pulmonary function were found in whole body vibration treatment group. Two studies showed that quality of life was improved in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Whole body vibration led to significant improvements in functional exercise capacity measured with six minutes walking test. Nearly no adverse events were observed. Whole body vibration may improve functional exercise capacity and quality of life in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. There was insufficient evidence to prove the effects of whole body vibration on pulmonary function. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Effects of regular exercise and nutritional guidance on body composition, blood pressure, muscle strength and health-related quality of life in community-dwelling Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uritani, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Asano, Yasuyo; Yoshizaki, Kyoko; Nishida, Yukiko; Shima, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of 6-month regular exercise and nutritional guidance for body composition, blood pressure, muscle strength and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in community-dwelling Japanese women aged 40-74 years. Participants were divided into an intervention group (n = 48) comprising women registered for health guidance and a control group without intervention (n = 66). The intervention group received 6-month exercise and nutritional guidance to modify lifestyle. Before and after the intervention period, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body fat percentage, blood pressure, muscle strength and HRQOL using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey version 2 (SF-36) questionnaire were measured. At baseline, no significant differences were found between intervention and control groups. Waist circumference decreased significantly in the intervention group (from 82.4 to 79.9 cm) compared to the control group (from 80.5 to 79.7 cm). BMI and body fat percentage also decreased significantly more in the intervention group than in the control group. General health perception, vitality and social functioning in the SF-36 showed significantly greater improvements in the intervention group than in the control group. Six-month regular exercise and nutritional guidance had beneficial effects on body composition and health-related quality of life especially for mental components of SF-36. Based on these findings, our intervention was expected to provide benefits to mental components of HRQOL and facilitate sustained participation and motivation in modify lifestyles. As a result, beneficial effects on body composition might also be sustained. © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Body mass index and depressive symptoms in primary care settings: examining the moderating roles of smoking status, alcohol consumption and vigorous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, S A; MacGregor, K L; Funderburk, J S; Maisto, S A

    2014-02-01

    Depressive symptoms and obesity are highly prevalent in primary care settings. Depressive symptoms and obesity are positively related; as body weight increases, individuals are more likely to display depressive symptoms. This study examines the moderating roles of health behaviours (alcohol use, smoking status and vigorous exercise) on the relationship between body mass index and depressive symptoms. Exercise attenuates the relationship between depressive symptoms and obesity. Primary care patients often report multiple health risk behaviours and symptoms, including obesity and depressive symptomatology. This study examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptomatology among primary care patients and tested its moderation by health behaviours. Primary care patients (n = 497) completed self-report questionnaires. Using three multilevel models, we tested the moderation of health behaviours on the BMI-depressive symptoms relationship. After controlling for relevant covariates, BMI was positively related to depressive symptoms. Smokers reported more depressive symptoms (P symptoms (P > 0.05). Only vigorous exercise significantly moderated the BMI-depression relationship (P symptoms among patients who do not participate in vigorous activity, suggesting that vigorous activity reduces the risk for depressive symptoms among patients with higher BMI. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. A collaborative European exercise on mRNA-based body fluid/skin typing and interpretation of DNA and RNA results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berge, M; Carracedo, A; Gomes, I

    2014-01-01

    The European Forensic Genetics Network of Excellence (EUROFORGEN-NoE) undertook a collaborative project on mRNA-based body fluid/skin typing and the interpretation of the resulting RNA and DNA data. Although both body fluids and skin are composed of a variety of cell types with different functions...... of cell types was assessed. This scoring system builds on replicate RNA analyses and the ratio observed/possible peaks for each cell type [1]. The results of the exercise support the usefulness of this scoring system. When interpreting the data obtained from the analysis of the mock casework stains...

  4. Cross-over study of novice intubators performing endotracheal intubation in an upright versus supine position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Joseph S; Ellender, Timothy J; Okonkwo, Enola R; Stepsis, Tyler M; Stevens, Andrew C; Eddy, Christopher S; Sembroski, Erik G; Perkins, Anthony J; Cooper, Dylan D

    2017-06-01

    There are a number of potential physical advantages to performing orotracheal intubation in an upright position. The objective of this study was to measure the success of intubation of a simulated patient in an upright versus supine position by novice intubators after brief training. This was a cross-over design study in which learners (medical students, physician assistant students, and paramedic students) intubated mannequins in both a supine (head of the bed at 0°) and upright (head of bed elevated at 45°) position. The primary outcome of interest was successful intubation of the trachea. Secondary outcomes included log time to intubation, Cormack-Lehane view obtained, Percent of Glottic Opening score, provider assessment of difficulty, and overall provider satisfaction with the position. There were a total of 126 participants: 34 medical students, 84 physician assistant students, and 8 paramedic students. Successful tracheal intubation was achieved in 114 supine attempts (90.5 %) and 123 upright attempts (97.6 %; P = 0.283). Upright positioning was associated with significantly faster log time to intubation, higher likelihood of achieving Grade I Cormack-Lehane view, higher Percent of Glottic Opening score, lower perceived difficulty, and higher provider satisfaction. A subset of 74 participants had no previous intubation training or experience. For these providers, there was a non-significant trend toward improved intubation success with upright positioning vs supine positioning (98.6 % vs. 87.8 %, P = 0.283). For all secondary outcomes in this group, upright positioning significantly outperformed supine positioning.

  5. Chinese men and women in the United States and Hong Kong: body and self-esteem ratings as a prelude to dieting and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C; Katzman, M A

    1998-01-01

    The present study compared the body and weight satisfaction, self-esteem, and depression of Chinese male and female university students in Hong Kong and the United States and assessed the impact of these ratings on compensatory behavior such as dieting and exercise. Self-report measures were administered to 501 Chinese participants in the language of their university's locale. Females reported significantly more body dissatisfaction and depression, and males reported greater weight dissatisfaction (the majority of men wishing to be larger). Overall, Chinese subjects in Hong Kong reported significantly more body and weight dissatisfaction, lower self-esteem, higher depression, more dieting, and less exercise as compared to their counterparts in the United States. Asian students in this study mirrored gendered patterns previously reported in Caucasian samples with respect to the relation of body image, self-esteem, and mood. For both sexes, there appeared to be a caricatured mimicking of the bodies perceived to be associated with the dominant culture--men wanted to be larger while the women wanted to be even more petite.

  6. Exercise and dietary advice intervention for survivors of triple-negative breast cancer: effects on body fat, physical function, quality of life, and adipokine profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Anne K; Abraham, Jame; Bonner, Daniel; Gilleland, Diana; Hobbs, Gerald; Kurian, Sobha; Yanosik, Mary Anne; Vona-Davis, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Regular exercise and healthy eating are routinely recommended for breast cancer survivors, and past studies show benefits in quality of life and decreased inflammation. However, this has not been tested specifically in triple-negative breast cancer survivors. Increasing physical activity and losing body fat are thought to positively affect inflammatory biomarkers that have been associated with breast cancer. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine if participation in an exercise and dietary counseling program can improve body fat, physical function, and quality of life in survivors of this aggressive breast cancer. Secondarily, we sought to determine if participation in the program had beneficial effects on obesity-related markers of the adipokine profile. Sixty-six survivors of triple-negative breast cancer with BMI >25 were invited to participate. Twenty-eight enrolled and 23 completed the randomized, controlled trial (13 intervention, 10 control). Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (150 min per week, for 12 weeks) and diet counseling were compared to usual care, education only. The primary outcome of interest was weight loss (body mass, BMI, % fat), and secondary outcomes included physical function (exercise capacity), quality of life (Function After Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B)), cytokines (C-reactive protein (CRP), TNF-α, IL-6), and adipokine profile (leptin, adiponectin, insulin). Participants in the program lost more body fat (2.4 % loss vs. 0.4 % gain, p quality of life (FACT-B total score +14 pts) and decreased sedentary time but did not improve peak exercise capacity. The intervention had no effect on serum cytokines and adipokines after 12 weeks in the program. However, serum leptin and adiponectin and their ratio were significantly correlated with BMI in the intervention group (p quality of life in survivors of triple-negative breast cancer. BMI was associated with favorable changes in leptin and adiponectin which may reflect a

  7. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ or multi-joint exercises (MJ on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc. and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.. The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ, bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ, knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ. In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  8. Eating and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... performance. Kenney WL, et al. Body composition and nutrition for sport. In: Physiology of Sport and Exercise. 6th ed. ... Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. ...

  9. Easy Exercises for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual ... for Educators Search English Español Easy Exercises for Teens KidsHealth / For Teens / Easy Exercises for Teens Print ...

  10. Effects of a Pilates exercise program on muscle strength, postural control and body composition: results from a pilot study in a group of post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin, M; Gobbo, S; Bullo, V; Zanotto, T; Vendramin, B; Duregon, F; Cugusi, L; Camozzi, V; Zaccaria, M; Neunhaeuserer, D; Ermolao, A

    2015-12-01

    Participation in exercise programs is heartily recommended for older adults since the level of physical fitness directly influences functional independence. The aim of this present study was to investigate the effects of supervised Pilates exercise training on the physical function, hypothesizing that a period of Pilates exercise training (PET) can increase overall muscle strength, body composition, and balance, during single and dual-task conditions, in a group of post-menopausal women. Twenty-five subjects, aged 59 to 66 years old, were recruited. Eligible participants were assessed prior and after 3 months of PET performed twice per week. Muscular strength was evaluated with handgrip strength (HGS) test, 30-s chair sit-to-stand test (30CST), and abdominal strength (AST) test. Postural control and dual-task performance were measured through a stabilometric platform while dynamic balance with 8 ft up and go test. Finally, body composition was assessed by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Statistically significant improvements were detected on HGS (+8.22%), 30CST (+23.41%), 8 ft up and go test (-5.95%), AST (+30.81%), medio-lateral oscillations in open eyes and dual-task condition (-22.03% and -10.37%). Pilates was effective in increasing upper body, lower body, and abdominal muscle strength. No changes on body composition were detected. Results on this investigation indicated also that 12-week of mat Pilates is not sufficient to determine a clinical meaningful improvement on static balance in single and dual-task conditions.

  11. Body

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The human body is both the physical form inhabited by an individual “self” and the medium through which an individual engages with society. Hence the body both shapes and is shaped by an individual’s social roles. In contrast to the cognate fields of archaeology, anthropology, and classics, there has been little explicit discussion or theorization of the body in Egyptology. Some recent works, discussed here, constitute an exception to this trend, but there is much more scope for exploring anc...

  12. The Effects of Varying Concentrations of Dietary Protein and Fat on Blood Gas, Hematologic Serum Chemistry, and Body Temperature Before and After Exercise in Labrador Retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, John; Gillette, Robert L; Angle, Thomas Craig; Haney, Pamela; Fletcher, Daniel J; Wakshlag, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Optimal dietary protocols for the athletic canine are often defined by requirements for endurance athletes that do not always translate into optimal dietary interventions for all canine athletes. Prior research studying detection dogs suggests that dietary fat sources can influence olfaction; however, as fat is added to the diet the protein calories can be diminished potentially resulting in decreased red blood cell counts or albumin status. Optimal macronutrient profile for detection dogs may be different considering the unique work they engage in. To study a calorically low protein: high fat (18:57% ME), high protein: high fat (27:57% ME), and high protein: low fat (27:32% ME) approach to feeding, 17 dogs were provided various diets in a 3 × 3 cross over design. Dogs were exercised on a treadmill and blood was taken pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, 10- and 20-min post-exercise to assess complete blood count, serum chemistry, blood gases, and cortisol; as well as rectal and core body temperature. Exercise induced a decrease in serum phosphorus, potassium, and increases in non-esterified fatty acids and cortisol typical of moderate exercise bouts. A complete and balanced high protein: high-fat diet (27:57% ME) induced decreases in serum cortisol and alkaline phosphatase. Corn oil top dressed low protein: high-fat diet (18:57% ME) induced a slightly better thermal recovery than a complete and balanced high protein: high fat diet and a high protein: low fat (27%:32% ME) diet suggesting some mild advantages when using the low protein: high fat diet that warrant further investigation regarding optimal protein and fat calories and thermal recovery.

  13. The effects of varying concentrations of dietary protein and fat on d blood gas, hematologic, serum chemistry and body temperature before and after strenuous exercise in Labrador Retreivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Wakshlag

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Optimal dietary protocols for the athletic canine are often defined by requirements for endurance athletes, that do not always translate into optimal dietary interventions for all canine athletes. Prior research studying detection dogs suggests that dietary fat sources can influence olfaction; however, as fat is added to the diet the protein calories can be diminished potentially resulting in decreased red blood cell counts or albumin status. Optimal macronutrient profile for detection dogs may be different considering the unique work they engage in. To study a calorically high protein: low fat (18:57% ME, high protein: high fat (27:57% ME, and high protein: low fat (27:32% ME approach to feeding, 17 dogs were provided various diets in a 3 x 3 cross over design. Dogs were exercised on a treadmill and blood was taken pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, 10 minutes and 20 minutes post-exercise to assess complete blood count, serum chemistry, blood gases, and cortisol; as well as rectal and core body temperature. Exercise induced a decrease in serum phosphorus, potassium, and increases in non-esterified fatty acids and cortisol typical of moderate exercise bouts. A complete and balanced high protein: high fat diet (27:57% ME induced decreases in serum cortisol and alkaline phosphatase. Corn oil top dressed low protein: high fat diet (18:57% ME induced a slightly better thermal recovery than a complete and balanced high fat: high protein diet and a low fat: high protein (32:27% ME diet suggesting some mild advantages when using the high fat: low protein diet that warrant further investigation regarding optimal protein and fat calories and thermal recovery.

  14. Leg muscles activities during hyperventilation following a cycling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, P; Mora, I; Terrien, J; Lelard, T; Petitjean, M

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to establish how increased ventilation modifies postural stability, as characterized by body sway and leg muscle activities. Twelve healthy subjects had to perform six 30-second postural tests: one pre-exercise test while breathing gently and then one test every minute for the five minutes immediately following a maximum-intensity, incremental cycling exercise test. Subjects were asked to maintain an upright stance on a force plate for 30 s, with their eyes open. Movement of the centre of pressure in the sagittal plane was monitored in the time and spectral domains. Myoelectric activities of the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were recorded using surface electromyography. Ventilatory parameters were measured with a portable, telemetric device. Postural changes related to respiratory variations were quantified by coherence analysis. The results showed that hyperventilation induced by exercise was accompanied by a significant increase in postural parameters, indicating a reduction in postural stability following a change in ventilatory drive. Coherence analysis confirmed the ventilatory origin of the postural oscillations. The results suggest that ventilation may be an important factor in postural disturbance during physical activity. The observed increases in leg muscle activities were most likely related to musculo-articular stiffening.

  15. Upright detection of in-plain rotated face images with complicated background for organizing photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Yoshihiro

    2017-06-01

    Digital cameras and smart-phones with orientation sensors allow auto-rotation of portrait images. Auto-rotation of portrait is done by using the image file's metadata, exchangeable image file format (EXIF). The output of these sensors is used to set the EXIF orientation flag to reflect the positioning of the camera with respect to the ground. Unfortunately, software program support for this feature is not widespread or consistently applied. Our research goal is to create the EXIF orientation flag by detecting the upright direction of face images having no orientation flag and is to apply the software of organizing photos. In this paper, we propose a novel upright detection scheme for face images that relies on generation of rotated images in four direction and part-based face detection with Haar-like features. Inputted images are frontal faces and these images are in-plain rotated in four possible direction. The process of upright detection is that among four possible rotated images, if only one rotated image is accepted in face detection and other three rotated images are rejected, the upright direction is obtained from the accepted direction. Rotation angle of EXIF orientation is, 0 degree, 90 degree clockwise, 90 degree counter-clockwise, or 180 degree. Experimental results on 450 face image samples show that proposed method is very effective in detecting upright of face images with background variations.

  16. Exercises for mind and body: Giulio Mancini, collecting, and the beholding of landscape painting in the seventeenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Frances

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the intellectual foundations for the development of princely art collections, and of Italian picture galleries in particular, as spaces for combined physical and mental exercise and recreation. This study then establishes the relationship between the therapeutic function of picture galleries and the manner in which landscape paintings produced for princely collectors at this moment in Italy embodied ideals of both exercise and repose.

  17. Cochrane review: Whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Joseph T; Baker, Philip Ra; Minett, Geoffrey M; Bieuzen, Francois; Stewart, Ian B; Bleakley, Chris

    2016-01-14

    Delayed-onset muscle soreness, or 'DOMS', affects many people after exercise and can impair future performance. It usually peaks one to four days after exercise and several strategies are used to overcome it. The effectiveness and safety of many of these strategies applied and promoted is unknown. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. The Combined Effects of Exercise, Diet, and a Multi-Ingredient Dietary Supplement on Body Composition and Adipokine Changes in Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arent, Shawn M; Walker, Alan J; Pellegrino, Joseph K; Sanders, David J; McFadden, Bridget A; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Lopez, Hector L

    2018-02-01

    Very few weight and fat loss supplements undergo finished-product research to examine efficacy. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an 8-week diet and exercise program on body composition, hip and waist girth, and adipokines and evaluate whether a dietary supplement containing raspberry ketone, capsaicin, caffeine, garlic, and Citrus aurantium enhanced outcomes. Overweight men and women completed this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Participants consumed 4 capsules/d of supplement (EXP; n = 18) or placebo (PLA; n = 18). Participants underwent 8 weeks of daily supplementation, calorie restriction (500 kcal Body composition, girth, and adipokines were assessed at baseline and postintervention (T1 and T2). Significant decreases in weight (-2.6 ± 0.57 kg, p body fat (-3.7% ± 0.29%, p body mass (LBM; 1.5 ± 0.26 kg; p reduction. There was a time by group interaction, with significant decreases in leptin (p < 0.001) and significant increases in adiponectin (p < 0.05) in the EXP group. Significant improvements in adipokines and leptin support the utility of exercise, diet, and fat loss for impacting inflammatory biomarkers. The improvement in adiponectin with EXP may suggest a unique health mechanism.

  19. Green tea and vitamin E enhance exercise-induced benefits in body composition, glucose homeostasis, and antioxidant status in elderly men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narotzki, Baruch; Reznick, Abraham Z; Navot-Mintzer, Dalya; Dagan, Bracha; Levy, Yishai

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of green tea plus vitamin E in addition to exercise on body composition and metabolic and antioxidant parameters in healthy elderly individuals. Interventional randomized controlled prospective trial. For 12 weeks, 22 elderly men and women (age: 71.1 ± 1.2 years; body mass index: 28.3 ± 0.5 kg/m(2) [mean ± SE]) undertook 30 minutes of moderately intense walking 6 d/wk. They were randomly assigned to ingest either green tea plus vitamin E (GTVE; 3 cups and 400 IU, respectively; n = 11) or placebo (n = 11). Data on anthropometrics, fasting insulin and glucose levels, physical fitness, dietary intake, safety parameters, and biomarkers of oxidation status were recorded and analyzed at the start and end of the study. Though dietary intake was unchanged, improved exercise capacity was followed by a significant reduction in body weight and fasting insulin levels in all participants. Additional consumption of GTVE resulted in a twofold increase in serum vitamin E (from 20.4 to 40.6 μmol/L, p fasting glucose levels (from 5.30 to 4.98 mmol/L, p benefits in body composition and glucose tolerance and may also lower oxidative burden.

  20. The effect of aerobic exercise and barley β-glucan on blood glucose, body composition and blood pressure of diabetic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mokhtari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of type 2 diabetes increases with aging, unhealthy diets, obesity and sedentary lifestyles. The aim of this study was to investigate the combinational effect of a 12-week aerobic exercise and barley β-glucan (BBG on blood glucose, body composition and blood pressure in women with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 24 women with the mean age of 49 years and a blood glucose level of 110-280 mg/dl were purposefully selected and randomly divided into three groups: a group of aerobic exercise with diet (n=8, b diet group (n=8 c control group (n=8. The diet group consumed one barley bread, containing 4 g of β glucan, each day for 12 weeks. The group of aerobic exercise, who was on diet, participated in a progressive walking program with the intensity of %60-70% of maximal heart rate in addition to diet program (barley bread. Blood glucose, weight, fat percentage, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were measured in pre-and post-training. Results: Results showed a significant decrease in the blood glucose level in the experimental groups compared to the control group, while no major changes were observed in body composition and blood pressure. Conclusion: It seems that the combined program (aerobic training with diet or consumption of β-glucan alone can decrease blood glucose in patients with diabetes.

  1. The Effect of Aerobic or Aerobic-Strength Exercise on Body Composition and Functional Capacity in Patients with BMI ≥35 after Bariatric Surgery: a Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassannejad, Alireza; Khalaj, Alireza; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Rajabian Tabesh, Mastaneh; Alizadeh, Zahra

    2017-11-01

    Although previous studies suggested that bariatric surgery is the most effective and sustainable treatment method for morbid obesity in long term, but without changing in lifestyle, maintaining optimal weight loss is almost impossible. Sixty morbid obese patients (BMI ≥ 35) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of bariatric surgery in order to compare the impact of two different exercise programs on body composition and functional capacity outcomes. Participants were divided into three groups: aerobic (A), aerobic-strength (AS), and control (C) group. Aerobic capacity was assessed with 12-min walk-run test (12MWRT). One-repetition maximum (1RM) test was performed to evaluation upper limb muscle strength. Lower extremity functional capacity was assessed by sit-to-stand test. Weight, percent body fat (PBF), and fat mass (FM) reduced greater in the trial groups in comparison to the C group (P exercise on weight and PBF decrease after surgery, and it leads to significant improvement on aerobic capacity. Moreover, doing resisted exercise caused greater preserving of lean mass.

  2. Reliability of Upright and Supine Power Measurements Using an Inertial Load Cycle Ergometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwire, P. J.; Leach, M.; Ryder, J.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2011-01-01

    Practical, reliable, and time efficient methods of measuring muscular power are desirable for both research and applied testing situations. The inertial-load cycling method (ILC; Power/Cycle, Austin, TX) requires subjects to pedal as fast as possible against the inertial load of a flywheel for only 3-5 seconds, which could help reduce the time and effort required for maximal power testing. PURPOSE: 1) To test the intramachine reliability of ILC over 3 separate sessions, 2) to compare postural stance (upright vs. supine) during testing, and 3) to compare the maximal power (Pmax) output measured using ILC to that obtained from traditional isokinetic and leg press testing. METHODS: Subjects (n = 12) were tested on 4 non-consecutive days. The following tests were done on the first day of testing: isometric knee extension, isokinetic knee extension at several speeds, isokinetic power/endurance at 180/sec (Biodex System 4), leg press maximal isometric force, and leg press power/endurance. The other 3 days consisted exclusively of ILC testing. Subjects performed 6 ILC tests in an upright position and 6 ILC tests in a supine position on each day. The starting position was counterbalanced. Mixed-effects linear modeling was used to determine if any differences existed between testing days and between upright and supine for Pmax and revolutions per minute at Pmax (RPMpk). Mixed-modeling was also used to calculate intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) to determine the reliability of the ILC on each testing day for Pmax and RPMpk (ICCs were calculated separately for upright and supine). gKendall fs Tau a h was used to determine the association between ILC Pmax and isokinetic and leg press data. RESULTS: For Pmax, significant differences were found between days 1 and 2 (upright: p = 0.018; supine: p = 0.014) and between days 1 and 3 (upright: p = 0.001; supine: p = 0.002), but not between days 2 and 3 (upright: p = 0.422; supine: p = 0.501). Pmax ICC values were greater than

  3. Is there an advantage for preterm infants to feed orally in an upright or sidelying position?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chantal

    2013-02-01

    Over the last decade, nursing staff and feeding therapists have promoted the upright and sidelying bottle feeding positions as 'optimal' for preterm infants. To verify such benefits, very low birth weight infants were randomized to being fed in the customary semi-reclined (control), upright, or side-lying position. The primary outcome was days from start to independent oral feeding. Secondary outcomes included infants' oral feeding skill levels monitored when taking 1,2, 3-5, and 6-8 oral feedings per day. Infants fed in the upright and sidelying groups attained independent oral feeding within the same number of days as control counterparts. There was no difference in the maturation of their oral feeding skills.

  4. Body fluid identification using a targeted mRNA massively parallel sequencing approach - results of a EUROFORGEN/EDNAP collaborative exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingold, S; Dørum, G; Hanson, E

    2018-01-01

    In a previous study we presented an assay for targeted mRNA sequencing for the identification of human body fluids, optimised for the Illumina MiSeq/FGx MPS platform. This assay, together with an additional in-house designed assay for the Ion Torrent PGM/S5 platform, was the basis...... to specified protocols. The provided primer pools for the Illumina MiSeq/FGx and the Ion Torrent PGM/S5 platforms included 33 and 29 body fluid specific targets, respectively, to identify blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretion, menstrual blood and skin. The results demonstrated moderate to high count values...... counts. We performed a partial least squares (PLS) analysis on the data, where blood, menstrual blood, saliva and semen markers and samples clustered well. The results of this collaborative mRNA massively parallel sequencing (MPS) exercise support targeted mRNA sequencing as a reliable body fluid...

  5. The relationships between body mass index and television viewing, internet use and cellular phone use: the moderating effects of socio-demographic characteristics and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Hsiao, Ray C; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Huang, Chi-Fen; Liu, Shu-Chun; Wang, Shing-Yaw

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and television viewing, Internet use and cellular phone use and the moderators for these relationships in adolescents. The relationship between BMI and the time spent on three kinds of sedentary activities and the moderators for these relationships were analyzed among 9,278 Taiwanese adolescents. The different relationships between BMI and various Internet and cellular phone-related activities were analyzed. High television viewing and high Internet use were associated with increased BMI in adolescents. Exercising had a moderating effect on the relationship between BMI and television viewing. Several Internet and cellular phone-related activities were associated with increased BMI. The results support the relationships between adolescent BMI and television viewing and Internet use. The moderating effect of exercise and various Internet and cellular phone-related activities should be considered when developing intervention strategies for overweight adolescents. © 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The influence of muscle action on heart rate, RPE, and affective responses after upper-body resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul C; Hall, Eric E; Chmelo, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Jeffrey M; DeWitt, Rachel E; Kostura, Christine M

    2009-03-01

    Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) are routinely used to monitor, assess, and prescribe aerobic exercise. Heart rate (HR) is another measure used to evaluate exercise intensity. Additionally, affective responses to aerobic exercise have been studied and seem to be influenced by the intensity of the exercise. The perceptual, HR, and affective responses to resistance exercise have not been effectively established. The purpose of this study was to examine whether differences in affect, RPE, and HR exist among college-aged women (n = 31) performing three different modes of resistance training: concentric (CE), eccentric (EE), and traditional concentric/eccentric (TE) performed at varying resistances. The women were asked to complete four sessions of resistance training on variable resistance machines: chest press, seated row, overhead press, and biceps curl. The first session was used to establish the 10-repetition maximum (RM) load for each station. Subsequent sessions involved the execution of training in one of the three test conditions: CE, EE, or TE. The participants performed three sets of each lift at 80% 10-RM, 100% 10-RM, and 120% 10-RM. The data revealed lower RPE during EE than the other test conditions. Similarly, EE elicited more mild HR response than either CE or TE. This finding is potentially important for the establishment of training programs, especially for those individuals recovering from an illness, who had been previously sedentary, and who are involved in rehabilitation of an injury.

  7. Disturbances in pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance after passive body overheating and after exercise in elevated ambient temperatures in athletes and untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilch, Wanda; Szygula, Zbigniew; Tyka, Anna K; Palka, Tomasz; Tyka, Aleksander; Cison, Tomasz; Pilch, Pawel; Teleglow, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance in two series of examinations with two types of stressors (exogenous heat and the combined exogenous and endogenous heat) in trained and untrained men. The exogenous stressor was provided by Finnish sauna session, whereas the combined stressor was represented by the exercise in elevated ambient temperature. The men from the two groups performed the physical exercise on a cycle ergometer with the load of 53 ± 2% maximal oxygen uptake at the temperature of 33 ± 1 °C and relative humidity of 70% until their rectal temperature rose by 1.2 °C. After a month from completion of the exercise test the subjects participated in a sauna bathing session with the temperature of 96 ± 2 °C, and relative humidity of 16 ± 5%. 15-minutes heating and 2-minute cool-down in a shower with the temperature of 20 °C was repeated until rectal temperature rose by 1.2 °C compared to the initial value. During both series of tests rectal temperature was measured at 5-minute intervals. Before both series of tests and after them body mass was measured and blood samples were taken for biochemical tests. Serum total protein, serum concentration of lipid peroxidation products and serum antioxidants were determined. The athletes were characterized by higher level of antioxidant status and lower concentration of lipid peroxidation products. Physical exercise at elevated ambient temperature caused lower changes in oxidative stress indices compared to sauna bathing. Sauna induced a shift in pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance towards oxidation, which was observed less intensively in the athletes compared to the untrained men. This leads to the conclusion that physical exercise increases tolerance to elevated ambient temperature and oxidative stress.

  8. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy vs. far-infrared vs. passive modalities on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage in highly-trained runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Hausswirth

    Full Text Available Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC, far infrared (FIR or passive (PAS modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being] were recorded before, immediately after (post, post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h, while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities.

  9. Disturbances in Pro-Oxidant-Antioxidant Balance after Passive Body Overheating and after Exercise in Elevated Ambient Temperatures in Athletes and Untrained Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilch, Wanda; Szygula, Zbigniew; Tyka, Anna K.; Palka, Tomasz; Tyka, Aleksander; Cison, Tomasz; Pilch, Pawel; Teleglow, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance in two series of examinations with two types of stressors (exogenous heat and the combined exogenous and endogenous heat) in trained and untrained men. The exogenous stressor was provided by Finnish sauna session, whereas the combined stressor was represented by the exercise in elevated ambient temperature. The men from the two groups performed the physical exercise on a cycle ergometer with the load of 53±2% maximal oxygen uptake at the temperature of 33±1°C and relative humidity of 70% until their rectal temperature rose by 1.2°C. After a month from completion of the exercise test the subjects participated in a sauna bathing session with the temperature of 96±2°C, and relative humidity of 16±5%. 15-minutes heating and 2-minute cool-down in a shower with the temperature of 20°C was repeated until rectal temperature rose by 1.2°C compared to the initial value. During both series of tests rectal temperature was measured at 5-minute intervals. Before both series of tests and after them body mass was measured and blood samples were taken for biochemical tests. Serum total protein, serum concentration of lipid peroxidation products and serum antioxidants were determined. The athletes were characterized by higher level of antioxidant status and lower concentration of lipid peroxidation products. Physical exercise at elevated ambient temperature caused lower changes in oxidative stress indices compared to sauna bathing. Sauna induced a shift in pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance towards oxidation, which was observed less intensively in the athletes compared to the untrained men. This leads to the conclusion that physical exercise increases tolerance to elevated ambient temperature and oxidative stress. PMID:24465535

  10. Effect of two Backpack Designs on Cop Displacement and Plantar Force Distribution in Children during Upright Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastalerz Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Many studies have compared different backpack designs and their influence on the carrier; however, no data referring to school students aged 7-8 years are currently available. Therefore, the aim of the research was to assess the influence of backpack design on centre of pressure (COP displacement and plantar force distribution in children during an upright stance. Material and methods. Nineteen school students (9 males and 10 females volunteered for the study. Two Polish backpacks intended for school use were evaluated: backpack A, which had two main compartments, and backpack B, which had one main compartment. The backpack load was composed of books, binders, and regular school equipment. During the measurements, the subjects were asked to look ahead with the head straight and arms at the sides in a comfortable position and to stand barefoot on the F-Scan® sensors (Tekscan, F-Scan® attached to the force platform (Kistler, carrying a load corresponding to 10% of their body mass. Results. The study found insignificant differences between the two backpack designs. Moreover, COP parameters increased significantly during an upright stance while carrying backpack B in comparison to the empty backpack condition. Additionally, we observed significantly higher values of plantar force distribution in the heel region for the condition without load and insignificantly higher ones for carrying backpack A. Conclusions. The results of the current study suggest that the differences between the two backpack designs are too marginal to be detected through COP displacement. Disturbances in plantar force distribution suggest a lack of posture control and a lower stability of the standing position with a backpack, but these disturbances were significant only when the backpack with one main compartment was used.

  11. The effect of a change in sleep-wakefulness timing, bright light and physical exercise interventions on 24-hour patterns of performance, mood and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskra-Golec, I; Fafrowicz, M; Marek, T; Costa, G; Folkard, S; Foret, J; Kundi, M; Smith, L

    2001-12-01

    Experiments consisting of baseline, bright light and physical exercise studies were carried out to compare the effect of a 9-hour delay in sleep-wakefulness timing, and the effects of bright light and physical exercise interventions on 24-hour patterns of performance, mood and body temperature were examined. Each study comprised a 24-hour constant routine at the beginning followed by 3 night shifts and 24-hour constant routine at the end. Performance on tasks differing in cognitive load, mood and body temperature was measured during each constant routine and the interventions were applied during the night shifts. The 24-hour pattern of alertness and performance on the tasks with low cognitive load in post-treatment conditions followed the change in sleep-wakefulness timing while more cognitively loaded tasks tended to show a reverse trend when compared to pre-treatment conditions. There was a phase delay around 4 hours in circadian rhythms of body temperature in post-treatment conditions.

  12. Weight and weddings: expectations about wedding-specific body weight and shape ideals and dieting and exercise behavior among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2008-12-01

    Weddings are significant life events when brides and grooms often seek a culturally-defined ideal appearance. A cross-sectional survey of 275 unmarried university students assessed current weight and shape, general ideal weight and shape, desired wedding weight and shape, and expectations to diet and/or exercise when contemplating their future wedding. Results indicated that men and women conceptualize the size and scope of their wedding similarly, but wedding appearance (including weight) was more important among women than men. Few men and women idealized a wedding-specific weight and shape that differed from their general ideal weight and shape. When contemplating their future wedding day, expectations about engaging in weight control behaviors were more common among women, and exercise was preferred over dieting among both genders. These findings suggest that although weddings focus attention on body weight and shape, young adults do not have overly unrealistic body weight and shape expectations when contemplating their future wedding and generally do not construct a specific body weight and shape for their future wedding. These relationships may change as marriage becomes more salient.

  13. Effects of whole body vibration exercise on neuromuscular function for individuals with knee osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhangqi; Wang, Xueqiang; Lee, Seullee; Hou, Xihe; Wang, Lin

    2017-09-20

    Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a leading cause of public disability. Neuromuscular function contributes to the development and/or progression of KOA. Whole body vibration (WBV) exercise improve the neuromuscular function of patients with neurological disorders and even that of older patients with limited exercise options. Therefore, WBV exercise may offer an efficient and alternative treatment for individuals with KOA. However, the effects of WBV training on the neuromuscular function of individuals with KOA remain unclear. Therefore, this study attempts to investigate the effect of a 12-week WBV exercise on the neuromuscular function of individuals with KOA. We will conduct a prospective, single-blind randomized controlled trial on 180 KOA patients. Participants will be randomly assigned to the WBV exercise, lower extremity resistance training, and health education groups. The WBV exercise group will participate in a 12-week WBV training. The lower extremity resistance training group will undergo a 12-week lower extremity resistance training of both lower limbs. The control group will receive health education for 12 weeks. After the intervention, the participants will be followed up for 3 months with no active intervention. Primary outcome measures will include anthropometric measurements, gait analysis during walking and stair climbing, muscle strength test of the knee and ankle, proprioception test of the knee and ankle, and neuromuscular response of the leg muscles. Secondary outcome measures will include self-reported pain and physical functional capacity, and physical performance measures. Furthermore, adverse events will be recorded and analyzed. If any participant withdraws from the trial, intention-to-treat analysis will be performed. Important features of this trial mainly include intervention setting, outcome measure selection, and study duration. This study is intended for estimating the effect of WBV intervention on neuromuscular control outcomes

  14. Physical activity, exercise, and inflammatory markers in older adults : findings from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colbert, Lisa H; Visser, Marjolein; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Tracy, Russell P; Newman, Anne B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Pahor, Marco; Taaffe, Dennis R; Brach, Jennifer S; Rubin, Susan; Harris, Tamara B

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between physical activity and inflammatory markers, with consideration for body fatness and antioxidant use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study, using baseline data from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. SETTING: Metropolitan areas surrounding

  15. Increasing heat storage by wearing extra clothing during upper body exercise up-regulates heat shock protein 70 but does not modify the cytokine response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Christof A; Papanagopoulos, Aris; Haghighat, Sam; Faulkner, Steve H

    2017-09-01

    Plasma heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) concentrations rise during heat stress, which can independently induce cytokine production. Upper body exercise normally results in modest body temperature elevations. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of additional clothing on the body temperature, cytokine and HSP70 responses during this exercise modality. Thirteen males performed 45-min constant-load arm cranking at 63% maximum aerobic power (62 ± 7%V̇O 2peak ) in either a non-permeable whole-body suit (intervention, INT) or shorts and T-shirt (control, CON). Exercise resulted in a significant increase of IL-6 and IL-1ra plasma concentrations (P  0.19). The increase in HSP70 from pre to post was only significant for INT (0.12 ± 0.11ng∙mL -1 , P < 0.01 vs. 0.04 ± 0.18 ng∙mL -1 , P = 0.77). Immediately following exercise, T core was elevated by 0.46 ± 0.29 (INT) and 0.37 ± 0.23ºC (CON), respectively (P < 0.01), with no difference between conditions (P = 0.16). The rise in mean T skin (2.88 ± 0.50 and 0.30 ± 0.89ºC, respectively) and maximum heat storage (3.24 ± 1.08 and 1.20 ± 1.04 J∙g -1 , respectively) was higher during INT (P < 0.01). Despite large differences in heat storage between conditions, the HSP70 elevations during INT, even though significant, were very modest. Possibly, the T core elevations were too low to induce a more pronounced HSP70 response to ultimately affect cytokine production.

  16. A randomised placebo-exercise controlled trial of Kung Fu training for improvements in body composition in overweight/obese adolescents: the "Martial Fitness" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Tracey W; Kohn, Michael; Chow, Chin Moi; Singh, M Fiatarone

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if Chinese martial arts (Kung Fu, KF) might be effective for improving body composition, as well as being an appealing form of physical activity for inexperienced, sedentary, overweight/obese adolescents. Twenty subjects (age: 13.3 ± 1.8 y; BMI percentile: 98.6(86.5 - 99.8); 60% girls) were randomly-assigned to the supervised KF or placebo (Tai Chi, TC) control group 3 d.wk(-1) for 6 months. We assessed body composition, including total and regional fat and lean mass, total and regional bone mineral density (BMD), percent lean and fat mass, body mass index and waist circumference, at baseline and after 6 months of training using anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Habitual physical activity and dietary intake were recorded as covariates via self-report at each time-point. As expected due to natural growth, significant increases in height, weight, total and lumbar BMD, and lean mass were seen in the cohort over time, with a trend for increased whole body fat mass, with no difference between groups. By contrast, percent fat and android fat mass via DXA did not increase in either group over time. The absence of a similar expected increase in central adiposity over 6 months could indicate a positive effect of participation in both programs on the metabolically critical abdominal adiposity in this cohort. Further research in this area is warranted to determine ways to increase uptake and compliance, and to see if longer-term martial arts training not only maintains, but improves abdominal fat mass and related metabolic health indices in overweight/ obese adolescents. Key pointsParticipation in our martial arts trial attenuated the increases in body fat mass expected due to growth in our overweight/obese adolescent group.All subjects allocated to the Kung Fu intervention were satisfied with their Kung Fu training, in contrast to our placebo-exercise (Tai Chi) subjects, suggesting that this form of

  17. Body mass index and active range of motion exercise treatment after intra-articular injection in adhesive capsulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi-Hsien Lin

    2013-04-01

    Conclusion: Active range of motion exercise after an intra-articular injection of corticosteroid and lidocaine improved pain and functional outcome at 8 weeks in normal-weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2 patients with primary adhesive capsulitis. Manipulation under anesthesia may be considered a priority in overweight patients.

  18. This girl can #jointhemovement: Effectiveness of physical functionality-focused campaigns for women's body satisfaction and exercise intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgrew, Kate E; McCulloch, Karen; Farren, Emily; Prichard, Ivanka; Lim, Megan S C

    2018-03-01

    We tested the effectiveness of exposure to two functionality-focused media campaigns, This Girl Can and #jointhemovement, in improving state appearance and physical functionality satisfaction, exercise intent, and protecting against exposure to idealised imagery. Across two studies, 339 (M age =24.94, SD=4.98) and 256 (M age =26.46, SD=5.50) women viewed the campaign or control video, followed by images of models who were posed or physically active, or images of landscapes. State satisfaction and exercise intent was measured at pre-test, post-video, post-images, and 1-week follow-up. Social comparison was measured at post-images. Viewing either campaign produced higher appearance satisfaction and exercise intentions than the control video. Effects weren't maintained after viewing idealised imagery or 1 week later. Further, the campaigns did not decrease social comparisons when viewing idealised imagery. Results can inform agencies about campaign effectiveness and suggest that women benefit from campaigns that feature non-idealised depictions of women exercising. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diurnal variation in the control of ventilation in response to rising body temperature during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Bun; Honda, Yasushi; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2016-08-01

    We investigated whether heat-induced hyperventilation during exercise is affected by time of day, as diurnal variation leads to higher core temperatures in the evening. Nineteen male subjects were divided into two experiments (protocol 1, n = 10 and protocol 2, n = 9). In protocol 1, subjects performed cycle exercise at 50% peak oxygen uptake in the heat (37°C and 50% RH) in the morning (0600) and evening (1800). Results showed that baseline resting and exercising esophageal temperature (Tes) were significantly (0.5°C) higher in the evening than morning. Minute ventilation (V̇e) increased from 54.3 ± 7.9 and 54.9 ± 6.8 l/min at 10 min to 71.4 ± 8.1 and 76.5 ± 11.8 l/min at 48.5 min in the morning and evening, respectively (both P temperature is smaller in the evening. In protocol 2, the circadian rhythm-related higher resting Tes seen in the evening was adjusted down to the same temperature seen in the morning by immersing the subject in cold water. Importantly, the time course of changes in V̇e during exercise were smaller in the evening, but the threshold for V̇e remained higher in the evening than morning (P temperatures in the evening. This is likely due to diurnal variation in the control of ventilation in response to rising core temperature. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Heat strain and gross efficiency during endurance exercise after lower, upper, or whole body precooling in the heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H. A.; van Es, E.M.; De Graaf, J. L.

    The maximal power that muscles can generate is reduced at low muscle temperatures. However, in prolonged heavy exercise in the heat, a high core temperature may be the factor limiting performance. Precooling has been shown to delay the attainment of hyperthermia. It is still unclear if the whole

  1. Foot-Ground Interaction during Upright Standing in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Massimiliano; Galli, Manuela; Crivellini, Marcello; Albertini, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to quantitatively characterize the main foot-ground contact parameters during static upright standing and to assess foot evolution with increasing age in young individuals affected by Down syndrome (DS). To this end, 99 children with DS of mean age 9.7 (1.7) were tested using a pressure sensitive mat, and the raw data were…

  2. Toddlers with Williams Syndrome Process Upright but Not Inverted Faces Holistically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashon, Cara H.; Ha, Oh-Ryeong; DeNicola, Christopher A.; Mervis, Carolyn B.

    2013-01-01

    Holistic processing of upright, but not inverted, faces is a marker of perceptual expertise for faces. This pattern is shown by typically developing individuals beginning at age 7 months. Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurogenetic developmental disorder characterized by extreme interest in faces from a very young age. Research on the effects of…

  3. Comparison of Upright and Flipped Spoon Presentations to Guide Treatment of Food Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, William G.; Odom, Ashley; Jaquess, David L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of bite placement with a flipped versus upright spoon on expulsion and mouth clean (product measure of swallowing) in the treatment of 3 children diagnosed with a pediatric feeding disorder and oral-motor deficits. For all 3 participants, extinction in the form of nonremoval of the spoon led to improvements…

  4. Corrigendum : EEG beta suppression and low gamma modulation are different elements of human upright walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeber, M.; Scherer, R.; Wagner, J.; Solis Escalante, T.; Müller-Putz, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    A corrigendum on EEG beta suppression and low gamma modulationare different elements of human upright walking by Seeber,M.,Scherer,R.,Wagner,J.,Solis-Escalante,T.,andMüller-Putz,G.R.(2014)Front.Hum. Neurosci.8:485.doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00485

  5. Discriminant models to estimate the body weight loss after a six-month long diet and exercise-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Tirado, Miguel A; Benito, Pedro J; Peinado, Ana B; Zapico, Augusto G; Calderón, Franciso J

    2016-01-01

    The main concern of the people who follow a weight loss program is the body weight loss, independently of the body composition. The aim of this study was to create a mathematical model able to discriminate the body weight change based on initial body composition variables. The study included 239 overweight and obese participants (18-50 years; Body Mass Index (BMI)>25 and weight loss, during twenty-four weeks while having 25-30% caloric restriction. Two multivariate discriminant models were performed taking into account the groups below and above the mean body weight change. The discriminant models obtained could discriminate the body weight change with a 65-70% of correct classification. BW, fat-free mass (FFM), and fat mass (FM) were shown to be the most discriminant variables for the discriminant models. People having higher FM and FFM at the beginning of an intervention will lose a greater amount of weight until the end of it.

  6. Acute and Long-Term Impact of High-Protein Diets on Endocrine and Metabolic Function, Body Composition, and Exercise-Induced Adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Flor E; Tinsley, Grant M; Gordon, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    High-protein diets have been shown to improve body composition through alterations in satiety, muscle protein synthesis, and the thermic effect of food. Given these findings, the purpose of this review is to discuss the integration of the specific hormonal and metabolic effects of high-protein diets following both acute and long-term usage, especially with regard to body composition. Full-text articles were obtained through PubMed by using the terms "high-protein diet and body composition," "high-protein diet and exercise," "high-protein diet risk," "high-protein diet side effects," "protein quality PDCAAS," "RDA for protein," and "daily protein recommendation." Articles were initially screened according to their title and abstract; careful evaluation of the full manuscripts was then used to identify relevant articles. The higher satiety exerted by high-protein diets is generated through increments in anorexigenic, as well as decrements in orexigenic hormones. Improvements in muscle mass are achieved by activation of muscle protein synthesis acting through the mTOR pathway. High thermic effect of food is caused due to necessary deamination, gluconeogenesis, and urea synthesis caused by high-protein diets. Interestingly, high-protein diets in both hypo- and normocaloric conditions have shown to improve body composition, whereas in combination with hypercaloric conditions does not seem to increase fat mass, when the excess energy comes from protein. High protein diets effectively improve body composition by acting through different pathways.

  7. Effect of 8-week Aerobic Exercise Program on Nutritional Disorders and Body Composition in Non-athlete Female Students of University of Medical Sciences Gilan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Pahlavan Yali

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In this study, the effect of 8-week aerobic exercise program was investigated on nutritional disorders and selected physical factors in non-athlete female students of Gilan University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This quasi-experimental research was conducted as pretest-posttest method on 263 non-athlete female students of Gilan University of Medical Sciences, of whom 21 subjects with a score equal to or greater than 20 on eating attitudes questionnaire-26, were simply randomly divided into two groups of experimental (n=11 and control (n=10. The experimental group exercised for 8 weeks and 2 times per week at the intensity of 60-75% of maximum heart rate, while the control group received no intervention. In both control and experimental groups, height, weight, subcutaneous fat, waist circumference, and hip circumference, were measured using standard tools before and after the training period. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov–Smirnov and independent t- tests. The significance level was considered p0.05. A significant difference was observed between control and experimental groups in terms of nutritional disorder variables, BMI, and fat percentage (p0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise could be used as an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce nutritional disorders and improve body composition in individuals with nutritional disorders.

  8. The Effect of Physical Exercise on Postural Stability in Sighted Individuals and Those Who Are Visually Impaired: An Analysis Adjusted for Physical Activity and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Dorota; Stemplewski, Rafał; Szeklicki, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of physical exercise on postural stability in sighted participants and individuals who are visually impaired, adjusted for potential modulatory effects of physical activity level and body mass index (BMI). The study included 23 participants who were severely visually impaired and 23 sighted participants. Postural stability measurements were taken with open eyes (session I) and with closed eyes (session II). During each session, the mean velocity of the center of pressure (COP) displacements was determined using a force plate both before and after physical exercise. During testing with open eyes, the 2 groups did not differ significantly in terms of their postural response to physical exercise. When examined with closed eyes, the individuals who were visually impaired showed markedly greater postexercise increase in mean velocity of the COP displacement in the mediolateral direction. This intergroup difference was likely a consequence of significantly higher preexercise values of posturographic parameters observed in the sighted participants. More pronounced postexercise changes in the postural stability of sighted participants were associated with lower levels of physical activity and higher values of BMI. Further research is needed to explain the character of the abovementioned relationships in individuals who are visually impaired.

  9. Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on an acute bout of intense lower body strength exercise in resistance trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levers, Kyle; Dalton, Ryan; Galvan, Elfego; Goodenough, Chelsea; O'Connor, Abigail; Simbo, Sunday; Barringer, Nicholas; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U; Rasmussen, Christopher; Greenwood, Mike; Riechman, Steven; Crouse, Stephen; Kreider, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether short-term ingestion of a powdered tart cherry supplement prior to and following intense resistance-exercise attenuates muscle soreness and recovery strength loss, while reducing markers of muscle damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Twenty-three healthy, resistance-trained men (20.9 ± 2.6 yr, 14.2 ± 5.4% body fat, 63.9 ± 8.6 kg FFM) were matched based on relative maximal back squat strength, age, body weight, and fat free mass. Subjects were randomly assigned to ingest, in a double blind manner, capsules containing a placebo (P, n = 12) or powdered tart cherries [CherryPURE(®)] (TC, n = 11). Participants supplemented one