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Sample records for body upright exercise

  1. Supine exercise during lower body negative pressure effectively simulates upright exercise in normal gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Exercise within a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) chamber in supine posture was compared with similar exercise against Earth's gravity (without LBNP) in upright posture in nine healthy male volunteers. We measured footward force with a force plate, pressure in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of the leg with transducer-tipped catheters, calf volume by strain gauge plethysmography, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures during two conditions: 1) exercise in supine posture within an LBNP chamber during 100-mmHg LBNP (exercise-LBNP) and 2) exercise in upright posture against Earth's gravity without LBNP (exercise-1 G). Subjects exercised their ankle joints (dorsi- and plantarflexions) for 5 min during exercise-LBNP and for 5 min during exercise-1 G. Mean footward force produced during exercise-LBNP (743 +/- 37 N) was similar to that produced during exercise-1 G (701 +/- 24 N). Peak contraction pressure in the antigravity soleus muscle during exercise-LBNP (115 +/- 10 mmHg) was also similar to that during exercise-1 G (103 +/- 13 mmHg). Calf volume increased significantly by 3.3 +/- 0.5% during exercise-LBNP compared with baseline values. Calf volume did not increase significantly during exercise-1 G. Heart rate was significantly higher during exercise-LBNP (99 +/- 5 beats/min) than during exercise-1 G (81 +/- 3 beats/min). These results indicate that exercise in supine posture within an LBNP chamber can produce similar musculoskeletal stress in the legs and greater systemic cardiovascular stress than exercise in the upright posture against Earth's gravity.

  2. Maximal muscular vascular conductances during whole body upright exercise in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbet, J A L; Jensen-Urstad, M; van Hall, G; Holmberg, H -C; Rosdahl, H; Saltin, B

    2004-01-01

    restrained during whole body exercise in the upright position to avoid hypotension. PMID:15121799

  3. Maximal muscular vascular conductances during whole body upright exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Jensen-Urstad, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2004-01-01

    76% of VO(2,max) and at VO(2,max) with different techniques: diagonal stride (combined arm and leg exercise), double poling (predominantly arm exercise) and leg skiing (predominantly leg exercise). During submaximal exercise cardiac output (26-27 l min(-1)), mean blood pressure (MAP) (approximately......That muscular blood flow may reach 2.5 l kg(-1) min(-1) in the quadriceps muscle has led to the suggestion that muscular vascular conductance must be restrained during whole body exercise to avoid hypotension. The main aim of this study was to determine the maximal arm and leg muscle vascular...... (VO(2,max)) 5.1 +/- 0.1 l min(-1) participated in the study. Femoral and subclavian vein blood flows, intra-arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, as well as blood gases in the femoral and subclavian vein, right atrium and femoral artery were determined during skiing (roller skis) at approximately...

  4. Difference in human cardiovascular response between upright and supine recovery from upright cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Okada, A; Saitoh, T; Hayano, J; Miyamoto, Y

    2000-02-01

    Cardiovascular responses were examined in seven healthy male subjects during 10 min of recovery in the upright or supine position following 5 min of upright cycle exercise at 80% peak oxygen uptake. An initial rapid decrease in heart rate (fc) during the early phase of recovery followed by much slower decrease was observed for both the upright and supine positions. The average fc at the 10th min of recovery was significantly lower (P position than in the upright position, while they were both significantly greater than the corresponding pre-exercise levels (each P positions was reduced with a decrease in mean R-R interval, the relationship being expressed by a regression line--mean R-R interval = 0.006 x HF amplitude + 0.570 (r = 0.905, n = 28, P positions is partly attributable to a retardation in the restoration of the activity of the cardiac parasympathetic nervous system. Post-exercise upright stroke volume (SV, by impedance cardiography) decreased gradually to just below the pre-exercise level, whereas post-exercise supine SV increased markedly to a level similar to that at rest before exercise. The resultant cardiac output (Qc) and the total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR) in the upright and supine positions returned gradually to their respective pre-exercise levels in the corresponding positions. At the 10th min of recovery, both average SV and Qc were significantly greater (each P position, while average TPR was significantly lower (P position. In contrast, immediately after exercise, mean blood pressure dropped markedly in both the supine and upright positions, and their levels at the 10th min of recovery were similar. Therefore we concluded that arterial blood pressure is maintained relatively constant through various compensatory mechanisms associated with fc, SV, Qc, and TPR during rest and recovery in different body positions.

  5. Effects of upright and supine position on cardiac rest and exercise response in aortic regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W F; Roubin, G S; Fletcher, P J; Choong, C Y; Hutton, B F; Harris, P J; Kelly, D T

    1985-02-01

    The effects of upright and supine position on cardiac response to exercise were assessed by radionuclide ventriculography in 15 patients with moderate to severe aortic regurgitation (AR) and in 10 control subjects. In patients with AR, heart rate was higher during upright exercise, but systolic and diastolic blood pressure and left ventricular (LV) output were similar during both forms of exercise. LV stroke volume and end-diastolic volume were not altered during supine exercise. LV end-systolic volume increased and ejection fraction decreased during supine exercise, but both were unchanged during upright exercise. Of 15 patients, 5 in the upright and 12 in the supine position had an abnormal LV ejection fraction response to exercise (p less than 0.01). Right ventricular ejection fraction increased and regurgitant index decreased with both forms of exercise and was not significantly different between the 2 positions. Thus, posture is important in determining LV response to exercise in patients with moderate to severe AR.

  6. Acute alcohol intoxication impairs segmental body alignment in upright standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafstrom, A; Patel, M; Modig, F; Magnusson, M; Fransson, P A

    2014-01-01

    Balance control when standing upright is a complex process requiring input from several partly independent mechanisms such as coordination, feedback and feedforward control, and adaptation. Acute alcohol intoxication from ethanol is recognized as a major contributor to accidental falls requiring medical care. This study aimed to investigate if intoxication at 0.06 and 0.10% blood alcohol concentration affected body alignment. Mean angular positions of the head, shoulder, hip, and knee were measured with 3D-motion analysis and compared with the ankle position in 25 healthy adults during standing with or without perturbations, and with eyes open or closed. Alcohol intoxication had significant effects on body alignment during perturbed and unperturbed stance, and on adaptation to perturbations. It induced a significantly more posterior alignment of the knees and shoulders, and a tendency for a more posterior and left deviated head alignment in perturbed stance than when sober. The impact of alcohol intoxication was most apparent on the knee alignment, where availability of visual information deteriorated the adaptation to perturbations. Thus, acute alcohol intoxication resulted in inadequate balance control strategies with increased postural rigidity and impaired adaptation to perturbations. These factors probably contribute to the increased risk of falling when intoxicated with alcohol.

  7. A Comparison of the Physiology and Mechanics of Exercise in LBNP and Upright Gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, W. L.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Chang, D.; Looft-Wilson, R.; Hargens, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    Bone, muscular strength, aerobic capacity, and normal fluid pressure gradients within the body are lost during bed rest and spaceflight. Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) exercise may create musculoskeletal and cardiovascular strains equal to a greater than those experienced on Earth and elucidate some of the mechanisms for maintaining bone integrity. LBNP exercise simulates gravity during supine posture by using negative pressure to pull subjects inward against a treadmill generating footward forces and increasing transmural pressures. Footward forces are generated which equal the product of the pressure differential and the cross-sectional area of the LBNP waist seal. Subjects lie supine within the chamber with their legs suspended from one another via cuffs, bungee cords, and pulleys, such that each leg acts as a counterweight to the other leg during the gait cycle. The subjects then walk or run on a treadmill which is positioned vertically within the chamber. Supine orientation allows only footward force production due to the negative pressure within the chamber. The purpose of this study was to determine if the kinematics, kinetics, and metabolic rate during supine walking and slow running on a vertical treadmill within LBNP are similar to those on a treadmill in 1-g environment in an upright posture.

  8. Balance Maintenance in the Upright Body Position: Analysis of Autocorrelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stodolka¹ Jacek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to analyze values of the autocorrelation function measured for different time values of ground reaction forces during stable upright standing. It was hypothesized that if recording of force in time depended on the quality and way of regulating force by the central nervous system (as a regulator, then the application of autocorrelation for time series in the analysis of force changes in time function would allow to determine regulator properties and its functioning. The study was performed on 82 subjects (students, athletes, senior and junior soccer players and subjects who suffered from lower limb injuries. The research was conducted with the use of two Kistler force plates and was based on measurements of ground reaction forces taken during a 15 s period of standing upright while relaxed. The results of the autocorrelation function were statistically analyzed. The research revealed a significant correlation between a derivative extreme and velocity of reaching the extreme by the autocorrelation function, described as gradient strength. Low correlation values (all statistically significant were observed between time of the autocorrelation curve passing through 0 axis and time of reaching the first peak by the said function. Parameters computed on the basis of the autocorrelation function are a reliable means to evaluate the process of flow of stimuli in the nervous system. Significant correlations observed between the parameters of the autocorrelation function indicate that individual parameters provide similar properties of the central nervous system.

  9. Sex-related differences in the normal cardiac response to upright exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginbotham, M.B.; Morris, K.G.; Coleman, R.E.; Cobb, F.R.

    1984-01-01

    In previous studies from this laboratory, it was found that approximately 30% of women with chest pain and normal coronary arteries demonstrated either a decrease in or a failure to increase radionuclide ejection fraction during exercise. To examine the hypothesis that this apparent abnormality in left ventricular function represents a physiologic difference between men and women, a prospective study was made of central and peripheral cardiovascular responses to exercise in 31 age-matched healthy volunteers (16 women and 15 men). A combination of quantitative radionuclide (technetium) angiography and expired-gas analysis was used to measure ejection fraction and relative changes in end-diastolic counts, stroke counts, count output, and arteriovenous oxygen difference during symptom-limited upright bicycle exercise. Normal male and female volunteers demonstrated comparable baseline left ventricular function and similar aerobic capacity, as determined by weight-adjusted peak oxygen consumption. However, their cardiac responses to exercise were significantly different. The ejection fraction increased by 5 points or more in 14 of 15 men, but in only seven of the 16 women. End-diastolic counts increased by 30% in women, but was unchanged in men. Because decreases in ejection fraction were matched by increases in end-diastolic counts, relative increases in stroke counts and count output were the same for men and women. These data demonstrate a basic difference between men and women with respect to the mechanism by which they achieve a normal response of stroke volume to exercise; these differences must be taken into account when measurements of cardiac function during exercise stress are used for diagnostic purposes

  10. Hemodynamic and metabolic characteristics associated with development of a right ventricular outflow tract pressure gradient during upright exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Riel, Annelieke C. M. J.; Systrom, David M.; Oliveira, Rudolf K. F.; Landzberg, Michael J.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; Bouma, Berto J.; Maron, Bradley A.; Shah, Amil M.; Waxman, Aaron B.; Opotowsky, Alexander R.

    2017-01-01

    We recently reported a novel observation that many patients with equal resting supine right ventricular(RV) and pulmonary artery(PA) systolic pressures develop an RV outflow tract(RVOT) pressure gradient during upright exercise. The current work details the characteristics of patients who develop

  11. Differential effects of lower body negative pressure and upright tilt on splanchnic blood volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Indu; Moran, Christopher; Medow, Marvin S.; Glover, June L.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Stewart, Julian M.

    2015-01-01

    Upright posture and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) both induce reductions in central blood volume. However, regional circulatory responses to postural changes and LBNP may differ. Therefore, we studied regional blood flow and blood volume changes in 10 healthy subjects undergoing graded lower-body negative pressure (−10 to −50 mmHg) and 8 subjects undergoing incremental head-up tilt (HUT; 20°, 40°, and 70°) on separate days. We continuously measured blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and regional blood volumes and blood flows in the thoracic, splanchnic, pelvic, and leg segments by impedance plethysmography and calculated regional arterial resistances. Neither LBNP nor HUT altered systolic BP, whereas pulse pressure decreased significantly. Blood flow decreased in all segments, whereas peripheral resistances uniformly and significantly increased with both HUT and LBNP. Thoracic volume decreased while pelvic and leg volumes increased with HUT and LBNP. However, splanchnic volume changes were directionally opposite with stepwise decreases in splanchnic volume with LBNP and stepwise increases in splanchnic volume during HUT. Splanchnic emptying in LBNP models regional vascular changes during hemorrhage. Splanchnic filling may limit the ability of the splanchnic bed to respond to thoracic hypovolemia during upright posture. PMID:17085534

  12. Prior exercise speeds pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics and increases critical power during supine but not upright cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Richie P; Roche, Denise M; Marwood, Simon

    2017-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? Critical power (CP) represents the highest work rate for which a metabolic steady state is attainable. The physiological determinants of CP are unclear, but research suggests that CP might be related to the time constant of phase II oxygen uptake kinetics (τV̇O2). What is the main finding and its importance? We provide the first evidence that τV̇O2 is mechanistically related to CP. A reduction of τV̇O2 in the supine position was observed alongside a concomitant increase in CP. This effect may be contingent on measures of oxygen availability derived from near-infrared spectroscopy. Critical power (CP) is a fundamental parameter defining high-intensity exercise tolerance and is related to the time constant of phase II pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics (τV̇O2). To test the hypothesis that this relationship is causal, we determined the impact of prior exercise ('priming') on CP and τV̇O2 in the upright and supine positions. Seventeen healthy men were assigned to either upright or supine exercise groups, whereby CP, τV̇O2 and muscle deoxyhaemoglobin kinetics (τ [HHb] ) were determined via constant-power tests to exhaustion at four work rates with (primed) and without (control) priming exercise at ∼31%Δ. During supine exercise, priming reduced τV̇O2 (control 54 ± 18 s versus primed 39 ± 11 s; P exercise had no effect on τV̇O2 (control 37 ± 12 s versus primed 35 ± 8 s; P = 0.82), τ [HHb] (control 10 ± 5 s versus primed 14 ± 10 s; P = 0.10) or CP (control 235 ± 42 W versus primed 232 ± 35 W; P = 0.57) during upright exercise. The concomitant reduction of τV̇O2 and increased CP following priming in the supine group, effects that were absent in the upright group, provide the first experimental evidence that τV̇O2 is mechanistically related to critical power. The increased τ [HHb+Mb] suggests that this effect was mediated, at least in part, by improved oxygen

  13. Right ventricular performance and central circulatory hemodynamics during upright exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahler, D.A.; Brent, B.N.; Loke, J.; Zaret, B.L.; Matthay, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    A combined hemodynamic and radionuclide approach was used to evaluate right ventricular performance during upright exercise in 12 male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To assess the influence of intrathoracic pressure on hemodynamic parameters, pleural pressure was measured using an esophageal balloon. Mean age was 58.5 +/- 6.7 yr (+/- SD), and all had dyspnea on physical exertion. For the group, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was 1.04 +/- 0.40 L and arterial oxygen-tension (PaO 2 ) was 77 +/- 11 mmHg. During steady-state, upright exercise on the bicycle ergometer at 58% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max): (1) mean pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa) and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) increased significantly; (2) right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) failed to augment appropriately (less than 5% increase); and (3) right ventricular end-diastolic volume index (RVEDVI) increased significantly, whereas right ventricular end-systolic volume index (RVESVI) did not change. A diminished pulmonary vascular bed, the change in PaO 2 , and possibly increased alveolar pressure appeared to contribute to the increased load placed on the right ventricle. Both RVEDVI and RVESVI were significantly correlated with Ppa at rest and during exercise. In 2 of the 12 patients, stroke volume index and left ventricular end-diastolic volume index showed minimal change with exercise. VO 2 max was correlated with the FEV1 (r . 0.75; p . 0.01) as well as resting (r . -0.60; p . 0.02) and exercise (r . -0.61; p . 0.02) PVRI. These results suggest that exercise performance may be limited by right ventricular dysfunction in addition to respiratory impairment in some patients with chronic airway disease

  14. Electro-tactile stimulation of the posterior neck induces body anteropulsion during upright stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nunzio, A M; Yavuz, U S; Martinez-Valdes, E; Farina, D; Falla, D

    2018-05-01

    Sensory information conveyed along afferent fibers from muscle and joint proprioceptors play an important role in the control of posture and gait in humans. In particular, proprioceptive information from the neck is fundamental in supplying the central nervous system with information about the orientation and movement of the head relative to the rest of the body. The previous studies have confirmed that proprioceptive afferences originating from the neck region, evoked via muscle vibration, lead to strong body-orienting effects during static conditions (e.g., leaning of the body forwards or backwards, depending on location of vibration). However, it is not yet certain in humans, whether the somatosensory receptors located in the deep skin (cutaneous mechanoreceptors) have a substantive contribution to postural control, as vibratory stimulation encompasses the receptive field of all the somatosensory receptors from the skin to the muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the postural effect of cutaneous mechanoreceptor afferences using electro-tactile stimulation applied to the neck. Ten healthy volunteers (8M, 2F) were evaluated. The average position of their centre of foot pressure (CoP) was acquired before, during, and after a subtle electro-tactile stimulation over their posterior neck (mean ± SD = 5.1 ± 2.3 mA at 100 Hz-140% of the perception threshold) during upright stance with their eyes closed. The electro-tactile stimulation led to a body-orienting effect with the subjects consistently leaning forward. An average shift of the CoP of 12.1 ± 11.9 mm (mean ± SD) was reported, which significantly (p < 0.05) differed from its average position under a control condition (no stimulation). These results indicate that cutaneous mechanoreceptive inflow from the neck is integrated to control stance. The findings are relevant for the exploitation of electro-tactile stimulation for rehabilitation interventions where induced

  15. Force direction patterns promote whole body stability even in hip-flexed walking, but not upper body stability in human upright walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Roy; Rode, Christian; Aminiaghdam, Soran; Vielemeyer, Johanna; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2017-11-01

    Directing the ground reaction forces to a focal point above the centre of mass of the whole body promotes whole body stability in human and animal gaits similar to a physical pendulum. Here we show that this is the case in human hip-flexed walking as well. For all upper body orientations (upright, 25°, 50°, maximum), the focal point was well above the centre of mass of the whole body, suggesting its general relevance for walking. Deviations of the forces' lines of action from the focal point increased with upper body inclination from 25 to 43 mm root mean square deviation (RMSD). With respect to the upper body in upright gait, the resulting force also passed near a focal point (17 mm RMSD between the net forces' lines of action and focal point), but this point was 18 cm below its centre of mass. While this behaviour mimics an unstable inverted pendulum, it leads to resulting torques of alternating sign in accordance with periodic upper body motion and probably provides for low metabolic cost of upright gait by keeping hip torques small. Stabilization of the upper body is a consequence of other mechanisms, e.g. hip reflexes or muscle preflexes.

  16. MOLAR UPRIGHTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Erwansyah

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The mesial tipping of molar is frequently found in orthodontic cases. This molar malposition must be corrected since it may cause periodontal disorders, occlusal interferences, and temporomandibular joint dysfunction, and is often needed in planning a fixed bridge. This paper is a literature study to discuss about appliance designs, indication, and contraindications, and complication and treatment protocols of molar uprighting by fixed orthodontic appliances. By knowing the techniques of molar uprighting, the moments mentioned above can be avoided.

  17. Influence of body position on muscle deoxy[Hb+Mb] during ramp cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMenna, Fred J; Bailey, Stephen J; Jones, Andrew M

    2010-09-30

    We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to test the hypothesis that body position alters the sigmoidal response profile of muscle fractional O(2) extraction (estimated using deoxy[Hb+Mb]) during incremental cycle exercise. Seven male subjects (mean±SD age 32±13 years) completed a ramp incremental cycling test to exhaustion (30W/min) in both the supine and upright body positions. The sigmoidal (as opposed to hyperbolic) model that provided the better fit to deoxy[Hb+Mb] data during upright cycling was also present for the supine response; however, the slope of the sigmoid was increased (upright: 0.052±0.012 vs. supine: 0.090±0.036%⋅%P(peak)(-1); Prate (upright: 83±8 vs. supine: 68±19%P(peak)(-1); Pchanges occurred in the absence of a leftward shift of the sigmoid. We also found a significantly greater deltaV(O)₂/deltaW slope above compared to below gas exchange threshold (GET) for both conditions (upright: 9.8±0.5 vs. 8.2±0.9; supine: 10.7±0.9 vs. 8.0±0.8) and for supine compared to upright cycling above GET. These findings suggest that the supine posture affects O₂ extraction and V(O)₂ kinetics to a greater extent as work rate progresses during ramp incremental exercise. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantification of pulmonary thallium-201 activity after upright exercise in normal persons: importance of peak heart rate and propranolol usage in defining normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Okada, R.D.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-nine normal patients (34 angiographically normal and 25 clinically normal by Bayesian analysis) underwent thallium-201 imaging after maximal upright exercise. Lung activity was quantitated relative to myocardial activity and a lung/myocardial activity ratio was determined for each patient. Stepwise regression analysis was then used to examine the influence of patient clinical characteristics and exercise variables on the lung/myocardium ratio. Peak heart rate during exercise and propranolol usage both showed significant negative regression coefficients (p less than 0.001). No other patient data showed a significant relation. Using the regression equation and the estimated variance, a 95% confidence level upper limit of normal could be determined for a give peak heart rate and propranolol status. Sixty-one other patients were studied to validate the predicted upper limits of normal based on this model. None of the 27 patients without coronary artery disease had an elevated lung/myocardial ratio, compared with 1 of 8 with 1-vessel disease (difference not significant), 6 of 14 with 2-vessel disease (p less than 0.005), and 6 of 12 with 3-vessel disease (p less than 0.0001). Thus, lung activity on upright exercise thallium-201 studies can be quantitated relative to myocardial activity, and is inversely related to peak heart rate and propranolol use. Use of a regression analysis allows determination of a 95% confidence upper limit of normal to be anticipated in an individual patient

  19. Clinical evaluation of exercise thallium-201 whole body scintigraphy in ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Kenzo; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Takeshi

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate whole body distribution and kinetics of Thallium-201 at exercise and redistribution, whole body scintigraphy (WB-S) was performed on 12 normal subjects (N), 19 patients with angina pectoris (AP) and 18 patients with old myocardial infarction (MI). WB-S was obtained using a gamma camera OMEGA 500 and analized by ADAC System IV. We estimated the following parameters from WB-S; 1) %Distribution (%D): the ratio of whole body counts to organ counts 2) washout rate (WR) in each organ. %D of the heart in N, AP and MI was similar at rest and exercise. At exercise, %D of the lung and the liver decreased and %D of thighs increased remarkably than at rest. At supine exercise, the lung indicated high %D and thinghs indicated low %D compared with at upright exercise. WR of the heart in AP and MI was significantly lower than in N (p<0.005, p<0.01) and further decreased proportionally to the number of stenotic coronary arteries and related to the ischemic ST depression of exercise ECG. WR of the heart was not correlation with pressure rate product and this finding suggested that WR of the heart was not prescribed by the tolerance of exercise but related to coronary flow at exercise a certain degree. WR of the lung in MI was significantly higher (p<0.025) and WR of thighs in AP and MI was significantly lower (p<0.025, p<0.05) compared with N. (author)

  20. Gender differences in body-sway factors of center of foot pressure in a static upright posture and under the influence of alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitabayashi, Tamotsu; Demura, Shinichi; Noda, Masahiro; Yamada, Takayoshi

    2004-07-01

    This study aimed to examine gender differences in 4 body-sway factors of the center of foot pressure (CFP) during a static upright posture and the influence of alcohol intake on them. Four body-sway factors were interpreted in previous studies using factor analysis (the principal factor method and oblique solution by promax-rotation) on 220 healthy young males and females as follows; unit time sway, front-back sway, left-right sway and high frequency band power. The CFP measurement for 1 min was carried out twice with 1 min rest. The measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, whole body reaction time, standing on one leg with eyes closed, and CFP were carried out before and after the alcohol intake using 11 healthy young males and females. The measurement device used was an Anima's stabilometer G5500. The data sampling frequency was 20 Hz. Reliability of 4 body-sway factors was very high. Significant gender differences were found in the left-right sway and the high frequency band power factors, but the influence on body-sway is, as a whole, can be disregarded. These four sway factors can determine the influence of alcohol intake as efficient as 32 sway parameters.

  1. Recumbent vs. upright bicycles: 3D trajectory of body centre of mass, limb mechanical work, and operative range of propulsive muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telli, Riccardo; Seminati, Elena; Pavei, Gaspare; Minetti, Alberto Enrico

    2017-03-01

    Recumbent bicycles (RB) are high performance, human-powered vehicles. In comparison to normal/upright bicycles (NB) the RB may allow individuals to reach higher speeds due to aerodynamic advantages. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the non-aerodynamic factors that may potentially influence the performance of the two bicycles. 3D body centre of mass (BCoM) trajectory, its symmetries, and the components of the total mechanical work necessary to sustain cycling were assessed through 3D kinematics and computer simulations. Data collected at 50, 70, 90 110 rpm during stationary cycling were used to drive musculoskeletal modelling simulation and estimate muscle-tendon length. Results demonstrated that BCoM trajectory, confined in a 15-mm side cube, changed its orientation, maintaining a similar pattern across all cadences in both bicycles. RB displayed a reduced additional mechanical external power (16.1 ± 9.7 W on RB vs. 20.3 ± 8.8 W on NB), a greater symmetry on the progression axis, and no differences in the internal mechanical power compared to NB. Simulated muscle activity revealed small significant differences for only selected muscles. On the RB, quadriceps and gluteus demonstrated greater shortening, while biceps femoris, iliacus, and psoas exhibited greater stretch; however, aerodynamics still remains the principal benefit.

  2. Development and decline of upright gait stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eIosa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Upright gait is a peculiar characteristic of humans that requires the ability to manage upper body dynamic balance while walking, despite the perturbations that are generated by movements of the lower limbs. Most of the studies on upright gait stability have compared young adults and the elderly to determine the effects of aging. In other studies the comparison was between healthy subjects and patients to examine specific pathologies. Fewer researches have also investigated the development of upright gait stability in children.This review discusses these studies in order to provide an overview of this relevant aspect of human locomotion. A clear trend from development to decline of upright gait stability has been depicted across the entire lifespan, from toddlers at first steps to elderly. In old individuals, even if healthy, the deterioration of skeletal muscle, combined with sensorial and cognitive performance, reduces the ability to maintain an upright trunk during walking, increasing the instability and the risk of falls. Further, the pathological causes of altered development or of a sudden loss of gait stability, as well as the environmental influence are investigated. The last part of this review is focused on the control of upper body accelerations during walking, a particularly interesting topic for the recent development of low-cost wearable accelerometers.

  3. Whole body vibration exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; van der Spuy, Ina; Tupper, Susan; Kim, Soo Y; Boden, Catherine

    2017-09-26

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for adults with fibromyalgia. We defined whole body vibration (WBV) exercise as use of a vertical or rotary oscillating platform as an exercise stimulus while the individual engages in sustained static positioning or dynamic movements. The individual stands on the platform, and oscillations result in vibrations transmitted to the subject through the legs. This review is one of a series of reviews that replaces the first review published in 2002. To evaluate benefits and harms of WBV exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PEDro, Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, AMED, WHO ICTRP, and ClinicalTrials.gov up to December 2016, unrestricted by language, to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with the diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria including a WBV intervention versus control or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, performed risk of bias assessments, and assessed the quality of evidence for major outcomes using the GRADE approach. We used a 15% threshold for calculation of clinically relevant differences. We included four studies involving 150 middle-aged female participants from one country. Two studies had two treatment arms (71 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise plus relaxation versus mixed exercise plus relaxation and placebo WBV versus control, and WBV plus mixed exercise versus mixed exercise and control; two studies had three treatment arms (79 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise versus control and mixed relaxation placebo WBV. We judged the overall risk of bias as low for selection (random sequence generation), detection (objectively

  4. Body talk among undergraduate women: why conversations about exercise and weight loss differentially predict body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylkiw, Louise; Butler, Nicole A

    2014-08-01

    Undergraduate women (N = 143) completed self-reports on exercise behavior, body orientation, body appreciation, and body-related talk. Results showed that conversations about weight loss/dieting and conversations about exercise differentially predicted body appreciation. Importantly, multiple regression analyses showed that the relationship between talk type and body appreciation was explained by the object-process dichotomy: Conversations about exercise oriented women to consider what their bodies can do which, in turn, predicted appreciation of one's body. In contrast, the relationship between conversations about weight loss/dieting and body appreciation was mediated by negative attitudes about one's body but not by an object orientation. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. The origins of Western mind-body exercise methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jonathan; Gabel, C Philip

    2015-11-02

    Background: Over recent decades, mind-body exercise methods have gained international popularity and importance in the management of musculoskeletal disorders. Objectives: The scope of this paper was to investigate: the origins of Western mind-body methods, their philosophies, exercises, and relationship with mainstream healthcare over the last two centuries. Major findings: Within a few decades of the turn of the 20th century, a cluster of mind-body exercise methods emerged from at least six pioneering founders: Checkley, Müller, Alexander, Randell, Pilates, and Morris. Each was based upon a similar exercise philosophy and similar functional movement-harmonizing exercises. This renaissance of independent mind-body schools occurred in parallel with the demise of the 18th and 19th century gymnasium Physical Culture movement and the concurrent emergence of bodybuilding and strength training. Even though mostly forgotten today, Western mind-body exercise methods enjoyed celebrated success during the first half of the 20th century, were hailed by medical and allied health practitioners and practiced by millions from society's elite to deprived minorities. Conclusions: Rediscovering the Western mind-body exercise movement is hoped to facilitate official healthcare establishment recognition of this kind of training as an integral entity. This may widen research opportunities and consolidate approaches toward: optimal musculoskeletal rehabilitation and injury prevention, promotion of a healthy active lifestyle environment in the modern world, and enhancement of the natural pain-free human athletic look, feel, and performance.

  6. Interactive effect of body posture on exercise-induced atrial natriuretic peptide release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C A; Delp, M D; Hartle, D K

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that supine exercise elicits a greater atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) response than upright exercise because of higher atrial filling pressure attained in the supine posture. Plasma ANP concentration ([ANP]) was measured during continuous graded supine and upright exercise in eight healthy men at rest after 4 min of cycling exercise at 31, 51, and 79% of posture-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), after 2 min of cycling at posture-specific VO2 peak, and 5 and 15 min postexercise. [ANP] was significantly increased (P less than 0.05) above rest by 64, 140, and 228% during supine cycling at 51 and 79% and VO2 peak, respectively. During upright cycling, [ANP] was significantly increased (P less than 0.05) at 79% (60%) and VO2 peak (125%). After 15 min of postexercise rest, [ANP] remained elevated (P less than 0.05) only in the supine subjects. [ANP] was 63, 79, and 75% higher (P less than 0.05) in the supine than in the upright position during cycling at 51 and 79% and VO2 peak. Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures were not significantly (P greater than 0.05) different between positions in all measurement periods. Heart rates were lower (P less than 0.05) in the supine position compared with the upright position. In conclusion, these results suggest that supine exercise elicits greater ANP release independent of blood pressure and heart rate but presumably caused by greater venous return, central blood volume, and concomitant atrial filling pressure and stretch.

  7. The effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle activation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... The effect of whole body vibration exercise (WBV) on muscle activation has recently been a topic for discussion amongst some researchers. ... Participants then performed two different exercises: standing calf raises and prone bridging, without and with WBV.

  8. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Maxi; Havinga, Rick; Boverhof, Renze; Kema, Ido; Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert

    MEISSNER, M., R. HAVINGA, R. BOVERHOF, I. KEMA, A. K. GROEN, and F. KUIPERS. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 8, pp. 1460-1468, 2010. Purpose: Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular risk in humans by reducing cholesterol levels, but

  9. How much gravity is needed to establish the perceptual upright?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Laurence R; Herpers, Rainer; Hofhammer, Thomas; Jenkin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Might the gravity levels found on other planets and on the moon be sufficient to provide an adequate perception of upright for astronauts? Can the amount of gravity required be predicted from the physiological threshold for linear acceleration? The perception of upright is determined not only by gravity but also visual information when available and assumptions about the orientation of the body. Here, we used a human centrifuge to simulate gravity levels from zero to earth gravity along the long-axis of the body and measured observers' perception of upright using the Oriented Character Recognition Test (OCHART) with and without visual cues arranged to indicate a direction of gravity that differed from the body's long axis. This procedure allowed us to assess the relative contribution of the added gravity in determining the perceptual upright. Control experiments off the centrifuge allowed us to measure the relative contributions of normal gravity, vision, and body orientation for each participant. We found that the influence of 1 g in determining the perceptual upright did not depend on whether the acceleration was created by lying on the centrifuge or by normal gravity. The 50% threshold for centrifuge-simulated gravity's ability to influence the perceptual upright was at around 0.15 g, close to the level of moon gravity but much higher than the threshold for detecting linear acceleration along the long axis of the body. This observation may partially explain the instability of moonwalkers but is good news for future missions to Mars.

  10. The Begg's uprighting spring - Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinay; Sundareswaran, Shobha

    2015-01-01

    Uprighting springs, an integral part of the Begg ligsht wire differential force technique is gaining more and more popularity, as a useful adjunct in contemporary preadjusted edgewise appliance systems as well. It can be used with brackets containing vertical slots for mesiodistal crown uprighting, or as braking auxiliaries providing additional anchorage while protracting posteriors. Here, we present a simple and quick chair side method of fabricating and customizing uprighting springs according to the required crown/root movement for correction. This communication would serve as a ready reckoner during fabrication of the springs, thus dispelling the confusion that usually arises regarding direction and position of the coil and active arm.

  11. Cardiovascular control during whole body exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Secher, Niels H.

    2016-01-01

    the blood flow achieved by the arms is lower than that achieved by the legs (=160 vs. 385 mlmin1100 g1), the muscle mass that can be perfused with such flow is limited by the capacity to increase cardiac output (42 l/min, highest recorded value). Secondly, activation of the exercise pressor reflex during...

  12. Adolescent Male Athletes: Body Image, Diet, and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Pamela S. McKay; Read, Marsha H.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates and compares football players' (n=44) and cross-country runners' (n=30) body image concerns, attitudes toward eating, and reasons for exercising. Results revealed significant differences. Football players reported a more positive body image, whereas runners indicated a greater concern for weight control and more disordered eating…

  13. Ageing and exercise: building body capital in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergland, Astrid; Fougner, Marit; Lund, Anne; Debesay, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Research that provides better understanding of the motivational processes in older age to maintain a healthy and active lifestyle is sought after. We apply theoretical approaches to cultural capital, active and healthy aging health to shed light on the women's experiences in maintaining physical capabilities through an active lifestyle, and thereby facilitating their own inclusion in society. Thus, the aim of this paper is to explore why older home dwelling women over the age of 70 years or more spend time in physical exercise and their experiences about the importance of participating in group exercise for their daily life.This paper reports on a qualitative study based on interviews with 16 older women aged 70 years or more and regularly attending group exercise classes in the community at an established workout center. The data were analyzed the data using an inductive content analysis approach. Three overreaching and interrelated themes emerged from the interviews: "Building body capital for independence", "Building body capital to maintain vitality and being in control" and "Building resources for social interaction". The findings suggest that group exercise is important for building body capital. The group exercise helped the women in building bodily ability to manage everyday life, maintain vitality, being in control, pursue social interaction and live independently. These body resources were important for these older women's experience of the manageability and meaningfulness of daily life. This study has provided insights into older women's understanding and experiences of the challenges of everyday life within a theoretical framework of cultural capital and health. The women acquired cultural health capital, and more specifically body capital, by participating in the group exercise classes. The women's investment in body capital through regular physical activity created resources which facilitated social participation. Therefore professionals need to be

  14. Exercise affects body composition but not weight in postmenopausal women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, M.J.; Schuit, A.J.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Monninkhof, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-month moderate-to-vigorous exercise program combining aerobic and muscle strength training on body composition among sedentary, postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 189 sedentary

  15. Aging and exercise: Perceptions of the active lived-body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougner, Marit; Bergland, Astrid; Lund, Anne; Debesay, Jonas

    2018-03-30

    Exploring older people's evocation of their positive experiences of aging has been proposed as a counterweight to the Western stereotype of aging as a process of decline. The aim of this article is to explore how aging women, who participate regularly in group exercise classes, perceive their own bodies and the bodies of others. This article reports on the findings from interviews with 16 women between the age of 70 and 85. We analyzed the data using qualitative content analysis. Two overarching and interrelated themes concerning body perception emerged from the interviews: "The aging body and appearance" and "The body as subject and object." The binary discourse of old age, as either a decline or a success appears in our findings. The training contributes to a sense of well-being experienced through perceived increased physical abilities, self- image and self-esteem. Physical ability was perceived as being more important than appearance by the participants in this study, considering their preconception of an association between declining health, abilities, and older age. Involvement in physical activity appears to play a significant role in the perception of the women's own aging. Although physical attractiveness is a desirable outcome, the most important positive impact of the group exercise was related to increased social belonging and well-being, physical abilities, and capabilities. Thus implications for practice suggests that an intensive group training contributes to the opinion that an aging body is not necessarily a barrier to positive and successful aging.

  16. Exercise for Individuals with Lewy Body Dementia: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Inskip

    Full Text Available Individuals with Lewy body Dementia (LBD, which encompasses both Parkinson disease dementia (PDD and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB experience functional decline through Parkinsonism and sedentariness exacerbated by motor, psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. Exercise may improve functional outcomes in Parkinson's disease (PD, and Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, the multi-domain nature of the LBD cluster of symptoms (physical, cognitive, psychiatric, autonomic results in vulnerable individuals often being excluded from exercise studies evaluating physical function in PD or cognitive function in dementia to avoid confounding results. This review evaluated existing literature reporting the effects of exercise interventions or physical activity (PA exposure on cluster symptoms in LBD.A high-sensitivity search was executed across 19 databases. Full-length articles of any language and quality, published or unpublished, that analysed effects of isolated exercise/physical activity on indicative Dementia with Lewy Bodies or PD-dementia cohorts were evaluated for outcomes inclusive of physical, cognitive, psychiatric, physiological and quality of life measures. The protocol for this review (Reg. #: CRD42015019002 is accessible at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/.111,485 articles were initially retrieved; 288 full articles were reviewed and 89.6% subsequently deemed ineligible due to exclusion of participants with co-existence of dementia and Parkinsonism. Five studies (1 uncontrolled trial, 1 randomized controlled trial and 3 case reports evaluating 16 participants were included. Interventions were diverse and outcome homogeneity was low. Habitual gait speed outcomes were measured in 13 participants and increased (0.18m/s, 95% CI -0.02, 0.38m/s, exceeding moderate important change (0.14m/s for PD cohorts. Other outcomes appeared to improve modestly in most participants.Scarce research investigating exercise in LBD exists. This review confirms

  17. Whole-body vibration exercise in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Weber-Rajek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The report of the World Health Organization (WHO of 2008 defines osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is connected to the decrease in estrogens concentration as a result of malfunction of endocrine ovarian function. Low estrogens concentration causes increase in bone demineralization and results in osteoporosis. Physical activity, as a component of therapy of patients with osteoporosis, has been used for a long time now. One of the forms of safe physical activity is the vibration training. Training is to maintain a static position or execution of specific exercises involving the appropriate muscles on a vibrating platform, the mechanical vibrations are transmitted to the body of the patient. According to the piezoelectric theory, pressure induces bone formation in the electrical potential difference, which acts as a stimulant of the process of bone formation. Whole body vibration increases the level of growth hormone and testosterone in serum, preventing sarcopenia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to review the literature on vibration exercise in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis based on the PubMed and Medline database. While searching the database, the following key words were used ‘postmenopausal osteoporosis’ and ‘whole-body vibration exercise’.

  18. Comparison of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise to improve isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance and balance of female volleyball players

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise on female volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly allocated to two exercise groups (whole-body vibration exercise group and plyometric exercise group). The exercise was conducted three times each week for 8 weeks. Isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance were measured before starting the exercise and after finishing the 8 weeks o...

  19. Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by the fractal ... rate scaling is that exercise-induced maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) is ... muscle stress limitation, and maximized oxygen delivery and metabolic rates.

  20. Bioimpedance identifies body fluid loss after exercise in the heat: a pilot study with body cooling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Gatterer

    Full Text Available Assessment of post-exercise changes in hydration with bioimpedance (BI is complicated by physiological adaptations that affect resistance (R and reactance (Xc values. This study investigated exercise-induced changes in R and Xc, independently and in bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, when factors such as increased skin temperature and blood flow and surface electrolyte accumulation are eliminated with a cold shower.Healthy males (n = 14, 24.1±1.7 yr; height (H: 182.4±5.6 cm, body mass: 72.3±6.3 kg exercised for 1 hr at a self-rated intensity (15 BORG in an environmental chamber (33°C and 50% relative humidity, then had a cold shower (15 min. Before the run BI, body mass, hematocrit and Posm were measured. After the shower body mass was measured; BI measurements were performed continuously every 20 minutes until R reached a stable level, then hematocrit and Posm were measured again.Compared to pre-trial measurements body mass decreased after the run and Posm, Hct, R/H and Xc/H increased (p<0.05 with a corresponding lengthening of the impedance vector along the major axis of the tolerance ellipse (p<0.001. Changes in Posm were negatively related to changes in body mass (r = -0.564, p = 0.036 and changes in Xc/H (r = -0.577, p = 0.041.Present findings showed that after a bout of exercise-induced dehydration followed by cold shower the impedance vector lengthened that indicates fluid loss. Additionally, BI values might be useful to evaluate fluid shifts between compartments as lower intracellular fluid loss (changed Xc/R indicated greater Posm increase.

  1. The prospective association between different types of exercise and body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A.; Sagner, Michael; Shook, Robin P.; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite the widely accepted benefits of exercise on chronic disease risk, there remains controversy on the role of exercise in weight loss. This study examined the effect of different exercise types on measures of adiposity across different fat categories. Methods A total of 348 young adults (49% male; 28±4 years), participating in an ongoing observational study, provided valid data over a period of 12 months. Fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) were measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry every 3 months. Percent body fat (BF) was calculated and used to differentiate between normal fat, over fat and obese participants. At each measurement time point participants reported engagement (min/week) in aerobic exercise, resistance exercise and other exercise. Results Most participants (93%) reported some exercise participation during the observation period. Total exercise or specific exercise types did not significantly affect subsequent BMI after adjusting for sex, ethnicity, age and baseline values of adiposity and exercise. Resistance exercise affected lean mass (pexercise only affected fat mass (pexercise type positively affected lean mass in normal fat participants (pexercise (p≤0.02) but not with aerobic exercise (p≥0.09). Additionally adjusting for objectively assessed total physical activity level did not change these results. Conclusion Despite the limited effects on BMI, exercise was associated with beneficial changes in body composition. Exercise increased lean mass in normal fat participants and reduced fat mass in overfat and obese adults. Adults with excess body fat may benefit particularly from resistance exercise. PMID:25970664

  2. Impact of body position on central and peripheral hemodynamic contributions to movement-induced hyperemia: implications for rehabilitative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinity, Joel D; McDaniel, John; Venturelli, Massimo; Fjeldstad, Anette S; Ives, Stephen J; Witman, Melissa A H; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Amann, Markus; Wray, D Walter; Richardson, Russell S

    2011-05-01

    This study used alterations in body position to identify differences in hemodynamic responses to passive exercise. Central and peripheral hemodynamics were noninvasively measured during 2 min of passive knee extension in 14 subjects, whereas perfusion pressure (PP) was directly measured in a subset of 6 subjects. Movement-induced increases in leg blood flow (LBF) and leg vascular conductance (LVC) were more than twofold greater in the upright compared with supine positions (LBF, supine: 462 ± 6, and upright: 1,084 ± 159 ml/min, P different between positions (supine: 8 ± 1, and upright: 10 ± 1 beats/min, P = 0.22); however, the elevated HR was maintained for a longer duration when upright. Stroke volume contributed to the increase in cardiac output (CO) during the upright movement only. CO increased in both positions; however, the magnitude and duration of the CO response were greater in the upright position. Mean arterial pressure and PP were higher at baseline and throughout passive movement when upright. Thus exaggerated central hemodynamic responses characterized by an increase in stroke volume and a sustained HR response combined to yield a greater increase in CO during upright movement. This greater central response coupled with the increased PP and LVC explains the twofold greater and more sustained increase in movement-induced hyperemia in the upright compared with supine position and has clinical implications for rehabilitative medicine.

  3. The effects of Cross-fit, Pilates and Zumba exercise on body composition and body image of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsüm BAŞTUĞ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate body composition and body image of women doing CrossFit, Pilates and Zumba exercises. Material and Methods: This study was carried out to investigate body composition and body areas satisfaction of women doing CrossFit, Pilates and Zumba exercises, 80 women voluntarily being in an average age of 42.74±8.47 voluntarily participated in the research. The women were grouped into two such as experimental (n=45 and control (n=35. The women in experimental group were applied 30-70min mixed exercises (CrossFit, Plates, Zumba for 4 days in a week throughout 12 weeks to have target heart rate of 50-60%. Results: A significant difference was found between body weight and BMI pre-test and post-test values of women who were applied mixed exercise program (CrossFit, Pilates, Zumba. There was a decrease in both body weight and average means of BMI of women. A significant difference was found between body areas satisfaction pre-test and post-test values of women who were applied CrossFit, Pilates, Zumba exercise program. While pre-test value of body areas satisfaction of women who were applied mixed exercise program was determined as 31.68±6.11, its post-test value was 35.68±5.02. It is remarkable that while body weight and BMI of women doing exercises decreased, their body areas satisfaction values increased. It was indicated that the body areas satisfaction of women having weight loss increased. A significant difference was not found between body weight, BMI and body areas satisfaction pre-test and post-test values of women in control group. Conclusion: It was concluded that there were positive effects on body weight, BMI and body image.

  4. Supine versus upright anterior images: comparison in T1-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, A.F.; Parker, J.A.; Royal, H.D.; Silverman, K.J.; Gervino, E.V.; Kolodny, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    In patients undergoing exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy, activity in the inferior wall on anterior images may appear diminished when the standard supine view is used, but normal when the view is acquired with the patient upright. To determine the clinical significance of this observation, the distribution of thallium-201 activity was semiquantitatively assessed in supine and upright anterior images obtained immediately after exercise in 93 patients (65 men, 28 women). The presence of inferior wall and coronary artery disease was established with coronary angiography or from documentation of previous myocardial infarction. Supine and upright images were compared with use of receiver operating characteristic curves. In male patients diagnostic accuracy for identification of both inferior wall and coronary artery disease was improved through the use of the upright anterior image. In women, there was no significant difference in reader performance with upright and supine images. Upright anterior images should be routinely obtained in men in order to reduce the frequency of false-positive identification of inferior wall defects

  5. The role of body awareness and mindfulness in the relationship between exercise and eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rachel; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the potential mediating roles of mindfulness and body awareness in the relationship between exercise and eating behavior. Female exercisers (N = 159) recruited from fitness centers, yoga centers, and the community completed a questionnaire incorporating measures of exercise behavior, body awareness, trait mindfulness, mindful eating, dietary intake, and disordered eating symptoms. Participation in yoga was associated with significantly lower disordered eating (mediated by body awareness), whereas the amount of time spent participating in cardio-based exercise was associated with greater eating disturbance. The relationships between amount of exercise and actual food intake were not mediated by trait mindfulness or body awareness. The differential findings for dietary intake and disordered eating indicate that the body awareness cultivated in different forms of exercise may be more beneficial for clinical populations or those at risk for eating disorders than for modifying actual dietary intake in the general population.

  6. Comparison of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise to improve isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance and balance of female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise on female volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly allocated to two exercise groups (whole-body vibration exercise group and plyometric exercise group). The exercise was conducted three times each week for 8 weeks. Isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance were measured before starting the exercise and after finishing the 8 weeks of exercise. [Results] Measurements of isokinetic muscular strength revealed that the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group had no significant increase in lumbar flexion, extension, and knee flexion. Measurements of vertical jumping revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group had no significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group showed significant increase. Measurements of balance revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase. However, the plyometric exercise group showed no significant increase. [Conclusion] Although both whole-body vibration and plyometric exercises are effective intervention methods, the two methods have different effects on the improvement of isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance of female volleyball players.

  7. Metabolism and Whole-Body Fat Oxidation Following Post-Exercise Carbohydrate or Protein Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ulrika Andersson; Pettersson, Stefan; Edin, Fredrik

    2018-01-01

    : Protein supplementation immediately post-exercise did not affect the doubling in whole body fat oxidation seen during a subsequent exercise trial 2 hours later. Neither did it affect resting fat oxidation during the post-exercise period despite increased insulin levels and attenuated ketosis. Carbohydrate...

  8. Relevance of whole body vibration exercise in sport: a short review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Whole body vibration exercise (WBVE) has been used as a safe and accessible exercise and important reviews have been published about the use of this exercise to manage diseases and to improve physical conditions of athletes The aim of this paper is to highlight the relevance of WBVE to soccer players, ...

  9. The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

  10. RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES AND BODY EXERCISE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN KWARA STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Olaitan; Olukunmi ‘Lanre; Bakinde; Surajudeen Tosho; Ibraheem; Tajudeen Olanrewaju

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated the influence of recreational activities and body exercise among secondary school students in Kwara State. This paper explores types of exercise, benefits of physical exercise, risk of physical exercise and well as health and recreation. Four research questions and four research hypotheses were raised and generated to guide the study.This researcher employed a descriptive research survey method. The population consists of all secondary school students in Kwara State. T...

  11. Hydraulic upright of a mine support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomakhin, A N; Il' in, V A; Ponomarenko, Yu F; Shakhmeyster, Yu L

    1979-04-30

    The hydraulic upright of a mine support, which includes a housing, piston with compacting element and dirt collector, rod and guide sleeve, is described. In order to improve protection of the piston element from abrasive particles and to reduce the pressure differential the piston of the upright is also equipped with a compaction ring, whose lateral surface has a groove beneath the compacting element. The surface on the side of the working fluid supply is made conical in order to remove dirt.

  12. Indicators chest rheography at swimmers at rest and after exercise in different body positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Sinyugina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Study of chest rheography for skilled swimmers when the dosage of physical activity in different body positions. Materials and Methods: the study involved 20 qualified swimmers for middle and long distance. Results: studies changes rheographic indicators from qualified swimmers in response to exercise in different positions of the body showed a clear dependence of the structure and functional hemodynamic changes the position of the body in which the exercise is carried out. Conclusions: found that when evaluating the success of readiness of swimmers and planning training loads must be based on indicators of physical performance obtained during exercise in a horizontal position of the body.

  13. Eating disorder risk, exercise dependence, and body weight dissatisfaction among female nutrition and exercise science university majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Natalie; Gee, David; d'Acquisto, Debra; Ogan, Dana; Pritchett, Kelly

    2015-09-01

    Past research has examined eating disorder risk among college students majoring in Nutrition and has suggested an increased risk, while other studies contradict these results. Exercise Science majors, however, have yet to be fully examined regarding their risk for eating disorders and exercise dependence. Based on pressures to fit the image associated with careers related to these two disciplines, research is warranted to examine the potential risk for both eating disorder and exercise dependence. The purpose of this study is to compare eating disorder risk, exercise dependence, and body weight dissatisfaction (BWD) between Nutrition and Exercise Science majors, compared to students outside of these career pathways. Participants (n = 89) were divided into three groups based on major; Nutrition majors (NUTR; n = 31), Exercise Science majors (EXSC; n = 30), and other majors (CON; n = 28). Participants were given the EAT-26 questionnaire and the Exercise Dependence Scale. BWD was calculated as the discrepancy between actual BMI and ideal BMI. The majority of participants expressed a desire to weigh less (83%) and EXSC had significantly (p = .03) greater BWD than NUTR. However, there were no significant differences in eating disorder risk or exercise dependence among majors. This study suggested there was no significant difference in eating disorder risk or exercise dependence between the three groups (NUTR, EXSC, and CON).

  14. The effect of Pilates exercise on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şavkin, Raziye; Aslan, Ummuhan B

    2017-11-01

    Pilates is a popular exercise approach among women. Still there is poor empirical quantitative evidence indicating a positive effect of Pilates exercises on body composition. The aim of our study is to determine the effects of Pilates exercises on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women. Thirty-seven women, aged between 30 to 50 (43.79±4.88) years, included the study. Subjects are randomly divided into Pilates group (N.=19) and control group (N.=18). Pilates exercises was given for 90 minutes, 3 times/week, for 8 week with a gradual strength increase of 11-17 in the Rating of Perceived Exercise. Control group did not participate in any physical activity program. Bioelectric Impedance Analysis was used for determine the body composition of participants. Weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), body fat mass, lean body mass, waist, abdomen and hip circumference were measured at pre- and post-training period. In Pilates group, weight, BMI, fat percentage, waist, abdomen and hip circumference decreased significantly after training (P0.05). In control group, abdomen and hip circumference increased significantly (PPilates exercises have positive effects on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women. Pilates exercises can be applied for improving body composition.

  15. Effects of exercise on fluid exchange and body composition in man during 14-day bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.; Morse, J. T.; Staley, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of an investigation in which body composition, fluid intake, and fluid and electrolyte losses were measured in seven normal, healthy men during three 2-wk bed-rest periods, separated by two 3-wk recovery periods. During bed rest the subjects remained in the horizontal position continuously. During the dietary control periods, body mass decreased significantly with all three regimens, including no exercise, isometric exercise, and isotonic excercise. During bed rest, body mass was essentially unchanged with no exercise, but decreased significantly with isotonic and isometric exercise. With one exception, there were no statistically significant changes in body density, lean body mass, or body fat content by the end of each of the three bed-rest periods.

  16. Exercising for Life? Energy Metabolism, Body Composition, and Longevity in Mice Exercising at Different Intensities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Daan, Serge; Garland, Theodore; Visser, G. Henk; Garland Jr., Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Studies that have found a positive influence of moderate, non-exhaustive exercise on life expectancy contradict the rate-of-living theory, which predicts that high energy expenditure in exercising animals should shorten life. We investigated effects of exercise on energy metabolism and life span in

  17. Exercise body surface potential mapping in single and multiple coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montague, T.J.; Witkowski, F.X.; Miller, R.M.; Johnstone, D.E.; MacKenzie, R.B.; Spencer, C.A.; Horacek, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    Body surface ST integral maps were recorded in 36 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients at: rest; peak, angina-limited exercise; and, 1 and 5 min of recovery. They were compared to maps of 15 CAD patients who exercised to fatigue, without angina, and eight normal subjects. Peak exercise heart rates were similar (NS) in all groups. With exercise angina, patients with two and three vessel CAD had significantly (p less than 0.05) greater decrease in the body surface sum of ST integral values than patients with single vessel CAD. CAD patients with exercise fatigue, in the absence of angina, had decreased ST integrals similar (NS) to patients with single vessel CAD who manifested angina and the normal control subjects. There was, however, considerable overlap among individuals; some patients with single vessel CAD had as much exercise ST integral decrease as patients with three vessel CAD. All CAD patients had persistent ST integral decreases at 5 min of recovery and there was a direct correlation of the recovery and peak exercise ST changes. Exercise ST changes correlated, as well, with quantitative CAD angiographic scores, but not with thallium perfusion scores. These data suggest exercise ST integral body surface mapping allows quantitation of myocardium at ischemic risk in patients with CAD, irrespective of the presence or absence of ischemic symptoms during exercise. A major potential application of this technique is selection of CAD therapy guided by quantitative assessment of ischemic myocardial risk

  18. Breakfast food health and acute exercise: Effects on state body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jacqueline F; Giles, Grace E; Mahoney, Caroline R; Kanarek, Robin B

    2018-05-10

    Food intake and exercise have been shown to alter body satisfaction in a state-dependent manner. One-time consumption of food perceived as unhealthy can be detrimental to body satisfaction, whereas an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can be beneficial. The current study examined the effect of exercise on state body image and appearance-related self-esteem following consumption of isocaloric foods perceived as healthy or unhealthy in 36 female college students (18-30 years old) in the Northeastern United States. Using a randomized-controlled design, participants attended six study sessions with breakfast conditions (healthy, unhealthy, no food) and activity (exercise, quiet rest) as within-participants factors. Body image questionnaires were completed prior to breakfast condition, between breakfast and activity conditions, and following activity condition. Results showed that consumption of an unhealthy breakfast decreased appearance self-esteem and increased body size perception, whereas consumption of a healthy breakfast did not influence appearance self-esteem but increased body size perception. Exercise did not influence state body image attitudes or perceptions following meal consumption. Study findings suggest that morning meal type, but not aerobic exercise, influence body satisfaction in college-aged females. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Upright CBCT: A novel imaging technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenia J Fave

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We present a method for acquiring and correcting upright images using the on board CBCT imager. An upright imaging technique would allow for the introduction of upright radiation therapy treatments, which would benefit a variety of patients including those with thoracic cancers whose lung volumes are increased in an upright position and those who experience substantial discomfort during supine treatment positions.Methods: To acquire upright CBCT images, the linac head was positioned at 0 degrees, the KV imager and detector arms extended to their lateral positions, and the couch placed at 270 degrees. The KV imager was programmed to begin taking continuous fluoroscopic projections as the couch rotated from 270 to 90 degrees. The FOV was extended by performing this procedure twice, once with the detector shifted 14.5 cm towards the gantry and once with it shifted 14.5 cm away from the gantry. The two resulting sets of images were stitched together prior to reconstruction. The imaging parameters were chosen to deliver the some dose as that delivered during a simulation CT. A simulation CT was deformably registered to an upright CBCT reconstruction in order to evaluate the possibility of correcting the HU values via mapping.Results: Both spatial linearity and high contrast resolution were maintained in upright CBCT when compared to a simulation CT. Low contrast resolution and HU linearity decreased. Streaking artifacts were caused by the limited 180 degree arc angle and a sharp point artifact in the center of the axial slices resulted at the site of the stitching. A method for correcting the HUs was shown to be robust against these artifacts.Conclusion: Upright CBCT could be of great benefit to many patients. This study demonstrates its feasibility and presents solutions to some of its first hurdles before clinical implementation.--------------------------Cite this article as:Fave X, Yang J, Balter P, Court L. Upright CBCT: A novel imaging

  20. Effect of Body Mass Index on Exercise Capacity in Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Carolyn M; Ball, Caroline A; Hebl, Virginia B; Ong, Kevin C; Siontis, Konstantinos C; Olson, Thomas P; Ackerman, Michael J; Ommen, Steve R; Allison, Thomas G; Geske, Jeffrey B

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relation between body mass index (BMI), exercise capacity, and symptoms in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) and to utilize results of cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPX) and transthoracic echocardiograms to understand the mechanism(s) of reduced exercise capacity across body mass index groups. Over a 6-year period, 510 consecutive patients with HC seen at a tertiary referral center underwent (CPX) and a transthoracic echocardiogram. Increasing BMI was associated with decreased exercise capacity as assessed by peak VO 2 (ml/kg/min). However, the prevalence of cardiac impairment did not vary by BMI group. In conclusion, these findings suggest that in some patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac impairment is not the primary cause of exercise limitation and weight loss may result in improved exercise capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment.

  2. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on recovery after hamstring damaging exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Fonda, Borut; Šarabon, Nejc

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on biochemical, pain, and performance parameters during the 5-day recovery period after damaging exercise for hamstrings. Participants completed a bout of damaging exercise for the hamstring muscles on two separate occasions (control and experimental condition) separated by 10 weeks. During the control condition, subjects received no treatment after the damaging exercise. The experimental condition consisted ...

  3. Sustained, Low?Intensity Exercise Achieved by a Dynamic Feeding System Decreases Body Fat in Ponies

    OpenAIRE

    de Laat, M.A.; Hampson, B.A.; Sillence, M.N.; Pollitt, C.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity in horses is increasing in prevalence and can be associated with insulin insensitivity and laminitis. Current treatment strategies for obesity include dietary restriction and exercise. However, whether exercise alone is effective for decreasing body fat is uncertain. Hypothesis Our hypothesis was that twice daily use of a dynamic feeding system for 3 months would induce sustained, low?intensity exercise thereby decreasing adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity (SI). An...

  4. Proper exercise decreases plasma carcinoembryonic antigen levels with the improvement of body condition in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Il-Gyu; Park, Eung-Mi; Choi, Hye-Jung; Yoo, Jaehyun; Lee, Jong-Kyun; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2014-05-01

    Aging increases the risk of chronic diseases including cancers. Physical exercise has the beneficial effects for the elderly susceptible to the development of cancers, through maintaining a healthy body condition and improving the immune system. However, excessive or insufficient exercise might increase the risk for cancer. In the present study, we investigated what exercise frequency improves cancer-related biomarkers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), red blood cell (RBC), and white blood cell (WBC), and the body composition of elderly women. Fifty-four females, aged 70 to 77 years, were divided into 4 groups: control, 1-day exercise (1E), 2-3-day exercise (2-3E), and 5-day exercise (5E) groups. The control group did not participate in any physical activity, while the subjects in the exercise groups underwent the exercise program for 12 weeks. As results, CEA was significantly decreased in the exercise groups, with the lowest values in 2-3E group. In contrast, AFP, RBC and WBC were not significantly changed. CEA is an oncofetal glycoprotein that is overexpressed in adenocarcinomas. Although the function of CEA has not been fully understood, CEA has been suggested to be involved in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines via stimulating monocytes and macrophages. Moreover, body weight and body mass index were improved in the exercise groups, with the lowest levels in 5E group. Thus, we suggest that exercise for 2-3 days per week decreases the expression of CEA and improves body condition, without loading fatigue or stress, which may contribute to preventing cancer in the elderly women.

  5. Diet and exercise effects on aerobic fitness and body composition in seriously mentally ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Botonis, Petros; Kostara, Christina; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Low exercise capacity and high obesity levels are the main characteristics of people with serious mental illness (SMI). We conducted a pilot study on the effects of a 3-month exercise and dietary intervention on the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI taking Olanzapine, a second generation antipsychotic medication known to induce weight increments. Fifty adults with SMI (15 males and 35 females) followed a 3-month weight loss intervention programme based on exercise and diet. Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. All participants were obese (body mass index (BMI): 33.61 ± 0.91 kg/m(2)). Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test on the treadmill was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. Significant reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat and waist circumference were found from pre to post (p exercise and diet improves the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI, despite the use of Olanzapine.

  6. The effect of exercise on obesity, body fat distribution and risk for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedecke, Julia H; Micklesfield, Lisa K

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), while exercise is known to reduce body fatness and attenuate the risk of T2D. The aim of this chapter is to examine the interactions between exercise, obesity and body fat distribution, and the risk for T2D. Firstly, we show that body fatness, in particular visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation, is associated with insulin resistance and incident T2D. We then show that aerobic exercise of sufficient intensity and volume results in a decrease in body fat and VAT. Conversely, sedentary behavior and physical inactivity are associated with increased body fat and VAT. Finally, the chapter examines the interaction between physical activity (PA), obesity and risk for T2D and shows that both obesity and PA are significant independent predictors of incident T2D, but the magnitude of risk imparted by high levels of body fat is much greater than that of low levels of PA. Further, we show that obese physically active individuals are at greater risk for incident T2D than normal-weight physically inactive individuals. The mechanisms underlying this complex interaction include the ability of exercise to increase free fatty acid oxidation to match high rates of lipolysis associated with obesity, as well as the effects of exercise on adipokine, cytokine and myokine secretion. Exercise, of sufficient volume and intensity, is therefore recommended to reduce obesity, centralization of body fat, and risk of T2D.

  7. Exercise on Ovarian Androgens and Body Composition of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Gaeini

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: A period of exercise with body weight loss and reduction of BMI can contribute to the decline of testosterone concentration, decrease of LH/FSH ratio, improvement of metabolic condition. It prevents the increasing of prolactin and also the side effects of hyperandrogenism. Keywords: Exercise, PCOS, Prolactin, Testosterone

  8. Dietary supplements and physical exercise affecting bone and body composition in frail elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de N.; Chin A Paw, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2000-01-01

    This study determined the effect of enriched foods and all-around physical exercise on bone and body composition in frail elderly persons. Methods. A 17-week randomized, controlled intervention trial, following a 2 x 2 factorial design—(1) enriched foods, (2) exercise, (3) both, or (4) neither— was

  9. Dynamic Leg Exercise Improves Tolerance to Lower Body Negative Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Stout, M. S.; Murthy, G.; Whalen, R. T.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    These results clearly demonstrate that dynamic leg exercise against the footward force produced by LBNP substantially improves tolerance to LBNP, and that even cyclic ankle flexion without load bearing also increases tolerance. This exercise-induced increase of tolerance was actually an underestimate, because subjects who completed the tolerance test while exercising could have continued for longer periods. Exercise probably increases LBNP tolerance by multiple mechanisms. Tolerance was increased in part by skeletal muscle pumping venous blood from the legs. Rosenhamer and Linnarsson and Rosenhamer also deduced this for subjects cycling during centrifugation, although no measurements of leg volume were made in those studies: they found that male subjects cycling at 98 W could endure 3 Gz centrifugation longer than when they remained relaxed during centrifugation. Skeletal muscle pumping helps maintain cardiac filling pressure by opposing gravity-, centrifugation-, or LBNP-induced accumulation of blood and extravascular fluid in the legs.

  10. Body Composition, Neuromuscular Performance, and Mobility: Comparison Between Regularly Exercising and Inactive Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rava, Anni; Pihlak, Anu; Ereline, Jaan; Gapeyeva, Helena; Kums, Tatjana; Purge, Priit; Jürimäe, Jaak; Pääsuke, Mati

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in body composition, neuromuscular performance, and mobility in healthy, regularly exercising and inactive older women, and examine the relationship between skeletal muscle indices and mobility. Overall, 32 healthy older women participated. They were divided into groups according to their physical activity history as regularly exercising (n = 22) and inactive (n = 10) women. Body composition, hand grip strength, leg extensor muscle strength, rapid force development, power output, and mobility indices were assessed. Regularly exercising women had lower fat mass and higher values for leg extensor muscle strength and muscle quality, and also for mobility. Leg extensor muscle strength and power output during vertical jumping and appendicular lean mass per unit of body mass were associated with mobility in healthy older women. It was concluded that long-term regular exercising may have beneficial effects on body composition and physical function in older women.

  11. The effects of an individualized exercise intervention on body composition in breast cancer patients undergoing treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Battaglini,Claudio; Bottaro,Martim; Dennehy,Carolyn; Rae,Logan; Shields,Edgar; Kirk,David; Hackney,Anthony

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Changes in metabolism have been reported in the majority of patients undergoing cancer treatment, and these are usually characterized by progressive change in body composition. The effects of aerobic exercise programs to combat the cancer and cancer treatment-related side effects, which include the negative changes in body composition, have been extensively reported in the literature. However, few resistance exercise intervention studies have hypothesized that breast ca...

  12. How do you define body image? Exploring conceptual gaps in understandings of body image at an exercise facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Gammage, Kimberley L; van Ingen, Cathy

    2017-12-01

    The definition of body image has evolved within research; however, less is known about the layperson's understanding of the construct. This study explored how members and student trainees of an exercise facility (designed for older adults, people with physical disability, and those with cardiac complications) defined body image. Nineteen participants completed a one-on-one interview, and seven of those participants took part in six additional focus group meetings. The following main themes were found: stereotypical assumptions about body image (e.g., it is solely a person's weight or merely a woman's issue), body image continua for positive and negative body image, degree of complexity of body image dimensions, broad considerations of body image (e.g., it is self-esteem), and limited knowledge about body image. These findings suggest a need for knowledge translation between researchers and the general public which informs future body image program design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceptions of masculinity and body image in men with prostate cancer: the role of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langelier, David Michael; Cormie, Prue; Bridel, William; Grant, Christopher; Albinati, Natalia; Shank, Jena; Daun, Julia Teresa; Fung, Tak S; Davey, Colin; Culos-Reed, S Nicole

    2018-04-13

    The goal of this study was to explore the association between levels of exercise and patterns of masculinity, body image, and quality of life in men undergoing diverse treatment protocols for prostate cancer. Fifty men with prostate cancer (aged 42-86) completed self-report measures. Self-reported measures included the following: the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ), Masculine Self-esteem Scale (MSES), Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ), Body Image Scale (BIS), and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P). Masculinity, body image, and quality of life scores were compared between men obtaining recommended levels of exercise (aerobic or resistance) and those not obtaining recommended level of exercise. Secondary outcomes included the association between masculinity, body image, and quality of life scores as they relate to exercise levels. There were significantly higher scores of masculinity (p < 0.01), physical well-being (p < 0.05), prostate cancer specific well-being (p < 0.05), and overall quality of life (p < 0.05) in those obtaining at least 150 min of moderate to vigorous aerobic exercise. In the 48% of men who had never received androgen deprivation therapy, significantly higher levels of masculinity, body image, and quality of life were observed in those meeting aerobic guidelines. Whether treatment includes androgen deprivation or not, men who participate in higher levels of aerobic exercises report higher levels of masculinity, improved body image, and quality of life than those who are inactive. Future longitudinal research is required evaluating exercise level and its effect on masculinity and body image.

  14. Extracellular hyperosmolality and body temperature during physical exercise in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, S.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Turlejska, E.; Nazar, K.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that thermoregulation during exercise can be affected by extracellular fluid hyperosmolality without changing the plasma Na(+) concentration. The effects of preexercise venous infusions of hypertonic mannitol and NaCl solutions on rectal temperature responses were compared in dogs running at moderate intensity for 60 min on a treadmill. Plasma Na(+) concentration was increased by 12 meq after NaCl infusion, and decreased by 9 meq after mannitol infusion. Both infusions increased plasma by 15 mosmol/kg. After both infusions, rectal temperature was essentially constant during 60 min rest. However, compared with the noninfusion exercise increase in osmolality of 1.3 C, rectal temperature increased by 1.9 C after both postinfusion exercise experiments. It was concluded that inducing extracellular hyperosmolality, without elevating plasma, can induce excessive increases in rectal temperature during exericse but not at rest.

  15. The relationship between body esteem, exercise motivations, depression, and social support among female free clinic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Christensen, Nancy; Al-Obaydi, Sarah; Solis, Silvia Patricia; Ashby, Jeanie; Greenwood, Jessica L J; Reel, Justine J

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health problem in women's health. This study examined relationship between body esteem, exercise motivations, depression, and social support among female free clinic patients. Low-income women who are at risk for obesity and other health concerns would benefit from health education efforts. We compared 299 female and 164 male free clinic patients 18 years or older using assessments for body esteem, motivation to exercise, depression, and social support. Although female participants reported lower levels of body esteem and higher levels of depression compared with male participants (p exercise for weight-related reasons than male participants (p exercise motivations compared with non-U.S.-born female participants (p exercise motivation among female free clinic patients (p health educators to engage a myriad of physical activity motives to increase the likelihood that clients will experience enjoyment and sustained adoption of exercise into their lifestyle. Future practice and research should warrant the implementation of body image and physical activity programs and the potential impact of using exercise to reducing depression among female patients at free clinics. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Body Image Attitudes in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sareh Zar-Shenas; Ashraf Karbalaaei-Nouri; Seyyed-Ali Hosseini; Mahdi Rahgozar; Reza Seyed-Nour; Nahaleh Moshtagh

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Sociocultural emphasis and increased interest in physical attractiveness and current attitudes body structure have increased body image dissatisfaction among women. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is linked with various psychological disorders and disturbances such as low self-esteem, depression and other disorders. The present study investigated the short program aerobic exercise effects on body image among women. Materials & Methods: In this interventional and qu...

  17. Wisdom of the Body in Sport and Exercise Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisk Jernej

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Two alternative ancient views on medicine and health can be distinguished in western antiquity: first, that the knowledge of the doctor is sufficient, and second, that health is primarily a consequence of adapting one’s own life to the wisdom of the body. The body works according to its own laws, has its own “logic,” and speaks its own language. Therefore, listening to the body can be an important source of information for a healthy human life. The body is not merely an object for human manipulation and “the prison of the soul,” but a source of learning and knowledge. It seems that people rarely listen to their own bodies; however, the ancient wisdom of listening to the body is still present and cultivated in modern sports training. Good athletes and trainers are the ones who learn from the body and recognize its messages. In this article, we focus on four aspects of wisdom of the body, presented through four virtues: prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance. The body teaches us temperance and justice; for example, when someone exaggerates too much, the body produces the feeling of pain. The body is a source of fortitude and persistence when rest and healing is needed. The body is a source of prudence or truth about oneself when we face the physical demands of sport. Therefore, through modern sports practices, the perennial wisdom of the body is still accessible to the modern man.

  18. Personality traits and appearance-ideal internalization: Differential associations with body dissatisfaction and compulsive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shelby J; Racine, Sarah E

    2017-12-01

    Thin-ideal internalization is a robust risk factor for body dissatisfaction and eating pathology. Conversely, athletic-ideal internalization is often unrelated to body dissatisfaction, but predicts compulsive exercise (i.e., rigid, rule-driven exercise that is continued despite adverse consequences). Distinct personality traits could relate to internalization of different appearance ideals, which may be associated with divergent eating disorder outcomes. Past research has shown that neuroticism is related to body dissatisfaction, whereas extraversion and conscientiousness have been associated with regular and problematic exercise. The current study examined associations among personality traits (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness), appearance-ideal internalization (i.e., thin- and athletic-ideal), and eating disorder cognitions/behaviors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, compulsive exercise) among 531 college men and women. Moreover, we tested whether appearance-ideal internalization mediated the relationships between personality traits with body dissatisfaction and compulsive exercise. As expected, body dissatisfaction was positively related to neuroticism, and compulsive exercise was positively associated with extraversion. Thin-ideal internalization positively correlated with neuroticism, athletic-ideal internalization positively correlated with conscientiousness, and both thin- and athletic-ideal internalization were positively related to extraversion. After controlling for gender, body mass index, the other appearance-ideal internalization, and the remaining personality traits, the indirect effects of both neuroticism and extraversion on body dissatisfaction through thin-ideal internalization were significant. Extraversion and conscientiousness were indirectly related to compulsive exercise through athletic-ideal internalization, whereas the indirect effect of neuroticism was dependent on covariates. As such, personality traits may be related to

  19. Monitoring Change of Body Fluid during Physical Exercise using Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Finite Element Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Röthlingshöfer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Athletes need a balanced body composition in order to achieve maximum performance. Especially dehydration reduces power and endurance during physical exercise. Monitoring the body composition, with a focus on body fluid, may help to avoid reduction in performance and other health problems.For this, a potential measurement method is bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS. BIS is a simple, non-invasive measurement method that allows to determine different body compartments (body fluid, fat, fat-free mass. However, because many physiological changes occur during physical exercise that can influence impedance measurements and distort results, it cannot be assumed that the BIS data are related to body fluid loss alone.To confirm that BIS can detect body fluid loss due to physical exercise, finite element (FE simulations were done. Besides impedance, also the current density contribution during a BIS measurement was modeled to evaluate the influence of certain tissues on BIS measurements.Simulations were done using CST EM Studio (Computer Simulation Technology, Germany and the Visible Human Data Set (National Library of Medicine, USA. In addition to the simulations, BIS measurements were also made on athletes. Comparison between the measured bioimpedance data and simulation data, as well as body weight loss during sport, indicates that BIS measurements are sensitive enough to monitor body fluid loss during physical exercise.doi:10.5617/jeb.178 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 79-85, 2011

  20. Whole-body vibration exercise improves functional parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have abnormal bone modelling and resorption. The bone tissue adaptation and responsivity to dynamic and mechanical loading may be of therapeutic use under controlled circumstances. Improvements due to the wholebody vibration (WBV) exercises have been ...

  1. Metabolism of ketone bodies during exercise and training: physiological basis for exogenous supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark; Cogan, Karl E; Egan, Brendan

    2017-05-01

    Optimising training and performance through nutrition strategies is central to supporting elite sportspeople, much of which has focused on manipulating the relative intake of carbohydrate and fat and their contributions as fuels for energy provision. The ketone bodies, namely acetoacetate, acetone and β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), are produced in the liver during conditions of reduced carbohydrate availability and serve as an alternative fuel source for peripheral tissues including brain, heart and skeletal muscle. Ketone bodies are oxidised as a fuel source during exercise, are markedly elevated during the post-exercise recovery period, and the ability to utilise ketone bodies is higher in exercise-trained skeletal muscle. The metabolic actions of ketone bodies can alter fuel selection through attenuating glucose utilisation in peripheral tissues, anti-lipolytic effects on adipose tissue, and attenuation of proteolysis in skeletal muscle. Moreover, ketone bodies can act as signalling metabolites, with βHB acting as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, an important regulator of the adaptive response to exercise in skeletal muscle. Recent development of ketone esters facilitates acute ingestion of βHB that results in nutritional ketosis without necessitating restrictive dietary practices. Initial reports suggest this strategy alters the metabolic response to exercise and improves exercise performance, while other lines of evidence suggest roles in recovery from exercise. The present review focuses on the physiology of ketone bodies during and after exercise and in response to training, with specific interest in exploring the physiological basis for exogenous ketone supplementation and potential benefits for performance and recovery in athletes. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  2. Space exercise and Earth benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Brandon R; Groppo, Eli R; Eastlack, Robert K; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Lee, Stuart M C; Schneider, Suzanne M; Boda, Wanda L; Smith, Scott M; Cutuk, Adnan; Pedowitz, Robert A; Meyer, R Scott; Hargens, Alan R

    2005-08-01

    The detrimental impact of long duration space flight on physiological systems necessitates the development of exercise countermeasures to protect work capabilities in gravity fields of Earth, Moon and Mars. The respective rates of physiological deconditioning for different organ systems during space flight has been described as a result of data collected during and after missions on the Space Shuttle, International Space Station, Mir, and bed rest studies on Earth. An integrated countermeasure that simulates the body's hydrostatic pressure gradient, provides mechanical stress to the bones and muscles, and stimulates the neurovestibular system may be critical for maintaining health and well being of crew during long-duration space travel, such as a mission to Mars. Here we review the results of our studies to date of an integrated exercise countermeasure for space flight, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treadmill exercise, and potential benefits of its application to athletic training on Earth. Additionally, we review the benefits of Lower Body Positive Pressure (LBPP) exercise for rehabilitation of postoperative patients. Presented first are preliminary data from a 30-day bed rest study evaluating the efficacy of LBNP exercise as an integrated exercise countermeasure for the deconditioning effects of microgravity. Next, we review upright LBNP exercise as a training modality for athletes by evaluating effects on the cardiovascular system and gait mechanics. Finally, LBPP exercise as a rehabilitation device is examined with reference to gait mechanics and safety in two groups of postoperative patients.

  3. Influence of body temperature on the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Tino Hoffmann

    1999-01-01

    We investigated whether fatigue during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments occurred at the same critical level of hyperthermia when the initial value and the rate of increase in body temperature are altered. To examine the effect of initial body temperature [esophageal temperatur...

  4. heat storage in upper and lower body during high-intensity exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on heat storage differences between the upper body and ... effects of two cooling strategies (pre-cooling and cooling during exercise) on .... Subject. Age. Height. (cm). Weight. (kg). VO2 peak l.min. -1. Body fat. (%). 1 ..... Effects of two.

  5. High-intensity interval training using whole-body exercises: training recommendations and methodological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Alexandre F; Baker, Julien S; Figueira Junior, Aylton J; Bocalini, Danilo S

    2017-05-04

    HIIT whole body (HWB)-based exercise is a new calisthenics exercise programme approach that can be considered an effective and safe method to improve physical fitness and body composition. HWB is a method that can be applied to different populations and ages. The purpose of this study was to describe possible methodologies for performing physical training based on whole-body exercise in healthy subjects. The HWB sessions consist of a repeated stimulus based on high-intensity exercise that also include monitoring time to effort, time to recuperation and session time. The exercise intensity is related to the maximal number of movements possible in a given time; therefore, the exercise sessions can be characterized as maximal. The intensity can be recorded using ratings of perceived exertion. Weekly training frequency and exercise selection should be structured according to individual subject functional fitness. Using this simple method, there is potential for greater adherence to physical activity which can promote health benefits to all members of society. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Whole-body vibration exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women with prehypertension and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Kalfon, Roy; Madzima, Takudzwa A; Wong, Alexei

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise training on arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity [PWV]), blood pressure (BP), and leg muscle function in postmenopausal women. Twenty-five postmenopausal women with prehypertension and hypertension (mean [SE]; age, 56 [1] y; systolic BP, 139 [2] mm Hg; body mass index, 34.7 [0.8] kg/m2) were randomized to 12 weeks of WBV exercise training (n = 13) or to the no-exercise control group. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, carotid-femoral PWV, brachial-ankle PWV, femoral-ankle PWV (legPWV), leg lean mass, and leg muscle strength were measured before and after 12 weeks. There was a group-by-time interaction (P exercise training compared with no change after control. Heart rate decreased (-3 [1] beats/min, P exercise training, but there was no interaction (P > 0.05). Leg lean mass and carotid-femoral PWV were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by WBV exercise training or control. Our findings indicate that WBV exercise training improves systemic and leg arterial stiffness, BP, and leg muscle strength in postmenopausal women with prehypertension or hypertension. WBV exercise training may decrease cardiovascular and disability risks in postmenopausal women by reducing legPWV and increasing leg muscle strength.

  7. Impact of exercise on quality of life and body-self perception of patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Esra; Topsakal, Nuri; Atilgan, Oya Erkut; Alcalar, Nilufer; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Niyazoglu, Mutlu; Cotuk, Hasan Birol; Kadioglu, Pinar

    2014-02-01

    In acromegaly the impact of therapy on well-being and self-perception of patients is not clearly defined. The data existing on the effect of treatment on health-related quality of life in patients with acromegaly is inconclusive. In this study we addressed the effect of exercise on health-related quality of life, symptoms of depression and perception of body image in patients with acromegaly. Patients with acromegaly were stratified into two groups according to their participation in a prescheduled program of exercise. Participants in the study group performed exercise for 75 min a day for 3 days a week during cosecutive 3 months. Warming, cardio, strength, balance and stretching moves applied in every course. Both the exercise group and control group were asked to complete a questionnaire on quality of life, symptoms of depression and self-perception of body image. Each questionnaire was answered by both groups before the beginning of the exercise program (at month-0) and after the completion of the program (at month-3). In exercise group after the completion of exercise period there was a tendency towards decreament in body mass index and IGF-I, although not statistically significant (p = 0.08 and p = 0.09). Self-assessment of body image improved significantly after participation in the exercise program (p = 0.01). Present findings support that exercise may be an adjunctive method for patients with acromegaly to improve self esteem and perception.

  8. Body image dissatisfaction: gender differences in eating attitudes, self-esteem, and reasons for exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Badmin, Nicola; Sneade, Ian

    2002-11-01

    Two hundred and thirty-five adolescents completed a questionnaire on the subject of eating attitudes, self-esteem, reasons for exercise, and their ideal versus current body size and shape. As predicted, boys were as likely to want to be heavier as lighter, whereas very few girls desired to be heavier. Only girls associated body dissatisfaction with the concept of self-esteem. Male self-esteem was not affected by body dissatisfaction. Specific reasons for exercise were found to correlate with low self-esteem and disordered eating, regardless of sex. The results are discussed in relation to burgeoning published research in this area.

  9. Motivation and body-related factors as discriminators of change in adolescents' exercise behavior profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillison, Fiona B; Standage, Martyn; Skevington, Suzanne M

    2011-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to explore the relative contributions of weight-related self-perceptions and exercise-related motivation variables in predicting change in leisure-time exercise within a sample of adolescents in the United Kingdom. A cohort of 310 adolescents (51% male, Mean age = 14.08 ± .32 years at baseline) was classified into four groups on the basis of reported change in leisure-time exercise over 10-months: those who maintain, drop out from exercise, take up exercise, and those who were continually inactive. Discriminant function analyses were conducted to predict group membership from adolescents' profiles of motivational and weight-related perceptions at baseline. For boys, the first discriminant function (DF1) revealed that exercise maintainers reported higher identified regulation, introjected regulation, competence, relatedness, and body satisfaction than all other groups (between-group R(2) = .45). DF2 was more indicative of current exercise levels than change, indicating higher intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation for both active groups at baseline (between-group R(2) = .40). In girls, DF1 showed that exercise maintainers reported higher intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, autonomy, competence, relatedness, and lower external regulation than all other groups (between-group R(2) = .58). DF2 indicated that higher body mass index, and perceiving greater pressure to lose weight positively predicted drop out, and negatively predicted exercise uptake (between-group R(2) = .26). Fostering autonomous (self-determined) motivation seems a key determinant to maintaining leisure-time exercise for both boys and girls. Additionally, reducing perceptions of pressure to lose weight and promoting positive interactions with others during exercise may be particularly useful to prevent dropout in girls. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabolic, thermoregulatory, and perceptual responses during exercise after lower vs. whole body precooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrea T; Davis, Scott L; Wilson, Thad E

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the thermoregulatory, metabolic, and perceptual effects of lower body (LBI) and whole body (WBI) immersion precooling techniques during submaximal exercise. Eleven healthy men completed two 30-min cycling bouts at 60% of maximal O(2) uptake preceded by immersion to the suprailiac crest (LBI) or clavicle (WBI) in 20 degrees C water. WBI produced significantly lower rectal temperature (T(re)) during minutes 24-30 of immersion and lower T(re), mean skin temperature, and mean body temperature for the first 24, 14, and 16 min of exercise, respectively. Body heat storage rates differed significantly for LBI and WBI during immersion and exercise, although no net differences were observed between conditions. For WBI, metabolic heat production and heart rate were significantly higher during immersion but not during exercise. Thermal sensation was significantly lower (felt colder) and thermal discomfort was significantly higher (less comfortable) for WBI during immersion and exercise. In conclusion, WBI and LBI attenuated T(re) increases during submaximal exercise and produced similar net heat storage over the protocol. LBI minimized metabolic increases and negative perceptual effects associated with WBI.

  11. Disordered eating attitudes and body shame among athletes, exercisers and sedentary female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankauskiene, R; Pajaujiene, S

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the disordered eating attitudes and sociocultural body ideals internalization among university athletes (N.=98), exercisers (N.=125) and sedentary (N.=81) undergraduate female students. The mean age (SD) of the sample was 20.17 (2.00). The students completed Eating Attitude Test - 26, Body Areas Satisfaction subscale of the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, Body Shame subscale from the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale, Appearance subscale from the Motives for Physical Activity Measure--Revised, reported their physical activity and fluid manipulation-related behaviour. We observed no significant differences in disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem and fluid manipulation-related behaviour among athletes, exercisers and sedentary female students. Body shame predicted disordered eating in all groups of women. Students high in body shame reported higher levels of disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, appearance-related exercise motives, fluid manipulation-related behaviour and lower self-esteem, regardless of their physical activity level. The results show that internalization of the sociocultural body standards provide a mechanism through which different physical activity levels are associated with negative eating and physical activity-related outcomes in college-aged women.

  12. Metabolism of ketone bodies during exercise and training: physiological basis for exogenous supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark; Cogan, Karl E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Optimising training and performance through nutrition strategies is central to supporting elite sportspeople, much of which has focused on manipulating the relative intake of carbohydrate and fat and their contributions as fuels for energy provision. The ketone bodies, namely acetoacetate, acetone and β‐hydroxybutyrate (βHB), are produced in the liver during conditions of reduced carbohydrate availability and serve as an alternative fuel source for peripheral tissues including brain, heart and skeletal muscle. Ketone bodies are oxidised as a fuel source during exercise, are markedly elevated during the post‐exercise recovery period, and the ability to utilise ketone bodies is higher in exercise‐trained skeletal muscle. The metabolic actions of ketone bodies can alter fuel selection through attenuating glucose utilisation in peripheral tissues, anti‐lipolytic effects on adipose tissue, and attenuation of proteolysis in skeletal muscle. Moreover, ketone bodies can act as signalling metabolites, with βHB acting as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, an important regulator of the adaptive response to exercise in skeletal muscle. Recent development of ketone esters facilitates acute ingestion of βHB that results in nutritional ketosis without necessitating restrictive dietary practices. Initial reports suggest this strategy alters the metabolic response to exercise and improves exercise performance, while other lines of evidence suggest roles in recovery from exercise. The present review focuses on the physiology of ketone bodies during and after exercise and in response to training, with specific interest in exploring the physiological basis for exogenous ketone supplementation and potential benefits for performance and recovery in athletes. PMID:27861911

  13. Differences for gender, weight and exercise in body image disturbance and eating disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnado-Sullivan, P J; Horton, R; Savoy, S

    2006-09-01

    Differences for gender, weight, exercise frequency and type for eating disorder symptoms and body image disturbance were examined. Further understanding of male body image disturbance was the primary goal. Males (n=200) and females (n=233) completed measures to assess eating disorder symptoms and multiple components of body image disturbance. Measures were modified to be more appropriate for males. Females endorsed higher levels of eating and body concerns. Males were divided between a desire to maintain, increase or decrease their size. Higher weight and exercise frequency was associated with increased body image concern and eating disorder symptoms, particularly for males. Exercise frequency was also linked to higher self-esteem for males. Males who used muscle-enhancing supplements indicated increased social pressures and concern for appearance, and a desire to increase their size. The findings support that weight and exercise frequency affect eating disorder symptoms and body image disturbance. Males appear to exhibit body image disturbance, which is related to their current weight status. Results support the call for further development of measures that more adequately address male concerns.

  14. Near infrared reactance for the estimation of body fatness in regularly exercising individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J; Lambert, M I; Micklesfield, L K; Goedecke, J H; Jennings, C L; Savides, L; Claassen, A; Lambert, E V

    2013-07-01

    Near infrared reactance (NIR) is used to measure body fat percentage (BF%), but there is little data on its use in non-obese, regularly exercising individuals. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the limits of agreement between NIR compared to dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the measurement of BF% in 2 cohorts of regularly exercising individuals. BF% was measured using DXA and NIR in a regular exercising (≥3 sessions/week), healthy active cohort (HA; n=57), and in a regularly exercising and resistance trained (≥2 sessions/week) cohort (RT; n=59). The RT cohort had lower BF% than the HA cohort (15.3±5.5% and 25.8±7.1%, Pexercising individuals. However, the rather broad LOA of NIR need to be considered when using NIR to screen for overweight and obesity, or measure and track changes in body composition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic exercise in adolescents: are they related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Laus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated if boys and girls who practice exercises with aesthetic propose report higher levels of body dissatisfaction compared to their inactive peers. A total of 199 adolescents (89 boys, mean age 16.1 years, completed measures of body dissatisfaction and psychological commitment to exercise. Results demonstrated that active boys presented lower dissatisfaction than their inactive peers; and active girls were significantly more dissatisfied than inactive ones. Active boys were more satisfied than active girls. The majority of active girls reported a desire for a slimmer silhouette; while active boys were equally divided between those who desired a heavier silhouette and those who were satisfied. Psychological commitment to exercise did not differ between satisfied and dissatisfied active adolescents. Thus, girls who practice aesthetic exercises must be looked at as a high risk population to the development of health harmful behaviors and eating disorders.

  16. The effects of dance music jump rope exercise on pulmonary function and body mass index after music jump rope exercise in overweight adults in 20's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, KyoChul

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a dance music jump rope exercise on changes Pulmonary Function and body mass index in female overweight subjects in their 20's. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to the dance music jump rope exercise group and the stationary cycle exercise group. All subjects have conducted the exercises three times a week for four weeks. Pulmonary function was evaluated using a spirometer, and body mass index was evaluated using an InBody 3.0. [Results] The findings of this study showed significant improvements in the voluntary capacity and body mass index of the experimental groups. Vital capacity was higher in the music jump rope exercise group than the stationary cycle exercise group, and body mass index was lower in the music jump rope exercise group than the stationary cycle exercise group. [Conclusion] This study showed that the dance music jump rope exercise can be used to improve vital capacity and body mass index.

  17. Telemetric measurement of body core temperature in exercising unconditioned Labrador retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, T Craig; Gillette, Robert L

    2011-04-01

    This project evaluated the use of an ingestible temperature sensor to measure body core temperature (Tc) in exercising dogs. Twenty-five healthy, unconditioned Labrador retrievers participated in an outdoor 3.5-km run, completed in 20 min on a level, 400-m grass track. Core temperature was measured continuously with a telemetric monitoring system before, during, and after the run. Data were successfully collected with no missing data points during the exercise. Core temperature elevated in the dogs from 38.7 ± 0.3°C at pre-exercise to 40.4 ± 0.6°C post-exercise. While rectal temperatures are still the standard of measurement, telemetric core temperature monitors may offer an easier and more comfortable means of sampling core temperature with minimal human and mechanical interference with the exercising dog.

  18. Standing-up exerciser based on functional electrical stimulation and body weight relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarin, M; Pavan, E E; Spadone, R; Cardini, R; Frigo, C

    2002-05-01

    The goal of the present work was to develop and test an innovative system for the training of paraplegic patients when they are standing up. The system consisted of a computer-controlled stimulator, surface electrodes for quadricep muscle stimulation, two knee angle sensors, a digital proportional-integrative-derivative (PID) controller and a mechanical device to support, partially, the body weight (weight reliever (WR)). A biomechanical model of the combined WR and patient was developed to find an optimum reference trajectory for the PID controller. The system was tested on three paraplegic patients and was shown to be reliable and safe. One patient completed a 30-session training period. Initially he was able to stand up only with 62% body weight relief, whereas, after the training period, he performed a series of 30 standing-up/sitting-down cycles with 45% body weight relief. The closed-loop controller was able to keep the patient standing upright with minimum stimulation current, to compensate automatically for muscle fatigue and to smooth the sitting-down movement. The limitations of the controller in connection with a highly non-linear system are considered.

  19. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Body Image Attitudes in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Zar-Shenas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sociocultural emphasis and increased interest in physical attractiveness and current attitudes body structure have increased body image dissatisfaction among women. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is linked with various psychological disorders and disturbances such as low self-esteem, depression and other disorders. The present study investigated the short program aerobic exercise effects on body image among women. Materials & Methods: In this interventional and quasi experimental study, 82 females among 150 women (18-45 years old referred to Enghelab and Gol sports clubs in Tehran were selected by convenient and simple sampling based on inclusive and exclusive criteria and randomly divided into two intervention and control groups. They did not participate in any exercise in last 3 months and also they did not have any physical disease and meet criteria for deficit of body image attitudes. Data collection was done by using demographic and Multidimensional Body Self-Relation Questionnaire. The intervention group participated in aerobic exercise program. These sessions lasted 3 hours per week for 4 weeks. Data were analyzed by Chi–Square, Paired T and Independent T tests. Results: There were significant differences between two groups after intervention in sub items of body image including: self-appearance evaluation (P<0.001, self-appearance orientation (P<0.001, health orientation (P=0.003, illness orientation (P=0.002, but their fitness evaluation (P=0.141, self-fitness orientation (P=0.888, health evaluation (P=0.072, self-body satisfaction (P=0.082, overweight preoccupations (P=0.167 and self-assesed weight (P=0.156 did not change clearly. Conclusion: Short periods of aerobic exercise can effectively promote body image attitudes among women, and exercise can be used as a method of treatment in occupational therapy of the disorder.

  20. Using squat testing to predict training loads for lower-body exercises in elite karate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Tan, Erik C H; Chaouachi, Anis; Carling, Christopher; Castagna, Carlo; Bloomfield, Jonathan; Behm, David G

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between squat loads and 2 bilateral and 2 unilateral stepping lower-body exercises in predominantly unilateral movement elite athletes (Karate). Equations to predict loads for lower-body exercises based on the squat load were also determined. Fourteen male elite Karate athletes (age = 22.6 ± 1.2 years) performed 6 repetition maximum (RM) of the following free-weight bilateral exercises: back half squat, deadlift, leg press and unilateral stepping exercises, lunge; and step-up. Results showed that 6RM squat load was significantly (p squat load was a significant predictor for deadlift, leg press, lunge, and step-up (R2 range from 0.57 to 0.85, p squat load (1.12)-16.60 kg, (b) Leg press = squat load (1.66) + 16.10 kg, (c) Lunge = squat load (0.61) + 9.39 kg, and (d) step-up = squat load (0.85)-10.36 kg. Coaches and fitness professionals can use the 6RM squat load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for both bilateral and unilateral lower-body exercises with quadriceps as the prime mover. Load prescriptions for unilateral exercises should take into account the type of athletic population.

  1. Female upper body and breast skin temperature and thermal comfort following exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, B; White, J; Hedger, W; Scurr, J

    2013-01-01

    Breast support reduces breast pain and movement during exercise, however, an extra layer of clothing may affect thermoregulation. This preliminary study investigated female upper body and breast skin temperature and thermal comfort following short-duration exercise. Eight female participants with C-cup breasts had thermal images (infra-red camera, FLIR systems) of the bare breasts, the breasts in two sports bras (composite and polyester) and the abdomen, taken before and after 20 min of exercise at 28(o)C. Following exercise, bare-breast, bra and abdomen temperatures reduced by 0.61(o)C, 0.92(o)C and 2.06(o)C, respectively. The polyester sports bra demonstrated greater thermal comfort and enabled a greater change in skin temperature than the composite sports bra. It is concluded that following short-duration exercise, sports bras reduced the cooling ability of the breast. Material properties of the bras affect thermal comfort and post-exercise skin temperature; this should be an important consideration for sports bra manufacturers. This study investigates the effect of sports bras on thermal regulation of the breast following exercise. Sports bras negatively affected the cooling ability of the skin on the breast, with the material properties of the bra affecting thermal comfort following exercise. These results present important considerations for sports bra manufacturers.

  2. Effects of regular aerobic exercise on physical characteristics, body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... did not participate in any special kind of physical activity. In addition to administering the Body Image Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Self-efficacy Scale, anthropometric variables were assessed before the commencement of the study and again immediately afterwards. The data were analysed by a one-way ANCOVA.

  3. Effects of intermittent fasting and chronic swimming exercise on body composition and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Ruan Carlos Macedo de; Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Ferraz, Alex Soares Marreiros; da Silva, Tiago Eugênio Oliveira; Marocolo, Moacir

    2017-12-01

    Intermittent fasting protocol (IFP) has been suggested as a strategy to change body metabolism and improve health. The effects of IFP seem to be similar to aerobic exercise, having a hormetic adaptation according to intensity and frequency. However, the effects of combining both interventions are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of IFP with and without endurance-exercise training on body composition, food behavior, and lipid metabolism. Twenty-week-old Wistar rats were kept under an inverted circadian cycle of 12 h with water ad libitum and assigned to 4 different groups: control group (ad libitum feeding and sedentary), exercise group (ad libitum feeding and endurance training), intermittent fasting group (IF; intermittent fasting and sedentary), and intermittent fasting and exercise group (IFEX; intermittent fasting and endurance training). After 6 weeks, the body weight of IF and IFEX animals decreased without changes in food consumption. Yet, the body composition between the 2 groups was different, with the IFEX animals containing higher total protein and lower total fat content than the IF animals. The IFEX group also showed increases in total high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased intramuscular lipid content. The amount of brown adipose tissue was higher in IF and IFEX groups; however, the IFEX group showed higher expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 in this tissue, indicating a greater thermogenesis. The IFP combined with endurance training is an efficient method for decreasing body mass and altering fat metabolism, without inflicting losses in protein content.

  4. Cellular Stress Response Gene Expression During Upper and Lower Body High Intensity Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanowicz, Andrzej; Sawczyn, Stanisław; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Mieszkowski, Jan; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Żychowska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effect of upper and lower body high-intensity exercise on chosen genes expression in athletes and non-athletes. Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (EAG) aged 20.6 ± 3.3 years and 14 physically active men (PAM) aged 19.9 ± 1.0 years performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests. Blood samples were collected before, 5 and 30 minutes after each effort to assess gene expression via PCR. Significantly higher mechanical parameters after lower body exercise was observed in both groups, for relative power (8.7 ± 1.2 W/kg in gymnasts, 7.2 ± 1.2 W/kg in controls, p = 0.01) and mean power (6.7 ± 0.7 W/kg in gymnasts, 5.4 ± 0.8 W/kg in controls, p = 0.01). No differences in lower versus upper body gene expression were detected for all tested genes as well as between gymnasts and physical active man. For IL-6 m-RNA time-dependent effect was observed. Because of no significant differences in expression of genes associated with cellular stress response the similar adaptive effect to exercise may be obtained so by lower and upper body exercise.

  5. Exercise Self-Efficacy Moderates the Relation between Anxiety Sensitivity and Body Mass Index and Exercise Tolerance in Treatment-Seeking Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G.; Davis, Michelle L.; Rosenfield, David; Kauffman, Brooke Y.; Baird, Scarlett O.; Powers, Mark B.; Otto, Michael W.; Marcus, Bess H.; Church, Timothy S.; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    There is little known about factors that contribute to the comorbidity of cigarette smoking and obesity. The current study sought to test whether exercise self-efficacy moderated the relation between anxiety sensitivity (fear of internal sensations) and BMI and exercise tolerance among cigarette smokers. Smokers (n = 72; 50% female; Mcpd = 19.3, SD = 10.65) were recruited to participate in a smoking cessation treatment trial. During medical screen, we measured weight, height, and exercise tolerance (functional capacity) employing a standardized maximal exercise testing protocol. After adjusting for participant sex and cigarettes per day, exercise self-efficacy moderated the association between anxiety sensitivity and BMI, such that the positive association between anxiety sensitivity and BMI was significantly stronger when exercise self-efficacy was low. The same pattern of results emerged for exercise tolerance. Exercise self-efficacy moderated the association between anxiety sensitivity and exercise tolerance, such that the negative association between anxiety sensitivity and exercise tolerance was significantly stronger when exercise self-efficacy was low. Among smokers, anxiety sensitivity may be a risk variable that, directly and indirectly in the context of low self-efficacy for exercise, causes or maintains higher body weight and lower exercise tolerance. PMID:27725844

  6. Body mass index, exercise capacity, and mortality risk in male veterans with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faselis, Charles; Doumas, Michael; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Kheirbek, Raya; Korshak, Lauren; Manolis, Athanasios; Pittaras, Andreas; Tsioufis, Costas; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Fletcher, Ross; Kokkinos, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality. Exercise capacity is inversely associated with mortality risk. However, little is known on the interaction between fitness, fatness, and mortality risk in hypertensive individuals. Thus, we assessed the interaction between exercise capacity, fatness, and all-cause mortality in hypertensive males. A graded exercise test was performed in 4,183 hypertensive veterans (mean age ± s.d.; 63.3 ± 10.5 years) at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Washington, DC. We defined three body weight categories based on body mass index (BMI): normal weight (BMI 7.5 METs). During a median follow-up period of 7.2 years, there were 1,000 deaths. The association between exercise capacity and mortality risk was strong, inverse, and graded. For each 1-MET increase in exercise capacity the adjusted risk was 20% for normal weight, 12% for overweight, and 25% for obese (P exercise capacity is associated with lower mortality risk in hypertensive males regardless of BMI. The risk for overweight and obese but fit individuals was significantly lower when compared to normal weight but unfit. These findings suggest that in older hypertensive men, it may be healthier to be fit regardless of standard BMI category than unfit and normal weight.

  7. Body-related sport and exercise motives and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Lanfranchi, Marie-Christine; Therme, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Motives underlying sport and exercise involvement have recently been hypothesized as potential factors influencing the positive association between sports/exercises involvement and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours (DEAB) among adolescents. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined this hypothesis or the moderating role of gender, context of practice, performance levels and sport type on these relationships. In this study, these questions were addressed among 168 male and 167 female French adolescents involved in various types, contexts and performance levels of sport and exercise. Participants were asked to indicate their main motives for involvement in sport practice and to self-report DEAB (generic DEAB, vomiting-purging behaviours, and eating-related control) on a French adaptation of the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results shared positive associations between body-related sport and exercise motives and most of the DEAB subscales. Furthermore, they show that the relationship between body-related sport and exercise motives and Vomiting-Purging Behaviours differs according to involvement in individual and competitive sports and exercises. Copyright ©2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  8. Whole-body Cryotherapy as a Recovery Technique after Exercise: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Catriona; Edwards, Kate M; Siegler, Jason; Graham, Kenneth; Caillaud, Corinne

    2017-12-01

    This review aims to evaluate the current body of literature investigating the effect of whole body cryotherapy on recovery after exercise. A systematic search was conducted to investigate the effect of whole body cryotherapy (WBC, exposure to temperatures between -110 to -190°C) on markers of recovery after damaging exercise in healthy, physically active subjects. Of the 16 eligible articles extracted, ten induced muscle damage using controlled exercise in a laboratory setting, while six induced damage during sport-specific training. Results indicated that muscle pain was reduced in 80% of studies following WBC. Two applied studies found recovery of athletic capacity and performance with WBC improved, variables of this nature were also improved in 71% of studies using controlled exercise. Further benefits of WBC treatment included reduction of systemic inflammation and lower concentrations of markers for muscle cell damage. These results suggest that WBC may improve recovery from muscle damage, with multiple exposures more consistently exhibiting improvements in recovery from pain, loss of muscle function, and markers of inflammation and damage. The diversity in muscle damage protocols, exposure timing with regards to exercise, as well as temperatures, duration and frequencies of exposure, make specific recommendations preliminary at present. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Sustained, Low-Intensity Exercise Achieved by a Dynamic Feeding System Decreases Body Fat in Ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, M A; Hampson, B A; Sillence, M N; Pollitt, C C

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in horses is increasing in prevalence and can be associated with insulin insensitivity and laminitis. Current treatment strategies for obesity include dietary restriction and exercise. However, whether exercise alone is effective for decreasing body fat is uncertain. Our hypothesis was that twice daily use of a dynamic feeding system for 3 months would induce sustained, low-intensity exercise thereby decreasing adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity (SI). Eight, university-owned, mixed-breed, adult ponies with body condition scores (BCS) ≥5/9 were used. Two treatments ("feeder on" or "feeder off") were administered for a 3-month period by a randomized, crossover design (n = 4/treatment). An interim equilibration period of 6 weeks at pasture separated the 2 study phases. Measurements of body mass (body weight, BCS, cresty neck score [CrNS], and morphometry), body fat (determined before and after the "feeder on" treatment only), triglycerides, and insulin sensitivity (SI; combined glucose-insulin test) were undertaken before and after treatments. The dynamic feeding system induced a 3.7-fold increase in the daily distance travelled (n = 6), compared to with a stationary feeder, which significantly decreased mean BCS (6.53 ± 0.94 to 5.38 ± 1.71), CrNS (2.56 ± 1.12 to 1.63 ± 1.06) and body fat (by 4.95%). An improvement in SI did not occur in all ponies. A dynamic feeding system can be used to induce sustained (daily), low-intensity exercise that promotes weight loss in ponies. However, this exercise may not be sufficient to substantially improve SI. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Effects of exercise during the holiday season on changes in body weight, body composition and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J L; Krishnan, S; Stoner, M A; Goktas, Z; Cooper, J A

    2013-09-01

    Identifying critical periods of greater weight gain could provide useful information to combat the obesity epidemic. We tested whether body weight (BW), body fat percentage (BF%) and blood pressure (BP) changed during the holiday season (thanksgiving to new year's day) and the impact of regular exercise on these parameters. A total of 48 males and 100 females (age 18-65 years) with a mean body mass index of 25.1±0.5 kg/m(2) were evaluated in mid-November (visit 1) and early January (visit 2; across 57±0.5 days). Anthropometric data, BF%, BP and self-reported exercise were recorded. Participants showed significant increases in BW (0.78±0.1 kg, Pholiday weight gain and was not a significant predictor for changes in BW or BF%. Data are reported as means±s.e. Our participants gained an average of 0.78 kg, which indicates the majority of average annual weight gain (1 kg/y) reported by others may occur during the holiday season. Obese participants are most at risk as they showed the greatest increases in BF%. Initial BW, not exercise, significantly predicted BF% and BW gain.

  11. Perception of Upright: Multisensory Convergence and the Role of Temporo-Parietal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Kheradmand

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We inherently maintain a stable perception of the world despite frequent changes in the head, eye, and body positions. Such “orientation constancy” is a prerequisite for coherent spatial perception and sensorimotor planning. As a multimodal sensory reference, perception of upright represents neural processes that subserve orientation constancy through integration of sensory information encoding the eye, head, and body positions. Although perception of upright is distinct from perception of body orientation, they share similar neural substrates within the cerebral cortical networks involved in perception of spatial orientation. These cortical networks, mainly within the temporo-parietal junction, are crucial for multisensory processing and integration that generate sensory reference frames for coherent perception of self-position and extrapersonal space transformations. In this review, we focus on these neural mechanisms and discuss (i neurobehavioral aspects of orientation constancy, (ii sensory models that address the neurophysiology underlying perception of upright, and (iii the current evidence for the role of cerebral cortex in perception of upright and orientation constancy, including findings from the neurological disorders that affect cortical function.

  12. Effect of body weight gain on insulin sensitivity after retirement from exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.

  13. Potential effects of whole-body vibration exercises on blood flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feasible clinical strategies such as whole-body vibration exercise (WBVE) are being used without a clear understanding of its effects. The aim of the present study is to review the effects of the WBVE on blood flow kinetics and its feasibility in different populations. Material and Methods: The level of evidence (LE) of selected ...

  14. Creatine Kinase Activity Weakly Correlates to Volume Completed Following Upper Body Resistance Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marco; Willardson, Jeffrey M.; Silva, Dailson P.; Frigulha, Italo C.; Koch, Alexander J.; Souza, Sergio C.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the relationship between serum creatine kinase (CK) activity following upper body resistance exercise with a 1- or 3-min rest between sets. Twenty men performed two sessions, each consisting of four sets with a 10-repetition maximum load. The results demonstrated significantly greater volume for the 3-min…

  15. The effect of body awareness therapy and aerobic exercises on pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of body awareness therapy and aerobic exercises on pain and quality of life in the patients with tension type headache. ... Pain severity of the individuals was evaluated by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and pain diary, disability with ache; by Pain Disability Index (PDI) and Headache Impact Tests (HIT) and quality of ...

  16. Exercise program affects body composition but not weight in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, M.J.; Schuit, A.J.; Peeters, P.H.; Monninkhof, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-month moderate-to-vigorous exercise program combining aerobic and muscle strength training on body composition among sedentary, postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 189 sedentary

  17. Stress Reduction and Mood Enhancement in Four Exercise Modes: Swimming, Body Conditioning, Hatha Yoga, and Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Bonnie G.; Owen, David R.

    1988-01-01

    Differences in mood before and after class of college students taking different courses (swimming, body conditioning, hatha yoga, fencing exercise, and lecture) were analyzed using the Profile Mood States and the State Anxiety Inventory. Results suggest that courses which meet four requirements involving aerobics, noncompetitiveness,…

  18. Effect of a combination of whole body vibration exercise and squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osugi, Tomohiro; Iwamoto, Jun; Yamazaki, Michio; Takakuwa, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to clarify the beneficial effect of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise plus squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly with knee osteoarthritis and/or spondylosis. Of 35 ambulatory patients (14 men and 21 women) who were recruited at our outpatient clinic, 28 (80.0%, 12 men and 16 women) participated in the trial. The subjects (mean age 72.4 years) were randomly divided into two groups (n=14 in each group), ie, a WBV exercise alone group and a WBV exercise plus squat training group. A 4-minute WBV exercise (frequency 20 Hz) was performed 2 days per week in both groups; squat training (20 times per minute) was added during the 4-minute WBV training session in the WBV exercise plus squat training group. The duration of the trial was 6 months. The exercise and training program was safe and well tolerated. WBV exercise alone improved indices of body balance and walking velocity from baseline values. However, WBV exercise plus squat training was more effective for improving tandem gait step number and chair-rising time compared with WBV exercise alone. These results suggest the benefit and safety of WBV exercise plus squat training for improving physical function in terms of body balance and muscle power in the elderly.

  19. Exercise and physical therapy help restore body and self in clients with severe anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolnes, Liv-Jorunn

    2017-07-01

    Exercise in the context of anorexia nervosa is a multifaceted endeavour surrounded by controversy and uncertainty. A broader comprehension of this poorly understood phenomenon is required. Informed by the findings of a body examination of six individuals with anorexia nervosa, as well as exercise science, phenomenology and neurocognition, the purpose of this article is to elaborate on the potential role of exercise and physical therapy in the treatment of anorexia nervosa. The findings of the body assessment include constriction of posture, muscles and pattern of breathing. These bodily restraints are not necessarily merely associated with high levels of exercise, they may also reflect psychological strain accompanying the illness. The restricted breathing in particular is assumed to be associated with difficult thoughts and suppressed feelings. Based on the results of the body examination, as well as medical and psychological considerations accompanying the illness, it is suggested that interventions should focus on improving postural stability and restoring related muscular function. Integral to engaging in these activities, the potential to integrate proprioceptive information in this process may generate a more coherent experience of the body, as well as of the self, in these clients. Accordingly, constrictions of the body may have a vital role in constraining the experience of the self. As such, addressing bodily restraints in these clients may facilitate the experience of being the subject causing and controlling the movements. This is in marked contrast to clients' previous exercise experiences, which were associated with compulsion, rigidity and the absence of coherence and control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. FTO genotype is associated with exercise training-induced changes in body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Rice, Treva; Teran-Garcia, Margarita; Rao, D.C.; Bouchard, Claude

    2010-01-01

    The fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene is the first obesity-susceptibility gene identified by genome-wide association scans and confirmed in several follow-up studies. Homozygotes for the risk allele (A/A) have 1.67 times greater risk of obesity than those who do not have the allele. However, it is not known if regular exercise-induced changes in body composition are influenced by the FTO genotype. The purpose of our study was to test if the FTO genotype is associated with exercise-induced changes in adiposity. Body composition was derived from underwater weighing before and after a 20-week endurance training program in 481 previously sedentary white subjects of the HERITAGE Family Study. FTO SNP rs8050136 was genotyped using Illumina GoldenGate assay. In the sedentary state, the A/A homozygotes were significantly heavier and fatter than the heterozygotes and the C/C homozygotes in men (p=0.004) but not in women (p=0.331; gene-by-sex interaction p=0.0053). The FTO genotype was associated with body fat responses to regular exercise (p<0.005; adjusted for age, sex, and baseline value of response trait): carriers of the C-allele showed three times greater fat mass and %body fat losses than the A/A homozygotes. The FTO genotype explained 2% of the variance in adiposity changes. Our data suggest that the FTO obesity-susceptibility genotype influences the body fat responses to regular exercise. Resistance to exercise-induced reduction in total adiposity may represent one mechanism by which the FTO A allele promotes overweight and obesity. PMID:19543202

  1. Importance of Intercomparison Exercises in Assessment of Internal Exposure by Whole-Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrasi, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Basic requirement for any kind of measurement is to check and prove the reliability and correctness of the measured results. Quality assurance programmes require several activities among which the participation in intercomparison exercises plays an important role. Since the determination of radioactive materials in the human body by whole-body counting technique implies many sources of uncertainties the reliability of calibration data and consequently the measured results have to be checked by participation in intercomparison quality control programmes. In these programmes mostly different kinds of phantoms simulating the human body are circulated among the participating laboratories, however sometimes contaminated persons are also subjects of intercomparison measurements. There are guidelines in several countries laid down concerning the requirements of whole-body counter measurements where the performance criteria for the relative bias, precision and minimum detectable amounts are formulated. These quantities are mostly the subject of intercomparison programmes. The whole body counter laboratory of the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute participated in intercomparison exercises several times in the last few years. The lessons learned during these activities helped in checking the capabilities of applied methods and measuring geometry as well as contributed in improving the accuracy of the measured results. A short overview on the previous international intercomparison exercises their main characteristics the results obtained and conclusions drawn are discussed in the paper with special attention to those in which also our laboratory participated. (author)

  2. Comparison of supine, upright, and prone positions for liver scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harolds, J.A.; Brill, A.B.; Patton, J.A.; Touya, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    We compared liver scan interpretations based on anterior images obtained in the upright, prone, and supine positions. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were generated for three well trained observers. Results showed that reading the three different views together was more accurate than the reading of any individual image. Furthermore, interpretations based on either the prone or upright view were superior to those using the supine view alone. The prone and upright views should be used more often in liver scanning

  3. Perceived body weight, eating and exercise problems of different groups of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Elise; Telfer, James; Abraham, Suzanne

    2012-10-01

    To compare prevalence of problems with body weight, eating and exercise (past or present) of female psychiatric inpatients with routine care, gynaecological and obstetric female outpatients, and eating disorder inpatients. One thousand and thirty-eight females aged 18-55 years from routine care (n=99), gynaecological (n=263) and obstetric (n=271) outpatient clinics, and eating disorder (n=223) and general psychiatric units (n=182) participated. Participants self-reported past or current problems with weight, eating and exercise using a short survey. A sub-sample of women completed the Eating and Exercise Examination (EEE) which includes the Quality of Life for Eating Disorders (QOL ED). The prevalence of self-reported problems controlling weight (52%), disordered eating and eating disorders (43%) for the psychiatric patients was significantly greater than for the routine care and gynaecological and obstetrics outpatients. The psychiatric group had a significantly higher mean body mass index (BMI) of 27.3 kg/m(2) (standard deviation (SD)=6.7) and prevalence of self-reported obesity (28%) than the other groups. Treatment of women with psychiatric problems should include assessment and concurrent attention to body weight, eating disorder and exercise problems in association with appropriate medical, psychiatric, psychological and medication treatment of their presenting disorder.

  4. The effects of regular physical exercise on the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavrić Fahrudin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical activities should be an integral part of an active lifestyle and the proper use of one's time. Programs including such activities are more effectively being applied in the prevention and elimination of health problems, especially those that are the result of decreased movement, inadequate nutrition and excessive nervous tension. Numerous studies have revealed new information about the link between physical activity and quality of life. Each person would have to be involved in physical activity of moderate intensity most days for 30 to 60 minutes, because active people are more healthier and have higher endurance levels, have a positive attitude towards work and cope with everyday stress better. Activity helps you look better, makes you happier and more vital. Studies have clearly shown that physical activity affects health and reduces the risk of many diseases. An active life increases energy, vitality, helps change bad habits, improves health, and strengthens one's energy and desire for life. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of regular physical activity on the human body. The subject matter of this study is the collection and analysis of results which the authors of various studies have obtained. The reviewed literature was collected using a web browser, and consisted of research work available in the Kobson database, through Google Scholar and in journals available in the field of sports science. The method of treatment is descriptive because the studies involved a variety of training programs, people of different ages, and tests carried out by different measuring instruments, so there is no possibility of a comparison of the results by other means.

  5. The Effect of High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Body Composition of Overweight Young Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heydari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of a 12-week high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE intervention on total body, abdominal, trunk, visceral fat mass, and fat free mass of young overweight males. Participants were randomly assigned to either exercise or control group. The intervention group received HIIE three times per week, 20 min per session, for 12 weeks. Aerobic power improved significantly (P0.05 occurred in levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood lipids. Twelve weeks of HIIE resulted in significant reductions in total, abdominal, trunk, and visceral fat and significant increases in fat free mass and aerobic power.

  6. Insulin resistance, exercise capacity and body composition in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Dige-Petersen, H; Ibsen, H

    1999-01-01

    -ray absorptiometry; (4) an exercise test with gas exchange analysis; and (5) investigation of composition of usual diet by diet registration for 5 days. RESULTS: The 24-h diastolic blood pressure was higher in subjects predisposed to hypertension compared with the controls: 78.1 versus 74.0 mmHg (confidence interval...... for the difference between the means; -0.5; -7.9), but the insulin sensitivity index was similar: 312 versus 362 I(2) min(-1) pmol(-1) kg(-1) (28; -129). The two groups were similar in terms of body composition, exercise capacity and composition of usual diet. Resting and 24-h diastolic blood pressures were...

  7. A Data Set of Human Body Movements for Physical Rehabilitation Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakanski, Aleksandar; Jun, Hyung-Pil; Paul, David; Baker, Russell

    2018-03-01

    The article presents University of Idaho - Physical Rehabilitation Movement Data (UI-PRMD) - a publically available data set of movements related to common exercises performed by patients in physical rehabilitation programs. For the data collection, 10 healthy subjects performed 10 repetitions of different physical therapy movements, with a Vicon optical tracker and a Microsoft Kinect sensor used for the motion capturing. The data are in a format that includes positions and angles of full-body joints. The objective of the data set is to provide a basis for mathematical modeling of therapy movements, as well as for establishing performance metrics for evaluation of patient consistency in executing the prescribed rehabilitation exercises.

  8. The influence of Pilates exercises on body balance in the standing position of hearing impaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walowska, Jagoda; Bolach, Bartosz; Bolach, Eugeniusz

    2017-11-13

    Hearing impairment may affect the body posture maintenance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of modified Pilates exercise program on the body posture maintenance in hearing impaired people. Eighty students (aged 13-24) were enrolled and randomly allocated into two groups: test group (n = 41) which attended an original program based on modified Pilates exercises and control group (n = 39) which attended standard physical education classes. Stabilographic tests were conducted at baseline and after 6-week training program. Both groups showed improved control of body balance in a standing position manifested in reductions of the length of path, surface area, and speed of deflection. Modified Pilates program was significantly more effective in improving body balance control in relaxed posture and with feet together than standard physical education classes. The greater efficiency of the modified Pilates program was expressed in a significant improvement in balance control parameters, i.e., path length, surface area, and speed of deflection. The modified Pilates program was more effective in improving body balance control in the hearing impaired people than standard physical education classes. Modification of physical activity recommendations for hearing impaired students may be considered; however, further research is required. Implications for Rehabilitation Hearing impairment impacts the mental, social and, physical spheres of life as well as deteriorates equivalent reactions and the way body posture is maintained. In hearing impaired people, control of body balance and muscle coordination is often disturbed, thus more attention should be paid to exercises associated with balance which may improve the ability to learn and develop motor skills. Modified Pilates program was significantly more effective in improving body balance control than standard physical education classes in hearing impaired people.

  9. EFFECT OF ADDING AN EXERCISE REGIMEN TO DIET THERAPY IN DECREASING BODY FAT PERCENTAGE AND BODY MASS INDEX AMONG OBESE FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeena Haneefa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obesity is one among the leading health problems in many developing countries including India. Lifestyle modifications, which include diet therapy and regular exercises are considered as the mainstay in the management of this health issue. Brisk walking is the preferred socially and economically acceptable mode of exercise. This randomised controlled trial tries to evaluate the efficacy of adding an exercise regimen to diet therapy in reducing body fat percentage and Body Mass Index (BMI among obese females. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred female patients aged between 20 and 60 years with BMI greater than 25 were recruited for this study of 6 months duration. Participants were randomised into either diet therapy alone group or diet therapy with exercise group. All participants were prescribed a low-calorie diet of 1500 kcal per day. The exercise intervention group was subjected to a home-based exercise regimen; walking for 30 minutes 5 days a week. Outcomes were measured by BMI and body fat percentage, documented every month. RESULTS Both groups showed significant reduction in body fat percentage and BMI, but the reduction was more in the exercise with diet therapy group (p value <0.001. CONCLUSION Adding a simple exercise like walking to other lifestyle modification measures can more efficiently bring down BMI and body fat percentage in turn significantly reducing the cardiovascular risk, morbidity and mortality in women.

  10. The Effect of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Power Output for the Upper Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Harvey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine and measure high intensity, intermittent upper body performance, in addition to identifying areas of the body that affect the variance in total work done during the 5 × 6 s sprint test. Fifteen males completed an upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test on a modified electro-magnetically braked cycle ergometer, which consisted of five maximal effort sprints, each 6 s in duration, separated by 24 s of passive recovery. A fly wheel braking force corresponding to 5% of the participants’ body weight was used as the implemented resistance level. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Percent (% decrement was calculated as 100 − (Total work/ideal work × 100. Significant (P < 0.05 differences were found between sprints for both absolute and relative (W, W·kg−1, W·kg−1 Lean body mass (LBM and W·kg−1 Upper body lean body mass (UBLBM peak (PP and mean (MP power. The % decrement in total work done over the five sprints was 11.4%. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that UBLBM accounts for 87% of the variance in total work done during the upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test. These results provide a descriptive analysis of upper body, high intensity intermittent exercise, demonstrating that PP and MP output decreased significantly during the upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test.

  11. The effect of exercise on body composition and bone mineral density in breast cancer survivors taking aromatase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Cartmel, Brenda; Harrigan, Maura; Fiellin, Martha; Capozza, Scott; Zhou, Yang; Ercolano, Elizabeth; Gross, Cary P; Hershman, Dawn; Ligibel, Jennifer; Schmitz, Kathryn; Li, Fang-Yong; Sanft, Tara; Irwin, Melinda L

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the effect of 12 months of aerobic and resistance exercise versus usual care on changes in body composition in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors taking aromatase inhibitors (AIs). The Hormones and Physical Exercise study enrolled 121 breast cancer survivors and randomized them to either supervised twice-weekly resistance exercise training and 150 min/wk of aerobic exercise (N = 61) or a usual care (N = 60) group. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans were conducted at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months to assess changes in body mass index, percent body fat, lean body mass, and bone mineral density. At 12 months, the exercise group relative to the usual care group had a significant increase in lean body mass (0.32 vs. -0.88 kg, P = 0.03), a decrease in percent body fat (-1.4% vs. 0.48%, P = 0.03), and a decrease in body mass index (-0.73 vs. 0.17 kg/m 2 , P = 0.03). Change in bone mineral density was not significantly different between groups at 12 months (0.001 vs. -0.006 g/cm 2 , P = 0.37). A combined resistance and aerobic exercise intervention improved body composition in breast cancer survivors taking AIs. Exercise interventions may help to mitigate the negative side effects of AIs and improve health outcomes in breast cancer survivors. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  12. Comparison of the effects of whole-body cooling during fatiguing exercise in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Skurvydas, Albertas; Pukėnas, Kazimieras; Brazaitis, Marius

    2015-08-01

    The effects of cold stress on exercise performance and fatigue have been thoroughly investigated only in males, and thus the general understanding of these effects relates only to males. The aim of this study was to determine whether whole-body cooling has different effects on performance during fatiguing exercise in males and females. Thirty-two subjects (18 males and 14 females) were exposed to acute cold stress by intermittent immersion in 14°C water until their rectal temperature reached 35.5°C or for a maximum of 170 min. Thermal responses and motor performance were monitored before and after whole-body cooling. Whole-body cooling decreased rectal, muscle and mean skin temperatures in all subjects (pCold stress decreased the fatigue index (FI) of a sustained 2-min maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) only in males (pbody cooling-induced decrease in the FI of a sustained MVC in males but not in females) supports the view of sex effects on performance during fatiguing exercise after whole-body cooling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Exercise Type During Intentional Weight Loss on Body Composition in Older Adults with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Kristen M; Ambrosius, Walter T; Rejeski, W Jack; Burdette, Jonathan H; Walkup, Michael P; Sheedy, Jessica L; Nesbit, Beverly A; Gaukstern, Jill E; Nicklas, Barbara J; Marsh, Anthony P

    2017-11-01

    To examine the long-term effects of exercise modality during weight loss on body composition and associations between body composition and physical function changes. Two hundred forty-nine older adults (66.9 ± 4.7 years, 71% women, 32% African American, BMI: 34.4 ± 3.7 kg/m 2 ) were randomized to weight loss (WL; n = 82), WL plus aerobic training (WL + AT; n = 86), or WL plus resistance training (WL + RT; n = 81) for 18 months. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-acquired body composition, 400-m walk time, and knee extensor strength were measured at baseline and at 6 and 18 months. Total body mass loss was enhanced when WL was combined with exercise (WL: -5.7 ± 0.7 kg, WL + AT: -8.5 ± 0.7 kg, WL + RT: -8.7 ± 0.7 kg; P exercise yields greater fat mass loss than WL alone. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  14. Using bench press load to predict upper body exercise loads in physically active individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A; Smith, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m(-2)) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p bench press load was a significant (R(2) range from 0.64 to 0.86, p Bench press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key pointsThe bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises.No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations.6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  15. Body image in obese children: Effects produced by physical exercise program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Romero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Body image self-perception in obese children is important since it can encourage behaviors leading to social isolation and cause an increase in food intake. The objective of this study was to determine the changes produced in the level of body image satisfaction and the variation in anthropometric indicators of young children in the State of Sonora, Mexico after participating in a program of 40 sessions of physical exercise with an average caloric expenditure of 267 Kcal per session. 119 children were enrolled in the program; they were between the ages of 8 and 11 with a body mass index (BMI of 26.59 ± 4.2 (kg/m2. They were evaluated before and after the physical activity intervention by means of a Body Image Satisfaction (BIS Test. The results with significant changes (p ≤ 0.05 between the pre-test and post-test are in weight and height. There are also significant changes observed in self-image in 15 parts of evaluated body segments, mainly in the abdomen, chest, thighs, buttocks, waist, and hips in all children from the experimental group. The results conclude that physical exercise, in spite of not producing significant changes in BMI, can positively modify body image perception.

  16. Treadmill Exercise with Increased Body Loading Enhances Post Flight Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. Given the importance of body-support loading we set out to determine if there is a relationship between the load experienced during inflight treadmill exercise (produced by a harness and bungee system) and postflight functional performance. ISS crewmembers (n=13) were tested using the FTT protocol before and after 6 months in space. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. To determine how differences in body

  17. Associations between depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, eating styles, exercise and body mass index in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clum, Gretchen A; Rice, Janet C; Broussard, Marsha; Johnson, Carolyn C; Webber, Larry S

    2014-08-01

    This article explores cross-sectional associations between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in women working in schools in the Greater New Orleans area. Self-efficacy for eating and exercise, eating styles, and exercise are examined as potential pathways. This is a secondary data analysis of 743 women who were participating in a workplace wellness randomized controlled trial to address environmental factors influencing eating and exercise behaviors using baseline data prior to the intervention. BMI was the primary outcome examined. Path analysis suggested that increased depressive symptoms were associated with increased BMI in women. Indirect effects of depressive symptoms on BMI were found for increased healthy eating self-efficacy, increased emotional eating, and decreased exercise self-efficacy. The association between greater healthy eating self efficacy and BMI was unexpected, and may indicate a suppressor effect of eating self-efficacy in the relationship between depressive symptoms and BMI in women. The findings suggest the importance of depressive symptoms to BMI in women. Targets for interventions to reduce BMI include targeting depressive symptoms and related sequelae including self-efficacy for exercise, and emotional eating. Further investigation of eating self-efficacy and BMI are recommended with particular attention to both efficacy for health eating and avoidance of unhealthy foods.

  18. Body cooling in human males by cold-water immersion after vigorous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, A; Goode, R C; Livingstone, S D; Duffin, J

    1984-03-01

    Five male subjects were immersed to neck level in a whole-body water calorimeter (water temperature 19 degrees C) on two occasions. One immersion was preceded by 30 min of exercise on a treadmill at 80% of the subjects' maximum heart rate, while the other was preceded by no exercise (control). Ventilation, oxygen consumption, hand-grip strength, and heat loss (measured by calorimetry) results showed no significant differences between resting and exercise trials. Minute ventilation and oxygen consumption increased during the immersion but the magnitude of the increase varied among subjects. There was a significant decrease is isometric hand-grip strength after 30 min of immersion. Rectal temperatures fell faster (0.031 degree C +/- 0.004 degree C/min) for exercised subjects than for controls (0.019 degree C +/- 0.005 degree C/min) between 10 and 45 min of immersion (P less than 0.01). It appears that vigorous preimmersion exercise may shorten survival time in cold water due to an increase in cooling rate.

  19. Body Temperatures During Exercise in Deconditioned Dogs: Effect of NACL and Glucose Infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Usciko, H.

    2000-01-01

    Infusion of glucose (Glu) into normal exercising dogs attenuates the rise in rectal temperature (Delta-Tre) when compared with delta-Tre during FFA infusion or no infusion. Rates of rise and delta-=Tre levels are higher during exercise after confinement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if Glu infusion would attenuate the exercise-induced excess hyperthermia after deconditioning. Rectal and quadricep femoris muscle temperatures (Tmu) were measured in 7 male, mongrel dogs dogs (19.6 +/- SD 3.0 kg) during 90 minutes of treadmill exercise (3.1 +/-SD 0.2 W/kg) with infusion (30ml/min/kg) of 40% Glu or 0.9% NaCL before BC) and after confinement (AC) in cages (40 x 110 x 80 cm) for 8 wk. Mean (+/-SE body wt. were 19.6 +/- 1.1 kg BC and 19.5 +/- 1.1kg AC, exercise VO2 were not different (40.0 - 42.0 mi/min/kg-1). With NaCl AC, NaCl BC, GluAC, and GluBC: Delta-Tre were, 1.8, 1.4, 1.3 and 0.9C respectively; and Delta-Tmu were 2.3, 1.9, 1.6, and 1.4C. respectively (Pbody temperature with Glu infusion must affect avenues of heat dissipation.

  20. My mother told me: the roles of maternal messages, body image, and disordered eating in maladaptive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, Haidee J; Doley, Joanna R; Bond, Malcolm J

    2016-09-01

    The current study examined the relevance of familial environment (negative maternal messages) to the phenomenon of maladaptive (obligatory) exercise, defined as exercise fixation. Weight/shape concerns and exercise frequency were examined as potential mediators, evaluated both with and without eating disorder symptoms as a covariate. Self-report data comprising sociodemographic details and measures of parental weight messages, body image, obligatory exercise, and disordered eating symptoms were completed by 298 young female attendees of health and fitness centres. The frequency of negative maternal messages demonstrated significant associations with all of weight/shape concerns, exercise frequency, exercise fixation, and eating disorder symptoms. In the initial model, partial mediation of maternal messages to exercise fixation was evident as negative maternal messages continued to have a direct effect on exercise fixation. In the second model, with the inclusion of eating disorder symptoms as a covariate, this direct effect was maintained while mediation was no longer evident. The data provide further support for the association between disordered eating symptoms and maladaptive exercise, as defined by exercise fixation. Nevertheless, the importance of negative maternal messages as a key environmental enabler of exercise fixation has been demonstrated, even after the effects of weight/shape concerns and exercise frequency were accounted for. Clinically, addressing weight-related talk in the family home may reduce the incidence of problematic cognitions and behaviours associated with both maladaptive exercise and disordered eating symptoms.

  1. Effects of whole-body vibration applied to lower extremity muscles during decline bench press exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gutiérrez, M T; Hazell, T J; Marín, P J

    2016-09-07

    To evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on skeletal muscle activity and power performance of the upper body during decline bench press exercise at different loads. Forty-seven healthy young and active male students volunteered. Each performed dynamic decline bench press repetitions with and without WBV (50 Hz, 2.2 mm) applied through a hamstring bridge exercise at three different loads of their 1-repetition maximum (1RM): 30%, 50%, and 70% 1RM. Muscle activity of the triceps brachii (TB), biceps brachii (BB), pectoralis major (PM), and biceps femoris (BF) was measured with surface electromyography electrodes and kinetic parameters of the repetitions were measured with a rotary encoder. WBV increased peak power (PP) output during the 70% 1RM condition (pbench press and this augmentation contributes to an increased peak power at higher loads and increased peak acceleration at lower loads.

  2. Long-term exercise in mice has sex-dependent benefits on body composition and metabolism during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Rachel C; Kelly, Scott A; Hua, Kunjie; Buckley, Brian K; Faber, James E; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Pomp, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Aging is associated with declining exercise and unhealthy changes in body composition. Exercise ameliorates certain adverse age-related physiological changes and protects against many chronic diseases. Despite these benefits, willingness to exercise and physiological responses to exercise vary widely, and long-term exercise and its benefits are difficult and costly to measure in humans. Furthermore, physiological effects of aging in humans are confounded with changes in lifestyle and environment. We used C57BL/6J mice to examine long-term patterns of exercise during aging and its physiological effects in a well-controlled environment. One-year-old male (n = 30) and female (n = 30) mice were divided into equal size cohorts and aged for an additional year. One cohort was given access to voluntary running wheels while another was denied exercise other than home cage movement. Body mass, composition, and metabolic traits were measured before, throughout, and after 1 year of treatment. Long-term exercise significantly prevented gains in body mass and body fat, while preventing loss of lean mass. We observed sex-dependent differences in body mass and composition trajectories during aging. Wheel running (distance, speed, duration) was greater in females than males and declined with age. We conclude that long-term exercise may serve as a preventive measure against age-related weight gain and body composition changes, and that mouse inbred strains can be used to characterize effects of long-term exercise and factors (e.g. sex, age) modulating these effects. These findings will facilitate studies on relationships between exercise and health in aging populations, including genetic predisposition and genotype-by-environment interactions. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF PROGRAMMED CORRECTIVE EXERCISES ON KIFOTIC BAD BODY POSITION AT PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Bogdanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the research was the influence of specially programmed physical education instruction with specific complexes of exercises of corrective gymnastics at the 5th grade pupils, on the territory of the city Kragujevac, at those with kifotic bad body position established by measuring. After forming of experimental and control subjects groups, the experiment began. The subjects had the task to do the complete set of corrective exercises, determined before hand, three times a week during one class time. That programme was carried out continuously during the entire school year and the first semester of the following year, except during summer and winter vacation break. It can be concluded that the contents of experimental section of corrective gymnastics had the positive influence on the correction of kifotic bad body position at all the subjects, but with the more effective results at male population where the high percentage of corrected postural disturbance was attained. It can be said that the time period of eighteen months was enough for correction of kifotic bad body position at great number of the subjects. It can be also assumed that the more qualitative and complete improvement will be attained in the case of further continual exercises.

  4. Effects of quadriceps strength after static and dynamic whole-body vibration exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Jill A; Blog, Gabriel L; Kang, Jie; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ratamess, Nicholas A

    2015-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown performance benefits including whole-body vibration (WBV) as a training modality or an acute exercise protocol when used as a component of the resistance training program. Some studies have indicated that performing dynamic exercises as compared with static position exercises while exposed to WBV might be beneficial; however, evidence is lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if an acute bout of dynamic versus static squats performed during WBV results in increase in quadriceps force production by means of dynamic isokinetic knee extension and flexion exercise. Nonresistance-trained healthy young men and women (N = 21) of 18-25 years participated in 4 protocols with 2-week rest in-between. Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 10 dynamic squats without vibration; Protocol 2: 5 sets of 30-second static squats without vibration; Protocol 3: 5 sets of 10 dynamic squats with 30-Hz WBV for a total of 2.5 minutes; and Protocol 4: 5 sets of 30-second static squats with 30-Hz WBV for a total of 2.5 minutes. Prestrength tests (1 set of 4 repetitions at 100° · s(-1) for the knee extension exercise) was performed within 5 minutes of starting each protocol, and poststrength testing was performed within 1 minute of completing each protocol. Strength outcomes were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance with a significance level set at p ≤ 0.05. A significant decrease in strength was observed after dynamic and static squats without WBV (p = 0.002); an increase in strength after dynamic squats with WBV (p = 0.003); and a decrease in strength after static squats with WBV (p = 0.003). The inclusion of WBV to dynamic resistance exercise can be an added modality to increase strength. Whole-body vibration can have varied effects in altering muscle strength in untrained individuals according to the type of resistance training performed. As a dynamic squat with WBV seems to immediately potentiate neuromuscular functioning, the

  5. Effectiveness of exercise and protein supplementation intervention on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Suzana; Kamaruddin, Norshafarina Shari; Badrasawi, Manal; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohamed; Abd Manaf, Zahara; Yassin, Zaitun; Joseph, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia, characterized as muscle loss that occurs with aging, is a major health problem in an aging population, due to its implications on mobility, quality of life, and fall risk. Protein supplementation could improve the physical fitness by increasing protein anabolism, and exercise has a documented evidence of positive effect on functional status among the elderly. However, the combined effect of both protein supplementation and exercise has not been investigated among sarcopenic elderly in the Asian population. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercise intervention and protein supplementation either alone or in combination for 12 weeks, on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia. Sixty five sarcopenic elderly Malays aged 60-74 years were assigned to the control group, exercise group (ExG), protein supplementation group (PrG), or the combination of exercise and protein supplementation group. A significant interaction effect between body weight and body mass index (BMI) was observed, with the PrG (-2.1% body weight, -1.8% BMI) showing the highest reductions. Further, there was a decrease in % body fat (-4.5%) and an increase in fat-free mass (kg) (+5.7%) in the ExG after 12 weeks (P exercise program was found to improve muscle strength and body composition, while protein supplementation reduced body weight and increased upper body strength, among sarcopenic elderly in Malaysia.

  6. Acute whole-body cooling for exercise-induced hyperthermia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Brendon P; Casa, Douglas J; Ganio, Matthew S; Lopez, Rebecca M; Yeargin, Susan W; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2009-01-01

    To assess existing original research addressing the efficiency of whole-body cooling modalities in the treatment of exertional hyperthermia. During April 2007, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, SportDiscus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Reviews databases as well as ProQuest for theses and dissertations to identify research studies evaluating whole-body cooling treatments without limits. Key words were cooling, cryotherapy, water immersion, cold-water immersion, ice-water immersion, icing, fanning, bath, baths, cooling modality, heat illness, heat illnesses, exertional heatstroke, exertional heat stroke, heat exhaustion, hyperthermia, hyperthermic, hyperpyrexia, exercise, exertion, running, football, military, runners, marathoner, physical activity, marathoning, soccer, and tennis. Two independent reviewers graded each study on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Seven of 89 research articles met all inclusion criteria and a minimum score of 4 out of 10 on the PEDro scale. After an extensive and critical review of the available research on whole-body cooling for the treatment of exertional hyperthermia, we concluded that ice-water immersion provides the most efficient cooling. Further research comparing whole-body cooling modalities is needed to identify other acceptable means. When ice-water immersion is not possible, continual dousing with water combined with fanning the patient is an alternative method until more advanced cooling means can be used. Until future investigators identify other acceptable whole-body cooling modalities for exercise-induced hyperthermia, ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion are the methods proven to have the fastest cooling rates.

  7. "Exercise to be fit, not skinny": The effect of fitspiration imagery on women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Zaccardo, Mia

    2015-09-01

    Fitspiration is an online trend designed to inspire viewers towards a healthier lifestyle by promoting exercise and healthy food. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of fitspiration images on women's body image. Participants were 130 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of Instagram fitspiration images or a control set of travel images presented on an iPad. Results showed that acute exposure to fitspiration images led to increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction and decreased state appearance self-esteem relative to travel images. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the effects of image type were mediated by state appearance comparison. Thus it was concluded that fitspiration can have negative unintended consequences for body image. The results offer support to general sociocultural models of media effects on body image, and extend these to "new" media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Different Short-Term Mild Exercise Modalities Lead to Differential Effects on Body Composition in Healthy Prepubertal Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Sontam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has a vital role in regulating and improving bone strength. Responsiveness of bone mass to exercise is age dependent with the prepubertal period suggested to be the most effective stage for interventions. There is a paucity of data on the effects of exercise on bone architecture and body composition when studied within the prepubertal period. We examined the effect of two forms of low-impact exercise on prepubertal changes in body composition and bone architecture. Weanling male rats were assigned to control (CON, bipedal stance (BPS, or wheel exercise (WEX groups for 15 days until the onset of puberty. Distance travelled via WEX was recorded, food intake measured, and body composition quantified. Trabecular and cortical microarchitecture of the femur were determined by microcomputed tomography. WEX led to a higher lean mass and reduced fat mass compared to CON. WEX animals had greater femoral cortical cross-sectional thickness and closed porosity compared to CON. The different exercise modalities had no effect on body weight or food intake, but WEX significantly altered body composition and femoral microarchitecture. These data suggest that short-term mild voluntary exercise in normal prepubertal rats can alter body composition dependent upon the exercise modality.

  9. [Influence of an 8-week exercise intervention on body composition, physical fitness, and mental health in female nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Yamada, Hisao; Morikawa, Sachiko

    2013-03-01

    To determine the effectiveness of habitual exercise on the health promotion of college students, we measured the body composition and physical fitness of female nursing students before (Pre) and after (Post) an 8-week low-intensity exercise intervention. We also conducted a questionnaire survey of their mental health condition before and at every 4 weeks during the intervention. The quantity of physical exercise increased (P exercise intervention did not alter the body weight, but decreased the body fat (Pre, 26.8 ± 0.5%; Post, 24.9 ± 0.5%, P health were significantly raised by the intervention. These results suggest that habitual exercise for 8 weeks was effective for the promotion of physical and mental health in female nursing students.

  10. Recovery From Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage: Cold-Water Immersion Versus Whole-Body Cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaïdia, Abd-Elbasset; Lamblin, Julien; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Leduc, Cédric; McCall, Alan; Nédélec, Mathieu; Dawson, Brian; Baquet, Georges; Dupont, Grégory

    2017-03-01

    To compare the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) and whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage. Ten physically active men performed single-leg hamstring eccentric exercise comprising 5 sets of 15 repetitions. Immediately postexercise, subjects were exposed in a randomized crossover design to CWI (10 min at 10°C) or WBC (3 min at -110°C) recovery. Creatine kinase concentrations, knee-flexor eccentric (60°/s) and posterior lower-limb isometric (60°) strength, single-leg and 2-leg countermovement jumps, muscle soreness, and perception of recovery were measured. The tests were performed before and immediately, 24, 48, and 72 h after exercise. Results showed a very likely moderate effect in favor of CWI for single-leg (effect size [ES] = 0.63; 90% confidence interval [CI] = -0.13 to 1.38) and 2-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.68; 90% CI = -0.08 to 1.43) 72 h after exercise. Soreness was moderately lower 48 h after exercise after CWI (ES = -0.68; 90% CI = -1.44 to 0.07). Perception of recovery was moderately enhanced 24 h after exercise for CWI (ES = -0.62; 90% CI = -1.38 to 0.13). Trivial and small effects of condition were found for the other outcomes. CWI was more effective than WBC in accelerating recovery kinetics for countermovement-jump performance at 72 h postexercise. CWI also demonstrated lower soreness and higher perceived recovery levels across 24-48 h postexercise.

  11. Whole body vibration exercise improves body balance and walking velocity in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate: Galileo and Alendronate Intervention Trail (GAIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, J; Sato, Y; Takeda, T; Matsumoto, H

    2012-09-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the effect of 6 months of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on physical function in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate. Fifty-two ambulatory postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (mean age: 74.2 years, range: 51-91 years) were randomly divided into two groups: an exercise group and a control group. A four-minute WBV exercise was performed two days per week only in the exercise group. No exercise was performed in the control group. All the women were treated with alendronate. After 6 months of the WBV exercise, the indices for flexibility, body balance, and walking velocity were significantly improved in the exercise group compared with the control group. The exercise was safe and well tolerated. The reductions in serum alkaline phosphatase and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen during the 6-month period were comparable between the two groups. The present study showed the benefit and safety of WBV exercise for improving physical function in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate.

  12. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel W D; Abou Sawan, Sidney; Mazzulla, Michael; Williamson, Eric; Moore, Daniel R

    2017-07-11

    No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h) and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD)) performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey) or an energy-matched placebo (CHO) immediately post-exercise (0 h), and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery). A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest). Participants ingested [ 15 N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO ( P = 0.064; effect size (ES) = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO) during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO ( P = 0.036) but not in CHO ( P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO), which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76), REP (ES = 0.44), and peak power (ES = 0.55). In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of exercise performance after a strenuous bout of resistance exercise.

  13. Pulmonary Artery Wedge Pressure Relative to Exercise Work Rate in Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiari, Sam; Wright, Stephen P; Goodman, Jack M; Sasson, Zion; Mak, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    An augmented pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) response may explain exercise intolerance in some humans. However, routine use of exercise hemodynamic testing is limited by a lack of data from normal older men and women. Our objective was to evaluate the exercise PAWP response and the potential for sexual dimorphism in healthy, nondyspneic older adults. Thirty-six healthy volunteers (18 men [54 ± 7 yr] and 18 women [58 ± 6 yr]) were studied at rest (control) and during two stages of semi-upright cycle ergometry, at heart rates of 100 bpm (light exercise) and 120 bpm (moderate exercise). Right heart catheterization was performed to measure pulmonary pressures. The PAWP response to exercise was assessed in context of exercise work rate and body size. At control, PAWP was similar between men and women. Work rates were significantly smaller in women at comparable HR (P exercise, with no further increase at moderate exercise. When indexed to work rate alone or work rate adjusted to body weight and height, the PAWP response at light and moderate exercise was significantly elevated in women compared with men (P exercise. The similar rise in the PAWP response to submaximal exercise occurs despite lower work rate in healthy older women compared with men, even when adjusted for smaller body size. It is important to consider sex in the development of normal reference ranges for exercise hemodynamic testing.

  14. The Impact of Central and Peripheral Cyclooxygenase Enzyme Inhibition on Exercise-Induced Elevations in Core Body Temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltmeijer, M.T.W.; Veeneman, D.; Bongers, C.C.W.G.; Netea, M.G.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Exercise increases core body temperature (TC) due to metabolic heat production. However, the exercise-induced release of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6) may also contribute to the rise in TC by increasing the hypothalamic temperature set point. This study investigated

  15. The Effect of Exercise on Body Satisfaction and Self-Esteem as a Function of Gender and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Williamson, Samantha

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between amount of exercise and psychological wellbeing, surveying people age 16-60 years. Women had lower body satisfaction and self-esteem than men. While there was generally a positive relationship between exercise and wellbeing, for women age 16-21 years, there was a significant negative relationship. Women…

  16. Effects of circuit-based exercise programs on the body composition of elderly obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocalini DS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Danilo Sales Bocalini,1 Lucas S Lima,3 Socrates de Andrade,4 Angelo Madureira,4 Roberta L Rica,4,5 Rodrigo Nolasco dos Santos,4 Andrey Jorge Serra,1,2 Jose Antonio Silva Jr,2 Daniel Rodriguez,6 Aylton Figueira Jr,6 Francisco Luciano Pontes Jr31Departamenteo de Educação Física e, 2Ciências da Reabilitação da Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 3Curso de Gerontologia, Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades da Universidade de São Paulo (EACH, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 4Universidade Gama Filho (UGF, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil; 5Departamento de Educação Física, Colegio Arbos, São Bernardo do Campo, SP, Brazil; 6Departamento de Educação Física. Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT, São Paulo, SP, BrazilAim: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of circuit-based exercise on the body composition in obese older women by focusing on physical exercise and body weight (BW gain control in older people.Methods: Seventy older women (>60 years old voluntarily took part in the study. Participants were randomized into six different groups according to body mass index (BMI: appropriate weight (AW control (AWC and trained (AWT groups, overweight (OW control (OWC and trained (OWT groups, and obesity (O control (OC and trained (OT groups. The exercise program consisted of 50 minutes of exercise three times per week for 12 weeks. The exercises were alternated between upper and lower body using rest between sets for 40 seconds with intensity controlled by heart rate (70% of work. The contraction time established was 5 seconds to eccentric and concentric muscular action phase. The following anthropometric parameters were evaluated: height (m, body weight (BW, kg, body fat (BF, %, fat mass (FM, kg, lean mass (LM, kg, and BMI (kg/m2.Results: The values (mean ± standard deviation [SD] of relative changes to BW (−8.0% ± 0.8%, BF (−21.4% ± 2.1%, LM (3.0% ± 0.3%, and FM (−31.2% ± 3.0% to the OT group were higher

  17. Muscle activity and spine load during anterior chain whole body linkage exercises: the body saw, hanging leg raise and walkout from a push-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart; Andersen, Jordan; Cannon, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined anterior chain whole body linkage exercises, namely the body saw, hanging leg raise and walkout from a push-up. Investigation of these exercises focused on which particular muscles were challenged and the magnitude of the resulting spine load. Fourteen males performed the exercises while muscle activity, external force and 3D body segment motion were recorded. A sophisticated and anatomically detailed 3D model used muscle activity and body segment kinematics to estimate muscle force, and thus sensitivity to each individual's choice of motor control for each task. Gradations of muscle activity and spine load characteristics were observed across tasks. On average, the hanging straight leg raise created approximately 3000 N of spine compression while the body saw created less than 2500 N. The hanging straight leg raise created the highest challenge to the abdominal wall (>130% MVC in rectus abdominis, 88% MVC in external oblique). The body saw resulted in almost 140% MVC activation of the serratus anterior. All other exercises produced substantial abdominal challenge, although the body saw did so in the most spine conserving way. These findings, along with consideration of an individual's injury history, training goals and current fitness level, should assist in exercise choice and programme design.

  18. Power Relative to Body Mass Best Predicts Change in Core Temperature During Exercise-Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Oliver R; Willmott, Ashley G B; James, Carl A; Hayes, Mark; Maxwell, Neil S

    2017-02-01

    Gibson, OR, Willmott, AGB, James, CA, Hayes, M, and Maxwell, NS. Power relative to body mass best predicts change in core temperature during exercise-heat stress. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 403-414, 2017-Controlling internal temperature is crucial when prescribing exercise-heat stress, particularly during interventions designed to induce thermoregulatory adaptations. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the rate of rectal temperature (Trec) increase, and various methods for prescribing exercise-heat stress, to identify the most efficient method of prescribing isothermic heat acclimation (HA) training. Thirty-five men cycled in hot conditions (40° C, 39% R.H.) for 29 ± 2 minutes. Subjects exercised at 60 ± 9% V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, with methods for prescribing exercise retrospectively observed for each participant. Pearson product moment correlations were calculated for each prescriptive variable against the rate of change in Trec (° C·h), with stepwise multiple regressions performed on statistically significant variables (p ≤ 0.05). Linear regression identified the predicted intensity required to increase Trec by 1.0-2.0° C between 20- and 45-minute periods and the duration taken to increase Trec by 1.5° C in response to incremental intensities to guide prescription. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) relationships with the rate of change in Trec were observed for prescriptions based on relative power (W·kg; r = 0.764), power (%Powermax; r = 0.679), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (r = 0.577), V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (%V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak; r = 0.562), heart rate (HR) (%HRmax; r = 0.534), and thermal sensation (r = 0.311). Stepwise multiple regressions observed relative power and RPE as variables to improve the model (r = 0.791), with no improvement after inclusion of any anthropometric variable. Prescription of exercise under heat stress using power (W·kg or %Powermax) has the strongest relationship with the rate of change in

  19. Exercise x BCAA Supplementation in Young Trained Rats: What are their Effects on Body Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos-Ferraz, Patricia Lopes; Ribeiro, Sandra Maria Lima; Luz, Silmara Dos Santos; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Tirapegui, Julio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) supplementation had any beneficial effects on growth and metabolic parameters of young rats submitted to chronic aerobic exercise. Thirty-two young rats (age: 21-d) were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n = 8): Supplemented Trained (Sup/Ex), Control Trained (Ctrl/Ex), Supplemented Sedentary (Sup/Sed) and Control Sedentary (Ctrl/Sed). The trained groups underwent a five-week swimming protocol and received supplemented (45 mg BCAA/body weight/day) or control ration. Trained animals presented a lower body length and a higher cartilage weight, regardless of supplementation. Physical activity was responsible for a substantial reduction in proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage tissue, and BCAA supplementation was able to attenuate this reduction and also to improve glycogen stores in the liver, although no major differences were found in body growth associated to this supplementation. Key pointsCartilage proteoglycan synthesis was dramatically reduced in trained animals as a whole.BCAA supplementation augmented liver glycogen stores and reduced proteolysis in our experimental conditionsTrained animals receiving BCAA supplementation featured increased proteoglycan synthesis compared to sedentary ones, probably because BCAA may have attenuated the negative effects of exercise on cartilage development.BCAA supplementation was not capable of neutralizing directly the negative effects of long-term physical training and lower food intake in young male rats on body growth.

  20. Redistribution of whole-body energy metabolism by exercise. A positron emission tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masud, M.M.; Miyake, Masayasu; Watanuki, Shoichi; Itoh, Masatoshi; Tashiro, Manabu; Fujimoto, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate changes in glucose metabolism of skeletal muscles and viscera induced by different workloads using 18 F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([ 18 F]FDG) and three-dimensional positron emission tomography (3-D PET). Five male volunteers performed ergometer bicycle exercise for 40 min at 40% and 70% of the maximal O 2 consumption (VO 2max ). [ 18 ]FDG was injected 10 min later following the exercise task. Whole-body 3-D PET was performed. Five other male volunteers were studied as a control to compare with the exercise group. The PET image data were analyzed using manually defined regions of interest to quantify the regional metabolic rate of glucose (rMRGlc). Group comparisons were made using analysis of variance, and significant differences (P 18 F]FDG-PET can be used as an index of organ energy metabolism for moderate exercise workloads (70% VO 2max ). The results of this investigation may contribute to sports medicine and rehabilitation science. (author)

  1. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on recovery after hamstring damaging exercise: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonda, B; Sarabon, N

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on biochemical, pain, and performance parameters during the 5-day recovery period after damaging exercise for hamstrings. Participants completed a bout of damaging exercise for the hamstring muscles on two separate occasions (control and experimental condition) separated by 10 weeks. During the control condition, subjects received no treatment after the damaging exercise. The experimental condition consisted of WBC everyday during the recovery period. WBC included single 3-min daily exposures to low temperatures (-140 to -19 °C) in the cryo-cabin. During the recovery period, subjects were tested for biochemical markers, perceived pain sensation, and physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal isometric torque production, and maximally explosive isometric torque production). Majority of the observed variables showed statistically significant time effects (P < 0.05) in control group, which indicates the presence of muscle damage. Significant interaction between the control and WBC condition was evident for the rate of torque development (P < 0.05). Pain measures substantially differed between the WBC and the control condition after the exercise. Results of this study are not completely supportive of the use of WBC for recovery enhancement after strenuous training. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The effects of rest interval length manipulation of the first upper-body resistance exercise in sequence on acute performance of subsequent exercises in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Chiarello, Christina M; Sacco, Anthony J; Hoffman, Jay R; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ross, Ryan E; Kang, Jie

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of manipulating rest interval (RI) length of the first upper-body exercise in sequence on subsequent resistance exercise performance. Twenty-two men and women with at least 1 year of resistance training experience performed resistance exercise protocols on 3 occasions in random order. Each protocol consisted of performing 4 barbell upper-body exercises in the same sequence (bench press, incline bench press, shoulder press, and bent-over row) for 3 sets of up to 10 repetitions with 75% of 1 repetition maximum. Bench press RIs were 1, 2, or 3 minutes, whereas other exercises were performed with a standard 2-minute rest interval. The number of repetitions completed, average power, and velocity for each set of each exercise were recorded. Gender differences were observed during the bench press and incline press as women performed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more repetitions than men during all RIs. The magnitude of decline in velocity and power over 3 sets of the bench press and incline press was significantly higher in men than women. Manipulation of RI length during the bench press did not affect performance of the remaining exercises in men. However, significantly more repetitions were performed by women during the first set of the incline press using 3-minute rest interval than 1-minute rest interval. In men and women, performance of the incline press and shoulder press was compromised compared with baseline performances. Manipulation of RI length of the first exercise affected performance of only the first set of 1 subsequent exercise in women. All RIs led to comparable levels of fatigue in men, indicating that reductions in load are necessary for subsequent exercises performed in sequence that stress similar agonist muscle groups when 10 repetitions are desired.

  3. Condensation on a cooled plane upright wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortier, Andre.

    1975-01-01

    The vapor condensation along a cooled upright plane wall was studied. The theoretical and experimental results obtained in the simple case, give the essential characteristics of the phenomenon of condensation along a cold wall that keeps the vapor apart from the coolant inside a surface condenser. The phenomenon presents two different appearances according as the wall is wetted or not by the liquid. In the first case a continuous liquid film runs down the wall and a conventional Nusselt calculation gives the film thickness and the heat exchange coefficient between a pure saturated vapor and the cold wall. The calculation is developed in detail and the effect of a vapor flow along the film is discussed as well as that of the presence of a noncondensable gas inside the vapor. In the second case, separated liquid drops are formed on the wall, the phenomenon is called ''dropwise condensation'' and the heat exchange coefficients obtained are much higher than with film condensation. The theoretical aspects of the problem are discussed with some experimental results [fr

  4. Benefits of different intensity of aerobic exercise in modulating body composition among obese young adults: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chih-Hui; Ko, Ming-Chen; Wu, Long-Shan; Yeh, Ding-Peng; Kan, Nai-Wen; Lee, Po-Fu; Hsieh, Jenn-Woei; Tseng, Ching-Yu; Ho, Chien-Chang

    2017-08-24

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of different aerobic exercise intensities and energy expenditures on the body composition of sedentary obese college students in Taiwan. Forty-eight obese participants [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 27 kg/m 2 , age 18-26 years] were randomized into four equal groups (n = 12): light-intensity training group (LITG), 40%-50% heart rate reserve (HRR); middle-intensity training group (MITG), 50%-70% HRR; high-intensity training group (HITG), 70%-80% HRR; and control group (CG). The aerobic exercise training program was conducted for 60 min per day on a treadmill 3 days per week for 12 weeks. All participant anthropometric data, blood biochemical parameters, and health-related physical fitness components were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. At baseline, the anthropometric indices did not differ significantly among the four groups (p > 0.05). After 12-week exercise intervention, the HITG and MITG had significantly more changes in body weight, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) than the LITG. The changes in BMI and body fat percentage differed among all four groups (p exercise intervention with high energy expenditure can considerably reduce body weight, body fat, WC, WHR, and WHtR, whereas a light-intensity exercise intervention can significantly reduce body weight and body fat. Current Controlled Trials TPECTR09831410900 , registered on 24 th Dec 2009.

  5. EXERCISE X BCAA SUPPLEMENTATION IN YOUNG TRAINED RATS: WHAT ARE THEIR EFFECTS ON BODY GROWTH?

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    Patricia Lopes de Campos-Ferraz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs supplementation had any beneficial effects on growth and metabolic parameters of young rats submitted to chronic aerobic exercise. Thirty-two young rats (age: 21-d were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n = 8: Supplemented Trained (Sup/Ex, Control Trained (Ctrl/Ex, Supplemented Sedentary (Sup/Sed and Control Sedentary (Ctrl/Sed. The trained groups underwent a five-week swimming protocol and received supplemented (45 mg BCAA/body weight/day or control ration. Trained animals presented a lower body length and a higher cartilage weight, regardless of supplementation. Physical activity was responsible for a substantial reduction in proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage tissue, and BCAA supplementation was able to attenuate this reduction and also to improve glycogen stores in the liver, although no major differences were found in body growth associated to this supplementation

  6. The Relationship of Exercise Frequency to Body Composition and Physical Fitness in Dormitory-Dwelling University Students

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    Seok Hee Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The health benefits of regular exercise are well known, and the transition to adulthood is an important time for establishing exercise habits. In this study, we aimed to identify the degree of obesity prevention and fitness according to exercise level in male and female university students who live in dormitories. Material and Methods: This study included 1,808 university dormitory residents, 1,263 men and 545 women, who completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and were classified into groups according to exercise habit. Sociodemographic data were expressed as frequency and percent, and one-way analysis of variance was conducted to examine the group difference according to exercise habit. Results: Weight, muscle mass, lean body mass, and basal metabolism were significantly higher in male university students living in dormitories who habitually exercise at least 3 times a week compared to those who exercise less often (p<0.05. The body mass index was higher in female university students living in dormitories who exercise at least 3 times a week compared to those who exercise less often (p<0.05. The former group could also perform a greater number of sit-ups (p<0.01 and had greater back strength (p<0.01 and faster whole-body reaction time (p<0.01. Women who exercised at least once a week could perform more push-ups versus those who did not exercise (p<0.01. Male university students living in dormitory who exercise at least 3 times a week had higher systolic blood pressure and greater grip strength than male students who exercised twice a week or less (p<0.05; they could also do more push-ups (p<0.05. Conclusion: University students who exercise at least three times a week have somewhat higher fitness and healthier body composition compared to those who exercise twice a week or less. These differences may impact lifetime fitness and body composition.

  7. Aerobic Exercise and Whole-Body Vibration in Offsetting Bone Loss in Older Adults

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    Pei-Yang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and its associated fractures are common complications of aging and most strategies to prevent and/or treat bone loss focused on antiresorptive medications. However, aerobic exercise (AEX and/or whole-body vibration (WBV might have beneficial effect on bone mass and provide an alternative approach to increase or maintain bone mineral density (BMD and reduce the risk of fractures. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the potential benefits of AEX and WBV on BMD in older population and discuss the possible mechanisms of action. Several online databases were utilized and based on the available literature the consensus is that both AEX and WBV may increase spine and femoral BMD in older adults. Therefore, AEX and WBV could serve as nonpharmacological and complementary approaches to increasing/maintaining BMD. However, it is uncertain if noted effects could be permanent and further studies are needed to investigate sustainability of either type of the exercise.

  8. A Data Set of Human Body Movements for Physical Rehabilitation Exercises

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    Aleksandar Vakanski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents University of Idaho-Physical Rehabilitation Movement Data (UI-PRMD, a publically available data set of movements related to common exercises performed by patients in physical rehabilitation programs. For the data collection, 10 healthy subjects performed 10 repetitions of different physical therapy movements with a Vicon optical tracker and a Microsoft Kinect sensor used for the motion capturing. The data are in a format that includes positions and angles of full-body joints. The objective of the data set is to provide a basis for mathematical modeling of therapy movements, as well as for establishing performance metrics for evaluation of patient consistency in executing the prescribed rehabilitation exercises.

  9. Effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in females with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trans, T; Aaboe, J; Henriksen, M

    2009-01-01

    status was measured using WOMAC. It was found that muscle strength increased significantly (pIsometric knee-extension significantly increased (p=0.021) in VibM compared to Con. TDPM was significantly improved (p=0.033) in VibF compared to Con, while there was a tendency......The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in female patients with osteoarthritis in the knee (knee-OA). A single blinded, randomised, controlled trial was performed in an outpatient clinic on 52 female patients...... groups trained twice a week for 8 weeks, with a progressively increasing intensity. The WBV groups performed unloaded static WBV exercise. The following were measured: knee muscle strength (extension/flexion) and proprioception (threshold for detection of passive movement (TDPM)). Self-reported disease...

  10. Arterial Pressure Gradients during Upright Posture and 30 deg Head Down Tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, E. R; William, J. M.; Ueno, T.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Gravity alters local blood pressure within the body so that arterial pressures in the head and foot are lower and higher, respectively, than that at heart level. Furthermore, vascular responses to local alterations of arterial pressure are probably important to maintain orthostatic tolerance upon return to the Earth after space flight. However, it has been difficult to evaluate the body's arterial pressure gradient due to the lack of noninvasive technology. This study was therefore designed to investigate whether finger arterial pressure (FAP), measured noninvasively, follows a normal hydrostatic pressure gradient above and below heart level during upright posture and 30 deg head down tilt (HDT). Seven healthy subjects gave informed consent and were 19 to 52 years old with a height range of 158 to 181 cm. A Finapres device measured arterial pressure at different levels of the body by moving the hand from 36 cm below heart level (BH) to 72 cm above heart level (AH) in upright posture and from 36 cm BH to 48 cm AH during HDT in increments of 12 cm. Mean FAP creased by 85 mmHg transitioning from BH to AH in upright posture, and the pressure gradient calculated from hydrostatic pressure difference (rho(gh)) was 84 mmHg. In HDT, mean FAP decreased by 65 mmHg from BH to AH, and the calculated pressure gradient was also 65 mmHg. There was no significant difference between the measured FAP gradient and the calculated pressure gradient, although a significant (p = 0.023) offset was seen for absolute arterial pressure in upright posture. These results indicate that arterial pressure at various levels can be obtained from the blood pressure at heart level by calculating rho(gh) + an offset. The offset equals the difference between heart level and the site of measurement. In summary, we conclude that local blood pressure gradients can be measured by noninvasive studies of FAP.

  11. Mood after various brief exercise and sport modes: aerobics, hip-hop dancing, ice skating, and body conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungwoon; Kim, Jingu

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the potential psychological benefits of brief exercise and sport activities on positive mood alterations, 45 Korean high school and 232 undergraduate students enrolled in physical education and stress management classes voluntarily participated and were randomly assigned to one of four activities: aerobic exercise, body conditioning, hip-hop dancing, and ice skating. Mood changes from before to after exercise (2 pm to 3 pm) were measured based on a Korean translation of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale. The findings suggested that the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups rated positive well-being higher than the body conditioning and ice skating groups. Immediately after exercise, psychological distress was rated lower in the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups, as was fatigue.

  12. PROGRAMMED CORRECTIVE EXERCISES IN PCYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES AND LORDOTIC BAD BODY POSITION

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    Zoran Bogdanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the research was the influence of specially program medphysical education instruction with specific complexes of exercises of corrective gymnastics at the 5th grade pupils at those with lordotic bad body position established by measuring. The aims were to define the number of children with lordotic bad body position and to eliminate or alleviate the existing disturbance until the end of the experimental programme. The experimental programme was carried out among the 5th grade pupils. Total number of pupils included in this experiment was 434. The methods that were used for the estimation of lordotic bad body position are somatoscopy and somatometry. The plumb, ruler and dermograph were necessary instruments. For the estimation of the states of bad body position, the average value of mild criterion is applied. It can be concluded that during experimental programme even 85.93% of the subjects successfully corrected their bad body position; more exactly completely corrected lordotic bad body position. That percentage is certificate of justification and necessity of application of experimental programme of corrective gymnastics with all his organizational characteristics (the setting, the scope of work, load intensity, directing and controlling the experiment. Muscular-bone system of boys shows the high level of adaptation on the applied experimental factor of corrective gymnastics.

  13. Longitudinal changes in body composition and metabolic profile between exercise clinical trials in men with chronic spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgey, Ashraf S.; Martin, Heather; Metz, Alyse; Khalil, Refka E.; Dolbow, David R.; Gater, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Study design Longitudinal design. Objectives The study was undertaken to determine the effects of cessation of exercise interventions on body composition and metabolic profiles in men with chronic SCI. Settings Clinical trials within a Medical Center. Methods Eleven men with motor complete SCI were followed on average over a period of 2.5 years. Six men were involved in two different exercise interventions (functional electrical stimulation cycling versus arm cycling ergometer), 5 days/week for 16 weeks (exercise group), and five men served as a control (control group). Anthropometrics and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were captured to measure changes in lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), percentage FM before, immediately after exercise, and after a period of 2.5 years. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) and lipid panel were also measured. Results Thigh circumference increased by 8.5% following exercise (P = 0.042) and remained 6.4% greater than baseline measurements (P = 0.012). Leg LM increased by 9% following the exercise intervention (P = 0.03) and decreased by 16% in the follow-up visit (P = 0.02). Percentage trunk and total body FM increased by 4.5% (P = 0.008) and 3.5% (P = 0.019) in the follow-up visit, respectively, and whole body LM increased by 8.4% and decreased back by 5.4% following a 2.5 year-period. BMR significantly decreased by 15.5% following the exercise (P = 0.029) interventions. Conclusion Exercise training is accompanied with positive changes in body composition as well as compensatory decrease in BMR, that regressed back following 2.5 years of exercise cessation. Participation in an exercise trial is unlikely to confound the measurements of a follow-up trial. PMID:27077574

  14. Influence of body composition on physiological responses to post-exercise hydrotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Jessica M; Halson, Shona L; Miller, Joanna; Slater, Gary J; Askew, Christopher D

    2018-05-01

    This study examined the influence of body composition on temperature and blood flow responses to post-exercise cold water immersion (CWI), hot water immersion (HWI) and control (CON). Twenty-seven male participants were stratified into three groups: 1) low mass and low fat (LM-LF); 2) high mass and low fat (HM-LF); or 3) high mass and high fat (HM-HF). Experimental trials involved a standardised bout of cycling, maintained until core temperature reached 38.5°C. Participants subsequently completed one of three 15-min recovery interventions (CWI, HWI, or CON). Core, skin and muscle temperatures, and limb blood flow were recorded at baseline, post-exercise, and every 30 min following recovery for 240 min. During CON and HWI there were no differences in core or muscle temperature between body composition groups. The rate of fall in core temperature following CWI was greater in the LM-LF (0.03 ± 0.01°C/min) group compared to the HM-HF (0.01 ± 0.001°C/min) group (P = 0.002). Muscle temperature decreased to a greater extent during CWI in the LM-LF and HM-LF groups (8.6 ± 3.0°C) compared with HM-HF (5.1 ± 2.0°C, P < 0.05). Blood flow responses did not differ between groups. Differences in body composition alter the thermal response to post-exercise CWI, which may explain some of the variance in the responses to CWI recovery.

  15. Associations between Thermal and Physiological Responses of Human Body during Exercise

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    Suleyman Zora

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, thermal behaviours of the athletes were investigated with respect to thermal comfort and exercise intensity. The relationship between an index for analysing thermal comfort (Predicted Mean Vote: PMV and Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE which shows exercise intensity and exhaustion level was evaluated. Eleven moderately trained male athletes ( V ˙ O2max 54 ± 9.9 mL∙min−1∙kg−1 had volunteered for the study (age: 22.2 ± 3.7 years; body mass: 73.8 ± 6.9 kg; height: 181 ± 6.3 cm; Body surface area (BSA: 1.93 ± 0.1 m2; body fat: 12.6% ± 4.2%; V ˙ O2max: 54 ± 9.9 mL∙min−1∙kg−1. Experiments were carried out by using a cycle ergometer in an air-conditioned test chamber which provided fresh air and had the ability to control the temperature and relative humidity. The study cohort was divided into two groups according to maximal oxygen consumption levels of the participants. Statistical analyses were conducted with the whole study cohort as well as the two separated groups. There was a moderate correlation between PMV and RPE for whole cohort (r: −0.51. When the whole cohort divided as low and high aerobic power groups, an average correlation coefficient at high oxygen consumption cohort decreased to r: −0.21, while the average correlation coefficient at low oxygen consumption cohort increased to r: −0.77. In conclusion, PMV and RPE have a high correlation in less trained participants, but not in the more trained ones. The case may bring to mind that thermal distribution may be better in high aerobic power group in spite of high RPE and thus the relation between PMV and RPE is affected by exercise performance status.

  16. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J

    2013-01-01

    ), and postmenopausal (n = 14)]. Estimated insulin sensitivity was obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Fat oxidation and energy expenditure were measured during an acute exercise bout of 45 min of ergometer......-activated protein kinase (AMPK), vascular endothelial growth factor, pyruvate dehydrogenase-1Eα, cytochrome oxidase I], or enzyme activities (β-HAD, CS) in resting skeletal muscle, except for an increased protein level of cytochrome c in the post- and perimenopausal women relative to premenopausal women...

  17. Body composition and reproductive function exert unique influences on indices of bone health in exercising women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Rebecca J; Williams, Nancy I; Hill, Brenna R; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2013-09-01

    Reproductive function, metabolic hormones, and lean mass have been observed to influence bone metabolism and bone mass. It is unclear, however, if reproductive, metabolic and body composition factors play unique roles in the clinical measures of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone geometry in exercising women. This study compares lumbar spine bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and estimates of femoral neck cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) and cross-sectional area (CSA) between exercising ovulatory (Ov) and amenorrheic (Amen) women. It also explores the respective roles of reproductive function, metabolic status, and body composition on aBMD, lumbar spine BMAD and femoral neck CSMI and CSA, which are surrogate measures of bone strength. Among exercising women aged 18-30 years, body composition, aBMD, and estimates of femoral neck CSMI and CSA were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Lumbar spine BMAD was calculated from bone mineral content and area. Estrone-1-glucuronide (E1G) and pregnanediol glucuronide were measured in daily urine samples collected for one cycle or monitoring period. Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of leptin and total triiodothyronine. Ov (n = 37) and Amen (n = 45) women aged 22.3 ± 0.5 years did not differ in body mass, body mass index, and lean mass; however, Ov women had significantly higher percent body fat than Amen women. Lumbar spine aBMD and BMAD were significantly lower in Amen women compared to Ov women (p < 0.001); however, femoral neck CSA and CSMI were not different between groups. E1G cycle mean and age of menarche were the strongest predictors of lumbar spine aBMD and BMAD, together explaining 25.5% and 22.7% of the variance, respectively. Lean mass was the strongest predictor of total hip and femoral neck aBMD as well as femoral neck CSMI and CSA, explaining 8.5-34.8% of the variance. Upon consideration of several potential osteogenic stimuli, reproductive function appears to play

  18. The Relative Contribution of Dietary Habits, Leisure-Time Exercise, Exercise Attitude, and Body Mass Index to Self-Rated Health among College Students in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Huey-Hong; Chang, Chia-Ming; Liu, Li-Wei; Huang, Hsiu-Chin

    2018-01-01

    Background: Self-rated health (SRH) is consistent with objective health status and can serve as a global measure of health status in the general population. The purpose of this study is to find the connections of dietary habits, leisure-time exercise, exercise attitude, and body mass index (BMI) to SRH among college students. Methods: The “dietary–exercise attitude and SRH” questionnaire was developed to investigate college students in Taiwan through the Internet. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to test the relationship among them. Results: The reliability and validity were confirmed using PLS-SEM. The results found exercise habits, dietary habits, and BMI explained 26.5% of SRH. Poor dietary habits and being overweight led to bad health status (negative path coefficients to SRH). Additionally, the study found that positive exercise attitude had a positive relationship with exercise habits. Conclusions: Based on the results, college students should be well-informed of the potential threat of poor dietary habits and being overweight to health and should improve their attitude with respect to exercise so as to prevent overweight-related diseases. PMID:29751682

  19. The Relative Contribution of Dietary Habits, Leisure-Time Exercise, Exercise Attitude, and Body Mass Index to Self-Rated Health among College Students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Huey-Hong; Chang, Chia-Ming; Liu, Li-Wei; Huang, Hsiu-Chin

    2018-05-11

    Background : Self-rated health (SRH) is consistent with objective health status and can serve as a global measure of health status in the general population. The purpose of this study is to find the connections of dietary habits, leisure-time exercise, exercise attitude, and body mass index (BMI) to SRH among college students. Methods : The "dietary⁻exercise attitude and SRH" questionnaire was developed to investigate college students in Taiwan through the Internet. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to test the relationship among them. Results : The reliability and validity were confirmed using PLS-SEM. The results found exercise habits, dietary habits, and BMI explained 26.5% of SRH. Poor dietary habits and being overweight led to bad health status (negative path coefficients to SRH). Additionally, the study found that positive exercise attitude had a positive relationship with exercise habits. Conclusions : Based on the results, college students should be well-informed of the potential threat of poor dietary habits and being overweight to health and should improve their attitude with respect to exercise so as to prevent overweight-related diseases.

  20. The Relative Contribution of Dietary Habits, Leisure-Time Exercise, Exercise Attitude, and Body Mass Index to Self-Rated Health among College Students in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Hong Hsieh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-rated health (SRH is consistent with objective health status and can serve as a global measure of health status in the general population. The purpose of this study is to find the connections of dietary habits, leisure-time exercise, exercise attitude, and body mass index (BMI to SRH among college students. Methods: The “dietary–exercise attitude and SRH” questionnaire was developed to investigate college students in Taiwan through the Internet. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM was used to test the relationship among them. Results: The reliability and validity were confirmed using PLS-SEM. The results found exercise habits, dietary habits, and BMI explained 26.5% of SRH. Poor dietary habits and being overweight led to bad health status (negative path coefficients to SRH. Additionally, the study found that positive exercise attitude had a positive relationship with exercise habits. Conclusions: Based on the results, college students should be well-informed of the potential threat of poor dietary habits and being overweight to health and should improve their attitude with respect to exercise so as to prevent overweight-related diseases.

  1. Strength, body composition, and functional outcomes in the squat versus leg press exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Fabrício E; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ocetnik, Skyler; Young, Jonathan; Vigotsky, Andrew; Contreras, Bret; Krieger, James W; Miller, Michael G; Cholewa, Jason

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare strength, body composition, and functional outcome measures following performance of the back squat, leg press, or a combination of the two exercises. Subjects were pair-matched based on initial strength levels and then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a squat-only group (SQ) that solely performed squats for the lower body; a leg press-only group (LP) that solely performed leg presses for the lower body, or a combined squat and leg press group (SQ-LP) that performed both squats and leg presses for the lower body. All other RT variables were held constant. The study period lasted 10 weeks with subjects performing 2 lower body workouts per week comprising 6 sets per session at loads corresponding to 8-12 RM with 90- to 120-second rest intervals. Results showed that SQ had greater transfer to maximal squat strength compared to the leg press. Effect sizes favored SQ and SQ-LP versus LP with respect to countermovement jump while greater effect sizes for dynamic balance were noted for SQ-LP and LP compared to SQ, although no statistical differences were noted between conditions. These findings suggest that both free weights and machines can improve functional outcomes, and that the extent of transfer may be specific to the given task.

  2. Long-term calorie restriction, but not endurance exercise, lowers core body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, Andreea; Cangemi, Roberto; Omodei, Daniela; Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of body temperature has been proposed to contribute to the increased lifespan in calorie restricted animals and mice overexpressing the uncoupling protein-2 in hypocretin neurons. However, nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of calorie restriction (CR) with adequate nutrition on body temperature in humans. In this study, 24-hour core body temperature was measured every minute by using ingested telemetric capsules in 24 men and women (mean age 53.7±9.4 yrs) consuming a CR diet for an average of 6 years, 24 age- and sex-matched sedentary (WD) and 24 body fat-matched exercise-trained (EX) volunteers, who were eating Western diets. The CR and EX groups were significantly leaner than the WD group. Energy intake was lower in the CR group (1769±348 kcal/d) than in the WD (2302±668 kcal/d) and EX (2798±760 kcal/d) groups (Ptemperatures were all significantly lower in the CR group than in the WD and EX groups (P≤0.01). Long-term CR with adequate nutrition in lean and weight-stable healthy humans is associated with a sustained reduction in core body temperature, similar to that found in CR rodents and monkeys. This adaptation is likely due to CR itself, rather than to leanness, and may be involved in slowing the rate of aging. PMID:21483032

  3. Body armour: the effect of load, exercise and distraction on landing forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paddy C; Handcock, Phil J; Rehrer, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of added load and intense exercise on jump and landing performance and ground reaction force (GRF) during landings where attentional demand was varied. Fifty-two males (37 ± 9.2 years, 180.7 ± 6.1 cm, 90.2 ± 11.6 kg, maximal aerobic fitness (VO(₂max)) 50 ± 8.5 ml (.) kg(-1 .) min(-1), BMI 27.6 ± 3.1, mean ± s) completed a VO(₂max) test. Experimental sessions were completed (≥4 days in between) in a randomised counterbalanced order, one while wearing body armour and appointments (loaded) and one without load (unloaded). A vertical jump, a drop landing concentrating on safe touchdown, a drop jump and a drop landing with an attentional distraction were performed. These were repeated 1 min after a 5-min treadmill run. Mean jump height decreased by 12% (P < 0.001) with loading and a further by 6% following the running task. Peak GRFs were increased by 13-19% with loading (P < 0.001) depending on the landing task demands and a further by 4-9% following intense exercise. The distracted drop landing had significantly higher GRFs compared to all other landings. Results demonstrate that added load impacts on jumping and landing performance, an effect that is amplified by prior intense exercise, and distraction during landing. Such increases in GRF apply to police officer performance in their duties and may increase the risk of injury.

  4. The Comparison of Traditional Exercises & Body Weight Supported Training (BWST Exercises on Sensory-Motor Function, Quality and Quantity of Walking in Paraplegic Spinal Cord Injured Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Raeisi-dehkordi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was the comparison of traditional exercises & body weight supported training (BWST exercises on sensory-motor function, quality and quantity of walking in paraplegic spinal cord injured persons. Materials & Methods: 17 voluntary paraplegic spinal cord injured persons (Asia B,C, age 32.53±1.793 years, height 175.71±1.658 cm, weight 71.59±2.442 kg, and body mass index (BMI 23.18 ± 0.828 kg/m2 availability. The subjects were randomly assigned to BWSTT group (N=10 and Traditional exercises group (N=7 according to sensory and motor score. The subjects trained for 12 weeks, four times per week and 60 min per session. BWSTT include 15 min warm-up on fixed gear bike, 45 min BWSTT with 50% body weight and 10 min cold-down finally. 10% load was added each week. Traditional exercises included 15 min warm-up plus 45 min stretch exercise and resistance training. Results: The data showed that there were significant differences in changes of sensory function Pin score (P=0.002 and Light Score (P=0.002 sensory function, motor function (P=0.000, Walking index Spinal cord injury (WISCI (P=0.002, 6 min walking test (P=0.001 and 10 meter walking (P=0.001 between BWSTT and traditional exercise. Conclusion: BWSTT in comparison with traditional exercise can improve sensory-motor function and quality and quantity of walking in paraplegic spinal cord injured persons.

  5. Body weight, exercise and menstrual status among ballet dancers in training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S F; Beumont, P J; Fraser, I S; Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1982-07-01

    A prospective study of the menstrual pattern and weight changes was made in the first year of training of 29 new female entrants to a professional ballet school. Seventy-nine per cent of the student girls had menstrual disturbances at entry: primary amenorrhoea, four; secondary amenorrhoea, 11; irregular menses, eight. The incidence of secondary amenorrhoea increase substantially by the end of the year (20), but was not associated with any significant change in body weight. Only three students menstruated regularly during the year. Menstrual regularity improved during periods of injury and long vacation and it appears that deterioration of the menstrual pattern during dancing periods was related to strenuous physical exercise rather than to any change in body weight.

  6. Effects of Four-Month Exercise Program on Correction of Body Posture of Persons with Different Visual Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damira Vranesic-Hadzimehmedovic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a four-month specific exercise program on correcting the posture of persons with different visual impairment. The sample consisted of 20 elementary students with visual impairment diagnosis, 11 boys and 9 girls aged 9-14 (12±0.6. The classification of the examinees was performed according to the established degree of visual impairment, 10 blind persons and 10 partially sighted persons. The pupils voluntarily participated in the exercise program. The exercise program was structured of two phases: exercise on dryland and exercise in water. A total of 36 exercise units were completed during four months period. Seven tests were used to evaluate the body posture, based on the determination of segmental dimensions and the visual projection of the marked points. The contents of the program were performed with the aim of preventing and correcting the observed irregularities of the body posture. The t-test scores indicated statistically significant differences between two measurements (p<0.05, p<0.01. It can be concluded that elementary movements, performed through dryland and especially water exercises, had a good effect on correcting the body's posture of blind and partially sighted persons.

  7. Diet and insulinlike growth factor I in relation to body composition in women with exercise-induced hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, D M; Hill, J M

    1990-06-01

    To assess the potential influence of diet and endogenous peptide anabolic hormone secretion on exercise-related differences in body composition, we compared levels of macronutrient intake, insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I), and fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) in matched groups of exercising women with and without secondary hypothalamic amenorrhea. Women were tightly matched according to somatotype and grouped into those with exercise amenorrhea (EXam, n = 6), exercise eumennorhea (EXeu, n = 5), and sedentary eumennorheic controls (SED, n = 5). Although no between-group difference was observed in FFM, the EXeu subjects had a significantly lower fat fraction and a significantly elevated FFM/FM ratio. Kilocaloric and protein intakes did not differ between groups, but dietary fat intake was lowest and carbohydrate intake highest in the EXam subjects. Dietary macronutrients were not correlated with the FFM/FM ratio. However, levels of insulinlike growth factor I were significantly correlated to the FFM/FM ratio and there was a clear trend for the hormone to be highest in the EXeu subjects. We conclude that differences in body composition between exercising women with and without exercise-induced hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction were related to an alteration in IGF-I secretion, although differences in macronutrient intake might also be a factor. Further studies are warranted to elaborate upon the dietary and hormonal factors regulating the body composition response to exercise.

  8. Acute and Chronic Whole-Body Vibration Exercise does not Induce Health-Promoting Effects on The Blood Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodorou Anastasios A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Whole-body vibration (WBV exercise is an alternative, popular and easy exercise that can be followed by general public. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of acute and chronic WBV exercise on health-related parameters. Twenty-eight women were allocated into a control group (n=11, mean ±SEM: age, 43.5 ±1.5 yr; body mass, 66.1 ±3.1 kg; height, 160.6 ±1.5 cm and a vibration group (n=17, mean ±SEM: age, 44.0 ±1.0 yr; body mass, 67.1 ±2.2 kg; height, 162.5 ±1.5 cm. After baseline assessments, participants of the experimental group performed WBV training 3 times/week for 8 weeks. Before and after the chronic WBV exercise, the participants of the vibration group performed one session of acute WBV exercise. Blood chemistry measurements (hematology, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, total antioxidant capacity, uric acid, albumin and bilirubin were assessed pre-exercise and post-exercise at the first and eighth week of WBV exercise in both control and vibration groups. The results failed to support any effect of both acute and chronic WBV exercise on biochemical health-related parameters. However, it seems that WBV exercise is a safe way of training without a negative impact on muscle and liver functionality.

  9. [Overweight and obesity in young adults: relevance of job-related changes of exercise on fat, lean body and body mass in students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Kohl, Matthias; Bebenek, Michael; von Stengel, Simon

    2015-03-01

    Early adulthood is related to changes in lifestyle that negatively affect body weight and health. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of exercise changes on the development of weight and body composition in college students.Sixty-one randomly selected dental (ZMS) and 53 sport students (SLS) were accompanied over 5 years. Body mass, fat and lean body mass (LBM) were determined via DXA-technique. Exercise and physical activity were assessed by questionnaires and interviews.All exercise indices significantly increased in the SLS and significantly decreased in the ZMS. Physical activity slightly increased in both groups. Both cohorts comparably gained body mass, however, the increase in the SLS group can be attributed to LBM-changes with minor changes of fat-mass (2.4 % ± 3.3 % vs. 0.1 ± 1.0 %) whereas ZMS gained fat and LBM in a proportion of 2:1.Maintenance/increase of exercise compensate the negative effects of lifestyle changes on body composition during young adulthood.

  10. The effect of anthocyanin supplementation on body composition, exercise performance and muscle damage indices in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoome Yarahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flavonoids consider as a large group of plant metabolites that 6,000 types of them have been identified till now. In some studies, it has been shown that they can increase aerobic performance and maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anthocyanin (as one of the most important kind of flavonoids supplementation on body composition, exercise performance and muscle damage indices in athletes. Methods: This double-blinded clinical trial involved 54 female and male athletes at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences with athletic history of at least 3 years. Body composition, exercise performance, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase were assessed. Individuals were selected by simple sampling method, they divided into two groups using permuted block randomization method. First group received 100 mg anthocyanin pills, and the second group received 100 mg placebo pills, daily for 6 weeks. Participants asked to continue their routine diet and physical activity during the study period, and they were followed through phone calls or text messages. Results: Soft lean mass, total body water and percent body fat were not changed significantly in the anthocyanin group after intervention but VO 2 max increased significantly in the anthocyanin group (48.65 ± 4.73 vs. 52.62 ± 5.04 (P ≤ 0.0001, also a significant difference was observed between two studied groups (52.62 ± 5.04 for intervention group vs. 49.61 ± 5.33 for placebo (P = 0.003. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that the supplementation with anthocyanin in athletes may improve some indices of performance such as VO 2 max.

  11. Coronary microvascular function, insulin sensitivity and body composition in predicting exercise capacity in overweight patients with coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürs, Anders; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Olsen, Rasmus Huan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) has a negative impact on exercise capacity. The aim of this study was to determine how coronary microvascular function, glucose metabolism and body composition contribute to exercise capacity in overweight patients with CAD and without diabetes. METHODS...... by a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Body composition was determined by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and magnetic resonance imaging. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessed by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was used as a measure of microvascular function. RESULTS: Median BMI was 31.3 and 72...... metabolism and body composition. CFR, EDV and LVEF remained independent predictors of VO2peak in multivariable regression analysis. CONCLUSION: The study established CFR, EDV and LVEF as independent predictors of VO2peak in overweight CAD patients with no or only mild functional symptoms and a LVEF > 35...

  12. Dietary intakes and antioxidant status in mind-body exercising pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palasuwan, A; Margaritis, I; Soogarun, S; Rousseau, A-S

    2011-08-01

    The decline in antioxidant defenses due to both estrogen loss and frequent adoption of poor dietary choices exposes postmenopausal women to cardiovascular diseases. Adequate nutrition and physical exercise are two factors of health promotion. This study investigated whether regular practice of mind-body exercise (yoga and/or tai chi) alters dietary intake and antioxidant status and balances the menopause-related increases in lipid peroxidation and cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in an urban community in Bangkok (Thailand) between May and August 2007. Premenopausal (Pre M; 39±8 yrs; n=56) and postmenopausal (Post M; 54±5 yrs; n=39) women who had been practicing yoga (Y) and/or tai chi (TC) more than 3 hours/week for a year, or who had no regular physical activity practice (sedentary, S). All participants completed food frequency questionnaires and 4-day food and activity records. Blood was collected on day 5. Factorial ANOVA tests were performed according to menopause status, exercise, and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) groups. Post M had higher (p = 0.01) dietary fiber intake compared with Pre M. Yoga practitioners had lower BMI (p = 0.004) and lower fat intake (p = 0.02) compared with their S and TC counterparts. Plasma total antioxidant status was significantly and independently lower and higher in Y and Post M groups, respectively. However, no difference was shown after adjusting for BMI. Regardless of menopause status and HRT, the activity of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase - an aerobic training-responsive enzyme - was higher (p healthy lifestyles (balanced diet and moderate intensity exercise) in vulnerable populations, such as menopausal women, in order to prevent aging induced oxidative stress-related diseases.

  13. Smoking and Early COPD as Independent Predictors of Body Composition, Exercise Capacity, and Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caram, Laura Miranda de Oliveira; Ferrari, Renata; Bertani, André Luís; Garcia, Thaís; Mesquita, Carolina Bonfanti; Knaut, Caroline; Tanni, Suzana Erico; Godoy, Irma

    2016-01-01

    The effects of tobacco smoke, mild/moderate COPD disease and their combined effect on health status (HS), body composition (BC), and exercise capacity (EC) impairment are still unclear. We hypothesized that smoking and early COPD have a joint negative influence on these outcomes. We evaluated 32 smokers (smoking history >10 pack/years), 32 mild/moderate COPD (current smokers or former smokers), and 32 never smokers. All individuals underwent medical and smoking status evaluations, pre and post-bronchodilator spirometry, BC [fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM index (FFMI)], EC [six-minute walk distance (6MWD)] and HS [Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36)]. FFM (p = 0.02) and FFMI (p = 0.008) were lower in COPD than never smokers. 6MWT, as a percentage of reference values for the Brazilian population, was lower in COPD and smokers than never smokers (p = 0.01). Smokers showed worse SF-36 score for functional capacity than never smokers (psmoking were inversely associated with FFMI, 6MWD and HS. Smoking and early COPD have a joint negative influence on body composition, exercise capacity and health status.

  14. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. D. West

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey or an energy-matched placebo (CHO immediately post-exercise (0 h, and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery. A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest. Participants ingested [15N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO (P = 0.064; effect size (ES = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO (P = 0.036 but not in CHO (P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO, which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO < CHO; P < 0.01. Exercise decreased repetitions to failure (REP, maximal strength (MVC, peak and mean power, and countermovement jump performance (CMJ at 0 h (all P < 0.05 vs. Pre. At 10 h, there were small-to-moderate effects for enhanced recovery of the MVC (ES = 0.56, mean power (ES = 0.49, and CMJ variables (ES: 0.27–0.49 in PRO. At 24 h, protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76, REP (ES = 0.44, and peak power (ES = 0.55. In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of

  15. The effects of coconut oil supplementation on the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATHÁLIA M. RESENDE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to verify the effects of coconut oil supplementation (COS in the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise. The animals (n=6 per group were randomly assigned to: G1=Sedentary and Non-supplemented (Control Group, G2=Sedentary and Supplemented, G3=Exercised and Non-supplemented and G4=Exercised and Supplemented. The COS protocol used was 3 mL/Kg of body mass by gavage for 28 days. The physical exercise was the vertical jumping training for 28 days. It was determined the body mass parameters, Lee Index, blood glucose and lipid profile. The COS did not interfere with body mass, but the lean body mass was lower in G3 compared to G2. The final Lee Index classified G1 and G2 as obese (>30g/cm. The lipid profile showed total cholesterol was decreased in G3, LDL-c concentration was decreased in G2, triglycerides, VLDL-c and HDL-c concentrations were increased in G2 and G4 in relation to G1 and G3. The COS decreased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In conclusion, the COS associated or not to physical exercise worsen others lipid parameters, like triglycerides and VLDL-c level, showing the care with the use of lipid supplements.

  16. The Effectiveness of Whole Body Cryotherapy Compared to Cold Water Immersion: Implications for Sport and Exercise Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Holmes; Darryn S. Willoughby

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cryotherapy is the process of cooling the body, is typically used therapeutically, and is often used as a method of recovery relative to sport and exercise performance.  The purpose of this review is to compare the current literature on WBC to that of CWI and determine whether WBC provides any additional enhancements for sport and exercise recovery. These include tissue temperature reduction, markers of muscle damage, markers of inflammation, and parasympathetic reactivation. Meth...

  17. Relative Humidity of 40% Inhibiting the Increase of Pulse Rate, Body Temperature, and Blood Lactic Acid During Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengah Sandi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive sweating of the body is a reaction to decrease the heat caused by prolonged exercise at high relative humidity (RH. This situation may cause an increase in pulse rate (PR, body temperature (BT, and blood lactic acid (BLA workout. Objective: This study aimed to prove that a RH of 40% better than a RH of 50% and 60% RH in inhibiting the increase of PR, BT, and BLA during exercise. Methods: The study was conducted on 54 samples randomly selected from the IKIP PGRI Bali students. The samples were divided into three groups, and each group was given cycling exercise with a load of 80 Watt for 2 x 30 minutes with rest between sets for five minutes. Group-1 of cycling at 40% of RH, Group-2 at a RH of 50%, and the Group-3 at a RH of 60%. Data PR, BT, and BLA taken before and during exercise. The mean difference between groups before and during exercise were analyzed by One-way Anova and a further test used Least Significant Difference (LSD. Significance used was α = 0.05. Results: The mean of PR during exercise was significantly different between groups with p = 0.045, the mean of BT during exercises was significantly different between groups with p = 0.006, and the mean of BLA during exercises was significantly different between groups with p = 0.005 (p <0.05. Also found that PR, BT, and BLA during exercise at 40% RH was lower than 50% RH and 60% RH (p <0.05. Conclusion: Thus, the RH of 40% was better than RH of 50% and 60 % in inhibiting the increase of PR, BT, and BLA during exercise. Therefore, when practiced in a closed room is expected at 40% relative humidity.

  18. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decreased bone density with an increased risk of fracture, and shallow, inefficient breathing. An exercise program needs ... and-Soul (Feb. 2013 issue) (.pdf) Download Document Rehabilitation: Recommendations for Persons with MS (.pdf) Download Brochure ...

  19. The effect of programmed exercise on body compositions and heart rate of 11-13 years-old male students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Dashti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different forms of physical activities can play a very important role in improving health and physical fitness. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the programmed exercise on students’ body compositions and heart rate at rest.Materials and Method: Two groups each consisting of 15students, aged averagely 12.6 years were the subjects of this experimental study. The experimental group in each session took part in an exercise program consisting of 20 minutes of aerobic activity (running, 10 minutes of aerobic exercise, 30 minutes of local training and 5 minutes of free exercise. The experiment last for 24 sessions. Control group didn’t do any special practice. In both groups, weight, fat mass, fat percentage, lean body mass and heart rate were measured during rest period before and after the experiment. Results: Results showed that the fat percentage, weight, fat mass and heart rate had decreased after 8 weeks of programmed exercise in the experimental group unlike the control group. However, no significant difference was observed in lean body mass.Conclusion: The exercise program used in this study may help loosing weight and make the heart stronger

  20. Validity of Devices That Assess Body Temperature During Outdoor Exercise in the Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa, Douglas J; Becker, Shannon M; Ganio, Matthew S; Brown, Christopher M; Yeargin, Susan W; Roti, Melissa W; Siegler, Jason; Blowers, Julie A; Glaviano, Neal R; Huggins, Robert A; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2007-01-01

    Context: Rectal temperature is recommended by the National Athletic Trainers' Association as the criterion standard for recognizing exertional heat stroke, but other body sites commonly are used to measure temperature. Few authors have assessed the validity of the thermometers that measure body temperature at these sites in athletic settings. Objective: To assess the validity of commonly used temperature devices at various body sites during outdoor exercise in the heat. Design: Observational field study. Setting: Outdoor athletic facilities. Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen men and 10 women (age = 26.5 ± 5.3 years, height = 174.3 ± 11.1 cm, mass = 72.73 ± 15.95 kg, body fat = 16.2 ± 5.5%). Intervention(s): We simultaneously tested inexpensive and expensive devices orally and in the axillary region, along with measures of aural, gastrointestinal, forehead, temporal, and rectal temperatures. Temporal temperature was measured according to the instruction manual and a modified method observed in medical tents at local road races. We also measured forehead temperatures directly on the athletic field (other measures occurred in a covered pavilion) where solar radiation was greater. Rectal temperature was the criterion standard used to assess the validity of all other devices. Subjects' temperatures were measured before exercise, every 60 minutes during 180 minutes of exercise, and every 20 minutes for 60 minutes of postexercise recovery. Temperature devices were considered invalid if the mean bias (average difference between rectal temperature and device temperature) was greater than ±0.27°C (±0.5°F). Main Outcome Measure(s): Temperature from each device at each site and time point. Results: Mean bias for the following temperatures was greater than the allowed limit of ±0.27°C (±0.5°F): temperature obtained via expensive oral device (−1.20°C [−2.17°F]), inexpensive oral device (−1.67°C [−3.00°F]), expensive axillary device (−2.58°C [−4

  1. Whole-body pre-cooling does not alter human muscle metabolism during sub-maximal exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, J; Wilsmore, B R; Macdonald, A D; Zeyl, A; Mcghee, S; Calvert, D; Marino, F E; Storlien, L H; Taylor, N A

    2001-06-01

    Muscle metabolism was investigated in seven men during two 35 min cycling trials at 60% peak oxygen uptake, at 35 degrees C and 50% relative humidity. On one occasion, exercise was preceded by whole-body cooling achieved by immersion in water during a reduction in temperature from 29 to 24 degrees C, and, for the other trial, by immersion in water at a thermoneutral temperature (control, 34.8 degrees C). Pre-cooling did not alter oxygen uptake during exercise (P > 0.05), whilst the change in cardiac frequency and body mass both tended to be lower following pre-cooling (0.05 whole-body pre-cooling does not alter muscle metabolism during submaximal exercise in the heat. It is more likely that thermoregulatory and cardiovascular strain are reduced, through lower muscle and core temperatures.

  2. Association of Trans-theoretical Model (TTM based Exercise Behavior Change with Body Image Evaluation among Female Iranian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Rostami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBody image is a determinant of individual attractiveness and physical activity among the young people. This study was aimed to assess the association of Trans-theoretical model based exercise behavior change with body image evaluation among the female Iranian students.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted in Sanandaj city, Iran in 2016. Using multistage sampling method, a total of 816 high school female students were included in the study. They completed a three-section questionnaire, including demographic information, Trans-theoretical model constructs and body image evaluation. The obtained data were fed into SPSS version 21.0.  ResultsThe results showed more than 60% of participants were in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages of exercise behavior. The means of perceived self-efficacy, barriers and benefits were found to have a statistically significant difference during the stages of exercise behavior change (P

  3. Keto-adaptation enhances exercise performance and body composition responses to training in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Fionn T; Wardrop, Bruce; Hyde, Parker N; Lafountain, Richard A; Volek, Jeff S; Doyle, Lorna

    2018-04-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets have recently grown in popularity among endurance athletes, yet little is known about the long-term (>4wk) performance implications of consuming a low-carbohydrate high fat ketogenic diet (LCKD) in well-trained athletes. Twenty male endurance-trained athletes (age 33±11y, body mass 80±11kg; BMI 24.7±3.1kg/m 2 ) who habitually consumed a carbohydrate-based diet, self-selected into a high-carbohydrate (HC) group (n=11, %carbohydrate:protein:fat=65:14:20), or a LCKD group (n=9, 6:17:77). Both groups performed the same training intervention (endurance, strength and high intensity interval training (HIIT)). Prior to and following successful completion of 12-weeks of diet and training, participants had their body composition assessed, and completed a 100km time trial (TT), six second (SS) sprint, and a critical power test (CPT). During post-intervention testing the HC group consumed 30-60g/h carbohydrate, whereas the LCKD group consumed water, and electrolytes. The LCKD group experienced a significantly greater decrease in body mass (HC -0.8kg, LCKD -5.9kg; P=0.006, effect size (ES): 0.338) and percentage body fat percentage (HC -0.7%, LCKD -5.2%; P=0.008, ES: 0.346). Fasting serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) significantly increased from 0.1 at baseline to 0.5mmol/L in the LCKD group (P=0.011, ES: 0.403) in week 12. There was no significant change in performance of the 100km TT between groups (HC -1.13min·s, LCKD -4.07min·s, P=0.057, ES: 0.196). SS sprint peak power increased by 0.8 watts per kilogram bodyweight (w/kg) in the LCKD group, versus a -0.1w/kg reduction in the HC group (P=0.025, ES: 0.263). CPT peak power decreased by -0.7w/kg in the HC group, and increased by 1.4w/kg in the LCKD group (P=0.047, ES: 0.212). Fat oxidation in the LCKD group was significantly greater throughout the 100km TT. Compared to a HC comparison group, a 12-week period of keto-adaptation and exercise training, enhanced body composition, fat oxidation during

  4. Whole-body fat oxidation determined by graded exercise and indirect calorimetry: a role for muscle oxidative capacity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, P; Saltin, B; Helge, J W

    2006-01-01

    During whole-body exercise, peak fat oxidation occurs at a moderate intensity. This study investigated whole-body peak fat oxidation in untrained and trained subjects, and the presence of a relation between skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity and whole-body peak fat oxidation. Healthy male...... subjects were recruited and categorized into an untrained (N=8, VO(2max) 3.5+/-0.1 L/min) and a trained (N=8, VO(2max) 4.6+/-0.2 L/min) group. Subjects performed a graded exercise test commencing at 60 W for 8 min followed by 35 W increments every 3 min. On a separate day, muscle biopsies were obtained...... oxidation was determined. The body composition was determined by DEXA. Whole-body peak fat oxidation (250+/-25 and 462+/-33 mg/min) was higher (Ptrained compared with untrained subjects, respectively. Muscle...

  5. A Scott bench with ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad improves body posture during preacher arm curl exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Andrea; Benvenuti, Paolo; Busti, Daniele; Zanuso, Silvano

    2016-05-01

    We assessed whether the use of an ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad, during the preacher arm curl exercise, could significantly reduce the excessive shoulder protraction and thoracic kyphosis induced by the standard flat pad built into the existing preacher arm curl equipment. A 3D motion capture system and inclinometers were used to measure shoulder protraction and thoracic kyphosis in 15 subjects performing preacher arm curl with a plate-loaded machine provided with the standard flat pad. The same measures were repeated after replacing the flat pad with a new ergonomic pad, specifically designed to accommodate the thorax profile and improve body posture. Pad replacement significantly (p ergonomic pad may potentially allow a more effective training, prevent musculoskeletal discomfort and reduce the risk of injury. Practitioner summary: We have designed an ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad for the preacher arm curl exercise. The new ergonomic pad improves the poor posture conditions induced by the standard flat pad and may potentially allow a more effective training, prevent musculoskeletal discomfort, improve the breathing function and reduce the risk of injury.

  6. Insulin resistance, exercise capacity and body composition in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Dige-Petersen, H; Ibsen, H

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study insulin resistance in subjects with strong genetic predisposition to essential hypertension, compared with non-disposed subjects. SUBJECTS: Thirty normotensive subjects aged 18-35 years whose parents both had essential hypertension, and 30 age- and sex matched subjects whose...... correlated to abdominal fat mass but not to insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Subjects with a strong genetic predisposition to essential hypertension had increased diastolic blood pressure compared with subjects with normotensive parents, but they were not insulin resistant. This may be due to the subjects...... for the difference between the means; -0.5; -7.9), but the insulin sensitivity index was similar: 312 versus 362 I(2) min(-1) pmol(-1) kg(-1) (28; -129). The two groups were similar in terms of body composition, exercise capacity and composition of usual diet. Resting and 24-h diastolic blood pressures were...

  7. Effect of whole-body vibration exercise in preventing falls and fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Ditte Beck; Thomsen, Katja; Hansen, Stinus

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of whole-body vibration exercise (WBV) on fracture risk in adults ≥50 years of age. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis calculating relative risk ratios, fall rate ratio and absolute weighted mean difference using random effects models. Heterogeneity...... of retrieved publications. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Randomised controlled trials examining the effect of WBV on fracture risk in adults ≥50 years of age. The primary outcomes were fractures, fall rates and the proportion of participants who fell. Secondary outcomes were bone mineral density......2=24%) (low quality of evidence). Finally, moderate to low quality of evidence showed no overall effect on BMD and only sparse data were available regarding microarchitecture parameters, bone turnover markers and BUA. CONCLUSIONS: WBV reduces fall rate but seems to have no overall effect on BMD...

  8. Comparing a Yoga Class with a Resistance Exercise Class: Effects on Body Satisfaction and Social Physique Anxiety in University Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, Kimberley L; Drouin, Breanne; Lamarche, Larkin

    2016-11-01

    The current study compared a single yoga group exercise class and a resistance group exercise class for their effects on state body satisfaction and social physique anxiety in women. A pretest-posttest design was used. Participants (N = 46) completed both a resistance exercise class and yoga class in a counterbalanced order. Measures of body satisfaction and social physique anxiety were completed immediately before and after each class. A 2 (time) × 2 (class type) repeatedmeasures multiple analysis of variance showed a significant overall Time × Class Type interaction (F 2,44 = 5.69, P class. After both classes, there was a significant decrease in social physique anxiety, but the magnitude of the change was larger after the yoga class than after the resistance class. Both types of exercise class were associated with improvements in body image, but there were greater improvements after the yoga class. This study provided evidence of the positive effects of yoga for reducing state social physique anxiety and increasing state body satisfaction, adding to correlational evidence suggesting that yoga is particularly beneficial for improving body image-related outcomes in women.

  9. Impact of body position on central and peripheral hemodynamic contributions to movement-induced hyperemia: implications for rehabilitative medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Trinity, Joel D.; McDaniel, John; Venturelli, Massimo; Fjeldstad, Anette S.; Ives, Stephen J.; Witman, Melissa A. H.; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Amann, Markus; Wray, D. Walter; Richardson, Russell S.

    2011-01-01

    This study used alterations in body position to identify differences in hemodynamic responses to passive exercise. Central and peripheral hemodynamics were noninvasively measured during 2 min of passive knee extension in 14 subjects, whereas perfusion pressure (PP) was directly measured in a subset of 6 subjects. Movement-induced increases in leg blood flow (LBF) and leg vascular conductance (LVC) were more than twofold greater in the upright compared with supine positions (LBF, supine: 462 ±...

  10. Implementation of Upright Digital Breast Tomosynthesis-guided Stereotactic Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omofoye, Toma S; Martaindale, Sarah; Teichgraeber, Davis C; Parikh, Jay R

    2017-11-01

    With growing adoption of digital breast tomosynthesis, an increasing number of imaging abnormalities are being identified only by tomosynthesis. Upright digital breast tomosynthesis-guided stereotactic biopsy is a proven method for sampling these abnormalities as well as abnormalities traditionally evaluated using conventional stereotactic biopsy. In this article, we describe the technique of upright digital breast tomosynthesis-guided stereotactic biopsy and outline a systematic operational approach to implementation of this technique in clinical radiology practices. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Does body fat percentage predict post-exercise heart rate response in non-obese children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezdimirovic, Tatjana; Stajer, Valdemar; Semeredi, Sasa; Calleja-Gonzalez, Julio; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2017-05-24

    A correlation between adiposity and post-exercise autonomic regulation has been established in overweight and obese children. However, little information exists about this link in non-obese youth. The main purpose of this cross-sectional study was to describe the relationship between body fat percentage (BFP) and heart rate recovery after exercise [post-exercise heart rate (PEHR)], a marker of autonomic regulation, in normal-weight children and adolescents. We evaluated the body composition of 183 children and adolescents (age 15.0±2.3 years; 132 boys and 51 girls) who performed a maximal graded exercise test on a treadmill, with the heart rate monitored during and immediately after exercise. A strong positive trend was observed in the association between BFP and PEHR (r=0.14; p=0.06). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that our model explained 18.3% of the variance in PEHR (p=0.00), yet BFP accounted for only 0.9% of the variability in PEHR (p=0.16). The evaluation of the contribution of each independent variable revealed that only two variables made a unique statistically significant contribution to our model (pfatness seems to poorly predict PEHR in our sample of non-obese children and adolescents, while non-modifiable variables (age and gender) were demonstrated as strong predictors of heart rate recovery. The low amount of body fat reported in non-obese young participants was perhaps too small to cause disturbances in autonomic nervous system regulation.

  12. Whole-Body Vibration Mimics the Metabolic Effects of Exercise in Male Leptin Receptor-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wenger, Karl H; Misra, Sudipta; Davis, Catherine L; Pollock, Norman K; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Ding, Kehong; Isales, Carlos M; Hamrick, Mark W; Wosiski-Kuhn, Marlena; Arounleut, Phonepasong; Mattson, Mark P; Cutler, Roy G; Yu, Jack C; Stranahan, Alexis M

    2017-05-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has gained attention as a potential exercise mimetic, but direct comparisons with the metabolic effects of exercise are scarce. To determine whether WBV recapitulates the metabolic and osteogenic effects of physical activity, we exposed male wild-type (WT) and leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice to daily treadmill exercise (TE) or WBV for 3 months. Body weights were analyzed and compared with WT and db/db mice that remained sedentary. Glucose and insulin tolerance testing revealed comparable attenuation of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in db/db mice following TE or WBV. Both interventions reduced body weight in db/db mice and normalized muscle fiber diameter. TE or WBV also attenuated adipocyte hypertrophy in visceral adipose tissue and reduced hepatic lipid content in db/db mice. Although the effects of leptin receptor deficiency on cortical bone structure were not eliminated by either intervention, exercise and WBV increased circulating levels of osteocalcin in db/db mice. In the context of increased serum osteocalcin, the modest effects of TE and WBV on bone geometry, mineralization, and biomechanics may reflect subtle increases in osteoblast activity in multiple areas of the skeleton. Taken together, these observations indicate that WBV recapitulates the effects of exercise on metabolism in type 2 diabetes.

  13. Body Composition, Lipid Profile, Adipokine Concentration, and Antioxidant Capacity Changes during Interventions to Treat Overweight with Exercise Programme and Whole-Body Cryostimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lubkowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of six-month-long physical exercise programme with a two-time exposure to whole-body cryostimulation (WBC in 20 sessions on antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid profile, and body composition changes in obese people (30 adult subjects; BMI = 30.39 ± 4.31 kg/m2. Blood samples were taken before the programme, one month following the exercise programme, before and after the first WBC treatment, six months following the exercise programme, after the second WBC treatment, and finally one month after the intervention. Six months of moderate aerobic activity combined with WBC did not change body mass or fat and lean body mass percentages, or circulating adiponectin, leptin, and resistin concentrations. In response to intervention a significant decrease in the level of low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides was observed, with a slight increase in high-density lipoprotein concentration. The nature of changes in the activity of respective antioxidant enzymes was not identical. After one month of increased physical activity, a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities was observed (13%, 8%, and 70%, resp.. The SOD activity increased significantly after successive whole-body cryostimulation sessions. As regards catalase, a significant progressive decrease in its activity was observed.

  14. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  15. Dose-response effects of aerobic exercise on body composition among colon cancer survivors: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C; Zemel, Babette S; Troxel, Andrea B; Rickels, Michael R; Damjanov, Nevena; Ky, Bonnie; Rhim, Andrew D; Rustgi, Anil K; Courneya, Kerry S; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-11-21

    Physical activity is associated with a lower risk of disease recurrence among colon cancer survivors. Excess visceral adipose tissue is associated with a higher risk of disease recurrence among colon cancer survivors. The pathways through which physical activity may alter disease outcomes are unknown, but may be mediated by changes in visceral adipose tissue. Thirty-nine stage I-III colon cancer survivors were randomised to one of three groups: usual-care control, 150 min wk -1 of aerobic exercise (low dose) and 300 min wk -1 of aerobic exercise (high dose) for 6 months. The prespecified key body composition outcome was visceral adipose tissue quantified using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Exercise reduced visceral adipose tissue in dose-response fashion (P trend =0.008). Compared with the control group, the low- and high-dose exercise groups lost 9.5 cm 2 (95% CI: -22.4, 3.5) and 13.6 cm 2 (95% CI: -27.0, -0.1) in visceral adipose tissue, respectively. Each 60 min wk -1 increase in exercise predicted a 2.7 cm 2 (95% CI: -5.4, -0.1) reduction in visceral adipose tissue. Aerobic exercise reduces visceral adipose tissue in dose-response fashion among patients with stage I-III colon cancer. Visceral adipose tissue may be a mechanism through which exercise reduces the risk of disease recurrence among colon cancer survivors.

  16. Acute Effect of Lower-Body Vibration as a Recovery Method After Fatiguing Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Nepocatych

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare three recovery methods: control (CON, lower-body vibration (LBV and LBV+ local muscle cooling (LBVC on lower-body performance, perceived recovery, and muscle soreness. Physically active male volunteers (n=8 in a repeated-measures, counterbalanced design, completed three sets of squats to fatigue, each recovery treatment, and two Wingate Anaerobic Tests. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE, and heart rate (HR were measured after fatiguing exercise, recovery treatment and Wingate Anaerobic tests. Peak and mean power, fatigue index, Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS, and comfort levels were compared between each treatment. In Wingate 1, no significant differences (p=0.42 were found among CON, LBV, or LBVC regarding peak power (1119±239, 1097±225, and 1146±260 W, respectively, mean power (p=0.32, or fatigue index (p=0.47. In Wingate 2, no significant (p=0.17 differences were found among CON, LBV, or LBVC regarding peak power (1042±228, 1078±233, and 1110±268 W, respectively, mean power (p=0.38, or fatigue index (p=0.15. A significantly better (p=0.01 perceived recovery was observed after LBV (6±1 and LBVC (6±1 compared to CON (4±1. The study findings support psychological but not performance enhancing benefits after the use of LBV and LBVC as recovery methods.

  17. Whole body hyperthermia, but not skin hyperthermia, accelerates brain and locomotor limb circulatory strain and impairs exercise capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Kalsi, Kameljit K

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular strain and hyperthermia are thought to be important factors limiting exercise capacity in heat-stressed humans, however, the contribution of elevations in skin (Tsk) versus whole body temperatures on exercise capacity has not been characterized. To ascertain their relationships...... was associated with a plateau in MCA and two-legged vascular conductance (VC). Mechanistically, the falling MCA VC was coupled to reductions in PaCO2, whereas the plateau in leg vascular conductance was related to markedly elevated plasma [NA] and a plateau in plasma ATP These findings reveal that whole-body...... hyperthermia, but not skin hyperthermia, compromises exercise capacity in heat-stressed humans through the early attenuation of brain and active muscle blood flow....

  18. Exercise Training in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Comparison of Recumbent Stepping and Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilutti, Lara A; Paulseth, John E; Dove, Carin; Jiang, Shucui; Rathbone, Michel P; Hicks, Audrey L

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence of the benefits of exercise training in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, few studies have been conducted in individuals with progressive MS and severe mobility impairment. A potential exercise rehabilitation approach is total-body recumbent stepper training (TBRST). We evaluated the safety and participant-reported experience of TBRST in people with progressive MS and compared the efficacy of TBRST with that of body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) on outcomes of function, fatigue, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods: Twelve participants with progressive MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale scores, 6.0-8.0) were randomized to receive TBRST or BWSTT. Participants completed three weekly sessions (30 minutes) of exercise training for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes included safety assessed as adverse events and patient-reported exercise experience assessed as postexercise response and evaluation of exercise equipment. Secondary outcomes included the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite, the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, and the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire scores. Assessments were conducted at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results: Safety was confirmed in both exercise groups. Participants reported enjoying both exercise modalities; however, TBRST was reviewed more favorably. Both interventions reduced fatigue and improved HRQOL (P ≤ .05); there were no changes in function. Conclusions: Both TBRST and BWSTT seem to be safe, well tolerated, and enjoyable for participants with progressive MS with severe disability. Both interventions may also be efficacious for reducing fatigue and improving HRQOL. TBRST should be further explored as an exercise rehabilitation tool for patients with progressive MS.

  19. Effectiveness of exercise and protein supplementation intervention on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Suzana Shahar,1 Norshafarina Shari Kamaruddin,2 Manal Badrasawi,1 Noor Ibrahim Mohamed Sakian,3 Zahara Abd Manaf,1 Zaitun Yassin,4 Leonard Joseph51Dietetic Programme, 2Biomedical Programme, 3Occupational Therapy Programme, School of Healthcare Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, 4Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, 5Department of Physiotherapy, School of Healthcare Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: Sarcopenia, characterized as muscle loss that occurs with aging, is a major health problem in an aging population, due to its implications on mobility, quality of life, and fall risk. Protein supplementation could improve the physical fitness by increasing protein anabolism, and exercise has a documented evidence of positive effect on functional status among the elderly. However, the combined effect of both protein supplementation and exercise has not been investigated among sarcopenic elderly in the Asian population. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercise intervention and protein supplementation either alone or in combination for 12 weeks, on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia. Sixty five sarcopenic elderly Malays aged 60-74 years were assigned to the control group, exercise group (ExG, protein supplementation group (PrG, or the combination of exercise and protein supplementation group. A significant interaction effect between body weight and body mass index (BMI was observed, with the PrG (-2.1% body weight, -1.8% BMI showing the highest reductions. Further, there was a decrease in % body fat (-4.5% and an increase in fat-free mass (kg (+5.7% in the ExG after 12 weeks (P < 0.05. The highest increments in lower and upper body strength were observed in the Pr

  20. Acute citrulline malate supplementation improves upper- and lower-body submaximal weightlifting exercise performance in resistance-trained females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jordan M; Gray, Michelle; Wethington, Lauren N; Stone, Matthew S; Stewart, Rodger W; Moyen, Nicole E

    2017-03-01

    Citrulline malate (CM) is a nonessential amino acid that increases exercise performance in males. However, based on physiological differences between genders, these results cannot be extrapolated to females. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate effects of acute CM supplementation on upper- and lower-body weightlifting performance in resistance-trained females. Fifteen females (23 ± 3 years) completed two randomized, double-blind trials consuming either CM (8 g dextrose + 8 g CM) or a placebo (8 g dextrose). One hour after supplement consumption, participants performed six sets each of upper- (i.e., bench press) and lower-body (i.e., leg press) exercises to failure at 80 % of previously established one-repetition maximum. Immediately after each set, repetitions completed, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that subjects completed significantly (p = .045) more repetitions throughout upper-body exercise when consuming CM versus placebo (34.1 ± 5.7 vs. 32.9 ± 6.0, respectively). When consuming CM, similar significant (p = .03) improvements in total repetitions completed were observed for lower-body exercise (66.7 ± 30.5 vs. 55.13 ± 20.64, respectively). Overall RPE score was significantly lower (p = .02) in upper-body exercise when subjects consumed CM versus placebo (7.9 ± 0.3 and 8.6 ± 0.2, respectively). The supplement consumed exhibited no significant effects on heart rate at any time point. Acute CM supplementation in females increased upper- and lower-body resistance exercise performance and decreased RPE during upper-body exercise. These data indicate that athletes competing in sports with muscular endurance-based requirements may potentially improve performance by acutely supplementing CM.

  1. Effectiveness evaluation of whole-body electromyostimulation as a post-exercise recovery method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE LA Camara, Miguel A; Pardos, Ana I; Veiga, Óscar L

    2018-01-04

    Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) devices are now being used in health and sports training, although there are few studies investigating their benefits. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of WB-EMS as a post-exercise recovery method, and compare it with other methods like active and passive recovery. The study included nine trained men (age = 21 ± 1years, height = 1.77 ± 0.4 m, mass = 62 ± 7 kg). Three trials were performed in three different sessions, 1 week apart. Each trial, the participants completed the same exercise protocol and a different recovery method each time. A repeated measures design was used to check the basal reestablishing on several physiological variables [lactate, heart rate, percentage of tissue hemoglobin saturation, temperature, and neuromuscular fatigue] and to evaluate the quality of recovery. The non-parametric Wilcoxon and Friedman ANOVA tests were used to examine the differences between recovery methods. The results showed no differences between methods in the physiological and psychological variables analyzed. Although, the blood lactate concentration showed borderline statistical significance between methods (P = 0.050). Likewise, WB-EMS failed to recover baseline blood lactate concentration (P = 0.021) and percentage of tissue hemoglobin saturation (P = 0.023), in contrast to the other two methods. These findings suggest that WB-EMS is not a good recovery method because the power of reestablishing of several physiological and psychological parameters is not superior to other recovery methods like active and passive recovery.

  2. The energy cost for balance control during upright standing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdijk, J.H.P.; Fickert, R.; van Velzen, J.; van Bennekom, C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether balance control during a static upright standing task with and without balance perturbations elicits a significant and meaningful metabolic energy demand and to test whether this energy demand correlates with conventional posturography measures for

  3. Anthropometric and body composition changes in smokers vs abstainers following an exercise-aided pharmacotherapy smoking cessation trial for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapavessis, Harry; De Jesus, Stefanie; Fitzgeorge, Lyndsay; Rollo, Scott

    2018-06-07

    Post-cessation weight gain contributes to smoking relapse, especially for women. Furthermore, excess weight in the form of android or visceral fat is associated with metabolic health problems. For this study, a secondary analysis was conducted in 2015 to determine whether quitting status, achieved through a 14 week supervised exercise-aided nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) cessation program [Getting Physical on Cigarette Trial-2009 to 2013; Prapavessis, et al., 2016], affects anthropometric and body composition parameters in female smokers (N = 413, M age = 42.39 years). Anthropometric (weight and BMI) and body composition (% total body fat, % android fat, lean mass and visceral fat) indices were assessed at baseline and end of treatment. Smoking status was confirmed weekly from expired breath carbon monoxide. Adherence to exercise and NRT patch was calculated from the number of exercise sessions attended and patches worn to the number of exercise sessions offered and patches supplied, respectively. Factorial (smoking status) ANCOVAs controlling for baseline anthropometric and body composition parameters as well as adherence to exercise and NRT revealed significant differences in weight (p = .033; ɳ p 2  = 0.017) and BMI (p = .020; ɳ p 2  = 0.020) at week 14. This equated to abstainers weighing 1.26 kg more and having a 0.52 higher BMI than smokers. No significant differences were found for any of the body composition parameters at week 14 (ɳ p 2 range from 0.001-0.007). Abstainers gain modest weight compared to smokers. This weight gain is related to increases in lean mass and not total, android, or visceral fat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recent Research on Eating Disorders and Body Image Distortion among Aerobic Instructors and Exercise Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; And Others

    This document reviews the research linking excessive exercise with eating disorders. Seven steps are listed that an individual follows in going from someone who starts out using exercise and aerobic dance as a stress management technique or a hobby to becoming an exercise dependent individual with addictive behavior. Studies are reviewed, the…

  5. Correlates of Exercise Self-efficacy in a Randomized Trial of Mind-Body Exercise in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Gloria Y; Mu, Lin; Davis, Roger B; Wayne, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Exercise self-efficacy is one of the strongest predictors of physical activity behavior. Prior literature suggests that tai chi, a mind-body exercise, may increase self-efficacy; however, this is not extensively studied. Little is known about the factors associated with development of exercise self-efficacy in a population with heart failure. We utilized data from a randomized controlled trial of 12 weeks of group tai chi classes versus education in patients with chronic heart failure (n = 100). Multivariable linear regression was used to explore possible correlates of change in exercise self-efficacy in the entire sample and in the subgroup who received tai chi (n = 50). Covariates included baseline quality of life, social support, functional parameters, physical activity, serum biomarkers, sociodemographics, and clinical heart failure parameters. Baseline 6-minute walk (β=-0.0003, SE = 0.0001, P = .02) and fatigue score (β= 0.03, SE = 0.01, P = .004) were significantly associated with change in self-efficacy, with those in the lowest tertile for 6-minute walk and higher tertiles for fatigue score experiencing the greatest change. Intervention group assignment was highly significant, with self-efficacy significantly improved in the tai chi group compared to the education control over 12 weeks (β= 0.39, SE = 0.11, P heart failure who are deconditioned, with lower functional status and mood.

  6. Body weight and perceived social pressure to exercise at a health club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne C; Miller, Todd A

    2009-01-01

    To determine the social pressure overweight (OW, n=1183) and normal-weight (NW, n=550) adults perceive regarding health club exercise. A 12-item survey, based on the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior, measured subjective norm toward exercising at a health club 30 min, twice a week, for the next month. OW feel more social pressure to exercise at a club than do NW, but motivation to comply is the same between groups. Exercise interventions for OW should capitalize on individual perceived social pressures to exercise by designing strategies to increase motivation to comply with these pressures.

  7. Fatigue is a brain-derived emotion that regulates the exercise behavior to ensure the protection of whole body homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy David Noakes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An influential book written by A. Mosso in the late 19th century proposed that fatigue that at first sight might appear an imperfection of our body, is on the contrary one of its most marvellous perfections. The fatigue increasing more rapidly than the amount of work done saves us from the injury which lesser sensibility would involve for the organism so that muscular fatigue also is at bottom an exhaustion of the nervous system.It has taken more than a century to confirm Mosso’s idea that both the brain and the muscles alter their function during exercise and that fatigue is predominantly an emotion, part of a complex regulation, the goal of which is to protect the body from harm. Mosso’s ideas were supplanted in the English literature by those of A.V. Hill who believed that fatigue was the result of biochemical changes in the exercising limb muscles - peripheral fatigue - to which the central nervous system makes no contribution. The past decade has witnessed the growing realization that this brainless model cannot explain exercise performance. This article traces the evolution of our modern understanding of how the CNS regulates exercise specifically to insure that each exercise bout terminates whilst homeostasis is retained in all bodily systems. The brain uses the symptoms of fatigue as key regulators to insure that the exercise is completed before harm develops. These sensations of fatigue are unique to each individual and are illusionary since their generation is largely independent of the real biological state of the athlete at the time they develop. The model predicts that attempts to understand fatigue and to explain superior human athletic performance purely on the basis of the body’s known physiological and metabolic responses to exercise must fail since subconscious and conscious mental decisions made by winners and losers, in both training and competition, are the ultimate determinants of both fatigue and athletic performance.

  8. Effects of resistance or aerobic exercise training on total and regional body composition in sedentary overweight middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Cheyne E; Duffield, Rob

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic endurance training (AET), resistance exercise training (RET), or a control (CON) condition on absolute and relative fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) in the total body (TB) and regions of interest (ROIs) of sedentary overweight middle-aged males and females. Following prescreening, 102 subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and strength and aerobic exercise testing. Randomized subjects (male RET, n = 16; female RET, n = 19; male AET, n = 16; and female AET, n = 25) completed supervised and periodized exercise programs (AET, 30-50 min cycling at 70%-75% maximal heart rate; RET, 2-4 sets × 8-10 repetitions of 5-7 exercises at 70%-75% 1 repetition maximum) or a nonexercising control condition (male CON, n = 13 and female CON, n = 13). Changes in absolute and relative TB-FM and TB-FFM and ROI-FM and ROI-FFM were determined. At baseline, and although matched for age and body mass index, males had greater strength, aerobic fitness, body mass, absolute and relative TB-FFM and ROI-FFM, but reduced absolute and relative TB-FM and ROI-FM, compared with females (p FFM and reduced TB-FM more than did the female exercise groups (p FFM, thus resulting in a greater enhancement of relative FFM. Despite equivalent or greater responses to RET or AET by female subjects, the corresponding respective increases in FFM or reductions in FM were lower than those in males, indicating that a biased dose-response relationship exists between sexes following 10 weeks of exercise training.

  9. Effects of Whole-Body Electromyostimulation versus High-Intensity Resistance Exercise on Body Composition and Strength: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Kemmler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity (resistance exercise (HIT and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS are both approaches to realize time-efficient favorable changes of body composition and strength. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of WB-EMS compared with the gold standard reference HIT, for improving body composition and muscle strength in middle-aged men. Forty-eight healthy untrained men, 30–50 years old, were randomly allocated to either HIT (2 sessions/week or a WB-EMS group (3 sessions/2 weeks that exercised for 16 weeks. HIT was applied as “single-set-to-failure protocol,” while WB-EMS was conducted with intermittent stimulation (6 s WB-EMS, 4 s rest; 85 Hz, 350 ms over 20 minutes. The main outcome parameters were lean body mass (LBM as determined via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and maximum dynamic leg-extensor strength (isokinetic leg-press. LBM changes of both groups (HIT 1.25 ± 1.44% versus WB-EMS 0.93±1.15% were significant (p=.001; however, no significant group differences were detected (p=.395. Leg-extensor strength also increased in both groups (HIT 12.7±14.7%, p=.002, versus WB-EMS 7.3±10.3%, p=.012 with no significant (p=.215 between-group difference. Corresponding changes were also determined for body fat and back-extensor strength. Conclusion. In summary, WB-EMS can be considered as a time-efficient but pricy option to HIT-resistance exercise for people aiming at the improvement of general strength and body composition.

  10. Asymmetric sensory reweighting in human upright stance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Logan

    Full Text Available To investigate sensory reweighting as a fundamental property of sensor fusion during standing, we probed postural control with simultaneous rotations of the visual scene and surface of support. Nineteen subjects were presented with pseudo-random pitch rotations of visual scene and platform at the ankle to test for amplitude dependencies in the following conditions: low amplitude vision: high amplitude platform, low amplitude vision: low amplitude platform, and high amplitude vision: low amplitude platform. Gain and phase of frequency response functions (FRFs to each stimulus were computed for two body sway angles and a single weighted EMG signal recorded from seven muscles. When platform stimulus amplitude was increased while visual stimulus amplitude remained constant, gain to vision increased, providing strong evidence for inter-modal reweighting between vision and somatosensation during standing. Intra-modal reweighting of vision was also observed as gains to vision decreased as visual stimulus amplitude increased. Such intra-modal and inter-modal amplitude dependent changes in gain were also observed in muscular activity. Gains of leg segment angle and muscular activity relative to the platform, on the other hand, showed only intra-modal reweighting. That is, changing platform motion amplitude altered the responses to both visual and support surface motion whereas changing visual scene motion amplitude did not significantly affect responses to support surface motion, indicating that the sensory integration scheme between somatosensation (at the support surface and vision is asymmetric.

  11. Effect of physical exercise training on muscle strength and body composition, and their association with functional capacity and quality of life in patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip Samuel; Mourier, Malene; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Atrial fibrillation diminishes cardiac function, exercise tolerance and quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine whether exercise training in atrial fibrillation affects muscle strength, body composition, maximal exercise capacity and walking capacity positively......, thus improving quality of life. Design: Randomized clinical trial. Twelve weeks of physical exercise training or control. Patients: Forty-nine patients in permanent atrial fibrillation were randomized to training or control. Methods: Intervention consisted of aerobic training for 1 h 3 times per week...... at 70% of maximal exercise capacity vs control. Muscle strength, exercise capacity, 6-minute walk test, lean body mass, fat percentage, and quality of life were assessed. Results: Muscle strength increased in the training group (p = 0.01), but no change was observed in controls. Lean body mass...

  12. Effects Of Whole Body Vibration On Vertical Jump Performance Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole C. Dabbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing vertical jump performance is critical for many sports. Following high intensity training, individuals often experience exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD. Many recovery modalities have been tested with conflicting results. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV on vertical jump performance following EIMD. 27 females volunteered for 7 sessions and were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group and administered each testing day. Vertical jump performance was assessed via vertical jump height (VJH, peak power output (PPO, rate of force development (RFD, relative ground reaction force (GRFz, and peak activation ratio of the vastus medialis (VM via electromyography (EMG before and after 3 days of EIMD via split squats. Two testing sets were collected each day, consisting of pre measures followed by WBV or control, and then post second measures. A 2x8 (group x time mixed factor analysis of variance (ANOVA was conducted for each variable. No significant interactions or group differences were found in any variable. Significant main effects for time were found in any variable, indicating performance declined following muscle damage. These results indicate that WBV does not aid in muscle recovery or vertical jump performance following EIMD.

  13. Predictors of students' self-esteem: The importance of body self-perception and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Ljiljana B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to explore the predictive validity of physical self-efficacy, social physique anxiety, and physical activity in the self-esteem of students, as well as to investigate potential gender differences. The Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Physical Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES, Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS, and a short questionnaire about physical activity were administered to a sample of 232 university students. The overall results show that students are moderately physically active (on the average, 2.75 times per week, have moderately high selfesteem and physical self-efficacy and lower social physique anxiety. No gender differences were detected in self-esteem. In other variables, gender differences are significant and mostly in favour of males. The analyses showed that self-esteem correlated positively with physical self-efficacy and physical activity, and negatively with social physique anxiety. The regression analyses indicated that physical selfefficacy, social physique anxiety and female gender were significant predictors of self-esteem. Physical activity was not a significant predictor of self-esteem. Future studies should investigate the relations of body self-perceptions, physical exercise, and domain-specific self-esteem.

  14. A randomized comparison study regarding the impact of short-duration, high-intensity exercise and traditional exercise on anthropometric and body composition measurement changes in post-menopausal women--A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Joan A Cebrick; Payne, Ellen K

    2016-03-01

    The mode and duration of exercise necessary to change body composition and reduce weight remains debatable. Menopause results in hormonal changes that preclude weight loss. This randomized pilot study compared the effects of short-duration, high-intensity interval training and traditional exercise on anthropometric and body composition measurement changes in post-menopausal women. To compare the effects of short-duration, high-intensity interval training and traditional methods of exercise (walking) on anthropometric, body composition and body weight change over a 12-week period. Subjects (N = 18) were post-menopausal, sedentary female volunteers, randomly assigned into one of two exercise groups. Both groups exercised five out of seven days for 12 weeks. The resistance group (n = 8) (54.3 ± 7.3 years; BMI = 28.0 ± 2.1 kg/m(2); mean ± SD) exercised for 15.0 ± 3.5 min, which consisted of five different exercise routines including upper and lower extremity, a cardio segment, yoga and abdominal exercises. The walkers (n = 10) (56.6 ± 5.2 years; BMI = 29.2 ± 2.6 kg/m(2); mean ± SD) exercised for 40.0 ± 5.0 min at 65% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate. Relative (%) body fat was measured via DEXA scan, along with five anthropometric measurements, all of which were taken prior to and after 12 weeks. Independent sample t-tests were probed for differences, p ≤ 0.05. No statistically significant changes were determined between the groups for pre-and post-measurements. The outcomes of this study provide a foundation for future comparisons of short-duration high-intensity interval training exercise and traditional exercise, or walking, on anthropometric and body composition measurement changes in sedentary, overweight, post-menopausal females over a 12-week period. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Effect of body composition, aerobic performance and physical activity on exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Więcek, Magdalena; Maciejczyk, Marcin; Szymura, Jadwiga; Wiecha, Szczepan; Kantorowicz, Malgorzata; Szygula, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress could be the result of an increase in ATP resynthesis during exercise. The aim of the study was to compare prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) disturbances induced by exercise at maximal intensity in young men with differing body compositions. Thirty-nine subjects were selected from 1549 volunteers aged 18-30, based on lean body mass (LBM) and body fat percentage (%BF), and then assigned into one of the following groups: control group (CON), including subjects with average LBM (59.0-64.3 kg) and average %BF (14.0-18.5%); high body fat (HBF) group, including subjects with high %BF (>21.5%) and average LBM; and high lean body mass (HLBM) group, including subjects with high LBM (>66.3 kg) and average %BF. Participants' physical activity was determined. A running test with a gradually increased load was used. Before and 3 minutes after exercise, total oxidative status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined in the plasma, and the Oxidative Stress Index (OSI = TOS/TAC) was calculated. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was comparable in the HBF and HLBM groups (53.12±1.51 mL/kg and 50.25±1.27 mL/kg, respectively) and significantly lower compared to the CON group (58.23±1.62 mL/kg). The CON, HBF and HLBM groups showed similar significant (P0.05). There was significant negative correlation between OSI, measured before and after exercise, and participants' physical activity. There was no correlation between OSI and VO2max, BM, LBM, %BF and BMI. Exercise at maximal intensity causes a similar increase in TOS and in TAC in subjects with increased %BF and elevated content of LBM and regardless of body composition, the ratios of TOS/TAC concentrations before and after maximal-intensity exercise, have lower values in people with higher physical activity levels and are not dependent on aerobic performance (VO2max).

  16. Repeatability of popliteal blood flow and lower limb vascular conductance at rest and exercise during body tilt using Doppler ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, R; Hughson, R L

    2013-01-01

    We tested the data repeatability for popliteal blood flow velocity (PBV), popliteal arterial diameter (AD pop ), popliteal blood flow (PBF) and lower limb vascular conductance (VC) at rest and exercise in three body positions, two work rates and two inspired oxygen fractions. Fifteen, eleven and ten healthy volunteers participated in the three phases of the studies. Resting protocols were performed in horizontal (HOR), 35° head-down tilt (HDT) and 45° head-up tilt (HUT) for 5 min in each body position. Participants also exercised at lower and higher power outputs (repeated plantar flexion contractions at 20% and 30% maximal voluntary contraction, respectively) in HOR, HDT and HUT and in normoxia (21%O 2 ) and hypoxia (14%O 2 ) with the same work rates and body positions. PBV and AD pop were measured by ultrasound to determine PBF, and VC was estimated by dividing PBF by muscle perfusion pressure (MPP). PBV, AD pop , PBF and VC were not different, demonstrated good agreement and consistency between the two days of testing during both rest and exercise conditions regardless of body position. Therefore, these data support the utilization of Doppler and echo Doppler ultrasound as a reproducible method to measure PBV and AD pop and consequently estimate PBF and VC responses in such conditions. (paper)

  17. [Effects of the body fat mass and blood sugar and plasma resistin to slim exercise prescription for overweight and obesity students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Youping; Zhang, Jing; Jiang, Shuangshuang; Sun, Jun; Zheng, Chenfei; Wang, Ke; Qian, Jingjing; Nie, Liuwang

    2013-07-01

    To explore the influences of slim exercise prescription on body fat mass, blood sugar and plasma resistin for overweight and obesity students. Subjects were 9 males and 13 females for simple overweight and obesity students of freshman and junior. The function capacity (FC) were defined after examine of body shape, physical function and exercise capacity. The slim goals and exercise projects were determined according to different objects. The exercise intensity was 60%-70% of FC and 13-15 levels of RPE. Exercise with each time was 60 min, exercise frequency was 5 times perweek, energy metabolism was 500-600 kcal at a time. The relative indexes were detected after 8 weeks. Implementing programmes of slim exercise prescription for 8 weeks, before and after the experiment in the males and females group. The weight, BMI, percentage of body fat (FAT%), waist and hip circumference ratio (WHR), body surface area (BS), fat indexes, the density of body for overweight and obesity the male and female students were significantly decreased (P exercise prescription was safe and sure, and could improve weight, BMI, FAT%, FM, WHR, BS, fat indexes, the density of body, blood sugar, plasma resistin in obesity without the diet control.

  18. Effect of physical exercise interventions on musculoskeletal pain in all body regions among office workers: A one-year randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L.; Christensen, Karl Bang; Holtermann, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    office workers; specific neck/shoulder resistance training, all-round physical exercise, or a reference intervention. Pain symptoms were determined by questionnaire screening of twelve selected body regions. Case individuals were identified for each body region as those reporting pain intensities...... group (Ptraining and all-round physical...... exercise for office workers caused better effects than a reference intervention in relieving musculoskeletal pain symptoms in exposed regions of the upper body....

  19. EFFECT OF SWISS BALL EXERCISE TOWARD THE BODY BALANCE TO LESS THE RISK FALL OF OLDER AT UPT SOCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Syapitri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The balance of body is one of the main factor in doing fungsional activity. In every activity, the body always need control of the body balance, because basically every phisic activity right static or dinamic will take someone on unstable position with big risk to having fell. Swiss Ball exercise as support is believed on labile surface will make spine have big chance to stabling the muscle between vebra and increase the dinamic balance to restrain the repeats stability. The research object to know The Effect of Swiss Ball Exercise toward The Body Balance to Less The Risk Fall of Older at UPT Social Service of Older and Children Under Five district Binjai and Medan in Year 2016. The research type is Quasi Experiment with pre test-post test one group only design method. Population in this research all of older at UPT Social Service district Binjai as much as 172 older with number of man is 81 and woman is 91, with Purposive sampling Technique that is 15 respondences. Data collecting using observation sheet with analysis that used is univariat: respondence characteristics, the body balance of older before and after doing Swiss Ball practice, and bivariat with Paired t-Test. The research result showing the average of body balance before doing Swiss Ball as much (Mean 38,07 and after (Mean 46,33. Conclusion: there is the effect of Swiss Ball toward body balance to less the risk fall of older (p=0,000 ; p=< 0,05. Sugessted for older to practice the balance himself more steady so that not easy to have risk fall further. Influenced, and for the next researcher can research about another factor that foregrounded the risk fall of older. Keywords    : Swiss Ball, Balance Exercise, Risk Fall

  20. Changes in body composition in heart failure patients after a resistance exercise program and branched chain amino acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Juárez, Juan Antonio; Sánchez-Ortiz, Néstor Alonso; Castillo-Martínez, Lilia; Orea-Tejeda, Arturo; Cervantes-Gaytán, Rocío; Keirns-Davis, Candace; Pérez-Ocampo, Carlos; Quiroz-Bautista, Karla; Tenorio-Dupont, Mónica; Ronquillo-Martínez, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Heart Failure (HF) is a complex syndrome, which can include the physiological, neural hormonal and metabolic complications known as "Cardiac Cachexia" (CC). In the development of CC there is a release of catabolic cytokines (Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, interleukins 1 and 6) that cause a decrease of fat free mass and fat mass. These changes in body composition might be reversed with a therapeutic combination of resistance exercise and branched chain amino acid supplementation (BCAA). Evaluate changes in body composition after a resistance exercise program and BCAA supplementation in patients with HF. In a randomized clinical trial with 3 month of follow-up anthropometric body composition analysis and stress tests were evaluated at the beginning and in the end of the study. Patients were divided into two groups; the experimental group performed the resistance exercise program and received 10 g/day BCAA supplementation, and the control group only performed the resistance exercise program. Both groups were provided with individualized diets and conventional medical treatment. Changes were found in hip circumference between the groups (p = 0.02), and muscle strength was increased in the experimental group (8%) and the control group (11.4%) with no difference between them. METS and VO2Max also increased in experimental and control groups (16.6% and 50.1% respectively). Regarding changes in symptoms, improvements in fatigue (45.4%), decubitus intolerance (21.8%) and dyspnea (25.4%) were observed in the overall sample. Improvements in physical and functional capacities are attributed to resistance exercise program but not to the BCAA supplementation. NCT02240511. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation of Murine Submandibular Salivary Gland for Upright Intravital Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficht, Xenia; Thelen, Flavian; Stolp, Bettina; Stein, Jens V

    2018-05-07

    The submandibular salivary gland (SMG) is one of the three major salivary glands, and is of interest for many different fields of biological research, including cell biology, oncology, dentistry, and immunology. The SMG is an exocrine gland comprised of secretory epithelial cells, myofibroblasts, endothelial cells, nerves, and extracellular matrix. Dynamic cellular processes in the rat and mouse SMG have previously been imaged, mostly using inverted multi-photon microscope systems. Here, we describe a straightforward protocol for the surgical preparation and stabilization of the murine SMG in anesthetized mice for in vivo imaging with upright multi-photon microscope systems. We present representative intravital image sets of endogenous and adoptively transferred fluorescent cells, including the labeling of blood vessels or salivary ducts and second harmonic generation to visualize fibrillar collagen. In sum, our protocol allows for surgical preparation of mouse salivary glands in upright microscopy systems, which are commonly used for intravital imaging in the field of immunology.

  2. Upright 3D Treatment Planning Using a Vertical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Anand P.; Strauss, Jonathan B.; Kirk, Michael C.; Chen, Sea S.; Kroc, Thomas K.; Zusag, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we describe a novel technique used to plan and administer external beam radiation therapy to a patient in the upright position. A patient required reirradiation for thymic carcinoma but was unable to tolerate the supine position due to bilateral phrenic nerve injury and paralysis of the diaphragm. Computed tomography (CT) images in the upright position were acquired at the Northern Illinois University Institute for Neutron Therapy at Fermilab. The CT data were imported into a standard 3-dimensional (3D) treatment planning system. Treatment was designed to deliver 24 Gy to the target volume while respecting normal tissue tolerances. A custom chair that locked into the treatment table indexing system was constructed for immobilization, and port films verified the reproducibility of setup. Radiation was administered using mixed photon and electron AP fields

  3. ST-T isointegral analysis of exercise stress body surface mapping for identifying ischemic areas in patients with angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, T.; Kawakubo, K.; Toda, I.; Mashima, S.; Ohtake, T.; Iio, M.; Sugimoto, T.

    1988-01-01

    ST-T isointegral analysis of body surface mapping was used in an attempt to localize ischemic areas on exercise tests. In 28 patients with angina pectoris and 10 healthy subjects, body surface potential was recorded with 87 leads, and ST isopotential and ST-T isointegral maps were constructed. In all 10 healthy subjects, the basic pattern of the ST-T isointegral map showed no significant change after exercise. In 23 of 28 patients with angina pectoris (82%), alterations in the ST-T isointegral map after exercise were observed. They were divided into four types (anterior, inferoposterior, lateral, and global) according to the distribution of negative values, which were well correlated with the extent of ischemic area determined by thallium myocardial scintigraphy and coronary angiography. The postexercise ST-T isointegral map was normalized after administration of nitroglycerin in four of five patients. In five patients (18%) who did not show abnormalities on the postexercise ST-T isointegral map, the magnitude of maximal ST depression was significantly smaller than that observed in the other 23 patients with angina pectoris (0.14 vs 0.23 mV on the average, p less than 0.05). It was concluded that the exercise test with ST-T isointegral mapping is a new method for noninvasive detection of location and severity of ischemic regions

  4. Effects of exercise on insulin resistance and body composition in overweight and obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Samantha K; Stepto, Nigel K; Harrison, Cheryce L; Moran, Lisa J; Strauss, Boyd J; Teede, Helena J

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an insulin-resistant (IR) state. Visceral fat (VF) is independently associated with IR. The objectives of the study were to explore mechanisms underpinning IR by assessing the effect of exercise training on IR and body composition in overweight PCOS and non-PCOS women. This was a prospective exercise intervention study. The study was conducted at an academic medical center. Participants included 20 overweight PCOS and 14 overweight non-PCOS women. The intervention included 12 wk of intensified aerobic exercise (3 h/wk). IR on euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, body composition including abdominal visceral and sc fat distribution by computer tomography and lipids was measured. PCOS subjects were more IR (P = 0.02) and had more VF (P = 0.04 age adjusted) than non-PCOS women. In PCOS women, IR correlated with VF (r = -0.78, P cardiometabolic risk factors including IR, triglycerides, and VF in PCOS were observed without significant weight loss and if confirmed in future controlled trials, suggest weight loss should not be the sole focus of exercise programs.

  5. The Impact of Central and Peripheral Cyclooxygenase Enzyme Inhibition on Exercise-Induced Elevations in Core Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltmeijer, Matthijs T W; Veeneman, Dineke; Bongers, Coen C C W; Netea, Mihai G; van der Meer, Jos W; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Hopman, Maria T E

    2017-05-01

    Exercise increases core body temperature (T C ) due to metabolic heat production. However, the exercise-induced release of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6) may also contribute to the rise in T C by increasing the hypothalamic temperature set point. This study investigated whether the exercise-induced increase in T C is partly caused by an altered hypothalamic temperature set point. Fifteen healthy, active men age 36 ± 14 y were recruited. Subjects performed submaximal treadmill exercise in 3 randomized test conditions: (1) 400 mg ibuprofen and 1000 mg acetaminophen (IBU/APAP), (2) 1000 mg acetaminophen (APAP), and (3) a control condition (CTRL). Acetaminophen and ibuprofen were used to block the effect of IL-6 at a central and peripheral level, respectively. T C , skin temperature, and heart rate were measured continuously during the submaximal exercise tests. Baseline values of T C , skin temperature, and heart rate did not differ across conditions. Serum IL-6 concentrations increased in all 3 conditions. A significantly lower peak T C was observed in IBU/APAP (38.8°C ± 0.4°C) vs CTRL (39.2°C ± 0.5°C, P = .02) but not in APAP (38.9°C ± 0.4°C) vs CTRL. Similarly, a lower ΔT C was observed in IBU/APAP (1.7°C ± 0.3°C) vs CTRL (2.0°C ± 0.5°C, P exercise compared with a CTRL. This observation suggests that a prostaglandin-E2-induced elevated hypothalamic temperature set point may contribute to the exercise-induced rise in T C .

  6. Superficial cooling does not decrease core body temperature before, during, or after exercise in an American football uniform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Rebecca M; Eberman, Lindsey E; Cleary, Michelle A

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of superficial cooling on thermoregulatory responses while exercising in a hot humid environment while wearing an American football uniform. Nine male and female subjects wore a superficial cooling garment while in a cooling (CS) experimental condition or a no cooling (NCS) control condition during an exercise task consisting of warm-up (WU), exercise (EX), and recovery (R). The exercise task simulated an American football conditioning session with subjects wearing a full American football uniform and performing anaerobic and aerobic exercises in a hot humid environment. Subjects were allowed to drink water ad libitum during rest breaks. During the WU, EX, and R periods, core body temperature (T(c)) was measured to assess the effect of the cooling garment. Neither baseline resting before warm-up T(c) nor after warm-up T(c) was significantly different between trials. No significant differences in exercise T(c) between conditions were found. Time to return to baseline T(c) revealed no significant differences between the experimental and control conditions. The authors found that the volume of fluid consumed was 34% less in the experimental condition (711.1 ± 188.0 ml) compared with the control condition (1,077.8 ± 204.8 ml). The findings indicate that the cooling garment was not effective in blunting the rise in T(c) during warm-up, attenuating a rise in T(c) during intermittent exercise, or in increasing a return to baseline T(c) during a resting recovery period in a hot humid environment while wearing an American football uniform.

  7. The effect of 8 weeks deep-aquatic exercises on static balance and lower body strength among elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Seyed jafari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of deep aquatic exercises on lower body strength and balance among elderly men. Methods: Thirty elderly men over 65 years old were randomly divided into two equal groups including experimental and control groups. Experimental group participated in a deep aquatic exercise program that consisted of 60-minute sessions three times a week for 8 weeks while control group had no plan of exercise.  Muscle strength and balance was assessed before and after the program as pre and post-test by HHD (Hand-Held Dynamometer and BBS (Biodex Balance System respectively. Repeated measures two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed on outcome variables.(p≥0.05.  Results: deep aquatic exercises promoted significant increases in the elderly men's muscle strength and balance, as assessed using HHD (p< 0.001 and the BBS (p< 0.001. Conclusion: The present deep-aquatic exercise training for the elderly are able to improve the muscle strength and static balance.

  8. [Impact of exercise on the body composition and aerobic capacity of elderly with obesity through three models of intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Jose Antonio; Del Valle, Miguel; Nistal, Paloma; Méndez, David; Abelairas-Gómez, Cristian; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto

    2014-12-17

    The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of aerobic exercise on body composition and aerobic capacity of a sample of older, sedentary adults with obesity rates by three different models of intervention (recommendation, prescription at home and monitoring). A total of 76 older adults with a mean age 67.1+/-1.2 years, sedentary, with a BMI> 30 kg/ m2 were randomized in to four groups: Control (CON) recommendation (REC), prescription home (PRES) and monitoring in a sports center (MON). The same program of aerobic exercise for groups of home and sports center for 24 weeks, 3 days a week was developed. It was determined before and after the intervention BMI, Waist- Hip-index (ICC), the% fat ( Σ folds) and aerobic capacity (T6M) throughout the sample. MON and PRES groups showed significant improvements in the ICC, Σ folds and T 6M variables, not the case in BMI. However the MON group presented significant differences from group PRES between-group analysis (p exercise programs in adults with obesity methodology. However the exercise prescription at home since early intervention is an important approach for people with physical and/ or psychological reasons such as obesity cannot access the sports centers to participate in activities led by a monitor. Unknowns of aerobic exercise are cleared in the home that are of great impact for social policies regarding the health of the elderly population. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Submaximal Exercise Preceded by Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy on the Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Blood of Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Szpinda, Michał; Augustyńska, Beata; Woźniak, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) session applied prior to submaximal exercise on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, total oxidative status, and the level of cytokines in blood of volleyball players. The study group consisted of 18 male professional volleyball players, who were subjected to extremely cold air (−130°C) prior to exercise performed on cycloergometer. Blood samples were taken five times: before WBC, after WBC procedure, after exercise preceded by cryotherapy (WBC exercise), and before and after exercise without WBC (control exercise). The activity of catalase statistically significantly increased after control exercise. Moreover, the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was lower after WBC exercise than after control exercise (P < 0.001). After WBC exercise, the level of IL-6 and IL-1β was also lower (P < 0.001) than after control exercise. The obtained results may suggest that cryotherapy prior to exercise may have some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The relations between the level of studied oxidative stress and inflammatory markers may testify to the contribution of reactive oxygen species in cytokines release into the blood system in response to exercise and WBC. PMID:24489985

  10. The effect of submaximal exercise preceded by single whole-body cryotherapy on the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in blood of volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Jurecka, Alicja; Woźniak, Alina; Szpinda, Michał; Augustyńska, Beata; Woźniak, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) session applied prior to submaximal exercise on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, total oxidative status, and the level of cytokines in blood of volleyball players. The study group consisted of 18 male professional volleyball players, who were subjected to extremely cold air (-130°C) prior to exercise performed on cycloergometer. Blood samples were taken five times: before WBC, after WBC procedure, after exercise preceded by cryotherapy (WBC exercise), and before and after exercise without WBC (control exercise). The activity of catalase statistically significantly increased after control exercise. Moreover, the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was lower after WBC exercise than after control exercise (P exercise, the level of IL-6 and IL-1β was also lower (P exercise. The obtained results may suggest that cryotherapy prior to exercise may have some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The relations between the level of studied oxidative stress and inflammatory markers may testify to the contribution of reactive oxygen species in cytokines release into the blood system in response to exercise and WBC.

  11. The Effect of Submaximal Exercise Preceded by Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy on the Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Blood of Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC session applied prior to submaximal exercise on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, total oxidative status, and the level of cytokines in blood of volleyball players. The study group consisted of 18 male professional volleyball players, who were subjected to extremely cold air (−130∘C prior to exercise performed on cycloergometer. Blood samples were taken five times: before WBC, after WBC procedure, after exercise preceded by cryotherapy (WBC exercise, and before and after exercise without WBC (control exercise. The activity of catalase statistically significantly increased after control exercise. Moreover, the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was lower after WBC exercise than after control exercise (P<0.001. After WBC exercise, the level of IL-6 and IL-1β was also lower (P<0.001 than after control exercise. The obtained results may suggest that cryotherapy prior to exercise may have some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The relations between the level of studied oxidative stress and inflammatory markers may testify to the contribution of reactive oxygen species in cytokines release into the blood system in response to exercise and WBC.

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. ...

  13. Digital imaging improves upright stereotactic core biopsy of mammographic microcalcifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, J.P.L.; Evans, A.J.; Burrell, H.C.; Pinder, S.E.; Ellis, I.O.; Blamey, R.W.; Wilson, A.R.M.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: This comparative study was carried out to assess the effect of using digital images compared to conventional film-screen mammography on the accuracy of core biopsy of microcalcifications using upright stereotactic equipment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The biopsy results from a consecutive series of 104 upright stereotactic 14-gauge core biopsies performed with conventional X-ray (Group A) were compared with 40 biopsies carried out using stereotaxis with digital imaging (Group B). In all cases specimen radiography was performed and analysed for the presence of calcifications. Pathological correlation was then carried out with needle and surgical histology. RESULTS: The use of digital add-on equipment increased the radiographic calcification retrieval rate from 55 to 85% (P < 0.005). The absolute sensitivity of core biopsy in pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) cases rose from 34 to 69% (P < 0.03), with the complete sensitivity increasing from 52 to 94% (P < 0.005). For DCIS with or without an invasive component the absolute sensitivity rose from 41 to 67% (P = 0.052), while the complete sensitivity was 59% before and 86% after the introduction of digital imaging (P < 0.04). CONCLUSION: Digital equipment improves the performance of upright stereotactic core biopsy of microcalcifications, giving a significantly increased success rate in accurately obtaining calcifications. This leads to an improvement in absolute and complete sensitivity of core biopsy when diagnosing DCIS. Whitlock, J.P.L. (2000)

  14. Monitoring changes in body surface temperature associated with treadmill exercise in dogs by use of infrared methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Maria; Arfuso, Francesca; Alberghina, Daniela; Giudice, Elisabetta; Gianesella, Matteo; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of moderate treadmill exercise session on body surface and core temperature in dog measured by means of two infrared instruments. Ten Jack Russell Terrier/Miniature Pinscher mixed-breed dogs were subjected to 15min of walking, 10min of trotting and 10min of gallop. At every step, body surface temperature (T surface ) was measured on seven regions (neck, shoulder, ribs, flank, back, internal thigh and eye) using two different methods, a digital infrared camera (ThermaCam P25) and a non-contact infrared thermometer (Infrared Thermometer THM010-VT001). Rectal temperature (T rectal ) and blood samples were collected before (T0) and after exercise (T3). Blood samples were tested for red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct). A significant effect of exercise in all body surface regions was found, as measured by both infrared methods. The temperature obtained in the eye and the thigh area were higher with respect to the other studied regions throughout the experimental period (Ptemperature values measured by infrared thermometer was found in neck, shoulder, ribs, flank, back regions respect to the values obtained by digital infrared camera (Ptemperatures are influenced by physical exercise probably due to muscle activity and changes in blood flow in dogs. Both infrared instruments used in this study have proven to be useful in detecting surface temperature variations of specific body regions, however factors including type and color of animal hair coat must be taken into account in the interpretation of data obtained by thermography methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Concurrent and aerobic exercise training promote similar benefits in body composition and metabolic profiles in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Paula Alves; Chen, Kong Y; Lira, Fabio Santos; Saraiva, Bruna Thamyres Cicotti; Antunes, Barbara Moura Mello; Campos, Eduardo Zapaterra; Freitas, Ismael Forte

    2015-11-26

    The prevalence of obesity in pediatric population is increasing at an accelerated rate in many countries, and has become a major public health concern. Physical activity, particularly exercise training, remains to be a cornerstone of pediatric obesity interventions. The purpose of our current randomized intervention trial was to compare the effects of two types of training matched for training volume, aerobic and concurrent, on body composition and metabolic profile in obese adolescents. Thus the aim of the study was compare the effects of two types of training matched for training volume, aerobic and concurrent, on body composition and metabolic profile in obese adolescents. 32 obese adolescents participated in two randomized training groups, concurrent or aerobic, for 20 weeks (50 mins x 3 per week, supervised), and were compared to a 16-subject control group. We measured the percentage body fat (%BF, primary outcome), fat-free mass, percentage of android fat by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and others metabolic profiles at baseline and after interventions, and compared them between groups using the Intent-to-treat design. In 20 weeks, both exercise training groups significantly reduced %BF by 2.9-3.6% as compare to no change in the control group (p = 0.042). There were also positive changes in lipid levels in exercise groups. No noticeable changes were found between aerobic and concurrent training groups. The benefits of exercise in reducing body fat and metabolic risk profiles can be achieved by performing either type of training in obese adolescents. RBR-4HN597.

  16. Exercise Improves V˙O2max and Body Composition in Androgen Deprivation Therapy-treated Prostate Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Bradley A; GALVãO, Daniel A; Fatehee, Naeem; Taaffe, Dennis R; Spry, Nigel; Joseph, David; Hebert, Jeffrey J; Newton, Robert U

    2017-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) experience unfavorable changes in body composition and associated metabolic complications, which can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. We examined the effect of a 6-month program of aerobic and resistance exercise aimed at improving body composition and cardiorespiratory health in this population. Ninety-seven men (43-90 yr) with localized prostate cancer receiving ADT were randomized to either exercise (EX, n = 50) or usual care (CON, n = 47). Supervised exercise was undertaken twice weekly at moderate to high intensity. Measures of cardiorespiratory capacity (V˙O2max), resting metabolic rate, central blood pressure, hemodynamic variables, blood markers, and body composition were assessed. There was a significant group-time interaction present for V˙O2max (P = 0.033) with a treatment effect for EX of 0.11 L·min (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.04-0.19) (relative to body mass = 1.3 mL·kg·min, 95% CI = 0.3-2.3) and fat oxidation (P = 0.037) of 12.0 mg·min (95% CI = 2.3-21.7). Similarly, there was a significant improvement in glucose (P Body composition was enhanced for EX with adjusted mean differences in lean mass (P = 0.015) of 0.8 kg (95% CI = 0.3-1.3), total fat mass (P = 0.020) of -1.1 kg (95% CI = -1.8 to -0.5), and trunk fat mass (P body composition despite the adverse effects of hormone suppression. Combined aerobic and resistance training should be considered a key adjuvant component in men undergoing ADT for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  17. Comparison of sEMG processing methods during whole-body vibration exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienhard, Karin; Cabasson, Aline; Meste, Olivier; Colson, Serge S

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to investigate the influence of surface electromyography (sEMG) processing methods on the quantification of muscle activity during whole-body vibration (WBV) exercises. sEMG activity was recorded while the participants performed squats on the platform with and without WBV. The spikes observed in the sEMG spectrum at the vibration frequency and its harmonics were deleted using state-of-the-art methods, i.e. (1) a band-stop filter, (2) a band-pass filter, and (3) spectral linear interpolation. The same filtering methods were applied on the sEMG during the no-vibration trial. The linear interpolation method showed the highest intraclass correlation coefficients (no vibration: 0.999, WBV: 0.757-0.979) with the comparison measure (unfiltered sEMG during the no-vibration trial), followed by the band-stop filter (no vibration: 0.929-0.975, WBV: 0.661-0.938). While both methods introduced a systematic bias (P interpolation method and the band-stop filter was comparable. The band-pass filter was in poor agreement with the other methods (ICC: 0.207-0.697), unless the sEMG(RMS) was corrected for the bias (ICC ⩾ 0.931, %LOA ⩽ 32.3). In conclusion, spectral linear interpolation or a band-stop filter centered at the vibration frequency and its multiple harmonics should be applied to delete the artifacts in the sEMG signals during WBV. With the use of a band-stop filter it is recommended to correct the sEMG(RMS) for the bias as this procedure improved its performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quality of Life and Breast Cancer: How Can Mind–Body Exercise Therapies Help? An Overview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Lunde Husebø

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer survivors experience extensive treatments, threatening their quality of life. Complementary therapies used as a supplement to cancer treatment may control symptoms, enhance quality of life, and contribute to overall patient care. Mind–body exercise therapies might motivate cancer survivors to exercise, and assist them in regaining health. The purpose of this overview study is to study benefits from mind–body exercise of yoga, tai chi chuan and qigong upon quality of life in breast cancer populations. A systematic overview of reviews was applied. Literature search in five electronic databases and in reference lists was performed during April 2017. In addition, experts in the field were consulted. Of 38 identified titles, 11 review articles, including six meta-analyses were found eligible for review. Methodological quality was high for the majority of quality domains. Yoga, the most studied mind–body therapy, was found to benefit breast cancer patients’ psychological quality of life, while less support was established concerning physical quality of life elements. The evidence of improvements of quality of life from tai chi chuan and qigong remains unclear. Breast cancer survivors’ experiences of psychological and social well-being may be enhanced by practicing yoga.

  19. Effects of exercise and group counselling on body composition and VO(2max) in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roessler, Kirsten Kaya; Birkebaek, Camilla; Ravn, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    with group counselling sessions on anthropometry and cardio-respiratory fitness in women with PCOS. DESIGN: Seventeen sedentary, overweight women with PCOS were randomized in a cross-over design to 16 weeks of intervention: Eight weeks high intensity aerobic exercise was followed by eight weeks group...... counselling (n=8) or vice versa (n=9). Fourteen of the women completed the tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Waist circumference, body mass index and maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max) ) were measured at baseline, cross-over and post-intervention. RESULTS: Waist circumference (119.9 vs. 106.5 cm) and body mass...

  20. Effects of carbohydrate ingestion during exercise on substrate oxidation in physically active women with different body compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Nicole M; Potteiger, Jeffery A; Bernardoni, Brittney; Claytor, Randal P

    2013-03-01

    We examined the effects of consuming a 6% carbohydrate (CHO) beverage during exercise on substrate oxidation in active, young Caucasian women with higher body fat (HF) (>25%) and lower body fat (LF) (fat and the LF group (n = 8) had 20.0% ± 3.0% fat. Subjects completed 2 sessions of 45 min of treadmill exercise at 55% of maximal oxygen consumption. Immediately prior to and at 15-min intervals during exercise, subjects consumed 25% of a total volume of a CHO beverage (1 g CHO·kg(-1)) or a placebo (PLC). During exercise and for 2 h after exercise, expired gases were analyzed to determine oxidation rates for CHO (CHO-OX) and fat (FAT-OX). During exercise, significant differences (p fat-free mass(-1)·min(-1)) were found between groups for the CHO trial (LF, 35.4 ± 4.7 vs. HF, 29.8 ± 3.6) and the PLC trial (LF, 33.7 ± 6.4 vs. HF, 26.3 ± 4.3). CHO-OX was significantly higher during the first hour of recovery in both the LF group (CHO, 9.3 ± 2.1 vs. PLC, 5.3 ± 2.4) and the HF group (CHO, 8.7 ± 2.0 vs. PLC, 4.2 ± 1.0), but during the second hour of recovery, only the HF group had a higher CHO-OX (CHO, 5.3 ± 1.8 vs. PLC, 3.9 ± 1.1). FAT-OX was significantly lower during the first hour of recovery in both the LF group (CHO, 0.6 ± 0.4 vs. PLC, 1.0 ± 0.4) and the HF group (CHO, 0.4 ± 0.4 vs. PLC, 1.4 ± 0.4), as well as during the second hour of recovery in both the LF group (CHO, 0.8 ± 0.4 vs. PLC, 1.3 ± 0.5) and the HF group (CHO, 0.9 ± 0.6 vs. PLC, 1.6 ± 0). CHO ingestion promotes CHO-OX and suppresses FAT-OX during and following exercise in physically active women with low and high levels of body fat.

  1. Long-term lifestyle intervention with optimized high-intensity interval training improves body composition, cardiometabolic risk, and exercise parameters in patients with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremeaux, Vincent; Drigny, Joffrey; Nigam, Anil; Juneau, Martin; Guilbeault, Valérie; Latour, Elise; Gayda, Mathieu

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to study the impact of a combined long-term lifestyle and high-intensity interval training intervention on body composition, cardiometabolic risk, and exercise tolerance in overweight and obese subjects. Sixty-two overweight and obese subjects (53.3 ± 9.7 yrs; mean body mass index, 35.8 ± 5 kg/m(2)) were retrospectively identified at their entry into a 9-mo program consisting of individualized nutritional counselling, optimized high-intensity interval exercise, and resistance training two to three times a week. Anthropometric measurements, cardiometabolic risk factors, and exercise tolerance were measured at baseline and program completion. Adherence rate was 97%, and no adverse events occurred with high-intensity interval exercise training. Exercise training was associated with a weekly energy expenditure of 1582 ± 284 kcal. Clinically and statistically significant improvements were observed for body mass (-5.3 ± 5.2 kg), body mass index (-1.9 ± 1.9 kg/m(2)), waist circumference (-5.8 ± 5.4 cm), and maximal exercise capacity (+1.26 ± 0.84 metabolic equivalents) (P high-density lipoprotein ratio were also significantly improved (P body mass and waist circumference loss were baseline body mass index and resting metabolic rate; those for body mass index decrease were baseline waist circumference and triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. A long-term lifestyle intervention with optimized high-intensity interval exercise improves body composition, cardiometabolic risk, and exercise tolerance in obese subjects. This intervention seems safe, efficient, and well tolerated and could improve adherence to exercise training in this population.

  2. Is the rate of whole-body nitrogen elimination influenced by exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, D R; Senf, C; Lundgren, C E G

    2012-01-01

    Because it has earlier been shown that exercise 24 or two hours pre-dive may suppress the appearance of venous gas bubbles (VGB) in connection with the dive, we studied whether exercise before or during N2 elimination would influence the rate of the latter. Nitrogen elimination was recorded in eight volunteers breathing a normoxic O2+argon mixture for two hours. The N2 washout was preceded two (Condition A) or 24 hours (Condition B) earlier, by one hour of exercise at 85% VO2max (two hours of exercise interspersed with two hours of rest). In separate experiments, exercise at -40% of VO2max was performed throughout the two-hour washout (Condition C), and control experiments (Condition D) with denitrogenation without exercise were also performed. There were no significant differences among conditions for the total N2 eliminated (904 +/- 196 mL). The half-times of N2 washout for A (35.2 +/- 10.8 minutes) and B (31.9 +/- 8.6 minutes) did not differ from control washouts. The rate of washout in C increased 14% compared to D (half-time: 30.4 +/- 7.6 vs. 34.5 +/- 7.8 minutes, p = 0.002), and correlated with cardiac output. Exercise 24 or two hours pre-N2 washout did not affect it, suggesting that the decreased VGB scores noted by others in dives preceded by conditions similar to A and B are not due to changes in nitrogen exchange but rather to factors related to bubble formation and/or appearance. That N2 elimination is enhanced by concomitant exercise makes physiological sense but does not necessarily explain the observation by others of a reduced risk of decompression sickness with exercise before diving.

  3. Effect of human skin grafts on whole-body heat loss during exercise heat stress: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganio, Matthew S; Gagnon, Daniel; Stapleton, Jill; Crandall, Craig G; Kenny, Glen P

    2013-01-01

    When exposed to heat stress, increases in cutaneous blood flow and sweating in well-healed grafted skin are severely attenuated, which could impair whole-body heat loss if skin grafts cover a large portion of total body surface area (TBSA). It is unknown to what extent whole-body heat loss is impaired when skin grafts cover a significant (eg, >50%) proportion of TBSA. The authors examined whole-body heat exchange during and after 60 min of cycling exercise in the heat (35°C; 25% relative humidity), at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (~400 W) in a woman (age, 36 years; mass, 78.2 kg) with well-healed (17+ years) skin grafts covering 75% of TBSA. Her responses were compared with two noninjured control subjects. Whole-body evaporative and dry heat exchange were measured by direct calorimetry. While exercising in the same ambient conditions and at the same rate of heat production, relative evaporative heat loss of nongrafted skin in the grafted subject (ie, evaporative heat loss per m) was nearly twice that of the control subjects. However, total rate of evaporative heat loss reached only 59% of the amount required for heat balance in the skin-grafted subject compared with 92 ± 3% in controls. Thus, the increase in core temperature was 2-fold greater for the grafted (1.22°C) vs control (0.61 ± 0.19°C) individuals. This case study demonstrates that a large area of grafted skin greatly diminishes maximum evaporative heat loss during exercise in the heat, making a compensable environment for control subjects uncompensable for skin-grafted individuals.

  4. Time-course of changes in inflammatory response after whole-body cryotherapy multi exposures following severe exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Pournot

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present investigation was to analyze the effect of two different recovery modalities on classical markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD and inflammation obtained after a simulated trail running race. Endurance trained males (n = 11 completed two experimental trials separated by 1 month in a randomized crossover design; one trial involved passive recovery (PAS, the other a specific whole body cryotherapy (WBC for 96 h post-exercise (repeated each day. For each trial, subjects performed a 48 min running treadmill exercise followed by PAS or WBC. The Interleukin (IL -1 (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, protein C-reactive (CRP and white blood cells count were measured at rest, immediately post-exercise, and at 24, 48, 72, 96 h in post-exercise recovery. A significant time effect was observed to characterize an inflammatory state (Pre vs. Post following the exercise bout in all conditions (p<0.05. Indeed, IL-1β (Post 1 h and CRP (Post 24 h levels decreased and IL-1ra (Post 1 h increased following WBC when compared to PAS. In WBC condition (p<0.05, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-6 remain unchanged compared to PAS condition. Overall, the results indicated that the WBC was effective in reducing the inflammatory process. These results may be explained by vasoconstriction at muscular level, and both the decrease in cytokines activity pro-inflammatory, and increase in cytokines anti-inflammatory.

  5. Time-Course of Changes in Inflammatory Response after Whole-Body Cryotherapy Multi Exposures following Severe Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournot, Hervé; Bieuzen, François; Louis, Julien; Fillard, Jean-Robert; Barbiche, Etienne; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present investigation was to analyze the effect of two different recovery modalities on classical markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and inflammation obtained after a simulated trail running race. Endurance trained males (n = 11) completed two experimental trials separated by 1 month in a randomized crossover design; one trial involved passive recovery (PAS), the other a specific whole body cryotherapy (WBC) for 96 h post-exercise (repeated each day). For each trial, subjects performed a 48 min running treadmill exercise followed by PAS or WBC. The Interleukin (IL) -1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), protein C-reactive (CRP) and white blood cells count were measured at rest, immediately post-exercise, and at 24, 48, 72, 96 h in post-exercise recovery. A significant time effect was observed to characterize an inflammatory state (Pre vs. Post) following the exercise bout in all conditions (p<0.05). Indeed, IL-1β (Post 1 h) and CRP (Post 24 h) levels decreased and IL-1ra (Post 1 h) increased following WBC when compared to PAS. In WBC condition (p<0.05), TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-6 remain unchanged compared to PAS condition. Overall, the results indicated that the WBC was effective in reducing the inflammatory process. These results may be explained by vasoconstriction at muscular level, and both the decrease in cytokines activity pro-inflammatory, and increase in cytokines anti-inflammatory. PMID:21829501

  6. Influence of body mass index and type of low-level exercise on the side effect profile of regadenoson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado-Garcia, Carlos; Jimenez-Heffernan, Amelia; Lopez-Martin, Juana; Molina-Mora, Manuela; Aroui, Tarik; Sanchez de Mora, Elena; Ramos-Font, Carlos [Hospital Juan Ramon Jimenez, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Huelva, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Huelva (Spain); Rivera de los Santos, Francisco [University of Seville, Area of Methodology of Behavioural Sciences, Seville (Spain); Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos [University of Huelva, Department of Environmental and Public Health, Huelva (Spain)

    2017-10-15

    Regadenoson, an A{sub 2A} adenosine receptor pharmacologic stress agent for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), is administered as a single, fixed dose. We studied the side effect profile of regadenoson combined with two types of low-level exercise, according to body mass index (BMI). Three hundred and fifty-six patients (46.1% men, mean age 67.7±10.7 years, range 31-90 years) underwent regadenoson stress testing combined with low-level exercise. Subjects were classified according to BMI as normal, overweight, or obese, and the type of low-level exercise performed as walking on the treadmill (TE group, n=190) or forcefully swinging legs while sitting (SS group, n=166). Patients' demographics, medical history, clinical symptoms during stress, changes in ECG, oxygen saturation (SatO{sub 2}), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Groups were comparable (p=ns) with regard to cardiovascular risks factors. The incidence of side effects was similar across BMI (p=ns), although the TE patients showed improved profiles over those with SS exercise, with a significantly lower incidence of flushing, dizziness and nausea/gastrointestinal discomfort (12.9% vs. 28.4%; 19.9% vs. 33.4%; 11.4% vs. 19.2%, respectively; all p<0.05). Regarding the hemodynamic response, we did not observe significant changes in SBP and HR after regadenoson administration across BMI categories. Comparing the TE and SS groups, no significant changes were observed in SBP, but there was a higher increase in HR in the TE group (p<0.05). Regadenoson in combination with low-level exercise is safe and well tolerated over a wide range of BMI, with TE exercise showing a better side effect profile than SS. (orig.)

  7. Influence of body mass index and type of low-level exercise on the side effect profile of regadenoson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado-Garcia, Carlos; Jimenez-Heffernan, Amelia; Lopez-Martin, Juana; Molina-Mora, Manuela; Aroui, Tarik; Sanchez de Mora, Elena; Ramos-Font, Carlos; Rivera de los Santos, Francisco; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Regadenoson, an A_2_A adenosine receptor pharmacologic stress agent for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), is administered as a single, fixed dose. We studied the side effect profile of regadenoson combined with two types of low-level exercise, according to body mass index (BMI). Three hundred and fifty-six patients (46.1% men, mean age 67.7±10.7 years, range 31-90 years) underwent regadenoson stress testing combined with low-level exercise. Subjects were classified according to BMI as normal, overweight, or obese, and the type of low-level exercise performed as walking on the treadmill (TE group, n=190) or forcefully swinging legs while sitting (SS group, n=166). Patients' demographics, medical history, clinical symptoms during stress, changes in ECG, oxygen saturation (SatO_2), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Groups were comparable (p=ns) with regard to cardiovascular risks factors. The incidence of side effects was similar across BMI (p=ns), although the TE patients showed improved profiles over those with SS exercise, with a significantly lower incidence of flushing, dizziness and nausea/gastrointestinal discomfort (12.9% vs. 28.4%; 19.9% vs. 33.4%; 11.4% vs. 19.2%, respectively; all p<0.05). Regarding the hemodynamic response, we did not observe significant changes in SBP and HR after regadenoson administration across BMI categories. Comparing the TE and SS groups, no significant changes were observed in SBP, but there was a higher increase in HR in the TE group (p<0.05). Regadenoson in combination with low-level exercise is safe and well tolerated over a wide range of BMI, with TE exercise showing a better side effect profile than SS. (orig.)

  8. Effects of aerobic exercise and dietary carbohydrate on energy expenditure and body composition during weight reduction in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, S B; Schoeller, D A; Kushner, R F; Neil, K M; Herling-Iaffaldano, K

    1995-03-01

    To test the benefits of aerobic exercise and dietary carbohydrate during reduced-energy feeding, 23 obese women (44 +/- 4% fat) were randomly assigned to either aerobic exercise (Ex) or no exercise (Nx), and to a low-fat (LF) or low-carbohydrate (LC) reducing diet (5.00 +/- 0.56 MJ/d) for 12 wk. Changes in body composition, postabsorptive resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermic effect of a meal (TEM), and total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) were measured by respiratory gas exchange and doubly labeled water. Significant effects of Ex included a greater loss of fat mass (Ex: -8.8 +/- 2.1 vs Nx: -6.1 +/- 2.3 kg, P = 0.008) and maintenance of TDEE (Ex: +0.07 +/- 1.23 vs Nx: -1.46 +/- 1.04 MJ/d, P = 0.004), due to a difference in physical activity (Ex: +0.75 +/- 1.06 vs Nx: -0.61 +/- 1.03 MJ/d, P = 0.006), which was not attributable solely to the Ex sessions. RMR in both groups decreased comparably (-0.54 MJ/d), and TEM (% of meal) did not change. Diet composition did not significantly influence body composition or energy expenditure changes, but a greater weight loss was observed after the LC than after the LF (-10.6 +/- 2.0 vs -8.1 +/- 3.0 kg, P = 0.037) diet. The addition of aerobic exercise to a low-energy diet was beneficial in the treatment of moderate obesity because of its favorable effects on body composition, physical activity, and TDEE.

  9. The effects of an exercise training program on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in Tunisian obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofien Regaieg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of children obesity is rising alarmingly in both developed and developing countries. Developing effective exercise programs is a strategy for decreasing this prevalence and limiting obesity-associated long-term comorbidities. Objectives: To determine whether a 16-week training program; in addition to the school physical education and without dietary intervention; could have beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity of obese children. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight obese children (16 boys, 12 girls; aged 12-14 years were enrolled and were divided into either the exercise group (EG, n = 14 or the control group (CG, n = 14. EG participated in a 16-week aerobic exercises (four 60-min sessions per week at 70-85% of HRmax (maximum heart rate, in addition to the school physical education. Fat-Free Mass (FFM and Fat Mass (FM were assessed with bioelectrical impedance equipment. To assess aerobic capacity, maximal metabolic equivalent of task (METmax and maximal workload (Wmax were estimated with an electronically braked cycle ergometer (type Ergoline 500® . Results: At baseline, there were no differences between the two groups. After the training program, only the EG showed significant reduction in BMI (body mass index and waist circumference compared with the baseline values (P < 0.001. Exercise training significantly decreased FM only in the EG. A significant increase in FFM was seen in both groups; more marked in the EG. There was a significant increase in METmax (P < 0.05 and Wmax (P = 0.02 in the EG, and no significant changes in these parameters were seen in the CG. HRmax significantly decreased only in the EG (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This training program has beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in obese children. Our intervention has the advantage of providing a sustainable and reproducible school and community approach for the management of children obesity.

  10. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of exercise training versus hypocaloric diet: distinct effects on body weight and visceral adipose tissue.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheggen, R.J.; Maessen, M.F.; Green, D.J.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training ('exercise') and hypocaloric diet ('diet') are frequently prescribed for weight loss in obesity. Whilst body weight changes are commonly used to evaluate lifestyle interventions, visceral adiposity (VAT) is a more relevant and stronger predictor for morbidity and mortality. A

  11. Exercise restriction is not associated with increasing body mass index over time in patients with anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, James M; Elias, Matthew D; Wilder, Travis J; O'Brien, James E; Kim, Richard W; Mavroudis, Constantine; Williams, William G; Brothers, Julie; Cohen, Meryl S; McCrindle, Brian W

    2017-10-01

    Anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries is associated with exercise-induced ischaemia, leading some physicians to restrict exercise in patients with this condition. We sought to determine whether exercise restriction was associated with increasing body mass index over time. From 1998 to 2015, 440 patients ⩽30 years old were enrolled into an inception cohort. Exercise-restriction status was documented in 143 patients. Using linear mixed model repeated-measures regression, factors associated with increasing body mass index z-score over time, including exercise restriction and surgical intervention as time-varying covariates, were investigated. The 143 patients attended 558 clinic visits for which exercise-restriction status was recorded. The mean number of clinic visits per patient was 4, and the median duration of follow-up was 1.7 years (interquartile range (IQR) 0.5-4.4). The median age at first clinic visit was 10.3 years (IQR 7.1-13.9), and 71% (101/143) were males. All patients were alive at their most recent follow-up. At the first clinic visit, 54% (78/143) were exercise restricted, and restriction status changed in 34% (48/143) during follow-up. The median baseline body mass index z-score was 0.2 (IQR 0.3-0.9). In repeated-measures analysis, neither time-related exercise restriction nor its interaction with time was associated with increasing body mass index z-score. Surgical intervention and its interaction with time were associated with decreasing body mass index z-score. Although exercise restriction was not associated with increasing body mass index over time, surgical intervention was associated with decreasing body mass index z-score over time in patients with anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries.

  12. Body temperature and cold sensation during and following exercise under temperate room conditions in cold-sensitive young trained females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Aoki-Murakami, Erii; Tsuji, Bun; Kenny, Glen P; Nagashima, Kei; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated cold sensation at rest and in response to exercise-induced changes in core and skin temperatures in cold-sensitive exercise trained females. Fifty-eight trained young females were screened by a questionnaire, selecting cold-sensitive (Cold-sensitive, n  = 7) and non-cold-sensitive (Control, n  = 7) individuals. Participants rested in a room at 29.5°C for ~100 min after which ambient temperature was reduced to 23.5°C where they remained resting for 60 min. Participants then performed 30-min of moderate intensity cycling (50% peak oxygen uptake) followed by a 60-min recovery. Core and mean skin temperatures and cold sensation over the whole-body and extremities (fingers and toes) were assessed throughout. Resting core temperature was lower in the Cold-sensitive relative to Control group (36.4 ± 0.3 vs. 36.7 ± 0.2°C). Core temperature increased to similar levels at end-exercise (~37.2°C) and gradually returned to near preexercise rest levels at the end of recovery (>36.6°C). Whole-body cold sensation was greater in the Cold-sensitive relative to Control group during resting at a room temperature of 23.5°C only without a difference in mean skin temperature between groups. In contrast, cold sensation of the extremities was greater in the Cold-sensitive group prior to, during and following exercise albeit this was not paralleled by differences in mean extremity skin temperature. We show that young trained females who are sensitive to cold exhibit augmented whole-body cold sensation during rest under temperate ambient conditions. However, this response is diminished during and following exercise. In contrast, cold sensation of extremities is augmented during resting that persists during and following exercise. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  13. Whey protein improves HDL/non-HDL ratio and body weight gain in rats subjected to the resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely Raspante Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance exercise, such as weight-lifting (WL on the biochemical parameters of lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk in the rats fed casein (control or whey protein (WP diets. Thirty-two male Fisher rats were randomly assigned to sedentary or exercise-trained groups and were fed control or WP diets. The WL program consisted of inducing the animals to perform the sets of jumps with weights attached to the chest. After seven weeks, arteriovenous blood samples were collected for analysis. The WL or WP ingestion were able to improve the lipid profile, reducing the TC and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations, but only WP treatment significantly increased the serum HDL concentrations, thereby also affecting the TC/HDL and HDL/non-HDL ratios. However, WL plus WP was more effective in improving the HDL/non-HDL ratio than the exercise or WP ingestion alone and the body weight gain than exercise without WP ingestion.

  14. The Effectiveness of Whole Body Cryotherapy Compared to Cold Water Immersion: Implications for Sport and Exercise Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Holmes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cryotherapy is the process of cooling the body, is typically used therapeutically, and is often used as a method of recovery relative to sport and exercise performance.  The purpose of this review is to compare the current literature on WBC to that of CWI and determine whether WBC provides any additional enhancements for sport and exercise recovery. These include tissue temperature reduction, markers of muscle damage, markers of inflammation, and parasympathetic reactivation. Method: Common methods of cryotherapy include cold water immersion (CWI, ice packs, ice massages, and gel or cooling creams. CWI is the most common method among athletes; however, a new form of cryotherapy, known as whole-body cryotherapy (WBC, has recently emerged.  Since its introduction, WBC has grown in popularity among practitioners and athletes. WBC involves short exposures (generally between 2-4 minutes to very cold air (-100o C to -140o C in a controlled room and setting. Furthermore, many of the studies on WBC were observational and did not contain a control group. Conclusion: Despite its growing popularity, the alleged benefits of WBC are largely based on anecdotal evidence as randomized, clinically-controlled studies regarding its efficacy are limited.  Keywords: cryotherapy, cold water immersion, exercise, recovery, muscle damage, inflammation

  15. Effects of a 2-Year Supervised Exercise Program Upon the Body Composition and Muscular Performance of HIV-Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Lorena da Silva; Borges, Juliana Pereira; dos Santos, Fernanda Monteiro; de Oliveira, Taciana Pinto; Dupin, Jaciara Gomes; Harris, Elizabeth Assumpção; Farinatti, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Background : There is a lack of research investigating long-term effects of exercise training upon the body composition and muscle function in HIV-infected patients (PHIV). The study investigated the influence of a 2-year supervised exercise program on body composition and strength of PHIV under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods : A training program including aerobic, strength and flexibility exercises was performed by 27 PHIV (17 men/ 10 women; age: 48.7±7.0 years; HAART: 150.7±65.3 months) during 1 year and 18 PHIV (10 men/ 8 women; age: 50.6±5.2 years; HAART: 176.6±53.1 months) during 2 years. Body composition and knee isokinetic strength were assessed at baseline and at the end of each year of intervention. Results : Body composition remained stable along the whole experiment vs baseline (1-year - total muscle mass: Δ men=1.1%, P=0.21; Δ women=1.4%, P=0.06; trunk fat: Δ men=-0.1%, P=0.65; Δ women=-1.5%, P=0.45; 2 years - total muscle mass: Δ men=2.7%, P=0.54; Δ women=-1.9%, P=0.71; trunk fat: Δ men=4.4%, P=0.96; Δ women=10.0%, P=0.30). After 1-year, peak torque increased in men (Δ extension=4.2%, P=0.01; Δ flexion=12.2%, P=0.04) and total work reduced in women (Δ extension=-15.4%, P=0.01, Δ flexion=-17.5%, P=0.05). All strength markers remained stable vs baseline after 2 years of intervention (P>0.05). Only men showed significant reduction in the risk of disability due to sarcopenia (P=0.05) after 1 year of intervention, which remained stable after 2 years. Conclusion : Long-term exercise training preserved strength and muscle mass in PHIV under HAART. Exercise programs should be part of HIV therapy to prevent sarcopenia of this population along the years. Trial Registration : ACTRN12610000683033; UTN U1111-1116-4416. PMID:26587076

  16. Repeated prolonged whole-body low-intensity exercise: effects on insulin sensitivity and limb muscle adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Mikael; Overgaard, Kristian; Damsgaard, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    arbitrary units) than in the arm (54 ± 9 arbitrary units) and was not changed in the leg, but was increased (P increased glucose transporter expression in arm muscle may compensate for the loss of lean body mass...... or body mass, were not affected by the crossing. Citrate synthase activity was higher (P muscle (16 ± 2 µmol · g-1 · min-1) and was unchanged after the crossing. Muscle GLUT4 protein concentration was higher (P ...This study investigates the effect of prolonged whole-body low-intensity exercise on insulin sensitivity and the limb muscle adaptive response. Seven male subjects (weight, 90.2 ± 3.2 kg; age, 35 ± 3 years) completed a 32-day unsupported crossing of the Greenland icecap on cross-country skies...

  17. Body image satisfaction and the view of active old women about the influence of physical exercise in their self-image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josinéia Gresele Coradini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the body image satisfaction with 24 active elderly women, and to understand the view of these people about the connection between physical exercise and their body image. All of them answered to the scale proposed by Stunkard, Sorenson and Schlusinger, 1983 and to a semi-structured interview. 87.50% of the women were unsatisfied about the body image. From the reading and analysis of the speeches, it was formed two major categories and four subcategories. Thus, most of the elderly women are unsatisfied about their body image, but the proportionate benefits by the exercises are recognized.

  18. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise: implications for fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, T.; Lieshout, J.J. van; Secher, Niels

    2008-01-01

    During exercise: the Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) does not change because the jugular vein is collapsed in the upright position. In contrast, when CBF is evaluated by (133)Xe clearance, by flow in the internal carotid artery, or by flow velocity in basal cerebral arteries......, a approximately 25% increase is detected with a parallel increase in metabolism. During activation, an increase in cerebral O(2) supply is required because there is no capillary recruitment within the brain and increased metabolism becomes dependent on an enhanced gradient for oxygen diffusion. During maximal...... whole body exercise, however, cerebral oxygenation decreases because of eventual arterial desaturation and marked hyperventilation-related hypocapnia of consequence for CBF. Reduced cerebral oxygenation affects recruitment of motor units, and supplemental O(2) enhances cerebral oxygenation and work...

  19. Short duration small sided football and to a lesser extent whole body vibration exercise induce acute changes in markers of bone turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowtell, Joanna L.; Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    .8 ± 15.1 to 36.6 ± 14.7 μg·L(-1), P > 0.05). An increase in osteocalcin was observed 48 h after exercise (P type 1 collagen was not affected by exercise. Blood lactate concentration increased during exercise for FG15 (0......) small sided football or low magnitude whole body vibration training (VIB). Procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) was increased during exercise for FG15 (51.6 ± 23.0 to 56.5 ± 22.5 μg·L(-1), mean ± SD, P

  20. The functional state of cardiovascular system for boys 10 - 11 years old after static exercises with deadweight of body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proskurov E.M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of static power endurance of muscles of humeral belt, abdominal press and muscles of the back of schoolboys is investigational. Directions are selected of forming hygienically of correct pose of schoolboy, being in position sitting after an educational mestome. In research took part 50 schoolboys in age 10 years and 50 - in age 11 years. A reaction is studied cardiovascular system of students on static exercises with the deadweight of body. The features of reaction of frequency of pulse, arteriotony, cardiac troop landing and minute volume of blood of students on the static loadings are certain: handing on bent arms, exercises for muscles abdominal press lying on a stomach and on the back. It is set that the changes of functional indexes in the process of the static loading of most degree make progress for ten year schoolboys. To such indexes behave: diastole arteriotony, frequency of heart-throbs, systole arteriotony.

  1. The effects of adding single-joint exercises to a multi-joint exercise resistance training program on upper body muscle strength and size in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de França, Henrique Silvestre; Branco, Paulo Alexandre Nordeste; Guedes Junior, Dilmar Pinto; Gentil, Paulo; Steele, James; Teixeira, Cauê Vazquez La Scala

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was compare changes in upper body muscle strength and size in trained men performing resistance training (RT) programs involving multi-joint plus single-joint (MJ+SJ) or only multi-joint (MJ) exercises. Twenty young men with at least 2 years of experience in RT were randomized in 2 groups: MJ+SJ (n = 10; age, 27.7 ± 6.6 years) and MJ (n = 10; age, 29.4 ± 4.6 years). Both groups trained for 8 weeks following a linear periodization model. Measures of elbow flexors and extensors 1-repetition maximum (1RM), flexed arm circumference (FAC), and arm muscle circumference (AMC) were taken pre- and post-training period. Both groups significantly increased 1RM for elbow flexion (4.99% and 6.42% for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), extension (10.60% vs 9.79%, for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), FAC (1.72% vs 1.45%, for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), and AMC (1.33% vs 3.17% for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively). Comparison between groups revealed no significant difference in any variable. In conclusion, 8 weeks of RT involving MJ or MJ+SJ resulted in similar alterations in muscle strength and size in trained participants. Therefore, the addition of SJ exercises to a RT program involving MJ exercises does not seem to promote additional benefits to trained men, suggesting MJ-only RT to be a time-efficient approach.

  2. Are gender differences in upper-body power generated by elite cross-country skiers augmented by increasing the intensity of exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Myhre, Kenneth; Welde, Boye; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we evaluated the impact of exercise intensity on gender differences in upper-body poling among cross-country skiers, as well as the associated differences in aerobic capacity, maximal strength, body composition, technique and extent of training. Eight male and eight female elite skiers, gender-matched for level of performance by FIS points, carried out a 4-min submaximal, and a 3-min and 30-sec maximal all-out test of isolated upper-body double poling on a Concept2 ski ergometer. Maximal upper-body power and strength (1RM) were determined with a pull-down exercise. In addition, body composition was assessed with a DXA scan and training during the previous six months quantified from diaries. Relative to the corresponding female values (defined as 100%), the power output produced by the men was 88%, 95% and 108% higher during the submaximal, 3-min and 30-sec tests, respectively, and peak power in the pull-down strength exercise was 118% higher (all Pgender differences in upper-body power among cross-country skiers augmented as the intensity of exercise increased. The gender differences observed here are greater than those reported previously for both lower- and whole-body sports and coincided with greater peak aerobic capacity and maximal upper-body strength, relatively more muscle mass in the upper-body, and more extensive training of upper-body strength and endurance among the male skiers.

  3. Effects of exercise and group counselling on body composition and VO2max in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Kirsten K; Birkebaek, Camilla; Ravn, Pernille; Andersen, Marianne S; Glintborg, Dorte

    2013-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is often associated with an increased waist circumference and with lower cardio-respiratory fitness as a consequence of obesity, which may be improved by physical activity. To investigate the effect of high-intensity aerobic training combined with group counselling sessions on anthropometry and cardio-respiratory fitness in women with PCOS. Seventeen sedentary, overweight women with PCOS were randomized in a cross-over design to 16 weeks of intervention: eight weeks high-intensity aerobic exercise was followed by eight weeks of group counselling (n = 8) or vice versa (n = 9). Fourteen of the women completed the tests. Waist circumference, body mass index and maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max) ) were measured at baseline, cross-over and post-intervention. There was a decrease in waist circumference (119.9 vs. 106.5 cm) and body mass index (34.9 vs. 34.4 kg/m(2) ) and an increase in VO(2max) (2554.9 vs. 2807.9 mL/min) during the intervention period (t = 16 weeks, n = 14), all p group which started with group counselling (2.9 vs. 0.6 kg, t = 16 weeks, n = 14, p = 0.055). Exercise in groups followed by counselling or vice versa had beneficial effects on waist circumference, weight, and VO(2max) in women with PCOS. Future studies should examine possible beneficial effects of combined group counselling and exercise on weight loss and adherence to exercise protocols among women with PCOS. © 2013 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. High-Intensity Interval Exercises' Acute Impact on Heart Rate Variability: Comparison Between Whole-Body and Cycle Ergometer Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Gustavo Z; Del Vecchio, Fabrício B

    2018-01-01

    Schaun, GZ and Del Vecchio, FB. High-intensity interval exercises' acute impact on heart rate variability: comparison between whole-body and cycle ergometer protocols. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 223-229, 2018-Study aimed to compare the effects of 2 high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols on heart rate variability. Twelve young adult males (23.3 ± 3.9 years, 177.8 ± 7.4 cm, 76.9 ± 12.9 kg) volunteered to participate. In a randomized cross-over design, subjects performed 2 HIIT protocols, 1 on a cycle ergometer (Tabata protocol [TBT]; eight 20-second bouts at 170% Pmax interspersed by 10-second rest) and another with whole-body calisthenic exercises (McRae protocol; eight 20-second all-out intervals interspersed by 10-second rest). Heart rate variability outcomes in the time, frequency, and nonlinear domains were assessed on 3 moments: (a) presession; (b) immediately postsession; and (c) 24 hours postsession. Results revealed that RRmean, Ln rMSSD, Ln high frequency (HF), and Ln low frequency (LF) were significantly reduced immediately postsession (p ≤ 0.001) and returned to baseline 24 h after both protocols. In addition, LF/HF ratio was reduced 24 h postsession (p ≤ 0.01) and SD2 was significantly lower immediately postsession only in TBT. Our main finding was that responses from heart rate autonomic control were similar in both protocols, despite different modes of exercise performed. Specifically, exercises resulted in a high parasympathetic inhibition immediately after session with subsequent recovery within 1 day. These results suggest that subjects were already recovered the day after and can help coaches to better program training sessions with such protocols.

  5. Exercise and diet affect quantitative trait loci for body weight and composition traits in an advanced intercross population of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Scott A.; Hua, Kunjie; Pomp, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Driven by the recent obesity epidemic, interest in understanding the complex genetic and environmental basis of body weight and composition is great. We investigated this by searching for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting a number of weight and adiposity traits in a G10 advanced intercross population produced from crosses of mice in inbred strain C57BL/6J with those in a strain selected for high voluntary wheel running. The mice in this population were fed either a high-fat or a control diet throughout the study and also measured for four exercise traits prior to death, allowing us to test for pre- and postexercise QTLs as well as QTL-by-diet and QTL-by-exercise interactions. Our genome scan uncovered a number of QTLs, of which 40% replicated QTLs previously found for similar traits in an earlier (G4) generation. For those replicated QTLs, the confidence intervals were reduced from an average of 19 Mb in the G4 to 8 Mb in the G10. Four QTLs on chromosomes 3, 8, 13, and 18 were especially prominent in affecting the percentage of fat in the mice. About of all QTLs showed interactions with diet, exercise, or both, their genotypic effects on the traits showing a variety of patterns depending on the diet or level of exercise. It was concluded that the indirect effects of these QTLs provide an underlying genetic basis for the considerable variability in weight or fat loss typically found among individuals on the same diet and/or exercise regimen. PMID:23048196

  6. Use of dew-point hygrometry, direct sweat collection, and measurement of body water losses to determine sweating rates in exercising horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, J K; Geor, R J; McCutcheon, L J

    1997-02-01

    To compare dew-point hygrometry, direct sweat collection, and measurement of body water loss as methods for determination of sweating rate (SR) in exercising horses. 6 exercise-trained Thoroughbreds. SR was measured in 6 horses exercising at 40% of the speed that elicited maximum oxygen consumption for 45 km, with a 15-minute rest at the end of each 15-km phase. Each horse completed 2 exercise trials. Dew-point hygrometry, as a method of local SR determination, was validated in vitro by measurement of rate of evaporative water loss. During exercise, local SR was determined every 10 minutes by the following 2 methods: (1) dew-point hygrometry on the neck and lateral area of the thorax, and (2) on the basis of the volume of sweat collected from a sealed plastic pouch attached to the lateral area of the thorax. Mean whole body SR was calculated from total body water loss incurred during exercise. Evaporation rate measured by use of dew-point hygrometry was significantly correlated (r2 = 0.92) with the actual rate of evaporative water loss. There was a similar pattern of change in SR measured by dew-point hygrometry on the neck and lateral area of the thorax during exercise, with a significantly higher SR on the neck. The SR measured on the thorax by direct sweat collection and by dew-point hygrometry were of similar magnitude. Mean whole body SR calculated from total body water loss was not significantly different from mean whole body SR estimated from direct sweat collection or dew-point hygrometry measurements on the thorax. Dew-point hygrometry and direct sweat collection are useful methods for determination of local SR in horses during prolonged, steady-state exercise in moderate ambient conditions. Both methods of local SR determination provide an accurate estimated of whole body SR.

  7. Body fat loss and compensatory mechanisms in response to different doses of aerobic exercise - a randomized controlled trial in overweight sedentary males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mads Rosenkilde; Auerbach, Pernille Landrock; Reichkendler, Michala Holm

    2012-01-01

    The amount of weight loss induced by exercise is often disappointing. A diet-induced negative energy balance triggers compensatory mechanisms, e.g. lower metabolic rate and increased appetite. However, knowledge about potential compensatory mechanisms triggered by increased aerobic exercise...... is limited. A randomized controlled trial was performed in healthy sedentary moderately overweight young men to examine the effects of increasing doses of aerobic exercise on body composition, accumulated energy balance, and the degree of compensation. Eighteen participants were randomized to a continuous...... sedentary control group, 21 to a moderate (MOD; 300 kcal/day) and 22 to a high dose (HIGH; 600 kcal/day) exercise group for 13 weeks, corresponding to approximately 30 and 60 minutes of daily aerobic exercise, respectively. Body weight (MOD: -3.6kg, P...

  8. Plasma pH does not influence the cerebral metabolic ratio during maximal whole body exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Rasmussen, Peter; Seifert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    .05) following the Sal and Bicarb trials, respectively. Accordingly, the cerebral metabolic ratio decreased equally during the Sal and Bicarb trials: from 5.8 ± 0.6 at rest to 1.7 ± 0.1 and 1.8 ± 0.2, respectively. The enlarged blood-buffering capacity after infusion of Bicarb eliminated metabolic acidosis......Exercise lowers the cerebral metabolic ratio of O2 to carbohydrate (glucose + 1/2 lactate) and metabolic acidosis appears to promote cerebral lactate uptake. However, the influence of pH on cerebral lactate uptake and, in turn, on the cerebral metabolic ratio during exercise is not known. Sodium...... during maximal exercise but that did not affect the cerebral lactate uptake and, therefore, the decrease in the cerebral metabolic ratio....

  9. A comparison of thermoregulatory responses to exercise between mass-matched groups with large differences in body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervis, Sheila; Coombs, Geoff B; Chaseling, Georgia K; Filingeri, Davide; Smoljanic, Jovana; Jay, Ollie

    2016-03-15

    We sought to determine 1) the influence of adiposity on thermoregulatory responses independently of the confounding biophysical factors of body mass and metabolic heat production (Hprod); and 2) whether differences in adiposity should be accounted for by prescribing an exercise intensity eliciting a fixed Hprod per kilogram of lean body mass (LBM). Nine low (LO-BF) and nine high (HI-BF) body fat males matched in pairs for total body mass (TBM; LO-BF: 88.7 ± 8.4 kg, HI-BF: 90.1 ± 7.9 kg; P = 0.72), but with distinctly different percentage body fat (%BF; LO-BF: 10.8 ± 3.6%; HI-BF: 32.0 ± 5.6%; P mass and Hprod, possibly due to a lower mean specific heat capacity or impaired sudomotor control. However, thermoregulatory responses of groups with different adiposity levels should not be compared using a fixed Hprod in watts per kilogram lean body mass. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Soy versus whey protein bars: Effects on exercise training impact on lean body mass and antioxidant status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaknia Ari

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although soy protein may have many health benefits derived from its associated antioxidants, many male exercisers avoid soy protein. This is due partly to a popular, but untested notion that in males, soy is inferior to whey in promoting muscle weight gain. This study provided a direct comparison between a soy product and a whey product. Methods Lean body mass gain was examined in males from a university weight training class given daily servings of micronutrient-fortified protein bars containing soy or whey protein (33 g protein/day, 9 weeks, n = 9 for each protein treatment group. Training used workouts with fairly low repetition numbers per set. A control group from the class (N = 9 did the training, but did not consume either type protein bar. Results Both the soy and whey treatment groups showed a gain in lean body mass, but the training-only group did not. The whey and training only groups, but not the soy group, showed a potentially deleterious post-training effect on two antioxidant-related related parameters. Conclusions Soy and whey protein bar products both promoted exercise training-induced lean body mass gain, but the soy had the added benefit of preserving two aspects of antioxidant function.

  11. Functional synergies underlying control of upright posture during changes in head orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunse Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of human upright posture typically have stressed the need to control ankle and hip joints to achieve postural stability. Recent studies, however, suggest that postural stability involves multi degree-of-freedom (DOF coordination, especially when performing supra-postural tasks. This study investigated kinematic synergies related to control of the body's position in space (two, four and six DOF models and changes in the head's orientation (six DOF model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects either tracked a vertically moving target with a head-mounted laser pointer or fixated a stationary point during 4-min trials. Uncontrolled manifold (UCM analysis was performed across tracking cycles at each point in time to determine the structure of joint configuration variance related to postural stability or tracking consistency. The effect of simulated removal of covariance among joints on that structure was investigated to further determine the role of multijoint coordination. Results indicated that cervical joint motion was poorly coordinated with other joints to stabilize the position of the body center of mass (CM. However, cervical joints were coordinated in a flexible manner with more caudal joints to achieve consistent changes in head orientation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: An understanding of multijoint coordination requires reference to the stability/control of important performance variables. The nature of that coordination differs depending on the reference variable. Stability of upright posture primarily involved multijoint coordination of lower extremity and lower trunk joints. Consistent changes in the orientation of the head, however, required flexible coordination of those joints with motion of the cervical spine. A two-segment model of postural control was unable to account for the observed stability of the CM position during the tracking task, further supporting the need to consider multijoint coordination to

  12. Body composition influenced by progressive elastic band resistance exercise of sarcopenic obesity elderly women: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Ku, Jan-Wen; Lin, Li-Fong; Liao, Chun-De; Chou, Lin-Chuan; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2017-08-01

    Sarcopenia involves age-related decreases in muscle strength and muscle mass, leading to frailty and disability in elderly people. When combined with obesity, it is defined as sarcopenic obesity (SO), which can result in more functional limitations and metabolic disorders than either disorder alone. The aim of this study was to investigate body composition changes after elastic band resistance training in elderly women with SO. Randomized single-blinded (assessor blinded) controlled pilot trial. Academic medical center. Thirty-five elderly (>60 years old) women with SO. This pilot randomized controlled trial focused on elderly women with SO. The study group underwent progressive elastic band resistance training for 12 weeks (3 times per week). The control group received only a 40-minute lesson about the exercise concept. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed before and after intervention to evaluate body composition. Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to analyze the differences within and between these groups. In total, 35 elderly women with SO were enrolled and divided into study (N.=18) and control groups (N.=17). No difference was observed in age, biochemical parameters, or Body Mass Index between both groups. After the intervention, the fat proportion of body composition in the right upper extremity (P=0.03), left upper extremity (P=0.04), total fat (P=0.035), and fat percentage (P=0.012) had decreased, and bone mineral density (BMD) (P=0.026), T-score (P=0.028), and Z-score (P=0.021) had increased in the study group. Besides, statistical difference was observed in outcome measurements of right upper extremity (P=0.013), total fat (P=0.023), and fat percentage (P=0.012) between the groups. Our study demonstrated that progressive elastic band resistance exercise can reduce fat mass and increase BMD in elderly women with SO, and that this exercise program is feasible for this demographic. Additional studies with larger sample sizes

  13. Body temperature responses in spinal cord injured individuals during exercise in the cold and heat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, C.R.L.; Binkhorst, R.A.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of arm exercise on the heat balance in spinal cord-injured (SCI) individuals with complete lesions at ambient temperatures of 10 and 35 degrees C. Four SCI with a high lesion (> or = T6) (SCI-H), seven with a low lesion (< T6) (SCI-L), and ten

  14. Influence of Exercise Order on Electromyographic Activity During Upper Body Resistance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soncin Rafael

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise order on electromyographic activity in different muscle groups among youth men with experience in strength training. Three sets of 8 RM were performed of each exercise in two sequences order: (a sequence A: bench press, chest fly, shoulder press, shoulder abduction, close grip bench press and lying triceps extension; (b sequence B: the opposite order. The electromyographic activity was analyzed in the sternocostal head of the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and long head triceps brachii, normalized for maximal voluntary isometric contraction. The muscles activity of the sternocostal head of the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and long head triceps brachii showed significant interaction between sequence and exercise. The sternocostal head of the pectoralis major showed considerably higher activity in sequence A (100.13 ± 13.56% than sequence B (81.47 ± 13.09% for the chest fly. The anterior deltoid showed significantly higher electromyographic activity in sequence B (86.81 ± 40.43% than sequence A (66.15 ± 22.02% for the chest fly, whereas for the lying triceps extension, the electromyographic activity was significantly higher in sequence A (53.89 ± 27.09% than sequence B (34.32 ± 23.70%. For the long head triceps brachii, only the shoulder press showed differences between sequences (A = 52.43 ± 14.64 vs. B = 38.53 ± 16.26. The present study showed that the exercise order could modify the training results even though there was no alteration in volume and intensity of the exercise. These changes may result in different training adaptations.

  15. Complex network models reveal correlations among network metrics, exercise intensity and role of body changes in the fatigue process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vanessa Helena; Gama, Maria Carolina Traina; Sousa, Filipe Antônio Barros; Lewis, Theodore Gyle; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia Barros

    2015-05-01

    The aims of the present study were analyze the fatigue process at distinct intensity efforts and to investigate its occurrence as interactions at distinct body changes during exercise, using complex network models. For this, participants were submitted to four different running intensities until exhaustion, accomplished in a non-motorized treadmill using a tethered system. The intensities were selected according to critical power model. Mechanical (force, peak power, mean power, velocity and work) and physiological related parameters (heart rate, blood lactate, time until peak blood lactate concentration (lactate time), lean mass, anaerobic and aerobic capacities) and IPAQ score were obtained during exercises and it was used to construction of four complex network models. Such models have both, theoretical and mathematical value, and enables us to perceive new insights that go beyond conventional analysis. From these, we ranked the influences of each node at the fatigue process. Our results shows that nodes, links and network metrics are sensibility according to increase of efforts intensities, been the velocity a key factor to exercise maintenance at models/intensities 1 and 2 (higher time efforts) and force and power at models 3 and 4, highlighting mechanical variables in the exhaustion occurrence and even training prescription applications.

  16. Reliability of an incremental exercise test to evaluate acute blood lactate, heart rate and body temperature responses in Labrador retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferasin, Luca; Marcora, Samuele

    2009-10-01

    Thirteen healthy Labrador retrievers underwent a 5-stage incremental treadmill exercise test to assess its reliability. Blood lactate (BL), heart rate (HR), and body temperature (BT) were measured at rest, after each stage of exercise, and after a 20-min recovery. Reproducibility was assessed by repeating the test after 7 days. Two-way MANOVAs revealed significant differences between consecutive stages, and between values at rest and after recovery. There was also a significant reduction in physiological strain between the first and second trial (learning effect). Test reliability expressed as typical error (BL = 0.22 mmol/l, HR = 9.81 bpm, BT = 0.22 degrees C), coefficient of variation (BL = 19.3%, HR = 7.9% and BT = 0.6%) and test-retest correlation (BL = 0.89, HR = 0.96, BT = 0.95) was good. Results support test reproducibility although the learning effect needs to be controlled when investigating the exercise-related problems commonly observed in this breed.

  17. RELEVANCE OF WHOLE BODY VIBRATION EXERCISE IN SPORT: A SHORT REVIEW WITH SOCCER, DIVER AND COMBAT SPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Danielle Soares; Dionello, Carla da Fontoura; Moreira-Marconi, Eloá; Brandão-Sobrinho-Neto, Samuel; Paineiras-Domingos, Laisa Liane; Souza, Patrícia Lopes; Sá-Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha; Dias, Glenda; Figueiredo, Claudia; Carmo, Roberto Carlos Resende; Paiva, Patrícia de Castro; Sousa-Gonçalves, Cintia Renata; Kütter, Cristiane Ribeiro; Guedes-Aguiar, Eliane de Oliveira; Cloak, Ross; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Whole body vibration exercise (WBVE) has been used as a safe and accessible exercise and important reviews have been published about the use of this exercise to manage diseases and to improve physical conditions of athletes The aim of this paper is to highlight the relevance of WBVE to soccer players, divers and combat athletes. This study was made through a systematic review of publications involving WBVE and the selected sports in two databases (Pubmed and PEDRo). It were identified 10 studies involving WBVE and sports (6 of soccer, 2 of diving and 2 of sport combat) with 156 subjects (80 soccer players, 32 divers and 44 combat athletes), with age from 17 to 44 years old. The use of WBVE has proven to be a safe and useful strategy to improve the physical conditions of players of different sports. These findings may have clinical relevance and should be considered as a strategy to be used to try improve the physical conditions of players.

  18. A Controlled Intervention to Promote a Healthy Body Image, Reduce Eating Disorder Risk and Prevent Excessive Exercise among Trainee Health Education and Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…

  19. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of exercise training versus hypocaloric diet: distinct effects on body weight and visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, R J H M; Maessen, M F H; Green, D J; Hermus, A R M M; Hopman, M T E; Thijssen, D H T

    2016-08-01

    Exercise training ('exercise') and hypocaloric diet ('diet') are frequently prescribed for weight loss in obesity. Whilst body weight changes are commonly used to evaluate lifestyle interventions, visceral adiposity (VAT) is a more relevant and stronger predictor for morbidity and mortality. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the effects of exercise or diet on VAT (quantified by radiographic imaging). Relevant databases were searched through May 2014. One hundred seventeen studies (n = 4,815) were included. We found that both exercise and diet cause VAT loss (P diet versus training, diet caused a larger weight loss (P = 0.04). In contrast, a trend was observed towards a larger VAT decrease in exercise (P = 0.08). Changes in weight and VAT showed a strong correlation after diet (R(2)  = 0.737, P diet showed virtually no change (1.1%). In conclusion, both exercise and diet reduce VAT. Despite a larger effect of diet on total body weight loss, exercise tends to have superior effects in reducing VAT. Finally, total body weight loss does not necessarily reflect changes in VAT and may represent a poor marker when evaluating benefits of lifestyle-interventions. © 2016 World Obesity.

  20. Periodic upright posture negates the suppression of neuroendocrine response to head down bedrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Vernikos, J.; Evans, J.; Ohara, D.

    1992-01-01

    Head down bedrest (HDT) decreases plasma neurohormone levels, attaining a nadir within four hours. The present study evaluates the effect of periodic standing or exercises (+G(z)) on this acute suppression of plasma neurohormones. Methods: Nine male subjects (mean plus or minus SE age 37 plus or minus 2 yr; height 182 plus or minus 2 cm; weight 83 plus or minus 3 kg) were admitted to the Human Research Facility on three occasions separated by one month. Subjects were assigned to head down tilt (minus 6 degrees) or 15-minutes of standing or moderate exercise at the end of each hour. Initially during an ambulatory period, subjects were placed in a supine position for 45-min and a control blood sample obtained. The next day following 4 hours of HDT with or without standing or exercise a blood sample was taken 45-min (3 3/4 hours into HDT) after the preceding stand or exercise. Blood was withdrawn and all plasma samples frozen for determination of neurohormone levels within the same assay. Plasma aldosterone, Plasma Renin Activity (PRA) vasopressin (AVP) and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) levels were measured by electrochemical detection following HPLC. Values were compared by ANOVA, P less than 0.05. Results: Control levels following 45-min supine were not different between treatments. HDT suppressed plasma aldosterone (13.9 plus or minus 3.7 to 6.6 plus or minus 0.7 ng/dl) and NE levels (299 plus or minus 35 to 217 plus or minus 23 pg/dl), E (69 plus or minus 15 to 65 plus or minus 21 pg/ml), and PRA (0.64 plus or minus 0.13 to 0.58 plus or minus 0.17 ngAl/m/hr) were not significantly altered. Standing or exercise negated the decrease in aldosterone and NE levels due to HDT. Conclusions: Periodic upright posture (+G(z)) with or without exercise for 15-min out of each hour negates the acute suppression of aldosterone and NE associated with HDT.

  1. Beneficial effects of training at the anaerobic threshold in addition to pharmacotherapy on weight loss, body composition, and exercise performance in women with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcelik O

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oguz Ozcelik,1 Yusuf Ozkan,2 Sermin Algul,1 Ramis Colak2,3 1Department of Physiology, 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, 3Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey Objective: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of weight loss achieved through orlistat therapy alone or a combination of orlistat and an aerobic exercise training program on aerobic fitness and body composition in obese females.Methods: Twenty-eight obese patients were randomly assigned to receive 12-week treatment with hypocaloric diet–orlistat or diet–orlistat–exercise. Each participant performed an incremental ramp exercise test every 4 weeks to measure aerobic fitness. Fourteen participants performed continuous exercise (approximately 45 minutes per session at a work rate corresponding to the anaerobic threshold three times per week.Results: A decrease in the fat mass to body weight ratio of 3.8% (P=0.006 was observed at the end of the 12 weeks in the orlistat group, while a decrease of 9.5% (P=0.001 was seen in the orlistat–exercise group. Maximal exercise capacity increased by 46.5% in the orlistat–exercise group and by 19.5% in the orlistat group.Conclusion: While orlistat therapy resulted in an improvement in body composition and aerobic fitness at the end of the 12-week period, its combination with exercise training provided improvements in the same parameters within the first 4 weeks of the study. These additional beneficial effects of combining aerobic exercise with orlistat therapy are important with regards to obesity-associated risk factors. Keywords: obesity, orlistat, body mass index, anaerobic threshold, aerobic fitness

  2. The effects of exercise training in addition to energy restriction on functional capacities and body composition in obese adults during weight loss: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint T Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. RESULTS: Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. CONCLUSION: Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits.

  3. The Effects of Exercise Training in Addition to Energy Restriction on Functional Capacities and Body Composition in Obese Adults during Weight Loss: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clint T.; Fraser, Steve F.; Levinger, Itamar; Straznicky, Nora E.; Dixon, John B.; Reynolds, John; Selig, Steve E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. Methods Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. Results Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. Conclusion Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits. PMID:24409219

  4. Obesity, body image, and its impact on children's eating and exercise behaviors in China: A nationwide longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jungwon; Yan, Alice Fang; Wang, Vivian H C; Wang, Youfa

    2018-01-01

    Body image seems to mediate the association between obesity and health behaviors as well as weight control attempts. We examined the distribution of children's body image by demographic characteristics and their subsequent associations with eating, exercise, and weight change. Child body image and health behaviors from the China Health National Survey 2000-2011 were assessed at baseline and in follow-up for 6- to 17-year-old children during 2000-2011 using mixed models. There was a large discrepancy between children's actual weight status (overweight: 16.9%) vs. self-rated body image (fat: 2.4% in 2011). Less than 1% of children desired a fat body; girls were more likely to want to be thin (52.5% vs. 40.9%) than boys. About 11% of children needed to lose weight in order to be at their desired baseline. During follow-up, those needing weight loss to be as desired were more likely to attempt dieting to change their weight (OR, 95% CI=1.9, 1.1-3.5 in boys; 1.7, 1.1-2.5 in girls) and less likely to feel they had enough physical activity (OR, 95% CI=0.5, 0.4-0.7 in boys; 0.6, 0.5-0.9 in girls), although their weight gain had been significantly higher than those having consistent self and desired body images (β [SE]=0.4 [0.1] in boys; 0.2 [0.1] in girls, all pbody image discrepancy. The discrepancy in self vs. desired body image motivated children to change their obesity-related health behaviors among non-overweight children in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Distribution of Body Weight Force on Toe and Heel before and after Exercise Therapy in Children with Spastic Diplegia Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Sharif-Moradi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the distribution of body weight force on toe and heel before and after exercise therapy and its effects on relaxation of children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy. Materials & Methods: Ten children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy between 8 to15 years of age participated in this study. Their mean weight and height were (30.8kg ± 5.7kg and (1.35m±0.09m respectively. Subjects underwent a 12 weeks of exercise therapy. A dynamic stability platform system (BIODEX was used to measure the mean percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal. The balance tests were repeated on stable, almost stable and unstable base of support as well as with and without shoes. Results: Showed that the mean percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal after exercise therapy was not significant (p>0.05. The mean percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal was significantly decrease after exercise therapy in both with and without shoes (p<0.05. The greatest improvement achieved on almost stable and unstable conditions. Wearing shoes resulted in a balance percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal on stable situation of stability platform the percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal has no difference before and after exercise therapy. After exercise therapy strengthening the muscle of the ankle joint balance the percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal. Wearing shoes decrease the muscle stretch and therefore balance the percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal. Conclusion: The flexibility of spastic muscle and strengthening of the relax muscle must be perform. This result provides good information for physician in recognizing and therapy impacts on cerebral palsy children.

  6. Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Mike D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study's purpose investigated the impact of different macronutrient distributions and varying caloric intakes along with regular exercise for metabolic and physiological changes related to weight loss. Methods One hundred forty-one sedentary, obese women (38.7 ± 8.0 yrs, 163.3 ± 6.9 cm, 93.2 ± 16.5 kg, 35.0 ± 6.2 kg•m-2, 44.8 ± 4.2% fat were randomized to either no diet + no exercise control group (CON a no diet + exercise control (ND, or one of four diet + exercise groups (high-energy diet [HED], very low carbohydrate, high protein diet [VLCHP], low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet [LCMP] and high carbohydrate, low protein [HCLP] in addition to beginning a 3x•week-1 supervised resistance training program. After 0, 1, 10 and 14 weeks, all participants completed testing sessions which included anthropometric, body composition, energy expenditure, fasting blood samples, aerobic and muscular fitness assessments. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05 with LSD post-hoc analysis when appropriate. Results All dieting groups exhibited adequate compliance to their prescribed diet regimen as energy and macronutrient amounts and distributions were close to prescribed amounts. Those groups that followed a diet and exercise program reported significantly greater anthropometric (waist circumference and body mass and body composition via DXA (fat mass and % fat changes. Caloric restriction initially reduced energy expenditure, but successfully returned to baseline values after 10 weeks of dieting and exercising. Significant fitness improvements (aerobic capacity and maximal strength occurred in all exercising groups. No significant changes occurred in lipid panel constituents, but serum insulin and HOMA-IR values decreased in the VLCHP group. Significant reductions in serum leptin occurred in all caloric restriction + exercise groups after 14 weeks, which were unchanged in other non-diet/non-exercise

  7. Validity of Devices That Assess Body Temperature During Outdoor Exercise in the Heat

    OpenAIRE

    Casa, Douglas J; Becker, Shannon M; Ganio, Matthew S; Brown, Christopher M; Yeargin, Susan W; Roti, Melissa W; Siegler, Jason; Blowers, Julie A; Glaviano, Neal R; Huggins, Robert A; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2007-01-01

    Context: Rectal temperature is recommended by the National Athletic Trainers' Association as the criterion standard for recognizing exertional heat stroke, but other body sites commonly are used to measure temperature. Few authors have assessed the validity of the thermometers that measure body temperature at these sites in athletic settings.

  8. Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-27

    Oct 27, 2016 ... maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) is proportional to the fractal extent ... metabolic rate with body mass can be obtained by taking body .... blood takes place. ..... MMR and BMR is that MMR is owing mainly to respiration in skeletal .... the spectra of surface area scaling strategies of cells and organisms:.

  9. The effect of body posture during medication inhalation on exercise induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, R.; Wind, M.; de Graaf, B.J.; de Jong, F.H.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Thio, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Inhaling medication in a standard body posture leads to impaction of particles in the sharp angle of the upper airway. Stretching the upper airway by extending the neck in a forward leaning body posture may improve pulmonary deposition. A single dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)

  10. Ejection fraction response to exercise in patients with chest pain and normal coronary arteriograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, R.L.; Lee, K.L.; Cobb, F.; Jones, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    In this study we describe the ejection fraction response to upright exercise using first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography in a group of 60 patients with chest pain, normal coronary ateriograms and normal resting ventricular function. A wide range of resting function (heart rate and ejection fraction) and exercise function (heart rate, ejection fraction, peak work load and estimated peak oxygen uptake) were measured. The ejection fraction response to exercise demonstrated wide variation, ranging from a decrease of 23% to an increase of 24%. Six of 22 clinical and radionuclide angiocardiographic variables (resting ejection fraction, peak work load, age, sex, body surface area and the change in end-diastolic volume index with exercise) were significant univariate predictors of the ejection fraction response to exercise. Multivariable analysis identified resting ejection fraction, the change in end-diastolic volume index with exercise and either sex or peak work load as variables that provided significant independent predictive information. These observations indicate that the ejection fraction response to exercise is a complex response that is influenced by multiple physiologic variables. The wide variation in this population suggests that the ejection fraction response to exercise is not a reliable test for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease because of its low specificity

  11. Correlations between measurement time and different expansibility of the elastic tape on the rectus femoris and body sway index with plyometric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung-Gyu

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between measurement time and different expansibility of the elastic tape on the rectus femoris and body sway index with plyometric exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 24 healthy men. C90 area, C90 angle, trace length, sway average velocity for body sway index were measured using a force plate by BT4. The collected data were analyzed using Kendall's coefficient of concordance. [Results] All of body sway index on measuring follow up 24 hours after removing tape were significantly decreased than before and right after plyometric exercise. No significant correlations were found between body sway index and different expansibility of the elastic tape. [Conclusion] It appears that different expansibility of the elastic tape does not affect the ability to body sway index. Carry over effect of taping was verified on measuring follow up 24 hours after removing tape through the decreasing body sway index.

  12. Moderate exercise during pregnancy in Wistar rats alters bone and body composition of the adult offspring in a sex-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brielle V Rosa

    Full Text Available Exercise during pregnancy may have long-lasting effects on offspring health. Musculoskeletal growth and development, metabolism, and later-life disease risk can all be impacted by the maternal environment during pregnancy. The skeleton influences glucose handling through the actions of the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of moderate maternal exercise during pregnancy on the bone and body composition of the offspring in adult life, and to investigate the role of osteocalcin in these effects. Groups of pregnant Wistar rats either performed bipedal standing exercise to obtain food/water throughout gestation but not lactation, or were fed conventionally. Litters were reduced to 8/dam and pups were raised to maturity under control conditions. Whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the right tibia were performed. At study termination blood and tissue samples were collected. Serum concentrations of fully and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured, and the relative expression levels of osteocalcin, insulin receptor, Forkhead box transcription factor O1, and osteotesticular protein tyrosine phosphatase mRNA were quantified. Body mass did not differ between the offspring of exercised and control dams, but the male offspring of exercised dams had a greater % fat and lower % lean than controls (p=0.001 and p=0.0008, respectively. At the mid-tibial diaphysis, offspring of exercised dams had a lower volumetric bone mineral density than controls (p=0.01 and in the male offspring of exercised dams the bone: muscle relationship was fundamentally altered. Serum concentrations of undercarboxylated osteocalcin were significantly greater in the male offspring of exercised dams than in controls (p=0.02; however, the relative expression of the measured genes did not differ between groups. These results suggest that moderate exercise during

  13. The efficacy of the upright position on gastro-esophageal reflux and reflux-related respiratory symptoms in infants with chronic respiratory symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo Jin; Yang, Hyeon Jong; Min, Taek Ki; Jeon, You Hoon; Lee, Hae Won; Lee, Jun Sung; Pyun, Bok Yang

    2012-01-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER), particularly non-acid reflux, is common in infants and is a known cause of chronic respiratory symptoms in infancy. Recent guidelines recommended empirical acid suppression therapy and the head-up position in patients with suspected GER. However, the efficacy of the upright position in relieving GER and reflux-related respiratory symptoms in infants is unclear. We conducted this study to investigate the efficacy of the upright position on GER and reflux-related respiratory symptoms in infants with chronic respiratory symptoms. Thirty-two infants (21 male; median age, 5 months; range, 0 to 19 months) with unexplained chronic respiratory symptoms underwent multi-channel intraluminal esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. We retrospectively compared the frequencies of GER and reflux-related symptoms according to body position. A mean of 3.30 episodes of reflux per hour was detected. Overall, refluxes were more frequent during the postprandial period than the emptying period (3.77 vs. 2.79 episodes/hour, respectively; P=0.01). Although there was no significant difference in the total refluxes per hour between the upright and recumbent positions (6.12 vs. 3.77 episodes, P=0.10), reflux-related respiratory symptoms per reflux were significantly fewer in infants kept in an upright position than in a recumbent position during the postprandial period (3.07% vs. 14.75%, P=0.016). Non-acid reflux was the predominant type of reflux in infants, regardless of body position or meal time. The upright position may reduce reflux-related respiratory symptoms, rather than reflux frequency. Thus, it may be a useful non-pharmacological treatment for infantile GER disease resistant to acid suppressants.

  14. Pilates versus resistance exercise on the serum levels of hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference and body mass index (BMI) in elderly individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Pestana, Maria Dida Silva; Netto, Eduardo Martins; Pestana, Manuella Castro Silva; Pestana, Vitor Silva; Schinoni, Maria Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the elderly exhibit a subclinical state of inflammation associated with increased adipose tissue and several comorbidities. To compare the effects of mat Pilates based exercises and resistance exercise on the serum levels of reactive C protein of high sensitivity (hs-CRP), in the abdominal circumference (AC) and the body mass index (BMI) in the elderly. It is a randomised clinical trial with a sample of 78 elderly individuals (median age 69 years). The active in...

  15. The effects of a single whole body cryotherapy exposure on physiological, performance and perceptual responses of professional academy soccer players following repeated sprint exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Mark; Birch, Jack; Love, Thomas; Cook, Christian; Bracken, Richard M.; Taylor, Tom; Swift, Eamon; Cockburn, Emma; Finn, Charlie; Cunningham, Daniel; Wilson, Laura; Kilduff, Liam P.

    2017-01-01

    In professional youth soccer players, the physiological, performance and perceptual effects of a single whole body cryotherapy (WBC) session performed shortly after repeated sprint exercise were investigated. In a randomized, counter-balanced and crossover design, 14 habituated English Premier League academy soccer players performed 15 x 30 m sprints (each followed by a 10 m forced deceleration) on two occasions. Within 20 min of exercise cessation, players entered a WBC chamber (Cryo: 30 s a...

  16. The Effect of Submaximal Exercise Preceded by Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy on the Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Blood of Volleyball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Jurecka, Alicja; Woźniak, Alina; Szpinda, Michał; Augustyńska, Beata; Woźniak, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) session applied prior to submaximal exercise on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, total oxidative status, and the level of cytokines in blood of volleyball players. The study group consisted of 18 male professional volleyball players, who were subjected to extremely cold air (−130°C) prior to exercise performed on cycloergometer. Blood samples were taken...

  17. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition Responses to Different Intensities and Frequencies of Exercise Training in Colorectal Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devin, James L; Jenkins, David G; Sax, Andrew T; Hughes, Gareth I; Aitken, Joanne F; Chambers, Suzanne K; Dunn, Jeffrey C; Bolam, Kate A; Skinner, Tina L

    2018-06-01

    Deteriorations in cardiorespiratory fitness (V˙o 2peak ) and body composition are associated with poor prognosis after colorectal cancer treatment. However, the optimal intensity and frequency of aerobic exercise training to improve these outcomes in colorectal cancer survivors is unknown. This trial compared 8 weeks of moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE; 50 minutes; 70% peak heart rate [HR peak ]; 24 sessions), with high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE; 4 × 4 minutes; 85%-95% HR peak ) at an equivalent (HIIE; 24 sessions) and tapered frequency (HIIE-T; 16 sessions) on V˙o 2peak and on lean and fat mass, measured at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Increases in V˙o 2peak were significantly greater after both 4 (+3.0 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 , P = .008) and 8 (+2.3 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 , P = .049) weeks of HIIE compared to MICE. After 8 weeks, there was a significantly greater reduction in fat mass after HIIE compared to MICE (-0.7 kg, P = .038). Four weeks after training, the HIIE group maintained elevated V˙o 2peak (+3.3 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 , P = .006) and reduced fat mass (-0.7 kg, P = .045) compared to the MICE group, with V˙o 2peak in the HIIE-T also being superior to the MICE group (+2.8 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 , P = .013). Compared to MICE, HIIE promotes superior improvements and short-term maintenance of V˙o 2peak and fat mass improvements. HIIE training at a reduced frequency also promotes maintainable cardiorespiratory fitness improvements. In addition to promoting accelerated and superior benefits to the current aerobic exercise guidelines, HIIE promotes clinically relevant improvements even with a substantial reduction in exercise training and for a period after withdrawal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. H eat storage in upper and lower body during high-intensity exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, this study was designed to describe heat storage in the upper and lower bodies of SCI and able-bodied (AB) athletes. Procedure: Seven SCI and 8 AB athletes (matched for arm-crank VO2 peak) performed a ramp protocol in an environment similar to an indoor competitive environment (21˚C±1.5˚C, 55±3% ...

  19. The Ability to Assume the Upright Position in Blind and Sighted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipsman, Sandra Curtis

    To investigate the ability of 48 blind and partially sighted children (8 to 10 and 12 to 14 years old) to assume the upright position, Ss were given six trials in which they were requested to move themselves from a tilted starting position in a specially constructed chair to an upright position. No significant differences were found between three…

  20. Whole-Body Vibration Exercise for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess the effects of WBV exercise on patients with KOA. Methods. Eight databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database, CNKI, and Wanfang were searched up to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs of WBV for KOA were eligible. The outcomes were pain intensity, functional performances, self-reported status, adverse events, and muscle strength. A meta-analysis was conducted. Results. Five trials with 168 participants provided data for the meta-analysis. No significant difference was shown in pain intensity and self-reported status between WBV and other forms of exercise. Improvement in functional performance (evaluated by BBS; WMD, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.29 to 4.62; P=0.0005 was greater in WBV group, but the other parameters of functional performance (including 6MWT and TGUG revealed no statistically significant difference. Adverse events were only reported in one trial and no significant difference was discovered in muscle strength. The overall quality of evidence was very low. Conclusion. Currently there is only limited evidence that suggested that WBV is effective in the treatment of KOA. Large, well-designed RCTs with better designs are needed.

  1. Design optimization of rear uprights for UniMAP Automotive Racing Team Formula SAE racing car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmeer, M.; Basha, M. H.; Hamid, M. F.; Rahman, M. T. A.; Hashim, M. S. M.

    2017-10-01

    In an automobile, the rear upright are used to provide a physical mounting and links the suspension arms to the hub and wheel assembly. In this work, static structural and shape optimization analysis for rear upright for UniMAP’s Formula SAE racing car had been done using ANSYS software with the objective to reduce weight while maintaining the structural strength of the vehicle upright. During the shape optimization process, the component undergoes 25%, 50% and 75 % weight reduction in order to find the best optimal shape of the upright. The final design of the upright is developed considering the weight reduction, structural integrity and the manufacturability. The final design achieved 21 % weight reduction and is able to withstand several loads.

  2. Afferent thermosensory function in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis following exercise-induced increases in body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Chaseling, Georgia; Hoang, Phu; Barnett, Michael; Davis, Scott L; Jay, Ollie

    2017-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? Between 60 and 80% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients experience transient worsening of symptoms with increased body temperature (heat sensitivity). As sensory abnormalities are common in MS, we asked whether afferent thermosensory function is altered in MS following exercise-induced increases in body temperature. What is the main finding and its importance? Increases in body temperature of as little as ∼0.4°C were sufficient to decrease cold, but not warm, skin thermosensitivity (∼10%) in MS, across a wider temperature range than in age-matched healthy individuals. These findings provide new evidence on the impact of heat sensitivity on afferent function in MS, which could be useful for clinical evaluation of this neurological disease. In multiple sclerosis (MS), increases in body temperature result in transient worsening of clinical symptoms (heat sensitivity or Uhthoff's phenomenon). Although the impact of heat sensitivity on efferent physiological function has been investigated, the effects of heat stress on afferent sensory function in MS are unknown. Hence, we quantified afferent thermosensory function in MS following exercise-induced increases in body temperature with a new quantitative sensory test. Eight relapsing-remitting MS patients (three men and five women; 51.4 ± 9.1 years of age; Expanded Disability Status Scale score 2.8 ± 1.1) and eight age-matched control (CTR) subjects (five men and three women; 47.4 ± 9.1 years of age) rated the perceived magnitude of two cold (26 and 22°C) and two warm stimuli (34 and 38°C) applied to the dorsum of the hand before and after 30 min cycling in the heat (30°C air; 30% relative humidity). Exercise produced similar increases in mean body temperature in MS [+0.39°C (95% CI: +0.21, +0.53) P = 0.001] and CTR subjects [+0.41°C (95% CI: +0.25, +0.58) P = 0.001]. These changes were sufficient to decrease thermosensitivity significantly to all cold [26

  3. Casein protein results in higher prandial and exercise induced whole body protein anabolism than whey protein in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Rutten, Erica P A; De Castro, Carmen L N; Wouters, Emiel F M; Schols, Annemie M W J; Deutz, Nicolaas E P

    2012-09-01

    Exercise is known to improve physical functioning and health status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Recently, disturbances in protein turnover and amino acid kinetics have been observed after exercise in COPD. The objective was to investigate which dairy protein is able to positively influence the protein metabolic response to exercise in COPD. 8 COPD patients and 8 healthy subjects performed a cycle test on two days while ingesting casein or whey protein. Whole body protein breakdown (WbPB), synthesis (WbPS), splanchnic amino acid extraction (SPE), and NetWbPS (=WbPS-WbPB) were measured using stable isotope methodology during 20 min of exercise (at 50% peak work load of COPD group). The controls performed a second exercise test at the same relative workload. Exercise was followed by 1 h of recovery. In the healthy group, WbPS, SPE, and NetPS were higher during casein than during whey feeding (Pexercise, independent of exercise intensity (Pexercise during casein and whey feeding in COPD (Pexercise were higher in COPD (Pexercise, lower NetPS values were found independent of protein type in both groups. Casein resulted in more protein anabolism than whey protein which was maintained during and following exercise in COPD. Optimizing protein intake might be of importance for muscle maintenance during daily physical activities in COPD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Joseph T; Baker, Philip R A; Minett, Geoffrey M; Bieuzen, Francois; Stewart, Ian B; Bleakley, Chris

    2015-09-18

    Recovery strategies are often used with the intention of preventing or minimising muscle soreness after exercise. Whole-body cryotherapy, which involves a single or repeated exposure(s) to extremely cold dry air (below -100 °C) in a specialised chamber or cabin for two to four minutes per exposure, is currently being advocated as an effective intervention to reduce muscle soreness after exercise. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the British Nursing Index and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database. We also searched the reference lists of articles, trial registers and conference proceedings, handsearched journals and contacted experts.The searches were run in August 2015. We aimed to include randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared the use of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) versus a passive or control intervention (rest, no treatment or placebo treatment) or active interventions including cold or contrast water immersion, active recovery and infrared therapy for preventing or treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We also aimed to include randomised trials that compared different durations or dosages of WBC. Our prespecified primary outcomes were muscle soreness, subjective recovery (e.g. tiredness, well-being) and adverse effects. Two review authors independently screened search results, selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted and cross-checked data. Where appropriate, we pooled results of comparable trials. The random-effects model was used for pooling where there was substantial heterogeneity. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. Four laboratory-based randomised controlled trials were included. These reported results for 64

  5. Effects of Running Shoes with Abrasion Resistant Rubber Sole on the Exercise Capacity of the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization, rubber has been gradually used in the manufacture of sports equipment for its favourable properties. This study involved the addition of C5 petroleum resin into brominated isobutylene-isoprene rubber (BIIR and butadiene rubber (BR while manufacturing the sole of running shoes. The effects of running shoes with abrasion resistant rubber sole on the exercise capacity of the human body were investigated by analysing the skid resistance and abrasion resistance of the running shoes, and conducting biomechanical study on naked feet and feet wearing the shoes. The results demonstrated that the rubber sole had favourable slip resistance property and mechanical properties such as stretching, abrasion resistance, and hardness. Compared to naked feet, the peak pressure intensity of the whole step of feet wearing the newly developed shoes, was significantly lower than that of feet wearing ordinary shoes. In the future, rubber can bring more comfortable experience because of its favourable properties.

  6. Mini-implants: mechanical resource for molars uprighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susiane Allgayer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The early orthodontic treatment allows correction of skeletal discrepancies by growth control, and the elimination of deleterious habits, which are risk factors for the development of malocclusions, favoring for the correction of tooth positioning later in a second treatment stage. During development of teeth and occlusion, the mandibular second molars commonly erupt in the oral cavity after all other teeth of the anterior region. In their eruptive process there may be a condition known as tooth impaction, which precludes its complete eruption and requires proper uprighting treatment. The temporary anchorage devices allow disimpaction and movement of these teeth directly to their final position, without the need of patient compliance or reaction movements in other parts of the arch. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims at describing a case report of the treatment of a patient with Angle Class II malocclusion, performed in two phases, in which mini-implants were used for uprighting the impacted mandibular second molars.INTRODUÇÃO: o tratamento ortodôntico precoce permite a correção das discrepâncias esqueléticas por meio do controle de crescimento e a eliminação de hábitos deletérios, que são fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de más oclusões, que favorecem a correção do posicionamento dentário mais tardiamente, em uma segunda fase do tratamento. Durante o desenvolvimento da dentição e da oclusão, normalmente o segundo molar inferior chega à cavidade bucal após todos os dentes posicionados anteriormente a ele. Durante seu processo eruptivo, pode ocorrer uma condição chamada "impacção dentária", em que sua erupção completa é interrompida, exigindo tratamento apropriado para verticalização. Os dispositivos temporários de ancoragem permitem a desimpacção e a movimentação desses dentes diretamente às suas posições finais, sem a necessidade de cooperação do paciente e sem movimento de reação nas

  7. An after-school exercise program improves fitness, and body composition in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Aaron L; Logue, Julie; Deininger, Heidi; Clark, R Randall; Curtis, Vanessa; Montague, Paul; Baldwin, Sharon

    2011-07-01

    Reduced cardiovascular fitness (CVF) is a risk factor for obesity and cardiovascular disease. It has previously shown that a school-based fitness curriculum can improve CVF, and other health indicators in middle school aged children. Whether an afterschool program improves CVF and other health markers in elementary-school children is unresolved. The objective of this study was therefore to determine whether an on-site afterschool-based fitness program improves body composition, cardiovascular fitness level, in elementary school children. 80 elementary school children were evaluated in a "fitness-oriented" afterschool program managed by the local YMCA. Children underwent evaluation of cardiovascular fitness by maximal VO 2 treadmill testing and body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), at baseline (prior to the school-year) and again at end of the school year. Findings revealed that, at baseline, children had a mean age of 8.8 years, BMI of 18.7± 3, with a maximal VO 2 of 40.03 ± 7.6 ml/kg/min, and percent body fat of 28.7 ± 7%. After a 9-month intervention, children maximal VO 2 increased to 44.8 ± 7.5 ml/kg/min (p=0.04) and percent body fat decreased to 25.8 ± 6.2% (p=0.033). The study concluded that on-site afterschool programming focusing on fitness improved body composition and cardiovascular fitness, in elementary school children. Combined with prior studies, these data demonstrate that afterschool-based fitness curricula can benefit both obese and non-obese children. It was therefore recommended that, partnerships with schools to promote fitness even outside of school time should be a part of a school approach to improving children's health.

  8. Effects of aerobic exercise training on serum sex hormone binding globulin, body fat index, and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Won; Kim, Do-Yeon

    2012-12-01

    The percentage of obese postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome is rising, and physical factors associated with the metabolic syndrome prevalence or incidence are also rising, including high body mass index (BMI), visceral fat area (VFA), low plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels, and low cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, we investigated the influence of aerobic exercise on SHBG, body fat index (BFI), and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal Korean women. Thirty healthy postmenopausal, women aged 53.46 ± 2.4 years and with over 32% body fat, were randomly assigned to an aerobic exercise group (EX; n=15) or to a "nonexercise" control (Con; n=15) group. The primary outcome measurements were serum SHBG, lipid profiles, insulin levels, and metabolic syndrome factors. Secondary outcome measurements were body composition, VFA, blood pressure (BP), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Posttraining body weight and BFI (Pmetabolic syndrome factors (Pexercise group but not in the control group. SHBG levels also showed a significant positive correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and significant negative correlations withglucose, diastolic blood pressure, fat mass, BMI, and percent body fat (Pexercise improves body composition, SHBG, insulin levels, and metabolic syndrome factors. These findings suggest that in obesepostmenopausal Korean women, 16 weeks of aerobic exercise is effective for preventing the metabolic syndrome caused by obesity.

  9. Determining loads acting on the pelvis in upright and recumbent birthing positions: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmerich, Andrea; Geens, Emily; Diesbourg, Tara; Dumas, Geneviève A

    2018-05-24

    The biomechanics of mothers' birthing positions and their impact on maternal and newborn health outcomes are poorly understood. Our objectives were to determine the loads applied to the female pelvis during dynamic movement that may occur during childbirth; findings are intended to inform clinical understanding and further research on birth positioning mechanics. An optical motion capture system and force platforms were used to collect upright and supine movement data from two pregnant and three non-pregnant participants. Using an inverse dynamics approach, normalized three-dimensional hip and sagittal plane lumbosacral joint moments were estimated during squatting, all-fours, and supine activities. During squatting, peak hip abduction moments were greater for our pregnant (compared with non-pregnant) participants and lumbosacral extension moments substantially exceeded those during walking. The all-fours activity, conversely, generated flexion moments at the L5/S1 joint throughout most of the cycle. In supine, the magnitude of the ground reaction force reached 100% body weight with legs and upper body raised (McRoberts' position); the centre of pressure remained cranial to the sacrum. Squatting generated appreciable moments at the hip and lumbosacral joints that could potentially affect pelvic motion during childbirth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased body mass index in ankylosing spondylitis is associated with greater burden of symptoms and poor perceptions of the benefits of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durcan, Laura; Wilson, Fiona; Conway, Richard; Cunnane, Gaye; O'Shea, Finbar D

    2012-12-01

    Increased body mass index (BMI) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is associated with a greater burden of symptoms and poor perceptions of the benefits of exercise. In AS, the effect of obesity on disease characteristics and exercise perceptions is unknown. We evaluated the prevalence of obesity in AS, to assess the attitudes of patients toward exercise and to evaluate the effect of obesity on symptoms and disease activity. Demographic data and disease characteristics were collected from 46 patients with AS. Disease activity, symptomatology, and functional disability were examined using standard AS questionnaires. BMI was calculated. Comorbidity was analyzed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients' attitudes toward exercise were assessed using the Exercise Benefits and Barriers Scale (EBBS). We compared the disease characteristics, perceptions regarding exercise, and functional limitations in those who were overweight to those who had a normal BMI. The mean BMI in the group was 27.4; 67.5% of subjects were overweight or obese. There was a statistically significant difference between those who were overweight and those with a normal BMI regarding their perceptions of exercise (EBBS 124.7 vs 136.6, respectively), functional limitation (Bath AS Functional Index 4.7 vs 2.5, Health Assessment Questionnaire 0.88 vs 0.26), and disease activity (Bath AS Disease Activity Index 4.8 vs 2.9). There was no difference between the groups in terms of their comorbid conditions or other demographic variables. The majority of patients in this AS cohort were overweight. They had a greater burden of symptoms, worse perceptions regarding the benefits of exercise, and enhanced awareness of their barriers to exercising. This is of particular concern in a disease where exercise plays a crucial role.

  11. Body dimensions, exercise capacity and physical activity level of adolescent Nandi boys in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Bøgh; Christensen, Dirk Lund; Nolan, T

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize untrained Nandi boys (mean age 16.6 years) from a town (n = 11) and from a rural area (n = 19) in western Kenya (altitude approximately 2000 m.a.s.l.) in regard to their body dimensions, oxygen uptake and physical activity level. The town boys had a mean...... that the body dimensions of adolescent Nandi town and village boys corresponds well with findings in Kenyan elite runners. They are very slender with relatively long legs. In addition, the VO(2 max) of the village boys was higher than that of the town boys, which is probably due to a higher physical activity...... level of the village boys during secondary school....

  12. Exercise self-efficacy moderates the relation between anxiety sensitivity and body mass index and exercise tolerance in treatment-seeking smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farris, S.G.; Davis, M.L.; Rosenfield, D.; Kauffman, B.Y.; Baird, S.O.; Powers, M.B.; Otto, M.W.; Marcus, B.H.; Church, T.S.; Smits, J.A.J.; Zvolensky, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    There is little known about factors that contribute to the comorbidity of cigarette smoking and obesity. The current study sought to test whether exercise self-efficacy moderated the relation between anxiety sensitivity (fear of internal sensations) and BMI and exercise tolerance among cigarette

  13. Effect of upright position on tonsillar level in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ryan K.L.; Leung, Joyce H.Y.; Chu, Winnie C.W. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, Shatin (China); Griffith, James F. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, Shatin (China); The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Shatin, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Lam, T.P.; Ng, Bobby K.W.; Cheng, Jack C.Y. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Shatin (China)

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an upright position on cerebellar tonsillar level in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Twenty-five patients with clinically diagnosed AIS and 18 normal controls were examined in both supine and upright positions using 0.25T MRI. The position of the inferior cerebellar tonsil tip relative to a reference line connecting the basion to the opisthion (BO line) was measured in millimetres. None of the 18 normal control subjects had cerebellar tonsillar descent below the BO line in either supine or the upright position. Forty-eight percent of AIS patients had tonsillar descent in the upright position, compared to 28 % in the supine position. In the upright position, cerebellar tonsillar position was lower in AIS patients than in normal subjects (mean -0.7 ± 1.5 vs. +2.1 ± 1.7, p < 0.00001). AIS patients also had a large degree of tonsillar excursion between upright and supine positions compared to normal subjects (mean -1.9 ± 2.3 vs. -0.1 ± 0.2, p < 0.00001). When considering the theoretical likelihood that a low tonsillar position may affect spinal cord function, one should bear in mind that tonsillar descent in AIS is significantly greater in the upright position. (orig.)

  14. Voluntary and forced exercise influence the survival and body composition of ageing male rats differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narath, E; Skalicky, M; Viidik, A

    2001-11-01

    The importance of maintaining physical fitness by engaging in exercise in a life-long perspective as well as the avoidance of obesity has been emphasised in recent years by epidemiological studies on human populations as well as studies on laboratory rodents. In laboratory studies, voluntary running in wheels and forced training in a treadmill have been used with beneficial results. Restriction of the food intake of sedentary laboratory rodents can be regarded either as life prolongation or prevention of life shortening by obesity. We compared the effects of these interventions on male Sprague-Dawley rats from the age of 5 to 23 months in the following groups: (1) RW=voluntary running in wheels; (2) PW=fed to pair weight with RW animals; (3) TM=forced training in a treadmill; and (4) S1=sedentary with ad libitum access to food. Each group consisted of 32 animals, all housed individually in cages. Two RW animals died, five died in each of the PW and S1 groups and 10 in the TM group (pmuch they run.

  15. Diet and diet combined with chronic aerobic exercise decreases body fat mass and alters plasma and adipose tissue inflammatory markers in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhdar, Nadia; Denguezli, Myriam; Zaouali, Monia; Zbidi, Abdelkrim; Tabka, Zouhair; Bouassida, Anissa

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 months aerobic exercise and diet alone or in combination on markers of inflammation (MOI) in circulation and in adipose abdominal tissue (AT) in obese women. Thirty obese subjects were randomized into a 24-week intervention: (1) exercise (EX), (2) diet (DI), and (3) exercise and diet (EXD). Blood samples were collected at baseline, after 12 and 24 weeks. AT biopsies were obtained only at baseline and after 24 weeks. In the EXD and DI groups, the fat loss was after 12 weeks was -13.74 and -7.8 % (P exercise was found to have no effects on circulating and AT MOI despite an increased VO2max. Rather important body composition modifications were found to have beneficial effects on circulating and AT MOI in these obese women.

  16. Transcranial magnetic stimulation probes the excitability of the primary motor cortex: A framework to account for the facilitating effects of acute whole-body exercise on motor processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Davranche

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exercise on decision-making performance have been studied using a wide variety of cognitive tasks and exercise interventions. Although the current literature supports a beneficial influence of acute exercise on cognitive performance, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not yet been elucidated. We review studies that used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to probe the excitability of motor structures during whole-body exercise and present a framework to account for the facilitating effects of acute exercise on motor processes. Recent results suggest that, even in the absence of fatigue, the increase in corticospinal excitability classically reported during submaximal and exhausting exercises may be accompanied by a reduction in intracortical inhibition. We propose that reduced intracortical inhibition elicits an adaptive central mechanism that counteracts the progressive reduction in muscle responsiveness caused by peripheral fatigue. Such a reduction would render the motor cortex more sensitive to upstream influences, thus causing increased corticospinal excitability. Furthermore, reduction of intracortical inhibition may account for the more efficient descending drive and for the improvement of reaction time performance during exercise. The adaptive modulation in intracortical inhibition could be implemented through a general increase in reticular activation that would further account for enhanced sensory sensitivity.

  17. Does acute exercise affect the performance of whole-body, psychomotor skills in an inverted-U fashion? A meta-analytic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorris, Terry; Hale, Beverley J; Corbett, Jo; Robertson, Kevin; Hodgson, Christopher I

    2015-03-15

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine, using meta-analytical measures, whether research into the performance of whole-body, psychomotor tasks following moderate and heavy exercise demonstrates an inverted-U effect. A secondary purpose was to compare the effects of acute exercise on tasks requiring static maintenance of posture versus dynamic, ballistic skills. Moderate intensity exercise was determined as being between 40% and 79% maximum power output (ẆMAX) or equivalent, while ≥80% ẆMAX was considered to be heavy. There was a significant difference (Zdiff=4.29, p=0.001, R(2)=0.42) between the mean effect size for moderate intensity exercise (g=0.15) and that for heavy exercise size (g=-0.86). These data suggest a catastrophe effect during heavy exercise. Mean effect size for static tasks (g=-1.24) was significantly different (Zdiff=3.24, p=0.001, R(2)=0.90) to those for dynamic/ballistic tasks (g=-0.30). The result for the static versus dynamic tasks moderating variables point to perception being more of an issue than peripheral fatigue for maintenance of static posture. The difference between this result and those found in meta-analyses examining the effects of acute exercise on cognition shows that, when perception and action are combined, the complexity of the interaction induces different effects to when cognition is detached from motor performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Upright Cone CT of the hindfoot: Comparison of the non-weight-bearing with the upright weight-bearing position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschmann, Anna; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Buck, Florian M. [University of Zurich, Department of Radiology, Orthopaedic University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland); Klammer, Georg; Espinosa, Norman [University of Zurich, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopaedic University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    To prospectively compare computed tomography (CT) of the hindfoot in the supine non-weight-bearing position (NWBCT) with upright weight-bearing position (WBCT). Institutional review board approval and informed consent of all patients were obtained. NWBCT and WBCT scans of the ankle were obtained in 22 patients (mean age, 46.0 ± 17.1 years; range 19-75 years) using a conventional 64-row CT for NWBCT and a novel cone-beam CT for WBCT. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently performed the following measurements: the hindfoot alignment angle, fibulocalcaneal and tibiocalcaneal distances, lateral talocalcaneal joint space width, talocalcaneal overlap and naviculocalcaneal distance. Significant changes between NWBCT and WBCT were sought using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Significant differences were found for all measurements except the hindfoot alignment angle and tibiocalcaneal distance. Significant measurement results were as follows (NWBCT/WBCT reader 1; NWBCT/WBCT reader 2, mean ± standard deviation): fibulocalcaneal distance 3.6 mm ± 5.2/0.3 mm ± 6.0 (P = 0.006); 1.4 mm ± 6.3/-1.1 mm ± 6.3 (P = 0.002), lateral talocalcaneal joint space width 2.9 mm ± 1.7/2.2 mm ± 1.1 (P = 0.005); 3.4 mm ± 1.9/2.4 mm ± 1.3 (P = 0.001), talocalcaneal overlap 4.1 mm ± 3.9/1.4 mm ± 3.9 (P = 0.001); 4.5 mm ± 4.3/1.4 mm ± 3.7 (P < 0.001) and naviculocalcaneal distance 13.5 mm ± 4.0/15.3 mm ± 4.7 (P = 0.037); 14.0 mm ± 4.4/15.7 mm ± 6.2 (P = 0.100). Interreader agreement was good to excellent (ICC 0.48-0.94). Alignment of the hindfoot significantly changes in the upright weight-bearing CT position. Differences can be visualised and measured using WBCT. (orig.)

  19. Struggling with cancer and treatment: young athletes recapture body control and identity through exercise: qualitative findings from a supervised group exercise program in cancer patients of mixed gender undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, L.; Andersen, C.; Midtgaard, J.

    2009-01-01

    patients (median age 28 years). The young athletes experienced a change from a high level of physical activity, body satisfaction and a positive self-identity to a low level of physical activity, body denial and a negative self-identity. In the program, the patients experienced increased physical strength...... and recapture of certain aspects of their former positive body perception. Deterioation of muscle functions caused by chemotherapy was particularly painful to these patients, independent of gender and age. Young physically active patients are heavily dependent on their physical capacity, body satisfaction......Cancer and treatment can negatively affect the body's performance and appearance. Exercise has been tested in a few studies for altered body image among middle-aged women with breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore how young pre-cancer athletes of both genders experience disease...

  20. Combined whole-body vibration, resistance exercise, and sustained vascular occlusion increases PGC-1α and VEGF mRNA abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Item, Flurin; Nocito, Antonio; Thöny, Sandra; Bächler, Thomas; Boutellier, Urs; Wenger, Roland H; Toigo, Marco

    2013-04-01

    We previously reported that high load resistance exercise with superimposed whole-body vibration and sustained vascular occlusion (vibroX) markedly improves cycling endurance capacity, increases capillary-to-fibre ratio and skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity in untrained young women. These findings are intriguing, since increases in oxidative muscle phenotype and endurance capacity are typically induced by endurance but not heavy resistance exercise. Here, we tested the hypothesis that vibroX activates genes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis. Eight healthy, recreationally resistance-trained young men performed either vibroX or resistance exercise (RES) in a randomised, cross-over design. Needle biopsies (M. vastus lateralis) were obtained at rest and 3 h post-exercise. Changes in relative gene expression levels were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. After vibroX, vascular endothelial growth factor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α mRNA abundances increased to 2- and 4.4-fold, respectively, but did not significantly change above resting values after RES. Other genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis were not affected by either exercise modality. While vibroX increased the expression of hexokinase II, xanthine dehydrogenase, and manganese superoxide dismutase mRNA, there were no changes in these transcripts after RES. This study demonstrates that high load resistance exercise with superimposed whole-body vibration and sustained vascular occlusion activates metabolic and angiogenic gene programs, which are usually activated after endurance but not resistance exercise. Thus, targeted modification of high load resistance exercise by vibration and vascular occlusion might represent a novel strategy to induce endurance-type muscle adaptations.

  1. Association between physical exercise, body mass index, and risk of fibromyalgia: longitudinal data from the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Paul J; Vasseljen, Ottar; Nilsen, Tom I L

    2010-05-01

    To examine the association between leisure time physical exercise, body mass index (BMI), and risk of fibromyalgia (FM). A longitudinal study with baseline assessment of physical exercise (frequency, duration, and intensity) and BMI was used to explore the risk of having FM at 11-year followup in a large, unselected female population (n = 15,990) without FM or physical impairments at baseline. At followup, 380 cases of incident FM were reported. A weak dose-response association was found between level of physical exercise and risk of FM (for trend, P = 0.13) where women who reported the highest exercise level had a relative risk (RR) of 0.77 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.55-1.07). BMI was an independent risk factor for FM (for trend, P BMI > or =25.0 kg/m(2)) had a 60-70% higher risk compared with women with normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). Overweight or obese women who exercised > or =1 hour per week had an RR of 1.72 (95% CI 1.07-2.76) compared with normal-weight women with a similar activity level, whereas the risk was >2-fold higher for overweight or obese women who were either inactive (RR 2.09, 95% CI 1.36-3.21) or exercised <1 hour per week (RR 2.19, 95% CI 1.39-3.46). Being overweight or obese was associated with an increased risk of FM, especially among women who also reported low levels of physical exercise. Community-based measures aimed at reducing the incidence of FM should emphasize the importance of regular exercise and the maintenance of normal body weight.

  2. Comparison of upright LBPP and supine LBNP in terms of cardiovascular and biomechanical parameters to simulate 1/6-G (lunar gravity) and 3/8-G (Martian gravity) activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlabs, Thomas; Rosales-Velderrain, Armando; Ruckstuhl, Heidi; Richardson, Sara E.; Hargens, Alan

    Background: Missions of astronauts to Moon and Mars may be planned in the future. From over 40 years of manned spaceflight it is known that the human body experiences cardiovascular and musculoskeletal losses and a decrease in aerobic fitness while exposed to reduced gravity. Because future missions will be much longer than before, further research is needed to improve Earth-based simulations of reduced gravity. Among others, two methods are capable of simu-lating fractional gravity on Earth: upright Lower Body Positive Pressure (LBPP) and supine Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP). No previous study has directly compared these two methods to determine which method is better suited to simulate both the biomechanical and cardiovascular responses of performing activity in lunar (1/6-G) and Martian (3/8-G) gravities. Taken previous studies into account and considering the fact that supine posture is closer to the established 10 head-up-tilt lunar simulation, we hypothesized that exercise performed in supine LBNP better simulates the cardiovascular conditions that occur in lunar and Martian gravities. Methods: 12 healthy normal subjects underwent a protocol consisting of resting and walking (0.25 Froude) with LBNP and LBPP. Each protocol was performed in simulated 1/6-G and 3/8-G. Heart-rate (HR), blood pressure, oxygen consumption (VO2), vertical component of the ground reaction force, comfort of the subject and perceived exertion of the subject (Borg Scale) were assessed. The obtained parameters were compared to predicted values for lunar and Martian gravity conditions in order to determine the method that shows the best level of agreement. Results: There was no difference in gait parameters between LBPP and LBNP simulation of lunar and Martian gravity (cadence: P=0.427, normalized stride length: P=0.373, duty fac-tor: P=0.302, and normalized vertical peak force (P=0.064). Mean blood pressure (P=0.398), comfort (P=0.832) and BORG rating (P=0.186) did not differ

  3. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Gentil, Paulo; Moro, Tatiana; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ) or multi-joint exercises (MJ) on VO 2 max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group ( n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years) exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc.) and MJ group ( n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years) with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.). The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load) was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO 2 max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO 2 max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ), bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ), knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ) and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ). In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  4. The effect of diet, exercise, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene on food intake, body composition, and carcass energy levels in virgin female BALB/c mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Keith, Robert E.; Strahan, Susan; White, Marguerite T.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of diet, exercise, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), a mammary-tumor carcinogen, on food intake, energy consumption, body weight, and body composition in virgin female BALB/c mice are investigated. Diet, exercise, and DMBA all had pronounced effects on energy consumption, which in turn affected body composition. These treatments may influence manifestations of breast cancer via their effects on body composition.

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple ... use progressively heavier balls, you will experience more benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can ...

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... legs to touch the wall, keeping hips and knees bent. Use your hips to push your body ... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees bent. Draw abdominal wall in. Maintaining abdominal wall ...

  7. Influence of breathing exercises using method of Body Flex by Greer Childers on to the selected somatic traits of women with overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Radziejowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Overweight and obesity are without any doubts an epidemic of our times, resulting from a change in the living style of the people. Majority of the people reduces the physical activity to the minimum, because of the lack of time they have after the work. That is why we are attacked from time to time by various publications about miraculous methods how to throw away an excessive body weight. In this work is made a close investigation of the method of Greer Childers “Body Flex”, which has become very popular among other in the United States and in Russia, because of the simplicity of exercises to be done and the short time necessary to perform them. The essence of exercises of „‘Body Flex’’ type are the breathing exercises connected with isometric and stretching exercising. The main stress is applied to the lower breathing path with keeping the abdominal muscles tone as well as adding the posture muscles operations, what is as consequence to reduce the body weight, selected body circumferences and to strengthen the muscles exercised. Purpose: The aim of presented work was the comparative assessment of the selected somatic traits of the persons making regularly exercises, at least 5 times a week, using the modified „‘Body Flex’’ method as well as the assessment of effectiveness of the application of those exercises. Material and methods: The examination has covered a group of 25 persons, which was women in the age range 36 – 63, average age amounted to 58,45 +- 8,92 years, including 16 persons of them constituting the tested group and 9 persons being a control group, which has not made regular exercises. In the tested group was separated: 4 persons’ group of women with BMI indicating their obesity, 8 persons’ group of women with BMI indicating overweight and 4 persons’ group of women with BMI within the limits of the norm. Before and after 1 month’s, and for 9 persons – after 2 months’ therapy, their

  8. A pilot randomised controlled trial of the feasibility of using body scan and isometric exercises for reducing urge to smoke in a smoking cessation clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveyard Paul

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main cause of relapse in smokers attempting to quit is inability to resist urges to smoke. Pharmacotherapy ameliorates but does not entirely prevent urges to smoke when abstinent, so other methods to resist urges to smoke might be helpful. Exercise is effective, but aerobic exercise is often impractical when urges strike. Two techniques, body scan and isometric exercise, have been shown to reduce urge intensity and nicotine withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers. It is unclear whether they would be used or effective in typical smokers attempting to quit. Methods In a pilot trial set in a UK smoking cessation clinic, 20 smokers were randomised to receive emails containing .mp3 files and .pdf illustrations of the instructions for doing the body scan and isometric exercises. Twenty smokers received no other intervention, although all 40 were receiving weekly behavioural support and nicotine replacement therapy. Carbon monoxide confirmed abstinence, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, urges to smoke, and use of the techniques to resist urges were recorded weekly for four weeks after quit day. Results 60–80% of quitters reported using the isometric exercises each week and 40–70% reported using the body scan to deal with urges. On average, these techniques were rated as 'slightly helpful' for controlling the urges. There were no large or significant differences in withdrawal symptoms or urge intensity between the two groups. The risk ratio and 95% confidence interval for exercises compared with controls for prolonged confirmed abstinence at four weeks was 0.82 (0.44–1.53. 81% of quitters intended to continue using isometric exercises and 25% body scan, while 81% and 50% respectively would recommend using these techniques to others trying to stop. Conclusion Isometric exercises, and to a lesser extent body scan, were popular and perceived as somewhat helpful by quitters. The trial showed that these techniques were

  9. Exercise: Benefits for Body and Mind. Student Workbook. Health Promotion for Adult Literacy Students: An Empowering Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

    This workbook was developed to help adult literacy students learn about exercise and physical fitness. It contains information sheets and student worksheets, coordinated with an audiotape that is available. Some of the topics covered in the workbook are the following: benefits of exercise; stress; aerobic versus anaerobic exercise; exercise…

  10. Integrative Blood Pressure Response to Upright Tilt Post Renal Denervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Erin J.; East, Cara; Lawley, Justin S.; Stickford, Abigail S.L.; Verhees, Myrthe; Fu, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND Whether renal denervation (RDN) in patients with resistant hypertension normalizes blood pressure (BP) regulation in response to routine cardiovascular stimuli such as upright posture is unknown. We conducted an integrative study of BP regulation in patients with resistant hypertension who had received RDN to characterize autonomic circulatory control. METHODS Twelve patients (60 ± 9 [SD] years, n = 10 males) who participated in the Symplicity HTN-3 trial were studied and compared to 2 age-matched normotensive (Norm) and hypertensive (unmedicated, HTN) control groups. BP, heart rate (HR), cardiac output (Qc), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and neurohormonal variables were measured supine, and 30° (5 minutes) and 60° (20 minutes) head-up-tilt (HUT). Total peripheral resistance (TPR) was calculated from mean arterial pressure and Qc. RESULTS Despite treatment with RDN and 4.8 (range, 3–7) antihypertensive medications, the RDN had significantly higher supine systolic BP compared to Norm and HTN (149 ± 15 vs. 118 ± 6, 108 ± 8 mm Hg, P < 0.001). When supine, RDN had higher HR, TPR, MSNA, plasma norepinephrine, and effective arterial elastance compared to Norm. Plasma norepinephrine, Qc, and HR were also higher in the RDN vs. HTN. During HUT, BP remained higher in the RDN, due to increases in Qc, plasma norepinephrine, and aldosterone. CONCLUSION We provide evidence of a possible mechanism by which BP remains elevated post RDN, with the observation of increased Qc and arterial stiffness, as well as plasma norepinephrine and aldosterone levels at approximately 2 years post treatment. These findings may be the consequence of incomplete ablation of sympathetic renal nerves or be related to other factors. PMID:28338768

  11. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Alberto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73 competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ, counter movement jump (CMJ and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively. After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90°s-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  12. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Alberto; Mourão, Paulo; Abade, Eduardo

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ) height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73) competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively). After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90ºs-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  13. A controlled intervention to promote a healthy body image, reduce eating disorder risk and prevent excessive exercise among trainee health education and physical education teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE&PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an 'at-risk' population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year of the study, the control group cohort (n = 49 females, 20 males) received the regular didactic health education curriculum; in the second year of the study, the Intervention 1 cohort (n = 31 females, 21 males) received a self-esteem and media literacy health education program and in the third year of the study, the Intervention 2 cohort (n = 30 females, 19 males) received a combined self-esteem, media literacy and dissonance program using online and computer-based activities. Intervention 2 produced the best results, with males improving significantly in self-esteem, body image and drive for muscularity. Intervention 2 females improved significantly on Eating Disorders Inventory Drive for Thinness, Eating Disorder Examination and excessive exercise. The improvements were consistent at 6-month follow-up for females. It is feasible to promote body image, reduce body dissatisfaction and reduce excessive exercise among trainee HE&PE teachers via a health education curriculum.

  14. Effects of martial arts exercise on body composition, serum biomarkers and quality of life in overweight/obese premenopausal women: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyu, Ming-Chien; Zhang, Yan; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Dagda, Raul Y.; Chaung, Eugene; Von Bergen, Vera; Doctolero, Susan; Shen, Chwan-Li

    2013-01-01

    Various exercise interventions have been shown to benefit weight control and general health in different populations. However, very few studies have been conducted on martial arts exercise (MAE). The objective of this pilot study is to evaluate the efficacy of 12 weeks of MAE intervention on body composition, serum biomarkers and quality of life (QOL) in overweight/obese premenopausal women. We found that subjects in the MAE group did not lose body weight, while they significantly decreased fat-free mass and muscle mass as compared to those in the control group, who demonstrated an increase in these parameters. The MAE group demonstrated an increase in serum IGF-I concentration, but no change in others. MAE may be a feasible and effective approach to improve body composition and QOL in overweight/obese premenopausal women. Our study underscores the need for further studies using larger samples to establish possible benefits of MAE in various populations. PMID:24665215

  15. Aging and selective sensorimotor strategies in the regulation of upright balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugnariu Nicoleta

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maintenance of upright equilibrium is essentially a sensorimotor integration task. The central nervous system (CNS has to generate appropriate and complex motor responses based on the selective and rapid integration of sensory information from multiple sources. Since each sensory system has its own coordinate framework, specific time delay and reliability, sensory conflicts may arise and represent situations in which the CNS has to recalibrate the weight attributed to each particular sensory input. The resolution of sensory conflicts may represent a particular challenge for older adults given the age-related decline in the integrity of many postural regulating systems, including musculoskeletal and sensory systems, as well as neural processing and conduction of information. The effects of aging and adaptation (by repeated exposures on the capability of the CNS to select pertinent sensory information and resolve sensory conflicts were thus investigated with virtual reality (VR in the present study. Methods Healthy young and older adults maintained quiet stance while immersed in a virtual environment (VE for 1 hour during which transient visual and/or surface perturbations were randomly presented. Visual perturbations were induced by sudden pitch or roll plane tilts of the VE viewed through a helmet-mounted display, and combined with or without surface perturbations presented in a direction that was either identical or opposite to the visual perturbations. Results Results showed a profound influence of aging on postural adjustments measured by electromyographic (EMG responses and displacements of the center of pressure (COP and body's center of mass (COM in the recovery of upright stance, especially in the presence of sensory conflicts. Older adults relied more on vision as compared to young adults. Aging affects the interaction of the somatosensory and visual systems on the control of equilibrium during standing and the

  16. Temporal parameter change of human postural control ability during upright swing using recursive least square method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Akifumi; Ishida, Mizuri; Sagawa, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to derive quantitative assessment indicators of the human postural control ability. An inverted pendulum is applied to standing human body and is controlled by ankle joint torque according to PD control method in sagittal plane. Torque control parameters (KP: proportional gain, KD: derivative gain) and pole placements of postural control system are estimated with time from inclination angle variation using fixed trace method as recursive least square method. Eight young healthy volunteers are participated in the experiment, in which volunteers are asked to incline forward as far as and as fast as possible 10 times over 10 [s] stationary intervals with their neck joint, hip joint and knee joint fixed, and then return to initial upright posture. The inclination angle is measured by an optical motion capture system. Three conditions are introduced to simulate unstable standing posture; 1) eyes-opened posture for healthy condition, 2) eyes-closed posture for visual impaired and 3) one-legged posture for lower-extremity muscle weakness. The estimated parameters Kp, KD and pole placements are applied to multiple comparison test among all stability conditions. The test results indicate that Kp, KD and real pole reflect effect of lower-extremity muscle weakness and KD also represents effect of visual impairment. It is suggested that the proposed method is valid for quantitative assessment of standing postural control ability.

  17. The upright posture improves plantar stepping and alters responses to serotonergic drugs in spinal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sławińska, Urszula; Majczyński, Henryk; Dai, Yue; Jordan, Larry M

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies on the restoration of locomotion after spinal cord injury have employed robotic means of positioning rats above a treadmill such that the animals are held in an upright posture and engage in bipedal locomotor activity. However, the impact of the upright posture alone, which alters hindlimb loading, an important variable in locomotor control, has not been examined. Here we compared the locomotor capabilities of chronic spinal rats when placed in the horizontal and upright postures. Hindlimb locomotor movements induced by exteroceptive stimulation (tail pinching) were monitored with video and EMG recordings. We found that the upright posture alone significantly improved plantar stepping. Locomotor trials using anaesthesia of the paws and air stepping demonstrated that the cutaneous receptors of the paws are responsible for the improved plantar stepping observed when the animals are placed in the upright posture.We also tested the effectiveness of serotonergic drugs that facilitate locomotor activity in spinal rats in both the horizontal and upright postures. Quipazine and (±)-8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) improved locomotion in the horizontal posture but in the upright posture either interfered with or had no effect on plantar walking. Combined treatment with quipazine and 8-OH-DPAT at lower doses dramatically improved locomotor activity in both postures and mitigated the need to activate the locomotor CPG with exteroceptive stimulation. Our results suggest that afferent input from the paw facilitates the spinal CPG for locomotion. These potent effects of afferent input from the paw should be taken into account when interpreting the results obtained with rats in an upright posture and when designing interventions for restoration of locomotion after spinal cord injury.

  18. Pilates versus resistance exercise on the serum levels of hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference and body mass index (BMI in elderly individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adesilda Silva Pestana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the elderly exhibit a subclinical state of inflammation associated with increased adipose tissue and several comorbidities. To compare the effects of mat Pilates based exercises and resistance exercise on the serum levels of reactive C protein of high sensitivity (hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference (AC and the body mass index (BMI in the elderly. It is a randomised clinical trial with a sample of 78 elderly individuals (median age 69 years. The active independent variable investigated was nature of treatment intervention (Pilates mat based exercises vs resistance exercise, and the dependent variables were hs-CRP level, AC and BMI. The statistical analysis used Wilcoxon signed rank and Mann-Whitney tests. The correlation between the continuous variables was assessed using Spearman’s coefficient of correlation. The data were analysed using SPSS software version 17.0, and probability values lower than 5% (p< 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Mat Pilates based exercises exhibited reductions in serum hs-CPR level (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -2.466, p = 0.01, BMI (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.295, p = 0.001 and AC (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.398, p = 0.01. Mat Pilates based exercises promoted a significant reduction of the serum hs-CRP levels and anthropometric measurements in elderly individuals.

  19. Exercise training utilizing body weight-supported treadmill walking with a young adult with cerebral palsy who was non-ambulatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBiasio, Paula A; Lewis, Cynthia L

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this case report is to determine the effects of exercise training using body weight-supported treadmill walking (BWSTW) with an 18-year-old male diagnosed with Cerebral palsy (CP) who was non-ambulatory and not receiving physical therapy. Outcome measures included the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion, 3-minute walk test and physiological cost index (PCI). BWSTW sessions took place twice a week for 6 weeks with a reduction of approximately 40% of the patient's weight. Over-ground 3-minute walk test distance and PCI were essentially unchanged. BWSTW exercise time increased by 67% with a 43% increase in speed while average working HR decreased by 8%. BWSTW PCI decreased by 26%. PedsQL parent report improved in all domains. PedsQL self-report demonstrated a mild decrease. PEDI showed improvements in self-care and mobility. Exercise utilizing BWSTW resulted in a positive training effect for this young adult with CP who was non-ambulatory. Developing effective and efficient protocols for exercise training utilizing BWSTW may aid in the use of this form of exercise and further quantify outcomes. Ensuring that young adults with CP have safe and feasible options to exercise and be physically active on a regular basis is an important role of a physical therapist.

  20. Whole-body heat stress and exercise stimulate the appearance of platelet microvesicles in plasma with limited influence of vascular shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Eurico N; González-Alonso, José; Chiesa, Scott T; Trangmar, Steven J; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Rakobowchuk, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Intense, large muscle mass exercise increases circulating microvesicles, but our understanding of microvesicle dynamics and mechanisms inducing their release remains limited. However, increased vascular shear stress is generally thought to be involved. Here, we manipulated exercise-independent and exercise-dependent shear stress using systemic heat stress with localized single-leg cooling (low shear) followed by single-leg knee extensor exercise with the cooled or heated leg (Study 1, n  = 8) and whole-body passive heat stress followed by cycling (Study 2, n  = 8). We quantified femoral artery shear rates (SRs) and arterial and venous platelet microvesicles (PMV-CD41 + ) and endothelial microvesicles (EMV-CD62E + ). In Study 1, mild passive heat stress while one leg remained cooled did not affect [microvesicle] ( P  ≥ 0.05). Single-leg knee extensor exercise increased active leg SRs by ~12-fold and increased arterial and venous [PMVs] by two- to threefold, even in the nonexercising contralateral leg ( P  body passive heat stress increased arterial [PMV] compared with baseline (mean±SE, from 19.9 ± 1.5 to 35.5 ± 5.4 PMV . μ L -1. 10 3 , P  stress increased [PMV] further in the venous circulation (from 27.5 ± 2.2 at baseline to 57.5 ± 7.2 PMV . μ L -1. 10 3 during cycling with heat stress, P  body heat stress may increase arterial [PMV], and intense exercise engaging either large or small muscle mass promote PMV formation locally and systemically, with no influence upon [EMV]. Local shear stress, however, does not appear to be the major stimulus modulating PMV formation in healthy humans. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  1. Physical fitness and cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, P. B.; Rohm-Young, D.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    Klein et al. (1977) have questioned the concept of endurance training as an appropriate means of preparing for prolonged space flights. Their opinion was mainly based on reports of endurance athletes who had a decreased tolerance to orthostatic or gravitational stress induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP), upright tilt, or whole body water immersion. The present investigation had the objective to determine if the hemodynamic response to LBNP is different between a high and average fit group of subjects. In addition, the discrete aspect of cardiovascular function which had been altered by chronic training was to be identified. On the basis of the results of experiments conducted with 14 young male volunteers, it is concluded that the reflex response to central hypovolemia is altered by endurance exercise training.

  2. Struggling with cancer and treatment: young athletes recapture body control and identity through exercise: qualitative findings from a supervised group exercise program in cancer patients of mixed gender undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamsen, L; Andersen, C; Midtgaard, J; Møller, T; Quist, M; Rørth, M

    2009-02-01

    Cancer and treatment can negatively affect the body's performance and appearance. Exercise has been tested in a few studies for altered body image among middle-aged women with breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore how young pre-cancer athletes of both genders experience disease- and treatment-related physical fitness and appearance changes while undergoing chemotherapy and participating in a 6-week group exercise intervention. A prospective, explorative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted before and at termination of the intervention. The study included 22 cancer patients (median age 28 years). The young athletes experienced a change from a high level of physical activity, body satisfaction and a positive self-identity to a low level of physical activity, body denial and a negative self-identity. In the program, the patients experienced increased physical strength and recapture of certain aspects of their former positive body perception. Deterioation of muscle functions caused by chemotherapy was particularly painful to these patients, independent of gender and age. Young physically active patients are heavily dependent on their physical capacity, body satisfaction and self-identity. This should be taken into account when designing programs to rehabilitate and encourage these patients through the often-strenuous antineoplastic treatments.

  3. Body mass index and depressive symptoms in primary care settings: examining the moderating roles of smoking status, alcohol consumption and vigorous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, S A; MacGregor, K L; Funderburk, J S; Maisto, S A

    2014-02-01

    Depressive symptoms and obesity are highly prevalent in primary care settings. Depressive symptoms and obesity are positively related; as body weight increases, individuals are more likely to display depressive symptoms. This study examines the moderating roles of health behaviours (alcohol use, smoking status and vigorous exercise) on the relationship between body mass index and depressive symptoms. Exercise attenuates the relationship between depressive symptoms and obesity. Primary care patients often report multiple health risk behaviours and symptoms, including obesity and depressive symptomatology. This study examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptomatology among primary care patients and tested its moderation by health behaviours. Primary care patients (n = 497) completed self-report questionnaires. Using three multilevel models, we tested the moderation of health behaviours on the BMI-depressive symptoms relationship. After controlling for relevant covariates, BMI was positively related to depressive symptoms. Smokers reported more depressive symptoms (P exercisers reported fewer (P  0.05). Only vigorous exercise significantly moderated the BMI-depression relationship (P < 0.05). BMI is positively related to depressive symptoms among patients who do not participate in vigorous activity, suggesting that vigorous activity reduces the risk for depressive symptoms among patients with higher BMI. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Circulating irisin in healthy, young individuals: day-night rhythm, effects of food intake and exercise, and associations with gender, physical activity, diet, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasilakis, Athanasios D; Polyzos, Stergios A; Saridakis, Zacharias G; Kynigopoulos, Georgios; Skouvaklidou, Elpida C; Molyvas, Dimitrios; Vasiloglou, Maria F; Apostolou, Aggeliki; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomai; Siopi, Aikaterina; Mougios, Vassilis; Chatzistavridis, Panagiotis; Panagiotou, Grigorios; Filippaios, Andreas; Delaroudis, Sideris; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2014-09-01

    The myokine irisin may increase energy expenditure and affect metabolism. The objective of the study was to elucidate predictors of irisin and study whether circulating irisin may have day-night rhythm in humans. This was an observational, cross-sectional study with an additional 24-hour prospective observational arm (day-night rhythm substudy) and two prospective interventional arms (mixed meal substudy and exercise substudy). The study was conducted at the Hellenic Military School of Medicine (Thessaloniki, Greece). One hundred twenty-two healthy, young individuals were subjected to anthropometric and body composition measurements, and their eating and exercise behavior profiles were assessed with validated questionnaires. Subgroups were subjected to day-night rhythm, standardized meal ingestion, and 30-minute aerobic exercise studies. Circulating irisin levels were measured. Ιrisin levels were lower in males than females (P = .02) after adjustment for lean body mass, which was its major determinant. Irisin levels followed a day-night rhythm (P day-night rhythm, is correlated with lean body mass, and increases acutely after exercise.

  5. Discrepancy between exercise performance, body composition, and sex steroid response after a six-week detraining period in professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundourakis, Nikolaos E; Androulakis, Nikolaos E; Malliaraki, Niki; Tsatsanis, Christos; Venihaki, Maria; Margioris, Andrew N

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a six-week off-season detraining period on exercise performance, body composition, and on circulating sex steroid levels in soccer players. Fifty-five professional male soccer players, members of two Greek Superleague Teams (Team A, n = 23; Team B, n = 22), participated in the study. The first two weeks of the detraining period the players abstained from any physical activity. The following four weeks, players performed low-intensity (50%-60% of VO2max) aerobic running of 20 to 30 minutes duration three times per week. Exercise performance testing, anthropometry, and blood sampling were performed before and after the six-week experimental period. Our data showed that in both teams A and B the six-week detraining period resulted in significant reductions in maximal oxygen consumption (60,31±2,52 vs 57,67±2,54; pperiod resulted in a rapid loss of exercise performance adaptations and optimal body composition status, but did not affect sex steroid resting levels. The insignificant changes in sex steroid concentration indicate that these hormones were a non-contributing parameter for the observed negative effects of detraining on exercise performance and body composition.

  6. The Ottawa panel clinical practice guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis. Part one: introduction, and mind-body exercise programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, Lucie; Taki, Jade; Desjardins, Brigit; Thevenot, Odette; Fransen, Marlene; Wells, George A; Imoto, Aline Mizusaki; Toupin-April, Karine; Westby, Marie; Gallardo, Inmaculada C Álvarez; Gifford, Wendy; Laferrière, Lucie; Rahman, Prinon; Loew, Laurianne; Angelis, Gino De; Cavallo, Sabrina; Shallwani, Shirin Mehdi; Aburub, Ala'; Bennell, Kim L; Van der Esch, Martin; Simic, Milena; McConnell, Sara; Harmer, Alison; Kenny, Glen P; Paterson, Gail; Regnaux, Jean-Philippe; Lefevre-Colau, Marie-Martine; McLean, Linda

    2017-05-01

    To identify effective mind-body exercise programs and provide clinicians and patients with updated, high-quality recommendations concerning non-traditional land-based exercises for knee osteoarthritis. A systematic search and adapted selection criteria included comparative controlled trials with mind-body exercise programs for patients with knee osteoarthritis. A panel of experts reached consensus on the recommendations using a Delphi survey. A hierarchical alphabetical grading system (A, B, C+, C, D, D+, D-) was used, based on statistical significance ( P osteoarthritis. Hatha Yoga demonstrated significant improvement for pain relief (Grade B) and physical function (Grade C+). Tai Chi Qigong demonstrated significant improvement for quality of life (Grade B), pain relief (Grade C+) and physical function (Grade C+). Sun style Tai Chi gave significant improvement for pain relief (Grade B) and physical function (Grade B). Mind-body exercises are promising approaches to reduce pain, as well as to improve physical function and quality of life for individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

  7. Performance and energy systems contributions during upper-body sprint interval exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Emerson; Takito, Monica Yuri; Dal'Molin Kiss, Maria Augusta Peduti

    2016-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the performance and energy systems contribution during four upper-body Wingate tests interspersed by 3-min intervals. Fourteen well-trained male adult Judo athletes voluntarily took part in the present study. These athletes were from state to national level, were in their competitive period, but not engaged in any weight loss procedure. Energy systems contributions were estimated using oxygen uptake and blood lactate measurements. The main results indicated that there was higher glycolytic contribution compared to oxidative ( P creatine phosphate, ATP-PCr) contribution during bout 3 ( P <0.001), lower glycolytic contribution compared to oxidative and ATP-PCr ( P <0.001 for both comparisons) contributions during bout 4 and lower oxidative compared to ATP-PCr during bout 4 ( P =0.040). For the energy system contribution across Wingate bouts, the ATP-PCr contribution during bout 1 was lower than that observed during bout 4 ( P =0.005), and the glycolytic system presented higher percentage contribution in the first bout compared to the third and fourth bouts ( P <0.001 for both comparisons), and higher percentage participation in the second compared to the fourth bout ( P <0.001). These results suggest that absolute oxidative and ATP-PCr participations were kept constant across Wingate tests, but there was an increase in relative participation of ATP-PCr in bout 4 compared to bout 1, probably due to the partial phosphocreatine resynthesis during intervals and to the decreased glycolytic activity.

  8. Effects of obesity on body temperature in otherwise-healthy females when controlling hydration and heat production during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J D; Ganio, Matthew S; Burchfield, Jenna M; Matthews, Andy C; Werner, Rachel N; Chokbengboun, Amanda J; Dougherty, Erin K; LaChance, Alex A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating body temperature responses in obese individuals during exercise in the heat fail to control metabolic heat production or hydration status during exercise. To determine if there are differences in body temperature responses between obese and non-obese females when controlling metabolic heat production during exercise. Twenty healthy females, ten obese (43.5 ± 4.5 % fat, 77.5 ± 14.4 kg) and ten non-obese (26.3 ± 6.2 % fat, 53.7 ± 6.4 kg), cycled for 60 min in a warm environment (40 °C, 30 % humidity) at a work load that elicited either 300 W of metabolic heat production (fixed heat production; FHP) or 175 W/m(2) of skin surface area (body surface area, BSA). Before and during exercise, rectal temperature (T re), mean skin temperature (T sk), oxygen uptake (VO2), and sweat rate were measured. Fluid was provided throughout exercise so that euhydration was maintained throughout. In the FHP trial, when absolute heat production was similar between obese (287 ± 15 W) and non-obese (295 ± 18 W) individuals (P > 0.05), there were no differences at the end of exercise in T re (38.26 ± 0.40 vs. 38.30 ± 0.30 °C, respectively) or T sk (36.94 ± 1.65 vs. 35.85 ± 0.67 °C) (all P > 0.05). In the BSA trials, relative heat production was similar between obese and non-obese individuals (168 ± 8 vs. 176 ± 5 W/m(2), respectively; P > 0.05). Similar to the FHP trials, there were no differences between obese and non-obese T re (38.45 ± 0.33 vs. 38.08 ± 0.29 °C, respectively) or T sk (36.82 ± 1.04 vs. 36.11 ± 0.64 °C) at the end of exercise (all P > 0.05). When obese and non-obese females exercised at a fixed metabolic heat production and euhydration was maintained, there were no differences in body temperature between groups.

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of it. Esophageal bougienage For this procedure, you will sit upright while the physician passes a device from the mouth to the stomach that helps dilate, or widen, the esophagus. This helps advance the foreign body into the stomach, from where ...

  10. [Effect of two hypocaloric diets and their combination with physical exercise on basal metabolic rate and body composition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, Noelia; Fernández, Juan Marcelo; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is diagnosed by the detection of at least three criteria (hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-C, hypertension, obesity and altered fasting glucose). Visceral fat excess would be the starting point for its development. Scientific evidence supports hypocaloric diets -mediterranean or low fat diet and rich in complex carbohydrates diet included- as the best treatment to reduce fat mass (FM), maximizing its impact by combining them with physical exercise (PE). However, the effects of these treatments on basal metabolic rate (BMR) of patients with MetS, are unknown. To study the effect of the hypocaloric diet - mediterranean or low fat diet- with or without PE on the BMR and body composition (BC) of adults with MetS. 36 volunteers, MetS, both sexes, > 50 years, meeting the inclusion criteria. They were randomly assigned to a group of intervention (3 months) of hypocaloric diet: mediterranean diet (MED), low fat and rich in complex carbohydrates diet (CHO) and both combined with PE (MEDE and CHOE respectively). Anthropometric data was taken (weight, muscle mass (MM) and FM) and BMR was determined by indirect calorimetry, before and after intervention. The addition of PE to both hypocaloric treatments produced greater FM loss and weight loss than dieting alone, being this loss in CHOE > MEDE (p CHOE (p diet with or without PE lost MM (p MED CONCLUSIONS: CHOE induces less reduction of BMR while supporting a better profile of BC than MEDE. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Change in Body Weight Does Not Mediate the Relationship Between Exercise and Smoking Cessation Among Weight-Concerned Women Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Rebecca L; Levine, Michele D; Cheng, Yu; Marcus, Marsha D

    2015-09-01

    Exercise has received attention as a method to prevent or reduce postcessation weight gain. However, little is known about how weight changes following quit attempts contribute to the relationship between exercise and smoking cessation. The present study assessed how exercise relates to cessation and whether initial changes in exercise after quitting smoking promote cessation through attenuated weight gain. Weight-concerned women smokers (N = 342) receiving cessation treatment provided biochemical validation of cessation, reported weekly exercise activities, and were weighed at 1, 3, and 6 months following treatment initiation. Survival analyses were used to determine time to and risk of relapse among women who reported engaging in varied levels of exercise at baseline. A mediation analysis was used to examine whether the effect of initial changes in exercise on longer-term cessation was driven by change in weight. All analyses were adjusted for relevant covariates. Women smokers who reported high levels of exercise at baseline were less likely to relapse and returned to smoking more gradually than did women who reported low levels of exercise. Change in weight did not mediate the relationship between exercise and cessation. Cessation interventions utilizing an exercise component may have to develop exercise regimens of either higher duration or greater intensity to produce beneficial cessation outcomes, particularly when targeting sedentary smokers. Given that change in weight did not mediate the relationship between exercise and cessation, it is likely that other mediational processes are involved. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. 75 FR 32806 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Certain Upright and Recumbent Exercise Bikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... resistor/bracket/cable assembly; the PCB/ battery assembly; the reed switch/bracket subassembly; the shroud...; (alternator-pulley assembly) 9. Assembling resistor, resistor brackets, resistor rod and covering the assembly with cardboard insulator; (rear resistor/ bracket/cable assembly) 10. Installing wire harness to the...

  13. The influence of high-intensity compared with moderate-intensity exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in colorectal cancer survivors: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devin, James L; Sax, Andrew T; Hughes, Gareth I; Jenkins, David G; Aitken, Joanne F; Chambers, Suzanne K; Dunn, Jeffrey C; Bolam, Kate A; Skinner, Tina L

    2016-06-01

    Following colorectal cancer diagnosis and anti-cancer therapy, declines in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition lead to significant increases in morbidity and mortality. There is increasing interest within the field of exercise oncology surrounding potential strategies to remediate these adverse outcomes. This study compared 4 weeks of moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) and high-intensity exercise (HIE) training on peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak) and body composition in colorectal cancer survivors. Forty seven post-treatment colorectal cancer survivors (HIE = 27 months post-treatment; MIE = 38 months post-treatment) were randomised to either HIE [85-95 % peak heart rate (HRpeak)] or MIE (70 % HRpeak) in equivalence with current physical activity guidelines and completed 12 training sessions over 4 weeks. HIE was superior to MIE in improving absolute (p = 0.016) and relative (p = 0.021) V̇O2peak. Absolute (+0.28 L.min(-1), p body composition for colorectal cancer survivors. HIE appears to offer superior improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in comparison to current physical activity recommendations for colorectal cancer survivors and therefore may be an effective clinical utility following treatment.

  14. The Dose-Response Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Body Composition and Breast Tissue among Women at High Risk for Breast Cancer: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C; Kontos, Despina; Schnall, Mitchell D; Wu, Shandong; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2016-07-01

    Observational data indicate that behaviors that shift energetic homeostasis, such as exercise, may decrease the risk of developing breast cancer by reducing the amount of energy-dense, metabolically active adipose tissue. Between December 2008 and April 2013, we conducted a single-blind, 5-month, clinical trial that randomized premenopausal women at high risk of developing breast cancer to one of three groups: 150 min/wk of aerobic exercise (low dose), 300 min/wk of aerobic exercise (high dose), or control. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) was quantified using computerized algorithms on breast dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Over 5 months, compared with the control group: the low-dose and high-dose groups lost -1.5 ± 0.5 and -1.3 ± 0.5 kg of body mass (linear Ptrend = 0.032); -1.5 ± 0.4 and -1.4 ± 0.3 kg of fat mass (linear Ptrend = 0.003); -1.3 ± 0.3 and -1.4 ± 0.3% of body fat (linear Ptrend body composition outcomes did not significantly correlate with changes in BPE. These mechanistic data support observational evidence that shifting energetic homeostasis through exercise may alter the risk of developing breast cancer. Additional adequately powered studies are needed to confirm and expand upon our findings that changes in body composition are associated with changes in BPE. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 581-8. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Exercise may reduce depression but not anxiety in self-referred cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Post-hoc analysis of data from the 'Body & Cancer' trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Julie; Stage, Maria; Møller, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background. The diagnosis and treatment of cancer may cause clinically significant and persistent psychological morbidity. The objective of this study was to determine the short-term effect of a six week exercise intervention on anxiety and depression in cancer patients undergoing.......021). Conclusion. Anti-depressant effects could be caused by exercise in self-referred cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Dedicated trials and follow-up studies are needed to clarify the optimal duration and content of exercise interventions to meet the needs of clinically depressive or anxious patients....... chemotherapy (The 'Body & Cancer' trial). Methods. Two hundred and nine self-referred patients (52 males, 157 females, mean age 47 years) were randomised into an intervention group and a waiting-list control group. Anxiety and depression was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results...

  16. Effects of home-based tele-exercise on sarcopenia among community-dwelling elderly adults: Body composition and functional fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeeyoung; Kim, Jeongeun; Kim, Suk Wha; Kong, Hyoun-Joong

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to develop a form of tele-exercise that would enable real-time interactions between exercise instructors and community-dwelling elderly people and to investigate its effects on improvement of sarcopenia-related factors of body composition and functional fitness among the elderly. Randomized, controlled trial, with a 12-week intervention period. Community-dwelling senior citizens in Gangseo-gu, Seoul, South Korea. The participants were 23 elderly individuals (tele-exercise group: 11, control group: 12), aged 69 to 93years. The tele-exercise program was developed utilizing a 15-in. all-in-one PC and video conferencing software (Skype™), with broadband Internet connectivity. The tele-exercise group performed supervised resistance exercise at home for 20-40min a day three times per week for 12weeks. The remote instructor provided one-on-one instruction to each participant during the intervention. The control group maintained their lifestyles without any special intervention. The sarcopenia-related factors of body composition and functional fitness were examined prior to, as well as following, a 12-week intervention period. The data were analyzed with a two-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were significant improvements in lower limb muscle mass (p=0.017), appendicular lean soft tissue (p=0.032), total muscle mass (p=0.033), and chair sit-and-reach length (p=0.019) for the tele-exercise group compared to the control group. No group×time interaction effects were detected for the 2-min step, chair stand, and time effects (psarcopenia-related factors such as total-body skeletal muscle mass, appendicular lean soft tissue, lower limb muscle mass, and the chair sit-and-reach scores among community-dwelling elderly adults. These results imply that tele-exercise can be a new and effective intervention method for increasing skeletal muscle mass and the physical functioning of the lower limbs from the perspective of sarcopenia improvement among the elderly

  17. Effects of a popular exercise and weight loss program on weight loss, body composition, energy expenditure and health in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magrans-Courtney Teresa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of altering the ratio of carbohydrate and protein in low-energy diets in conjunction with a popular exercise program in obese women. Design Matched, prospective clinical intervention study to assess efficacy of varying ratios of carbohydrate and protein intake in conjunction with a regular exercise program. Participants One-hundred sixty one sedentary, obese, pre-menopausal women (38.5 ± 8.5 yrs, 164.2 ± 6.7 cm, 94.2 ± 18.8 kg, 34.9 ± 6.4 kg·m-2, 43.8 ± 4.2% participated in this study. Participants were weight stable and not participating in additional weight loss programs. Methods Participants were assigned to either a no exercise + no diet control (CON, a no diet + exercise group (ND, or one of four diet + exercise groups (presented as kcals; % carbohydrate: protein: fat: 1 a high energy, high carbohydrate, low protein diet (HED [2,600; 55:15:30%], 2 a very low carbohydrate, high protein diet (VLCHP [1,200 kcals; 63:7:30%], 3 a low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet (LCMP [1,200 kcals; 50:20:30%] and 4 a high carbohydrate, low protein diet (HCLP [1,200 kcals; 55:15:30%]. Participants in exercise groups (all but CON performed a pneumatic resistance-based, circuit training program under supervision three times per week. Measurements Anthropometric, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE, fasting blood samples and muscular fitness assessments were examined at baseline and weeks 2, 10 and 14. Results All groups except CON experienced significant reductions (P P P P P Conclusion Exercise alone (ND appears to have minimal impact on measured outcomes with positive outcomes apparent when exercise is combined with a hypoenergetic diet. Greater improvements in waist circumference and body composition occurred when carbohydrate is replaced in the diet with protein. Weight loss in all diet groups (VLCHP, LCMP and HCLP was primarily fat and stimulated improvements in markers of

  18. Effects of different modes of exercise training on body composition and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Mohammadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have indicated that exercise training improves body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks of aerobic, strength and combined training on body composition, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and C-reactive protein (CRP in sedentary middle-aged men. Methods: Forty-seven male aged 40–60 years voluntarily participated in this study and were divided in four groups: aerobic (n = 12, strength (n = 12, combined (n = 11, and control (n = 12 groups randomly. Body composition, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CRP were measured before and after 12 weeks. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and analysis of variance statistical methods. Results: There were significant differences in body weight between aerobic and strength training (P = 0.004 and aerobic and control groups (P = 0.018, body mass index between combined and strength training (P = 0.004 and combined and control groups (P = 0.001, fat percentage between aerobic training and control group (P = 0.017 and combined training and control groups (P = 0.004, and finally, fat-free mass between aerobic and strength training (P = 0.024, aerobic and combined training (P = 0.0001, strength and control groups (P = 0.035, and combined and control groups (P = 0.0001. Conclusions: The results indicated that 12-week workout, 20–60 min/session, 3 days a week of moderate intensity exercise improved body composition, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CRP compared to those who did not participate in any training. However, all three types of exercises had small benefits on body composition, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CRP in sedentary middle-aged men, and the importance of combined training required further investigations.

  19. Energy-matched moderate and high intensity exercise training improves nonalcoholic fatty liver disease risk independent of changes in body mass or abdominal adiposity - A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Nathan C; Liu, Ying; Rector, R Scott; Parks, Elizabeth J; Ibdah, Jamal A; Kanaley, Jill A

    2018-01-01

    Exercise training is commonly prescribed for individuals diagnosed with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, consensus regarding the volume and intensity of exercise for optimal benefits is lacking. Thus, we determined whether high intensity interval exercise training (HIIT) produced greater reductions in intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content and NAFLD risk factors compared with energy-matched moderate intensity continuous exercise training (MICT) in obese adults with liver steatosis. Eighteen obese adults were randomized to either 4weeks of HIIT (4min 80% VO 2 peak/3min, 50% VO 2 peak) or MICT (55% VO 2 peak, ~60min), matched for energy expenditure (~400kcal/session) and compared to five non-exercising age-matched control subjects. IHL was measured by 1 H-MRS and frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose, insulin, c-peptide, and NEFA levels during a liquid meal test (180min) to characterize metabolic phenotype. Baseline body weight, visceral abdominal adiposity, and fasting insulin concentrations were greater in the MICT vs HIIT group (P0.05), albeit higher than control subjects (Pexercise training intervention (P>0.05). Both HIIT and MICT lowered IHL (HIIT, -37.0±12.4%; MICT, -20.1±6.6%, Pexercise intensities (P=0.25). Furthermore, exercise training decreased postprandial insulin, c-peptide, and lipid peroxidation levels (iAUC, Pexercise are effective at decreasing IHL and NAFLD risk that is not contingent upon reductions in abdominal adiposity or body mass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Exercise and Fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, Wim; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    2009-01-01

    Physical exercise affects the equilibrium of the internal environment. During exercise the contracting muscles generate force or power and heat. So physical exercise is in fact a form of mechanical energy. This generated energy will deplete the energy stocks within the body. During exercise,

  1. Oxygen uptake during peak graded exercise and single-stage fatigue tests of wheelchair propulsion in manual wheelchair users and the able-bodied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, R E; Rodgers, M M; Gardner, E R; Russell, P J

    1999-10-01

    To determine if a single-stage, submaximal fatigue test on a wheelchair ergometer would result in higher than expected energy expenditure. An experimental survey design contrasting physiologic responses during peak graded exercise tests and fatigue tests. A rehabilitation science laboratory that included a prototypical wheelchair ergometer, open-circuit spirometry system, and heart rate monitor. Nine able-bodied non-wheelchair users (the NWC group: 6 men and 3 women, mean +/- SD age 30 +/- 7yrs) and 15 manual wheelchair users (the WC group: 12 men and 3 women, age 40 +/- 9yrs, time in wheelchair 16 +/- 9yrs). No subject had any disease, medication regimen, or upper body neurologic, orthopedic, or other condition that would limit wheelchair exercise. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2) for graded exercise testing and during fatigue testing, using a power output corresponding to 75% peak aerobic capacity on graded exercise test. In the WC group, VO2 at 6 minutes of fatigue testing was not significantly different from peak VO2. In the NWC group, VO2 was similar to the expected level throughout fatigue testing. Energy expenditure was higher than expected in the WC group but not in the NWC group. Fatigue testing may provide a useful evaluation of cardiorespiratory status in manual wheelchair users.

  2. Short Duration Small Sided Football and to a Lesser Extent Whole Body Vibration Exercise Induce Acute Changes in Markers of Bone Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bowtell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to study whether short-duration vibration exercise or football sessions of two different durations acutely changed plasma markers of bone turnover and muscle strain. Inactive premenopausal women (n=56 were randomized to complete a single bout of short (FG15 or long duration (FG60 small sided football or low magnitude whole body vibration training (VIB. Procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP was increased during exercise for FG15 (51.6±23.0 to 56.5±22.5 μg·L−1, mean ± SD, P0.05. An increase in osteocalcin was observed 48 h after exercise (P<0.05, which did not differ between exercise groups. C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen was not affected by exercise. Blood lactate concentration increased during exercise for FG15 (0.6±0.2 to 3.4±1.2 mM and FG60 (0.6±0.2 to 3.3±2.0 mM, but not for VIB (0.6±0.2 to 0.8±0.4 mM (P<0.05. Plasma creatine kinase increased by 55±63% and 137±119% 48 h after FG15 and FG60 (P<0.05, but not after VIB (26±54%, NS. In contrast to the minor elevation in osteocalcin in response to a single session of vibration exercise, both short and longer durations of small sided football acutely increased plasma P1NP, osteocalcin, and creatine kinase. This may contribute to favorable effects of chronic training on musculoskeletal health.

  3. Metabolic effect of bodyweight whole-body vibration in a 20-min exercise session: A crossover study using verified vibration stimulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Milanese

    Full Text Available The ability of whole body vibration (WBV to increase energy expenditure (EE has been investigated to some extent in the past using short-term single exercises or sets of single exercises. However, the current practice in WBV training for fitness is based on the execution of multiple exercises during a WBV training session for a period of at least 20 min; nevertheless, very limited and inconsistent data are available on EE during long term WBV training session. This crossover study was designed to demonstrate, in an adequately powered sample of participants, the ability of WBV to increase the metabolic cost of exercise vs. no vibration over the time span of a typical WBV session for fitness (20 min. Twenty-two physically active young males exercised on a vibration platform (three identical sets of six different exercises using an accelerometer-verified vibration stimulus in both the WBV and no vibration condition. Oxygen consumption was measured with indirect calorimetry and expressed as area under the curve (O2(AUC. Results showed that, in the overall 20-min training session, WBV increased both the O2(AUC and the estimated EE vs. no vibration by about 22% and 20%, respectively (P<0.001 for both, partial eta squared [η2] ≥0.35 as well as the metabolic equivalent of task (+5.5%, P = 0.043; η2 = 0.02 and the rate of perceived exertion (+13%, P<0.001; ŋ2 = 0.16. Results demonstrated that vibration is able to significantly increase the metabolic cost of exercise in a 20-min WBV training session.

  4. Physical Exercise Combined with Whole-Body Cryotherapy in Evaluating the Level of Lipid Peroxidation Products and Other Oxidant Stress Indicators in Kayakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Sutkowy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of exercise combined with whole-body cryotherapy (WBC on the oxidant/antioxidant balance in healthy men was assessed. The study included 16 kayakers of the Polish National Team, aged 22.7 ± 2.6, subjected to WBC (−120°C–−145°C; 3 min twice a day for the first 10 days of a 19-day physical training cycle: pre exercise morning stimulation and post exercise afternoon recovery. Blood samples were taken on Day 0 (baseline and on Days 5, 11 and 19. The serum concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA, conjugated dienes (CD, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, protein carbonyls, vitamin E, urea, cortisol, and testosterone were determined, along with the glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC, and morphological blood parameters. On 5th day of exercise/WBC, the baseline GPx activity decreased by 15.1% (P<0.05, while on 19th day, it increased by 19.7% (P<0.05 versus Day 5. On Day 19 TBARS concentration decreased versus baseline and Day 5 (by 15.9% and 17.4%, resp.; P<0.01. On 19 Day urea concentration also decreased versus 11 Day; however, on 5th and 11th days the level was higher versus baseline. Combining exercise during longer training cycles with WBC may be advantageous.

  5. Physical Exercise Combined with Whole-Body Cryotherapy in Evaluating the Level of Lipid Peroxidation Products and Other Oxidant Stress Indicators in Kayakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutkowy, Paweł; Augustyńska, Beata; Woźniak, Alina; Rakowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The influence of exercise combined with whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on the oxidant/antioxidant balance in healthy men was assessed. The study included 16 kayakers of the Polish National Team, aged 22.7 ± 2.6, subjected to WBC (−120°C–−145°C; 3 min) twice a day for the first 10 days of a 19-day physical training cycle: pre exercise morning stimulation and post exercise afternoon recovery. Blood samples were taken on Day 0 (baseline) and on Days 5, 11 and 19. The serum concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes (CD), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls, vitamin E, urea, cortisol, and testosterone were determined, along with the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and morphological blood parameters. On 5th day of exercise/WBC, the baseline GPx activity decreased by 15.1% (P < 0.05), while on 19th day, it increased by 19.7% (P < 0.05) versus Day 5. On Day 19 TBARS concentration decreased versus baseline and Day 5 (by 15.9% and 17.4%, resp.; P < 0.01). On 19 Day urea concentration also decreased versus 11 Day; however, on 5th and 11th days the level was higher versus baseline. Combining exercise during longer training cycles with WBC may be advantageous. PMID:24864189

  6. Association of the Composite Inflammatory Biomarker GlycA, with Exercise-Induced Changes in Body Habitus in Men and Women with Prediabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Bartlett

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available GlycA is a new composite measure of systemic inflammation and a predictor of many inflammatory diseases. GlycA is the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-derived signal arising from glucosamine residues on acute-phase proteins. This study aimed to evaluate how exercise-based lifestyle interventions modulate GlycA in persons at risk for type 2 diabetes. GlycA, fitness, and body habitus were measured in 169 sedentary adults (45–75 years with prediabetes randomly assigned to one of four six-month exercise-based lifestyle interventions. Interventions included exercise prescription based on the amount (energy expenditure (kcal/kg weight/week (KKW and intensity (%VO2peak. The groups were (1 low-amount/moderate-intensity (10KKW/50% exercise; (2 high-amount/moderate-intensity (16KKW/50% exercise; (3 high-amount/vigorous-intensity (16KKW/75% exercise; and (4 a Clinical Lifestyle (combined diet plus low-amount/moderate-intensity exercise intervention. Six months of exercise training and/or diet-reduced GlycA (mean Δ: −6.8 ± 29.2 μmol/L; p=0.006 and increased VO2peak (mean Δ: 1.98 ± 2.6 mL/kg/min; p<0.001. Further, visceral (mean Δ: −21.1 ± 36.6 cm2 and subcutaneous fat (mean Δ: −24.3 ± 41.0 cm2 were reduced, while liver density (mean Δ: +2.3 ± 6.5HU increased, all p<0.001. When including individuals in all four interventions, GlycA reductions were associated with reductions in visceral adiposity (p<0.03. Exercise-based lifestyle interventions reduced GlycA concentrations through mechanisms related to exercise-induced modulations of visceral adiposity. This trial is registered with Clinical Trial Registration Number NCT00962962.

  7. Cardiac output response to changes of the atrioventricular delay in different body positions and during exercise in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhlberg, Marcus; Damgaard, Morten; Norsk, Peter

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to study the haemodynamic effect of atrioventricular delay (AVD) modifications within a narrow range in different body positions and during exercise in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). METHODS: The previously optimized AVD was shortened...... and prolonged by 40 ms in 27 CRT patients and 9 controls without heart failure. Cardiac output (CO) was measured by inert gas rebreathing (Innocor) as the average over different body positions (left-lateral, supine, sitting, standing, and exercise). In eight CRT patients with an implantable haemodynamic monitor......, the estimated pulmonary artery diastolic pressure (ePAD) was analysed. RESULTS: The magnitude of CO response to AVD changes was greater in CRT patients than in controls (0.25 vs. 0.20 L/min, Psize (r=0...

  8. Changes in body composition of high competition rugby players during the phases of a regular season; influence of diet and exercise load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M; Martínez-Moreno, J M; Reyes-Ortiz, A; Suarez Moreno-Arrones, L; García A, A; Garcíacaballero, M

    2014-04-01

    Top athletes are subjected to intense training to achieve high performance. There are factors such as diet and strenuous exercise that affects body composition and can modify the performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a personalized plan of diet and training on body composition. We studied the body composition of 18 professional rugby players using Kinanthropometry parameters. The study was conducted from the preseason to the end of the season taking into account the position of the player for measuring exercise intensity, and developing a personalized nutritional and training plan to each player. At baseline the players were away from the internationally recommended body composition, with high percentages of body fat. Appropriate and personalized diet plans and training custom achieved fat percentages close to those recommended. The personalized program of diet and training directed has adequate leverage to improve all parameters studied them bringing them as close to the ideal. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Chinese men and women in the United States and Hong Kong: body and self-esteem ratings as a prelude to dieting and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C; Katzman, M A

    1998-01-01

    The present study compared the body and weight satisfaction, self-esteem, and depression of Chinese male and female university students in Hong Kong and the United States and assessed the impact of these ratings on compensatory behavior such as dieting and exercise. Self-report measures were administered to 501 Chinese participants in the language of their university's locale. Females reported significantly more body dissatisfaction and depression, and males reported greater weight dissatisfaction (the majority of men wishing to be larger). Overall, Chinese subjects in Hong Kong reported significantly more body and weight dissatisfaction, lower self-esteem, higher depression, more dieting, and less exercise as compared to their counterparts in the United States. Asian students in this study mirrored gendered patterns previously reported in Caucasian samples with respect to the relation of body image, self-esteem, and mood. For both sexes, there appeared to be a caricatured mimicking of the bodies perceived to be associated with the dominant culture--men wanted to be larger while the women wanted to be even more petite.

  10. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ or multi-joint exercises (MJ on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc. and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.. The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ, bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ, knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ. In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  11. Exercise and dietary advice intervention for survivors of triple-negative breast cancer: effects on body fat, physical function, quality of life, and adipokine profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Anne K; Abraham, Jame; Bonner, Daniel; Gilleland, Diana; Hobbs, Gerald; Kurian, Sobha; Yanosik, Mary Anne; Vona-Davis, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Regular exercise and healthy eating are routinely recommended for breast cancer survivors, and past studies show benefits in quality of life and decreased inflammation. However, this has not been tested specifically in triple-negative breast cancer survivors. Increasing physical activity and losing body fat are thought to positively affect inflammatory biomarkers that have been associated with breast cancer. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine if participation in an exercise and dietary counseling program can improve body fat, physical function, and quality of life in survivors of this aggressive breast cancer. Secondarily, we sought to determine if participation in the program had beneficial effects on obesity-related markers of the adipokine profile. Sixty-six survivors of triple-negative breast cancer with BMI >25 were invited to participate. Twenty-eight enrolled and 23 completed the randomized, controlled trial (13 intervention, 10 control). Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (150 min per week, for 12 weeks) and diet counseling were compared to usual care, education only. The primary outcome of interest was weight loss (body mass, BMI, % fat), and secondary outcomes included physical function (exercise capacity), quality of life (Function After Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B)), cytokines (C-reactive protein (CRP), TNF-α, IL-6), and adipokine profile (leptin, adiponectin, insulin). Participants in the program lost more body fat (2.4 % loss vs. 0.4 % gain, p life (FACT-B total score +14 pts) and decreased sedentary time but did not improve peak exercise capacity. The intervention had no effect on serum cytokines and adipokines after 12 weeks in the program. However, serum leptin and adiponectin and their ratio were significantly correlated with BMI in the intervention group (p life in survivors of triple-negative breast cancer. BMI was associated with favorable changes in leptin and adiponectin which may reflect a change in adiposity

  12. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise: implications for fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secher, Neils H; Seifert, Thomas; Van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2008-01-01

    During exercise: the Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) does not change because the jugular vein is collapsed in the upright position. In contrast, when CBF is evaluated by (133)Xe clearance, by flow in the internal carotid artery, or by flow velocity in basal cerebral arteries, a approximately 25% increase is detected with a parallel increase in metabolism. During activation, an increase in cerebral O(2) supply is required because there is no capillary recruitment within the brain and increased metabolism becomes dependent on an enhanced gradient for oxygen diffusion. During maximal whole body exercise, however, cerebral oxygenation decreases because of eventual arterial desaturation and marked hyperventilation-related hypocapnia of consequence for CBF. Reduced cerebral oxygenation affects recruitment of motor units, and supplemental O(2) enhances cerebral oxygenation and work capacity without effects on muscle oxygenation. Also, the work of breathing and the increasing temperature of the brain during exercise are of importance for the development of so-called central fatigue. During prolonged exercise, the perceived exertion is related to accumulation of ammonia in the brain, and data support the theory that glycogen depletion in astrocytes limits the ability of the brain to accelerate its metabolism during activation. The release of interleukin-6 from the brain when exercise is prolonged may represent a signaling pathway in matching the metabolic response of the brain. Preliminary data suggest a coupling between the circulatory and metabolic perturbations in the brain during strenuous exercise and the ability of the brain to access slow-twitch muscle fiber populations.

  13. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Exercise and Asthma Page Content Article Body Almost every child (and ... of Pediatrics about asthma and exercise. What is asthma Asthma is the most common chronic medical problem ...

  14. Effect of whole-body vibration exercise on mobility, balance ability and general health status in frail elderly patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Weng, Changshui; Liu, Miao; Wang, Qiuhua; Liu, Liming; He, Yao

    2014-01-01

    To study the effects of whole-body vibration exercises on the mobility function, balance and general health status, and its feasibility as an intervention in frail elderly patients. Pilot randomized controlled trial. Forty-four frail older persons (85.27 ± 3.63 years) meeting the Fried Frailty Criteria. All eligible subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental group, who received a whole-body vibration exercise alone (vibration amplitude: 1-3 mm; frequency: 6-26 Hz; 4-5 bouts × 60 seconds; 3-5 times weekly), or a control group, who received usual care and exercises for eight weeks. The Timed Up and Go Test, 30-second chair stand test, lower extremities muscle strength, balance function, balance confidence and General Health Status were assessed at the beginning of the study, after four weeks and eight weeks of the intervention. Whole-body vibration exercise reduced the time of the Timed Up and Go Test (40.47 ± 15.94 s to 21.34 ± 4.42 s), improved the bilateral knees extensor strength (6.96 ± 1.70 kg to 11.26 ± 2.08 kg), the posture stability (surface area ellipse: 404.58 ± 177.05 to 255.95 ± 107.28) and General Health Status (Short-form Health Survey score: 24.51 ± 10.69 and 49.63 ± 9.85 to 45.03 ± 11.15 and 65.23 ± 9.39, respectively). The repeated-measures ANOVA showed that there were significant differences in the Timed Up and Go Test, 30-second chair stand test, bilateral knees extensor strength, activities-specific balance confidence score and general health status between the two groups (P balance and the general health status in the frail elderly.

  15. Patient-reported outcomes, body composition, and nutrition status in patients with head and neck cancer: Results from an exploratory randomized controlled exercise trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Lauren C; McNeely, Margaret L; Lau, Harold Y; Reimer, Raylene A; Giese-Davis, Janine; Fung, Tak S; Culos-Reed, S Nicole

    2016-04-15

    Patients with head and neck cancer experience loss of weight and muscle mass, decreased functioning, malnutrition, depression, and declines in quality of life during and after treatment. The purpose of this exploratory randomized study was to determine the optimal timing for the initiation of a lifestyle and progressive resistance exercise training intervention (during or after radiation therapy), as determined by intervention adherence and by comparing between-group outcomes across 24 weeks. Sixty patients with head and neck cancer were randomized to engage in a 12-week lifestyle intervention and progressive resistance-training program either during radiation treatment or immediately after completion. The primary outcome of body composition--specifically, lean body mass, body mass index, and body fat--as well as secondary outcomes of fitness, quality of life, depression, and nutrition status were evaluated. The progressive resistance-training intervention carried out during treatment did not significantly influence the primary outcome of body composition, despite a significant increase in weekly physical activity reported by the intervention group. A small-to-medium intervention effect was noted for some secondary outcomes, including fitness, quality of life, and nutrition status. Regardless of whether patients received the immediate or delayed progressive resistance-training intervention, the analysis revealed a main effect of time on body composition, fitness, quality of life, depression, and nutritional scores. Although the intervention during treatment did not reduce the loss of lean body mass, delaying the exercise program until after treatment completion was associated with improved intervention adherence, a finding with important clinical implications. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  16. Positioning of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: combining prone and upright makes sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jean-Christophe M; Lefebvre, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Positional strategies have been proposed for mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Despite different physiological mechanisms involved, oxygenation improvement has been demonstrated with both prone and upright positions. In the previous issue of Critical Care, Robak and colleagues reported the first study evaluating the short-term effects of combining prone and upright positioning. The combined positioning enhanced the response rate in terms of oxygenation. Other benefits, such as a reduction in ventilator-associated pneumonia and better enteral feeding tolerance, can potentially be expected.

  17. Effect of Propranolol on Thyroxine-Induced Changes in Body Temperature and Metabolism During Exercise in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Brzezinska, Zofia; Greenleaf, John E.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of thyroxine on temperature and metabolism during exercise were studied in dogs after beta-adrenergic blockade. Dogs performed 60 min treadmill exercise of moderate intensity 5 and 72 h following thyroxine injected s. c. in a single dose of 0.1 mg/kg b.w. Thyroxine increased significantly the lipolytic response to exercise as well as blood lactate (LA) concentrations and rectal temperature (T(sub re)) during exercise as early as 5 h following the hormone administration. The changes became more pronounced 72 h after the injection. At rest T(sub re), blood FFA (free fatty acid) and LA levels in the thyroxine-treated dogs did not differ from the control values, and blood glucose was slightly, but significantly higher. Propranolol given intravenously in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg at 30 min of the exercise performed 72 h following thyroxine injection abolished the plasma FFA rise, and inhibited to a certain extent increases in T(sub re) and blood LA concentrations during the next 30 min of exercise.

  18. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P mass (r = -0.68, P mass (r = -0.576, P mass (r = -0.439, P mass, visceral fat mass and percentage fat mass were lower in the HFDE group than the HFD group (all P values mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  19. Green tea and vitamin E enhance exercise-induced benefits in body composition, glucose homeostasis, and antioxidant status in elderly men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narotzki, Baruch; Reznick, Abraham Z; Navot-Mintzer, Dalya; Dagan, Bracha; Levy, Yishai

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of green tea plus vitamin E in addition to exercise on body composition and metabolic and antioxidant parameters in healthy elderly individuals. Interventional randomized controlled prospective trial. For 12 weeks, 22 elderly men and women (age: 71.1 ± 1.2 years; body mass index: 28.3 ± 0.5 kg/m(2) [mean ± SE]) undertook 30 minutes of moderately intense walking 6 d/wk. They were randomly assigned to ingest either green tea plus vitamin E (GTVE; 3 cups and 400 IU, respectively; n = 11) or placebo (n = 11). Data on anthropometrics, fasting insulin and glucose levels, physical fitness, dietary intake, safety parameters, and biomarkers of oxidation status were recorded and analyzed at the start and end of the study. Though dietary intake was unchanged, improved exercise capacity was followed by a significant reduction in body weight and fasting insulin levels in all participants. Additional consumption of GTVE resulted in a twofold increase in serum vitamin E (from 20.4 to 40.6 μmol/L, p fasting glucose levels (from 5.30 to 4.98 mmol/L, p benefits in body composition and glucose tolerance and may also lower oxidative burden.

  20. Sporadic inclusion body myositis: pilot study on the effects of a home exercise program on muscle function, histopathology and inflammatory reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnardottir, Snjolaug; Alexanderson, Helene; Lundberg, Ingrid E; Borg, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and effect of a home training program on muscle function in 7 patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis. The patients performed exercise 5 days a week over a 12-week period. Safety was assessed by clinical examination, repeated muscle biopsies and serum levels of creatine kinase. Muscle strength was evaluated by clinical examination, dynamic dynamometer and by a functional index in myositis. Strength was not significantly improved after the exercise, however none of the patients deteriorated concerning muscle function. The histopathology was unchanged and there were no signs of increased muscle inflammation or of expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules in the muscle biopsies. Creatine kinase levels were unchanged. A significant decrease was found in the areas that were positively stained for EN-4 (a marker for endothelial cells) in the muscle biopsies after training. The home exercise program was considered as not harmful to the muscles regarding muscle inflammation and function. Exercise may prevent loss of muscle strength due to disease and/or inactivity.

  1. The impact of exercise intensity on whole body and adipose tissue metabolism during energy restriction in sedentary overweight men and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walhin, Jean-Philippe; Dixon, Natalie C; Betts, James A; Thompson, Dylan

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to establish whether vigorous-intensity exercise offers additional adipose-related health benefits and metabolic improvements compared to energy-matched moderate-intensity exercise. Thirty-eight sedentary overweight men (n = 24) and postmenopausal women (n = 14) aged 52 ± 5 years (mean ± standard deviations [SD]) were prescribed a 3-week energy deficit (29302 kJ∙week -1 ) achieved by increased isocaloric moderate or vigorous-intensity exercise (+8372 kJ∙week -1 ) and simultaneous restricted energy intake (-20930 kJ∙week -1 ). Participants were randomly assigned to either an energy-matched vigorous (VIG; n = 18) or moderate (MOD; n = 20) intensity exercise group (five times per week at 70% or 50% maximal oxygen uptake, respectively). At baseline and follow-up, fasted blood samples and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests conducted. Body mass was reduced similarly in both groups (∆ 2.4 ± 1.1 kg and ∆ 2.4 ± 1.4 kg, respectively, P restriction provide broadly similar (positive) changes in metabolic control and adipose tissue gene expression. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  2. The effect of aerobic exercise and barley β-glucan on blood glucose, body composition and blood pressure of diabetic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mokhtari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of type 2 diabetes increases with aging, unhealthy diets, obesity and sedentary lifestyles. The aim of this study was to investigate the combinational effect of a 12-week aerobic exercise and barley β-glucan (BBG on blood glucose, body composition and blood pressure in women with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 24 women with the mean age of 49 years and a blood glucose level of 110-280 mg/dl were purposefully selected and randomly divided into three groups: a group of aerobic exercise with diet (n=8, b diet group (n=8 c control group (n=8. The diet group consumed one barley bread, containing 4 g of β glucan, each day for 12 weeks. The group of aerobic exercise, who was on diet, participated in a progressive walking program with the intensity of %60-70% of maximal heart rate in addition to diet program (barley bread. Blood glucose, weight, fat percentage, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were measured in pre-and post-training. Results: Results showed a significant decrease in the blood glucose level in the experimental groups compared to the control group, while no major changes were observed in body composition and blood pressure. Conclusion: It seems that the combined program (aerobic training with diet or consumption of β-glucan alone can decrease blood glucose in patients with diabetes.

  3. Effect of two Backpack Designs on Cop Displacement and Plantar Force Distribution in Children during Upright Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastalerz Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Many studies have compared different backpack designs and their influence on the carrier; however, no data referring to school students aged 7-8 years are currently available. Therefore, the aim of the research was to assess the influence of backpack design on centre of pressure (COP displacement and plantar force distribution in children during an upright stance. Material and methods. Nineteen school students (9 males and 10 females volunteered for the study. Two Polish backpacks intended for school use were evaluated: backpack A, which had two main compartments, and backpack B, which had one main compartment. The backpack load was composed of books, binders, and regular school equipment. During the measurements, the subjects were asked to look ahead with the head straight and arms at the sides in a comfortable position and to stand barefoot on the F-Scan® sensors (Tekscan, F-Scan® attached to the force platform (Kistler, carrying a load corresponding to 10% of their body mass. Results. The study found insignificant differences between the two backpack designs. Moreover, COP parameters increased significantly during an upright stance while carrying backpack B in comparison to the empty backpack condition. Additionally, we observed significantly higher values of plantar force distribution in the heel region for the condition without load and insignificantly higher ones for carrying backpack A. Conclusions. The results of the current study suggest that the differences between the two backpack designs are too marginal to be detected through COP displacement. Disturbances in plantar force distribution suggest a lack of posture control and a lower stability of the standing position with a backpack, but these disturbances were significant only when the backpack with one main compartment was used.

  4. The relationships between body mass index and television viewing, internet use and cellular phone use: the moderating effects of socio-demographic characteristics and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Hsiao, Ray C; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Huang, Chi-Fen; Liu, Shu-Chun; Wang, Shing-Yaw

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and television viewing, Internet use and cellular phone use and the moderators for these relationships in adolescents. The relationship between BMI and the time spent on three kinds of sedentary activities and the moderators for these relationships were analyzed among 9,278 Taiwanese adolescents. The different relationships between BMI and various Internet and cellular phone-related activities were analyzed. High television viewing and high Internet use were associated with increased BMI in adolescents. Exercising had a moderating effect on the relationship between BMI and television viewing. Several Internet and cellular phone-related activities were associated with increased BMI. The results support the relationships between adolescent BMI and television viewing and Internet use. The moderating effect of exercise and various Internet and cellular phone-related activities should be considered when developing intervention strategies for overweight adolescents. © 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Exercise promotes the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through the action of the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiman, Sama F; Henry, Jeffrey; Al-Haddad, Rami; El Hayek, Lauretta; Abou Haidar, Edwina; Stringer, Thomas; Ulja, Devyani; Karuppagounder, Saravanan S; Holson, Edward B; Ratan, Rajiv R; Ninan, Ipe; Chao, Moses V

    2016-06-02

    Exercise induces beneficial responses in the brain, which is accompanied by an increase in BDNF, a trophic factor associated with cognitive improvement and the alleviation of depression and anxiety. However, the exact mechanisms whereby physical exercise produces an induction in brain Bdnf gene expression are not well understood. While pharmacological doses of HDAC inhibitors exert positive effects on Bdnf gene transcription, the inhibitors represent small molecules that do not occur in vivo. Here, we report that an endogenous molecule released after exercise is capable of inducing key promoters of the Mus musculus Bdnf gene. The metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate, which increases after prolonged exercise, induces the activities of Bdnf promoters, particularly promoter I, which is activity-dependent. We have discovered that the action of β-hydroxybutyrate is specifically upon HDAC2 and HDAC3, which act upon selective Bdnf promoters. Moreover, the effects upon hippocampal Bdnf expression were observed after direct ventricular application of β-hydroxybutyrate. Electrophysiological measurements indicate that β-hydroxybutyrate causes an increase in neurotransmitter release, which is dependent upon the TrkB receptor. These results reveal an endogenous mechanism to explain how physical exercise leads to the induction of BDNF.

  6. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy vs. far-infrared vs. passive modalities on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage in highly-trained runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Hausswirth

    Full Text Available Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC, far infrared (FIR or passive (PAS modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being] were recorded before, immediately after (post, post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h, while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities.

  7. Disturbances in Pro-Oxidant-Antioxidant Balance after Passive Body Overheating and after Exercise in Elevated Ambient Temperatures in Athletes and Untrained Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilch, Wanda; Szygula, Zbigniew; Tyka, Anna K.; Palka, Tomasz; Tyka, Aleksander; Cison, Tomasz; Pilch, Pawel; Teleglow, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance in two series of examinations with two types of stressors (exogenous heat and the combined exogenous and endogenous heat) in trained and untrained men. The exogenous stressor was provided by Finnish sauna session, whereas the combined stressor was represented by the exercise in elevated ambient temperature. The men from the two groups performed the physical exercise on a cycle ergometer with the load of 53±2% maximal oxygen uptake at the temperature of 33±1°C and relative humidity of 70% until their rectal temperature rose by 1.2°C. After a month from completion of the exercise test the subjects participated in a sauna bathing session with the temperature of 96±2°C, and relative humidity of 16±5%. 15-minutes heating and 2-minute cool-down in a shower with the temperature of 20°C was repeated until rectal temperature rose by 1.2°C compared to the initial value. During both series of tests rectal temperature was measured at 5-minute intervals. Before both series of tests and after them body mass was measured and blood samples were taken for biochemical tests. Serum total protein, serum concentration of lipid peroxidation products and serum antioxidants were determined. The athletes were characterized by higher level of antioxidant status and lower concentration of lipid peroxidation products. Physical exercise at elevated ambient temperature caused lower changes in oxidative stress indices compared to sauna bathing. Sauna induced a shift in pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance towards oxidation, which was observed less intensively in the athletes compared to the untrained men. This leads to the conclusion that physical exercise increases tolerance to elevated ambient temperature and oxidative stress. PMID:24465535

  8. Effects of Whole-Body Cryotherapy vs. Far-Infrared vs. Passive Modalities on Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Highly-Trained Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Louis, Julien; Bieuzen, François; Pournot, Hervé; Fournier, Jean; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC), far infrared (FIR) or passive (PAS) modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post), post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS) in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being]) were recorded before, immediately after (post), post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h), while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities. PMID:22163272

  9. Effect of obesity on oxygen uptake and cardiovascular dynamics during whole-body and leg exercise in adult males and females.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Green, Simon

    2018-05-01

    Obesity has been associated with a slowing of V˙O2 dynamics in children and adolescents, but this problem has not been studied in adults. Cardiovascular mechanisms underlying this effect are not clear. In this study, 48 adults (18 males, 30 females) grouped according to body mass index (BMI) (lean < 25 kg·m-2 , overweight = 25-29.9 kg·m-2 , obese ≥30 kg·m-2 ) provided a fasting blood sample, completed a maximal graded exercise test and six bouts of submaximal exercise on a cycle ergometer, and performed two protocols of calf exercise. Dynamic response characteristics of V˙O2 and leg vascular conductance (LVC) were assessed during cycling (80% ventilatory threshold) and calf exercise (30% MVC), respectively. Dynamic responses of cardiac output, mean arterial pressure and total systemic vascular conductance were also assessed during cycling based on measurements at 30 and 240 sec. The time constant of the second phase of the V˙O2 response was significantly greater in obese than lean subjects (39.4 (9.2) vs. 29.1 (7.6) sec); whereas dynamic responses of cardiac output and systemic vascular conductance were not affected by BMI. For calf exercise, the time constant of the second growth phase of LVC was slowed significantly in obese subjects (22.1 (12.7) sec) compared with lean and overweight subjects (11.6 (4.5) sec and 13.4 (6.7) sec). These data show that obesity slows dynamic responses of V˙O2 during cycling and the slower phase of vasodilation in contracting muscles of male and female adults.

  10. The Effects of a Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy Exposure on Physiological, Performance, and Perceptual Responses of Professional Academy Soccer Players After Repeated Sprint Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark; Birch, Jack; Love, Thomas; Cook, Christian J; Bracken, Richard M; Taylor, Tom; Swift, Eamon; Cockburn, Emma; Finn, Charlie; Cunningham, Daniel; Wilson, Laura; Kilduff, Liam P

    2017-02-01

    Russell, M, Birch, J, Love, T, Cook, CJ, Bracken, RM, Taylor, T, Swift, E, Cockburn, E, Finn, C, Cunningham, D, Wilson, L, and Kilduff, LP. The effects of a single whole-body cryotherapy exposure on physiological, performance, and perceptual responses of professional academy soccer players after repeated sprint exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 415-421, 2017-In professional youth soccer players, the physiological, performance, and perceptual effects of a single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) session performed shortly after repeated sprint exercise were investigated. In a randomized, counterbalanced, and crossover design, 14 habituated English Premier League academy soccer players performed 15 × 30 m sprints (each followed by a 10 m forced deceleration) on 2 occasions. Within 20 minutes of exercise cessation, players entered a WBC chamber (Cryo: 30 seconds at -60° C, 120 seconds at -135° C) or remained seated (Con) indoors in temperate conditions (∼25° C). Blood and saliva samples, peak power output (countermovement jump), and perceptual indices of recovery and soreness were assessed pre-exercise and immediately, 2-hour and 24-hour postexercise. When compared with Con, a greater testosterone response was observed at 2-hour (+32.5 ± 32.3 pg·ml, +21%) and 24-hour (+50.4 ± 48.9 pg·ml, +28%) postexercise (both P = 0.002) in Cryo (trial × treatment interaction: P = 0.001). No between-trial differences were observed for other salivary (cortisol and testosterone/cortisol ratio), blood (lactate and creatine kinase), performance (peak power output), or perceptual (recovery or soreness) markers (all trial × treatment interactions: P > 0.05); all of which were influenced by exercise (time effects: all P ≤ 0.05). A single session of WBC performed within 20 minutes of repeated sprint exercise elevated testosterone concentrations for 24 hours but did not affect any other performance, physiological, or perceptual measurements taken. Although unclear, WBC may be

  11. BRSMG Uai: common bean cultivar with carioca grain type and upright plant architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The common bean cultivar with carioca grain type, BRSMG Uai, is recommended for cultivation in Minas Gerais and stands out for its upright plant architecture, which facilitates cultivation and mechanical harvesting. This cultivar has high yield potential and is resistant to the major races of anthracnose that occur in region.

  12. Cerebral blood flow velocity changes during upright positioning in bed after acute stroke : An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aries, Marcel J; Elting, Jan Willem; Stewart, Roy; De Keyser, Jacques; Kremer, Berry; Vroomen, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: National guidelines recommend mobilisation in bed as early as possible after acute stroke. Little is known about the influence of upright positioning on real-time cerebral flow variables in patients with stroke. We aimed to assess whether cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) changes

  13. Toddlers with Williams Syndrome Process Upright but Not Inverted Faces Holistically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashon, Cara H.; Ha, Oh-Ryeong; DeNicola, Christopher A.; Mervis, Carolyn B.

    2013-01-01

    Holistic processing of upright, but not inverted, faces is a marker of perceptual expertise for faces. This pattern is shown by typically developing individuals beginning at age 7 months. Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurogenetic developmental disorder characterized by extreme interest in faces from a very young age. Research on the effects of…

  14. SECOND MOLAR UPRIGHTING AFTER PREMATURE LOSS OF MANDIBULAR FIRST PERMANENT MOLAR--CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernei, E R; Mavru, R B; Zetui, Irina Nicoleta

    2015-01-01

    Uprighting a tipped molar by using an uprighting spring is a fundamental orthodontic treatment technique. Following a weak anchorage done only by the anterior teeth the permanent lower second molar will rotate around its center of resistance, and besides the distalizing movement will occur its extrusion. Following the reaction, the mandibular anterior teeth will have a movement of intrusion. All these elements will lead to anterior open bite. Correction of vertical problems has become easier with the advent of mini-implants. U.I patient aged 24 years presenting for aesthetic and functional disorders. Clinical examination reveals intraoral Class I molar malocclusion on the right sight, upper narrowing arch with a slight overbite, and the both permanent first molars on the left side lost prematurely. The tooth 37 is inclined at 600 degrees to the plane of occlusion. To avoid front opening occlusion we used an orthodontic miniscrew inserted between the canine and the first premolar on the same side to achieve the second molar up righting. Lower second molar uprighting was achieved without unwanted movements in anterior mandibular region and without molar extrusion. Using mini implants in uprighting a tipped molar will achieve the desired tooth movement and will reduce the number of unwanted side effects and eventually to improve patient's esthetics.

  15. The effect of a change in sleep-wakefulness timing, bright light and physical exercise interventions on 24-hour patterns of performance, mood and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskra-Golec, I; Fafrowicz, M; Marek, T; Costa, G; Folkard, S; Foret, J; Kundi, M; Smith, L

    2001-12-01

    Experiments consisting of baseline, bright light and physical exercise studies were carried out to compare the effect of a 9-hour delay in sleep-wakefulness timing, and the effects of bright light and physical exercise interventions on 24-hour patterns of performance, mood and body temperature were examined. Each study comprised a 24-hour constant routine at the beginning followed by 3 night shifts and 24-hour constant routine at the end. Performance on tasks differing in cognitive load, mood and body temperature was measured during each constant routine and the interventions were applied during the night shifts. The 24-hour pattern of alertness and performance on the tasks with low cognitive load in post-treatment conditions followed the change in sleep-wakefulness timing while more cognitively loaded tasks tended to show a reverse trend when compared to pre-treatment conditions. There was a phase delay around 4 hours in circadian rhythms of body temperature in post-treatment conditions.

  16. A randomized trial of high-dairy-protein, variable-carbohydrate diets and exercise on body composition in adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Evelyn B; Coffey, Vernon G; Cato, Louise E; Phillips, Stuart M; Burke, Louise M; Hawley, John A

    2016-05-01

    This study determined the effects of 16-week high-dairy-protein, variable-carbohydrate (CHO) diets and exercise training (EXT) on body composition in men and women with overweight/obesity. One hundred and eleven participants (age 47 ± 6 years, body mass 90.9 ± 11.7 kg, BMI 33 ± 4 kg/m(2) , values mean ± SD) were randomly stratified to diets with either: high dairy protein, moderate CHO (40% CHO: 30% protein: 30% fat; ∼4 dairy servings); high dairy protein, high CHO (55%: 30%: 15%; ∼4 dairy servings); or control (55%: 15%: 30%; ∼1 dairy serving). Energy restriction (500 kcal/day) was achieved through diet (∼250 kcal/day) and EXT (∼250 kcal/day). Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before, midway, and upon completion of the intervention. Eighty-nine (25 M/64 F) of 115 participants completed the 16-week intervention, losing 7.7 ± 3.2 kg fat mass (P exercise stimulus. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  17. Physical activity, exercise, and inflammatory markers in older adults : findings from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colbert, Lisa H; Visser, Marjolein; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Tracy, Russell P; Newman, Anne B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Pahor, Marco; Taaffe, Dennis R; Brach, Jennifer S; Rubin, Susan; Harris, Tamara B

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between physical activity and inflammatory markers, with consideration for body fatness and antioxidant use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study, using baseline data from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. SETTING: Metropolitan areas surrounding

  18. Effects of elastic resistance exercise on body composition and physical capacity in older women with sarcopenic obesity: A CONSORT-compliant prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-De; Tsauo, Jau-Yih; Lin, Li-Fong; Huang, Shih-Wei; Ku, Jan-Wen; Chou, Lin-Chuan; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2017-06-01

    Sarcopenia is associated with loss of muscle mass and an increased risk of physical disability in elderly people. However, the prevalence of sarcopenia has increased in obese elderly populations. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical efficacy of elastic resistance exercise training (RET) in patients with sarcopenic obesity. This study was conducted at the rehabilitation center of a university-based teaching hospital and was designed as a prospective and randomized controlled trial with an intention-to-treat analysis. A total of 46 women aged 67.3 (5.2) years were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) and control group (CG). The EG underwent elastic RET for 12 weeks, and the CG received no RET intervention. All outcome measures were assessed at the baseline and posttest, including body composition measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, muscle quality (MQ) defined as a ratio of muscular strength to muscle mass, and physical capacity assessed using functional mobility tests. One-way analysis of covariance and Pearson correlation were used to compare outcomes between the 2 groups and to identify the relationship between changes in body composition and physical outcomes, respectively. A chi-square test was performed to identify differences in qualitative data between the 2 groups. At the posttest, a significant between-group difference was observed in fat-free mass, MQ, and physical capacity (all P exercise exerted benefits on the body composition, MQ, and physical function in patients with sarcopenic obesity. Regular exercise incorporating elastic RET should be used to attenuate muscle mass loss and prevent physical difficulty in obese older adults with sarcopenia on reconditioning therapy. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-IPR-15006069.

  19. A randomised placebo-exercise controlled trial of Kung Fu training for improvements in body composition in overweight/obese adolescents: the "Martial Fitness" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Tracey W; Kohn, Michael; Chow, Chin Moi; Singh, M Fiatarone

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if Chinese martial arts (Kung Fu, KF) might be effective for improving body composition, as well as being an appealing form of physical activity for inexperienced, sedentary, overweight/obese adolescents. Twenty subjects (age: 13.3 ± 1.8 y; BMI percentile: 98.6(86.5 - 99.8); 60% girls) were randomly-assigned to the supervised KF or placebo (Tai Chi, TC) control group 3 d.wk(-1) for 6 months. We assessed body composition, including total and regional fat and lean mass, total and regional bone mineral density (BMD), percent lean and fat mass, body mass index and waist circumference, at baseline and after 6 months of training using anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Habitual physical activity and dietary intake were recorded as covariates via self-report at each time-point. As expected due to natural growth, significant increases in height, weight, total and lumbar BMD, and lean mass were seen in the cohort over time, with a trend for increased whole body fat mass, with no difference between groups. By contrast, percent fat and android fat mass via DXA did not increase in either group over time. The absence of a similar expected increase in central adiposity over 6 months could indicate a positive effect of participation in both programs on the metabolically critical abdominal adiposity in this cohort. Further research in this area is warranted to determine ways to increase uptake and compliance, and to see if longer-term martial arts training not only maintains, but improves abdominal fat mass and related metabolic health indices in overweight/ obese adolescents. Key pointsParticipation in our martial arts trial attenuated the increases in body fat mass expected due to growth in our overweight/obese adolescent group.All subjects allocated to the Kung Fu intervention were satisfied with their Kung Fu training, in contrast to our placebo-exercise (Tai Chi) subjects, suggesting that this form of

  20. Body mass index and active range of motion exercise treatment after intra-articular injection in adhesive capsulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi-Hsien Lin

    2013-04-01

    Conclusion: Active range of motion exercise after an intra-articular injection of corticosteroid and lidocaine improved pain and functional outcome at 8 weeks in normal-weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2 patients with primary adhesive capsulitis. Manipulation under anesthesia may be considered a priority in overweight patients.

  1. This girl can #jointhemovement: Effectiveness of physical functionality-focused campaigns for women's body satisfaction and exercise intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgrew, Kate E; McCulloch, Karen; Farren, Emily; Prichard, Ivanka; Lim, Megan S C

    2018-03-01

    We tested the effectiveness of exposure to two functionality-focused media campaigns, This Girl Can and #jointhemovement, in improving state appearance and physical functionality satisfaction, exercise intent, and protecting against exposure to idealised imagery. Across two studies, 339 (M age =24.94, SD=4.98) and 256 (M age =26.46, SD=5.50) women viewed the campaign or control video, followed by images of models who were posed or physically active, or images of landscapes. State satisfaction and exercise intent was measured at pre-test, post-video, post-images, and 1-week follow-up. Social comparison was measured at post-images. Viewing either campaign produced higher appearance satisfaction and exercise intentions than the control video. Effects weren't maintained after viewing idealised imagery or 1 week later. Further, the campaigns did not decrease social comparisons when viewing idealised imagery. Results can inform agencies about campaign effectiveness and suggest that women benefit from campaigns that feature non-idealised depictions of women exercising. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Why Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... strength, boosts energy, and can help you reduce stress. It can also help you maintain a healthy body weight and curb ... well-being and help treat depression. Help relieve stress and anxiety. Increase ... Can anyone exercise? Everyone can benefit from physical activity. ...

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine ... Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga ...

  4. WOMEN AND EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    Tarran, Leanne

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the social attitudes and expectations that limit women's freedom to move in the world. The history of gendered attitudes to exercise, current gendered differences in patterns of exercise and issues of body image and ageing are discussed. The importance of these issues when considering exercise as a preventative health measure is emphasised.

  5. Changes in Bone Biomarkers, BMC, and Insulin Resistance Following a 10-Week Whole Body Vibration Exercise Program in Overweight Latino Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erceg, David N; Anderson, Lindsey J; Nickles, Chun M; Lane, Christianne J; Weigensberg, Marc J; Schroeder, E Todd

    2015-01-01

    With the childhood obesity epidemic, efficient methods of exercise are sought to improve health. We tested whether whole body vibration (WBV) exercise can positively affect bone metabolism and improve insulin/glucose dynamics in sedentary overweight Latino boys. Twenty Latino boys 8-10 years of age were randomly assigned to either a control (CON) or 3 days/wk WBV exercise (VIB) for 10-wk. Significant increases in BMC (4.5 ± 3.2%; p=0.01) and BMD (1.3 ± 1.3%; pBMC significantly increased (2.0 ± 2.2%; p=0.02), with no change in BMD (0.8 ± 1.3%; p=0.11). There were no significant between group changes in BMC or BMD. No significant change was observed for osteocalcin and (collagen type I C-telopeptide) CTx for the VIB group. However, osteocalcin showed a decreasing trend (p=0.09) and CTx significantly increased (pBMC and BMD by decreasing bone resorption in overweight Latino boys.

  6. Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on an acute bout of intense lower body strength exercise in resistance trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levers, Kyle; Dalton, Ryan; Galvan, Elfego; Goodenough, Chelsea; O'Connor, Abigail; Simbo, Sunday; Barringer, Nicholas; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U; Rasmussen, Christopher; Greenwood, Mike; Riechman, Steven; Crouse, Stephen; Kreider, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether short-term ingestion of a powdered tart cherry supplement prior to and following intense resistance-exercise attenuates muscle soreness and recovery strength loss, while reducing markers of muscle damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Twenty-three healthy, resistance-trained men (20.9 ± 2.6 yr, 14.2 ± 5.4% body fat, 63.9 ± 8.6 kg FFM) were matched based on relative maximal back squat strength, age, body weight, and fat free mass. Subjects were randomly assigned to ingest, in a double blind manner, capsules containing a placebo (P, n = 12) or powdered tart cherries [CherryPURE(®)] (TC, n = 11). Participants supplemented one time daily (480 mg/d) for 10-d including day of exercise up to 48-h post-exercise. Subjects performed ten sets of ten repetitions at 70% of a 1-RM back squat exercise. Fasting blood samples, isokinetic MVCs, and quadriceps muscle soreness ratings were taken pre-lift, 60-min, 24-h, and 48-h post-lift and analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures. Muscle soreness perception in the vastus medialis (¼) (p = 0.10) and the vastus lateralis (¼) (p = 0.024) was lower in TC over time compared to P. Compared to pre-lift, TC vastus medialis (¼) soreness was significantly attenuated up to 48-h post-lift with vastus lateralis (¼) soreness significantly lower at 24-h post-lift compared to P. TC changes in serum creatinine (p = 0.03, delta p = 0.024) and total protein (p = 0.018, delta p = 0.006) were lower over time and smaller from pre-lift levels over time compared to P Significant TC group reductions from pre-lift levels were found for AST and creatinine 48-h post-lift, bilirubin and ALT 60-min and 48-h post-lift. No significant supplementation effects were observed for serum inflammatory or anti-inflammatory markers. None of the free radical production, lipid peroxidation, or antioxidant capacity markers (NT, TBARS, TAS, SOD) demonstrated significant changes with supplementation. Changes in TC

  7. Feasibility of a 12-month-exercise intervention during and after radiation and chemotherapy in cancer patients: impact on quality of life, peak oxygen consumption, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenbauer, Alexander; Grabenbauer, Andrea J; Lengenfelder, Rosa; Grabenbauer, Gerhard G; Distel, Luitpold V

    2016-03-16

    Accumulating evidence suggests that exercise is effective in treating many of the acute and chronic side effects of anti-cancer therapy. A recent meta-analysis supported the use of exercise to prevent or treat fatigue and lymphoedema and to improve functional status in breast cancer patients. This trial was intended as a controlled, prospective feasibility study evaluating the impact of physical exercise (PE) in cancer patients during and after treatment with radio- and chemotherapy. Inclusion criteria were previous or ongoing treatment for cancer, motivation for PE of 0.5-1hour duration at least twice weekly for at least 3 months. Continuation of PE was encouraged thereafter. Every three months the following endpoints were assessed: Peak oxygen consumption as measured by supervised cardiopulmonary exercise test, body composition and quality of life. A total of 45 patients were included with a median age of 49 years. Forty were female and five male. Cancer types were: Breast cancer (n = 30/67 %), gastrointestinal cancer (n = 5/12 %), other types (n = 10/22 %). Thirty-eight (84 %) of the patients were included during curative treatment of their disease. Seven (16 %) were considered palliative. Adherence to the PE-programme longer than 6 months was noted for 41/45 (91 %) of the patients. Intensity of PE was thrice weekly in 32/45 (71 %), twice weekly in 11/45 (24 %). Two of 45 patients (5 %) had no PE. Mean peak oxygen consumption increased from 18.8 ± 5.6 ml/min/kg to 20.5 ± 3 ml/min/kg and 19.9 ± 4.7 ml/min/kg at 3 months (p = 0.005) and 12 months (p = 0.003), respectively. Median fat mass decreased from 30.7 ± 15 kg to 28.9 ± 15 kg and 29.5 ± 13 kg at 3 months (p = 0.001) and 12 months (p = 0.017), respectively. Global health status scores increased from a median baseline value of 54.9 ± 16.3 to 66.4 ± 14 % and 68.0 ± 20.3 % at 3 months (p = 0.001) and 12 months (p = 0.002), respectively. This exercise programme in cancer patients with 2-3 weekly

  8. Assessing the Diet, Exercise, Body Image, and Weight of Adolescents: A Guide for Out-of-School Time Program Practitioners. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2007-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laurie; Milot, Alyssa

    2007-01-01

    This brief discusses diet, exercise, body image, and weight and also provides information for practitioners on how to measure these factors among youth in their program. It summarizes (1) what it means to be overweight; (2) what are body image and eating disorders; (3) what to do if you suspect that someone in your program is suffering from an…

  9. Strategies for reducing body fat mass: effects of liposuction and exercise on cardiovascular risk factors and adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benatti FB

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fabiana Braga Benatti1, Fábio Santos Lira2, Lila Missae Oyama2, Cláudia Maria da Penha Oller do Nascimento2, Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior11School of Physical Education and Sport, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Physiology, Division of Nutrition Physiology, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Liposuction is the most popular aesthetic surgery performed in Brazil and worldwide. Evidence showing that adipose tissue is a metabolically active tissue has led to the suggestion that liposuction could be a viable method for improving metabolic profile through the immediate loss of adipose tissue. However, the immediate liposuction-induced increase in the proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue could be detrimental to metabolism, because a high proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results of studies investigating the effects of liposuction on the metabolic profile are inconsistent, however, with most studies reporting either no change or improvements in one or more cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, animal studies have demonstrated a compensatory growth of intact adipose tissue in response to lipectomy, although studies with humans have reported inconsistent results. Exercise training improves insulin sensitivity, inflammatory balance, lipid oxidation, and adipose tissue distribution; increases or preserves the fat-free mass; and increases total energy expenditure. Thus, liposuction and exercise appear to directly affect metabolism in similar ways, which suggests a possible interaction between these two strategies. To our knowledge, no studies have reported the associated effects of liposuction and exercise in humans. Nonetheless, one could suggest that exercise training associated with liposuction could attenuate or even block the possible compensatory fat deposition in intact depots or regrowth of the

  10. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cross from your ribs across your waist and helps support you in an upright position. Stand with ... stretch and strengthen the low back muscles that help you stand and lift. Stand with feet shoulder ...

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... support you in an upright position. Stand with feet shoulder width apart and toes turned in very ... of you. Keep your abdominal muscles tight and feet flat on the floor; rotate from side to ...

  12. Long term effects of a continuous and intermittent aerobic exercise on weight changes and body fat percentage in overweight and obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Z

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and sedentary lifestyle are growing problem. The global community's concern is to find the best strategy to obtain a more efficient process of weight reduction, increase physical activity, and minimize weight regain level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of a short-term intervention on weight changes.Methods: The present study is a one-year follow-up study of a 12-week intervention during which the 15 individuals in the intermittent group performed 40 minutes exercise in three bouts per day; however, the 15 participants of the continuous group did the same but 40 minutes continuously. The 15 participants in the control group had no exercise prescription. After one year, weight changes, body fat percentage, and BMI were re-evaluated in the groups.Results: After adjusting the baseline weight, patterns of change in the mean weights from the end of the third month to the twelfth month were different across groups (P=0.02. After significant weight loss in the intermittent group, the mean weight in this group increased by 2.32 kilograms during the period, although not statistically significant. No increase was observed in the control group’s mean weight (P=1.00. In the continuous group, the mean weight increased statistically (P=0.048, 3.63 kilograms.Conclusion: It seems that long-term effects of moderate intensity intermittent aerobic exercise in overweight and obese women on weight control are more efficient than those of continuous exercise. However, for a change in lifestyle and prevention of weight regain, longer follow-ups are required.

  13. Effects of Mind-Body Exercises for Mood and Functional Capabilities in Patients with Stroke: An Analytical Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liye Zou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The effects of stroke are both physical and mental in nature and may have serious implications on the overall well-being of stroke survivors. This analytical review aims to critically evaluate and statistically synthesize the existing literature regarding the effects of mind-body (MB exercises on mood and functional capabilities in patients with stroke. Methods: A structured literature review was performed in both English (PubMed, PEDro, and Cochrane Library and Chinese (Wanfang and CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Information Database databases. Sixteen randomized controlled trials were considered eligible for meta-analysis. Based on the random effects model, we used the pooled effect size to determine the magnitude of rehabilitative effect of MB exercise intervention on depression, anxiety, activities of daily living, and functional mobility among stroke survivors. The sum PEDro score ranged from five to nine points (fair-to-good methodological quality, but the absence of concealed allocation and blinded assessors were reported in most studies. Results: The aggregated results showed that MB exercise intervention is associated with significantly improved ADL (Hedges’ g = 1.31, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.77, p < 0.001, I2 = 79.82% and mobility (Hedges’ g = 0.67, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.09, p < 0.001, I2 = 69.65%, and reduced depression (Hedges’ g = −0.76, 95% CI −1.16 to −0.35, p < 0.001, I2 = 74.84%. Conclusions: as add-on treatments, the MB exercises may potentially improve depression, activities of daily living, and mobility of these post-stroke patients. Future studies with more robust methodology will be needed to provide a more definitive conclusion.

  14. Effects of Mind-Body Exercises for Mood and Functional Capabilities in Patients with Stroke: An Analytical Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liye; Yeung, Albert; Zeng, Nan; Wang, Chaoyi; Sun, Li; Thomas, Garrett Anthony; Wang, Huiru

    2018-04-11

    Objective : The effects of stroke are both physical and mental in nature and may have serious implications on the overall well-being of stroke survivors. This analytical review aims to critically evaluate and statistically synthesize the existing literature regarding the effects of mind-body (MB) exercises on mood and functional capabilities in patients with stroke. Methods : A structured literature review was performed in both English (PubMed, PEDro, and Cochrane Library) and Chinese (Wanfang and CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Information Database)) databases. Sixteen randomized controlled trials were considered eligible for meta-analysis. Based on the random effects model, we used the pooled effect size to determine the magnitude of rehabilitative effect of MB exercise intervention on depression, anxiety, activities of daily living, and functional mobility among stroke survivors. The sum PEDro score ranged from five to nine points (fair-to-good methodological quality), but the absence of concealed allocation and blinded assessors were reported in most studies. Results : The aggregated results showed that MB exercise intervention is associated with significantly improved ADL (Hedges' g = 1.31, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.77, p < 0.001, I ² = 79.82%) and mobility (Hedges' g = 0.67, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.09, p < 0.001, I ² = 69.65%), and reduced depression (Hedges' g = -0.76, 95% CI -1.16 to -0.35, p < 0.001, I ² = 74.84%). Conclusions : as add-on treatments, the MB exercises may potentially improve depression, activities of daily living, and mobility of these post-stroke patients. Future studies with more robust methodology will be needed to provide a more definitive conclusion.

  15. WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION EXERCISE IMPROVES FUNCTIONAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW WITH A SUITABLE APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    S?-Caputo, Danubia C; Dionello, Carla da F; Frederico, ?ric Heleno F. F; Paineiras-Domingos, Laisa L; Sousa-Gon?alves, Cintia Renata; Morel, Danielle S; Moreira-Marconi, Elo?; Unger, Marianne; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Background: Patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have abnormal bone modelling and resorption. The bone tissue adaptation and responsivity to dynamic and mechanical loading may be of therapeutic use under controlled circumstances. Improvements due to the wholebody vibration (WBV) exercises have been reported in strength, motion, gait, balance, posture and bone density in several osteopenic individuals, as in post-menopausal women or children with disabling conditions, as patients with OI...

  16. What is the most effective posture to conduct vibration from the lower to the upper extremities during whole-body vibration exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukahara Y

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yuka Tsukahara, Jun Iwamoto, Kosui Iwashita, Takuma Shinjo, Koichiro Azuma, Hideo MatsumotoInstitute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Background: Whole-body vibration (WBV exercise is widely used for training and rehabilitation. However, the optimal posture for training both the upper and lower extremities simultaneously remains to be established. Objectives: The objective of this study was to search for an effective posture to conduct vibration from the lower to the upper extremities while performing WBV exercises without any adverse effects. Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers (age: 22–34 years were enrolled in the study. To measure the magnitude of vibration, four accelerometers were attached to the upper arm, back, thigh, and calf of each subject. Vibrations were produced using a WBV platform (Galileo 900 with an amplitude of 4 mm at two frequencies, 15 and 30 Hz. The following three postures were examined: posture A, standing posture with the knees flexed at 30°; posture B, crouching position with no direct contact between the knees and elbows; and posture C, crouching position with direct contact between the knees and elbows. The ratio of the magnitude of vibration at the thigh, back, and upper arm relative to that at the calf was used as an index of vibration conduction. Results: Posture B was associated with a greater magnitude of vibration to the calf than posture A at 15 Hz, and postures B and C were associated with greater magnitudes of vibration than posture A at 30 Hz. Posture C was associated with a vibration conduction to the upper arm that was 4.62 times and 8.26 times greater than that for posture A at 15 and 30 Hz, respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed that a crouching position on a WBV platform with direct contact between the knees and elbows was effective for conducting vibration from the lower to the upper extremities. Keywords: whole-body vibration exercise, upper

  17. High-intensity exercise training does not influence body weight but improves lipid oxidation in obese adults: a 6-week RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Georges; Iancu, Horia-Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 6 weeks of high-intensity training (HIT) on lipid oxidation (LO) rates during incremental exercises in obese adults. Twenty-four obese adults were randomised into a no-exercise control group (n=12; body mass index=33.3 (4.8) kg.m -2 ) and a HIT group (18 sessions of 6×6 s of supramaximal cycling and 2 min passive intervals; n=12; body mass index=33.2 (2.8)kg.m -2 ). The percentage of LO contribution was computed at rest and for all workloads (25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 W) in both groups before and after training via a graded maximal cycling test. After training, the HIT group showed significantly higher LO at rest and at 25, 50 and 75 W compared with baseline (ptraining group, the homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index decreased significantly from the baseline value (p<0.01) and the control group value (p<0.01). The increases in LO observed at rest and stages 25, 50 and 75 W were positively correlated with the declines in the HOMA-IR index (r=0.87, r=0.83, r=0.91 and r=0.88; p<0.01). In obese adults, HIT increased lipid contributions to energy release at rest and in response to incremental exercise, while there were no changes in participants' aerobic capacity. This supports the hypothesis that metabolic changes rather than improved aerobic capacity are important to improve LO. ISRCTN66508384. Stage: post-results.

  18. Chronic renin inhibition lowers blood pressure and reduces upright muscle sympathetic nerve activity in hypertensive seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Jarvis, Sara S; Best, Stuart A; Bivens, Tiffany B; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk remains high in patients with hypertension even with adequate blood pressure (BP) control. One possible mechanism may be sympathetic activation via the baroreflex. We tested the hypothesis that chronic inhibition of renin reduces BP without sympathetic activation, but diuresis augments sympathetic activity in elderly hypertensives. Fourteen patients with stage-I hypertension (66 ± 5 (SD) years) were treated with a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren (n= 7), or a diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide (n= 7), for 6 months. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), BP, direct renin and aldosterone were measured during supine and a graded head-up tilt (HUT; 5 min 30° and 20 min 60°), before and after treatment. Sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was assessed. Both groups had similar BP reductions after treatment (all P < 0.01), while MSNA responses were different between hydrochlorothiazide and aliskiren (P= 0.006 pre/post × drug). Both supine and upright MSNA became greater after hydrochlorothiazide treatment (supine, 72 ± 18 post vs. 64 ± 15 bursts (100 beats)−1 pre; 60° HUT, 83 ± 10 vs. 78 ± 13 bursts (100 beats)−1; P= 0.002). After aliskiren treatment, supine MSNA remained unchanged (69 ± 13 vs. 64 ± 8 bursts (100 beats)−1), but upright MSNA was lower (74 ± 15 vs. 85 ± 10 bursts (100 beats)−1; P= 0.012 for pre/post × posture). Direct renin was greater after both treatments (both P < 0.05), while upright aldosterone was greater after hydrochlorothiazide only (P= 0.002). The change in upright MSNA by the treatment was correlated with the change of aldosterone (r= 0.74, P= 0.002). Upright sympathetic BRS remained unchanged after either treatment. Thus, chronic renin inhibition may reduce upright MSNA through suppressed renin activity, while diuresis may evoke sympathetic activation via the upregulated renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, without changing intrinsic sympathetic baroreflex function in elderly hypertensive

  19. WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION EXERCISE IMPROVES FUNCTIONAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW WITH A SUITABLE APPROACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Caputo, Danubia C; Dionello, Carla da F; Frederico, Éric Heleno F F; Paineiras-Domingos, Laisa L; Sousa-Gonçalves, Cintia Renata; Morel, Danielle S; Moreira-Marconi, Eloá; Unger, Marianne; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have abnormal bone modelling and resorption. The bone tissue adaptation and responsivity to dynamic and mechanical loading may be of therapeutic use under controlled circumstances. Improvements due to the wholebody vibration (WBV) exercises have been reported in strength, motion, gait, balance, posture and bone density in several osteopenic individuals, as in post-menopausal women or children with disabling conditions, as patients with OI. The aim of this investigation was to systematically analyse the current available literature to determine the effect of WBV exercises on functional parameters of OI patients. Three reviewers independently accessed bibliographical databases. Searches were performed in the PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct and PEDro databases using keywords related to possible interventions (including WBV) used in the management of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta . Three eligible studies were identified by searches in the analysed databases. It was concluded that WBV exercises could be an important option in the management of OI patients improving the mobility and functional parameters. However, further studies are necessary for establishing suitable protocols for these patients.

  20. Diagnosis of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases with 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT using upright stress test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaoliang; Xiu Yan; Sun Xiaoguang

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the value of upright brain SPECT stress test, the authors performed 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT in association with measurement of blood pressure in both upright and supine positions. Methods: The authors studied 5 patients with unilateral stenosis occlusion of the internal carotid (Group A), 8 patients with orthostatic hypotension (group B) and 7 normal controls. 370 MBq 99m Tc-HMPAO was injected immediately after uprighting from a supine position. then the first SPECT scan were performed. After the first SPECT, another 555 MBq of 99m Tc-HMPAO were administered while the patients remained on original supine position. Results: Semiquantitive analysis showed that the asymmetric ratios between upright and supine positions in group A changed significantly. In group B, showed postural cerebral hypoperfusion in the bilateral frontal areas, the mean count ratio of the frontal to cerebellar area between the upright and supine positions also significantly changed. In the normal group, there were no significantly changes during the upright test. Conclusions: The upright stress test is useful for detecting not only silent cerebral hypoperfusion, but also orthostatic hypoperfusion

  1. Discrepancy between exercise performance, body composition, and sex steroid response after a six-week detraining period in professional soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos E Koundourakis

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a six-week off-season detraining period on exercise performance, body composition, and on circulating sex steroid levels in soccer players. METHODS: Fifty-five professional male soccer players, members of two Greek Superleague Teams (Team A, n = 23; Team B, n = 22, participated in the study. The first two weeks of the detraining period the players abstained from any physical activity. The following four weeks, players performed low-intensity (50%-60% of VO2max aerobic running of 20 to 30 minutes duration three times per week. Exercise performance testing, anthropometry, and blood sampling were performed before and after the six-week experimental period. RESULTS: Our data showed that in both teams A and B the six-week detraining period resulted in significant reductions in maximal oxygen consumption (60,31±2,52 vs 57,67±2,54; p<0.001, and 60,47±4,13 vs 58,30±3,88; p<0.001 respectively, squat-jump (39,70±3,32 vs 37,30±3,08; p<0.001, and 41,05±3,34 vs 38,18±3,03; p<0.001 respectively, and countermovement-jump (41,04±3,99 vs 39,13±3,26; p<0.001 and 42,82±3,60 vs 40,09±2,79; p<0.001 respectively, and significant increases in 10-meters sprint (1,74±0,063 vs 1,79±0,064; p<0.001, and 1,73±0,065 vs 1,78±0,072; p<0.001 respectively, 20-meters sprint (3,02±0,05 vs 3,06±0,06; p<0.001, and 3,01±0,066 vs 3,06±0,063; p<0.001 respectively, body fat percentage (Team A; p<0.001, Team B; p<0.001, and body weight (Team A; p<0.001, Team B; p<0.001. Neither team displayed any significant changes in the resting concentrations of total-testosterone, free-testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, Δ4-androstenedione, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin. Furthermore, sex steroids levels did not correlate with exercise performance parameters. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the six-week detraining period resulted in a rapid loss of

  2. Kegel Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercised my pelvic muscles ____ times. I spent ____ minutes exercising. At each exercise session, I squeezed my pelvic ... exercised my pelvic muscles ____ times. I spent ____ minutes exercising. At each exercise session, I squeezed my pelvic ...

  3. Exercise and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Per

    2017-01-01

    Exercise improves functional capacity and patient-reported outcomes across a range of cancer diagnoses. The mechanisms behind this protection have been largely unknown, but exercise-mediated changes in body composition, sex hormone levels, systemic inflammation, and immune cell function have been...... hypothesize that this link between exercise and the immune system can be exploited in cancer therapy in particular in combination with immunotherapy. Thus, we believe that exercise may not just be “healthy” but may in fact be therapeutic....

  4. Influence of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA on reduction of local fat and body weight by physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz, Gerd

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Investigation, whether water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA irradiation during moderate bicycle ergometer endurance exercise has effects especially on local fat reduction and on weight reduction beyond the effects of ergometer exercise alone. Methods: Randomised controlled study with 40 obese females (BMI 30-40 (median: 34.5, body weight 76-125 (median: 94.9 kg, age 20-40 (median: 35.5 years, isocaloric nutrition, 20 in the wIRA group and 20 in the control group. In both groups each participant performed 3 times per week over 4 weeks for 45 minutes bicycle ergometer endurance exercise with a constant load according to a lactate level of 2 mmol/l (aerobic endurance load, as determined before the intervention period. In the wIRA group in addition large parts of the body (including waist, hip, and thighs were irradiated during all ergometries of the intervention period with visible light and a predominant part of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA, using the irradiation unit “Hydrosun® 6000” with 10 wIRA radiators (Hydrosun® Medizintechnik, Müllheim, Germany, radiator type 500, 4 mm water cuvette, yellow filter, water-filtered spectrum 500-1400 nm around a speed independent bicycle ergometer. Main variable of interest: change of “the sum of circumferences of waist, hip, and both thighs of each patient” over the intervention period (4 weeks. Additional variables of interest: body weight, body mass index BMI, body fat percentage, fat mass, fat-free mass, water mass (analysis of body composition by tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis, assessment of an arteriosclerotic risk profile by blood investigation of variables of lipid metabolism (cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins HDL, low density lipoproteins LDL, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, clinical chemistry (fasting glucose, alanin-aminotransferase ALT (= glutamyl pyruvic transaminase GPT, gamma-glutamyl-transferase GGT, creatinine, albumin, endocrinology

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly ... Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ...

  6. Effects of partial-body cryotherapy (- 110°C) on muscle recovery between high-intensity exercise bouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Junior, J B; Bottaro, M; Vieira, C A; Soares, S R S; Vieira, A; Cleto, V A; Cadore, E L; Coelho, D B; Simoes, H G; Brown, L E

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single partial-body cryotherapy bout between training sessions on strength recovery. 12 young men (23.9±5.9 years) were randomly exposed to 2 different conditions separated by 7 days: 1) Partial-body cryotherapy (subjects were exposed to 3 min of partial-body cryotherapy at - 110 °C between 2 high-intensity training sessions); 2) Control (subjects were not exposed to partial-body cryotherapy between 2 high-intensity training sessions). Subjects were exposed to partial-body cryotherapy after the first training session. The 2 knee extension high-intensity training sessions were separated by a 40-min rest interval. Knee extension training consisted of 6 sets of 10 repetitions at 60°.s(-1) for concentric actions and 6 sets of 10 at 180.s(-1) for eccentric actions. The decrease in eccentric peak torque and total work was significantly (pcryotherapy (5.6 and 2%, respectively) when compared to control (16 and 11.6%, respectively). However, the decrease in concentric peak torque and total work was not different (p>0.05) between partial-body cryotherapy (9.4 and 6.5%, respectively) and control (7.5 and 5.2%, respectively). These results indicate that the use of partial-body cryotherapy between-training sessions can enhance eccentric muscle performance recovery. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. The effect of abdominal drawing-in exercise and myofascial release on pain, flexibility, and balance of elderly females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seong Hun; Sim, Yong Hyeon; Kim, Myung Hoon; Bang, Ju Hee; Son, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Jae Woong; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] This study is designed to compare the effects of abdominal drawing-in exercise and myofascial release on pain, flexibility, and balance of elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Forty elderly females aged 65 or older who had complained of low back pain for three months or longer were selected as the subjects. They were randomly and equally assigned to either an abdominal drawing-in group or a myofascial release group. The subjects conducted exercise three times per week, 40 minutes each time, for eight weeks. As evaluation tools, visual analogue scale for pain, remodified schober test for flexibility, and upright posture with eye opening on hard platform, upright posture with eye closing on hard platform, upright posture with eye opening on soft platform, upright posture with eye closing on soft platform using tetrax for balance were used. [Results] The abdominal drawing-in exercise group saw significant difference in pain and balance after the exercise compared to before the exercise. The myofascial release group saw significant difference in pain and flexibility after exercise compared to before the exercise. [Conclusion] The above study showed that abdominal drawing-in exercise affected elderly females regarding pain and balance and myofascial release influenced their pain and flexibility.

  8. Among the physical fitness workouts, the efficiency of the weight training and zumba exercises on the body composition in men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the physical fitness workouts; whereas the weight training is one of the most prevalent physical activities used for men, the zumba dance workouts has become popular for women in the last decade, as an entertaining alternative approach. In this research, the effects of the weight training on the body composition in men and the zumba dance workouts in women have been studied. 90 sedentary individuals (44 men, average age: 30.70 ± 6.44; 46 women, average age: 29.13 ± 5.80 attending a fitness center had received weight training and zumba classes (during 2 months, 3 days each week, each session 45/60 minutes. The exercise intensity that had been kept low at the beginning was increased in the following weeks for both programs. The body composition analysis have been carried out at the start and then monthly, through bioelectrical impedence method. During the process; the medical histories of the participants as well as their levels of readiness for and participation to the physical activities have been monitored. Both sex have been evaluated separately. The descriptive statistics techniques and repeated measures ANOVA have been used to analyze the data. At the end of the study, the positive effects of both exercise programs on the body compositions of the sedentary men and women have been observed. As a conclusion, it has been recorded with the present study once again that the weight training is still an efficient and valid method for men and also, the zumba workouts are efficient for women as a popular method.

  9. Reduced body weight or increased muscle quality: Which is more important for improving physical function following exercise and weight loss in overweight and obese older women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Chad R; Berg, Alison C; Reed, Rachelle A; Johnson, Mary Ann; Evans, Ellen M

    2018-04-19

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relative contributions of changes in muscle quality and body composition to changes in lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) following a 6-month exercise and weight loss intervention in overweight and obese older women. Thirty-eight overweight and obese (BMI = 30.0 ± 4.4 kg/m 2 ) older (age = 69.3 ± 4.1 y) women completed 6 months of multicomponent exercise (cardiorespiratory, resistance, balance and flexibility training) and weight loss (hypocaloric diet that reduced energy intake by ~500 kcal/d). Body composition was measured via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle quality (N-m/kg) was defined as maximal concentric isokinetic knee torque divided by upper-leg lean mass. The standardized scores of four objective measures of physical function were summed to yield a composite LEPF Z-score. At 6 months, there were significant reductions in body weight (-9.6 ± 3.5%, p quality (+1.6 ± 1.8 N-m/kg, p quality was the strongest independent predictor of an improvement in LEPF Z-score (standardized β = 0.64, p quality. In conclusion, muscle quality can be increased in the presence of clinically meaningful weight loss, and is the primary determinant of improved physical function in overweight/obese older women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Body temperature and cold sensation during and following exercise under temperate room conditions in cold‐sensitive young trained females

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Naoto; Aoki‐Murakami, Erii; Tsuji, Bun; Kenny, Glen P.; Nagashima, Kei; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated cold sensation at rest and in response to exercise‐induced changes in core and skin temperatures in cold‐sensitive exercise trained females. Fifty‐eight trained young females were screened by a questionnaire, selecting cold‐sensitive (Cold‐sensitive, n = 7) and non‐cold‐sensitive (Control, n = 7) individuals. Participants rested in a room at 29.5°C for ~100 min after which ambient temperature was reduced to 23.5°C where they remained resting for 60 min. Participants then...

  11. In Vivo Spinal Posture during Upright and Reclined Sitting in an Office Chair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Zemp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of people spend the majority of their working lives seated in an office chair. Musculoskeletal disorders, in particular low back pain, resulting from prolonged static sitting are ubiquitous, but regularly changing sitting position throughout the day is thought to reduce back problems. Nearly all currently available office chairs offer the possibility to alter the backrest reclination angles, but the influence of changing seating positions on the spinal column remains unknown. In an attempt to better understand the potential to adjust or correct spine posture using adjustable seating, five healthy subjects were analysed in an upright and reclined sitting position conducted in an open, upright MRI scanner. The shape of the spine, as described using the vertebral bodies’ coordinates, wedge angles, and curvature angles, showed high inter-subject variability between the two seating positions. The mean lumbar, thoracic, and cervical curvature angles were 29±15°, -29±4°, and 13±8° for the upright and 33±12°, -31±7°, and 7±7° for the reclined sitting positions. Thus, a wide range of seating adaptation is possible through modification of chair posture, and dynamic seating options may therefore provide a key feature in reducing or even preventing back pain caused by prolonged static sitting.

  12. 11-gauge vacuum assisted directional biopsy of breast calcifications, using upright stereotactic guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisbet, A.P.; Borthwick-Clarke, A.; Scott, N.

    2000-01-01

    To assess the use of a prototype vacuum assisted biopsy device on a standard upright mammography unit, using a slightly modified digital stereotactic add-on component. A group comprised of 42 sequential patients, who had been recalled from an asymptomatic mammographic screening programme, were studied. All 42 were recalled for assessment of small clusters of microcalcification, graded as indeterminate. Group 1 (21 patients) were biopsied using 14-gauge automated large core needle biopsy. Group 2 (21 patients) were biopsied using 11-gauge vacuum assisted biopsy. Both groups had mammographic guidance on the same upright mammographic unit (Siemens 3000), with Opdima Digital Stereotactic add-on. A total of 86% of specimen radiographs in Group 2 patients (vacuum assisted biopsy) showed successful sampling of the calcifications, compared to 62% of Group 1 patients (14-gauge automated large core biopsies). This study shows that vacuum assisted biopsy is possible using upright stereotactic mammography units. The technique shows promise as a biopsy tool, offering larger cores compared to 14-gauge automated large core biopsy, while requiring less space and lower purchase price compared to dedicated prone biopsy tables. The technique also offers access to biopsy in patients with posterior lesions and for patients who cannot tolerate prone positioning

  13. MRI measurements of intracranial pressure in the upright posture: The effect of the hydrostatic pressure gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, Noam; Lee, Sang H; Bagci, Ahmet M

    2015-10-01

    To add the hydrostatic component of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived intracranial pressure (ICP) measurements in the upright posture for derivation of pressure value in a central cranial location often used in invasive ICP measurements. Additional analyses were performed using data previously collected from 10 healthy subjects scanned in supine and sitting positions with a 0.5T vertical gap MRI scanner (GE Medical). Pulsatile blood and CSF flows to and from the brain were quantified using cine phase-contrast. Intracranial compliance and pressure were calculated using a previously described method. The vertical distance between the location of the CSF flow measurement and a central cranial location was measured manually in the mid-sagittal T1 -weighted image obtained in the upright posture. The hydrostatic pressure gradient of a CSF column with similar height was then added to the MR-ICP value. After adjustment for the hydrostatic component, the mean ICP value was reduced by 7.6 mmHg. Mean ICP referenced to the central cranial level was -3.4 ± 1.7 mmHg compared to the unadjusted value of +4.3 ± 1.8 mmHg. In the upright posture, the hydrostatic pressure component needs to be added to the MRI-derived ICP values for compatibility with invasive ICP at a central cranial location. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A Systematic Review of Aquatic Exercise Programs on Balance Measures in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Shayla Diane

    2015-01-01

    There are a variety of studies performed using aquatic exercise programs to evaluate balance measures using a case-control or pretest-posttest method on healthy young populations (Geytenbeek, 2002). Balance can be defined as either static; maintenance of an upright posture and stance or dynamic; posture adaption and maintenance control of movements and stability (Rose & Clark, 2000). An aquatic exercise program will henceforth be defined as any acute or chronic exercises performed in water wi...

  15. Blood Volume: Importance and Adaptations to Exercise Training, Environmental Stresses and Trauma Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    because of limb atrophy, weight loss, and inactivity) because erythro- cyte levels of 2,3- diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) were in- creased. However...blood volume expansion during exercise training may partially be explained by factors such as initial fitness level , training intensity, exercise mode...335 and their hydration level when measurements are made (131). Plasma volume expansion seems to be greatest when performing upright exercise on about

  16. Exercise left ventricular performance in patients with chest pain, ischemic-appearing exercise electrocardiograms, and angiographically normal coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.J.; Sands, M.J.; Davies, R.A.; Wackers, F.J.; Alexander, J.; Lachman, A.S.; Williams, B.W.; Zaret, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Left ventricular performance was evaluated using first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography in 31 patients with chest pain, an ischemic-appearing exercise electrocardiogram, and angiographically normal coronary arteries at rest and during maximal upright bicycle exercise. 201 Tl imaging was done in all patients after treadmill exercise and in selected patients after ergonovine provocation. Resting left ventricular performance was normal in all patients. An abnormal ejection fraction response to exercise was detected in 12 of 31 patients. Regional dysfunction was present during exercise in four patients, all of whom also had abnormal global responses. Three of these 12 patients and two additional patients had exercise-induced 201 Tl perfusion defects. In all nine patients who underwent ergonovine testing, there was no suggestion of coronary arterial spasm. Thus, left ventricular dysfunction during exercise, in the presence of normal resting performance, was found in a substantial number of patients with chest pain, an ischemic-appearing exercise electrocardiogram, and normal coronary arteries

  17. The Effects of Pre- and Post-Exercise Whey vs. Casein Protein Consumption on Body Composition and Performance Measures in Collegiate Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilborn, Colin D; Taylor, Lem W; Outlaw, Jordan; Williams, Laura; Campbell, Bill; Foster, Cliffa A; Smith-Ryan, Abbie; Urbina, Stacie; Hayward, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Two of the most popular forms of protein on the market are whey and casein. Both proteins are derived from milk but each protein differs in absorption rate and bioavailability, thus it is possible that each type of protein may contribute differently to the adaptations elicited through resistance training. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the potential effects of ingestion of two types of protein in conjunction with a controlled resistance training program in collegiate female basketball players. Sixteen NCAA Division III female basketball players were matched according to body mass and randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to consume 24 g whey protein (WP) (N = 8, 20.0 ± 1.9 years, 1.58 ± 0.27 m, 66. 0 ± 4.9 kg, 27.0 ± 4.9 %BF) or 24 g casein protein (CP) (N = 8, 21.0 ± 2.8 years, 1.53 ± 0.29 m, 68.0 ± 2.9 kg, 25.0 ± 5.7 %BF) immediately pre- and post-exercise for eight weeks. Subjects participated in a supervised 4-day per week undulating periodized training program. At 0 and 8 weeks, subjects underwent DXA body composition analysis, and at 0 and 8 weeks underwent one repetition maximum (1RM) strength, muscle endurance, vertical jump, 5-10-5 agility run, and broad jump testing sessions. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA, and presented as mean ± SD changes from baseline after 60 days. No significant group x time interaction effects were observed among groups in changes in any variable (p > 0.05). A significant time effect was observed for body fat (WP: -2.0 ± 1.1 %BF; CP: -1.0 ± 1.6 %BF, p training program with pre- and post-exercise protein supplementation is capable of inducing significant changes in performance and body composition. There does not appear to be a difference in the performance- enhancing effects between whey and casein proteins. Key pointsFemales can experience and increase in performance makers from consuming protein after resistance training.Females can have a decreased body fat composition

  18. Changes in body weight, C-reactive protein, and total adiponectin in non-obese women after 12 months of a small-volume, home-based exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Neves, Fabiana Alves; Cunha, Alessandra Cordeiro de Souza Rodrigues; Souza, Erica Patricia Garcia de; Moura, Anibal Sanchez; Sichieri, Rosely

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of small-volume, home-based exercise combined with slight caloric restriction on the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein and adiponectin. In total, 54 women were randomly assigned to one of two groups for exercise intervention: the control or home-based exercise groups. Weight, waist and hip circumferences, and inflammatory markers were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Women allocated to the home-based exercise group received a booklet explaining the physical exercises to be practiced at home at least 3 times per week, 40 minutes per session, at low-to-moderate intensity. All participants received dietary counseling aimed at reducing caloric intake by 100-300 calories per day, with a normal distribution of macro-nutrients (26-28% of energy as fat). Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01206413 RESULTS: The home-based exercise group showed a significantly greater reduction in weight and body mass index at six months, but no difference between groups was observed thereafter. With regard to the inflammatory markers, a greater but non-statistically significant reduction was found for C-reactive protein in the home-based exercise group at six months; however, this difference disappeared after adjusting for weight change. No differences in adiponectin were found at the 6- or 12-month follow-up. Small-volume, home-based exercise did not promote changes in inflammatory markers independent of weight change.

  19. The relationship between skeletal muscle mitochondrial citrate synthase activity and whole body oxygen uptake adaptations in response to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Andersen, Nynne Bjerre; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity and chan......Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity...

  20. EURADOS intercomparisons in external radiation dosimetry: similarities and differences among exercises for whole-body photon, whole-body neutron, extremity, eye-lens and passive area dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Ana M.; Grimbergen, Tom; McWhan, Andrew; Stadtmann, Hannes; Fantuzzi, Elena; Clairand, Isabelle; Neumaier, Stefan; Dombrowski, Harald; Figel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been organising dosimetry intercomparisons for many years in response to an identified requirement from individual monitoring services (IMS) for independent performance tests for dosimetry systems. The participation in intercomparisons gives IMS the opportunity to show compliance with their own quality management system, compare results with other participants and develop plans for improving their dosimetry systems. In response to growing demand, EURADOS has increased the number of intercomparisons for external radiation dosimetry. Most of these fit into the programme of self-financing intercomparisons for dosemeters routinely used by IMS. This programme is being coordinated by EURADOS working group 2 (WG2). Up to now, this programme has included four intercomparisons for whole-body dosemeters in photon fields, one for extremity dosemeters in photon and beta fields, and one for whole-body dosemeters in neutron fields. Other EURADOS working groups have organised additional intercomparisons including events in 2014 for eye-lens dosemeters and passive area dosemeters for environmental monitoring. In this paper, the organisation and achievements of these intercomparisons are compared in detail focusing on the similarities and differences in their execution. (authors)

  1. Spinal Stiffness in Prone and Upright Postures During 0-1.8 g Induced by Parabolic Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanenburg, Jaap; Meier, Michael L; Langenfeld, Anke; Schweinhardt, Petra; Humphreys, B Kim

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze posterior-to-anterior spinal stiffness in Earth, hyper-, and microgravity conditions during both prone and upright postures. During parabolic flight, the spinal stiffness of the L3 vertebra of a healthy 37-yr-old man was measured in normal Earth gravity (1.0 g), hypergravity (1.8 g), and microgravity (0.0 g) conditions induced in the prone and upright positions. Differences in spinal stiffness were significant across all three gravity conditions in the prone and upright positions. Most effect sizes were large; however, in the upright posture, the effect size between Earth gravity and microgravity was medium. Significant differences in spinal stiffness between the prone and upright positions were found during Earth gravity and hypergravity conditions. No difference was found between the two postures during microgravity conditions. Based on repeated measurements of a single individual, our results showed detectable changes in posterior-to-anterior spinal stiffness. Spinal stiffness increased during microgravity and decreased during hypergravity conditions. In microgravity conditions, posture did not impact spinal stiffness. More data on spinal stiffness in variable gravitational conditions is needed to confirm these results.Swanenburg J, Meier ML, Langenfeld A, Schweinhardt P, Humphreys BK. Spinal stiffness in prone and upright postures during 0-1.8 g induced by parabolic flight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(6):563-567.

  2. Effects of carbohydrate and branched-chain amino acid beverage ingestion during acute upper body resistance exercise on performance and postexercise hormone response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, JohnEric W; Krings, Ben M; Shepherd, Brandon D; Waldman, Hunter S; Basham, Steven A; McAllister, Matthew J

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the individual and combined effects of ingesting carbohydrates (CHO) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) during high-volume upper body resistance exercise (RE) on markers of catabolism and performance. Thirteen resistance-trained males completed 4 experimental trials with supplementation, ingesting beverages containing CHO, BCAA, CHO+BCAA, or placebo (PLA) in a randomized, double-blind design. The beverages were ingested in 118-mL servings 6 times during an ∼60-min RE session consisting of bench press, bent-over row, incline press, and close-grip row. Each RE was performed with 5 sets of repetitions at 65% 1-repetition maximum until volitional fatigue. Blood samples were collected at baseline, immediately postexercise, and 60 min postexercise to assess glucose and insulin. Cortisol was assessed immediately and at 60 min postexercise. No significant performance benefits were observed for any RE. CHO+BCAA (152.4 ± 71.4 ng/mL) resulted in the lowest cortisol levels, which was lower than BCAA and PLA (193.7 ± 88.5, 182.8 ± 67.5 ng/mL, p BCAA and PLA (3.7 ± 2.0, 3.5 ± 1.8 mU/L, p BCAA (4.3 ± 2.5 mU/L, p = 0.339). There was no treatment effect for glucose, but glucose significantly increased from baseline to immediately postexercise and significantly decreased at 60 min postexercise. Ingesting beverages containing CHO with or without BCAA during upper body resistance exercise may promote a more favorable postexercise less catabolic environment.

  3. Effects of a mini-trampoline rebounding exercise program on functional parameters, body composition and quality of life in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugusi, Lucia; Manca, Andrea; Serpe, Roberto; Romita, Giovanni; Bergamin, Marco; Cadeddu, Christian; Solla, Paolo; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2018-03-01

    Mini-trampoline rebounding exercise (MRE) is becoming a very popular form of fitness training. Despite awareness of this activity worldwide, a limited number of studies have systematically investigated the health effects correlated with MRE training. The aim of our study was to evaluate manifold health outcomes after 12 weeks of an MRE program in a group of overweight Italian women. Eighteen overweight women (age 38.05±10.5 years, BMI: 27.6±2.1 kg/m2) were enrolled in this study. Functional profile, strength, body composition, quality of life and pain intensity were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks of MRE. Significant improvements were observed in the measurements of anthropometric profile and body composition (circumferences, fat mass, lean and muscular mass). Both a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure values (from 128/80.5 to 123/71 mmHg, P<0.05) and an improvement in lipid and glucose profiles were observed. At maximal exercise testing, an increase in work capacity (from 104 to 123 watts, P=0.003) and VO2max (from 15.4 to 16.9 mL/kg/min, P=0.04) was found. SF-36 showed positive changes in four of the eight items as well as in the Mental Component Summary. With regard to the Brief Pain Inventory-SF, a decrease in both pain severity and the pain interference score was detected. MRE appears feasible to ensure positive effects on overall health and can be proposed to populations that could greatly benefit from training programs, such as overweight women.

  4. The effects of upper body exercise on the physical capacity of people with a spinal cord injury: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valent, L.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Houdijk, J.H.P.; Talsma, E.; van der Woude, L.H.V.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effects of upper body training on the physical capacity of people with a spinal cord injury. Data sources: The databases of PubMed, CINAHL, Sport Discus and Cochrane were searched from 1970 to May 2006. Review methods: The keywords 'spinal cord injury', 'paraplegia',

  5. Cardiovascular responses to military antishock trouser inflation during standing arm exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, A V; Hanson, P; Aaron, E A; Demment, R B; Conviser, J M; Nagle, F J

    1987-09-01

    Military antishock tro