WorldWideScience

Sample records for body temperature

  1. Central control of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis. PMID:27239289

  2. Lower body temperature in sleeping supine infants.

    OpenAIRE

    R. G. North; Petersen, S A; Wailoo, M P

    1995-01-01

    Night time rectal temperature recordings were made from 103 infants sleeping in their own home in different sleeping positions. In most cases sleeping position was verified by video monitoring throughout the night. In the period before an adult-like night time body temperature pattern appeared there was no significant effect of sleeping position upon night time body temperature, in line with previous reports. Once an adult-like night time temperature pattern appeared, infants sleeping supine ...

  3. The relationship between body and ambient temperature and corneal temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Johnson, Leif; Arvidsson, Henrik Sven;

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature.......Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature....

  4. Body temperature regulation in diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Glen P.; Sigal, Ronald J.; McGinn, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effects of type 1 and type 2 diabetes on the body's physiological response to thermal stress is a relatively new topic in research. Diabetes tends to place individuals at greater risk for heat-related illness during heat waves and physical activity due to an impaired capacity to dissipate heat. Specifically, individuals with diabetes have been reported to have lower skin blood flow and sweating responses during heat exposure and this can have important consequences on cardiovascu...

  5. Body temperature influence on time perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, P A

    1993-07-01

    The chemical clock hypothesis implies a causal link between body temperature and the perception of duration. A strict interpretation of this construct requires a common slope value in an Arrhenius plot that relates time to temperature for every individual tested. Previous studies testing this proposition have confirmed a general relationship for data summed across multiple subjects. However, the same studies raise doubts as to whether this relationship holds for each and every individual tested. Unfortunately, these investigations have been limited by methodological constraints, thus, one could argue that the strong isomorphism intrinsic to the chemical clock hypothesis has yet to be fairly tested. In the present experiment, I sought to distinguish the effects of selective head temperature changes on the estimation of duration. Nonlinear decreases in estimated duration were observed with ascending deep auditory canal temperature. These findings support the contention of a thermally stable region of temporal perception bounded by conditions in which temporal estimates directly depend on body temperature. In contradicting physiological adequacy as an explanatory construct, the present results suggest a direct relationship between time perception and the homeothermic platform. I compare these results with earlier findings concerning the chemical clock concept and examine respective discrepancies as a basis for a fuller understanding of a temporal phenomenon that is frequently referred to as the internal clock.

  6. A thermosensory pathway that controls body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Morrison, Shaun F

    2008-01-01

    Defending body temperature against environmental thermal challenges is one of the most fundamental homeostatic functions that are governed by the nervous system. Here we describe a somatosensory pathway that essentially constitutes the afferent arm of the thermoregulatory reflex that is triggered by cutaneous sensation of environmental temperature changes. Using in vivo electrophysiological and anatomical approaches in the rat, we found that lateral parabrachial neurons are pivotal in this pathway by glutamatergically transmitting cutaneous thermosensory signals received from spinal somatosensory neurons directly to the thermoregulatory command center, the preoptic area. This feedforward pathway mediates not only sympathetic and shivering thermogenic responses but also metabolic and cardiac responses to skin cooling challenges. Notably, this 'thermoregulatory afferent' pathway exists in parallel with the spinothalamocortical somatosensory pathway that mediates temperature perception. These findings make an important contribution to our understanding of both the somatosensory system and thermal homeostasis -- two mechanisms that are fundamental to the nervous system and to our survival.

  7. Microchip-based body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Lohse, Louise

    In the present study, we tested whether an electronic identification and body temperature monitorring technology presently applied in small experimental animals could be transferred for use in pigs....

  8. Effect of temperature on body temperature and resting metabolic rate in pups of Eothenomys miletus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Wan-long; Mu, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Zheng-Kun

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the ability of ambient temperature and thermoregulation in Eothenomys miletus, body temperature and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured during postnatal development (1-49 day) when E. miletus exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in E. miletus increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in low tem...

  9. Central control of body temperature [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun F. Morrison

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis.

  10. TECHNOLOGICAL POSSIBILITIES OF CONTACTLESS MEASURING THE BODY SURFACE TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Švejdová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The regular measuring of the body surface temperature can help to evaluate health condition of animals and react immediately on the first symptoms of illness. There are many of technological possibilities of contactless measuring the body surface temperature. It is important to find the right part of the body which the temperature will show the first possible symptoms of illness. This experiment with dairy cows and heifers was realized at the farm in Petrovice. The body surface temperature and rectal temperature of animals were observed in dairy cows and heifers. It was rated 3 different groups of dairy cows and heifers in 2 stables. The body temperature was obtained by the thermocamera. The temperatures were shot from the 3 different parts of body of animals (the body core, the eyes and the udder. The relative humidity, temperature, cooling value environment and flow rate in stable were measured as further independent variables. The aim of this study was finding how body temperature correlate together with health of animals, reproduction, milk quality, vital signs and productivity of dairy cows and heifers.

  11. Assessment of the use of temperature-sensitive microchips to determine core body temperature in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrao, N A; Hetem, R S; Meyer, L C R; Fick, L G

    2011-03-26

    Body temperature was measured at five different body sites (retroperitoneum, groin, semimembranosus muscle, flank and shoulder) using temperature-sensitive microchips implanted in five female goats, and compared with the core body and rectal temperatures. Body temperature was measured while the goats were kept in different ambient temperatures, with and without radiant heat, as well as during a fever induced experimentally by injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Bland-Altman limit of agreement analysis was used to compare the temperature measurements at the different body sites during the different interventions. Temperatures measured by the microchip implanted in the retroperitoneum showed the closest agreement (mean 0.2 °C lower) with core and rectal temperatures during all interventions, whereas temperatures measured by the microchips implanted in the groin, muscle, flank and shoulder differed from core body temperature by up to 3.5 °C during the various interventions.

  12. Air temperature investigation in microenvironment around a human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sekhar, Chandra;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the temperature boundary layer around a human body in a quiescent indoor environment. The air temperature, mean in time and standard deviation of the temperature fluctuations around a breathing thermal manikin are examined in relation to the room temperatur...... accurate measurements of occupant's thermal microenvironment....

  13. Body temperature stability achieved by the large body mass of sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsufumi

    2014-10-15

    To investigate the thermal characteristics of large reptiles living in water, temperature data were continuously recorded from 16 free-ranging loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, during internesting periods using data loggers. Core body temperatures were 0.7-1.7°C higher than ambient water temperatures and were kept relatively constant. Unsteady numerical simulations using a spherical thermodynamic model provided mechanistic explanations for these phenomena, and the body temperature responses to fluctuating water temperature can be simply explained by a large body mass with a constant thermal diffusivity and a heat production rate rather than physiological thermoregulation. By contrast, body temperatures increased 2.6-5.1°C in 107-152 min during their emergences to nest on land. The estimated heat production rates on land were 7.4-10.5 times the calculated values in the sea. The theoretical prediction that temperature difference between body and water temperatures would increase according to the body size was confirmed by empirical data recorded from several species of sea turtles. Comparing previously reported data, the internesting intervals of leatherback, green and loggerhead turtles were shorter when the body temperatures were higher. Sea turtles seem to benefit from a passive thermoregulatory strategy, which depends primarily on the physical attributes of their large body masses.

  14. Being cool: how body temperature influences ageing and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Gerald; Cummings, Elizabeth; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Temperature is a basic and essential property of any physical system, including living systems. Even modest variations in temperature can have profound effects on organisms, and it has long been thought that as metabolism increases at higher temperatures so should rates of ageing. Here, we review the literature on how temperature affects longevity, ageing and life history traits. From poikilotherms to homeotherms, there is a clear trend for lower temperature being associated with longer lifespans both in wild populations and in laboratory conditions. Many life-extending manipulations in rodents, such as caloric restriction, also decrease core body temperature. Nonetheless, an inverse relationship between temperature and lifespan can be obscured or reversed, especially when the range of body temperatures is small as in homeotherms. An example is observed in humans: women appear to have a slightly higher body temperature and yet live longer than men. The mechanisms involved in the relationship between temperature and longevity also appear to be less direct than once thought with neuroendocrine processes possibly mediating complex physiological responses to temperature changes. Lastly, we discuss species differences in longevity in mammals and how this relates to body temperature and argue that the low temperature of the long-lived naked mole-rat possibly contributes to its exceptional longevity. PMID:25832892

  15. Assessment of body composition by air-displacement plethysmography: influence of body temperature and moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, David A; Higgins, Paul B; Hunter, Gary R

    2004-04-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of body temperature and moisture on body fat (%fat), volume and density by air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD). METHODS: %fat, body volume and density by the BOD POD before (BOD PODBH) and immediately following hydrostatic weighing (BOD PODFH) were performed in 32 healthy females (age (yr) 33 +/- 11, weight (kg) 64 +/- 14, height (cm) 167 +/- 7). Body temperature and moisture were measured prior to BOD PODBH and prior to BOD PODFH with body moisture defined as the difference in body weight (kg) between the BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH measurements. RESULTS: BOD PODFH %fat (27.1%) and body volume (61.5 L) were significantly lower (P BOD PODBH %fat (28.9%), body volume (61.7 L), and body density (1.0341 g/cm3). A significant increase in body temperature (~0.6 degrees C; P BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH. Body surface area was positively associated with the difference in %fat independent of changes in body temperature and moisture, r = 0.30, P BOD POD, however, the precise mechanism remains unidentified.

  16. Universal temperature and body-mass scaling of feeding rates

    OpenAIRE

    Rall, Björn C.; Brose, Ulrich; Hartvig, Martin; Kalinkat, Gregor; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Petchey, Owen L

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of feeding rates is the basis to understand interaction strength and subsequently the stability of ecosystems and biodiversity. Feeding rates, as all biological rates, depend on consumer and resource body masses and environmental temperature. Despite five decades of research on functional responses as quantitative models of feeding rates, a unifying framework of how they scale with body masses and temperature is still lacking. This is perplexing, considering that the strength of fun...

  17. Hypercoagulability in response to elevated body temperature and central hypovolemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Martin; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Overgaard, Flemming Anders;

    2013-01-01

    Coagulation abnormalities contribute to poor outcomes in critically ill patients. In trauma patients exposed to a hot environment, a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, elevated body temperature, and reduced central blood volume occur in parallel with changes in hemostasis and endothelial...... damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether experimentally elevated body temperature and reduced central blood volume (CBV) per se affects hemostasis and endothelial activation....

  18. Effects of MDMA on body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a severe complication associated with the recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy). In this review, the clinical laboratory studies that tested the effects of MDMA on body temperature are summarized. The mechanisms that underlie the hyperthermic effects of MDMA in humans and treatment of severe hyperthermia are presented. The data show that MDMA produces an acute and dose-dependent rise in core body temperature in healthy subjects. The increase in body temperature is in the range of 0.2-0.8°C and does not result in hyperpyrexia (>40°C) in a controlled laboratory setting. However, moderately hyperthermic body temperatures >38.0°C occur frequently at higher doses, even in the absence of physical activity and at room temperature. MDMA primarily releases serotonin and norepinephrine. Mechanistic clinical studies indicate that the MDMA-induced elevations in body temperature in humans partially depend on the MDMA-induced release of norepinephrine and involve enhanced metabolic heat generation and cutaneous vasoconstriction, resulting in impaired heat dissipation. The mediating role of serotonin is unclear. The management of sympathomimetic toxicity and associated hyperthermia mainly includes sedation with benzodiazepines and intravenous fluid replacement. Severe hyperthermia should primarily be treated with additional cooling and mechanical ventilation.

  19. Body temperature set-point and the conscious perception of skin temperature in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorska-Markiewicz, B; Staszkiewicz, M

    1987-01-01

    Obese and control women were immersed in a bath of water kept at 37 degrees C. Oral temperature was measured. The subjects left hand was placed outside the bath for the local application of thermal stimuli between 20 degrees and 45 degrees C, subjects reporting the most pleasant temperature. The lower oral temperatures and lower levels of skin temperature rated as pleasant by obese women as compared with women of normal body weight or less suggests that in obesity the set-point of body temperature is lowered.

  20. A Novel Intra-body Sensor for Vaginal Temperature Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Binod Vaidya; João Caldeira; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.

    2009-01-01

    Over the years some medical studies have tried to better understand the internal behavior of human beings. Many researchers in this domain have been striving to find relationships between intra-vaginal temperature and certain female health conditions, such as ovulation and fertile period since woman’s intra-vaginal temperature is one of the body parameters most preferred in such studies. However, due to lack of a appropriate technology, medical research devoted to studying correlations of suc...

  1. Warm body temperature facilitates energy efficient cortical action potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Yu

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na(+ channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na(+, and outward K(+, currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na(+ entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37-42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code.

  2. A simple method to predict body temperature of small reptiles from environmental temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Mathew; Schwarzkopf, Lin

    2016-05-01

    To study behavioral thermoregulation, it is useful to use thermal sensors and physical models to collect environmental temperatures that are used to predict organism body temperature. Many techniques involve expensive or numerous types of sensors (cast copper models, or temperature, humidity, radiation, and wind speed sensors) to collect the microhabitat data necessary to predict body temperatures. Expense and diversity of requisite sensors can limit sampling resolution and accessibility of these methods. We compare body temperature predictions of small lizards from iButtons, DS18B20 sensors, and simple copper models, in both laboratory and natural conditions. Our aim was to develop an inexpensive yet accurate method for body temperature prediction. Either method was applicable given appropriate parameterization of the heat transfer equation used. The simplest and cheapest method was DS18B20 sensors attached to a small recording computer. There was little if any deficit in precision or accuracy compared to other published methods. We show how the heat transfer equation can be parameterized, and it can also be used to predict body temperature from historically collected data, allowing strong comparisons between current and previous environmental temperatures using the most modern techniques. Our simple method uses very cheap sensors and loggers to extensively sample habitat temperature, improving our understanding of microhabitat structure and thermal variability with respect to small ectotherms. While our method was quite precise, we feel any potential loss in accuracy is offset by the increase in sample resolution, important as it is increasingly apparent that, particularly for small ectotherms, habitat thermal heterogeneity is the strongest influence on transient body temperature. PMID:27252829

  3. Perioperative core body temperatures effect on outcome after colorectal resections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Timothy M; Horst, Sara; Muldoon, Roberta; Wise, Paul E; Enrenfeld, Jesse; Poulose, Ben; Herline, Alan J

    2012-05-01

    The World Health Organization has set a standard of maintaining a core body temperature above 36°C in the perioperative period. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between both intraoperative temperature (IOT) and immediate postop core body temperature as it relates to postop complications. A retrospective analysis of a prospective database of patients who underwent an elective segmental colectomy without a stoma, for 3 diagnoses was performed. Six postoperative outcomes were examined: length of stay (LOS), placement of a nasogastric tube, return to the operating room, placement of an interventional drain, diagnosed leak, and surgical site infection (SSI). Statistics were calculated using a two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test. Seventy-nine patients met the inclusion criteria and there were no preoperative differences between the groups (those with a postop complication vs without). LOS > 9 days (36.64°C vs 35.98°C; P = 0.011) and clinical leak (37.06°C vs 35.99°C; P = 0.005) both had a statistically higher average IOT than those who did not. Patients with SSI trended to a higher IOT (36.44°C vs 35.99°C; P = 0.062). When the last IOT recorded was compared with the six outcomes, again length of stay and leak both were statistically significant (P = 0.018, P = 0.012) showing a higher temperature related to a higher complication rate. No other complications were related to IOT, nor did postop temperature relate to complication. In our data, relatively lower IOTs were protective for LOS and clinical leaks, with a trend of lower SSI rates. Further research is needed to fully endorse or refute the absolute recommendations for core body temperature.

  4. Validation of temperature-sensitive radio transmitters for measurement of body temperature in small animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Joseph B.; Tieleman, B. I.; Shobrak, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study on the core body temperature (T(b)) of desert birds, we purposed to use temperature-sensitive implantable radio transmitters. Because of the difficulty in recapturing these birds, we needed to know if these electronic devices held their calibration over the duration of normal batt

  5. A comparison of technologies used for estimation of body temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body temperature measurement is an important clinical parameter. The performance of a number of non-invasive thermometers was measured by comparing intra- and inter-operator variability (n = 100) and clinical accuracy (n = 61). Variability was elevated in febrile compared to normothermic subjects for axillary and oral electronic contact thermometer measures and a temporal artery thermometer (p < 0.001 for both). Temporal artery thermometry and one mode of an infrared tympanic thermometer demonstrated significant clinical inaccuracy (p < 0.001 for both). Electronic contact thermometer repeatability and reproducibility are highly variable in febrile adults both in the axilla and oral cavity. Infrared thermometry of the skin over the superficial temporal artery is unreliable for measuring core body temperature, particularly in febrile subjects and patients in theatre. The infrared tympanic thermometers tested are acceptable for clinical practice; however, care should be exercised with the different modes of operation offered

  6. Effect of temperature on body temperature and resting metabolic rate in pups of Eothenomys miletus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu, Wan-Long

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the ability of ambient temperature and thermoregulation in Eothenomys miletus, body temperature and resting metabolic rate (RMR were measured during postnatal development (1-49 day when E. miletus exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in E. miletus increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in low temperature (5 oC, 10 oC, relatively and RMR increased significantly when day age is 14 day, it indicated that the pups showed a certain degree of thermoregulation in this phase. Its thermoregulation ability developed quickly during 7 day to 14 day. RMR of pups was extreme significantly higher in low temperature than that in other temperature when day age was 21 day, it showed that the pups had some thermoregulation to low temperature stimulation. The RMR of pups was showed increasing trend in high temperature (35 oC when 28 day; on 35 day and 42 day, the thermal neutral zone were 22.5 to 30 oC and approaching its adult level. All of these results indicated that pups of E. miletus in the different growing period had different thermogenesis and energy allocation to maintain stable to body temperature, thermogenesis was weaker in the early phase of postnatal development, most of energy is used to its growth. After pups were weaned, the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation developed quickly to adjust variations of environment during postnatal development.

  7. Primate body temperature and sleep responses to lower body positive pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, D. M.; Fuller, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Cephalic fluid shifts, induced by lower body positive pressure (LBPP) are known to influence various physiological systems (i.e., cardiovascular and renal). In earlier experiments, an apparent change in the arousal state of primates in such LBPP conditions was observed. This study was designed to examine the effects of LBPP on arousal state and body temperature level which is normally correlated with sleep. Chair-restrained male squirrel monkeys were exposed to 40 mmHg LBPP for 90-100 minutes between the daytime hours of 13:00-15:00. Each monkey was placed in a specially modified restraint chair to which they were highly trained. Deep body temperature (DBT) was collected from 10 animals. Sleep parameters were obtained from six animals chronically implanted for sleep recording. A video camera was used to observe each animal's apparent state of arousal. LBPP resulted in an approximate 0.9 C decrease in DBT. During video observation, some animals appeared drowsy during LBPP; however, sleep recording revealed no significant changes in the state of arousal. Thus, LBPP is capable of inducing a mild hyperthermia. Further, the mechanisms underlying the observed lowering of body temperature appear to be independent of arousal state.

  8. Effect of irrigation fluid temperature on body temperature during arthroscopic elbow surgery in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Thompson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This prospective randomised clinical trial evaluated the effect of warmed irrigation fluid on body temperature in anaesthetised dogs undergoing arthroscopic elbow surgery. Nineteen dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy were included in the study and were randomly allocated to one of two groups. Group RT received irrigation fluid at room temperature (RT while dogs in group W received warmed (W irrigation fluid (36oC. A standardised patient management and anaesthetic protocol was used and body temperature was measured at four time points; (T1 pre-anaesthetic examination, (T2 arrival into theatre, (T3 end of surgery and (T4 arrival into recovery. There was no significant difference in body temperature at any time point between the groups. The mean overall decrease in body temperature between pre-anaesthetic examination (T1 and return to the recovery suite (T4 was significant in both groups, with a fall of 1.06±0.58oC (p<0.001 in group RT and 1.53±0.76oC (p<0.001 group W. There was no significant difference between the groups. At the end of surgery (T3 4/19 (21.1% of dogs were hypothermic (<37oC. The addition of warmed irrigation fluids to a temperature management protocol in dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy during general anaesthesia did not lead to decreased temperature losses.

  9. EFFECT OF AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ON BODY TEMPERATURE AND REST METABOLIC RATE IN APODEMUS CHEVRIERI DURING POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Wan-long; Sun Shu-ran; Ge Fang; Sun Cong-nan; Zhang Lin; Wang Zheng-kun

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation in Apodemus chevrieri, body temperature and rest metabolic rate (RMR) were measured during postnatal development (1~42 day) when the A. chevrieri exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in A. chevrieri increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in lo...

  10. Prediction of Core Body Temperature from Multiple Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Victoria L; Davey, Sarah; Griggs, Katy; Havenith, George

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to improve the prediction of rectal temperature (T re) from insulated skin temperature (T is) and micro-climate temperature (T mc) previously reported (Richmond et al., Insulated skin temperature as a measure of core body temperature for individuals wearing CBRN protective clothing. Physiol Meas 2013; 34:1531-43.) using additional physiological and/or environmental variables, under several clothing and climatic conditions. Twelve male (25.8±5.1 years; 73.6±11.5kg; 178±6cm) and nine female (24.2±5.1 years; 62.4±11.5kg; 169±3cm) volunteers completed six trials, each consisting of two 40-min periods of treadmill walking separated by a 20-min rest, wearing permeable or impermeable clothing, under neutral (25°C, 50%), moderate (35°C, 35%), and hot (40°C, 25%) conditions, with and without solar radiation (600W m(-2)). Participants were measured for heart rate (HR) (Polar, Finland), skin temperature (T s) at 11 sites, T is (Grant, Cambridge, UK), and breathing rate (f) (Hidalgo, Cambridge, UK). T mc and relative humidity were measured within the clothing. T re was monitored as the 'gold standard' measure of T c for industrial or military applications using a 10cm flexible probe (Grant, Cambridge, UK). A stepwise multiple regression analysis was run to determine which of 30 variables (T is, T s at 11 sites, HR, f, T mc, temperature, and humidity inside the clothing front and back, body mass, age, body fat, sex, clothing, Thermal comfort, sensation and perception, and sweat rate) were the strongest on which to base the model. Using a bootstrap methodology to develop the equation, the best model in terms of practicality and validity included T is, T mc, HR, and 'work' (0 = rest; 1 = exercise), predicting T re with a standard error of the estimate of 0.27°C and adjusted r (2) of 0.86. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting individuals who reached 39°C was 97 and 85%, respectively. Insulated skin temperature was the most important individual

  11. Implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes;

    thermometer. This work, however, can be quite time consuming and laborious, and further compromising the immediate well-fare of the pig, when restraining of the individual animal is necessary. Therefore, an electronic body monitoring system using implantable microchip transponders for measuring peripheral...... body temperature was tested, in order to evaluate the utility and reliability of this tool, in domestic pigs. The system is presently used and well optimized in small laboratory animals [1, 2]. We tested the microchip transponders during experimental infection of pigs with classical swine fever virus...... microchip transponder was injected deep subcutaneously by the left ear base of each individual. The transponder was before insertion programmed with ID identical to the individual pig’s ear tag number. The pigs were randomly divided into 3 groups: one group placebo-infected and two groups virus...

  12. Temperature Evaluation of Heat Transferring Body while Preparing Temperature Chart of Heating Technologies and Metal Thermal Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    A. P. Nesenchuk; T. V. Ryzhova; O. F. Kraetskaya; S. S. Коvaliov; A. V. Begliak

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers problems pertaining to temperature evaluation of a heat transferring body in the operational space of high temperature installations. A formula for evaluation of this temperature has been written down in the paper. Calculation of a heating transferring body (furnace) makes it possible to realize temperature chart parameters in the plant heating technologies and steel thermal treatment.

  13. Temperature Evaluation of Heat Transferring Body while Preparing Temperature Chart of Heating Technologies and Metal Thermal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to temperature evaluation of a heat transferring body in the operational space of high temperature installations. A formula for evaluation of this temperature has been written down in the paper. Calculation of a heating transferring body (furnace makes it possible to realize temperature chart parameters in the plant heating technologies and steel thermal treatment.

  14. Dust Ejection from Planetary Bodies by Temperature Gradients: Laboratory Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kelling, Thorben; Kocifaj, Miroslav; Klacka, Jozef; Reiss, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory experiments show that dusty bodies in a gaseous environment eject dust particles if they are illuminated. We find that even more intense dust eruptions occur when the light source is turned off. We attribute this to a compression of gas by thermal creep in response to the changing temperature gradients in the top dust layers. The effect is studied at a light flux of 13 kW/(m*m) and 1 mbar ambient pressure. The effect is applicable to protoplanetary disks and Mars. In the inner part of protoplanetary disks, planetesimals can be eroded especially at the terminator of a rotating body. This leads to the production of dust which can then be transported towards the disk edges or the outer disk regions. The generated dust might constitute a significant fraction of the warm dust observed in extrasolar protoplanetary disks. We estimate erosion rates of about 1 kg/s for 100 m parent bodies. The dust might also contribute to subsequent planetary growth in different locations or on existing protoplanets which ...

  15. Low body temperature governs the decline of circulating lymphocytes during hibernation through sphingosine-1-phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Kok, Jan Willem; Talaei, Fatimeh; Boerema, Ate S.; Herwig, Annika; Draghiciu, Oana; van Buiten, Azuwerus; Epema, Anne H.; van Dam, Annie; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Henning, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Hibernation is an energy-conserving behavior consisting of periods of inhibited metabolism ('torpor') with lowered body temperature. Torpor bouts are interspersed by arousal periods, in which metabolism increases and body temperature returns to euthermia. In deep torpor, the body temperature typical

  16. The effect of stress on core and peripheral body temperature in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, Christiaan H.; Penning, Renske; Hellhammer, Juliane; Verster, Joris C.; Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Olivier, Berend; Kalkman, Cor J.

    2013-01-01

    Even though there are indications that stress influences body temperature in humans, no study has systematically investigated the effects of stress on core and peripheral body temperature. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of acute psychosocial stress on body temperature u

  17. Placement of temperature probe in bovine vagina for continuous measurement of core-body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. N.; Gebremedhin, K. G.; Parkhurst, A.; Hillman, P. E.

    2015-09-01

    There has been increasing interest to measure core-body temperature in cattle using internal probes. This study examined the placement of HOBO water temperature probe with an anchor, referred to as the "sensor pack" (Hillman et al. Appl Eng Agric ASAE 25(2):291-296, 2009) in the vagina of multiparous Holstein cows under grazing conditions. Two types of anchors were used: (a) long "fingers" (4.5-6 cm), and (b) short "fingers" (3.5 cm). The long-finger anchors stayed in one position while the short-finger anchors were not stable in one position (rotate) within the vagina canal and in some cases came out. Vaginal temperatures were recorded every minute and the data collected were then analyzed using exponential mixed model regression for non-linear data. The results showed that the core-body temperatures for the short-finger anchors were lower than the long-finger anchors. This implied that the placement of the temperature sensor within the vagina cavity may affect the data collected.

  18. Evolution and plasticity of body size of Drosophila in response to temperature.

    OpenAIRE

    Calboli, F. C. F.

    2004-01-01

    Ectotherm body size is positively correlated with latitude, giving rise to body size clines, found in different continents. Ectotherm body size also shows a developmental response to temperature, increasing at lower developmental temperatures. To investigate the effects of temperature in the evolution and plasticity of body size dines, I used two species of the genus Drosophila as model organisms. To investigate the cellular mechanism underlying the evolution of wing size clines the two newly...

  19. Critical body temperature profile as indicator of heat stress vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, P K; Dutta, Priya; Nag, Anjali

    2013-01-01

    Extreme climatic heat is a major health concern among workers in different occupational pursuits. People in the regions of western India confront frequent heat emergencies, with great risk of mortality and morbidity. Taking account of informal occupational groups (foundry and sheet metal, FSM, N=587; ceramic and pottery, CP, N=426; stone quarry, SQ, N=934) in different seasons, the study examined the body temperature profiling as indicator of vulnerability to environmental warmth. About 3/4th of 1947 workers had habitual exposure at 30.1-35.5°C WBGT and ~10% of them were exposed to 38.2-41.6°C WBGT. The responses of FSM, CP and SQ workers indicated prevailing high heat load during summer and post-monsoon months. Local skin temperatures (T(sk)) varied significantly in different seasons, with consistently high level in summer, followed by post-monsoon and winter months. The mean difference of T(cr) and T(sk) was ~5.2°C up to 26.7°C WBGT, and ~2.5°C beyond 30°C WBGT. Nearly 90% of the workers had T(cr) within 38°C, suggesting their self-adjustment strategy in pacing work and regulating T(cr). In extreme heat, the limit of peripheral adjustability (35-36°C T(sk)) and the narrowing down of the difference between T(cr) and T(sk) might indicate the limit of one's ability to withstand heat exposure. PMID:23411761

  20. The circadian rhythm of core body temperature (Part I: The use of modern telemetry systems to monitor core body temperature variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słomko Joanna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The best known daily rhythms in humans include: the sleep-wake rhythm, the circadian core body temperature variability, daily fluctuations in arterial blood pressure and heartbeat frequency, and daily changes in hormone secretion: e.g. melatonin, cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin. The core body temperature in humans has a characteristic sinusoidal course, with the maximum value occurring between 3:00-5:00 pm and the minimum between 3:00-5:00 am. Analysis of literature indicates that the obtained results concerning core body temperature are to a large extent influenced by the type of method applied in the measurement. Depending on test protocols, we may apply various methodologies to measuring core body temperature. One of the newest methods of measuring internal and external body temperature consists in the utilisation of remote temperature sensors transmitting the obtained value via a radio signal. The advantages of this method includes the ability to perform: continuous core temperature measurement, observe dynamic changes in core body temperature occurring in circadian rhythm and the repeatability and credibility of the obtained results, which is presented in numerous scientific reports.

  1. Estimation of the temperature of a radiating body by measuring the stationary temperatures of a thermometer placed at different distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán, V. M.; Villaluenga, J. P. G.; Izquierdo-Gil, M. A.; Pérez-Cordón, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a novel method for determining the temperature of a radiating body. The experimental method requires only very common instrumentation. It is based on the measurement of the stationary temperature of an object placed at different distances from the body and on the application of the energy balance equation in a stationary state. The method allows one to obtain the temperature of an inaccessible radiating body when radiation measurements are not available. The method has been applied to the determination of the filament temperature of incandescent lamps of different powers.

  2. Being cool: how body temperature influences ageing and longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Gerald; Cummings, Elizabeth; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Temperature is a basic and essential property of any physical system, including living systems. Even modest variations in temperature can have profound effects on organisms, and it has long been thought that as metabolism increases at higher temperatures so should rates of ageing. Here, we review the literature on how temperature affects longevity, ageing and life history traits. From poikilotherms to homeotherms, there is a clear trend for lower temperature being associated with longer lifes...

  3. Temperature distribution in the human body under various conditions of induced hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobko, O. V.; Perelman, T. L.; Fradkin, S. Z.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model based on heat balance equations was developed for studying temperature distribution in the human body under deep hyperthermia which is often induced in the treatment of malignant tumors. The model yields results which are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The distribution of temperature under various conditions of induced hyperthermia, i.e. as a function of water temperature and supply rate, is examined on the basis of temperature distribution curves in various body zones.

  4. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p temperature compared to rats born with low exercise capacity and disease risk. Voluntary running allowed HCRs to maintain high body temperature during aging, which suggests that high PA level was crucial in maintaining the high body temperature of HCRs.

  5. Spectral-based inferential measurement of grey-body's temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Feng; Liu, Liying; Zhu, Lingxi; Huan, Kewei; Li, Ye; Shi, Xiaoguang

    2015-11-01

    Aiming at the problems of temperature measurement and the defects of radiance thermometry theory, one method of spectral-based inferential measurement is proposed, which adopts the Empirical Risk Minimization (ERM) functional model as the temperature measurement model. Then, the radiance thermometry theory and inferential measurement technology are discussed comparatively. Temperatures of some targets, such and tungsten lamp and solar surface, are measured by spectral-based inferential measurement.

  6. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S.; Hazel, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1–3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r2 = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38oC, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal temperatures

  7. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S; Hazel, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1-3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r (2) = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38(o)C, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal

  8. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S; Hazel, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1-3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r (2) = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38(o)C, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal

  9. Body temperature measurements in pigs during general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musk, G C; Costa, R S; Tuke, J

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to compare rectal, pharyngeal and oesophageal temperature measurements in anaesthetized pigs. Data were compared using the Bland-Altman method, and correlation coefficients and error measures were calculated. Sixty-six sets of data were collected from 16 pigs weighing 16.2 ± 4.2 kg. The bias (and 95% limit of agreement) for rectal and pharyngeal compared with oesophageal temperature were 0.69 (-1.18 to 2.57) ℃ and 0.22 (-0.84 to 1.28) ℃, respectively. The correlation coefficients for rectal and pharyngeal compared with oesophageal temperature were 0.47 and 0.87, respectively. The absolute error for rectal and pharyngeal compared with oesophageal temperature was 0.7 ± 0.9℃ and 0.2 ± 0.5℃, respectively. Pharyngeal temperature measurement may be more suitable than rectal temperature measurement for estimation of oesophageal temperature during general anaesthesia of pigs.

  10. Sleeping body temperatures in 3-4 month old infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Wailoo, M P; Petersen, S A; Whittaker, H.; Goodenough, P

    1989-01-01

    Rectal, skin, and ambient temperatures were continuously recorded overnight from 3-4 month old normal infants in their home cots under conditions of room temperature and wrapping chosen freely by parents. It was found that rectal temperature was above 37 degrees C when infants were put down, but fell rapidly to 36.4 degrees C within one and a half hours, then stabilised for a few hours before rising steadily. This pattern was tied more closely to the time of putting down than time of day. The...

  11. New insulating material in maintenance of body temperature.

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, B M; Bates, A R; Gray, O. P.; Pearson, J F; Wardrop, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Flectalon, web of aluminised polyvinylchloride fibres, has been formulated to minimise radiant heat losses and to provide conventional insulation. Critical temperature determinations were used to assess the insulating efficacy of this and other swaddling materials in infants. The critical temperature for a baby 2 to 10 days old was 31 degrees C when naked and 23 degrees C when wrapped in a Silver Swaddler or a sheet and two blankets. The use of a quilt made with Thinsulate or Hollofil with a ...

  12. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p < 0.001). Aging decreased the body temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p < 0.001) allowing them to maintain body temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p < 0.050). These results suggest that higher PA level together with greater relative muscle mass and higher mitochondrial content/function contribute to the accumulation of heat in the HCRs. Interestingly, neither aging nor voluntary training had a significant impact on core body temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p < 0

  13. Effect of Ambient Temperature on Body Temperature and Rest Metabolic Rate in Apodemus chevrieri During Postnatal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wan-long

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation in Apodemus chevrieri, body temperature and rest metabolic rate (RMR were measured during postnatal development (1~42 day when the A. chevrieri exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in A. chevrieri increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in low temperature(5oC and 10oC, relatively and RMR significant increased when day age is 14 day, it indicated that the pups showed a certain degree of thermoregulation in this phase. Its thermoregulation ability developed quickly during 7 day to 14 day. RMR of pups was extreme significantly higher in low temperature than that in other temperature when day age was 21 day, it showed that the pups had some thermoregulation to low temperature stimulation. The RMR of pups was showed increasing trend in high temperature(35oC when 28 day; when day age was 35 day and 42 day, the thermal neutral zone were 22.5 to 30oC and approaching its adult level. All of these results indicated that pups of A. chevrieri in the different growing period had different thermogenesis and energy allocation to maintain stable to body temperature, thermogenesis was weaker in the early phase of postnatal development, most of energy is used to its growth. After pups were weaned, the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation developed quickly to adjust variations of environment during postnatal development.

  14. Effect of heat stress on body temperature in healthy early postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Heuwieser, W

    2012-12-01

    Measurement of body temperature is the most common method for an early diagnosis of sick cows in fresh cow protocols currently used on dairy farms. Thresholds for fever range from 39.4 °C to 39.7 °C. Several studies attempted to describe normal temperature ranges for healthy dairy cows in the early puerperium. However, the definition of a healthy cow is variable within these studies. It is challenging to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows because body temperature is usually included in the definition. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify factors that influence body temperature in healthy dairy cows early postpartum and to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows that calved in a moderate (temperature humidity index: 59.8 ± 3.8) and a hot period (temperature humidity index: 74.1 ± 4.4), respectively, excluding body temperature from the definition of the health status. Furthermore, the prevalence of fever was calculated for both periods separately. A subset of 17 (moderate period) and 15 cows (hot period) were used for analysis. To ensure their uterine health only cows with a serum haptoglobin concentration ≤ 1.1 g/L were included in the analysis. Therefore, body temperature could be excluded from the definition. A vaginal temperature logger that measured vaginal temperature every 10 min was inserted from Day 2 to 10 after parturition. Additionally rectal temperature was measured twice daily. Day in milk (2 to 10), period (moderate and hot), and time of day had an effect on rectal and vaginal temperature. The prevalence of fever (≥ 39.5 °C) was 7.4% and 28.1% for rectal temperature in the moderate and hot period, respectively. For vaginal temperature (07.00 to 11.00 h) it was 10% and 33%, respectively, considering the same threshold and period. This study demonstrates that body temperature in the early puerperium is influenced by several factors (day in milk, climate, time of day). Therefore, these factors

  15. Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment during periodical changes in air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Siyeon; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5 °C with an amplitude of 6 °C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature, and 12 skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that the forehead and chest were identified as the most valid sites to predict rectal temperature (R(2) = 0.826 and 0.824, respectively) in an environment with periodically fluctuated air temperatures. This study suggests that particular skin temperatures are valid as a non-invasive variable when predicting rectal temperature of an individual wearing PPE in changing ambient temperatures. Practitioner Summary: This study should offer assistance for developing a more reliable indirect indicating system of individual heat strain for firefighters in real time, which can be used practically as a precaution of firefighters' heat-related illness and utilised along with physiological monitoring.

  16. Microchip transponder thermometry for monitoring core body temperature of antelope during capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Fuller, Andrea; Hetem, Robyn S; Lease, Hilary M; Mitchell, Duncan; Meyer, Leith C R

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthermia is described as the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with capture, immobilization and restraint of wild animals. Therefore, accurately determining the core body temperature of wild animals during capture is crucial for monitoring hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. We investigated if microchip thermometry can accurately reflect core body temperature changes during capture and cooling interventions in the springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), a medium-sized antelope. Subcutaneous temperature measured with a temperature-sensitive microchip was a weak predictor of core body temperature measured by temperature-sensitive data loggers in the abdominal cavity (R(2)=0.32, bias >2 °C). Temperature-sensitive microchips in the gluteus muscle, however, provided an accurate estimate of core body temperature (R(2)=0.76, bias=0.012 °C). Microchips inserted into muscle therefore provide a convenient and accurate method to measure body temperature continuously in captured antelope, allowing detection of hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. PMID:26724197

  17. Microchip transponder thermometry for monitoring core body temperature of antelope during capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Fuller, Andrea; Hetem, Robyn S; Lease, Hilary M; Mitchell, Duncan; Meyer, Leith C R

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthermia is described as the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with capture, immobilization and restraint of wild animals. Therefore, accurately determining the core body temperature of wild animals during capture is crucial for monitoring hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. We investigated if microchip thermometry can accurately reflect core body temperature changes during capture and cooling interventions in the springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), a medium-sized antelope. Subcutaneous temperature measured with a temperature-sensitive microchip was a weak predictor of core body temperature measured by temperature-sensitive data loggers in the abdominal cavity (R(2)=0.32, bias >2 °C). Temperature-sensitive microchips in the gluteus muscle, however, provided an accurate estimate of core body temperature (R(2)=0.76, bias=0.012 °C). Microchips inserted into muscle therefore provide a convenient and accurate method to measure body temperature continuously in captured antelope, allowing detection of hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures.

  18. Effects of Body Weight and Water Temperature on Maximum Food Consumption of Juvenile Sebastodes fuscescens (Houttuyn)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢松光; 杨红生; 周毅; 张福绥

    2004-01-01

    Maximum rate of food consumption (Cmax) was determined for juvenile Sebastodes fuscescens (Houttuyn) at water temperature of 10, 15, 20 and 25℃. The relationships of Cmax to the body weight (W) at each temperature were described by a power equation: lnCmax = a + b lnW. Covariance analysis revealed significant interaction of the temperature and body weight. The relationship of adjusted Cmax to water temperature (T) was described by a quadratic equation: Cmax =-0.369 + 0.456T - 0.0117T2. The optimal feeding temperature calculated from this equation was 19.5℃. The coefficients of the multiple regression estimation relating Cmax to body weight (W) and water temperature (T) were given in the Table 2.

  19. cAMP signalling in mushroom bodies modulates temperature preference behaviour in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Tae; Bang, Sunhoe; Hyun, Seogang; Kang, Jongkyun; Jeong, Kyunghwa; Paik, Donggi; Chung, Jongkyeong; Kim, Jaeseob

    2008-08-01

    Homoiotherms, for example mammals, regulate their body temperature with physiological responses such as a change of metabolic rate and sweating. In contrast, the body temperature of poikilotherms, for example Drosophila, is the result of heat exchange with the surrounding environment as a result of the large ratio of surface area to volume of their bodies. Accordingly, these animals must instinctively move to places with an environmental temperature as close as possible to their genetically determined desired temperature. The temperature that Drosophila instinctively prefers has a function equivalent to the 'set point' temperature in mammals. Although various temperature-gated TRP channels have been discovered, molecular and cellular components in Drosophila brain responsible for determining the desired temperature remain unknown. We identified these components by performing a large-scale genetic screen of temperature preference behaviour (TPB) in Drosophila. In parallel, we mapped areas of the Drosophila brain controlling TPB by targeted inactivation of neurons with tetanus toxin and a potassium channel (Kir2.1) driven with various brain-specific GAL4s. Here we show that mushroom bodies (MBs) and the cyclic AMP-cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) pathway are essential for controlling TPB. Furthermore, targeted expression of cAMP-PKA pathway components in only the MB was sufficient to rescue abnormal TPB of the corresponding mutants. Preferred temperatures were affected by the level of cAMP and PKA activity in the MBs in various PKA pathway mutants. PMID:18594510

  20. Influence of body temperatures and hypercapnia on pulmonary ventilation during hyperthermia

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Jesse Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Static and dynamic body temperatures, hypercapnia, and exercise state were assessed for their influence on human pulmonary ventilation. METHODS: In study 1, each participant exercised with normothermic and hyperthermic core temperatures, in ambient temperatures of 25, 30 and 35°C, and were subjected to hypercapnic challenges of +4 and +8 mmHg in each condition. In study 2 before and after sub-maximal exercise, radiant heating was employed to assess the influence of dynamic skin temperature on...

  1. A study on the applicability of implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enøe Claes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The applicability of an electronic monitoring system using microchip transponders for measurement of body temperatures was tested in 6-week-old conventional Danish weaners infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV. Subcutaneous tissue temperatures obtained by the implantable transponders were compared with rectal temperatures, recorded by a conventional digital thermometer. Methods In a preliminary study, transponders were inserted subcutaneously at 6 different positions of the body of 5 pigs. The transponders positioned by the ear base provided the best correlation to rectal temperature. To test the stability of the monitoring system in a larger group of pigs, transponders were therefore inserted by the left ear base in a subsequent infection experiment with 30 pigs. Results Generally, the microchip transponders measured a subcutaneous tissue temperature, which was about 1°C lower than the rectal temperature. However, a simple linear relationship between the measures of the two methods was found. Conclusions Our study showed that the tested body monitoring system may represent a promising tool to obtain an approximate correlate of body temperatures in groups of pigs. In contrast, however, the tested system did not constitute a suitable tool to measure body temperatures of individual animals in the present pig infection experiment.

  2. Leptin actions on food intake and body temperature are mediated by IL-1

    OpenAIRE

    Luheshi, Giamal N; Gardner, Jason D.; Rushforth, David A.; Loudon, Andrew S.; Rothwell, Nancy J

    1999-01-01

    Leptin regulates energy balance through its actions in the brain on appetite and energy expenditure and also shares properties with cytokines such as IL-1. We report here that leptin, injected into rats intracerebroventricularly or peripherally, induces significant dose-dependent increases in core body temperature as well as suppression of appetite. Leptin failed to affect food intake or body temperature in obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, which posses a defective leptin receptor. Furthermore, inje...

  3. Effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: a double-blind, randomized phase II clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); E.J. van Breda (Eric); H.M.A. van Gemert (Maarten); H.B. van der Worp (Bart); R.J. Meijer (Ron); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Body temperature is a strong predictor of outcome in acute stroke. However, it is unknown whether antipyretic treatment leads to early and clinically worthwhile reduction of body temperature in patients with acute stroke, especially w

  4. Circadian rhythm of body temperature during prolonged undersea voyages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquhoun, W P; Paine, M W; Fort, A

    1978-05-01

    Circadian rhythms of oral temperature were assessed in 12 watchkeepers during a prolonged submarine voyage and compared with a "standard" rhythm obtained from nonwatchkeepers ashore. Initially, the parameters of the rhythms were similar to those of the standard; however, among eight ratings working 4-h watches in a rapidly rotating cycle, considerable changes in the rhythms occurred as the voyage progressed, and concurrent alterations in sleep patterning were observed. The most characteristic change in the rhythm was a marked decline in its amplitude. In most subjects, the rhythm also tended to depart from its original circadian pattern; in at least one case, it effectively disintegrated. One subject's rhythm appeared to "free-run" with a period greater than 24 h. A strong circadian rhythm was maintained in only one of these eight subjects. In four officers whose watch times were at fixed hours, adaptation of the rhythm to unusual times of sleep occurred in 2 of 3 cases where the schedule demanded it. The results are discussed in relation to the design of optimal watchkeeping systems for submariners. PMID:655989

  5. [Hyperthermia. Modification of body temperature as clinical therapeutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuña Urtasun, Berta; Villalgordo Ortin, Paola; Montes García, Yolanda; Marín, Fernández Blanca

    2011-04-01

    The application of heat or cold therapy is called thermotherapy Thermotherapy has been used since ancient times, Egyptians, Greeks and Romans used solar radiation or submersion in springs to apply heat and ice and snow for cold application. The first scientific references related to thermotherapy appear in late eighteenth century but the twentieth century when the introduction of new forms of deep heat therapy have expanded their capabilities and their operation with media surface more comfortable and effective. Thermotherapy although they require more experimentation to obtain a solid scientific proof that their use is raising great expectations in various fields such as oncology treatment, surgery neurology etc. In the surgical field thermal ablation has been used successfully in the treatment of various diseases, benign prostatic hyperplasia, liver and gynecological tumors, among others. In the field of oncology has been shown to improve outcomes diathermy applied in conjunction with chemo and radiation therapy Based on the literature review describing the main uses of the change in temperature as a therapeutic, the main indications for these techniques, as applicable, evidence of its benefits and complications arising from their use.

  6. A study on the measurement of the core body temperature change after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) through MR temperature mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Bok; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Yu, Young; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Joo, Kyu-Ji

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the change in the heat generated during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using a self-manufactured phantom and used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to analyze the change in the temperature of the core body and the tissues surrounding the phantom. In this experiment, the image and the phase image were obtained simultaneously from a gradient echo-based sequence using 1.5-Tesla MRI equipment and a 12-channel head coil. The temperature mapping technique was used to calculate the change in temperature. The regions of interest (ROIs) (ROI 1 - ROI 6) were set with a focus on the area where the RFA was performed, according to the temperature distribution, before monitoring the temperature change for one hour in time intervals of five minutes. The results showed that the temperature change in the ROI with time was largest in the ROI 1 and smallest in the ROI 5. In addition, after the RFA procedure, the temperature decreased from the initial value to 0 °C in one hour. The temperature changes in the core body and the surrounding tissues were confirmed by MRI temperature mapping, which is a noninvasive method.

  7. Speed over efficiency: locusts select body temperatures that favour growth rate over efficient nutrient utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Gabriel A; Clissold, Fiona J; Mayntz, David;

    2009-01-01

    Ectotherms have evolved preferences for particular body temperatures, but the nutritional and life-history consequences of such temperature preferences are not well understood. We measured thermal preferences in Locusta migratoria (migratory locusts) and used a multi-factorial experimental design...

  8. Variations of body temperature and metabolism during entrance into cold lethargy in the bat Myotis myotis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldmaier, Gerhard

    1970-01-01

    Bats of temperate zones which hibernate during winter become cold-lethargic during their diurnal rest time even in summer. At the end of their nocturnal activity period they show a drop in body temperature close to ambient temperature (M. myotis, cf. Pohl, 1961). This takes place periodically even i

  9. Thermal insulation and body temperature wearing a thermal swimsuit during water immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Hanai, Atsuko; Yokoyama, Shintaro; Nomura, Takeo

    2006-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a thermal swimsuit on body temperatures, thermoregulatory responses and thermal insulation during 60 min water immersion at rest. Ten healthy male subjects wearing either thermal swimsuits or normal swimsuits were immersed in water (26 degrees C or 29 degrees C). Esophageal temperature, skin temperatures and oxygen consumption were measured during the experiments. Metabolic heat production was calculated from oxygen consumption. Heat loss from skin to the water was calculated from the metabolic heat production and the change in mean body temperature during water immersion. Total insulation and tissue insulation were estimated by dividing the temperature difference between the esophagus and the water or the esophagus and the skin with heat loss from the skin. Esophageal temperature with a thermal swimsuit was higher than that with a normal swimsuit at the end of immersion in both water temperature conditions (pinsulation with the thermal swimsuit was higher than that with a normal swimsuit due to insulation of the suit at both water temperatures (pinsulation was similar in all four conditions, but significantly higher with the thermal swimsuit in both water temperature conditions (pinsulation and reduce heat loss from the skin. Therefore, subjects with thermal swimsuits can maintain higher body temperatures than with a normal swimsuit and reduce shivering thermo-genesis.

  10. Agreement between auricular and rectal measurements of body temperature in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Marlos G; Carareto, Roberta; Pereira-Junior, Valdo A; Aquino, Monally C C

    2013-04-01

    Measurement of body temperature is a routine part of the clinical assessment of a patient. However, this procedure may be time-consuming and stressful to most animals because the standard site of temperature acquisition remains the rectal mucosa. Although an increasing number of clinicians have been using auricular temperature to estimate core body temperature, evidence is still lacking regarding agreement between these two methods in cats. In this investigation, we evaluated the agreement between temperatures measured in the rectum and ear in 29 healthy cats over a 2-week period. Temperatures were measured in the rectum (using digital and mercury-in-glass thermometers) and ear once a day for 14 consecutive days, producing 406 temperature readings for each thermometer. Mean temperature and confidence intervals were similar between methods, and Bland-Altman plots showed small biases and narrow limits of agreement acceptable for clinical purposes. The interobserver variability was also checked, which indicated a strong correlation between two near-simultaneous temperature readings. Results are consistent with auricular thermometry being a reliable alternative to rectal thermometry for assessing core body temperature in healthy cats.

  11. Novel energy-saving strategies to multiple stressors in birds: the ultradian regulation of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Glenn J; Roussel, Damien; Voituron, Yann; Teulier, Loïc

    2016-09-28

    This study aimed to examine thermoregulatory responses in birds facing two commonly experienced stressors, cold and fasting. Logging devices allowing long-term and precise access to internal body temperature were placed within the gizzards of ducklings acclimated to cold (CA) (5°C) or thermoneutrality (TN) (25°C). The animals were then examined under three equal 4-day periods: ad libitum feeding, fasting and re-feeding. Through the analysis of daily as well as short-term, or ultradian, variations of body temperature, we showed that while ducklings at TN show only a modest decline in daily thermoregulatory parameters when fasted, they exhibit reduced surface temperatures from key sites of vascular heat exchange during fasting. The CA birds, on the other hand, significantly reduced their short-term variations of body temperature while increasing long-term variability when fasting. This phenomenon would allow the CA birds to reduce the energetic cost of body temperature maintenance under fasting. By analysing ultradian regulation of body temperature, we describe a means by which an endotherm appears to lower thermoregulatory costs in response to the combined stressors of cold and fasting.

  12. Perceived intensity of peripheral thermal stimuli is independent of internal body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, G D

    1976-12-01

    Four adult male human subjects were tested under three conditions of internal body temperature: hypothermia, normal, and hyperthermia. Under each of these conditions, they judged the intensity (degree of warmness or coolness) and the hedonic quality (degree of pleasantness or unpleasantness) of a series of stimuli ranging from hot to cold. The results showed that whereas hedonic quality is greatly influenced by the value of internal body temperature, the perception of warmness or coolness is independent of internal temperature and dependent only on peripheral stimulation.

  13. Influence of body temperature on the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Tino Hoffmann

    1999-01-01

    the influence of rate of heat storage (0.10 vs. 0.05°C/min induced by a water-perfused jacket), four cyclists performed two additional exercise bouts, starting with Tes of 37.0°C. Despite different initial temperatures, all subjects fatigued at an identical level of hyperthermia (Tes = 40.1-40.2°C, muscle...... (all P muscle temperature (40.1-40.3 and 40.7-40.9°C, respectively), but with significantly different skin temperature (38.4 ± 0.4 vs. 35.6 ± 0.2°C during high vs. low rate of heat storage......We investigated whether fatigue during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments occurred at the same critical level of hyperthermia when the initial value and the rate of increase in body temperature are altered. To examine the effect of initial body temperature [esophageal temperature...

  14. Dopamine Signalling in Mushroom Bodies Regulates Temperature-Preference Behaviour in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Sunhoe Bang; Seogang Hyun; Sung-Tae Hong; Jongkyun Kang; Kyunghwa Jeong; Joong-Jean Park; Joonho Choe; Jongkyeong Chung

    2011-01-01

    The ability to respond to environmental temperature variation is essential for survival in animals. Flies show robust temperature-preference behaviour (TPB) to find optimal temperatures. Recently, we have shown that Drosophila mushroom body (MB) functions as a center controlling TPB. However, neuromodulators that control the TPB in MB remain unknown. To identify the functions of dopamine in TPB, we have conducted various genetic studies in Drosophila. Inhibition of dopamine biosynthesis by ge...

  15. Theoretical study on the inverse modeling of deep body temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the theoretical aspects of monitoring the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse modeling method. A two-dimensional model was built based on anatomical structure to simulate the human abdomen. By integrating biophysical and physiological information, the deep body temperature distribution was estimated from cutaneous surface temperature measurements using an inverse quasilinear method. Simulations were conducted with and without the heat effect of blood perfusion in the muscle and skin layers. The results of the simulations showed consistently that the noise characteristics and arrangement of the temperature sensors were the major factors affecting the accuracy of the inverse solution. With temperature sensors of 0.05 °C systematic error and an optimized 16-sensor arrangement, the inverse method could estimate the deep body temperature distribution with an average absolute error of less than 0.20 °C. The results of this theoretical study suggest that it is possible to reconstruct the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse method and that this approach merits further investigation. (paper)

  16. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on the ventilatory response to rising body temperature during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Keiji; Kawashima, Takayo; Suzuki, Yuichi

    2012-07-01

    To examine the effect of menstrual cycle on the ventilatory sensitivity to rising body temperature, ten healthy women exercised for ~60 min on a cycle ergometer at 50% of peak oxygen uptake during the follicular and luteal phases of their cycle. Esophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, mean body temperature, minute ventilation, and tidal volume were all significantly higher at baseline and during exercise in the luteal phase than the follicular phase. On the other hand, end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide was significantly lower during exercise in the luteal phase than the follicular phase. Plotting ventilatory parameters against esophageal temperature revealed there to be no significant menstrual cycle-related differences in the slopes or intercepts of the regression lines, although minute ventilation and tidal volume did significantly differ during exercise with mild hyperthermia. To evaluate the cutaneous vasodilatory response, relative laser-Doppler flowmetry values were plotted against mean body temperature, which revealed that the mean body temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was significantly higher in the luteal phase than the follicular phase, but there were no significant differences in the sensitivity or peak values. These results suggest that the menstrual cycle phase influences the cutaneous vasodilatory response during exercise and the ventilatory response at rest and during exercise with mild hyperthermia, but it does not influence ventilatory responses during exercise with moderate hyperthermia. PMID:22604882

  17. Theoretical study on the inverse modeling of deep body temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated the theoretical aspects of monitoring the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse modeling method. A two-dimensional model was built based on anatomical structure to simulate the human abdomen. By integrating biophysical and physiological information, the deep body temperature distribution was estimated from cutaneous surface temperature measurements using an inverse quasilinear method. Simulations were conducted with and without the heat effect of blood perfusion in the muscle and skin layers. The results of the simulations showed consistently that the noise characteristics and arrangement of the temperature sensors were the major factors affecting the accuracy of the inverse solution. With temperature sensors of 0.05 °C systematic error and an optimized 16-sensor arrangement, the inverse method could estimate the deep body temperature distribution with an average absolute error of less than 0.20 °C. The results of this theoretical study suggest that it is possible to reconstruct the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse method and that this approach merits further investigation.

  18. The effect of water temperature on the human body and the swimming effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERAFEIM ALEXIOU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although many research papers have dealt with the influence of environmental temperature on the various Human body functions during exercise in land, a few only informations exist for the equivalent alterations in water temperatures during immersion and swimming. The present preview research paper is referred on this subject. During swimming in the normal water temperature 26° ± 1° C (63, the functions of the human body respond regularly and the performance of swimmers tends to be improved. However, during swimming in cold water critical differences appear in human functions, such as bradycardia, angiospasm, hyperventilation and adaptations of thermoregulatory mechanism which influence the swimming performance and the life itself. Especially in very cold water temperature the disturbances of the cardiovascular system may lead in critical arrhythmia or sudden death. The cold water temperature, however, influences the kinetic and energy behavior related to the reduction of swimmers performance because of its possible influence on the neuromuscular function. In the increased water temperature up to 28° C appears tachycardia, vasodilation and other alternations which aim to better thermoregulation. The swimmers records are possibly equivalent with a tendency to be improved, to the records in normal temperature of championships 26° C and the increased temperature mainly in the speed events (3. Therefore, there is a differentiation on swimmers performances due to water temperature declination from normal. Also, body functions change during water immersion.

  19. Body temperature of the parasitic wasp Pimpla turionellae (Hymenoptera) during host location by vibrational sounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroder, Stefan; Samietz, Jörg; Stabentheiner, Anton; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-03-01

    The pupal parasitoid Pimpla turionellae (L.) uses self-produced vibrations transmitted on the plant substrate, so-called vibrational sounding, to locate immobile concealed pupal hosts. The wasps are able to use vibrational sounding reliably over a broad range of ambient temperatures and even show an increased signal frequency and intensity at low temperatures. The present study investigates how control of body temperature in the wasps by endothermic mechanisms may facilitate host location under changing thermal environments. Insect body temperature is measured with real-time IR thermography on plant-stem models at temperature treatments of 10, 18, 26 and 30 °C, whereas behaviour is recorded with respect to vibrational host location. The results reveal a low-level endothermy that likely interferes with vibrational sound production because it occurs only in nonsearching females. At the lowest temperature of 10 °C, the thoracic temperature is 1.15 °C warmer than the ambient surface temperature whereas, at the high temperatures of 26 and 30 ° C, the wasps cool down their thorax by 0.29 and 0.47 °C, respectively, and their head by 0.45 and 0.61 °C below ambient surface temperature. By contrast, regardless of ambient temperature, searching females always have a slightly elevated body temperature of at most 0.30 °C above the ambient surface temperature. Behavioural observations indicate that searching females interrupt host location more frequently at suboptimal temperatures, presumably due to the requirements of thermoregulation. It is assumed that both mechanisms, producing vibrations for host location and low-level endothermy, are located in the thorax. Endothermy by thoracic muscle work probably disturbs signal structure of vibrational sounding, so the processes cannot be used at the same time. PMID:22140295

  20. Influence of winter temperature and simulated climate change on body mass and fat body depletion during diapause in adults of the solitary bee, Osmia rufa (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliszkiewicz, Monika; Giejdasz, Karol; Wasielewski, Oskar; Krishnan, Natraj

    2012-12-01

    The influence of simulated climate change on body weight and depletion of fat body reserves was studied during diapause in the European solitary bee Osmia rufa L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Insects (females) were reared and collected from outdoor nests from September to March. One cohort of females was weighed and dissected immediately for analyses, whereas another cohort was subjected to simulated warmer temperature (15°C for 7 d) before analyses. A gradual decline in body mass and fat body content was recorded with declining temperatures from September to January in female bees from natural conditions. Temperature increased gradually from January to March with a further decline in body mass and fat body content. The fat body development index dropped from five in September-October (≈ 89% individuals) to four for the period from November to February (≈ 84% individuals) and further to three in March (95% individuals) before emergence. Simulated warmer winter temperature also resulted in a similar decline in body weight and fat body content; however, body weight and fat body content declined faster. The fat body development index dropped to three in December in the majority of individuals and continued at this level until March just before emergence. Taken together, our data indicate an earlier depletion of fat body reserves under simulated climate change conditions that may impact ovarian development and reproductive fitness in O. rufa. PMID:23321111

  1. Core and body surface temperatures of nesting leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Thomas J; McCafferty, Dominic J; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2015-07-01

    Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are the largest species of marine turtle and the fourth most massive extant reptile. In temperate waters they maintain body temperatures higher than surrounding seawater through a combination of insulation, physiological, and behavioural adaptations. Nesting involves physical activity in addition to contact with warm sand and air, potentially presenting thermal challenges in the absence of the cooling effect of water, and data are lacking with which to understand their nesting thermal biology. Using non-contact methods (thermal imaging and infrared thermometry) to avoid any stress-related effects, we investigated core and surface temperature during nesting. The mean±SE core temperature was 31.4±0.05°C (newly emerged eggs) and was not correlated with environmental conditions on the nesting beach. Core temperature of leatherbacks was greater than that of hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) nesting at a nearby colony, 30.0±0.13°C. Body surface temperatures of leatherbacks showed regional variation, the lateral and dorsal regions of the head were warmest while the carapace was the coolest surface. Surface temperature increased during the early nesting phases, then levelled off or decreased during later phases with the rates of change varying between body regions. Body region, behavioural phase of nesting and air temperature were found to be the best predictors of surface temperature. Regional variation in surface temperature were likely due to alterations in blood supply, and temporal changes in local muscular activity of flippers during the different phases of nesting. Heat exchange from the upper surface of the turtle was dominated by radiative heat loss from all body regions and small convective heat gains to the carapace and front flippers. PMID:25965013

  2. Metabolism of polychaete Neanthes japonica Izuka: relations to temperature, salinity and body weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; XIAN Weiwei; SUN Shichun

    2009-01-01

    Polychaete Neanthesjaponica is a species geographically specific in China and Japan with important scientific implication and commercial value. In this study, the relations of body weight, salinity and temperature to oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of N. japonica were determined. Threedifferent groups in body weight (large: 2.34±0.36 g, middle: 1.50±0.21 g and small: 0.62±0.12 g) were set for all experiments. Results show that the body weight is negatively related to the rates of oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion; and the relationship is significant. The oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion at 24℃ decreased at salinity from 5 to 30 and increased above 30, indicating that both lower and higher salinity are adverse and certain degree of salinity stress is necessary for enhancing the energy demand. At salinity 30, rising temperature from 18℃ to 30℃, the oxygen consumption increased before 27℃ and then decreased. However, the relation of ammonia excretion and temperature seems more complex. Two-way ANOVA shows that salinity, temperature and body weight all have a significant effect on the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of the worm. Moreover, interaction between salinity/temperature and body weight is also significant. O:N (oxygen/nitrogen) ratio varies greatly in this case from 5.97 to 463.22, indicating that N. japonica can regulate the type of metabolic substrate against environment changes.

  3. Locatable-body temperature monitoring based on semi-active UHF RFID tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangwei; Mao, Luhong; Chen, Liying; Xie, Sheng

    2014-03-26

    This paper presents the use of radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology for the real-time remote monitoring of body temperature, while an associated program can determine the location of the body carrying the respective sensor. The RFID chip's internal integrated temperature sensor is used for both the human-body temperature detection and as a measurement device, while using radio-frequency communication to broadcast the temperature information. The adopted RFID location technology makes use of reference tags together with a nearest neighbor localization algorithm and a multiple-antenna time-division multiplexing location system. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed for collecting temperature and location data for the data fusion by using RFID protocols. With a puppy as test object, temperature detection and localization experiments were carried out. The measured results show that the applied method, when using a mercury thermometer for comparison in terms of measuring the temperature of the dog, has a good consistency, with an average temperature error of 0.283 °C. When using the associated program over the area of 12.25 m2, the average location error is of 0.461 m, which verifies the feasibility of the sensor-carrier location by using the proposed program.

  4. Carbon Budget of Bastard Halibut Paralichthys Oliva-eus in Relation to Body Weight and Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    线薇薇; 刘瑞玉; 朱鑫华

    2003-01-01

    The effects of body weight and temperature on the carbon budget of the juvenile bastard halibut, Paralichthys olivaceus , were studied at temperature 13.5, 18, 21.5 and 24 ℃, respectively. The carbon intake, faecal and growth carbon were measured, and the carbon respiration was calculated using the carbon budget equation(CC=GC+FC+RC). The combined relationship between different components of the carbon budget, body weight and temperature could be described by regression equations: CC =1.0206 W 0.8126 e 0.1483 T; G=0.0042 W 1.4096 (-5.11 T 3+285.90 T2-5173.72 T +30314.03); FC =0.0485 W0.7711e 0.1624 T ; UC = 1.4333 W 0.6715e 0.1487 T. Body weight had no significant ffect on the carbon absorption efficiency and the conversion efficiency.

  5. A study on the applicability of implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes;

    2010-01-01

    Background The applicability of an electronic monitoring system using microchip transponders for measurement of body temperatures was tested in 6-week-old conventional Danish weaners infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Subcutaneous tissue temperatures obtained by the implantable...... temperature. To test the stability of the monitoring system in a larger group of pigs, transponders were therefore inserted by the left ear base in a subsequent infection experiment with 30 pigs. Results Generally, the microchip transponders measured a subcutaneous tissue temperature, which was about 1º...

  6. Integration of body temperature into the analysis of energy expenditure in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Abreu-Vieira

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: At 22 °C, cold-induced thermogenesis is ∼120% of basal metabolic rate. The higher body temperature during physical activity is due to a higher set point, not simply increased heat generation during exercise. Most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms, with little from fur or fat. Our analysis suggests that the definition of the upper limit of the thermoneutral zone should be re-considered. Measuring body temperature informs interpretation of energy expenditure data and improves the predictiveness and utility of the mouse to model human energy homeostasis.

  7. The Inability to Screen Exhibition Swine for Influenza A Virus Using Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, A S; Nolting, J M; Workman, J D; Cooper, M; Fisher, A E; Marsh, B; Forshey, T

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural fairs create an unconventional animal-human interface that has been associated with swine-to-human transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in recent years. Early detection of IAV-infected pigs at agricultural fairs would allow veterinarians to better protect swine and human health during these swine exhibitions. This study assessed the use of swine body temperature measurement, recorded by infrared and rectal thermometers, as a practical method to detect IAV-infected swine at agricultural fairs. In our first objective, infrared thermometers were used to record the body surface temperature of 1,092 pigs at the time of IAV nasal swab collection at the end of the exhibition period of 55 agricultural fairs. IAV was recovered from 212 (19.4%) pigs, and the difference in mean infrared body temperature measurement of IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs was 0.83°C. In a second objective, snout wipes were collected from 1,948 pigs immediately prior to the unloading of the animals at a single large swine exhibition. Concurrent to the snout wipe collection, owners took the rectal temperatures of his/her pigs. In this case, 47 (2.4%) pigs tested positive for IAV before they entered the swine barn. The mean rectal temperatures differed by only 0.19°C between IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs. The low prevalence of IAV among the pigs upon entry to the fair in the second objective provides evidence that limiting intraspecies spread of IAV during the fairs will likely have significant impacts on the zoonotic transmission. However, in both objectives, the high degree of similarity in the body temperature measurements between the IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs made it impossible to set a diagnostically meaningful cut point to differentiate IAV status of the individual animals. Unfortunately, body temperature measurement cannot be used to accurately screen exhibition swine for IAV.

  8. Change in the body temperature of healthy term infant over the first 72 hours of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萌霞; 孙革; NEUBAUERHenning

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To determine the range of body temperature in a group of healthy Chinese term neonates over the first 72 hours of life and to assess the influence of body weight, gestational age and route of delivery.Method: All 200 consecutive cases of neonates delivered at our hospital from March to August 2001 were included in this retrospective study.Temperatures were measured immediately after delivery, after 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 8 hours and 15 hours and on the 2nd and 3rd day. Axillary temperatures ranging from 36.5℃ to 37℃ were regarded as normal. No cases of maternal fever or systemic infection of the newborns were discovered. All infants were discharged in good general condition. Results:The mean rectal temperature at birth was 37.19℃. The lowest average temperature was reached at 1 hour after delivery (36.54℃) with a significant difference between natural delivery (36.48℃) and section (36.59℃) (P<0.05).Temperature subsequently rose to 36.70℃ at 8 hours and 36.78℃ at 15 hours (P<0.05).Hypothermia was seen in 51.8% and hypothermia in 42.5% of the patients.On the 3rd day after delivery, 96% of all temperatures were in the normal range. A significant relation was found between hypothermia and both low birth weight (P<0.001) and low gestational age (P<0.05).Conclusion: The reference range presently used did not include all physiological temperatures in the first 72 hours of life. Considering other factors,such as birth weight, route of delivery,gestational age and body temperature on the 2nd and 3rd day of life, may help to correctly assess the significance of temperatures beyond the reference range.

  9. Change in the body temperature of healthy term infant over the first 72 hours of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng-xia (李萌霞); SUN Ge (孙革); NEUBAUER Henning

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the range of body temperature in a group of healthy Chinese term neonates over the first 72 hours of life and to assess the influence of body weight, gestational age and route of delivery. Method: All 200 consecutive cases of neonates delivered at our hospital from March to August 2001 were included in this retrospective study. Temperatures were measured immediately after delivery, after 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 8 hours and 15 hours and on the 2nd and 3rd day. Axillary temperatures ranging from 36.5 oC to 37 oC were regarded as normal. No cases of maternal fever or systemic infection of the newborns were discovered. All infants were discharged in good general condition. Results: The mean rectal temperature at birth was 37.19 ℃. The lowest average temperature was reached at 1 hour after delivery (36.54 ℃) with a significant difference between natural delivery (36.48 ℃) and section (36.59 ℃) (P<0.05). Temperature subsequently rose to 36.70 ℃ at 8 hours and 36.78 ℃ at 15 hours (P<0.05). Hypothermia was seen in 51.8% and hypothermia in 42.5% of the patients. On the 3rd day after delivery, 96% of all temperatures were in the normal range. A significant relation was found between hypothermia and both low birth weight (P<0.001) and low gestational age (P<0.05). Conclusion: The reference range presently used did not include all physiological temperatures in the first 72 hours of life. Considering other factors, such as birth weight, route of delivery, gestational age and body temperature on the 2nd and 3rd day of life, may help to correctly assess the significance of temperatures beyond the reference range.

  10. Human thermoregulation and measurement of body temperature in exercise and clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chin Leong; Byrne, Chris; Lee, Jason Kw

    2008-04-01

    This review discusses human thermoregulation during exercise and the measurement of body temperature in clinical and exercise settings. The thermoregulatory mechanisms play important roles in maintaining physiological homeostasis during rest and physical exercise. Physical exertion poses a challenge to thermoregulation by causing a substantial increase in metabolic heat production. However, within a non-thermolytic range, the thermoregulatory mechanisms are capable of adapting to sustain physiological functions under these conditions. The central nervous system may also rely on hyperthermia to protect the body from "overheating." Hyperthermia may serve as a self-limiting signal that triggers central inhibition of exercise performance when a temperature threshold is achieved. Exposure to sub-lethal heat stress may also confer tolerance against higher doses of heat stress by inducing the production of heat shock proteins, which protect cells against the thermolytic effects of heat. Advances in body temperature measurement also contribute to research in thermoregulation. Current evidence supports the use of oral temperature measurement in the clinical setting, although it may not be as convenient as tympanic temperature measurement using the infrared temperature scanner. Rectal and oesophagus temperatures are widely accepted surrogate measurements of core temperature (Tc), but they cause discomfort and are less likely to be accepted by users. Gastrointestinal temperature measurement using the ingestible temperature sensor provides an acceptable level of accuracy as a surrogate measure of Tc without causing discomfort to the user. This form of Tc measurement also allows Tc to be measured continuously in the field and has gained wider acceptance in the last decade.

  11. Behavior and survival of Mytilus congeners following episodes of elevated body temperature in air and seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, W Wesley; Somero, George N

    2013-02-01

    Coping with environmental stress may involve combinations of behavioral and physiological responses. We examined potential interactions between adult mussels' simple behavioral repertoire - opening/closing of the shell valves - and thermal stress physiology in common-gardened individuals of three Mytilus congeners found on the West Coast of North America: two native species (M. californianus and M. trossulus) and one invasive species from the Mediterranean (M. galloprovincialis). We first continuously monitored valve behavior over three consecutive days on which body temperatures were gradually increased, either in air or in seawater. A temperature threshold effect was evident between 25 and 33°C in several behavioral measures. Mussels tended to spend much less time with the valves in a sealed position following exposure to 33°C body temperature, especially when exposed in air. This behavior could not be explained by decreases in adductor muscle glycogen (stores of this metabolic fuel actually increased in some scenarios), impacts of forced valve sealing on long-term survival (none observed in a second experiment), or loss of contractile function in the adductor muscles (individuals exhibited as many or more valve adduction movements following elevated body temperature compared with controls). We hypothesize that this reduced propensity to seal the valves following thermal extremes represents avoidance of hypoxia-reoxygenation cycles and concomitant oxidative stress. We further conjecture that prolonged valve gaping following episodes of elevated body temperature may have important ecological consequences by affecting species interactions. We then examined survival over a 90 day period following exposure to elevated body temperature and/or emersion, observing ongoing mortality throughout this monitoring period. Survival varied significantly among species (M. trossulus had the lowest survival) and among experimental contexts (survival was lowest after experiencing

  12. Mechanically Enhanced Liquid Interfaces at Human Body Temperature Using Thermosensitive Methylated Nanocrystalline Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuble, N; Geue, T; Kuster, S; Adamcik, J; Mezzenga, R; Windhab, E J; Fischer, P

    2016-02-01

    The mechanical performance of materials at oil/water interfaces after consumption is a key factor affecting hydrophobic drug release. In this study, we methylated the surface of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) by mercerization and dimethyl sulfate exposure to produce thermosensitive biopolymers. These methylated NCC (metNCC) were used to investigate interfacial thermogelation at air/water and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)/water interfaces at body temperature. In contrast to bulk fluid dynamics, elastic layers were formed at room temperature, and elasticity increased significantly at body temperature, which was measured by interfacial shear and dilatational rheology in situ. This unique phenomenon depends on solvent quality, temperature, and polymer concentration at interfaces. Thus, by adjusting the degree of hydrophobicity of metNCC, the interfacial elasticity and thermogelation of the interfaces could be varied. In general, these new materials (metNCC) formed more brittle interfacial layers compared to commercial methylcellulose (MC A15). Thermogelation of methylcellulose promotes attractive intermolecular forces, which were reflected in a change in self-assembly of metNCC at the interface. As a consequence, layer thickness and density increased as a function of temperature. These effects were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the displaced interface and confirmed by neutron reflection. The substantial structural and mechanical change of methylcellulose interfaces at body temperature represents a controllable encapsulation parameter allowing optimization of lipid-based drug formulations. PMID:26779953

  13. Mechanically Enhanced Liquid Interfaces at Human Body Temperature Using Thermosensitive Methylated Nanocrystalline Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuble, N; Geue, T; Kuster, S; Adamcik, J; Mezzenga, R; Windhab, E J; Fischer, P

    2016-02-01

    The mechanical performance of materials at oil/water interfaces after consumption is a key factor affecting hydrophobic drug release. In this study, we methylated the surface of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) by mercerization and dimethyl sulfate exposure to produce thermosensitive biopolymers. These methylated NCC (metNCC) were used to investigate interfacial thermogelation at air/water and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)/water interfaces at body temperature. In contrast to bulk fluid dynamics, elastic layers were formed at room temperature, and elasticity increased significantly at body temperature, which was measured by interfacial shear and dilatational rheology in situ. This unique phenomenon depends on solvent quality, temperature, and polymer concentration at interfaces. Thus, by adjusting the degree of hydrophobicity of metNCC, the interfacial elasticity and thermogelation of the interfaces could be varied. In general, these new materials (metNCC) formed more brittle interfacial layers compared to commercial methylcellulose (MC A15). Thermogelation of methylcellulose promotes attractive intermolecular forces, which were reflected in a change in self-assembly of metNCC at the interface. As a consequence, layer thickness and density increased as a function of temperature. These effects were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the displaced interface and confirmed by neutron reflection. The substantial structural and mechanical change of methylcellulose interfaces at body temperature represents a controllable encapsulation parameter allowing optimization of lipid-based drug formulations.

  14. Comparison of estimated core body temperature measured with the BioHarness and rectal temperature under several heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; DiLeo, Travis; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and measuring core body temperature is important to prevent or minimize physiological strain and cognitive dysfunction for workers such as first responders (e.g., firefighters) and military personnel. The purpose of this study is to compare estimated core body temperature (Tco-est), determined by heart rate (HR) data from a wearable chest strap physiology monitor, to standard rectal thermometry (Tre) under different conditions.  Tco-est and Tre measurements were obtained in thermoneutral and heat stress conditions (high temperature and relative humidity) during four different experiments including treadmill exercise, cycling exercise, passive heat stress, and treadmill exercise while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).  Overall, the mean Tco-est did not differ significantly from Tre across the four conditions. During exercise at low-moderate work rates under heat stress conditions, Tco-est was consistently higher than Tre at all-time points. Tco-est underestimated temperature compared to Tre at rest in heat stress conditions and at a low work rate under heat stress while wearing PPE. The mean differences between the two measurements ranged from -0.1 ± 0.4 to 0.3 ± 0.4°C and Tco-est correlated well with HR (r = 0.795 - 0.849) and mean body temperature (r = 0.637 - 0.861).  These results indicate that, the comparison of Tco-est to Tre may result in over- or underestimation which could possibly lead to heat-related illness during monitoring in certain conditions. Modifications to the current algorithm should be considered to address such issues. PMID:26954265

  15. Comparison of estimated core body temperature measured with the BioHarness and rectal temperature under several heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; DiLeo, Travis; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and measuring core body temperature is important to prevent or minimize physiological strain and cognitive dysfunction for workers such as first responders (e.g., firefighters) and military personnel. The purpose of this study is to compare estimated core body temperature (Tco-est), determined by heart rate (HR) data from a wearable chest strap physiology monitor, to standard rectal thermometry (Tre) under different conditions.  Tco-est and Tre measurements were obtained in thermoneutral and heat stress conditions (high temperature and relative humidity) during four different experiments including treadmill exercise, cycling exercise, passive heat stress, and treadmill exercise while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).  Overall, the mean Tco-est did not differ significantly from Tre across the four conditions. During exercise at low-moderate work rates under heat stress conditions, Tco-est was consistently higher than Tre at all-time points. Tco-est underestimated temperature compared to Tre at rest in heat stress conditions and at a low work rate under heat stress while wearing PPE. The mean differences between the two measurements ranged from -0.1 ± 0.4 to 0.3 ± 0.4°C and Tco-est correlated well with HR (r = 0.795 - 0.849) and mean body temperature (r = 0.637 - 0.861).  These results indicate that, the comparison of Tco-est to Tre may result in over- or underestimation which could possibly lead to heat-related illness during monitoring in certain conditions. Modifications to the current algorithm should be considered to address such issues.

  16. Reduction of body temperature governs neutrophil retention in hibernating and nonhibernating animals by margination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Dugbartey, George J.; Boerema, Ate S.; Talaei, Fatemeh; Herwig, Annika; Goris, Maaike; van Buiten, Azuwerus; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Carey, Hannah V.; Henning, Robert H.; Kroese, Frans G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Low body temperature leads to decrease of circulating neutrophils due to margination in hibernating and nonhibernating animals. Hibernation consists of periods of low metabolism, called torpor, interspersed by euthermic arousal periods. During deep and daily (shallow) torpor, the number of circulati

  17. Development of an Anti-Theft Device using Motion Detection and Body Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhowel Dellosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available –The researcher aimed to design, assemble and determine the performance of the anti-theft device using motion detection and body temperature. The study utilized developmental design to observe the functionality of the device. Study showed that the anti-theft device can detect motion from a moving object for those with body temperature like human being, animals. A signal from the sensor circuits will trigger the receiver circuit to produce an audible sound that served as alarm. It was also found out that the output of the study is accurate in terms of detecting moving objects with body temperature during day and night times. The researchers formulated an evaluation instrument to determine its performance. Results showed that the device had a good performance and acceptable in terms of functionality. It is strongly recommended that further studies be conducted to enrich the anti-theft device using motion detection and body temperature in a controlled environment like museum and banks to determine the effectiveness of the integration of the anti-theft device.

  18. Selective SWS suppression does not affect the time course of core body temperature in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, Domien G.M.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    1992-01-01

    In eight healthy middle-aged men, sleep and core body temperature were recorded under baseline conditions, during all-night SWS suppression by acoustic stimulation, and during undisturbed recovery sleep. SWS suppression resulted in a marked reduction of sleep stages 3 and 4 but did not affect the ti

  19. A body temperature model for lizards as estimated from the thermal environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fei, T.; Skidmore, A.K.; Venus, V.; Wang, T.; Schlerf, M.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Overjijk, van S.; Bian, B.M.; Liu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    A physically based model was built to predict the transient body temperature of lizards in a thermally heterogeneous environment. Six heat transfer terms were taken into account in this model: solar radiation, convective heat flow, longwave radiation, conductive heat flow, metabolic heat gain and re

  20. Intracerebral implantation of carbachol in the rat: Its effect on water intake and body temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, S.G.Th.

    1972-01-01

    Intracerebral carbachol produces a fall in body temperature as well as drinking in the rat when implanted in various subcortical structures, related to the emotion-motivation limbic circuit. These effects are due to a central cholinergic stimulation since they can be prevented by the systemic admini

  1. Orexin-a regulates body temperature in coordination with control of arousal state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Orexins, hypothalamic neuropeptieds, are involved in modulation of food intake and arousal state. To examine further physiological roles of orexin in brain function, the effects of centrally administered orexin- A on body temperature was investigated in rats. Assessed by a telemetry-sensor system implanted into the abdominal cavity, infusion of orexin-A into the third cerebroventricle increased body temperature in a dose-responsive manner. Cumulative ambulatory activity was concomitantly increased during 6 h but not 12 h after administration of orexin-A. Expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mRNA in brown adipose tissue, as a marker for peripheal thermogenesis which affects body temperature, failed to increase after orexin-A administration. Expression of UCP3 mRNA in skeletal muscle but not UCP 2 in white adipose tissue was upregulated by infusion of orexin-A. The resulting information indicates that orexin neuron regulates body temperature in coordination with control of arousal system independently of peripheral thermogenesis through the BAT UCP1.

  2. Endogenous and exogenous components in the circadian variation of core body temperature in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddinga, AE; Beersma, DGM; VandenHoofdakker, RH

    1997-01-01

    Core body temperature is predominantly modulated by endogenous and exogenous components. In the present study we tested whether these two components can be reliably assessed in a protocol which lasts for only 120 h. In this so-called forced desynchrony protocol, 12 healthy male subjects (age 23.7 +/

  3. Differences in oral temperature and body shape in two populations with different propensities for obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, B; Weyer, C; Bogardus, C;

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature is a function of heat production and heat dissipation. Substantial interindividual variability has been reported in healthy humans. We hypothesized that Pima Indians, a population with a high prevalence of abdominal obesity, may have a lower surface area relative to volume, that is...

  4. Simultaneous collection of body temperature and activity data in burrowing mammals : a new technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, Ryan A.; Hut, Roelof A.; Barnes, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    Integrating physiological and behavioral observations into ecological field studies of animals can provide novel insights into relationships among animal behavior, physiology, and ecology. We describe and evaluate a new technique for simultaneously collecting body temperature (T-b) and burrow use da

  5. A Survey on Temperature-Aware Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangman Moh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the elderly population in the world and the rising cost of healthcare impose big issues for healthcare and medical monitoring. A Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN is comprised of small sensor nodes attached inside, on or around a human body, the main purpose of which is to monitor the functions and surroundings of the human body. However, the heat generated by the node’s circuitry and antenna could cause damage to the human tissue. Therefore, in designing a routing protocol for WBSNs, it is important to reduce the heat by incorporating temperature into the routing metric. The main contribution of this paper is to survey existing temperature-aware routing protocols that have been proposed for WBSNs. In this paper, we present a brief overview of WBSNs, review the existing routing protocols comparatively and discuss challenging open issues in the design of routing protocols.

  6. Grain-scale thermoelastic stresses and spatiotemporal temperature gradients on airless bodies, implications for rock breakdown

    CERN Document Server

    Molaro, Jamie L; Langer, Steve A

    2015-01-01

    Thermomechanical processes such as fatigue and shock have been suggested to cause and contribute to rock breakdown on Earth, and on other planetary bodies, particularly airless bodies in the inner solar system. In this study, we modeled grain-scale stresses induced by diurnal temperature variations on simple microstructures made of pyroxene and plagioclase on various solar system bodies. We found that a heterogeneous microstructure on the Moon experiences peak tensile stresses on the order of 100 MPa. The stresses induced are controlled by the coefficient of thermal expansion and Young's modulus of the mineral constituents, and the average stress within the microstructure is determined by relative volume of each mineral. Amplification of stresses occurs at surface-parallel boundaries between adjacent mineral grains and at the tips of pore spaces. We also found that microscopic spatial and temporal surface temperature gradients do not correlate with high stresses, making them inappropriate proxies for investig...

  7. Body core temperature of rats subjected to daily exercise limited to a fixed time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shido, O.; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Sakurada, Sotaro; Kaneko, Yoshiko; Nagasaka, Tetsuo

    Several timed daily environmental cues alter the pattern of nycthemeral variations in body core temperature in rodents. The present study investigated the effect of timed exercise on variations of daily body core temperature. Male rats were housed in cages with a running wheel at an ambient temperature of 24° C with a 12:12 h light/dark cycle. Timed daily exercise rats (TEX) were allowed access to the wheel for 6 h in the last half of the dark phase, freely exercising rats (FEX) could run at any time, and sedentary rats (NEX) were not allowed to run. After a 3-week exercise period, all animals were denied access to the wheel. The intraabdominal temperatures (Tab) and spontaneous activities of rats were measured for 6 days after the exercise period. The Tab values of the TEX rats were significantly higher than those of the other two groups only in the last half of the dark phase, while Tab in the FEX and NEX rats showed no significant difference. The specific Tab changes in the TEX rats lasted for 2 days after the exercise period. Spontaneous activity levels were higher in the TEX rats than the FEX and NEX rats in the last half of the dark phase for 1 day after the exercise period. The results suggest that daily exercise limited to a fixed time per day modifies nycthemeral variations of body core temperature in rats so that the temperature increases during the period when the animals had previously exercised. Such a rise in body core temperature is partly attributed to an increase in the spontaneous activity level.

  8. Mechanisms of temperature-dependent swimming: the importance of physics, physiology and body size in determining protist swimming speed

    OpenAIRE

    Beveridge, Oliver S; Petchey, Owen L; Humphries, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Body temperatures and thus physiological rates of poikilothermic organisms are determined by environmental temperature. The power an organism has available for swimming is largely dependent on physiological rates and thus body temperature. However, retarding forces such as drag are contingent on the temperature-dependent physical properties of water and on an organism’s size. Consequently, the swimming ability of poikilotherms is highly temperature dependent. The importance of the te...

  9. Infrared thermoimages display of body surface temperature reaction in experimental cholecystitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Zhang; Yuan-Gen Zhu; Shu-You Wang; Hui-Min Ma; Yan-Yan Ye; Wei-Xing Fu; Wei-Guo Hu

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To display the thermoirnages of the body surface inexperimental cholecystitis, to observe the body surfacetemperature reaction in visceral disorders, and to study if the theory of body surface-viscera correlation is true and the mechanism of temperature changes along the meridians. METHODS: By injecting bacteria ssuspension into the stricturebile duct and gallbladder, 21 rabbits were prepared as acutepyogenic cholangiocholecystitis models, with another 8rabbits prepared by the same process except withoutinjection of bacteria suspension as control. The body surfaceinfrared thermoimages were continuously observed on thehair shaven rabbit skin with AGA-782 thermovision 24 hbefore, 1-11 d after and (2,3 wk) 4 wk after the operation witha total of over 10 records of thermoimages.RESULTS: Twelve cases out of 21 rabbits with cholecystitisrevealed bi-lsteral longitudinal high temperature lines in itstrunk; with negative findings in the control group. The high-temperature line appeared on d l-d2, first in the right trunk,after the preparation of the model, about 7 d after the modelpreparation, the lines appeared at the left side too,persisting for 4 wk. The hyper-temperature line revealed 1.1-2.7 ℃ higher than before the model preparation, 0.7-2.5 ℃higher than the surrounding skin. The length of the hightemperature line might reach a half length of the body trunk,or as long as the whole body itself.CONCLUSION: The appearance of the longitudinal hightemperature lines st the lateral aspects of the trunk in theexperimental group is directly bound up with theexperimental animals pyogenic cholecystitis, with itsrunning course quite similar to that of the GallbladderChannel of Foot Shaoyang, but different to the zones ofhyperalgesia and site of referred pain in cholecystitis.

  10. The Analysis of Fiber Sensor of Temperature Field Disturbance by Human Body Part Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Dvorak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of this sensor function is based on polarization maintaining fiber (PMF sensitivity during excitation of both two polarization modes. This excitation is caused by temperature change, when absorbing thermal radiation. This mechanism is used for detection of temperature field disturbance as an indicator. In the case described below, attention was devoted to temperature field disturbance on a part of the human body. Thus this sensor system could be used for protection of some entity. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of PMF to radiating heat, the space configuration and time response.

  11. Influence of body temperature on the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, J; Teller, C; Andersen, S L; Jensen, F B; Hyldig, T; Nielsen, B

    1999-03-01

    We investigated whether fatigue during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments occurred at the same critical level of hyperthermia when the initial value and the rate of increase in body temperature are altered. To examine the effect of initial body temperature [esophageal temperature (Tes) = 35.9 +/- 0.2, 37.4 +/- 0. 1, or 38.2 +/- 0.1 (SE) degrees C induced by 30 min of water immersion], seven cyclists (maximal O2 uptake = 5.1 +/- 0.1 l/min) performed three randomly assigned bouts of cycle ergometer exercise (60% maximal O2 uptake) in the heat (40 degrees C) until volitional exhaustion. To determine the influence of rate of heat storage (0.10 vs. 0.05 degrees C/min induced by a water-perfused jacket), four cyclists performed two additional exercise bouts, starting with Tes of 37.0 degrees C. Despite different initial temperatures, all subjects fatigued at an identical level of hyperthermia (Tes = 40. 1-40.2 degrees C, muscle temperature = 40.7-40.9 degrees C, skin temperature = 37.0-37.2 degrees C) and cardiovascular strain (heart rate = 196-198 beats/min, cardiac output = 19.9-20.8 l/min). Time to exhaustion was inversely related to the initial body temperature: 63 +/- 3, 46 +/- 3, and 28 +/- 2 min with initial Tes of approximately 36, 37, and 38 degrees C, respectively (all P heat storage, all subjects reached exhaustion at similar Tes and muscle temperature (40.1-40.3 and 40. 7-40.9 degrees C, respectively), but with significantly different skin temperature (38.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 35.6 +/- 0.2 degrees C during high vs. low rate of heat storage, respectively, P heat storage (31 +/- 4 vs. 56 +/- 11 min, respectively, P stroke volume paralleled the rise in core temperature (36-40 degrees C), with skin blood flow plateauing at Tes of approximately 38 degrees C. These results demonstrate that high internal body temperature per se causes fatigue in trained subjects during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments. Furthermore, time to exhaustion in

  12. Influence of ambient temperature on whole body and segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, G.; Bausch, R.; Ismail, A. H.; Cordes, A.; Pikkemaat, R.; Leonhardt, S.

    2010-04-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurements are easy to implement and could be used for continuous monitoring. However, several factors (e.g. environment temperature) influence the measurements limiting the accuracy of the technology. Changes in skin temperature produced by changes in ambient temperature are related with changes in skin blood flow and skin impedance. It is assumed that skin impedance change is responsible for the error observed in whole body and segmental measurements. Measurements including body parts more distant from the torso seem to be more affected. In the present article skin and segment impedance have been performed on healthy subjects under extreme changes in environment temperature (13-39 °C). A commercial BIS device with a range between 5 kHz and 1 MHz has been used for the measurements. The results indicate that not only skin impedance, but also impedance of deeper tissue (e.g. muscle) may be responsible for the influence of environment temperature on BIS measurements. Segmental (knee-to-knee) BIS measurements show a relative change of only 2 %, while forearm and whole body impedance changed 14 % and 8 % respectively.

  13. Do fentanyl and morphine influence body temperature after severe burn injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Steven Alexander; Beers, Ryan J; Lentz, Christopher W

    2011-01-01

    Fentanyl lacks the antiinflammatory properties of morphine. Morphine attenuates the inflammatory response through differential stimulation of μ-receptor subtypes. Patients who receive morphine during coronary artery bypass graft have been shown to experience less postoperative fever than those who receive fentanyl. Patients who receive continuous fentanyl infusions in increased room temperatures after thermal injury may be at increased risk to experience higher body temperature than those who receive morphine. The records of 28 patients with >20%TBSA burn in 30 intensive care unit rooms (13 received fentanyl and 15 received morphine or hydromorphone) and 12 trauma patients who received fentanyl in 22°C intensive care unit rooms were reviewed. Mean maximum core temperature and percentage of temperature recordings > 39°C in the first 48 hours of admission were compared between burn patients who received fentanyl, those who did not, and with trauma patients. Burn patients exposed to fentanyl experienced significantly higher temperatures (40.1 ± 0.9°C) compared with those given morphine (38.7 ± 0.8°C) and compared with trauma patients (37.5 ± 2.4°C), P Burn patients on fentanyl had temperatures > 39°C for a higher percentage of time (33 ± 27%) than those without fentanyl (7.2 ± 13%) and trauma patients (1 ± 2.8%), P Burn patients who receive fentanyl in 30°C rooms experience higher body temperatures and are febrile for a higher percentage of time than those receiving morphine only. Morphine has well-established antiinflammatory properties and likely attenuates the postburn inflammatory response more than fentanyl, resulting in lower body temperatures. This phenomenon needs to be further investigated in additional studies.

  14. Deferoxamine prevents cerebral glutathione and vitamin E depletions in asphyxiated neonatal rats: role of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletkiewicz, Hanna; Nowakowska, Anna; Siejka, Agnieszka; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Woźniak, Alina; Caputa, Michał; Rogalska, Justyna

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury involves increased oxidative stress. In asphyxiated newborns iron deposited in the brain catalyses formation of reactive oxygen species. Glutathione (GSH) and vitamin E are key factors protecting cells against such agents. Our previous investigation has demonstrated that newborn rats, showing physiological low body temperature as well as their hyperthermic counterparts injected with deferoxamine (DF) are protected against iron-mediated, delayed neurotoxicity of perinatal asphyxia. Therefore, we decided to study the effects of body temperature and DF on the antioxidant status of the brain in rats exposed neonatally to critical anoxia. Two-day-old newborn rats were exposed to anoxia in 100% nitrogen atmosphere for 10 min. Rectal temperature was kept at 33 °C (physiological to rat neonates), or elevated to the level typical of healthy adult rats (37 °C), or of febrile adult rats (39 °C). Half of the rats exposed to anoxia under extremely hyperthermic conditions (39 °C) were injected with DF. Cerebral concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA, lipid peroxidation marker) and the levels of GSH and vitamin E were determined post-mortem, (1) immediately after anoxia, (2) 3 days, (3) 7 days, and (4) 2 weeks after anoxia. There were no post-anoxic changes in MDA, GSH and vitamin E concentrations in newborn rats kept at body temperature of 33 °C. In contrast, perinatal anoxia at elevated body temperatures intensified oxidative stress and depleted the antioxidant pool in a temperature-dependent manner. Both the depletion of antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were prevented by post-anoxic DF injection. The data support the idea that hyperthermia may extend perinatal anoxia-induced brain lesions.

  15. [Body thermal status under low-temperature conditions in brewing production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva-Todorova, L; Dimitrova-Toneva, I

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to trace the thermal state of workers exposed to low temperatures in brewery production, establishing the heat loss and the stress of thermoregulation. The investigations are performed in the departments for fermentation, deposit, cask washing and filling of 3 brewery plants. In order to characterize the microclimate methods of thermometry, psychometry and catathermometry are used. The heat state is controlled by methods of subjective heat perception, skin temperature, average skin temperature, temperature gradients, oral, rectal and average body temperature and the thermal content. The results of the physiological examinations point out to significant loss, which affects not only the periphery but also the deep tissues. There is an expressed risk of supercooling of the organism. The data of the heat deficit impose a correction of the working clothes and limitation of the exposure.

  16. Level of activation, body temperature, and interpersonal conflict in family relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, C N

    1979-01-01

    The 24-hour variation in physiological and psychological functioning within the individual and interpersonal differences were investigated in relation to the nature of social interaction between individuals. Level of activation, body temperature, and interpersonal conflict were studied in a sample of 16 married couples for a period of six weekdays of routine activity. Homogeneity was a major factor in sample selection. Body temperature was measured every hour during the waking time by electronic thermometer, and level of activation was measured four times a day on alternate forms of a self-report adjective checklist. Interpersonal conflict, defined as perceived fulfillment of emotional and interaction needs, was measured in the morning and late day. The interpersonal Conflict Scale with established validity was constructed for the study and had two alternate forms of equal reliability. An index of desynchrony between partners for both temperature and activation was calculated for each day of data collection by the following method: The deviation score from the overall six-day mean was determined for each measurement time for each spouse and for each variable. Absolute values of the differences between deviation scores were added to obtain an index of desynchrony in that variable for the day. A daily mean of interpersonal conflict scores for both partners was also calculated. The hypotheses that a desynchrony between partners in body temperature rhythm and in level of activation rhythm would be positively related to conflict were tested by the Pearson product moment correlation. Obtained coefficient; were not significant at the .05 level. PMID:254897

  17. No relation between body temperature and arterial recanalization at three days in patients with acute ischaemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Geurts (Marjolein); H.B. Van Der Worp (H. Bart); A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); G.J. Biessels (Geert Jan); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta); C.B. Majoie (Charles); Y.B.W.E.M. Roos; L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); K. Keizer (Koos); A. van der Lugt (Aad); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); K.E. Droogh-De Greve; H.P. Bienfait; M.A. van Walderveen (M.); M.J.H. Wermer (Marieke); G.J. Lycklama à Nijeholt (Geert); J. Boiten (Jelis); A. Duyndam (Anita); V.I.H. Kwa; F.J. Meijer (F.); E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud); A.M. Kesselring (Anouk); J. Hofmeijer; J.A. Vos (Jan Albert); W.J. Schonewille (W.); W.J. van Rooij (W.); P.L.M. de Kort (Paul); C.C. Pleiter (C.); S.L.M. Bakker (Stef); J. Bot (Joseph); M.C. Visser (Marieke); I.C. van der Schaaf (Irene); J.W. Dankbaar (Jan); W.P. Mali (Willem); T. van Seeters (Tom); A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); J.M. Niesten (Joris); G.J. Biessels; L.J. Kappelle; J.S.K. Luitse; Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recanalization of an occluded intracranial artery is influenced by temperature-dependent enzymes, including alteplase. We assessed the relation between body temperature on admission and recanalization. Methods: We included 278 patients with acute ischaemic stroke within nine

  18. Ambient temperature influences core body temperature response in rat lines bred for differences in sensitivity to 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Andrea C; Seiden, Lewis S

    2003-04-01

    Agonist-induced decrease in core body temperature has commonly been used as a measure of serotonin1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor sensitivity in mood disorder. The thermoregulatory basis for 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist-induced temperature responses in humans and rats remains unclear. Therefore, the influence of ambient temperature on 5-HT(1A) receptor-mediated decreases in core body temperature were measured in rat lines bred for high (HDS) or low (LDS) sensitivity to the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT). HDS and LDS rats were injected with either saline, 0.25 or 0.50 mg/kg 8-OH-DPAT at ambient temperatures of 10.5, 24, 30, or 37.5 degrees C, and core temperature was measured by radiotelemetry. For both lines, the thermic response to acute 8-OH-DPAT was greatest at 10.5 degrees C and decreased in magnitude as ambient temperature increased to 30 degrees C, consistent with hypothermia. HDS rats displayed a greater hypothermic response than LDS rats at 10.5, 24, and 30 degrees C. At 37.5 degrees C, LDS rats showed a lethal elevation of temperature in response to 0.50 mg/kg 8-OH-DPAT. All thermic responses to 8-OH-DPAT, including the lethality, were effectively blocked by pretreatment with the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY100635, suggesting line differences in thermoregulatory circuits that are influenced by 5-HT(1A) receptor activation. Following repeated injection of 8-OH-DPAT, the magnitude of the hypothermic response decreased in both lines at 10.5 degrees C, but increased in HDS rats treated with 0.50 mg/kg 8-OH-DPAT at 30 and 37.5 degrees C. This pattern was reversed in HDS rats following 8-OH-DPAT challenge at 24 degrees C, suggesting that a compensatory thermoregulatory response accounts for changes in the hypothermic response to chronic 8-OH-DPAT. PMID:12649391

  19. Intraspecific scaling in frog calls: the interplay of temperature, body size and metabolic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Lucia; Arim, Matías; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Understanding physiological and environmental determinants of strategies of reproductive allocation is a pivotal aim in biology. Because of their high metabolic cost, properties of sexual acoustic signals may correlate with body size, temperature, and an individual's energetic state. A quantitative theory of acoustic communication, based on the metabolic scaling with temperature and mass, was recently proposed, adding to the well-reported empirical patterns. It provides quantitative predictions for frequencies, call rate, and durations. Here, we analysed the mass, temperature, and body condition scaling of spectral and temporal attributes of the advertisement call of the treefrog Hypsiboas pulchellus. Mass dependence of call frequency followed metabolic expectations (f~M (-0.25), where f is frequency and M is mass) although non-metabolic allometry could also account for the observed pattern. Temporal variables scaled inversely with mass contradicting metabolic expectations (d~M (0.25), where d is duration), supporting instead empirical patterns reported to date. Temperature was positively associated with call rate and negatively with temporal variables, which is congruent with metabolic predictions. We found no significant association between temperature and frequencies, adding to the bulk of empirical evidence. Finally, a result of particular relevance was that body condition consistently determined call characteristics, in interaction with temperature or mass. Our intraspecific study highlights that even if proximate determinants of call variability are rather well understood, the mechanisms through which they operate are proving to be more complex than previously thought. The determinants of call characteristics emerge as a key topic of research in behavioural and physiological biology, with several clear points under debate which need to be analysed on theoretical and empirical grounds. PMID:26552381

  20. The Effects of Increased Body Temperature on Motor Control during Golf Putting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, John F.; Grealy, Madeleine A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of increased core temperature on the performance outcome and movement kinematics of elite golfers during a golf putting task. The study aimed to examine individual differences in the extent to which increased temperature influenced the rate of putting success, whether increased temperature speeded up the timing of the putting downswing and whether elite golfers changed their movement kinematics during times of thermal stress. Six participants performed 20 putts to each of four putt distances (1, 2, 3, and 4 m) under normal temperature conditions and when core body temperature was increased. There was no significant difference in the number of successful putts between the two temperature conditions, but there was an increase in putterhead velocity at ball impact on successful putts to distances of 1 and 4 m when temperature was elevated. This reflected an increase in swing amplitude rather than a reduction in swing duration as hypothesized. There were individual differences in the motor control response to thermal stress as three of the golfers changed the kinematic parameters used to scale their putting movements to achieve putts of different distances at elevated temperatures. Theoretical implications for these findings and the practical implications for elite golfers and future research are discussed.

  1. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, J.P.; Harlow, H.J.; Durner, George M.; Anderson-Sprecher, R.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Regehr, Eric V.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ben-David, M.

    2015-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of “ice” bears in summer is unknown, “shore” bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation.

  2. Animal physiology. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, J P; Harlow, H J; Durner, G M; Anderson-Sprecher, R; Albeke, S E; Regehr, E V; Amstrup, S C; Ben-David, M

    2015-07-17

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of "ice" bears in summer is unknown, "shore" bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation. PMID:26185248

  3. Low body temperature affects associative processes in long-trace conditioned flavor aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misanin, J R; Wilson, H A; Schwarz, P R; Tuschak, J B; Hinderliter, C F

    1998-12-01

    A series of experiments examined the effect of low body temperature on the associative process in long-trace conditioned flavor aversion. Experiment 1 demonstrated that maintaining a low body temperature between conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) administration facilitates the associative process and allows a flavor aversion to be conditioned in young rats over an interval that would normally not support conditioning. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated that this was due neither to lingering systemic saccharin serving as a CS nor to a cold induced enhancement of US intensity. Experiment 4 demonstrated that inducing hypothermia at various times during a 3-h CS-US interval results in an apparent delay of reinforcement gradient. We propose that a cold induced decrease in metabolic rate slows the internal clock that governs the perception of time and that the CS-US association depends upon perceived contiguity rather than upon an external clock-referenced contiguity.

  4. Finite-temperature second-order many-body perturbation theory revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Santra, Robin

    2016-01-01

    We present an algebraic, nondiagrammatic derivation of finite-temperature second-order many-body perturbation theory [FT-MBPT(2)], using techniques and concepts accessible to theoretical chemical physicists. We give explicit expressions not just for the grand potential but particularly for the mean energy of an interacting many-electron system. The framework presented is suitable for computing the energy of a finite or infinite system in contact with a heat and particle bath at finite temperature and chemical potential. FT-MBPT(2) may be applied if the system, at zero temperature, may be described using standard (i.e., zero-temperature) second-order many-body perturbation theory [ZT-MBPT(2)] for the energy. We point out that in such a situation, FT-MBPT(2) reproduces, in the zero-temperature limit, the energy computed within ZT-MBPT(2). In other words, the difficulty that has been referred to as the Kohn--Luttinger conundrum, does not occur. We comment, in this context, on a "renormalization" scheme recently ...

  5. Contribution of a Membrane Estrogen Receptor to the Estrogenic Regulation of Body Temperature and Energy Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Roepke, Troy A.; Bosch, Martha A.; Rick, Elizabeth A.; Lee, Benjamin; Wagner, Edward J.; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Scanlan, Thomas S.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Martin J Kelly

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamus is a key region of the central nervous system involved in the control of homeostasis, including energy and core body temperature (Tc). 17β-Estradiol (E2) regulates Tc, in part, via actions in the basal hypothalamus and preoptic area. E2 primarily controls hypothalamic functions via the nuclear steroid receptors, estrogen receptor α/β. However, we have previously described an E2-responsive, Gq-coupled membrane receptor that reduces the postsynaptic inhibitory γ-aminobutyric ac...

  6. Biphasic Effect of Melanocortin Agonists on Metabolic Rate and Body Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Lute, Beth; Jou, William; Lateef, Dalya M.; Goldgof, Margalit; Xiao, Cuiying; Piñol, Ramón A.; Kravitz, Alexxai V.; Miller, Nicole R.; Huang, Yuning George; Girardet, Clemence; Butler, Andrew A.; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L.

    2014-01-01

    The melanocortin system regulates metabolic homeostasis and inflammation. Melanocortin agonists have contradictorily been reported to both increase and decrease metabolic rate and body temperature. We find two distinct physiologic responses occurring at similar doses. Intraperitoneal administration of the nonselective melanocortin agonist MTII causes a melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r) mediated hypermetabolism/hyperthermia. This is preceded by a profound, transient hypometabolism/hypothermia tha...

  7. Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Manzano-Szalai

    Full Text Available In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i milk allergy, ii peanut allergy and iii egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour.

  8. Conservatism of lizard thermal tolerances and body temperatures across evolutionary history and geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Joseph W; Buckley, Lauren B

    2013-04-23

    Species may exhibit similar thermal tolerances via either common ancestry or environmental filtering and local adaptation, if the species inhabit similar environments. We ask whether upper and lower thermal limits (critical thermal maxima and minima) and body temperatures are more strongly conserved across evolutionary history or geography for lizard populations distributed globally. We find that critical thermal maxima are highly conserved with location accounting for a higher proportion of the variation than phylogeny. Notably, thermal tolerance breadth is conserved across the phylogeny despite critical thermal minima showing little niche conservatism. Body temperatures observed during activity in the field show the greatest degree of conservatism, with phylogeny accounting for most of the variation. This suggests that propensities for thermoregulatory behaviour, which can buffer body temperatures from environmental variation, are similar within lineages. Phylogeny and geography constrain thermal tolerances similarly within continents, but variably within clades. Conservatism of thermal tolerances across lineages suggests that the potential for local adaptation to alleviate the impacts of climate change on lizards may be limited.

  9. Effect of body size and temperature on respiration of Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, D.; Vigliano, P.H.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Body mass and temperature are primary determinants of metabolic rate in ectothermic animals. Oxygen consumption of post-larval Galaxias maculatus was measured in respirometry trials under different temperatures (5–21°C) and varying body masses (0.1–>1.5 g) spanning a relevant range of thermal conditions and sizes. Specific respiration rates (R in g O2 g−1 d−1) declined as a power function of body mass and increased exponentially with temperature and was expressed as: R = 0.0007 * W −0.31 * e 0.13 * T. The ability of this model to predict specific respiration rate was evaluated by comparing observed values with those predicted by the model. Our findings suggest that the respiration rate of G. maculatus is the result of multiple interactive processes (intrinsic and extrinsic factors) that modulate each other in ‘meta-mechanistic’ ways; this would help to explain the species’ ability to undergo the complex ontogenetic habitat shifts observed in the lakes of the Andean Patagonic range.

  10. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing--Multiple Analysis of Skin Surface Temperature Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 吴海燕; 张渭源

    2003-01-01

    A new researching method on clothing comfort perception is developed.By it the skin surface temperature changes and subjective psychological perception of human body sections stimulated by the same cold stimulation are studied.With the multiple comparison analysis method the changing laws of skin temperature of main human body sections is obtained.

  11. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing-Smirnov Test of Skin Surface Temperatures' Dynamic Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WU Hai-yan; WANG Yun-yi

    2004-01-01

    Skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing is the theoretic foundation of thermal insulation clothing design.By a new method of researching on clothing comfort perception,the skin temperature live changing procedure of human body sections affected by the same cold stimulation is inspected.Furthermore with the Smirnov test the skin temperatures dynamic changing patterns of main human body sections are obtained.

  12. The acute and subchronic effect of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on body temperature in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The consumption of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy is known to cause severe hyperthermia in humans. This is of extreme importance since ecstasy is often consumed at 'rave' parties, where dancing takes place in a warm environment, which may exacerbate the effect of MDMA on thermoregulation. The present study was performed in order to evaluate the effects of single and repeated administration of MDMA on body temperature in Wistar rats. Material and methods. The study included 72 male Wistar rats, housed in groups of four in cages at a room temperature of 222oC. They were divided in two groups. The rats in the first group were treated with oral solution of MDMA (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg and their temperature was measured hourly until 8th hour. The rats in the second group were treated with oral solution of MDMA (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg every day during 15 days and their temperature was measured daily at 0th, 1st, 3rd, 5th and 8th hour. Temperature was measured by inserting a thermocouple probe 2,5 cm into the rectum. Results. Both groups showed dose dependent increase of body temperature, determined by rectal temperature measurements. The magnitude of hyperthemic response caused by subchronic administration of MDMA was markedly diminished during the experiment. Conclusion. The hyperthermic effect of MDMA was dose-dependent. The magnitude of the hyperthermic response was markedly diminished in subchronic administration.

  13. Forced-Air Warming Provides Better Control of Body Temperature in Porcine Surgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T. Dent

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maintaining normothermia during porcine surgery is critical in ensuring subject welfare and recovery, reducing the risk of immune system compromise and surgical-site infection that can result from hypothermia. In humans, various methods of patient heating have been demonstrated to be useful, but less evaluation has been performed in techniques to prevent hypothermia perioperatively in pigs. Methods: We compared body temperature regulation during surgery before and after modification of the ambient temperature of the operating laboratories. Three different methods of heating were then compared; a standard circulating water mattress, a resistive fabric blanket, and a forced hot air system. The primary measure was percentage of temperature readings outside a specification range of 36.7–40.0 °C. Results: Tighter control of the ambient temperature while using a circulating water mattress reduced the occurrence of out-of-specification body temperature readings from 20.8% to 5.0%, with most of these the result of hypothermia. Use of a resistive fabric blanket further reduced out-of-specification readings to 1.5%, with a slight increase in the occurrence of hyperthermia. Use of a forced air system reduced out-of-specification readings to less 0.1%. Conclusions: Maintenance of normothermia perioperatively in pig can be improved by tightly controlling ambient temperatures. Use of a resistive blanket or a forced air system can lead to better control than a circulating water mattress, with the forced air system providing a faster response to temperature variations and less chance of hyperthermia.

  14. Bose–Einstein Condensates with Two- and Three-Body Interactions in an Anharmonic Trap at Finite Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transition temperature, the depletion of the condensate atoms and the collective excitations of a Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC) with two- and three-body interactions in an anharmonic trap at finite temperature are studied in detail. By using the Popov version of the Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov (HFB) approximation, an extended self-consistent model describing BEC with both two- and three-body interactions in a distorted harmonic potential at finite temperature is obtained and solved numerically. The results show that the transition temperature, the condensed atom number and the collective excitations are modified dramatically by the atomic three-body interactions and the distortion of the harmonic trap. (general)

  15. COMMUNICATION: The effects of elevated body temperature on the complexity of the diaphragm EMG signals during maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkurt, David; Akay, Yasemin M.; Akay, Metin

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we examine the effect of elevated body temperature on the complexity of the diaphragm electromyography (EMGdia), the output of the respiratory neural network--using the approximate entropy method. The diaphragm EMG, EEG, EOG as well as other physiological signals (tracheal pressure, blood pressure and respiratory volume) in chronically instrumented rats were recorded at two postnatal ages: 25-35 days age (juvenile, n = 5) and 36-44 days age (early adult, n = 6) groups during control (36-37 °C), mild elevated body temperature (38 °C) and severe elevated body temperature (39-40 °C). Three to five trials of the recordings were performed at normal body temperature before raising the animal's core temperature by 1-4 °C with an electric heating pad. At the elevated temperature, another 3-5 trials were performed. Finally, the animal was cooled to the original temperature, and trials were again repeated. Complexity values of the diaphragm EMG signal were estimated and evaluated using the approximate entropy method (ApEn) over the ten consecutive breaths. Our results suggested that the mean approximate entropy values for the juvenile age group were 1.01 ± 0.01 (standard error) during control, 0.91 ± 0.02 during mild elevated body temperature and 0.81 ± 0.02 during severe elevated body temperature. For the early adult age group, these values were 0.94 ± 0.01 during control, 0.93 ± 0.01 during mild elevated body temperature and 0.92 ± 0.01 during severe elevated body temperature. Our results show that the complexity values and the durations of the diaphragm EMG (EMGdia) were significantly decreased when the elevated body temperature was shifted from control or mild to severe body temperature (p < 0.05) for the juvenile age group. However, for the early adult age group, an increase in body temperature slightly reduced the complexity measures and the duration of the EMGdia. But, these changes were not statistically significant. These results furthermore

  16. An Investigation of Summertime Inland Water Body Temperatures in California and Nevada (USA): Recent Trends and Future Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Nathan; Hook, Simon; Piccolroaz, Sebastiano; Toffolon, Marco; Radocinski, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Inland water body temperature has been identified as an ideal indicator of potential climate change. Understanding inland water body temperature trends is important for forecasting impacts to limnological, biological, and hydrological resources. Many inland water bodies are situated in remote locations with incomplete data records of in-situ monitoring or lack in-situ observations altogether. Thus, the utilization of satellite data is essential for understanding the behavior of global inland water body temperatures. Part of this research provides an analysis of summertime (July-September) temperature trends in the largest California/Nevada (USA) inland water bodies between 1991 and 2015. We examine satellite temperature retrievals from ATSR (ATSR-1, ATSR-2, AATSR), MODIS (Terra and Aqua), and VIIRS sensors. Our findings indicate that inland water body temperatures in the western United States were rapidly warming between 1991 and 2009, but since then trends have been decreasing. This research also includes implementation of a model called air2water to predict future inland water body surface temperature through the sole input of air temperature. Using projections from CMIP5-CCSM4 output, our model indicates that Lake Tahoe (USA) is expected to experience an increase of roughly 3 °C by 2100.

  17. The effect of lower body cooling on the changes in three core temperature indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rectal (Tre), ear canal (Tear) and esophageal (Tes) temperatures have been used in the literature as core temperature indices in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate if localized lower body cooling would have a different effect on each of these measurements. We hypothesized that prolonged lower body surface cooling will result in a localized cooling effect for the rectal temperature not reflected in the other core measurement sites. Twelve participants (mean ± SD; 26.8 ± 6.0 years; 82.6 ± 13.9 kg; 179 ± 10 cm, BSA = 2.00 ± 0.21 m2) attended one experimental session consisting of sitting on a rubberized raft floor surface suspended in 5 °C water in a thermoneutral air environment (∼21.5 ± 0.5 °C). Experimental conditions were (a) a baseline phase during which participants were seated for 15 min in an upright position on an insulated pad (1.408 K . m2 . W−1); (b) a cooling phase during which participants were exposed to the cooling surface for 2 h, and (c) an insulation phase during which the baseline condition was repeated for 1 h. Temperature data were collected at 1 Hz, reduced to 1 min averages, and transformed from absolute values to a change in temperature from baseline (15 min average). Metabolic data were collected breath-by-breath and integrated over the same temperature epoch. Within the baseline phase no significant change was found between the three indices of core temperature. By the end of the cooling phase, Tre was significantly lower (Δ = −1.0 ± 0.4 °C) from baseline values than from Tear (Δ = −0.3 ± 0.3 °C) and Tes (Δ = −0.1 ± 0.3 °C). Tre continued to decrease during the insulation phase from Δ −1.0 ± 0.4 °C to as low as Δ −1.4 ± 0.5 °C. By the end of the insulation phase Tre had slightly risen back to Δ −1.3 ± 0.4 °C but remained significantly different from baseline values and from the other two core measures. Metabolic data showed no variation throughout the experiment. In conclusion, the local

  18. Supraphysiological cyclic dosing of sustained release T3 in order to reset low basal body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Michael; Miranda-Massari, Jorge R; Gonzalez, Michael J

    2006-03-01

    The use of sustained release tri-iodothyronine (SR-T3) in clinical practice, has gained popularity in the complementary and alternative medical community in the treatment of chronic fatigue with a protocol (WT3) pioneered by Dr. Denis Wilson. The WT3 protocol involves the use of SR-T3 taken orally by the patient every 12 hours according to a cyclic dose schedule determined by patient response. The patient is then weaned once a body temperature of 98.6 degrees F has been maintained for 3 consecutive weeks. The symptoms associated with this protocol have been given the name Wilson's Temperature Syndrome (WTS). There have been clinical studies using T3 in patients who are euthyroid based on normal TSH values. However, this treatment has created a controversy in the conventional medical community, especially with the American Thyroid Association, because it is not based on a measured deficiency of thyroid hormone. However, just as estrogen and progesterone are prescribed to regulate menstrual cycles in patients who have normal serum hormone levels, the WT3 therapy can be used to regulate metabolism despite normal serum thyroid hormone levels. SR-T3 prescription is based exclusively on low body temperature and presentation of symptoms. Decreased T3 function exerts widespread effects throughout the body. It can decrease serotonin and growth hormone levels and increase the number of adrenal hormone receptor sites. These effects may explain some of the symptoms observed in WTS. The dysregulation of neuroendocrine function may begin to explain such symptoms as alpha intrusion into slow wave sleep, decrease in blood flow to the brain, alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, fatigue, myalgia and arthralgia, depression and cognitive dysfunction. Despite all thermoregulatory control mechanisms of the body and the complex metabolic processes involved, WT3 therapy seems a valuable tool to re-establish normal body functions. We report the results of 11 patients who underwent the

  19. Climate change effects on macrofaunal litter decomposition: the interplay of temperature, body masses and stoichiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, David; Rall, Björn C; Brose, Ulrich

    2012-11-01

    Macrofauna invertebrates of forest floors provide important functions in the decomposition process of soil organic matter, which is affected by the nutrient stoichiometry of the leaf litter. Climate change effects on forest ecosystems include warming and decreasing litter quality (e.g. higher C : nutrient ratios) induced by higher atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. While litter-bag experiments unravelled separate effects, a mechanistic understanding of how interactions between temperature and litter stoichiometry are driving decomposition rates is lacking. In a laboratory experiment, we filled this void by quantifying decomposer consumption rates analogous to predator-prey functional responses that include the mechanistic parameters handling time and attack rate. Systematically, we varied the body masses of isopods, the environmental temperature and the resource between poor (hornbeam) and good quality (ash). We found that attack rates increased and handling times decreased (i) with body masses and (ii) temperature. Interestingly, these relationships interacted with litter quality: small isopods possibly avoided the poorer resource, whereas large isopods exhibited increased, compensatory feeding of the poorer resource, which may be explained by their higher metabolic demands. The combination of metabolic theory and ecological stoichiometry provided critically important mechanistic insights into how warming and varying litter quality may modify macrofaunal decomposition rates. PMID:23007091

  20. Ultrasonic vocalization and body temperature maintenance in infant voles of three species (Rodentia: Arvicolidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, B H

    1992-12-01

    Infant voles thermoregulate poorly and produce ultrasonic vocalizations when cooled. Vocalizing and the ability to maintain body temperature in isolated pups cold-challenged at 5 degrees C or 22 degrees C were studied in nestling Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus agrestis, and Arvicola terrestris. The tendency to vocalize varied with age, since pups vocalized more in their 2nd week than in their 1st or 3rd weeks. Rate of vocalizing was correlated with sound pressure level of vocalizations. Their was no apparent relation between vocalizing rate and deep body temperature. M. agrestis pups vocalized most and A. terrestris pups least, and all three species vocalized more at the lower temperature. Maximal vocalizing occurred in mid aged M. agrestis (at 5 degrees C) with mean of 1291 vocalizations/20 min and mean SPL of 80 dB (decibels re: 20 microN/m2). It is suggested that the vocalizing response is an adaptation related to risk from hypothermia in infant voles. PMID:1487083

  1. Quantum three-body calculation of the nonresonant triple-\\alpha reaction rate at low temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Ogata, Kazuyuki; Kamimura, Masayasu

    2009-01-01

    The triple-\\alpha reaction rate is re-evaluated by directly solving the three-body Schroedinger equation. The resonant and nonresonant processes are treated on the same footing using the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method for three-body scattering. Accurate description of the \\alpha-\\alpha nonresonant states significantly quenches the Coulomb barrier between the two-\\alpha's and the third \\alpha particle. Consequently, the \\alpha-\\alpha nonresonant continuum states below the resonance at 92.04 keV, i.e., the ground state of 8Be, give markedly larger contribution at low temperatures than in foregoing studies. We find about 20 orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the triple-\\alpha reaction rate around 10^7 K compared to the rate of the NACRE compilation.

  2. Dinosaur body temperatures determined from isotopic (¹³C-¹⁸O) ordering in fossil biominerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Robert A; Tütken, Thomas; Martin, Taylor S; Tripati, Aradhna K; Fricke, Henry C; Connely, Melissa; Cifelli, Richard L; Eiler, John M

    2011-07-22

    The nature of the physiology and thermal regulation of the nonavian dinosaurs is the subject of debate. Previously, arguments have been made for both endothermic and ectothermic metabolisms on the basis of differing methodologies. We used clumped isotope thermometry to determine body temperatures from the fossilized teeth of large Jurassic sauropods. Our data indicate body temperatures of 36° to 38°C, which are similar to those of most modern mammals. This temperature range is 4° to 7°C lower than predicted by a model that showed scaling of dinosaur body temperature with mass, which could indicate that sauropods had mechanisms to prevent excessively high body temperatures being reached because of their gigantic size.

  3. Optimization of a pain model: effects of body temperature and anesthesia on bladder nociception in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Katelyn E; Stratton, Jarred M; DeBerry, Jennifer J; Kolber, Benedict J

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a debilitating urological condition that is resistant to treatment and poorly understood. To determine novel molecular treatment targets and to elucidate the contribution of the nervous system to IC/BPS, many rodent bladder pain models have been developed. In this study we evaluated the effects of anesthesia induction and temperature variation in a mouse model of bladder pain known as urinary bladder distension (UBD). In this model compressed air is used to distend the bladder to distinct pressures while electrodes record the reflexive visceromotor response (VMR) from the overlying abdominal muscle. Two isoflurane induction models are commonly used before UBD: a short method lasting approximately 30 minutes and a long method lasting approximately 90 minutes. Animals were anesthetized with one of the methods then put through three sets of graded bladder distensions. Distensions performed following the short anesthesia protocol were significantly different from one another despite identical testing parameters; this same effect was not observed when the long anesthesia protocol was used. In order to determine the effect of temperature on VMRs, animals were put through three graded distension sets at 37.5 (normal mouse body temperature), 35.5, and 33.5°C. Distensions performed at 33.5 and 35.5°C were significantly lower than those performed at 37.5°C. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed significantly smaller increases in spinal levels of phosphorylated extracellular-signal regulated kinase 2 (pERK2) following bladder distension in animals whose body temperature was maintained at 33.5°C as opposed to 37.5°C. These results highlight the significance of the dynamic effects of anesthesia on pain-like changes and the importance of close monitoring of temperature while performing UBD. For successful interpretation of VMRs and translation to human disease, body temperature should be maintained at 37.5

  4. Prediction of thermal environment via revision of PMV index with body temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Yan; Liu Jiaping; Kubota Hideki

    2007-01-01

    PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) is a widely used index for evaluating the thermal environment. However, few studies have been conducted to take physiological values directly as evaluating indices. This paper assumes a linear relation between body temperature and both sweating rate and heat produced by shivering, and introduces the linear relation into the human heat balance equation to revise the classic PMV. And the assumption of linear relation is subsequently proved. The revised PMV possesses the same characteristic of dependent heat load as that of the classic one, and moreover it is convenient to be calculated.

  5. The effect of direct heating and cooling of heat regulation centers on body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were done on 28 rabbits in which puncture instruments were left in the brain for 1-2 days until the calori-puncture hyperthermia had passed and the body temperature was again normal. The instrument remaining in the brain was then used as a galvanic electrode and a second fever was produced, this time due to the electrical stimulus. It was concluded that heat is a centrally acting antipyretic and that cold is a centrally acting stimulus which produces hyperpyrexia cold-induced fever.

  6. Effects of body mass and water temperature on routine metabolism of American paddlefish Polyodon spathula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, J T; Mims, S D; Wright, R A

    2013-04-01

    This study quantified the effects of temperature and fish mass on routine metabolism of the American paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Thermal sensitivity, as measured by Q(10) value, was low in P. spathula. Mean Q(10) was 1·78 while poikilotherms are generally expected to have Q(10) values in the 2·00-2·50 range. Mass-specific metabolism did not decrease with increased fish size to the extent that this phenomenon is observed in teleosts, as evidenced by a mass exponent (β) value of 0·92 for P. spathula compared with 0·79 in a review of teleost species. Other Acipenseriformes have exhibited relatively high β values for mass-specific respiration. Overall P. spathula metabolism appears to be more dependent on body mass and less dependent on temperature than for many other fishes. An equation utilizing temperature and fish mass to estimate gross respiration for P. spathula was derived and this equation was applied to respiratory data from other Acipenseriformes to assess inter-species variation. Polyodon spathula respiration rates across water temperature and fish mass appear most similar to those of Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. PMID:23557305

  7. A simple and inexpensive system for controlling body temperature in small animal experiments using MRI and the effect of body temperature on the hepatic kinetics of Gd-EOB-DTPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kenya; Assanai, Purapan; Takata, Hiroshige; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Nishiura, Motoko

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and inexpensive system for controlling body temperature in small animal experiments using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to investigate the effect of body temperature on the kinetic behavior of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) in the liver. In our temperature-control system, body temperature was controlled using a feedback-regulated heated or cooled air flow generated by two Futon dryers. The switches of the two Futon dryers were controlled using a digital temperature controller, in which the rectal temperature of a mouse measured by an optical fiber thermometer was used as the input. In experimental studies, male ICR mice aged 8weeks old were used and allocated into 5 groups (39-, 36-, 33-, 30-, and 27-degree groups, n=10), in which the body temperature was maintained at 39 °C, 36 °C, 33 °C, 30 °C, and 27 °C, respectively, using our system. The dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data were acquired with an MRI system for animal experiments equipped with a 1.5-Tesla permanent magnet, for approximately 43min, after the injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA into the tail vein. After correction of the image shift due to the temperature-dependent drift of the Larmor frequency using the gradient-based image registration method with robust estimation of displacement parameters, the kinetic behavior of Gd-EOB-DTPA was analyzed using an empirical mathematical model. With the use of this approach, the upper limit of the relative enhancement (A), the rates of contrast uptake (α) and washout (β), the parameter related to the slope of early uptake (q), the area under the curve (AUC), the maximum relative enhancement (REmax), the time to REmax (Tmax), and the elimination half-life of the contrast agent (T1/2) were calculated. The body temperature of mice could be controlled well by use of our system. Although there were no significant differences in α, AUC, and q among groups, there

  8. Too hot to sleep? Sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of Wahlberg's Epauletted Fruit Bat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen T Downs

    Full Text Available The significance of sleep and factors that affect it have been well documented, however, in light of global climate change the effect of temperature on sleep patterns has only recently gained attention. Unlike many mammals, bats (order: Chiroptera are nocturnal and little is known about their sleep and the effects of ambient temperature (Ta on their sleep. Consequently we investigated seasonal temperature effects on sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of free-ranging Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi, at a tree roost. Sleep behaviours of E. wahlbergi were recorded, including: sleep duration and sleep incidences (i.e. one eye open and both eyes closed. Sleep differed significantly across all the individuals in terms of sleep duration and sleep incidences. Individuals generally spent more time awake than sleeping. The percentage of each day bats spent asleep was significantly higher during winter (27.6%, compared with summer (15.6%. In summer, 20.7% of the sleeping bats used one eye open sleep, and this is possibly the first evidence of one-eye-sleep in non-marine mammals. Sleep duration decreased with extreme heat as bats spent significantly more time trying to cool by licking their fur, spreading their wings and panting. Skin temperatures of E. wahlbergi were significantly higher when Ta was ≥35°C and no bats slept at these high temperatures. Consequently extremely hot days negatively impact roosting fruit bats, as they were forced to be awake to cool themselves. This has implications for these bats given predicted climate change scenarios.

  9. Effects of airflow on body temperatures and sleep stages in a warm humid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Kazuyo; Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Mizuno, Koh; Iwaki, Tatsuya

    2008-03-01

    Airflow is an effective way to increase heat loss—an ongoing process during sleep and wakefulness in daily life. However, it is unclear whether airflow stimulates cutaneous sensation and disturbs sleep or reduces the heat load and facilitates sleep. In this study, 17 male subjects wearing short pyjamas slept on a bed with a cotton blanket under two of the following conditions: (1) air temperature (Ta) 26°C, relative humidity (RH) 50%, and air velocity (V) 0.2 m s-1; (2) Ta 32°C, RH 80%, V 1.7 m s-1; (3) Ta 32°C; RH 80%, V 0.2 m s-1 (hereafter referred to as 26/50, 32/80 with airflow, and 32/80 with still air, respectively). Electroencephalograms, electrooculograms, and mental electromyograms were obtained for all subjects. Rectal (Tre) and skin (Ts) temperatures were recorded continuously during the sleep session, and body-mass was measured before and after the sleep session. No significant differences were observed in the duration of sleep stages between subjects under the 26/50 and 32/80 with airflow conditions; however, the total duration of wakefulness decreased significantly in subjects under the 32/80 with airflow condition compared to that in subjects under the 32/80 with still air condition ( P < 0.05). Tre, Tsk, Ts, and body-mass loss under the 32/80 with airflow condition were significantly higher compared to those under the 26/50 condition, and significantly lower than those under the 32/80 with still air condition ( P < 0.05). An alleviated heat load due to increased airflow was considered to exist between the 32/80 with still air and the 26/50 conditions. Airflow reduces the duration of wakefulness by decreasing Tre, Tsk, Ts, and body-mass loss in a warm humid condition.

  10. Diet-independent remodeling of cellular membranes precedes seasonally changing body temperature in a hibernator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Arnold

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have a multitude of health effects. Their incorporation into membrane phospholipids (PL is generally believed to depend directly on dietary influx. PL influence transmembrane protein activity and thus can compensate temperature effects; e.g. PL n-6 PUFA are thought to stabilize heart function at low body temperature (T(b, whereas long chain (>C18 n-3 PUFA may boost oxidative capacity. We found substantial remodeling of membranes in free-living alpine marmots which was largely independent of direct dietary supply. Organ PL n-6 PUFA and n-6 to n-3 ratios were highest at onset and end of hibernation after rapid increases during a brief transitional period prior to hibernation. In contrast, longer chain PL n-3 PUFA content was low at end of summer but maximal at end of hibernation. After termination of hibernation in spring, these changes in PL composition were rapidly reversed. Our results demonstrate selective trafficking of PUFA within the body, probably governed by a circannual endogenous rhythm, as hibernating marmots were in winter burrows isolated for seven months from food and external cues signaling the approaching spring. High concentrations of PL n-6 PUFA throughout hibernation are in line with their hypothesized function of boosting SERCA 2a activity at low T(b. Furthermore, we found increasing rate of rewarming from torpor during winter indicating increasing oxidative capacity that could be explained by the accumulation of long-chain PL n-3 PUFA. It may serve to minimize the time necessary for rewarming despite the increasing temperature range to be covered, because rewarming is a period of highest metabolic rate and hence production of reactive oxygen species. Considering the importance of PUFA for health our results may have important biomedical implications, as seasonal changes of T(b and associated remodeling of membranes are not restricted to hibernators but presumably common among endothermic

  11. Body Temperature Monitoring Using Subcutaneously Implanted Thermo-loggers from Holstein Steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y; Bok, J D; Lee, H J; Lee, H G; Kim, D; Lee, I; Kang, S K; Choi, Y J

    2016-02-01

    Body temperature (BT) monitoring in cattle could be used to early detect fever from infectious disease or physiological events. Various ways to measure BT have been applied at different locations on cattle including rectum, reticulum, milk, subcutis and ear canal. In other to evaluate the temperature stability and reliability of subcutaneous temperature (ST) in highly fluctuating field conditions for continuous BT monitoring, long term ST profiles were collected and analyzed from cattle in autumn/winter and summer season by surgically implanted thermo-logger devices. Purposes of this study were to assess ST in the field condition as a reference BT and to determine any location effect of implantation on ST profile. In results, ST profile in cattle showed a clear circadian rhythm with daily lowest at 05:00 to 07:00 AM and highest around midnight and rather stable temperature readings (mean±standard deviation [SD], 37.1°C to 37.36°C±0.91°C to 1.02°C). STs are 1.39°C to 1.65°C lower than the rectal temperature and sometimes showed an irregular temperature drop below the normal physiologic one: 19.4% or 36.4% of 54,192 readings were below 36.5°C or 37°C, respectively. Thus, for BT monitoring purposes in a fever-alarming-system, a correction algorithm is necessary to remove the influences of ambient temperature and animal resting behavior especially in winter time. One way to do this is simply discard outlier readings below 36.5°C or 37°C resulting in a much improved mean±SD of 37.6°C±0.64°C or 37.8°C±0.55°C, respectively. For location the upper scapula region seems the most reliable and convenient site for implantation of a thermo-sensor tag in terms of relatively low influence by ambient temperature and easy insertion compared to lower scapula or lateral neck.

  12. Touch-free measurement of body temperature using close-up thermography of the ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Benjamin; Wagner, Heike; Gmoser, Johanna; Wörner, Anja; Löschberger, Anna; Peters, Laura; Frey, Anna; Hofmann, Ulrich; Frantz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In experimental animal research body temperature (BT) is measured for the objective determination of an animals' physiological condition. Invasive, probe-based measurements are stressful and can influence experimental outcome. Alternatively BT can be determined touch-free from the emitted heat of the organism at a single spot using infrared thermometers [1]. To get visual confirmation and find more appropriate surfaces for measurement a hand-held thermal imager was equipped with a self-made, cheap, 3D-printable close-up lens system that reproducibly creates eight-time magnified thermal images and improves sensitivity. This setup was used to establish ocular surface temperature (OST), representing the temperature of the brain-heart axis, as a touch-free alternative for measurement of BT in mice, rats, rabbits and humans.OST measurement after isoflurane exposure and myocardial infarction (MI) experiments in mice revealed high physiological relevance and sensitivity, the possibility to discriminate between MI and sham operations in one hour and even long-term outcome-predictive capabilities of OST after MI. Summarized here we present: •Self-made close-up lens for thermal imaging cameras for eight-time magnification•Establishment of OST for touch-free determination of BT in rodents and humans•Short- and long-term predictive capabilities of OST in experimental MI in mice. PMID:27284532

  13. Research: Testing of a Novel Portable Body Temperature Conditioner Using a Thermal Manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Daniel; Heller, Alex; Moujaes, Samir; Williams, Shelley J; Hoffmann, Ryan; Sarkisian, Paul; Khalili, Kaveh; Rockenfeller, Uwe; Browder, Timothy D; Kuhls, Deborah A; Fildes, John J

    2016-01-01

    A battery-operated active cooling/heating device was developed to maintain thermoregulation of trauma victims in austere environments while awaiting evacuation to a hospital for further treatment. The use of a thermal manikin was adopted for this study in order to simulate load testing and evaluate the performance of this novel portable active cooling/heating device for both continuous (external power source) and battery power. The performance of the portable body temperature conditioner (PBTC) was evaluated through cooling/heating fraction tests to analyze the heat transfer between a thermal manikin and circulating water blanket to show consistent performance while operating under battery power. For the cooling/heating fraction tests, the ambient temperature was set to 15°C ± 1°C (heating) and 30°C ± 1°C (cooling). The PBTC water temperature was set to 37°C for the heating mode tests and 15°C for the cooling mode tests. The results showed consistent performance of the PBTC in terms of cooling/heating capacity while operating under both continuous and battery power. The PBTC functioned as intended and shows promise as a portable warming/cooling device for operation in the field. PMID:27632039

  14. The effect of body temperature on the dynamic respiratory system compliance-breathing frequency relationship in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Alessandro; Bosco, Gerardo

    2013-06-01

    The mechanical inhomogeneity of the respiratory system is frequently investigated by measuring the frequency dependence of dynamic compliance, but no data are currently available describing the effects of body temperature variations. The aim of the present report was to study those effects in vivo. Peak airway pressure was measured during positive pressure ventilation in eight anesthetized rats while breathing frequency (but not tidal volume) was altered. Dynamic compliance was calculated as the tidal volume/peak airway pressure, and measurements were taken in basal conditions (mean rectal temperature 37.3 °C) as well as after total body warming (mean rectal temperature 39.7 °C). Due to parenchymal mechanical inhomogeneity and stress relaxation-linked effects, the normal rat respiratory system exhibited frequency dependence of dynamic lung compliance. Even moderate body temperature increments significantly reduced the decrements in dynamic compliance linked to breathing rate increments. The results were analyzed using Student's and Wilcoxon's tests, which yielded the same results (p temperature variations are known to influence respiratory mechanics. The frequency dependence of dynamic compliance was found, in the experiments described, to be temperature-dependent as temperature variations affected parenchymal mechanical inhomogeneity and stress relaxation. These results suggest that body temperature variations should be taken into consideration when the dynamic compliance-breathing frequency relationship is being examined during clinical assessment of inhomogeneity of lung parenchyma in patients.

  15. Tourette syndrome associated with body temperature dysregulation: possible involvement of an idiopathic hypothalamic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Abraham R

    2002-10-01

    Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder that holds the potential to afflict the emotional, familial, social, or scholastic performances of patients with Tourette syndrome in day-to-day life functioning. The disorder is today characterized mainly and diagnosed by clinical observations, yet false-negative results obtained in the diagnosis of Tourette syndrome are numerous and well documented. There is still no laboratory or imaging technique available for the diagnosis of Tourette syndrome. This article reports on changes of the ambient thermal perception (38%) and a circadian dysregulation of the body-temperature profile present in Tourette syndrome probands, irrespective of their chronologic age, sex, or comorbid symptoms. An involvement of idiopathic hypothalamic dysfunctions associated with Tourette syndrome is proposed. Such a phenomenon, if substantiated, could lead to a better understanding of Tourette syndrome and the development of unbiased physical diagnostic criteria of Tourette syndrome and potentiate possible production of novel therapeutic possibilities.

  16. Comparison of different measuring methods for body temperature in lactating cows under different climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammer, Stefanie; Lambertz, Christian; Gauly, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the research described here was to compare different methods of body temperature (BT) measurements in dairy cows. It was hypothesised that reticular temperature (RET) values reflect the physiological status of the animals in an equivalent way to rectal (RT) and vaginal (VT) measurements. RT, VT and RET temperatures of twelve lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were measured over five consecutive days in June and October 2013. While RT and VT were manually measured three times a day, RET was automatically recorded at 10 min intervals using a bolus in the reticulum. For comparison with RT and VT, different RET values were used: single values at the respective recording times (RET-SIN), and mean (RET-MEAN) and median (RET-MED) values of 2 h prior to RT and VT measurements. Overall, body temperatures averaged 38·1 ± 0·6, 38·2 ± 0·4, 38·7 ± 0·9, 38·5 ± 0·7 and 38·7 ± 0·5 °C for RT, VT, RET-SIN, RET-MEAN and RET-MED, respectively. RT and VT were lower than all RET measurements, while RET-SIN and RET-MED were higher than RET-MEAN (P < 0·001). RET-MEAN and RET-MED values were higher in the morning, whereas RT and VT were greatest in the evening (P < 0·001). Overall, records of RT and VT were strongly correlated (r = 0·75; P < 0·001). In contrast to RET-SIN and RET-MEAN, RET-MED was higher correlated to RT and VT. In June, coefficients were higher between all methods than in October. Relation of barn T to RT and VT was stronger when compared to RET measurements. RET-SIN was higher correlated to barn T than RET-MEAN or RET-MED. Correlation between VT and barn T was strongest (r = 0·48; P < 0·001). In summary, RET-MED showed highest correlation with VT and RT. However, single RET measurements (influenced by water or feed intake) can lead to extreme variations and differences to single VT and RT values.

  17. Cohort Removal Induces Changes in Body Temperature, Pain Sensitivity, and Anxiety-Like Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Keizo; Shoji, Hirotaka; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal). Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests. PMID:27375443

  18. Cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keizo eTakao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal. Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests.

  19. Cohort Removal Induces Changes in Body Temperature, Pain Sensitivity, and Anxiety-Like Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Keizo; Shoji, Hirotaka; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal). Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests.

  20. To use or not to use torpor? Activity and body temperature as predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Nereda; Geiser, Fritz

    2007-06-01

    When food is limited and/or environmental conditions are unfavourable, many mammals reduce activity and use torpor to save energy. Nevertheless, reliable predictors for torpor occurrence, especially in the wild, are currently not available. Interrelations between torpor use and other energy conserving strategies are also poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that reductions in normothermic body temperature ( T b) and the period of activity before torpor events could be used as predictors for torpor occurrence in sugar gliders, Petaurus breviceps (body mass, ˜125 g), known to display daily torpor in the wild. Occurrence of torpor was preceded by significant (˜10-25%) reductions of the duration of the activity phase. Moreover, the normothermic resting T b fell by an average of 1.2°C over 3 days before a torpor event, relative to individuals that did not display torpor. Our new findings suggest that before entering torpor, sugar gliders, which appear to use torpor as an emergency measure rather than a routine energy saving strategy, systematically reduce activity times and normothermic resting T bs to lower energy expenditure and perhaps to avoid employing torpor. Thus, reduced activity and normothermic T b may provide a predictive tool for the occurrence of daily torpor in the wild.

  1. Methylphenidate alters flash-evoked potentials, body temperature, and behavior in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzler, Bruce E; Meckel, Katherine R; Stickle, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    This experiment examined the effects of methylphenidate hydrochloride on flash-evoked potentials (FEPs) recorded from the visual cortex (VC) and superior colliculus (SC) of chronically implanted male Long-Evans rats, as well as on body temperature and open field behavior. FEPs were recorded at 10, 20 and 40 min following intraperitoneal injections of saline, and of doses of 0.7, 2.9, and 11.6 mg/kg methylphenidate on separate days. The 0.7 mg/kg dose did not produce significant effects. In the VC, following administration of the 11.6 mg/kg dose of methylphenidate the amplitude of components P83, N146, and P232 decreased, the amplitude of component N64 briefly increased and components P23, N30, N40, and P48 were unchanged in amplitude. In the SC, component P29 was unaffected, while components P38 and N51 were reduced in amplitude by the 11.6 mg/kg dose of methylphenidate. Peak latencies of components N40, P48, P83, and N146 in the VC and component P38 in the SC were increased by the 11.6 mg/kg dose of methylphenidate. When body temperature was recorded 45 min after drug administration, a mild dose-dependent hypothermia was found with the 2.9 and 11.6 mg/kg methylphenidate doses, suggesting that this may have contributed to the increased latencies. In subsequent open field observations, both line crossings and rearings were significantly increased by the 11.6 mg/kg dose. Increased movement into the center of the testing area was also observed, which could be a sign of increased exploration and reduced anxiety following methylphenidate.

  2. Development of a novel scheme for long-term body temperature monitoring: a review of benefits and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Frau, David; Varela-Entrecanales, Manuel; Valor-Perez, Raul; Vargas, Borja

    2015-04-01

    Body temperature is a health or disease marker that has been in clinical use for centuries. The threshold currently applied to define fever, with small variations, is 38 °C. However, current approaches do not provide a full picture of the thermoregulation process and its correlation with disease. This paper describes a new non-invasive body temperature device that improves the understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases by integrating a variety of temperature data from different body locations. This device enables to gain a deeper insight into fever, endogenous rhythms, subject activity and ambient temperature to provide anticipatory and more efficient treatments. Its clinical use would be a big step in the overcoming of the anachronistic febrile/afebrile dichotomy and walking towards a system medicine approach to certain diseases. This device has already been used in some clinical applications successfully. Other possible applications based on the device features and clinical requirements are also described in this paper.

  3. Evolution of microstructure in flyash-containing porcelain body on heating at different temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kausik Dana; Swapan Kumar Das

    2004-04-01

    15 wt% flyash (a calcined byproduct of thermal power plant) was incorporated in a normal triaxial kaolin–quartz–feldspar system by replacing equivalent amount of quartz. The differences in microstructural evolution on heating the compact mass of both normal and flyash-containing porcelain at different temperatures (1150–1300°C) were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) operating in secondary electron image (SEI) mode. Microstructure of normal porcelain did not show the presence of mullite and quartz grains at 1200°C and the viscosity of silica-rich glass restricted the growth of mullite crystals at 1250°C. Flyash porcelain, on the other hand, shows the presence of primary mullite aggregates in the clay relict and a significant growth of mullite crystals in a low viscosity glassy matrix at 1200°C itself. At 1300°C, both the bodies show a larger region of more elongated (> 1 m) secondary mullite along with clusters of smaller sized primary mullite (< 1 m). Small primary mullite crystals in the clay relict can be distinguished from elongated secondary mullite crystals in the feldspar relict in their size. Primary mullite aggregates remain stable also at higher temperatures. XRD studies were carried out for quantitative estimation of quartz, mullite and glass, which supported the SEM observations. An attempt was also made to correlate their mechanical strength with the constituent phases.

  4. The time of day differently influences fatigue and locomotor activity: is body temperature a key factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Frederico Sander Mansur; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the possible interactions between exercise capacity and spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) during the oscillation of core body temperature (Tb) that occurs during the light/dark cycle. Wistar rats (n=11) were kept at an animal facility under a light/dark cycle of 14/10h at an ambient temperature of 23°C and water and food ad libitum. Initially, in order to characterize the daily oscillation in SLA and Tb of the rats, these parameters were continuously recorded for 24h using an implantable telemetric sensor (G2 E-Mitter). The animals were randomly assigned to two progressive exercise test protocols until fatigue during the beginning of light and dark-phases. Fatigue was defined as the moment rats could not keep pace with the treadmill. We assessed the time to fatigue, workload and Tb changes induced by exercise. Each test was separated by 3days. Our results showed that exercise capacity and heat storage were higher during the light-phase (pexercise performance and spontaneous locomotor activity are not directly associated, both are strongly influenced by daily cycles of light and dark. PMID:25479573

  5. Mechanisms of temperature-dependent swimming: the importance of physics, physiology and body size in determining protist swimming speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Oliver S; Petchey, Owen L; Humphries, Stuart

    2010-12-15

    Body temperatures and thus physiological rates of poikilothermic organisms are determined by environmental temperature. The power an organism has available for swimming is largely dependent on physiological rates and thus body temperature. However, retarding forces such as drag are contingent on the temperature-dependent physical properties of water and on an organism's size. Consequently, the swimming ability of poikilotherms is highly temperature dependent. The importance of the temperature-dependent physical properties of water (e.g. viscosity) in determining swimming speed is poorly understood. Here we propose a semi-mechanistic model to describe how biological rates, size and the physics of the environment contribute to the temperature dependency of microbial swimming speed. Data on the swimming speed and size of a predatory protist and its protist prey were collected and used to test our model. Data were collected by manipulating both the temperature and the viscosity (independently of temperature) of the organism's environment. Protists were either cultured in their test environment (for several generations) or rapidly exposed to their test environment to assess their ability to adapt or acclimate to treatments. Both biological rates and the physics of the environment were predicted to and observed to contribute to the swimming speed of protists. Body size was not temperature dependent, and protists expressed some ability to acclimate to changes in either temperature or viscosity. Overall, using our parameter estimates and novel model, we are able to suggest that 30 to 40% (depending on species) of the response in swimming speed associated with a reduction in temperature from 20 to 5°C is due to viscosity. Because encounter rates between protist predators and their prey are determined by swimming speed, temperature- and viscosity-dependent swimming speeds are likely to result in temperature- and viscosity-dependent trophic interactions. PMID:21113003

  6. Synthesis of Thermoresponsive Amphiphilic Polyurethane Gel as a New Cell Printing Material near Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Chun; Li, Suming; Hu, Shiaw-Guang; Chang, Wen-Chi; Jeng, U-Ser; Hsu, Shan-hui

    2015-12-23

    Waterborne polyurethane (PU) based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) diol and a second oligodiol containing amphiphilic blocks was synthesized in this study. The microstructure was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and rheological measurement of the PU dispersion. The surface hydrophilicity measurement, infrared spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, mechanical and thermal analyses were conducted in solid state. It was observed that the presence of a small amount of amphiphilic blocks in the soft segment resulted in significant changes in microstructure. When 90 mol % PCL diol and 10 mol % amphiphilic blocks of poly(l-lactide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PLLA-PEO) diol were used as the soft segment, the synthesized PU had a water contact angle of ∼24° and degree of crystallinity of ∼14%. The dispersion had a low viscosity below room temperature. As the temperature was raised to body temperature (37 °C), the dispersion rapidly (∼170 s) underwent sol-gel transition with excellent gel modulus (G' ≈ 6.5 kPa) in 20 min. PU dispersions with a solid content of 25-30% could be easily mixed with cells in sol state, extruded by a 3D printer, and deposited layer by layer as a gel. Cells remained alive and proliferating in the printed hydrogel scaffold. We expect that the development of novel thermoresponsive PU system can be used as smart injectable hydrogel and applied as a new type of bio-3D printing ink.

  7. Nonlinear mixed effects modelling for the analysis of longitudinal body core temperature data in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Kok-Yong; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ting; Ming Chai, Adam Kian; Yuen Fun, David Chiok; Teo, Ya Shi; Sze Tan, Pearl Min; Ang, Wee Hon; Wei Lee, Jason Kai

    2016-04-01

    Many longitudinal studies have collected serial body core temperature (T c) data to understand thermal work strain of workers under various environmental and operational heat stress environments. This provides the opportunity for the development of mathematical models to analyse and forecast temporal T c changes across populations of subjects. Such models can reduce the need for invasive methods that continuously measure T c. This current work sought to develop a nonlinear mixed effects modelling framework to delineate the dynamic changes of T c and its association with a set of covariates of interest (e.g. heart rate, chest skin temperature), and the structure of the variability of T c in various longitudinal studies. Data to train and evaluate the model were derived from two laboratory investigations involving male soldiers who participated in either a 12 (N  =  18) or 15 km (N  =  16) foot march with varied clothing, load and heat acclimatisation status. Model qualification was conducted using nonparametric bootstrap and cross validation procedures. For cross validation, the trajectory of a new subject's T c was simulated via Bayesian maximum a posteriori estimation when using only the baseline T c or using the baseline T c as well as measured T c at the end of every work (march) phase. The final model described T c versus time profiles using a parametric function with its main parameters modelled as a sigmoid hyperbolic function of the load and/or chest skin temperature. Overall, T c predictions corresponded well with the measured data (root mean square deviation: 0.16 °C), and compared favourably with those provided by two recently published Kalman filter models. PMID:26963194

  8. Accuracy of parents in measuring body temperature with a tympanic thermometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spady Donald W

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is now common for parents to measure tympanic temperatures in children. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of these measurements. Methods Parents and then nurses measured the temperature of 60 children with a tympanic thermometer designed for home use (home thermometer. The reference standard was a temperature measured by a nurse with a model of tympanic thermometer commonly used in hospitals (hospital thermometer. A difference of ≥ 0.5 °C was considered clinically significant. A fever was defined as a temperature ≥ 38.5 °C. Results The mean absolute difference between the readings done by the parent and the nurse with the home thermometer was 0.44 ± 0.61 °C, and 33% of the readings differed by ≥ 0.5 °C. The mean absolute difference between the readings done by the parent with the home thermometer and the nurse with the hospital thermometer was 0.51 ± 0.63 °C, and 72 % of the readings differed by ≥ 0.5 °C. Using the home thermometer, parents detected fever with a sensitivity of 76% (95% CI 50–93%, a specificity of 95% (95% CI 84–99%, a positive predictive value of 87% (95% CI 60–98%, and a negative predictive value of 91% (95% CI 79–98 %. In comparing the readings the nurse obtained from the two different tympanic thermometers, the mean absolute difference was 0.24 ± 0.22 °C. Nurses detected fever with a sensitivity of 94% (95 % CI 71–100 %, a specificity of 88% (95% CI 75–96 %, a positive predictive value of 76% (95% CI 53–92%, and a negative predictive value of 97% (95%CI 87–100 % using the home thermometer. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the three sets of readings was 0.80, and the consistency of readings was not affected by the body temperature. Conclusions The readings done by parents with a tympanic thermometer designed for home use differed a clinically significant amount from the reference standard (readings done by nurses with a model of

  9. Body temperature control in patients with refractory septic shock:too much may be harmful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan-li; LIU Da-wei; WANG Xiao-ting; LONG Yun; ZHOU Xiang; CHAI Wen-zao

    2013-01-01

    Background The lowering of body temperature is a common,almost reflexive step in the daily care of septic shock patient.However,the effect of different magnitudes of fever control on the outcome of refractory septic patients with a very poor outcome is controversial and has yet to be explored.Methods This prospective trial examined sixty-five refractory septic shock patients with a core temperature higher than 38.5℃.Patients were randomly assigned to a group achieving a "low temperature" range (LT group:36.0-37.5 ℃) or to a group achieving a "high temperature" range (HT group:37.5-38.3 ℃C) by physical methods including a water-flow cooling blanket and ice packs.A target core temperature was achieved in 1-2 hours post-treatment,and maintained for 72 hours.Averaged values of core temperature as well as hemodynamic,respiratory,and laboratory variables were analyzed at baseline and during the first 72 hours after fever control.Results Thirty-four (52.31%) patients were assigned to the LT group and thirty-one (47.69%) patients were assigned to the HT group.The mean core temperature was significantly lower in the LT group than in the HT group (36.61 vs.37.85 ℃,respectively; P < 0.0001).The average heart rate (HR) (75.5 vs.91.9 beats/min,respectively; P < 0.0001) and the mean cardiac output (CO) (5.35 vs.6.45 L/min,respectively; P =0.002) were also statistically significant lower in the LT group than in the HT group.The averaged serum lactate level was significantly higher in the LT group compared to the HT group (5.59 vs.2.82 mmol/L,respectively; P=-0.008).Fibrinogen and activated partial thromboplatin time were also different between the two groups.The 28 days mortality was significantly higher in the LT group than in the HT group (61.8vs.25.8%,respectively; P=0.003).A Cox-regression model analysis showed that mean core temperature during the 72 h period was an independent predictor of 28 days mortality (odds ratio (OR) =0.42,95%Cl 0

  10. Measuring the mechanical efficiency of a working cardiac muscle sample at body temperature using a flow-through calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberner, Andrew J; Johnston, Callum M; Pham, Toan; June-Chiew Han; Ruddy, Bryan P; Loiselle, Denis S; Nielsen, Poul M F

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a new `work-loop calorimeter' that is capable of measuring, simultaneously, the work-done and heat production of isolated cardiac muscle samples at body temperature. Through the innovative use of thermoelectric modules as temperature sensors, the development of a low-noise fluid-flow system, and implementation of precise temperature control, the heat resolution of this device is 10 nW, an improvement by a factor of ten over previous designs. These advances have allowed us to conduct the first flow-through measurements of work output and heat dissipation from cardiac tissue at body temperature. The mechanical efficiency is found to vary with peak stress, and reaches a peak value of approximately 15 %, a figure similar to that observed in cardiac muscle at lower temperatures.

  11. Psychoneuroendocrine immunology: perception of stress can alter body temperature and natural killer cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, R N; Solvason, H B; Hsueh, C M; Rogers, C F; Demissie, S; Hiramoto, N S; Gauthier, D K; Lorden, J F; Ghanta, V K

    1999-01-01

    Psychoimmunology has been credited with using the mind as a way to alter immunity. The problem with this concept is that many of the current psychoimmunology techniques in use are aimed at alleviating stress effects on the immune system rather than at direct augmentation of immunity by the brain. Studies in animals provide a model that permits us to approach the difficulties associated with gaining an understanding of the CNS-immune system connection. A particular advantage of using animals over humans is that psychological and social contributions play a less prominent role for animals than for human subjects, since the animals are all inbred and reared under identical controlled conditions. If the insightful information provided by animal studies is correct, then psychotherapy for the treatment of diseases might be made more effective if some aspect of this knowledge is included in the design of the treatment. We emphasize conditioning as a regimen and an acceptable way to train the brain to remember an output pathway to raise immunity. We propose that a specific drug or perception (mild stress, represented by rotation, total body heating or handling) could substitute and kindle the same output pathway without the need for conditioning. If this view is correct, then instead of using conditioning, it may be possible to use an antigen to activate desired immune cells, and substitute a drug or an external environmental sensory stimulus (perception) to energize the output pathway to these cells. Alternatively, monitoring alterations of body temperature in response to a drug or perception might allow us to follow how effectively the brain is performing in altering immunity. Studies with animals suggest that there are alternative ways to use the mind to raise natural or acquired immunity in man.

  12. Microenvironment temperature prediction between body and seat interface using autoregressive data-driven model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuofu; Wang, Lin; Luo, Zhongming; Heusch, Andrew I; Cascioli, Vincenzo; McCarthy, Peter W

    2015-11-01

    There is a need to develop a greater understanding of temperature at the skin-seat interface during prolonged seating from the perspectives of both industrial design (comfort/discomfort) and medical care (skin ulcer formation). Here we test the concept of predicting temperature at the seat surface and skin interface during prolonged sitting (such as required from wheelchair users). As caregivers are usually busy, such a method would give them warning ahead of a problem. This paper describes a data-driven model capable of predicting thermal changes and thus having the potential to provide an early warning (15- to 25-min ahead prediction) of an impending temperature that may increase the risk for potential skin damages for those subject to enforced sitting and who have little or no sensory feedback from this area. Initially, the oscillations of the original signal are suppressed using the reconstruction strategy of empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Consequentially, the autoregressive data-driven model can be used to predict future thermal trends based on a shorter period of acquisition, which reduces the possibility of introducing human errors and artefacts associated with longer duration "enforced" sitting by volunteers. In this study, the method had a maximum predictive error of <0.4 °C when used to predict the temperature at the seat and skin interface 15 min ahead, but required 45 min data prior to give this accuracy. Although the 45 min front loading of data appears large (in proportion to the 15 min prediction), a relative strength derives from the fact that the same algorithm could be used on the other 4 sitting datasets created by the same individual, suggesting that the period of 45 min required to train the algorithm is transferable to other data from the same individual. This approach might be developed (along with incorporation of other measures such as movement and humidity) into a system that can give caregivers prior warning to help avoid

  13. Multiband fiber optic radiometry for measuring the temperature and emissivity of gray bodies of low or high emissivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Sharon; Katzir, Abraham

    2004-03-20

    Infrared fiber optic radiometry was used for noncontact thermometry of gray bodies whose temperature was close to room temperature (40-70 degrees C). We selected three gray bodies, one with high emissivity (epsilon = 0.97), one with medium emissivity (epsilon = 0.71), and one with low emissivity (epsilon = 0.025). We carried out optimization calculations and measurements for a multiband fiber optic radiometer that consisted of a silver halide (AgClBr) infrared-transmitting fiber, a dual-band cooled infrared detector, and a set of 18 narrowband infrared filters that covered the 2-14-microm spectral range. We determined the optimal spectral range, the optimal number of filters to be used, and the optimal chopping scheme. Using these optimal conditions, we performed measurements of the three gray bodies and obtained an accuracy of better than 1 degrees C for body temperature and for room temperature. An accuracy of 0.03 was obtained for body emissivity.

  14. Effect of muscle length on cross-bridge kinetics in intact cardiac trabeculae at body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Xu, Ying; Davis, Jonathan P; Campbell, Kenneth S; Janssen, Paul M L

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic force generation in cardiac muscle, which determines cardiac pumping activity, depends on both the number of sarcomeric cross-bridges and on their cycling kinetics. The Frank-Starling mechanism dictates that cardiac force development increases with increasing cardiac muscle length (corresponding to increased ventricular volume). It is, however, unclear to what extent this increase in cardiac muscle length affects the rate of cross-bridge cycling. Previous studies using permeabilized cardiac preparations, sub-physiological temperatures, or both have obtained conflicting results. Here, we developed a protocol that allowed us to reliably and reproducibly measure the rate of tension redevelopment (k(tr); which depends on the rate of cross-bridge cycling) in intact trabeculae at body temperature. Using K(+) contractures to induce a tonic level of force, we showed the k(tr) was slower in rabbit muscle (which contains predominantly β myosin) than in rat muscle (which contains predominantly α myosin). Analyses of k(tr) in rat muscle at optimal length (L(opt)) and 90% of optimal length (L(90)) revealed that k(tr) was significantly slower at L(opt) (27.7 ± 3.3 and 27.8 ± 3.0 s(-1) in duplicate analyses) than at L(90) (45.1 ± 7.6 and 47.5 ± 9.2 s(-1)). We therefore show that k(tr) can be measured in intact rat and rabbit cardiac trabeculae, and that the k(tr) decreases when muscles are stretched to their optimal length under near-physiological conditions, indicating that the Frank-Starling mechanism not only increases force but also affects cross-bridge cycling kinetics.

  15. Effects of Resveratrol on Daily Rhythms of Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature in Young and Aged Grey Mouse Lemurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Pifferi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In several species, resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, activates sirtuin proteins implicated in the regulation of energy balance and biological clock processes. To demonstrate the effect of resveratrol on clock function in an aged primate, young and aged mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus were studied over a 4-week dietary supplementation with resveratrol. Spontaneous locomotor activity and daily variations in body temperature were continuously recorded. Reduction in locomotor activity onset and changes in body temperature rhythm in resveratrol-supplemented aged animals suggest an improved synchronisation on the light-dark cycle. Resveratrol could be a good candidate to restore the circadian rhythms in the elderly.

  16. Population-specific effects of developmental temperature on body condition and jumping performance of a widespread European frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakulić, Sanja; Feldhaar, Heike; Lisičić, Duje; Mioč, Mia; Cizelj, Ivan; Seiler, Michael; Spatz, Theresa; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-05-01

    All physiological processes of ectotherms depend on environmental temperature. Thus, adaptation of physiological mechanisms to the thermal environments is important for achieving optimal performance and fitness. The European Common Frog, Rana temporaria, is widely distributed across different thermal habitats. This makes it an exceptional model for studying the adaptations to different thermal conditions. We raised tadpoles from Germany and Croatia at two constant temperature treatments (15°C, 20°C), and under natural temperature fluctuations (in outdoor treatments), and tested how different developmental temperatures affected developmental traits, that is, length of larval development, morphometrics, and body condition, as well as jumping performance of metamorphs. Our results revealed population-specific differences in developmental time, body condition, and jumping performance. Croatian frogs developed faster in all treatments, were heavier, in better body condition, and had longer hind limbs and better jumping abilities than German metamorphs. The populations further differed in thermal sensitivity of jumping performance. While metamorphs from Croatia increased their jumping performance with higher temperatures, German metamorphs reached their performance maximum at lower temperatures. These population-specific differences in common environments indicate local genetic adaptation, with southern populations being better adapted to higher temperatures than those from north of the Alps. PMID:27092238

  17. Biphasic effect of melanocortin agonists on metabolic rate and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lute, Beth; Jou, William; Lateef, Dalya M; Goldgof, Margalit; Xiao, Cuiying; Piñol, Ramón A; Kravitz, Alexxai V; Miller, Nicole R; Huang, Yuning George; Girardet, Clemence; Butler, Andrew A; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L

    2014-08-01

    The melanocortin system regulates metabolic homeostasis and inflammation. Melanocortin agonists have contradictorily been reported to both increase and decrease metabolic rate and body temperature. We find two distinct physiologic responses occurring at similar doses. Intraperitoneal administration of the nonselective melanocortin agonist MTII causes a melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)-mediated hypermetabolism/hyperthermia. This is preceded by a profound, transient hypometabolism/hypothermia that is preserved in mice lacking any one of Mc1r, Mc3r, Mc4r, or Mc5r. Three other melanocortin agonists also caused hypothermia, which is actively achieved via seeking a cool environment, vasodilation, and inhibition of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. These results suggest that the hypometabolic/hypothermic effect of MTII is not due to a failure of thermoregulation. The hypometabolism/hypothermia was prevented by dopamine antagonists, and MTII selectively activated arcuate nucleus dopaminergic neurons, suggesting that these neurons may contribute to the hypometabolism/hypothermia. We propose that the hypometabolism/hypothermia is a regulated response, potentially beneficial during extreme physiologic stress.

  18. Psychogenic fever: how psychological stress affects body temperature in the clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takakazu

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic fever is a stress-related, psychosomatic disease especially seen in young women. Some patients develop extremely high core body temperature (Tc) (up to 41°C) when they are exposed to emotional events, whereas others show persistent low-grade high Tc (37-38°C) during situations of chronic stress. The mechanism for psychogenic fever is not yet fully understood. However, clinical case reports demonstrate that psychogenic fever is not attenuated by antipyretic drugs, but by psychotropic drugs that display anxiolytic and sedative properties, or by resolving patients' difficulties via natural means or psychotherapy. Animal studies have demonstrated that psychological stress increases Tc via mechanisms distinct from infectious fever (which requires proinflammatory mediators) and that the sympathetic nervous system, particularly β3-adrenoceptor-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, plays an important role in the development of psychological stress-induced hyperthermia. Acute psychological stress induces a transient, monophasic increase in Tc. In contrast, repeated stress induces anticipatory hyperthermia, reduces diurnal changes in Tc, or slightly increases Tc throughout the day. Chronically stressed animals also display an enhanced hyperthermic response to a novel stress, while past fearful experiences induce conditioned hyperthermia to the fear context. The high Tc that psychogenic fever patients develop may be a complex of these diverse kinds of hyperthermic responses. PMID:27227051

  19. Inhaled vasopressin increases sociability and reduces body temperature and heart rate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Linnet; Hicks, Callum; Caminer, Alex; McGregor, Iain S

    2014-08-01

    The neuropeptides vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) have therapeutic potential across a range of psychiatric disorders. However, there is uncertainty about the effectiveness of the intranasal route of administration that is often used to deliver these neuropeptides. Recent preclinical studies, typically involving anesthetized or restrained animals, have assessed intranasal AVP or OT effects, and have obtained somewhat inconsistent results. Here we obtained intranasal administration of AVP in rats by nebulizing the peptide (1ml of 5 or 10mg/ml solution) into a small enclosed chamber over a 2min period in which well-habituated, unanesthetized, unrestrained, rats were placed. Rats were immediately removed from the chamber and tested in the social interaction test, or assessed for changes in heart rate and body temperature using biotelemetry. Results showed that rats exposed to nebulized AVP (5 or 10mg/ml) showed increased social proximity (adjacent lying) and decreased anogenital sniffing in the social interaction test. Biotelemetry showed substantial and long lasting (>1h) hypothermic and bradycardic effects of nebulized AVP. These behavioral and physiological effects of nebulized AVP mimic those observed in recent studies with peripherally injected AVP. Plasma AVP concentrations were substantially increased 10min after nebulized AVP, producing levels above those seen with a behaviorally effective injected dose of AVP (0.005mg/kg intraperitoneal). This study thus provides a novel and effective method for neuropeptide administration to rodents.

  20. Post-warmup strategies to maintain body temperature and physical performance in professional rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel J; Russell, Mark; Bracken, Richard M; Cook, Christian J; Giroud, Tibault; Kilduff, Liam P

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effects of using passive-heat maintenance, explosive activity or a combination of both strategies during the post-warmup recovery time on physical performance. After a standardised warmup, 16 professional rugby union players, in a randomised design, completed a counter-movement jump (peak power output) before resting for 20 min and wearing normal-training attire (CON), wearing a passive heat maintenance (PHM) jacket, wearing normal attire and performing 3 × 5 CMJ (with a 20% body mass load) after 12 min of recovery (neuromuscular function, NMF), or combining PHM and NMF (COMB). After 20 min, participants completed further counter-movement jump and a repeated sprint protocol. Core temperature (Tcore) was measured at baseline, post-warmup and post-20 min. After 20 min of recovery, Tcore was significantly lower under CON and NMF, when compared with both PHM and COMB (P drop was less in COMB versus all other conditions (P < 0.05). Repeated sprint performance was significantly better under COMB when compared to all other conditions. Combining PHM with NMF priming attenuates the post-warmup decline in Tcore and can positively influence physical performance in professional rugby union players. PMID:25925751

  1. Microenvironment temperature prediction between body and seat interface using autoregressive data-driven model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuofu; Wang, Lin; Luo, Zhongming; Heusch, Andrew I; Cascioli, Vincenzo; McCarthy, Peter W

    2015-11-01

    There is a need to develop a greater understanding of temperature at the skin-seat interface during prolonged seating from the perspectives of both industrial design (comfort/discomfort) and medical care (skin ulcer formation). Here we test the concept of predicting temperature at the seat surface and skin interface during prolonged sitting (such as required from wheelchair users). As caregivers are usually busy, such a method would give them warning ahead of a problem. This paper describes a data-driven model capable of predicting thermal changes and thus having the potential to provide an early warning (15- to 25-min ahead prediction) of an impending temperature that may increase the risk for potential skin damages for those subject to enforced sitting and who have little or no sensory feedback from this area. Initially, the oscillations of the original signal are suppressed using the reconstruction strategy of empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Consequentially, the autoregressive data-driven model can be used to predict future thermal trends based on a shorter period of acquisition, which reduces the possibility of introducing human errors and artefacts associated with longer duration "enforced" sitting by volunteers. In this study, the method had a maximum predictive error of seat and skin interface 15 min ahead, but required 45 min data prior to give this accuracy. Although the 45 min front loading of data appears large (in proportion to the 15 min prediction), a relative strength derives from the fact that the same algorithm could be used on the other 4 sitting datasets created by the same individual, suggesting that the period of 45 min required to train the algorithm is transferable to other data from the same individual. This approach might be developed (along with incorporation of other measures such as movement and humidity) into a system that can give caregivers prior warning to help avoid exacerbating the skin disorders of patients who suffer

  2. The effects of temperature and body mass on jump performance of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward P Snelling

    Full Text Available Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump distance (D; m scales with body mass (M; g according to the power equation D = 0.35M (0.17±0.08 (95% CI, jump take-off angle (A; degrees scales as A = 52.5M (0.00±0.06, and jump energy (E; mJ per jump scales as E = 1.91M (1.14±0.09. Temperature has no significant effect on the exponent of these relationships, and only a modest effect on the elevation, with an overall Q10 of 1.08 for jump distance and 1.09 for jump energy. On average, adults jump 87% farther and with 74% more energy than predicted based on juvenile scaling data. The positive allometric scaling of jump distance and jump energy across the juvenile life stages is likely facilitated by the concomitant relative increase in the total length (L f+t; mm of the femur and tibia of the hind leg, L f+t = 34.9M (0.37±0.02. The weak temperature-dependence of jump performance can be traced to the maximum tension of the hind femur muscle and the energy storage capacity of the femur's cuticular springs. The disproportionately greater jump energy and jump distance of adults is associated with relatively longer (12% legs and a relatively larger (11% femur muscle cross-sectional area, which could allow more strain loading into the femur's cuticular springs. Augmented jump performance in volant adult locusts achieves the take-off velocity required to initiate flight.

  3. The effects of temperature and body mass on jump performance of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Edward P; Becker, Christie L; Seymour, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump distance (D; m) scales with body mass (M; g) according to the power equation D = 0.35M (0.17±0.08 (95% CI)), jump take-off angle (A; degrees) scales as A = 52.5M (0.00±0.06), and jump energy (E; mJ per jump) scales as E = 1.91M (1.14±0.09). Temperature has no significant effect on the exponent of these relationships, and only a modest effect on the elevation, with an overall Q10 of 1.08 for jump distance and 1.09 for jump energy. On average, adults jump 87% farther and with 74% more energy than predicted based on juvenile scaling data. The positive allometric scaling of jump distance and jump energy across the juvenile life stages is likely facilitated by the concomitant relative increase in the total length (L f+t; mm) of the femur and tibia of the hind leg, L f+t = 34.9M (0.37±0.02). The weak temperature-dependence of jump performance can be traced to the maximum tension of the hind femur muscle and the energy storage capacity of the femur's cuticular springs. The disproportionately greater jump energy and jump distance of adults is associated with relatively longer (12%) legs and a relatively larger (11%) femur muscle cross-sectional area, which could allow more strain loading into the femur's cuticular springs. Augmented jump performance in volant adult locusts achieves the take-off velocity required to initiate flight. PMID:23967304

  4. The Relation of Standard Metabolic Rate to Water Temperature and Body Weight of Schlegels Black Rockfish (Sebastodes Fuscescens)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志敏; 孙耀; 张波; 唐启升

    2004-01-01

    Standard metabolic rates of Schlegels black rockfish with different body weights are determined in laboratory by using the flow-through respirometer at 11.2 ℃, 14.7 ℃, 18.0℃ and 23.6 ℃. The results indicate that the standard metabolic rates increase with the increase of body weight at different temperatures. Relationship between them could be described as Rs = a InW b. The mean of standard metabolic rate is significantly different among groups, but the b values are not. The standard metabolic rates of amended standard body weights decrease with the increase of temperature, and the mean of standard metabolic rate is also significantly different among groups when the standard body weights are 48.6 g, 147.9 g, and 243.1 g.Relationship between them could be described as Rsw = me-bT . The relations of standard metabolic rate ( Rs ) or relative metabolic rate ( Rs ) to body weight and temperature yield the following equations: Rs = 1.160 W0.752 e-9.494/7 and Rs1= 1.160 W0.254e-9.494/7.

  5. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD...

  6. STUDY AND APPLICATION ABOUT COMPUTED SYSTEM FOR EXTERNAL CARDIAC MASSAGE,MONITOR OF HEART AND BODY TEMPERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To make and study computed system for external cardiac massage, monitor of heart and body temperature and observe its clinical effect. Method: The system was made and applied. Result: The effect of system was obvious. Conclusion: The system was an effective clinical equipment in treatment of patient with cardiac arrest.

  7. Impact of temperature and humidity on acceptability of indoor air quality during immediate and longer whole-body exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Clausen, Geo; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1997-01-01

    Acceptability of clean air and air polluted by building materials was studied in climate chambers with different levels of air temperature and humidity in the ranges 18-28°C and 30-70%. The immediate acceptability after entering a chamber and the acceptability during a 20-minute whole-body exposure...

  8. Comparison of physical characteristics, body temperature and resting metabolic rate at 30‡C between subtropical and temperate natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, S.; Ihzuka, H.

    1986-06-01

    Anthropometric measurements, measurements of skin temperatures, rectal temperature, heart rate and metabolic rate at 30‡C were made on 25 young male residents of Okinawa who were born and raised in Okinawa (group O) and 25 young male residents of Okinawa who were born and raised on the Japan mainland but moved to Okinawa less than 2 years before the test (group M) in summer. Group O showed significantly shorter height, lighter body weight, and slender body shape than group M. Group O showed thinner skinfold thickness and smaller percentage of body fat content than group M. Skin temperatures for group O were higher than those for group M, and rectal temperature for group O was slightly lower than that for group M. Group O showed, less metabolic rate per body surface area and slower heart rate than group M. It is concluded that physical characteristics of subtropical natives is favorable for heat dissipation, and subtropical natives have superior capacity for non-evaporative heat dissipation than migrants of temperate natives to a subtropical zone.

  9. [A new method for the transcutaneous measurement of deep body temperature during anaesthesia and intensive care (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, U; Hanf, K; Köhler, C O; Just, O H

    1978-04-01

    A new method for monitoring deep body temperature is described. It is based on the establishment, by means of electronic appliances, of a zone without heatflow from the deep tissues. The method is simple and the results compare favourably with those obtained by other procedures for measuring core temperature. The uses of this transcutaneous mehtod are discussed and its advantages and reliability in the operating theatre and intensive care unit are emphasized. It becomes less reliable if it is employed during and after extracorporeal circulation in hypothermia on account of the temperature gradient.

  10. Effect of a phase I Coxiella burnetii inactivated vaccine on body temperature and milk yield in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, L S-Ch; Borchardt, S; Ouellet, V; Heuwieser, W

    2016-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. The pathogen is prevalent in ruminants (goats, sheep, cows), which are the main sources of human infection. In the cattle industry around the world, animal (15 to 20%) and herd (38 to 72%) level prevalences of C. burnetii are high. Vaccination of ruminants against Q fever is considered important to prevent spreading of the disease and risk of infection in humans. However, published information on side effects of the Q fever vaccination under field conditions is limited for cows. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the phase I C. burnetii inactivated vaccine Coxevac on body temperature and milk yield in dairy cows. In 2 experiments, a total of 508 cows were randomly divided into 2 groups to determine the effect of first vaccination on body temperature and milk yield. The C. burnetii serostatus of all cows was tested before vaccination with an indirect ELISA. The first experiment took place in the teaching and research barn of the Clinic of Animal Reproduction at the Freie Universität Berlin. Temperature was measured vaginally in 10 cows in a crossover design. The second experiment was conducted on a commercial dairy farm. Milk yield of 498 cows was measured 1 wk before and 1 wk after vaccination. In a subset of 41 cows, temperature was measured rectally. In both experiments, body temperature increased significantly after vaccination (1.0 ± 0.9°C and 0.7 ± 0.8°C). A significant difference was also found in body temperature between vaccinated and control cows. Thirty percent of the vaccinated animals in experiment 1 showed reversible swelling at the injection site as a reaction to the vaccination. The results indicate that vaccination against Q fever causes a transient increase of body temperature that peaks in the first 12 to 24h and declines after that. In experiment 2, vaccinated cows (26.8 ± 0.39 kg/d) produced significantly less milk than did control cows (28.2 ± 0.44 kg

  11. Circadian variation of EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep in humans: dissociation from body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    In humans, EEG power spectra in REM and NREM sleep, as well as characteristics of sleep spindles such as their duration, amplitude, frequency and incidence, vary with circadian phase. Recently it has been hypothesized that circadian variations in EEG spectra in humans are caused by variations in brain or body temperature and may not represent phenomena relevant to sleep regulatory processes. To test this directly, a further analysis of EEG power spectra - collected in a forced desynchrony protocol in which sleep episodes were scheduled to a 28-h period while the rhythms of body temperature and plasma melatonin were oscillating at their near 24-h period - was carried out. EEG power spectra were computed for NREM and REM sleep occurring between 90-120 and 270-300 degrees of the circadian melatonin rhythm, i.e. just after the clearance of melatonin from plasma in the 'morning' and just after the 'evening' increase in melatonin secretion. Average body temperatures during scheduled sleep at these two circadian phases were identical (36.72 degrees C). Despite identical body temperatures, the power spectra in NREM sleep were very different at these two circadian phases. EEG activity in the low frequency spindle range was significantly and markedly enhanced after the evening increase in plasma melatonin as compared to the morning phase. For REM sleep, significant differences in power spectra during these two circadian phases, in particular in the alpha range, were also observed. The results confirm that EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep vary with circadian phase, suggesting that the direct contribution of temperature to the circadian variation in EEG power spectra is absent or only minor, and are at variance with the hypothesis that circadian variations in EEG power spectra are caused by variations in temperature.

  12. OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness alters murine heart rate variability and body temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Jasmin Domnik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Altered autonomic (ANS tone in chronic respiratory disease is implicated as a factor in cardiovascular co-morbidities, yet no studies address its impact on cardiovascular function in the presence of murine allergic airway (AW hyperresponsiveness (AHR. Since antigen (Ag-induced AHR is used to model allergic asthma (in which ANS alterations have been reported, we performed a pilot study to assess measurement feasibility of, as well as the impact of allergic sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA on, heart rate variability (HRV in a murine model. Heart rate (HR, body temperature (TB and time- and frequency-domain HRV analyses, a reflection of ANS control, were obtained in chronically instrumented mice (telemetry before, during and for 22 h after OVA or saline aerosolization in sensitized (OVA or Alum adjuvant control exposed animals. OVA mice diverged significantly from Alum mice with respect to change in HR during aerosol challenge (P < 0.001, two-way ANOVA; HR max change Ctrl = +80 ± 10 bpm vs. OVA = +1 ± 23 bpm, mean ± SEM, and displayed elevated HR during the subsequent dark cycle (P = 0.006. Sensitization decreased the TB during aerosol challenge (P < 0.001. Sensitized mice had decreased HRV prior to challenge (SDNN: P = 0.038; Low frequency (LF power: P = 0.021; Low/high Frequency (HF power: P = 0.042, and increased HRV during Ag challenge (RMSSD: P = 0.047; pNN6: P = 0.039. Sensitized mice displayed decreased HRV subsequent to OVA challenge, primarily in the dark cycle (RMSSD: P = 0.018; pNN6: P < 0.001; LF: P < 0.001; HF: P = 0.040; LF/HF: P < 0.001. We conclude that implanted telemetry technology is an effective method to assess the ANS impact of allergic sensitization. Preliminary results show mild sensitization is associated with reduced HRV and a suppression of the acute TB response to OVA challenge. This approach to assess altered ANS control in the acute OVA model may also be beneficial in chronic AHR models.

  13. The dependence of body weight in copepodite stages of Pseudocalanus spp. on variations of ambient temperature and food concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Dzierzbicka-Głowacka

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative expressions are presented describing the effects of temperature and food concentration on the mean body weight of copepodite stages of Pseudocalanus spp. The calculations were made on the basis of experimental data from the literature for three geographically separate populations of Pseudocalanus from Puget Sound (Washington, USA, from the southern North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Relationships were obtained between the coefficient of daily exponential growth of body weight of Pseudocalanus sp. from Puget Sound and temperature in the 8-15.5oC range and food concentrations from 10 mgC m-3 to excess, as well as for Pseudocalanus elongatus from the southern North Sea at high food concentrations and in the 4-15oC temperature range. Also computed was the mean body weight for stages CII to CV of P. elongatus from the southern Baltic Sea at 5oC. The empirical models presented here can be used with good precision in mathematical models of pelagic communities. The results presented here indicate that Pseudocalanus sp. from Puget Sound (a species resembling Pseudocalanus minutus is similar to P. elongatus from the southern North Sea and the English Channel with respect to growth parameters in the studied range of temperatures for excess food. P. elongatus collected in the Baltic Sea (Gulf of Gdańsk differs from P. elongatus from the southern North Sea.

  14. The predicting value of postoperative body temperature on long-term survival in patients with rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huichuan; Luo, Yanxin; Peng, Hui; Kang, Liang; Huang, Meijin; Luo, Shuangling; Chen, Wenhao; Yang, Zihuan; Wang, Jianping

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between postoperative body temperature and prognosis in patients with rectal cancer. Five hundred and seven patients with stage I to III rectal cancers were enrolled in the current study. Basal body temperature (BBT, measured at 6 am) and maximal body temperature (MBT) on each day after surgery were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two equal groups according to the median of BBT and MBT at each day. The primary end points were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The univariate and multivariate analyses showed that patients with low D0-MBT (37.4 °C). In the subset of 318 patients with T3 stage tumor and the subgroup of 458 patients without blood transfusion as well, low D0-MBT continues to be an independent predictor of DFS/OS with an adjusted HR equal to 1.48 (95 % CI 1.02-2.24, P = 0.046)/1.68 (95 % CI 1.04-2.99, P = 0.048) and 1.45 (95 % CI 1.02-2.13, P = 0.048)/1.59 (95 % CI 1.01-2.74, P = 0.049), respectively. In addition, we found that patients have higher risk of 1-year recurrence if those were exhibiting low preoperative BBT (temperature (D0-MBT rectal cancer.

  15. Some like it hot... : the evolution and genetics of temperature dependent body size in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Bochdanovits, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Body size is one of the most obvious and most important characteristic of any organism. A thorough understanding of how and why a certain individual obtains a specific body size, given its evolutionary history and ecological context, is a fundamental question in biology. One special case of variation in size is clinal variation: individuals of the same species indigenous to higher latitudes are on average larger than their conspecifics inhabiting regions at lower latitudes (closer to the equa...

  16. Changes in body surface temperature during speed endurance work-out in highly-trained male sprinters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Paweł; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna; Kusy, Krzysztof; Kantanista, Adam; Zieliński, Jacek

    2016-09-01

    The mechanism of thermoregulatory adaptation to exercise cannot yet be fully explained, however, infrared thermography (IRT) seems to have potential for monitoring physiological changes during exercise and training. It is a non-contact and easy to use technology to measure heat radiation from the body surface. The objective of the study was to examine the temperature changes over time on lower limbs in sprinters during speed endurance training session. Eight sprinters, specialized in distances 100 m and 200 m, aged 21-29 years, members of the Polish national team, were evaluated during an outdoor speed endurance work-out. Their track session comprised of warm-up, specific drills for sprinting technique, and speed endurance exercise. The surface temperature of lower limbs was measured and thermal images were taken using infrared camera after each part of the session. The speed endurance training session brought about specific time course of body surface (legs) temperature. The warm-up induced a significant decline in surface temperature by ∼2.5 °C, measured both on the front and back of lower limbs (p < 0.001), followed by a temperature stabilization until the end of the session. No significant asymmetry between the front and back sides of legs was observed. Body surface temperature may help identify an individual optimal time to terminate warm up and start the main part of the training session. It may also be useful for the assessment of muscle activity symmetry in cyclical activities, such as sprint running. This is of particular relevance when a training session is performed outdoors in changeable weather conditions.

  17. Comparison of Apical Sealing Ability of Lateral Condensation Technique in Room and Body- Simulated Temperatures (An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhnamayan F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Studies reported that nearly 60% of endodontic failures have been attributed to inadequate obturation of the root canal system. Thus, complete obturation of the root canal system and proper apical seal are essential elements in the long-term success of root canal treatment.Purpose: This study aimed to compare the apical seal of lateral condensation tech-nique in the room and in body- simulated temperature.Materials and Method: In this experimental study, 70 extracted, single- rooted, human premolar teeth were instrumented and divided up into four groups. All tooth’s canals were obturated by lateral condensation technique except the teeth in the positive control group. Group 1and 2, each with 30 teeth, were obturated in the room and intracanal temperature respectively. The other two groups were positive and negative control group each with 5 teeth. All groups except negative control were covered by two layers of nail polish. Then linear dye penetration was evaluated with a stereomicroscope. Data was analyzed with student-t test and also Kolmogorov- Smirnov Goodness- of- Fit test to make sure of data. Results: Results showed that dye penetration in group one (obturation in room temperature was 0.6mm more than group 2 (obturation in simulated-body temperature although this was not statistically significant (p> 0.05.Conclusion: Under the condition of this invitro study, apical sealing ability was better in the body-simulated temperature than the room temperature, although it was not statistically significant.

  18. Simulating Non-Specific Influences of Body Posture and Temperature on Thigh-Bioimpedance Spectroscopy during Continuous Monitoring Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) for continuous monitoring of body fluid volumes is gaining considerable importance in personal health care. Unless laboratory conditions are applied, both whole-body or segmental BIS configurations are subject to nonspecific influences (e.g. temperature and change in body position) reducing the method's accuracy and reproducibility. In this work, a two-compartment mathematical model, which describes the thigh segment, has been adapted to simulate fluid and solute kinetics during change in body position or variation in skin temperature. The model is an improved version of our previous one offering a good tradeoff between accuracy and simplicity. It represents the kinetics of fluid redistribution, sodium-, potassium-, and protein-concentrations based on simple equations to predict the time course of BIS variations. Validity of the model was verified in five subjects (following a sequence of 7 min supine, 20 min standing, and 40 min supine). The output of the model may reduce possible influences on BIS by up to 80%.

  19. Simulating Non-Specific Influences of Body Posture and Temperature on Thigh-Bioimpedance Spectroscopy during Continuous Monitoring Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A. H.; Leonhardt, S.

    2013-04-01

    Application of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) for continuous monitoring of body fluid volumes is gaining considerable importance in personal health care. Unless laboratory conditions are applied, both whole-body or segmental BIS configurations are subject to nonspecific influences (e.g. temperature and change in body position) reducing the method's accuracy and reproducibility. In this work, a two-compartment mathematical model, which describes the thigh segment, has been adapted to simulate fluid and solute kinetics during change in body position or variation in skin temperature. The model is an improved version of our previous one offering a good tradeoff between accuracy and simplicity. It represents the kinetics of fluid redistribution, sodium-, potassium-, and protein-concentrations based on simple equations to predict the time course of BIS variations. Validity of the model was verified in five subjects (following a sequence of 7 min supine, 20 min standing, and 40 min supine). The output of the model may reduce possible influences on BIS by up to 80%.

  20. Heat increases MDMA-enhanced NAcc 5-HT and body temperature, but not MDMA self-administration

    OpenAIRE

    Feduccia, Allison A.; Kongovi, Nundhun; Duvauchelle, Christine L.

    2010-01-01

    There is concern that hot environments enhance adverse effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “Ecstasy”). In this study, long-term (4-wks) daily MDMA self-administration sessions and an MDMA challenge test were conducted with rats under normal and high thermal conditions (23° or 32° C). During MDMA self-administration sessions, activity and body temperature were increased by heat or MDMA experience, while MDMA self-administration rates increased with experience, but were compar...

  1. The forecasting of menstruation based on a state-space modeling of basal body temperature time series

    OpenAIRE

    Fukaya, Keiichi; Kawamori, Ai; Osada, Yutaka; Kitazawa, Masumi; Ishiguro, Makio

    2016-01-01

    Women's basal body temperature (BBT) follows a periodic pattern that is associated with the events in their menstrual cycle. Although daily BBT time series contain potentially useful information for estimating the underlying menstrual phase and for predicting the length of current menstrual cycle, few models have been constructed for BBT time series. Here, we propose a state-space model that includes menstrual phase as a latent state variable to explain fluctuations in BBT and menstrual cycle...

  2. The effect of body temperature on the dynamic respiratory system compliance–breathing frequency relationship in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Rubini, Alessandro; Bosco, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical inhomogeneity of the respiratory system is frequently investigated by measuring the frequency dependence of dynamic compliance, but no data are currently available describing the effects of body temperature variations. The aim of the present report was to study those effects in vivo. Peak airway pressure was measured during positive pressure ventilation in eight anesthetized rats while breathing frequency (but not tidal volume) was altered. Dynamic compliance was calculated as ...

  3. Design, Development and Implementation of the IR Signalling Techniques for Monitoring Ambient and Body Temperature in WBANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attiya Baqai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare systems such as hospitals, homecare, telemedicine, and physical rehabilitation are expected to be revolutionized by WBAN (Wireless Body Area Networks. This research work aims to investigate, design, optimize, and demonstrate the applications of IR (Infra-Red communication systems in WBAN. It is aimed to establish a prototype WBAN system capable of measuring Ambient and Body Temperature using LM35 as temperature sensor and transmitting and receiving the data using optical signals. The corresponding technical challenges that have to be faced are also discussed in this paper. Investigations are carried out to efficiently design the hardware using low-cost and low power optical transceivers. The experimental results reveal the successful transmission and reception of Ambient and Body Temperatures over short ranges i.e. up to 3-4 meters. A simple IR transceiver with an LED (Light Emitting Diodes, TV remote control IC and Arduino microcontroller is designed to perform the transmission with sufficient accuracy and ease. Experiments are also performed to avoid interference from other sources like AC and TV remote control signals by implementing IR tags

  4. Interaction of temperature and an environmental stressor: Moina macrocopa responds with increased body size, increased lifespan, and increased offspring numbers slightly above its temperature optimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engert, Antonia; Chakrabarti, Shumon; Saul, Nadine; Bittner, Michal; Menzel, Ralph; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2013-02-01

    For organisms, temperature is one of the most important environmental factors and gains increasing importance due to global warming, since increasing temperatures may pose organisms close to their environmental tolerance limits and, thus, they may become more vulnerable to environmental stressors. We analyzed the temperature-dependence of the water-soluble antioxidant capacity of the cladoceran Moina macrocopa and evaluated its life trait variables with temperature (15, 20, 25, 30°C) and humic substance (HS) concentrations (0, 0.18, 0.36, 0.90, 1.79 mM DOC) as stressors. Temperatures below and above the apparent optimum (20°C) reduced the antioxidative capacity. Additions of HSs increased body length, but decreased mean lifespan at 15 and 20°C. There was no clear HS-effect on offspring numbers at 15, 20, and 30°C. At 25°C with increasing HS-concentration, lifespan was extended and offspring numbers increased tremendously, reaching 250% of the control. Although the applied HS preparation possesses estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities, a xenohormone mechanism does not seem plausible for the reproductive increase, because comparable effects did not occur at other temperatures. A more convincing explanation appears to be the mitohormesis hypothesis which states that a certain increase of reactive oxygen production leads to improved health and longevity and, with Moina, also to increased offspring numbers. Our results suggest that at least with the eurythermic M. macrocopa, a temperature above the optimum can be beneficial for several life trait variables, even when combined with a chemical stressor. Temperatures approximately 10°C above its optimum appear to adversely affect the lifespan and reproduction of M. macrocopa. This indicates that this cladoceran species seems to be able to utilize temperature as an ecological resource in a range slightly above its thermal optimum. PMID:23211326

  5. Surface wetting and its effect on body and surface temperatures of domestic laying hens at different thermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutaf, S; Kahraman, N Seber; Firat, M Z

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of surface wetting at different thermal conditions on core body, head, and dorsal surface temperatures in laying hens. Hens were sprinkled on the head and dorsal surface by releasing a sprinkling dosage of 10 mL.bird(-1). The first measurement was taken presprinkling, and the second was taken immediately postsprinkling and then repeated every 5 min for 20 min. The cooling water needs for intermittent partial surface wetting to relieve acute heat stress in the laying hens were quantified for 48 domestic laying hens under 4 experimental thermal conditions. The hens were kept at 4 thermal conditions at average dry-bulb temperatures of 31.30 +/- 0.03, 33.20 +/- 0.08, 36.01 +/- 0.12, and 40.24 +/- 0.08 degrees C; RH of 67.68 +/- 0.37, 51.78 +/- 1.98, 24.59 +/- 0.90, and 16.12 +/- 1.55%; and air velocities of 0.09 +/- 0.00, 0.07 +/- 0.00, 0.08 +/- 0.00, and 0.09 +/- 0.00 m.s(-1), respectively. The differences in core body, head, and dorsal surface temperatures among the 4 thermal groups were 0.15, 0.18, 0.23, and 0.22 degrees C for core body temperature; 1.63, 1.44, 2.51, and 0.97 degrees C for core head temperature; and 1.23, 1.37, 1.41, and 0.64 degrees C for core dorsal temperature at thermal conditions 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. There were significant differences in core body, head, and dorsal surface temperatures among the 4 thermal condition groups. It was concluded that the spraying interval was directly proportional to the product of the vapor pressure deficit and the thermal resistance of convective mass transfer of the wetted hens, because there were no significant differences in the air velocity among the 4 thermal condition groups and the air velocity was very low. PMID:19038798

  6. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD) cycle. The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypetide (VIP) and its receptor (VPAC2) are highly expressed in the SCN. Recent studies indicate that VIPergic signaling plays an essential role in the maintenance of ongoing circadian rhythmicity by synchronizing SCN cells and by maintaining rhythmicity within individual neurons. To further increase the understanding of the role of VPAC2 signaling in circadian regulation, we implanted telemetric devices and simultaneously measured core body temperature, spontaneous activity, and heart rate in a strain of VPAC2-deficient mice and compared these observations with observations made from mice examined by wheel-running activity. The study demonstrates that VPAC2 signaling is necessary for a functional circadian clock driving locomotor activity, core body temperature, and heart rate rhythmicity, since VPAC2-deficient mice lose the rhythms in all three parameters when placed under constant conditions (of either light or darkness). Furthermore, although 24-h rhythms for three parameters are retained in VPAC2-deficient mice during the LD cycle, the temperature rhythm displays markedly altered time course and profile, rising earlier and peaking ∼4-6 h prior to that of wild-type mice. The use of telemetric devices to measure circadian locomotor activity, temperature, and heart rate, together with the classical determination of circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity, raises questions about how representative wheel-running activity may be of other behavioral parameters, especially when animals have altered circadian phenotype.

  7. Elevation in body temperature to fever range enhances and prolongs subsequent responsiveness of macrophages to endotoxin challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Ting Lee

    Full Text Available Macrophages are often considered the sentries in innate immunity, sounding early immunological alarms, a function which speeds the response to infection. Compared to the large volume of studies on regulation of macrophage function by pathogens or cytokines, relatively little attention has been devoted to the role of physical parameters such as temperature. Given that temperature is elevated during fever, a long-recognized cardinal feature of inflammation, it is possible that macrophage function is responsive to thermal signals. To explore this idea, we used LPS to model an aseptic endotoxin-induced inflammatory response in BALB/c mice and found that raising mouse body temperature by mild external heat treatment significantly enhances subsequent LPS-induced release of TNF-α into the peritoneal fluid. It also reprograms macrophages, resulting in sustained subsequent responsiveness to LPS, i.e., this treatment reduces "endotoxin tolerance" in vitro and in vivo. At the molecular level, elevating body temperature of mice results in a increase in LPS-induced downstream signaling including enhanced phosphorylation of IKK and IκB, NF-κB nuclear translocation and binding to the TNF-α promoter in macrophages upon secondary stimulation. Mild heat treatment also induces expression of HSP70 and use of HSP70 inhibitors (KNK437 or Pifithrin-µ largely abrogates the ability of the thermal treatment to enhance TNF-α, suggesting that the induction of HSP70 is important for mediation of thermal effects on macrophage function. Collectively, these results support the idea that there has been integration between the evolution of body temperature regulation and macrophage function that could help to explain the known survival benefits of fever in organisms following infection.

  8. Wireless Low-Power Integrated Basal-Body-Temperature Detection Systems Using Teeth Antennas in the MedRadio Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chin-Lung; Zheng, Gou-Tsun

    2015-11-20

    This study proposes using wireless low power thermal sensors for basal-body-temperature detection using frequency modulated telemetry devices. A long-term monitoring sensor requires low-power circuits including a sampling circuit and oscillator. Moreover, temperature compensated technologies are necessary because the modulated frequency might have additional frequency deviations caused by the varying temperature. The temperature compensated oscillator is composed of a ring oscillator and a controlled-steering current source with temperature compensation, so the output frequency of the oscillator does not drift with temperature variations. The chip is fabricated in a standard Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and the chip area is 0.9 mm². The power consumption of the sampling amplifier is 128 µW. The power consumption of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) core is less than 40 µW, and the output is -3.04 dBm with a buffer stage. The output voltage of the bandgap reference circuit is 1 V. For temperature measurements, the maximum error is 0.18 °C with a standard deviation of ±0.061 °C, which is superior to the required specification of 0.1 °C.

  9. Wireless Low-Power Integrated Basal-Body-Temperature Detection Systems Using Teeth Antennas in the MedRadio Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Lung Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes using wireless low power thermal sensors for basal-body-temperature detection using frequency modulated telemetry devices. A long-term monitoring sensor requires low-power circuits including a sampling circuit and oscillator. Moreover, temperature compensated technologies are necessary because the modulated frequency might have additional frequency deviations caused by the varying temperature. The temperature compensated oscillator is composed of a ring oscillator and a controlled-steering current source with temperature compensation, so the output frequency of the oscillator does not drift with temperature variations. The chip is fabricated in a standard Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process, and the chip area is 0.9 mm2. The power consumption of the sampling amplifier is 128 µW. The power consumption of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO core is less than 40 µW, and the output is −3.04 dBm with a buffer stage. The output voltage of the bandgap reference circuit is 1 V. For temperature measurements, the maximum error is 0.18 °C with a standard deviation of ±0.061 °C, which is superior to the required specification of 0.1 °C.

  10. Wireless Low-Power Integrated Basal-Body-Temperature Detection Systems Using Teeth Antennas in the MedRadio Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chin-Lung; Zheng, Gou-Tsun

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes using wireless low power thermal sensors for basal-body-temperature detection using frequency modulated telemetry devices. A long-term monitoring sensor requires low-power circuits including a sampling circuit and oscillator. Moreover, temperature compensated technologies are necessary because the modulated frequency might have additional frequency deviations caused by the varying temperature. The temperature compensated oscillator is composed of a ring oscillator and a controlled-steering current source with temperature compensation, so the output frequency of the oscillator does not drift with temperature variations. The chip is fabricated in a standard Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and the chip area is 0.9 mm². The power consumption of the sampling amplifier is 128 µW. The power consumption of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) core is less than 40 µW, and the output is -3.04 dBm with a buffer stage. The output voltage of the bandgap reference circuit is 1 V. For temperature measurements, the maximum error is 0.18 °C with a standard deviation of ±0.061 °C, which is superior to the required specification of 0.1 °C. PMID:26610508

  11. Effects of humid heat exposure in later sleep segments on sleep stages and body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo; Mizuno, Koh

    2005-03-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of humid heat exposure in later sleep segments on sleep stages and body temperature in humans. The subjects were eight healthy males, from whom informed consent had been obtained. The experiments were carried out under three different sets of conditions: a control climate [air temperature (Ta)=26°C, relative humidity (RH)=50%] (C); a humid heat climate (Ta=32°C, RH=80%) (H); and a humid heat exposure in later sleep segments (C for the first 3 h 45 min, followed by a 30-min transition to H, which was then maintained for the last 3 h 45 min) (C H). Electroencephalogram, EOG, and mental electromyogram, rectal temperature (Tre), and skin temperature (Tsk) were continuously measured. The total amount of wakefulness was significantly increased in H compared to C H or C. Compared to C, wakefulness in C H and H was significantly increased during later sleep segments. Tre and mean Tsk were significantly higher in H than in C H or C. In C H, Tsk and Tre increased to levels equal to those observed in H after Ta and RH increase. Whole body sweat loss was significantly lower in C H and C than in H. These results suggest that humid heat exposure in the later sleep segment reduces thermal load as compared to full-night humid heat exposure. In daily life, the use of air conditioning in the initial sleep hours can protect sleep and thermoregulation.

  12. Human perception of short and long time intervals: its correlation with body temperature and the duration of wake time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschoff, J

    1998-10-01

    Time estimation was studied in seven human subjects during prolonged sojourn is isolation from time cues. They wore rectal temperature probes throughout the experiments, and during wakefulness recorded each time they thought one hour had passed. At the end of each of these subjective hours they produced a subjective 5 or 10 sec interval. The produced intervals on the 1-h task were not related to body temperature but were correlated with and proportional to the duration of waketime in all subjects. The produced 5 and 10 sec intervals were in all subjects negatively correlated with rectal temperature, but were not associated with wake time. Brief and long time intervals are subjectively experienced via different mechanisms.

  13. Usb Spectrometers and the Temperature of the Sun: Measuring Black Body Radiation in the Palm of your Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Horrocks, Benjamin R.; Walker, Nick

    2015-06-01

    A new experiment appropriate for both general chemistry and physical chemistry students will be described. The experiment utilizes "pocket size" USB spectrometers (operating in the UV/vis region) coupled with fiber optic cables to record a solar spectrum. A further extension of the experiment involves recording spectra of a light bulb at several voltages (and thus resistances). Using provided software, students can fit black body distributions to their obtained spectra. The software will display the acquired spectrum, a simulation based on their guess temperature, a simulation based on their fit, and OMC2 for both. Students can then compare their results to the known temperature of the sun and the known temperature vs resistance curve of tungsten.

  14. Acute changes in oxygen consumption and body temperature after burn injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Childs, C.; Little, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    This study describes the pattern of oxygen consumption (VO2), rectal temperature (Tr), and acral skin temperature (Tac) in sleeping and resting (awake) burned children nursed in a thermoneutral environment. Measurements of respiratory gas exchange (VO2 and carbon dioxide production (VCO2)) were made using an open circuit, flow through system of indirect calorimetry. Tr and Tac were monitored continuously. Sixteen patients were studied during the first 18 hours after being burned. Three phases...

  15. Relations between the development of patterns of sleeping heart rate and body temperature in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, S.; Pratt, C; Wailoo, M

    2001-01-01

    Overnight patterns of rectal temperature and heart rate were recorded from 119 normal infants at weekly intervals from 7 to about 16 weeks of age. All data were collected in the infants' own homes. As previously reported, different infants developed an adult-like night time rectal temperature pattern abruptly at different ages. When heart rate data were collated by age, there was an apparently gradual fall in sleeping heart rate from 7 to about 14 weeks of age. This was, howeve...

  16. Passive estimation of internal temperatures making use of broadband ultrasound radiated by the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anosov, Andrey A; Kazansky, Alexandr S; Subochev, Pavel V; Mansfel'd, Anatoly D; Klinshov, Vladimir V

    2015-04-01

    The internal temperatures of plasticine models and the human forearm in vivo were determined, based on remote measurements of their intrinsic ultrasonic radiation. For passive detection of the thermal ultrasonic radiation an acoustic radiometer was developed, based on a broadband 0.8-3.3 MHz disk-shaped ultrasonic detector with an 8 mm aperture. To reconstruct temperature profiles using the experimentally measured spectra of thermal acoustic radiation a priori information was used regarding the temperature distribution within the objects being investigated. The temperature distribution for heated plasticine was considered to be a monotonic function. The distribution for the human forearm was considered to fit a heat equation incorporating blood flow parameters. Using sampling durations of 45 s the accuracy of temperature measurement inside a plasticine model was 0.5 K. The measured internal temperature of the forearm in vivo, at 36.3 °C, corresponded to existing physiological data. The results obtained verify the applicability of this passive method of wideband ultrasonic thermometry to medical applications that involve local internal heating of biological tissue. PMID:25920819

  17. Dispersion forces II. Many-body effects, excited atoms, finite temperature and quantum friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi [Imperial College London (United Kingdom). Quantum Optics and Laser Science

    2012-07-01

    Presents the unified theory of dispersion forces. Gives a thorough overview over recent results of dispersion forces. Deals with applied macroscopic quantum electrodynamics. Gives guidance to simulation of realistic material properties. In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contexts.

  18. Experiments on the ectoparasitic deer ked that often attacks humans; preferences for body parts, colour and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortet, R; Härkönen, L; Hokkanen, P; Härkönen, S; Kaitala, A; Kaunisto, S; Laaksonen, S; Kekäläinen, J; Ylönen, H

    2010-06-01

    The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) can fail in its host search. Host search fails when an individual deer ked irreversibly accepts a host unsuitable for its reproduction (e.g. a human) and drops its wings. In northern Europe, the main host of the deer ked is the moose (Alces alces). The deer ked is increasingly causing serious problems for humans (for example, causing deer ked dermatitis) and is considered a threat for the recreational use of forests. The adult deer ked flies in early and mid-autumn to search for a host. Our aims were: (i) to study whether there are ways to avoid deer ked attacks by wearing particular clothing, and (ii) to evaluate deer ked host choice. Using human targets, we explored the cues the deer ked uses for host selection. We studied which part of the host body deer keds target and if body colour and temperature affect their choice. In our experiments, deer keds landed more on dark and red clothing than on white clothing. Moreover, deer keds mostly attacked the upper body parts and preferred the back side of the body over the front side. Finally, deer keds preferred the warmest areas of the host.

  19. The effects of sodium oxybate on core body and skin temperature regulation in narcolepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, A. van der; Donjacour, C.E.; Pijl, H.; Reijntjes, R.H.; Overeem, S.; Lammers, G.J.; Someren, E.J.W. van; Fronczek, R.

    2015-01-01

    Patients suffering from narcolepsy type 1 show altered skin temperatures, resembling the profile that is related to sleep onset in healthy controls. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of sodium oxybate, a widely used drug to treat narcolepsy, on the 24-h profiles of temperatu

  20. Body temperature responses in spinal cord injured individuals during exercise in the cold and heat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, C.R.L.; Binkhorst, R.A.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of arm exercise on the heat balance in spinal cord-injured (SCI) individuals with complete lesions at ambient temperatures of 10 and 35 degrees C. Four SCI with a high lesion (> or = T6) (SCI-H), seven with a low lesion (< T6) (SCI-L), and ten abl

  1. First investigations to refine video-based IR thermography as a non-invasive tool to monitor the body temperature of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, G; Schmidt, M; Ammon, C

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a video-based infrared camera (IRC) was investigated as a tool to monitor the body temperature of calves. Body surface temperatures were measured contactless using videos from an IRC fixed at a certain location in the calf feeder. The body surface temperatures were analysed retrospectively at three larger areas: the head area (in front of the forehead), the body area (behind forehead) and the area of the entire animal. The rectal temperature served as a reference temperature and was measured with a digital thermometer at the corresponding time point. A total of nine calves (Holstein-Friesians, 8 to 35 weeks old) were examined. The average maximum temperatures of the area of the entire animal (mean±SD: 37.66±0.90°C) and the head area (37.64±0.86°C) were always higher than that of the body area (36.75±1.06°C). The temperatures of the head area and of the entire animal were very similar. However, the maximum temperatures as measured using IRC increased with an increase in calf rectal temperature. The maximum temperatures of each video picture for the entire visible body area of the calves appeared to be sufficient to measure the superficial body temperature. The advantage of the video-based IRC over conventional IR single-picture cameras is that more than one picture per animal can be analysed in a short period of time. This technique provides more data for analysis. Thus, this system shows potential as an indicator for continuous temperature measurements in calves.

  2. The effects of floor heating on body temperature, water consumption, stress response and immune competence around parturition in loose-housed sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, B M; Malmkvist, J; Pedersen, L J;

    2009-01-01

    ). In conclusion, the present results indicate that floor heating for a limited period around parturition did not compromise physiological and immunological parameters, water intake and body temperature in loose-housed sows. The water intake peaked the day before parturition and the body temperature peaked......The aim of the present study was to study whether floor heating from 12 h after onset of nest building until 48 h after birth of the first piglet had any effect on measures related to body temperature, water consumption, stress response and immune competence in loose-housed sows (n = 23...

  3. Role of many-body effects in the coherent dynamics of excitons in low-temperature-grown GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, D.; Hacquebard, L.; Hall, K. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Liu, X.; Dobrowolska, M.; Furdyna, J. K. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Femtosecond four-wave mixing experiments on low-temperature-grown (LT-) GaAs indicate a polarization-dependent nonlinear optical response at the exciton, which we attribute to Coulomb-mediated coupling between excitons and electron-hole pairs simultaneously excited by the broad-bandwidth laser pulses. Strong suppression of the exciton response through screening by carriers injected by a third pump pulse was observed, an effect that is transient due to rapid carrier trapping. Our findings highlight the need to account for the complex interplay of disorder and many-body effects in the design of ultrafast optoelectronic devices using this material.

  4. Temperature control apparatus including air return bulkhead for mounting in a transportable body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajic, A.H.

    1988-02-23

    An air return bulkhead assembly for removable installation adjacent an inside surface of a front wall of a trailer also having two side walls extending from opposite ends of the front wall, through which front wall is disposed an air treatment apparatus for receiving air through an inlet, for temperature treating the air and for providing the temperature-treated air through an outlet is described comprising: a first vertical support member having a first web through which a first hole is defined; first attachment means for attaching the first vertical support member to the front wall of the trailer between one of the side walls of the trailer and the air treatment apparatus.

  5. An All-Elastomeric Transparent and Stretchable Temperature Sensor for Body-Attachable Wearable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trung, Tran Quang; Ramasundaram, Subramaniyan; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2016-01-20

    A transparent stretchable (TS) gated sensor array with high optical transparency, conformality, and high stretchability of up to 70% is demonstrated. The TS-gated sensor array has high responsivity to temperature changes in objects and human skin. This unprecedented TS-gated sensor array, as well as the integrated platform of the TS-gated sensor with a transparent and stretchable strain sensor, show great potential for application to wearable skin electronics for recognition of human activity.

  6. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Dollins, A B; Zhdanova, I.V.; Wurtman, R J; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M H

    1994-01-01

    We examined effects of very low doses of melatonin (0.1-10 mg, orally) or placebo, administered at 1145 h, on sleep latency and duration, mood, performance, oral temperature, and changes in serum melatonin levels in 20 healthy male volunteers. A repeated-measure double-blind Latin square design was used. Subjects completed a battery of tests designed to assess mood and performance between 0930 and 1730 h. The sedative-like effects of melatonin were assessed by a simple sleep...

  7. Three-dimensional cryoEM reconstruction of native LDL particles to 16A resolution at physiological body temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhor Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL particles, the major carriers of cholesterol in the human circulation, have a key role in cholesterol physiology and in the development of atherosclerosis. The most prominent structural components in LDL are the core-forming cholesteryl esters (CE and the particle-encircling single copy of a huge, non-exchangeable protein, the apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100. The shape of native LDL particles and the conformation of native apoB-100 on the particles remain incompletely characterized at the physiological human body temperature (37 °C. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study native LDL particles, we applied cryo-electron microscopy to calculate 3D reconstructions of LDL particles in their hydrated state. Images of the particles vitrified at 6 °C and 37 °C resulted in reconstructions at ~16 Å resolution at both temperatures. 3D variance map analysis revealed rigid and flexible domains of lipids and apoB-100 at both temperatures. The reconstructions showed less variability at 6 °C than at 37 °C, which reflected increased order of the core CE molecules, rather than decreased mobility of the apoB-100. Compact molecular packing of the core and order in a lipid-binding domain of apoB-100 were observed at 6 °C, but not at 37 °C. At 37 °C we were able to highlight features in the LDL particles that are not clearly separable in 3D maps at 6 °C. Segmentation of apoB-100 density, fitting of lipovitellin X-ray structure, and antibody mapping, jointly revealed the approximate locations of the individual domains of apoB-100 on the surface of native LDL particles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides molecular background for further understanding of the link between structure and function of native LDL particles at physiological body temperature.

  8. Digesta kinetics, energy intake, grazing behavior, and body temperature of grazing beef cattle differing in adaptation to heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Ellist, W C; Stuth, J W; Forbes, T D; Greene, L W

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether digesta kinetics, energy intake (EI, kcal ME intake x kg(-.75) x d(-1)), grazing behavior, or body temperature differed by breed, lactational state, or season of the year among cattle presumed to vary in adaptability to the subtropics. Two-year-old lactating and nonlactating Brahman x Angus (BA; n = 5, n = 5), Tuli x Angus (TA; n = 5, n = 4), and Angus (A; n = 4, n = 4) cows were used. During both early (ES) and late summer (LS), lactating cattle vs nonlactating cattle had greater gastrointestinal tract load (CM2) and EI (P .48). During LS, lactating cattle had decreased early morning rectal temperatures (P .26) late afternoon rectal temperatures compared with BA and TA. With data pooled over both grazing trials, BA cattle had the smallest CM2 (P .28) early morning rectal temperatures compared with BA during ES and LS. During LS, TA spent more time in the sun and less time in the shade than did either A or BA (P .50). During LS, EI for lactating A was greater than for BA and TA (P x Angus cattle appear to be comparable to BA with respect to heat adaptation. It appears that EI demands are greater in a hot environment. PMID:10875645

  9. The Effects of Temperature and Body Mass on Jump Performance of the Locust Locusta migratoria

    OpenAIRE

    Snelling, Edward P.; Christie L Becker; Seymour, Roger S.

    2013-01-01

    Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump...

  10. Cathinone increases body temperature, enhances locomotor activity, and induces striatal c-fos expression in the Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S; Fileccia, E L; Murphy, M; Fowler, M J; King, M V; Shortall, S E; Wigmore, P M; Green, A R; Fone, K C F; Ebling, F J P

    2014-01-24

    Cathinone is a β-keto alkaloid that is the major active constituent of khat, the leaf of the Catha edulis plant that is chewed recreationally in East Africa and the Middle East. Related compounds, such as methcathinone and mephedrone have been increasing in popularity as recreational drugs, resulting in the recent proposal to classify khat as a Class C drug in the UK. There is still limited knowledge of the pharmacological effects of cathinone. This study examined the acute effects of cathinone on core body temperature, locomotor and other behaviors, and neuronal activity in Siberian hamsters. Adult male hamsters, previously implanted with radio telemetry devices, were treated with cathinone (2 or 5mg/kg i.p.), the behavioral profile scored and core body temperature and locomotor activity recorded by radio telemetry. At the end of the study, hamsters received vehicle or cathinone (5mg/kg) and neuronal activation in the brain was determined using immunohistochemical evaluation of c-fos expression. Cathinone dose-dependently induced significant (phamster.

  11. Free-running circadian rhythms of muscle strength, reaction time, and body temperature in totally blind people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squarcini, Camila Fabiana Rossi; Pires, Maria Laura Nogueira; Lopes, Cleide; Benedito-Silva, Ana Amélia; Esteves, Andrea Maculano; Cornelissen-Guillaume, Germaine; Matarazzo, Carolina; Garcia, Danilo; da Silva, Maria Stella Peccin; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2013-01-01

    Light is the major synchronizer of circadian rhythms. In the absence of light, as for totally blind people, some variables, such as body temperature, have an endogenous period that is longer than 24 h and tend to be free running. However, the circadian rhythm of muscle strength and reaction time in totally blind people has not been defined in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine the period of the endogenous circadian rhythm of the isometric and isokinetic contraction strength and simple reaction time of totally blind people. The study included six totally blind people with free-running circadian rhythms and four sighted people (control group). Although the control group required only a single session to determine the circadian rhythm, the blind people required three sessions to determine the endogenous period. In each session, isometric strength, isokinetic strength, reaction time, and body temperature were collected six different times a day with an interval of at least 8 h. The control group had better performance for strength and reaction time in the afternoon. For the blind, this performance became delayed throughout the day. Therefore, we conclude that the circadian rhythms of strength and simple reaction time of totally blind people are within their free-running periods. For some professionals, like the blind paralympic athletes, activities that require large physiological capacities in which the maximum stimulus should match the ideal time of competition may result in the blind athletes falling short of their expected performance under this free-running condition.

  12. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollins, A. B.; Zhdanova, I. V.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    We examined effects of very low doses of melatonin (0.1-10 mg, orally) or placebo, administered at 1145 h, on sleep latency and duration, mood, performance, oral temperature, and changes in serum melatonin levels in 20 healthy male volunteers. A repeated-measure double-blind Latin square design was used. Subjects completed a battery of tests designed to assess mood and performance between 0930 and 1730 h. The sedative-like effects of melatonin were assessed by a simple sleep test: at 1330 h subjects were asked to hold a positive pressure switch in each hand and to relax with eyes closed while reclining in a quiet darkened room. Latency and duration of switch release, indicators of sleep, were measured. Areas under the time-melatonin concentration curve varied in proportion to the different melatonin doses ingested, and the 0.1- and 0.3-mg doses generated peak serum melatonin levels that were within the normal range of nocturnal melatonin levels in untreated people. All melatonin doses tested significantly increased sleep duration, as well as self-reported sleepiness and fatigue, relative to placebo. Moreover, all of the doses significantly decreased sleep-onset latency, oral temperature, and the number of correct responses on the Wilkinson auditory vigilance task. These data indicate that orally administered melatonin can be a highly potent hypnotic agent; they also suggest that the physiological increase in serum melatonin levels, which occurs around 2100 h daily, may constitute a signal initiating normal sleep onset.

  13. Physical exercise-induced changes in the core body temperature of mice depend more on ambient temperature than on exercise protocol or intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Costa, Kátia Anunciação; Soares, Anne Danieli Nascimento; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2014-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying physical exercise-induced hyperthermia may be species specific. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise intensity and ambient temperature on the core body temperature ( T core) of running mice, which provide an important experimental model for advancing the understanding of thermal physiology. We evaluated the influence of different protocols (constant- or incremental-speed exercises), treadmill speeds and ambient temperatures ( T a) on the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. To measure T core, a telemetric sensor was implanted in the abdominal cavity of male adult Swiss mice under anesthesia. After recovering from the surgery, the animals were familiarized to running on a treadmill and then subjected to the different running protocols and speeds at two T a: 24 °C or 34 °C. All of the experimental trials resulted in marked increases in T core. As expected, the higher-temperature environment increased the magnitude of running-induced hyperthermia. For example, during incremental exercise at 34 °C, the maximal T core achieved was increased by 1.2 °C relative to the value reached at 24 °C. However, at the same T a, neither treadmill speed nor exercise protocol altered the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. We conclude that T core of running mice is influenced greatly by T a, but not by the exercise protocols or intensities examined in the present report. These findings suggest that the magnitude of hyperthermia in running mice may be regulated centrally, independently of exercise intensity.

  14. Time Trends and Predictors of Abnormal Postoperative Body Temperature in Infants Transported to the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig Schroeck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite increasing adoption of active warming methods over the recent years, little is known about the effectiveness of these interventions on the occurrence of abnormal postoperative temperatures in sick infants. Methods. Preoperative and postoperative temperature readings, patient characteristics, and procedural factors of critically ill infants at a single institution were retrieved retrospectively from June 2006 until May 2014. The primary endpoints were the incidence and trend of postoperative hypothermia and hyperthermia on arrival at the intensive care units. Univariate and adjusted analyses were performed to identify factors independently associated with abnormal postoperative temperatures. Results. 2,350 cases were included. 82% were normothermic postoperatively, while hypothermia and hyperthermia each occurred in 9% of cases. During the study period, hypothermia decreased from 24% to 2% (p<0.0001 while hyperthermia remained unchanged (13% in 2006, 8% in 2014, p=0.357. Factors independently associated with hypothermia were higher ASA status (p=0.02, lack of intraoperative convective warming (p<0.001 and procedure date before 2010 (p<0.001. Independent associations for postoperative hyperthermia included lower body weight (p=0.01 and procedure date before 2010 (p<0.001. Conclusions. We report an increase in postoperative normothermia rates in critically ill infants from 2006 until 2014. Careful monitoring to avoid overcorrection and hyperthermia is recommended.

  15. Impact of water temperature and stressor controllability on swim stress-induced changes in body temperature, serum corticosterone, and immobility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugan, Robert C; Eren, Senem; Hazi, Agnes; Silva, Jennifer; Christianson, John P; Kent, Stephen

    2005-10-01

    The present study compared the effects of three different water temperatures (20, 25, and 30 degrees C) and stressor controllability on several physiological and behavioral endpoints in an intermittent swim stress paradigm. The escape latency of rats in the 20 and 25 degrees C water was less than that observed for the 30 degrees C group. Both escape and yoked groups at 20 and 25 degrees C exhibited moderate to severe hypothermia following the swim stress session that returned to prestress levels 30-40 min post-stress. At 30 degrees C core body temperature (Tb) only decreased by 1 degree C for either swim group. Following swim, serum corticosterone (CORT) levels were significantly elevated in both escape and yoked groups in comparison to confined and home cage controls. The confined control group showed a significant elevation that was approximately halfway between the home cage control and the swim stress groups. At 30 degrees C, there was still a significant elevation of serum CORT in both swim groups in comparison to confined and home cage controls. Therefore, 30 degrees C appears to be the optimal water temperature to evaluate stress controllability effects in the current paradigm. In a final experiment, swim stressor controllability effects were examined in a 5 min forced swim test (FST) 24 h following the initial stress exposure. Rats exposed to yoked-inescapable swim stress at 30 degrees C exhibited more immobility than their escapable swim stress and confined counterparts, while the escape and confined controls did not differ. These results demonstrate that the behavioral deficits observed in the FST are attributable to the stress of inescapable swim and not swim stress per se.

  16. Changes in body temperature pattern in vertebrates do not influence the codon usages of alpha-globin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Kazuo; Horiike, Tokumasa; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Ota, Hidetoshi; Yatogo, Takayuki; Okada, Kazuhisa; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Shinozawa, Takao

    2002-06-01

    Codon usages are known to vary among vertebrates chiefly due to variations in isochore structure. Under the assumption that marked differences exist in isochore structure between warm-blooded and cold-blooded animals, the variations among vertebrates were previously attributed to an adaptation to homeothermy. However, based on data from a turtle species and a crocodile (Archosauromorpha), it was recently proposed that the common ancestors of mammals, birds and extent reptiles already had the "warm-blooded" isochore structure. We determined the nucleotide sequences of alpha-globin genes from two species of heterotherms, cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) and bat (Pipistrellus abramus), and three species of snakes (Lepidosauromorpha), Naja kaouthia from a tropical terrestrial habitat, Elaphe climacophora from a temperate terrestrial habitat, and Hydrophis melanocephalus from a tropical marine habitat. Our purposes were to assess the influence of differential body temperature patterns on codon usage and GC content at the third position of a codon (GC3), and to test the hypothesis concerning the phylogenetic position at which GC contents had increased in vertebrates. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) using the present data and data for other taxa from GenBank indicate that the primary difference in codon usage in globin genes among amniotes and other vertebrates lies in GC3. The codon usages (and GC3) in alpha-globin genes from two heterotherms and three snakes are similar to those in alpha-globin genes from warm-blooded vertebrates. These results refute the influence of body temperature pattern upon codon usages (and GC3) in alpha-globin genes, and support the hypothesis that the increase in GC content in the genome occurred in the common ancestor of amniotes. PMID:12207041

  17. A low body temperature on arrival at hospital following out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest is associated with increased mortality in the TTM-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovdenes, Jan; Røysland, Kjetil; Nielsen, Niklas;

    2016-01-01

    categorized according to their recorded body temperature on arrival and also categorized to groups of patients being actively cooled or passively rewarmed. RESULTS: OHCA patients having a temperature ≤34.0°C on arrival at hospital had a significantly higher mortality compared to the OHCA patients......AIM: To investigate the association of temperature on arrival to hospital after out-of-hospital-cardiac arrest (OHCA) with the primary outcome of mortality, in the targeted temperature management (TTM) trial. METHODS: The TTM trial randomized 939 patients to TTM at 33 or 36°C for 24h. Patients were...... with a higher temperature on arrival. A low body temperature on arrival was associated with a longer time to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and duration of transport time to hospital. Patients who were actively cooled or passively rewarmed during the first 4h had similar mortality. In a multivariate...

  18. Daily scheduled high fat meals moderately entrain behavioral anticipatory activity, body temperature, and hypothalamic c-Fos activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M Gallardo

    Full Text Available When fed in restricted amounts, rodents show robust activity in the hours preceding expected meal delivery. This process, termed food anticipatory activity (FAA, is independent of the light-entrained clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, yet beyond this basic observation there is little agreement on the neuronal underpinnings of FAA. One complication in studying FAA using a calorie restriction model is that much of the brain is activated in response to this strong hunger signal. Thus, daily timed access to palatable meals in the presence of continuous access to standard chow has been employed as a model to study FAA in rats. In order to exploit the extensive genetic resources available in the murine system we extended this model to mice, which will anticipate rodent high fat diet but not chocolate or other sweet daily meals (Hsu, Patton, Mistlberger, and Steele; 2010, PLoS ONE e12903. In this study we test additional fatty meals, including peanut butter and cheese, both of which induced modest FAA. Measurement of core body temperature revealed a moderate preprandial increase in temperature in mice fed high fat diet but entrainment due to handling complicated interpretation of these results. Finally, we examined activation patterns of neurons by immunostaining for the immediate early gene c-Fos and observed a modest amount of entrainment of gene expression in the hypothalamus of mice fed a daily fatty palatable meal.

  19. Temperature- and parasite-induced changes in toxicity and lethal body burdens of pentachlorophenol in the freshwater clam Pisidium amnicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, J; Kukkonen, J V; Holopainen, I J

    2001-12-01

    Seasonal variation in abiotic and biotic environments may modify the toxicity of organic chemicals for aquatic organisms. In present study, survival of the freshwater clam Pisidium amnicum was studied in laboratory exposures to pentachlorophenol (PCP) in April (at 5 degress C) and July (at 19 degress C). Behavioral responses, mean survival times (MSTs), and the lethal body burdens (LBBs) of PCP for uninfected clams and for clams infected by digenean trematodes were determined separately in two PCP concentrations, 100 and 300 microgram/L. Analysis of data revealed reduced behavioral activity of the clams in the PCP exposure compared to that in the control. The time needed for toxic responses was greatly affected by temperature; MSTs were 5 to 15 times longer in winter than at summer temperatures. Unexpectedly, the infected clams in summer were more tolerant to PCP than the uninfected clams. Despite the differences in survival times, the LBBs between the seasons were constant. However, in summer, the infected clams had significantly higher LBBs than the uninfected clams. The differences in survival and LBBs between the infected and uninfected clams are suggested to be caused by the high lipid contents found in parasites, which may change the internal distribution of PCP. PMID:11764161

  20. Tomographic measurement of temperature change in phantoms of the human body by chirp radar-type microwave computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, M

    1993-07-01

    The chirp radar-type microwave computed tomograph (CT) measures the temperature change in a human body noninvasively. The paper examines its feasibility. A chirp pulse signal between 1 and 2 GHz is radiated from the transmitting antenna to the phantom. The transmitted waves are detected by the receiving antenna, which is placed on the opposite side of the object, and the beat signal between the incident wave and the transmitted wave is produced by the mixer. By spectral analysis of the beat signal, only those signals transmitted on the straight line between the transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna are discriminated from multipath signals. The microwave tomogram can therefore be reconstructed easily using the conventional algorithms for an X-ray CT image. The microwave CT can use the chirp signal to remove the influence of multipath signals caused by diffraction and reflection. The imaging of dielectric materials with complicated structures is thus possible. The experimental results using phantoms show that the spatial resolution of this microwave CT is about 10 mm and that a two-dimensional distribution of temperature change can be measured.

  1. Effects of body mass and temperature on routine metabolic rate of juvenile largemouth bronze gudgeon Coreius guichenoti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y P; Wang, Q Q

    2012-04-01

    The effects of body mass (M) and temperature (T) on routine metabolic rate (m(R) ) were assessed in the largemouth bronze gudgeon Coreius guichenoti, from Three Gorges Reservoir, Yangtze River, China. The m(R) increased with increasing M by factors (b-value in the equation m(R) = aM(b) ) of 0·843, 0·800, 0·767, 0·788 and 0·822 at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30° C, respectively. A significant interaction between M and T on m(R) was observed. The variation in the b-value at different T suggests that the b-values were not consistent with the universal allometric exponent 0·75. After controlling for M, the relationship between the normalized standard metabolic rate (m(S), mg O(2) kg(-1) h(-1)) and T was described by an exponential equation: m(S) = 9·89e((0·093T)) . The results indicate that the effects of M on m(R) depend on T. The increased water temperature induced by dam construction on the Yangtze River may cause a marked increase in energy demand by this species, with potential ecological consequences. PMID:22471803

  2. Circadian rhythms of body temperature and locomotor activity in aging BALB/c mice: early and late life span predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Andrea; Del Bello, Giovanna; Piacenza, Francesco; Giacconi, Robertina; Costarelli, Laura; Malavolta, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Impairment of one or more parameters of circadian rhythms (CR) of body temperature (BT) and locomotor activity (LMA) are considered among the hallmarks of mammalian aging. These alterations are frequently used as markers for imminent death in laboratory mice. However, there are still contradictory data for particular strains and it is also uncertain which changes might predict senescence changes later in life, including the force of mortality. In the present paper we use telemetry to study LMA and CR of BT during aging of BALB/c mice. At our knowledge this is the first time that CR of BT and LMA are investigated in this strain in a range of age covering the whole lifespan, from young adult up to very old age. CR of BT was analyzed with a cosine model using a cross sectional approach and follow-up measurements. The results show that BT, LMA, amplitude, goodness-of-fit (GoF) to circadian cycle of temperature decrease with different shapes during chronological age. Moreover, we found that the % change of amplitude and BT in early life (5-19 months) can predict the remaining lifespan of the mice. Later in life (22-32 months), best predictors are single measurements of LMA and GoF. The results of this study also offer potential measures to rapidly identifying freely unrestrained mice with the worst longitudinal outcome and against which existing or novel biomarkers and treatments may be assessed. PMID:26820297

  3. FDTD analysis of human body-core temperature elevation due to RF far-field energy prescribed in the ICNIRP guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2007-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in an anatomically-based model named NORMAN for exposure to radio-frequency far fields in the ICNIRP guidelines (1998 Health Phys. 74 494-522). The finite-difference time-domain method is used for analyzing the electromagnetic absorption and temperature elevation in NORMAN. In order to consider the variability of human thermoregulation, parameters for sweating are derived and incorporated into a conventional sweating formula. First, we investigated the effect of blood temperature variation modeling on body-core temperature. The computational results show that the modeling of blood temperature variation was the dominant factor influencing the body-core temperature. This is because the temperature in the inner tissues is elevated via the circulation of blood whose temperature was elevated due to EM absorption. Even at different frequencies, the body-core temperature elevation at an identical whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) was almost the same, suggesting the effectiveness of the whole-body average SAR as a measure in the ICNIRP guidelines. Next, we discussed the effect of sweating on the temperature elevation and thermal time constant of blood. The variability of temperature elevation caused by the sweating rate was found to be 30%. The blood temperature elevation at the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0.4 W kg-1 is 0.25 °C even for a low sweating rate. The thermal time constant of blood temperature elevation was 23 min and 52 min for a man with a lower and a higher sweating rate, respectively, which is longer than the average time of the SAR in the ICNIRP guidelines. Thus, the whole-body average SAR required for blood temperature elevation of 1 °C was 4.5 W kg-1 in the model of a human with the lower sweating coefficients for 60 min exposure. From a comparison of this value with the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0

  4. Response diversity of free-floating plants to nutrient stoichiometry and temperature: growth and resting body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Free-floating plants, like most groups of aquatic primary producers, can become nuisance vegetation under certain conditions. On the other hand, there is substantial optimism for the applied uses of free-floating plants, such as wastewater treatment, biofuel production, and aquaculture. Therefore, understanding the species-specific responses of floating plants to abiotic conditions will inform both management decisions and the beneficial applications of these plants. I measured the responses of three floating plant species common in the northeast United States (Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza, and Wolffia brasiliensis) to nutrient stoichiometry (nitrogen and phosphorus) and temperature in the laboratory. I also used survey data to determine the pattern of species richness of floating plants in the field and its relationship with the dominance of this group. Floating plant species exhibited unique responses to nutrient stoichiometry and temperature in the laboratory, especially under low temperatures (18 °C) and low nutrient conditions (0.5 mg N L(-1), 0.083 mg P L(-1)). The three species displayed an apparent tradeoff with different strategies of growth or dormancy. In the field, water bodies with three or more species of floating plants were not more frequently dominated by this group. The response diversity observed in the lab may not be associated with the dominance of this group in the field because it is masked by environmental variability, has a weak effect, or is only important during transient circumstances. Future research to develop applied uses of floating plants should examine response diversity across a greater range of species or clones and environmental conditions. PMID:26989619

  5. Response diversity of free-floating plants to nutrient stoichiometry and temperature: growth and resting body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Free-floating plants, like most groups of aquatic primary producers, can become nuisance vegetation under certain conditions. On the other hand, there is substantial optimism for the applied uses of free-floating plants, such as wastewater treatment, biofuel production, and aquaculture. Therefore, understanding the species-specific responses of floating plants to abiotic conditions will inform both management decisions and the beneficial applications of these plants. I measured the responses of three floating plant species common in the northeast United States (Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza, and Wolffia brasiliensis) to nutrient stoichiometry (nitrogen and phosphorus) and temperature in the laboratory. I also used survey data to determine the pattern of species richness of floating plants in the field and its relationship with the dominance of this group. Floating plant species exhibited unique responses to nutrient stoichiometry and temperature in the laboratory, especially under low temperatures (18 °C) and low nutrient conditions (0.5 mg N L(-1), 0.083 mg P L(-1)). The three species displayed an apparent tradeoff with different strategies of growth or dormancy. In the field, water bodies with three or more species of floating plants were not more frequently dominated by this group. The response diversity observed in the lab may not be associated with the dominance of this group in the field because it is masked by environmental variability, has a weak effect, or is only important during transient circumstances. Future research to develop applied uses of floating plants should examine response diversity across a greater range of species or clones and environmental conditions.

  6. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Lin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that copepod community growth rates can be described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE, linking spatio-temporal variation of copepod growth rate with temperature and their body size. Our results generally agree with predictions made by the MTE and demonstrate that weight-specific growth rates of copepod communities in our study area are positively related with temperature and negatively related to body size. However, the regression coefficients of body size do not approach the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we find that the deviation from the MTE predictions may be partly attributed to the effect of food availability (which is not explicitly accounted for by the MTE. In addition, significant difference in the coefficients of temperature and body size exists among taxonomic groups. Our results suggest that considering the effects of food limitation and taxonomy is necessary to better understand copepod growth rates under in situ conditions, and such effects on the MTE-based prediction needs further investigation.

  7. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, K. Y.; Sastri, A. R.; Gong, G. C.; Hsieh, C. H.

    2013-03-01

    Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs, and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food) on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that copepod community growth rates can be described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE), linking spatio-temporal variation of copepod growth rate with temperature and their body size. Our results generally agree with predictions made by the MTE and demonstrate that weight-specific growth rates of copepod communities in our study area are positively related with temperature and negatively related to body size. However, the regression coefficients of body size do not approach the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we find that the deviation from the MTE predictions may be partly attributed to the effect of food availability (which is not explicitly accounted for by the MTE). In addition, significant difference in the coefficients of temperature and body size exists among taxonomic groups. Our results suggest that considering the effects of food limitation and taxonomy is necessary to better understand copepod growth rates under in situ conditions, and such effects on the MTE-based predictions need further investigation.

  8. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Lin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs, and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that copepod community growth rates can be described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE, linking spatio-temporal variation of copepod growth rate with temperature and their body size. Our results generally agree with predictions made by the MTE and demonstrate that weight-specific growth rates of copepod communities in our study area are positively related with temperature and negatively related to body size. However, the regression coefficients of body size do not approach the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we find that the deviation from the MTE predictions may be partly attributed to the effect of food availability (which is not explicitly accounted for by the MTE. In addition, significant difference in the coefficients of temperature and body size exists among taxonomic groups. Our results suggest that considering the effects of food limitation and taxonomy is necessary to better understand copepod growth rates under in situ conditions, and such effects on the MTE-based predictions need further investigation.

  9. Data logging of body temperatures provides precise information on phenology of reproductive events in a free-living arctic hibernator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.T.; Sheriff, M.J.; Schmutz, J.A.; Kohl, F.; Toien, O.; Buck, C.L.; Barnes, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Precise measures of phenology are critical to understanding how animals organize their annual cycles and how individuals and populations respond to climate-induced changes in physical and ecological stressors. We show that patterns of core body temperature (T b) can be used to precisely determine the timing of key seasonal events including hibernation, mating and parturition, and immergence and emergence from the hibernacula in free-living arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). Using temperature loggers that recorded T b every 20 min for up to 18 months, we monitored core T b from three females that subsequently gave birth in captivity and from 66 female and 57 male ground squirrels free-living in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range Alaska. In addition, dates of emergence from hibernation were visually confirmed for four free-living male squirrels. Average T b in captive females decreased by 0.5–1.0°C during gestation and abruptly increased by 1–1.5°C on the day of parturition. In free-living females, similar shifts in T b were observed in 78% (n = 9) of yearlings and 94% (n = 31) of adults; females without the shift are assumed not to have given birth. Three of four ground squirrels for which dates of emergence from hibernation were visually confirmed did not exhibit obvious diurnal rhythms in T b until they first emerged onto the surface when T b patterns became diurnal. In free-living males undergoing reproductive maturation, this pre-emergence euthermic interval averaged 20.4 days (n = 56). T b-loggers represent a cost-effective and logistically feasible method to precisely investigate the phenology of reproduction and hibernation in ground squirrels.

  10. 玻璃体温计测量体温的研究进展%Research progress on body temperature measurement with glass thermometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程建英; 王云娟; 李志伟

    2013-01-01

    介绍玻璃体温计的质量标准及检测,综述了玻璃体温计测量体温的研究现状,提出应规范玻璃体温计检测及测量体温方法.%It introduced the quality standards and testing of glass thermometer and reviewed the research status quo of body temperature measurement with glass thermometer. It put forward that one should make the glass thermometer check and body temperature measurement standard.

  11. Intermittent exposure to social defeat and open-field test in rats: acute and long-term effects on ECG, body temperature and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgoifo, Andrea; Pozzato, Chiara; Meerlo, Peter; Costoli, Tania; Manghi, Massimo; Stilli, Donatella; Olivetti, Giorgio; Musso, Ezio

    2002-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to an intermittent homotypic stressor on: (i) habituation of acute autonomic responsivity (i.e. cardiac sympathovagal balance and susceptibility to arrhythmias), and (ii) circadian rhythmicity of heart rate, body temperature, and physical activity. After implantation of a transmitter for the radiotelemetric recording of electrocardiogram (ECG), body temperature and physical activity, adult male rats (Rattus norvegicus, Wild Type Groningen strain) were repeatedly exposed (10 consecutive times, on alternate days) to either a social stressor (defeat by a con-specific, n = 15) or an open-field, control challenge (transfer to a new cage; n = 8). ECGs, body temperature and physical activity were continuously recorded in baseline, test and recovery periods (each lasting 15 min), at the 1st and 10th episodes of both defeat and open-field challenge. The circadian rhythms of heart rate, body temperature and physical activity were monitored before (5 days), during (16 days) and after (21 days) the intermittent stress protocol. This study indicates that there is no clear habituation of either acute cardiac autonomic responsivity (as estimated by means of time-domain indexes of heart rate variability) or arrhythmia occurrence to a brief, intermittent, homotypic challenge, regardless of the nature of the stressor (social or non-social). On the other hand, rats exposed to social challenge also failed to show adaptation of acute temperature and activity stress responsiveness, whereas rats facing open-field challenge developed habituation of activity and sensitization of temperature responses. Repeated social challenge produced remarkable reductions of the heart rate circadian rhythm amplitude (this effect being significantly greater than that produced by intermittent open-field), but only minor changes in the daily rhythms of body temperature and physical activity. PMID:12171764

  12. Pregnant women maintain body temperatures within safe limits during moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic classes conducted in pools heated up to 33 degrees Celsius: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Brearley

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Question: What is the body temperature response of healthy pregnant women exercising at moderate intensity in an aqua-aerobics class where the water temperature is in the range of 28 to 33 degrees Celsius, as typically found in community swimming pools? Design: An observational study. Participants: One hundred and nine women in the second and third trimester of pregnancy who were enrolled in a standardised aqua-aerobics class. Outcome measures: Tympanic temperature was measured at rest pre-immersion (T1, after 35 minutes of moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic exercise (T2, after a further 10 minutes of light exercise while still in the water (T3 and finally on departure from the facility (T4. The range of water temperatures in seven indoor community pools was 28.8 to 33.4 degrees Celsius. Results: Body temperature increased by a mean of 0.16 degrees Celsius (SD 0.35, p < 0.001 at T2, was maintained at this level at T3 and had returned to pre-immersion resting values at T4. Regression analysis demonstrated that the temperature response was not related to the water temperature (T2 r = –0.01, p = 0.9; T3 r = –0.02, p = 0.9; T4 r = 0.03, p = 0.8. Analysis of variance demonstrated no difference in body temperature response between participants when grouped in the cooler, medium and warmer water temperatures (T2 F = 0.94, p = 0.40; T3 F = 0.93, p = 0.40; T4 F = 0.70, p = 0.50. Conclusions: Healthy pregnant women maintain body temperatures within safe limits during moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic exercise conducted in pools heated up to 33 degrees Celsius. The study provides evidence to inform guidelines for safe water temperatures for aqua-aerobic exercise during pregnancy. [Brearley AL, Sherburn M, Galea MP, Clarke SJ, (2015 Pregnant women maintain body temperatures within safe limits during moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic classes conducted in pools heated up to 33 degrees Celsius: an observational study. Journal of

  13. Effects of niacin supplementation and dietary concentrate proportion on body temperature, ruminal pH and milk performance of primiparous dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohölter, Malte; Meyer, Ulrich; Rauls, Caroline; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of niacin and dietary concentrate proportion on body temperature, ruminal pH and milk production of dairy cows. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, 20 primiparous Holstein cows (179 ± 12 days in milk) were assigned to four dietary treatments aimed to receive either 0 or 24 g niacin and 30% (low) or 60% (high) concentrate with the rest being a partial mixed ration (PMR) composed of 60% corn and 40% grass silage (on dry matter basis). Ambient temperature and relative humidity were determined and combined by the calculation of temperature humidity index. Respiration rates, rectal, skin and subcutaneous temperatures were measured. Milk production and composition were determined. Ruminal pH and temperature were recorded at a frequency of 5 min using wireless devices for continuous intra-ruminal measurement (boluses). pH values were corrected for pH sensor drift. The climatic conditions varied considerably but temporarily indicated mild heat stress. Niacin did not affect skin, rectal and subcutaneous temperatures but tended to increase respiration rates. High concentrate reduced skin temperatures at rump, thigh and neck by 0.1-0.3°C. Due to the technical disturbances, not all bolus data could be subjected to statistical evaluation. However, both niacin and high concentrate influenced mean ruminal pH. High concentrate increased the time spent with a pH below 5.6 and ruminal temperatures (0.2-0.3°C). Niacin and high concentrate enhanced milk, protein and lactose yield but reduced milk fat and protein content. Milk fat yield was slightly reduced by high concentrate but increased due to niacin supplementation. In conclusion, niacin did not affect body temperature but stimulated milk performance. High concentrate partially influenced body temperatures and had beneficial effects on milk production.

  14. Generalizing the self-healing diffusion Monte Carlo approach to finite temperature: a path for the optimization of low-energy many-body basis expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeongnim [ORNL; Reboredo, Fernando A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The self-healing diffusion Monte Carlo method for complex functions [F. A. Reboredo J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 136}, 204101 (2012)] and some ideas of the correlation function Monte Carlo approach [D. M. Ceperley and B. Bernu, J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 89}, 6316 (1988)] are blended to obtain a method for the calculation of thermodynamic properties of many-body systems at low temperatures. In order to allow the evolution in imaginary time to describe the density matrix, we remove the fixed-node restriction using complex antisymmetric trial wave functions. A statistical method is derived for the calculation of finite temperature properties of many-body systems near the ground state. In the process we also obtain a parallel algorithm that optimizes the many-body basis of a small subspace of the many-body Hilbert space. This small subspace is optimized to have maximum overlap with the one expanded by the lower energy eigenstates of a many-body Hamiltonian. We show in a model system that the Helmholtz free energy is minimized within this subspace as the iteration number increases. We show that the subspace expanded by the small basis systematically converges towards the subspace expanded by the lowest energy eigenstates. Possible applications of this method to calculate the thermodynamic properties of many-body systems near the ground state are discussed. The resulting basis can be also used to accelerate the calculation of the ground or excited states with Quantum Monte Carlo.

  15. Intermittent Exposure to Social Defeat and Open-field Test in Rats : Acute and Long-term Effects on ECG, Body Temperature and Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sgoifo, Andrea; Pozzato, Chiara; Meerlo, Peter; Costoli, Tania; Manghi, Massimo; Stilli, Donatella; Olivetti, Giorgio; Musso, Ezio

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to an intermittent homotypic stressor on: (i) habituation of acute autonomic responsivity (i.e. cardiac sympathovagal balance and susceptibility to arrhythmias), and (ii) circadian rhythmicity of heart rate, body temperature, and physical activity. Aft

  16. Segmental equivalent temperature determined by means of a thermal manikin: A method for correcting errors due to incomplete contact of the body with a surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Janieas, N.R.D.J.; Silva, M.C.G.

    2004-01-01

    The segmental equivalent temperature determined by means of a thermal manikin is often correlated with the local thermal sensation of people and is used for indoor environment assessment. It is also used to assess performance of heated/cooled/ventilated car seats, etc. However, the body...

  17. Rectal temperature time of death nomogram: dependence of corrective factors on the body weight under stronger thermic insulation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henssge, C

    1992-04-01

    Ninety-eight test coolings were made under various cooling conditions (moving air, two types of both clothing and covering) on dummies of real masses of 1, 3.3, 9.9, 24.5 and 33.4 kg, respectively, which cool under standard conditions (unclothed, uncovered, still air) like human bodies of 14, 33, 41, 83 and 104 kg, respectively. The results provide evidence of a non-linear dependence of corrective factors of body weight upon the body weight. The dynamics of the dependence increases with the thickness of thermic insulation. Transferred to the use of the nomogram method on bodies, cooling conditions requiring corrective factors between 0.75 (moving air) and 1.3 (rather thin clothing/covering), known from experience on bodies of an average weight, can be used as in the past, independent of the body weight. According to experience the dependence of corrective factors on the body weight must be taken into account in bodies of a very high or low body weight. For that purpose both a simplified table and a formula for computing is given.

  18. Factors affecting date of implantation, parturition, and den entry estimated from activity and body temperature in free-ranging brown bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Friebe

    Full Text Available Knowledge of factors influencing the timing of reproduction is important for animal conservation and management. Brown bears (Ursus arctos are able to vary the birth date of their cubs in response to their fat stores, but little information is available about the timing of implantation and parturition in free-ranging brown bears. Body temperature and activity of pregnant brown bears is higher during the gestation period than during the rest of hibernation and drops at parturition. We compared mean daily body temperature and activity levels of pregnant and nonpregnant females during preimplantation, gestation, and lactation. Additionally we tested whether age, litter size, primiparity, environmental conditions, and the start of hibernation influence the timing of parturition. The mean date of implantation was 1 December (SD = 12, the mean date of parturition was 26 January (SD = 12, and the mean duration of the gestation period was 56 days (SD = 2. The body temperature of pregnant females was higher during the gestation and lactation periods than that of nonpregnant bears. The body temperature of pregnant females decreased during the gestation period. Activity recordings were also used to determine the date of parturition. The parturition dates calculated with activity and body temperature data did not differ significantly and were the same in 50% of the females. Older females started hibernation earlier. The start of hibernation was earlier during years with favorable environmental conditions. Dates of parturition were later during years with good environmental conditions which was unexpected. We suggest that free-ranging pregnant brown bears in areas with high levels of human activities at the beginning of the denning period, as in our study area, might prioritize investing energy in early denning than in early parturition during years with favorable environmental conditions, as a strategy to prevent disturbances caused by human.

  19. 网络化电子体温测量系统的研制%Development of the Networked Body Temperature Measuring System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧伟明; 邓新群

    2014-01-01

    目的:研制网络化电子体温测量系统.方法分析国内外体温测量工具的使用现状,研制由数字温度传感器DS18B20和微控制器 AT89S53两部件组成的体温测量系统.结果可以多人同时测量体温,并能够实现体温测量的网络化,测温分辨率达到0.0625℃.结论目前,大部分医院采用玻璃水银温度计测量体温,护理工作量大且存在水银中毒的危险,网络化电子体温测量系统是今后体温测量的发展趋势.%Objective To develop the networked new body temperature measuring system.Methods This paper analyzes the current application of body temperature measuring tool both in domestic and foreign countries,and develop the digital temperature sensor DS18B20 and micro controller AT89S53 temperature measuring system.Results Taking body temperature for multiple people at the same time is possible and can be networked,with a resolution of 0.0625℃.Conclusion At present,glass mercury thermometers are widely used in most hospitals which lead to heavy nursing workload and the risk of mercury poisoning.Net-working electronic body temperature measuring system is now becoming the new trend.

  20. Salinity and temperature variations reflecting on cellular PCNA, IGF-I and II expressions, body growth and muscle cellularity of a freshwater fish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Y S; Melo, R M C; Campos-Junior, P H A; Santos, J C E; Luz, R K; Rizzo, E; Bazzoli, N

    2014-06-01

    The present study assessed the influence of salinity and temperature on body growth and on muscle cellularity of Lophiosilurus alexaxdri vitelinic larvae. Slightly salted environments negatively influenced body growth of freshwater fish larvae and we observed that those conditions notably act as an environmental influencer on muscle growth and on local expression of hypertrophia and hypeplasia markers (IGFs and PCNA). Furthermore, we could see that salinity tolerance for NaCl 4gl(-)(1) diminishes with increasing temperature, evidenced by variation in body and muscle growth, and by irregular morphology of the lateral skeletal muscle of larvae. We saw that an increase of both PCNA and autocrine IGF-II are correlated to an increase in fibre numbers and fibre diameter as the temperature increases and salinity diminishes. On the other hand, autocrine IGF-I follows the opposite way to the other biological parameters assessed, increasing as salinity increases and temperature diminishes, showing that this protein did not participate in muscle cellularity, but participating in molecular/cellular repair. Therefore, slightly salted environments may provide adverse conditions that cause some obstacles to somatic growth of this species, suggesting some osmotic expenditure with a salinity increment.

  1. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, K. Y.; A. Sastri; G. C. Gong; C. H. Hsieh

    2012-01-01

    Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food) on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested th...

  2. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, K. Y.; A. R. Sastri; G. C. Gong; C. H. Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs, and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food) on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically,...

  3. On the average temperature of airless spherical bodies and the magnitude of Earth’s atmospheric thermal effect

    OpenAIRE

    Volokin, Den; ReLlez, Lark

    2014-01-01

    The presence of atmosphere can appreciably warm a planet’s surface above the temperature of an airless environment. Known as a natural Greenhouse Effect (GE), this near-surface Atmospheric Thermal Enhancement (ATE) as named herein is presently entirely attributed to the absorption of up-welling long-wave radiation by greenhouse gases. Often quoted as 33 K for Earth, GE is estimated as a difference between planet’s observed mean surface temperature and an effective radiating temperature calcul...

  4. Use of the lethal body burden in the risk quantification of field sediments: influence of temperature and salinity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, A.P.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene that is additionally required within an organism for lethality, after long-term exposure to sediments, is evaluated as an endpoint for risk assessment. This additionally required body burden for lethality after 2 months of exposure to sediments from differ

  5. From skin to bulk: An adjustment technique for assimilation of satellite-derived temperature observations in numerical models of small inland water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri, Amir; Babbar-Sebens, Meghna; Miller, Robert N.

    2016-06-01

    Data Assimilation (DA) has been proposed for multiple water resources studies that require rapid employment of incoming observations to update and improve accuracy of operational prediction models. The usefulness of DA approaches in assimilating water temperature observations from different types of monitoring technologies (e.g., remote sensing and in-situ sensors) into numerical models of in-land water bodies (e.g., lakes and reservoirs) has, however, received limited attention. In contrast to in-situ temperature sensors, remote sensing technologies (e.g., satellites) provide the benefit of collecting measurements with better X-Y spatial coverage. However, assimilating water temperature measurements from satellites can introduce biases in the updated numerical model of water bodies because the physical region represented by these measurements do not directly correspond with the numerical model's representation of the water column. This study proposes a novel approach to address this representation challenge by coupling a skin temperature adjustment technique based on available air and in-situ water temperature observations, with an ensemble Kalman filter based data assimilation technique. Additionally, the proposed approach used in this study for four-dimensional analysis of a reservoir provides reasonably accurate surface layer and water column temperature forecasts, in spite of the use of a fairly small ensemble. Application of the methodology on a test site - Eagle Creek Reservoir - in Central Indiana demonstrated that assimilation of remotely sensed skin temperature data using the proposed approach improved the overall root mean square difference between modeled surface layer temperatures and the adjusted remotely sensed skin temperature observations from 5.6°C to 0.51°C (i.e., 91% improvement). In addition, the overall error in the water column temperature predictions when compared with in-situ observations also decreased from 1.95°C (before assimilation

  6. The water hexamer: three-body interactions, structures, energetics, and OH-stretch spectroscopy at finite temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainter, C J; Skinner, J L

    2012-09-14

    Using a newly developed and recently parameterized classical empirical simulation model for water that involves explicit three-body interactions, we determine the eleven most stable isomers of the water hexamer. We find that the lowest energy isomer is one of the cage structures, in agreement with far-IR and microwave experiments. The energy ordering for the binding energies is cage > glove > book > bag > chair > boat > chaise, and energies relative to the cage are in good agreement with CCSD(T) calculations. The three-body contributions to the cage, book, and chair are also in reasonable agreement with CCSD(T) results. The energy of each isomer results from a delicate balance involving the number of hydrogen bonds, the strain of these hydrogen bonds, and cooperative and anti-cooperative three-body interactions, whose contribution we can understand simply from the form of the three-body interactions in the simulation model. Oxygen-oxygen distances in the cage and book isomers are in good agreement with microwave experiments. Hydrogen-bond distances depend on both donor and acceptor, which can again be understood from the three-body model. Fully anharmonic OH-stretch spectra are calculated for these low-energy structures, and compared with shifted harmonic results from ab initio and density functional theory calculations. Replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations were performed from 40 to 194 K, which show that the cage isomer has the lowest free energy from 0 to 70 K, and the book isomer has the lowest free energy from 70 to 194 K. OH-stretch spectra were calculated between 40 and 194 K, and results at 40, 63, and 79 K were compared to recent experiments, leading to re-assignment of the peaks in the experimental spectra. We calculate local OH-stretch cumulative spectral densities for different donor-acceptor types and compare to analogous results for liquid water.

  7. A long-range and long-life telemetry data-acquisition system for heart rate and multiple body temperatures from free-ranging animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, G. F.; Westbrook, R. M.; Fryer, T. B.; Miranda, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    The system includes an implantable transmitter, external receiver-retransmitter collar, and a microprocessor-controlled demodulator. The size of the implant is suitable for animals with body weights of a few kilograms or more; further size reduction of the implant is possible. The ECG is sensed by electrodes designed for internal telemetry and to reduce movement artifacts. The R-wave characteristics are then specifically selected to trigger a short radio frequency pulse. Temperatures are sensed at desired locations by thermistors and then, based on a heartbeat counter, transmitted intermittently via pulse interval modulation. This modulation scheme includes first and last calibration intervals for a reference by ratios with the temperature intervals to achieve good accuracy even over long periods. Pulse duration and pulse sequencing are used to discriminate between heart rate and temperature pulses as well as RF interference.

  8. The effect of temperature and body size on metabolic scope of activity in juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Behrens, Jane; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2015-01-01

    ), maximum metabolic rate (MMR, mg O2 h−1) and metabolic scope (MS, mg O2 h−1) of juvenile Atlantic cod. SMR increased with BM irrespectively of temperature, resulting in an average scaling exponent of 0.87 (0.82–0.92). Q10 values were 1.8–2.1 at temperatures between 5 and 15 °C but higher (2.6–4.3) between...

  9. Disturbances in pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance after passive body overheating and after exercise in elevated ambient temperatures in athletes and untrained men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Pilch

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance in two series of examinations with two types of stressors (exogenous heat and the combined exogenous and endogenous heat in trained and untrained men. The exogenous stressor was provided by Finnish sauna session, whereas the combined stressor was represented by the exercise in elevated ambient temperature. The men from the two groups performed the physical exercise on a cycle ergometer with the load of 53 ± 2% maximal oxygen uptake at the temperature of 33 ± 1 °C and relative humidity of 70% until their rectal temperature rose by 1.2 °C. After a month from completion of the exercise test the subjects participated in a sauna bathing session with the temperature of 96 ± 2 °C, and relative humidity of 16 ± 5%. 15-minutes heating and 2-minute cool-down in a shower with the temperature of 20 °C was repeated until rectal temperature rose by 1.2 °C compared to the initial value. During both series of tests rectal temperature was measured at 5-minute intervals. Before both series of tests and after them body mass was measured and blood samples were taken for biochemical tests. Serum total protein, serum concentration of lipid peroxidation products and serum antioxidants were determined. The athletes were characterized by higher level of antioxidant status and lower concentration of lipid peroxidation products. Physical exercise at elevated ambient temperature caused lower changes in oxidative stress indices compared to sauna bathing. Sauna induced a shift in pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance towards oxidation, which was observed less intensively in the athletes compared to the untrained men. This leads to the conclusion that physical exercise increases tolerance to elevated ambient temperature and oxidative stress.

  10. Generalizing the self-healing diffusion Monte Carlo approach to finite temperature: A path for the optimization of low-energy many-body bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboredo, Fernando A.; Kim, Jeongnim [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-02-21

    A statistical method is derived for the calculation of thermodynamic properties of many-body systems at low temperatures. This method is based on the self-healing diffusion Monte Carlo method for complex functions [F. A. Reboredo, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 204101 (2012)] and some ideas of the correlation function Monte Carlo approach [D. M. Ceperley and B. Bernu, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 6316 (1988)]. In order to allow the evolution in imaginary time to describe the density matrix, we remove the fixed-node restriction using complex antisymmetric guiding wave functions. In the process we obtain a parallel algorithm that optimizes a small subspace of the many-body Hilbert space to provide maximum overlap with the subspace spanned by the lowest-energy eigenstates of a many-body Hamiltonian. We show in a model system that the partition function is progressively maximized within this subspace. We show that the subspace spanned by the small basis systematically converges towards the subspace spanned by the lowest energy eigenstates. Possible applications of this method for calculating the thermodynamic properties of many-body systems near the ground state are discussed. The resulting basis can also be used to accelerate the calculation of the ground or excited states with quantum Monte Carlo.

  11. Standard Practice for Installation, Inspection, and Maintenance of Valve-body Pressure-relief Methods for Geothermal and Other High-Temperature Liquid Applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers installation, inspection, and maintenance of valve body cavity pressure relief methods for valves used in geothermal and other high-temperature liquid service. The valve type covered by this practice is a design with an isolated body cavity such that when the valve is in either the open or closed position pressure is trapped in the isolated cavity, and there is no provision to relieve the excess pressure internally. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. The theoretical aspects of the time dependent Z equation as a means of postmortem interval estimation using body temperature data only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M A; Wright, J C

    1985-05-01

    It has been clearly demonstrated that the rectal cooling curve does not obey Newton's Law, which is exponential. The first success in modelling rectal cooling mathematically was achieved by Marshall and Hoare [1]. An amendment was made to the simple exponential curve which led to a good mathematical model, exhibiting the three main sections of rectal cooling, i.e. lag, linear and quasi-exponential. The resultant method of postmortem interval estimation required a knowledge of the body mass and height. The present study has led to a totally different amendment to Newton's Law, which provides a means of postmortem interval estimation from body temperature data only. The derivation of the method, with a background on Newton's Law follows.

  13. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz e Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower ( P cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle.

  14. PISA. The effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) and ibuprofen on body temperature in acute stroke: protocol for a phase II double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN98608690

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. van Breda (Eric); H.B. van der Worp (Bart); H.M.A. van Gemert (Maarten); R. Meijer; L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: During the first days after stroke, one to two fifths of the patients develop fever or subfebrile temperatures. Body temperature is a strong prognostic factor after stroke. Pharmacological reduction of temperature in patients with acute ischaemic stroke may

  15. PISA. The effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) and ibuprofen on body temperature in acute stroke: Protocol for a phase II double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN98608690

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. van Breda (Eric); B. van der Worp (Bart); M. van Gemert (Maarten); R.J. Meijer (Ron); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBackground: During the first days after stroke, one to two fifths of the patients develop fever or subfebrile temperatures. Body temperature is a strong prognostic factor after stroke. Pharmacological reduction of temperature in patients with acute ischaemic stroke may improve their func

  16. Computational estimation of decline in sweating in the elderly from measured body temperatures and sweating for passive heat exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies reported the difference in heat tolerance between younger and older adults, which may be attributable to the decline in the sweating rate. One of the studies suggested a hypothesis that the dominant factor causing the decline in sweating was the decline in thermal sensitivity due to a weaker signal from the periphery to the regulatory centres. However, no quantitative investigation of the skin temperature threshold for activating the sweating has been conducted in previous studies. In this study, we developed a computational code to simulate the time evolution of the temperature variation and sweating in realistic human models under heat exposure, in part by comparing the computational results with measured data from younger and older adults. Based on our computational results, the difference in the threshold temperatures for activating the thermophysiological response, especially for sweating, is examined between older and younger adults. The threshold for activating sweating in older individuals was found to be about 1.5 °C higher than that in younger individuals. However, our computation did not suggest that it was possible to evaluate the central alteration with ageing by comparing the computation with the measurements for passive heat exposure, since the sweating rate is marginally affected by core temperature elevation at least for the scenarios considered here. The computational technique developed herein is useful for understanding the thermophysiological response of older individuals from measured data. (note)

  17. Effect of successive irrigation of subarachnoid cavity on body temperature and cerebrospinal fluid-related index in suppurative meningitis model dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Liu; Guohou He; Yuanyuan Wang; Xueqiang Chen; Qibin Wang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, suppurative meningitis is mainly treated through anti-infection with antibiotics, depressing encephalic pressure with mannitol , lowering body temperature with drugs, supporting treatment,etc. However, it takes a long course of treatment and has poor therapeutic effect. Successive irrigation of subarachnoid cavity maybe have better effect on suppurative meningitis.OBJECTIVE: We compared the successive irrigation of subbarachnoid cavity with routine therapeutic methods to observe the effect of successive irrigation of subarachnoid cavity on the body temperature, cerebrospinal fluid pressure, the number of white blood cell and the level of protein of suppurative meningitis dogs.DESIGN: A randomized and controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Institute of Neuroscience, Taihe Hospital Affiliated to Yunyang Medical College.MATERIALS: Totally 17 healthy adult male Beagle dogs, of common grade, weighing 9 to 10 kg, were involved in the experiment, and raised in the 20 ℃ temperature with relative humidity of 50% for 1 week.They were randomized into 3 groups: normal group (n=5), control group (n=5) and irrigation group (n=6).Artificial cerebrospinal fluid was prepared according to the level of glucose and chloride of cerebrospinal fluid of normal dogs, and then it was sterilized with high pressure.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the experimental animal center of Yunyang Medical College from April to August 2001.① After the dogs were anesthetized,1 mL fresh staphylococcus aureus liquid [(1.5-1.6) ×109 L-1] was injected into medullary cistern to establish suppurative meningitis models.② After models were successfully established, intravenous drip infusion of 1.2 ×106 U/(kg.d), muscular injection of sulday were performed in the control group. The irrigation of subarachnoid meningitis was conducted in the irrigation group besides the routine treatments in the control group: Artificial cerebrospinal fluid was successively injected into

  18. Effects of interleukin-1 beta injections into the subfornical organ and median preoptic nucleus on sodium appetite, blood pressure and body temperature of sodium-depleted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Diana R; Ferreira, Hilda S; Moiteiro, Andrei L B B; Fregoneze, Josmara B

    2016-09-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) appears to be the mediator of the reciprocal communication between the brain and the immune system. IL-1β has been shown to modulate homeostatic functions including fever, feeding, drinking and cardiovascular control. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of IL-1β injections directly into the subfornical organ (SFO) and the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) on salt appetite, hedonic response, locomotion, body temperature and blood pressure in sodium-depleted rats. IL-1β injections into the SFO and MnPO at the doses of 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6ng/0.2μl promoted a dose-dependent inhibition of salt intake in sodium-depleted rats. Results of the "dessert" test and the "open field" test suggested that the inhibition of salt appetite is not due to any changes in the hedonic aspect of ingestive behavior or to changes in locomotor activity. As expected, IL-1β injections into the SFO and MnPO promoted an increase in body temperature. However, the fever induced by IL-1β injected into the SFO was slower than the increase in body temperature obtained following IL-1β injection into the MnPO. Furthermore, IL-1β at a dose of 1.6ng/0.2μl directly injected into the MnPO led to a significant increase in blood pressure, while injection of the same concentration of IL-1β into the SFO caused no significant change in blood pressure or heart rate. The action of pro-inflammatory cytokines may interfere with the normal control of body temperature, blood pressure and fluid homeostasis, producing the adjustment required to cope with infection and inflammation. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms involved in fever, blood pressure increase and inhibition of sodium appetite induced by injections of IL-1β into the SFO and MnPO in sodium-depleted rats. PMID:27163523

  19. Driven-dissipative many-body systems with mixed power-law interactions: Bistabilities and temperature-driven phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Šibalić, Nikola; Adams, Charles S; Weatherill, Kevin J; Pohl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the non-equilibrium dynamics of a driven-dissipative spin ensemble with competing power-law interactions. Contrary to previous work on pure van der Waals systems, we demonstrate that the emergence of a dynamical phase transition and bistable steady states critically relies on the presence of a finite dipolar potential-core. Upon introducing random particle motion, we show that a finite gas temperature can drive a phase transition with regards to the spin degree of freedom and eventually leads to mean-field behaviour in the high-temperature limit. Our work reconciles contrasting observations of recent experiments with Rydberg atoms in the cold-gas and hot-vapour domain, and establishes an efficient theoretical framework in the latter regime.

  20. A possible means of monitoring the progress of demyelination in multiple sclerosis: effect of body temperature on visual perception of double light flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, R J; Regan, D; Heron, J R

    1976-09-01

    The ability to discriminate closely separated pairs of light flashes as being double is impaired in multiple sclerosis. The effects of altering body temperature on double flash resolution and on visual acuity were studied in four multiple sclerosis patients and in control subjects. At demyelinated sites heating impaired and cooling improved double flash resolution. Visual acuity behaved similarly. The double flash test was very sensitive, changing up to 75 ms in response to simple heating and cooling procedures that produced small variations in acuity. Apart from its diagnostic value, the double flash test furnishes a simple in vivo model to study the effect of temperature change (and potential symptomatic therapy) on conduction in partially demyelinated axons in the visual system.

  1. The effect of temperature and body size on filtration rates of Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia, Mytilidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Pestana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei, Mollusca: Bivalvia is an invasive species that has been causing considerable environmental and economic problems in South America. In the present study, filtration rates of L. fortunei were determined in the laboratory under different temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 28, and 30 ºC and two types of food (Algamac-2000® and the chlorophycean alga Scenedesmus sp.. There was a statistically significant relationship between time and filtration rates in the experiment using Scenedesmus sp., regardless of temperature. However, this pattern was absent in the experiment using Algamac, suggesting that the relationship between filtration rates and temperature might depend on the size of the filtered particles. In addition, there was no correlation between filtration rates and either shell size or condition index (the relationship between the weight and the length of a mussel. The filtration rate measured in the present study (724.94 ml/h was one of the highest rates recorded among invasive bivalves to date. Given that the colonies of the golden mussel could reach hundreds of thousands of individuals per square meter, such filtration levels could severely impact the freshwater environments in its introduced range.

  2. 体温维持对剖宫产产妇的保护作用%The Protective Effect of Body Temperature Maintenance on Puerpera under Cesarean Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹彦; 王海艳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the protective effect of maintaining body temperature for the puerpera under cesarean section.Methods Total of 106 cases receiving cesarean section in Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College from Jan.2013 to Dec.2013 were included in the study.They were divided into observation group and control group by random number table method,53 cases each.The control group was treated with conventional surgery,and the observation group received insulating measures on the basis of the control group.The perioperative changes in body temperature,intraoperative basic situation and postoperative shivering of the two groups were compared and analyzed .Results Three min after entering the operation room,there was no significant difference on the body temperature between the observation group and the con-trol group(P>0.05).However,during surgery and after surgery,body temperature of the observation group was significantly better than the control group.The postoperative temperature reached(36.82 ±0.57) ℃ in the observation group,the patient′s body temperature was gradually reduced as the surgery proceeded,but gradually picked up to normal at the end of the surgery .The operative time of the observation group was lower than the control group[(78 ±10) min vs (84 ±11) min],the difference was statistically significant(P 0.05 ) ,但在术中及术后,体温均明显优于对照组,术后体温达到(36.82 ±0.57 ) ℃,两组患者的体温随着手术的进行逐步降低,但于手术完结时逐步回升,直至正常;观察组患者手术时间短于对照组[(78 ±10) min 比(84 ± 12) min],差异有统计学意义(P <0.01),且术中出血量、输液量及尿量显著低于对照组[(233 ± 21) mL比(342 ±32) mL,(1354 ±211) mL比(1423 ±347) mL,(98 ±27) mL比(246 ±52) mL],差异有统计学意义( P <0.05 或 P <0.01 );经治疗,观察组患者寒战总发生率显著低于对照组[11.32%(6/53)比39.62%(21/53)],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).

  3. Core Body Temperature as Adjunct to Endpoint Determination in Murine Median Lethal Dose Testing of Rattlesnake Venom

    OpenAIRE

    Cates, Charles C; McCabe, James G; Lawson, Gregory W; Marcelo A Couto

    2014-01-01

    Median lethal dose (LD50) testing in mice is the ‘gold standard’ for evaluating the lethality of snake venoms and the effectiveness of interventions. As part of a study to determine the murine LD50 of the venom of 3 species of rattlesnake, temperature data were collected in an attempt to more precisely define humane endpoints. We used an ‘up-and-down’ methodology of estimating the LD50 that involved serial intraperitoneal injection of predetermined concentrations of venom. By using a rectal t...

  4. Changes of arterial blood pressure, heart rate, internal body temperature, and blood acido-basic balance in the unanaesthetized rabbit following whole-body gamma irradiation at a mean absorbed dose of 250 rads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufour, R.; Court, L.

    1973-09-01

    The general effects of whole-body gamma -irradiation at a mean absorbed dose of 250 rads were studied simultaneously in the unanaesthetized rabbit for 48 hours. They occurred early, with the following characteristics: arterial blood pressure decreased steadily as early as the 2nd hour and reached its minimum value on the 5th hour with a decrease of about 14%; it remained low during the following two days. Heart rate increased during the first hour, was the highest by the end of the second hour, and resumed normal value on the 24th hour. Internal body temperature increased during the 1st hour and was maximum by the end of the 2nd hour, with a mean increase of 1.2 deg C; hyperthermia steadily decreased between the 4th and the 6th hours and had completely disappeared by the 24th hour. Respiratory alkalosis is shown in the acido-basic balance by a raise of pH, a decrease of PCO/sub 2/ and arterial blood bicarbonates. These various changes seem to indicate a double origin, both central and peripheral. (FR)

  5. Thermal comfort modelling of body temperature and psychological variations of a human exercising in an outdoor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, Jennifer K.; Warland, Jon S.; Gillespie, Terry J.; Kenny, Natasha A.

    2012-01-01

    Human thermal comfort assessments pertaining to exercise while in outdoor environments can improve urban and recreational planning. The current study applied a simple four-segment skin temperature approach to the COMFA (COMfort FormulA) outdoor energy balance model. Comparative results of measured mean skin temperature ( {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{Msk}} ) with predicted {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} indicate that the model accurately predicted {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} , showing significantly strong agreement ( r = 0.859, P exercise (cycling and running). The combined 5-min mean variation of the {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} RMSE was 1.5°C, with separate cycling and running giving RMSE of 1.4°C and 1.6°C, respectively, and no significant difference in residuals. Subjects' actual thermal sensation (ATS) votes displayed significant strong rank correlation with budget scores calculated using both measured and predicted {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} ( r s = 0.507 and 0.517, respectively, P strength of ATS of subjects as compared to the original and updated COMFA models. This psychological improvement, plus {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} and T c validations, enables better application to a variety of outdoor spaces. This model can be used in future research studying linkages between thermal discomfort, subsequent decreases in physical activity, and negative health trends.

  6. Studies on time of death estimation in the early post mortem period -- application of a method based on eyeball temperature measurement to human bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliszan, Michał

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a verification of the thermodynamic model allowing an estimation of the time of death (TOD) by calculating the post mortem interval (PMI) based on a single eyeball temperature measurement at the death scene. The study was performed on 30 cases with known PMI, ranging from 1h 35min to 5h 15min, using pin probes connected to a high precision electronic thermometer (Dostmann-electronic). The measured eye temperatures ranged from 20.2 to 33.1°C. Rectal temperature was measured at the same time and ranged from 32.8 to 37.4°C. Ambient temperatures which ranged from -1 to 24°C, environmental conditions (still air to light wind) and the amount of hair on the head were also recorded every time. PMI was calculated using a formula based on Newton's law of cooling, previously derived and successfully tested in comprehensive studies on pigs and a few human cases. Thanks to both the significantly faster post mortem decrease of eye temperature and a residual or nonexistent plateau effect in the eye, as well as practically no influence of body mass, TOD in the human death cases could be estimated with good accuracy. The highest TOD estimation error during the post mortem intervals up to around 5h was 1h 16min, 1h 14min and 1h 03min, respectively in three cases among 30, while for the remaining 27 cases it was not more than 47min. The mean error for all 30 cases was ±31min. All that indicates that the proposed method is of quite good precision in the early post mortem period, with an accuracy of ±1h for a 95% confidence interval. On the basis of the presented method, TOD can be also calculated at the death scene with the use of a proposed portable electronic device (TOD-meter).

  7. Caffeine alters the behavioural and body temperature responses to mephedrone without causing long-term neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Sinead E; Green, A Richard; Fone, Kevin Cf; King, Madeleine V

    2016-07-01

    Administration of caffeine with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) alters the pharmacological properties of MDMA in rats. The current study examined whether caffeine alters the behavioural and neurochemical effects of mephedrone, which has similar psychoactive effects to MDMA. Rats received either saline, mephedrone (10 mg/kg), caffeine (10 mg/kg) or combined caffeine and mephedrone intraperitoneally twice weekly on consecutive days for three weeks. Locomotor activity (days 1 and 16), novel object discrimination (NOD, day 2), elevated plus maze (EPM) exploration (day 8), rectal temperature changes (day 9) and pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle response (day 15) were assessed. Seven days after the final injection, brain regions were collected for the measurement of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine and their metabolites. Combined caffeine and mephedrone further enhanced the locomotor response observed following either drug administered alone, and converted mephedrone-induced hypothermia to hyperthermia. Co-administration also abolished mephedrone-induced anxiogenic response on the EPM, but had no effect on NOD or PPI. Importantly, no long-term neurotoxicity was detected following repeated mephedrone alone or when co-administered with caffeine. In conclusion, the study suggests a potentially dangerous effect of concomitant caffeine and mephedrone, and highlights the importance of taking polydrug use into consideration when investigating the acute adverse effect profile of popular recreational drugs.

  8. Caffeine alters the behavioural and body temperature responses to mephedrone without causing long-term neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Sinead E; Green, A Richard; Fone, Kevin Cf; King, Madeleine V

    2016-07-01

    Administration of caffeine with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) alters the pharmacological properties of MDMA in rats. The current study examined whether caffeine alters the behavioural and neurochemical effects of mephedrone, which has similar psychoactive effects to MDMA. Rats received either saline, mephedrone (10 mg/kg), caffeine (10 mg/kg) or combined caffeine and mephedrone intraperitoneally twice weekly on consecutive days for three weeks. Locomotor activity (days 1 and 16), novel object discrimination (NOD, day 2), elevated plus maze (EPM) exploration (day 8), rectal temperature changes (day 9) and pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle response (day 15) were assessed. Seven days after the final injection, brain regions were collected for the measurement of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine and their metabolites. Combined caffeine and mephedrone further enhanced the locomotor response observed following either drug administered alone, and converted mephedrone-induced hypothermia to hyperthermia. Co-administration also abolished mephedrone-induced anxiogenic response on the EPM, but had no effect on NOD or PPI. Importantly, no long-term neurotoxicity was detected following repeated mephedrone alone or when co-administered with caffeine. In conclusion, the study suggests a potentially dangerous effect of concomitant caffeine and mephedrone, and highlights the importance of taking polydrug use into consideration when investigating the acute adverse effect profile of popular recreational drugs. PMID:27257032

  9. PISA. The effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen and ibuprofen on body temperature in acute stroke: Protocol for a phase II double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN98608690

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kappelle Jaap

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the first days after stroke, one to two fifths of the patients develop fever or subfebrile temperatures. Body temperature is a strong prognostic factor after stroke. Pharmacological reduction of temperature in patients with acute ischaemic stroke may improve their functional outcome. Previously, we studied the effect of high dose (6 g daily and low dose (3 g daily paracetamol (acetaminophen in a randomised placebo-controlled trial of 75 patients with acute ischemic stroke. In the high-dose paracetamol group, mean body temperature at 12 and 24 hours after start of treatment was 0.4°C lower than in the placebo group. The effect of ibuprofen, another potent antipyretic drug, on body-core temperature in normothermic patients has not been studied. Aim The aim of the present trial is to study the effects of high-dose paracetamol and ibuprofen on body temperature in patients with acute ischaemic stroke, and to study the safety of these treatments. Design Seventy-five (3 × 25 patients with acute ischaemic stroke confined to the anterior circulation will be randomised to treatment with either: 400 mg ibuprofen, 1000 mg acetaminophen, or with placebo 6 times daily during 5 days. Body-temperatures will be measured with a rectal electronic thermometer at the start of treatment and after 24 hours. An infrared tympanic thermometer will be used to monitor body temperature at 2-hour intervals during the first 24 hours and at 12-hour intervals thereafter. The primary outcome measure will be rectal temperature at 24 hours after the start of treatment. The study results will be analysed on an intent-to-treat basis, but an on-treatment analysis will also be performed. No formal interim analysis will be carried out.

  10. Effects of maternal ingestion of aroclor 1254 (PCB) on the development pattern of oxygen consumption and body temperature in neonatal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, B.W.; Meserve, L.A. [Bowling Green State Univ., OH (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an environmental pollutant that has been implicated in depression of reproductive success in Great Lakes gulls, production of congenital deformities in humans, and increased incidence of carcinogenesis in laboratory mice. PCB has also been shown to be a thyrotoxin in both adult and developing animals. Most recently, the hypothyroid effects of PCB exposure have been reported to elicit effects similar to those of hypothyroidism caused by other methods. This study was done to determine the effects of PCB ingestion in pregnant and lactating rats on the development of thermoregulation in neonatal animals. Body temperature and rate of oxygen consumption was evaluated in rat puts on days 4 through 14 after birth. Because the major thermomregulatory hormones are thyroid hormones, thyroid hormone status and thyroid weights were evaluated at the end of the study on postnatal day 15. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003400.htm Temperature measurement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The measurement of body temperature can help detect illness. It can also monitor ...

  12. Evaluation of infrared thermography body temperature and collar-mounted accelerometer and acoustic technology for predicting time of ovulation of cows in a pasture-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, S; Thomson, P C; Kerrisk, K L; Clark, C E F; Celi, P

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the specificity of infrared thermography (IRT) in detecting cows about to ovulate could be improved using different body parts that are less likely to be contaminated by fecal matter. In addition, the combined activity and rumination data captured by accelerometers were evaluated to provide a more accurate indication of ovulation than the activity and rumination data alone. Thermal images of 30 cows were captured for different body areas (eye, ear, muzzle, and vulva) twice daily after AM and PM milking sessions during the entire experimental period. Milk progesterone data and insemination records were used to determine the date of ovulation. Cows were fitted with SCR heat and rumination long-distance tags (SCR HR LD) for 1 month. Activity- and rumination-based estrus alerts were initially identified using default threshold values set by the manufacturer; however, a range of thresholds was also created and tested for both activity and rumination to determine the potential for higher levels of accuracy of ovulation detection. Visual assessment of mounting indicators resulted in 75% sensitivity (Se), 100% specificity (Sp), and 100% positive predictive value (PPV). Overall, IRT showed poor performance for detecting cows about to ovulate. Vulval temperature resulted in the greatest (80%) Sp but the poorest (21%) Se compared with the IRT temperatures of other body areas. The SCR HR LD tags default threshold value resulted in 78% Se, 57% Sp, and 70% PPV. Lowering the activity threshold from the default value improved the sensitivity but created a large number of false positives, which resulted in a decrease in specificity. Lowering the activity threshold to 20 resulted in a detection performance of 80% Se, 94% Sp, and 67% PPV, whereas the rumination levels achieved 35% Se, 69% Sp, and 14% PPV. The area under the curve for the activity level, rumination level, and the combined measures of activity and rumination levels

  13. Study of the effects of mild hypothermia on cerebral PO2, PCO2 and pH and body temperature in patients with acute severe head injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Jun; LIN Yuan-quan; LIU Wen-feng; ZHONG Tian-an; ZHANG Jun; YE Yu; XU Yi-qun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of mild hypothermia on cerebral oxygen partial pressure, carbon dioxide partial pressure, pH and body temperature (PbrO2, PbrCO2, pHbr and BT) in patients with acute severe head injury.Methods: Thirty-eight patients with acute severe head injury were treated with mild hypothermia, meantime PbrO2, PbrCO2, pHbr and BT were monitored in order to study the changes of PbrO2, PbrCO2, pHbr and BT.Results: In patients with acute head injury, mild hypothermia obviously increased PbrO2, decreased PbrCO2 and CO2 accumulation and acidosis in brain tissue. BT was 1℃-1.5℃ higher than rectal temperature(RT) after injury. The BT and RT were decreased when the patients were treated with mild hypothermia, but at the same time the difference between BT and RT was increased.Conclusions: In patients with acute severe head injury the direct monitoring of PbrO2, PbrCO2, pHbr and BT was safe and reliable, and is helpful in estimating prognosis and mild hypothermia therapy.

  14. Measurement Error Analysis and Calibration Technique of NTC- Based Body Temperature Sensor%一种基于NTC的体温传感器测量误差分析及校准技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓迟; 胡巍; 刁盛锡; 林福江; 钱大宏

    2015-01-01

    A NTC thermistor-based wearable body temperature sensor was designed. This paper described the design principles and realization method of the NTC-based body temperature sensor. In this paper the temperature measurement error sources of the body temperature sensor were analyzed in detail. The automatic measurement and calibration method of ADC error was given. The results showed that the measurement accuracy of calibrated body temperature sensor is better than±0.04oC. The temperature sensor has high accuracy, smal size and low power consumption advantages.%该文设计了一款基于NTC热敏电阻的可穿戴式体温传感器,阐述了基于NTC的体温传感器的设计原理及实现方法。文中对体温传感器的温度测量误差来源进行了详细分析,给出了ADC误差自动测量和校准的方法。实验结果表明,经校准后的体温传感器其测量精度误差小于±0.04 oC。该体温传感器具有精度高、体积小和功耗低的优点。

  15. MSP430 Storage Type Human Body Skin Temperature Measuring Instrument%基于MSP430的可存储式人体皮温测量仪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌振宝; 方远韬; 肖尧; 许鹏; 王文婷; 庞宇轩

    2013-01-01

    为准确掌握临床医疗与医学研究中的人体皮温并进一步进行数据分析,利用热敏电阻测温,通过单片机与上位机之间的串口通信,设计了以MSP430F149单片机为核心处理器、热敏电阻与放大器为测量电路、SMC1602为LCD(Liquid Crystal Display)显示器、单片机内部Flash为存储器的可存储式人体皮温测量仪.数据通过串口通信电路传输到上位机,完成数据的分析与处理.实验结果表明,该测量仪测量精度为0.1℃,存储器空间支持持续测量4天以上的皮温数据,能为临床医疗及医学研究提供更可靠的依据.%In order to improve the clinical medical and in medical research on human skin temperature accurately and further analyze the data,use thermistor for temperature measurement,use the single chip microcomputer to accomplish communication.Design the MSP430F149 MCU (Micro Control Unit) as the core processor.Thermistor and amplifier for measurement circuit.SMC1602 for LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) display.MCU internal Flash for memory storage type can human body skin temperature measuring instrument.The measuring instrument storage data through serial communication circuit transmission to epistatic machine.Complete data analysis and processing.The experiment showed that this measuring instrument measuring accuracy is 0.1℃.Memory space support continuous measuring four days above the skin temperature data.For clinical medical and medical research provide more reliable basis.

  16. A satellite-based climatology (1989-2012) of lake surface water temperature from AVHRR 1-km for Central European water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffler, Michael; Wunderle, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The temperature of lakes is an important parameter for lake ecosystems influencing the speed of physio-chemical reactions, the concentration of dissolved gazes (e.g. oxygen), and vertical mixing. Even small temperature changes might have irreversible effects on the lacustrine system due to the high specific heat capacity of water. These effects could alter the quality of lake water depending on parameters like lake size and volume. Numerous studies mention lake water temperature as an indicator of climate change and in the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) requirements it is listed as an essential climate variable. In contrast to in situ observations, satellite imagery offers the possibility to derive spatial patterns of lake surface water temperature (LSWT) and their variability. Moreover, although for some European lakes long in situ time series are available, the temperatures of many lakes are not measured or only on a non-regular basis making these observations insufficient for climate monitoring. However, only few satellite sensors offer the possibility to analyze time series which cover more than 20 years. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is among these and has been flown on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and on the Meteorological Operational Satellites (MetOp) from the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) as a heritage instrument for almost 35 years. It will be carried on for at least ten more years finally offering a unique opportunity for satellite-based climate studies. Herein we present the results from a study initiated by the Swiss GCOS office to generate a satellite-based LSWT climatology for the pre-alpine water bodies in Switzerland. It relies on the extensive AVHRR 1-km data record (1985-2012) of the Remote Sensing Research Group at the University of Bern (RSGB) and has been derived from the AVHRR/2

  17. Perioperative prostate specific antigen levels among coronary artery bypass grafting patients: Does extracorporeal circulation and body temperature induce prostate specific antigen levels alterations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patris, Emmanuel; Giakoumidakis, Konstantinos; Patris, Vasileios; Kuduvalli, Manoj; Argiriou, Mihalis; Charitos, Christos; Kalaitzis, Christos; Touloupidis, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the perioperative total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) levels among coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients with and without extracorporeal circulation (ECC), to investigate the changes overtime of tPSA in each group separately and to determine the effect of body core temperature on tPSA levels. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted. Our sample was allocated to: (a) Seven patients who underwent off pump CABG (Group I) and (b) 16 CABG patients with ECC (Group II). The levels of tPSA were measured preoperatively (baseline), intra-operatively and at the 4th postoperative day. We compared the two groups on their tPSA levels and we investigated the changes of tPSA overtime in each group separately. Results: Intra-operative serum samples were obtained in significantly lower body temperature in patients of Group II than in those of Group I (31°C vs. 36.9°C, P < 0.001). In each group separately, postoperative tPSA levels were increased significantly compared to the baseline values (2.55 ng/ml vs. 0.39 ng/ml for Group I, P = 0.005 and 4.36 ng/ml vs. 0.77 for Group II, P < 0.001). CABG patients with ECC had significantly lower intra-operative tPSA levels than the baseline values (0.67 ng/ml vs. 0.77 ng/ml, P = 0.008). We did not observe significant differences of tPSA levels between the two groups. Conclusions: CABG surgery affects similarly the perioperative tPSA independently the involvement of ECC. Although all patients had significantly higher early postoperative tPSA levels, only those who underwent CABG with ECC had exceeded normal values and significantly decreased intra-operative tPSA. Hypothermia seems to be the causal factor of tPSA reduction. PMID:25657546

  18. Temperature-dependent modification of muscle precursor cell behaviour is an underlying reason for lasting effects on muscle cellularity and body growth of teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, Peter; Marschallinger, Julia; Obermayer, Astrid; Neuhofer, Alois; Sänger, Alexandra M; Stoiber, Walter

    2011-06-01

    Temperature is an important factor influencing teleost muscle growth, including a lasting ('imprinted') influence of embryonic thermal experience throughout all further life. However, little is known about the cellular processes behind this phenomenon. The study reported here used digital morphometry and immunolabelling for Pax7, myogenin and H3P to quantitatively examine the effects of thermal history on muscle precursor cell (MPC) behaviour and muscle growth in pearlfish (Rutilus meidingeri) until the adult stage. Fish were reared at three different temperatures (8.5, 13 and 16°C) until hatching and subsequently kept under the same (ambient) thermal conditions. Cellularity data were combined with a quantitative analysis of Pax7+ MPCs including those that were mitotically active (Pax7+/H3P+) or had entered differentiation (Pax7+/myogenin+). The results demonstrate that at hatching, body lengths, fast and slow muscle cross-sectional areas and fast fibre numbers are lower in fish reared at 8.5 and 13°C than at 16°C. During the larval period, this situation changes in the 13°C-fish, so that these fish are finally the largest. The observed effects can be related to divergent cellular mechanisms at the MPC level that are initiated in the embryo during the imprinting period. Embryos of 16°C-fish have reduced MPC proliferation but increased differentiation, and thus give rise to larger hatchlings. However, their limited MPC reserves finally lead to smaller adults. By contrast, embryos of 13°C-fish and, to a lesser extent, 8.5°-fish, show enhanced MPC proliferation but reduced differentiation, thus leading to smaller hatchlings but allowing for a larger MPC pool that can be used for enhanced post-hatching growth, finally resulting in larger adults.

  19. 墙体传湿对内表面温度的影响关系研究%Influence of moisture transferring on inner surface temperature wall bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹莹; 刘艳峰; 王登甲; 刘加平

    2012-01-01

    A dynamic mathematical model of coupled heat and moisture transfer through a wall body was proposed,choosing the relative humidity and temperature as the driving potentials.The model accuracy was verified by the experimental data.Taking pine wood and brick for examples,their heat transfer process under different hot wet environment were calculated using the mathematical model.The results show that in the steady-state condition,the inner surface temperatures of pine wood and brick are lower 1.4 ℃ and 0.7 ℃ or so than those without considering the moisture transfer process respectively.In the periodic boundary conditions,taking the moisture transfer process into account,the inner surface temperatures of pine wood and brick are lower than indoor air temperature in a period of time coincides with the working hours,which is beneficial to improve the indoor thermal environment.When the moisture transfer process is not taken into account,the wall inner surface temperature is always higher than indoor air temperature.The pine board is recommended as wall material in humid or dry areas with larger variation range of indoor air moisture content,and the brick is recommended as wall material in dry areas with smaller variation range of indoor air moisture content.%建立了以相对湿度和温度为驱动势的热湿耦合传递数学模型,并对模型准确性进行了验证.以松木板墙和砖墙为例,利用所建数学模型对其在不同热湿环境下进行计算分析,结果发现:在稳态条件下,松木板墙内表面温度比未考虑传湿情况最多低1.4℃,砖墙内表面温度比未考虑传湿情况最多低0.7℃;在周期性边界条件下且不考虑传湿时,松木板墙和砖墙内表面温度始终高于室内空气温度,考虑墙体传湿时,墙体在白天有部分时间段内表面温度低于室内空气温度,有利于室内热环境的改善;松木板适合在室内空气含湿量变化幅度较大的地区作墙体材料,而砖适合

  20. Effects of lowering body temperature via hyperhydration, with and without glycerol ingestion and practical precooling on cycling time trial performance in hot and humid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Megan LR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypohydration and hyperthermia are factors that may contribute to fatigue and impairment of endurance performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of combining glycerol hyperhydration and an established precooling technique on cycling time trial performance in hot environmental conditions. Methods Twelve well-trained male cyclists performed three 46.4-km laboratory-based cycling trials that included two climbs, under hot and humid environmental conditions (33.3 ± 1.1°C; 50 ± 6% r.h.. Subjects were required to hyperhydrate with 25 g.kg-1 body mass (BM of a 4°C beverage containing 6% carbohydrate (CON 2.5 h prior to the time trial. On two occasions, subjects were also exposed to an established precooling technique (PC 60 min prior to the time trial, involving 14 g.kg-1 BM ice slurry ingestion and applied iced towels over 30 min. During one PC trial, 1.2 g.kg-1 BM glycerol was added to the hyperhydration beverage in a double-blind fashion (PC+G. Statistics used in this study involve the combination of traditional probability statistics and a magnitude-based inference approach. Results Hyperhydration resulted in large reductions (−0.6 to −0.7°C in rectal temperature. The addition of glycerol to this solution also lowered urine output (330 ml, 10%. Precooling induced further small (−0.3°C to moderate (−0.4°C reductions in rectal temperature with PC and PC+G treatments, respectively, when compared with CON (0.0°C, P Conclusions Despite increasing fluid intake and reducing core temperature, performance and thermoregulatory benefits of a hyperhydration strategy with and without the addition of glycerol, plus practical precooling, were not superior to hyperhydration alone. Further research is warranted to further refine preparation strategies for athletes competing in thermally stressful events to optimize health and maximize performance outcomes.

  1. Cardiovascular changes and hearing threshold shifts in men under complex exposures to noise, whole body vibrations, temperatures and competition-type psychic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, O

    1985-01-01

    This study deals with changes in the temporary hearing threshold (TTS2), heart rate (HR), R-wave amplitude (RWA), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP) and reaction time (RT) in subjects (n = 108) who, while working on a choice reaction apparatus, were exposed in an exposure chamber to combinations of noise and vibration at dry bulb temperatures of 20 degrees and 30 degrees C. The study was carried out as a type 2-3-3 factorial experiment, the number of the exposure combinations thus being 18. To find out the effects of competition-type psychic stress, some of the subjects were placed in a competitive group and some in a non-competitive group. The members of the competitive group were given financial encouragement and information on their progress during the test, whereas those in the non-competitive group worked at the rate they considered best without any monetary rewards or interim information. The noise classes were: no noise, a stable broadband (bandwidth 0.2-16.0 kHz) A-weighted noise of 90 dB not related to competition, and a stable broadband A-weighted noise of 90 dB related to competition about the fastest reaction time. The vibration classes were: no vibration, sinusoidal whole body vibration (Z-axis) at a frequency of 5 Hz, and stochastic broadband (bandwidth 2.8-11.2 Hz) whole body vibration (Z-axis). The acceleration (rms) of both vibrations was 2.12 m/s2. One experiment consisted of a control period of 30 min, three consecutive exposure periods of 16 min with an interval of 4 min, and a 15-min recovery period. The variance analysis model best explained the variation in TTS2 values at 4 kHz and second best the variation in TTS2 values at 6 kHz; it explained the variation in HR values third best, the variation in SBP values fourth best and the variation in PP values fifth best. On the other hand, the model explained least well the variation in DBP and RWA values. In general, the explanatory power of the model

  2. Evaluation of pulsatility index and diameter of the jugular vein and superficial body temperature as physiological indices of temperament in weaned beef calves: relationship with serum cortisol concentrations, rectal temp..

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between temperament, pulsatility index and diameter of the jugular vein, and body temperature was assessed in Angus crossbred calves (262±24.9 days old). Temperament scores were used to classify calves as calm (n=31), intermediate (n=32), or temperamental (n=28). Blood samples were ...

  3. Antibacterial modification of an injectable, biodegradable, non-cytotoxic block copolymer-based physical gel with body temperature-stimulated sol-gel transition and controlled drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowen; Hu, Huawen; Wang, Wenyi; Lee, Ka I; Gao, Chang; He, Liang; Wang, Yuanfeng; Lai, Chuilin; Fei, Bin; Xin, John H

    2016-07-01

    Biomaterials are being extensively used in various biomedical fields; however, they are readily infected with microorganisms, thus posing a serious threat to the public health care. We herein presented a facile route to the antibacterial modification of an important A-B-A type biomaterial using poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether (mPEG)- poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-mPEG as a typical model. Inexpensive, commercial bis(2-hydroxyethyl) methylammonium chloride (DMA) was adopted as an antibacterial unit. The effective synthesis of the antibacterial copolymer mPEG-PCL-∼∼∼-PCL-mPEG (where ∼∼∼ denotes the segment with DMA units) was well confirmed by FTIR and (1)H NMR spectra. At an appropriate modification extent, the DMA unit could render the copolymer mPEG-PCL-∼∼∼-PCL-mPEG highly antibacterial, but did not largely alter its fascinating intrinsic properties including the thermosensitivity (e.g., the body temperature-induced sol-gel transition), non-cytotoxicity, and controlled drug release. A detailed study on the sol-gel-sol transition behavior of different copolymers showed that an appropriate extent of modification with DMA retained a sol-gel-sol transition, despite the fact that a too high extent caused a loss of sol-gel-sol transition. The hydrophilic and hydrophobic balance between mPEG and PCL was most likely broken upon a high extent of quaternization due to a large disturbance effect of DMA units at a large quantity (as evidenced by the heavily depressed PCL segment crystallinity), and thus the micelle aggregation mechanism for the gel formation could not work anymore, along with the loss of the thermosensitivity. The work presented here is highly expected to be generalized for synthesis of various block copolymers with immunity to microorganisms. Light may also be shed on understanding the phase transition behavior of various multiblock copolymers.

  4. Antibacterial modification of an injectable, biodegradable, non-cytotoxic block copolymer-based physical gel with body temperature-stimulated sol-gel transition and controlled drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowen; Hu, Huawen; Wang, Wenyi; Lee, Ka I; Gao, Chang; He, Liang; Wang, Yuanfeng; Lai, Chuilin; Fei, Bin; Xin, John H

    2016-07-01

    Biomaterials are being extensively used in various biomedical fields; however, they are readily infected with microorganisms, thus posing a serious threat to the public health care. We herein presented a facile route to the antibacterial modification of an important A-B-A type biomaterial using poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether (mPEG)- poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-mPEG as a typical model. Inexpensive, commercial bis(2-hydroxyethyl) methylammonium chloride (DMA) was adopted as an antibacterial unit. The effective synthesis of the antibacterial copolymer mPEG-PCL-∼∼∼-PCL-mPEG (where ∼∼∼ denotes the segment with DMA units) was well confirmed by FTIR and (1)H NMR spectra. At an appropriate modification extent, the DMA unit could render the copolymer mPEG-PCL-∼∼∼-PCL-mPEG highly antibacterial, but did not largely alter its fascinating intrinsic properties including the thermosensitivity (e.g., the body temperature-induced sol-gel transition), non-cytotoxicity, and controlled drug release. A detailed study on the sol-gel-sol transition behavior of different copolymers showed that an appropriate extent of modification with DMA retained a sol-gel-sol transition, despite the fact that a too high extent caused a loss of sol-gel-sol transition. The hydrophilic and hydrophobic balance between mPEG and PCL was most likely broken upon a high extent of quaternization due to a large disturbance effect of DMA units at a large quantity (as evidenced by the heavily depressed PCL segment crystallinity), and thus the micelle aggregation mechanism for the gel formation could not work anymore, along with the loss of the thermosensitivity. The work presented here is highly expected to be generalized for synthesis of various block copolymers with immunity to microorganisms. Light may also be shed on understanding the phase transition behavior of various multiblock copolymers. PMID:27022875

  5. The Effects of Varying Concentrations of Dietary Protein and Fat on Blood Gas, Hematologic Serum Chemistry, and Body Temperature Before and After Exercise in Labrador Retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, John; Gillette, Robert L; Angle, Thomas Craig; Haney, Pamela; Fletcher, Daniel J; Wakshlag, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Optimal dietary protocols for the athletic canine are often defined by requirements for endurance athletes that do not always translate into optimal dietary interventions for all canine athletes. Prior research studying detection dogs suggests that dietary fat sources can influence olfaction; however, as fat is added to the diet the protein calories can be diminished potentially resulting in decreased red blood cell counts or albumin status. Optimal macronutrient profile for detection dogs may be different considering the unique work they engage in. To study a calorically low protein: high fat (18:57% ME), high protein: high fat (27:57% ME), and high protein: low fat (27:32% ME) approach to feeding, 17 dogs were provided various diets in a 3 × 3 cross over design. Dogs were exercised on a treadmill and blood was taken pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, 10- and 20-min post-exercise to assess complete blood count, serum chemistry, blood gases, and cortisol; as well as rectal and core body temperature. Exercise induced a decrease in serum phosphorus, potassium, and increases in non-esterified fatty acids and cortisol typical of moderate exercise bouts. A complete and balanced high protein: high-fat diet (27:57% ME) induced decreases in serum cortisol and alkaline phosphatase. Corn oil top dressed low protein: high-fat diet (18:57% ME) induced a slightly better thermal recovery than a complete and balanced high protein: high fat diet and a high protein: low fat (27%:32% ME) diet suggesting some mild advantages when using the low protein: high fat diet that warrant further investigation regarding optimal protein and fat calories and thermal recovery. PMID:27532039

  6. The Effects of Varying Concentrations of Dietary Protein and Fat on Blood Gas, Hematologic Serum Chemistry, and Body Temperature Before and After Exercise in Labrador Retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, John; Gillette, Robert L; Angle, Thomas Craig; Haney, Pamela; Fletcher, Daniel J; Wakshlag, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Optimal dietary protocols for the athletic canine are often defined by requirements for endurance athletes that do not always translate into optimal dietary interventions for all canine athletes. Prior research studying detection dogs suggests that dietary fat sources can influence olfaction; however, as fat is added to the diet the protein calories can be diminished potentially resulting in decreased red blood cell counts or albumin status. Optimal macronutrient profile for detection dogs may be different considering the unique work they engage in. To study a calorically low protein: high fat (18:57% ME), high protein: high fat (27:57% ME), and high protein: low fat (27:32% ME) approach to feeding, 17 dogs were provided various diets in a 3 × 3 cross over design. Dogs were exercised on a treadmill and blood was taken pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, 10- and 20-min post-exercise to assess complete blood count, serum chemistry, blood gases, and cortisol; as well as rectal and core body temperature. Exercise induced a decrease in serum phosphorus, potassium, and increases in non-esterified fatty acids and cortisol typical of moderate exercise bouts. A complete and balanced high protein: high-fat diet (27:57% ME) induced decreases in serum cortisol and alkaline phosphatase. Corn oil top dressed low protein: high-fat diet (18:57% ME) induced a slightly better thermal recovery than a complete and balanced high protein: high fat diet and a high protein: low fat (27%:32% ME) diet suggesting some mild advantages when using the low protein: high fat diet that warrant further investigation regarding optimal protein and fat calories and thermal recovery.

  7. Performance, Body Temperature and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Vitamins D and C Under Three Environmental Temperatures Desempenho, Temperatura Corporal e Qualidade dos Ovos de Poedeiras Alimentadas com Vitaminas D e C em Três Temperaturas Ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Faria

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted in a climatic chamber to determine the effects of vitamins D3 and C supplementation on performance, body temperature, and egg quality under thermoneutral temperature (24.8º to 27.0º C, a cyclic heat stress (26.2º C for 16 h and 32.1º C for 8 h and a constant heat stress (30.0º to 32.0º C for three weeks in each temperature. One hundred forty-four White Leghorn hens aged 31 weeks were used in a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of 3 x 3: vitamin D3 (2,500, 3,000, and 3,500 IU/kg and vitamin C (0, 200, and 400 ppm, with a total of nine treatments with four replicates of four hens each. Parameters measured included feed intake (FI, feed:gain (FG, egg production (EP, egg weight (EW, egg mass (EM, rectal (RT and dorsal temperatures (DT, percentages of albumen (AP and yolk (YP, Haugh units (HU, yolk index (YI, shell percent (SP, shell thickness (ST and egg specific gravity (ESG. Vitamin D3 influenced the parameters SP, ST, ESG and DT; vitamin C influenced YI, SP and ESG. There was no influence of environmental temperature only on HU. It was concluded that higher levels of vitamin D3 and 200 or 400 ppm of vitamin C can be improve eggshell quality and that heat stress impaired the main characteristics evaluated.O experimento foi conduzido em câmara climática para determinar os efeitos das vitaminas D3 e C sobre o desempenho, temperatura corporal e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras em três temperaturas: termoneutra (24,8º a 27,0º C, estresse calórico cíclico (26,2º C por 16h e 32,1º C por 8h e estresse calórico constante (30,0º a 32,0º C. Foram utilizadas 144 galinhas brancas com 31 semanas num delineamento inteiramente ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 3x3x3: vitamina D3 (2500, 3000 e 3500 UI/kg, vitamina C (0, 200 e 400 ppm e temperatura ambiente (termoneutra, estresse calórico cíclico e constante. As características avaliadas foram: consumo de ração (CR, produção de ovos (PO

  8. Finite-temperature second-order many-body perturbation and Hartree-Fock theories for one-dimensional solids: an application to Peierls and charge-density-wave transitions in conjugated polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao; Ryu, Shinsei; Hirata, So

    2014-01-14

    Finite-temperature extensions of ab initio Gaussian-basis-set spin-restricted Hartree-Fock (HF) and second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theories are implemented for infinitely extended, periodic, one-dimensional solids and applied to the Peierls and charge-density-wave (CDW) transitions in polyyne and all-trans polyacetylene. The HF theory predicts insulating CDW ground states for both systems in their equidistant structures at low temperatures. In the same structures, they turn metallic at high temperatures. Starting from the "dimerized" low-temperature equilibrium structures, the systems need even higher temperatures to undergo a Peierls transition, which is accompanied by geometric as well as electronic distortions from dimerized to non-dimerized forms. The conventional finite-temperature MP2 theory shows a sign of divergence in any phase at any nonzero temperature and is useless. The renormalized finite-temperature MP2 (MP2R) theory is divergent only near metallic electronic structures, but is well behaved elsewhere. MP2R also predicts CDW and Peierls transitions occurring at two different temperatures. The effect of electron correlation is primarily to lower the Peierls transition temperature.

  9. Temperature Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Ingestible Thermal Monitoring System was developed at Johns Hopkins University as means of getting internal temperature readings for treatments of such emergency conditions as dangerously low (hypothermia) and dangerously high (hyperthermia) body temperatures. ITMS's accuracy is off no more than one hundredth of a degree and provides the only means of obtaining deep body temperature. System has additional applicability in fertility monitoring and some aspects of surgery, critical care obstetrics, metabolic disease treatment, gerontology (aging) and food processing research. Three-quarter inch silicone capsule contains telemetry system, micro battery, and a quartz crystal temperature sensor inserted vaginally, rectally, or swallowed.

  10. 环境温度和体内储备物共同影响煤山雀夜间体重的下降%Nocturnal body ass loss in coal tits Periparus ater:the combined effects of ambient temperature and body reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vicente POLO; Luis M·Crrascal

    2008-01-01

    环境温度和体内储备物水平被认为是鸟类在静止状态下能量利用的重要调节因子(夜间体重降低).然而,以往的研究没有把环境温度和体内储备物对夜间能量维持加以明确的区分.为了研究环境温度是否是为煤山雀(Periparus ater)夜间体重调节的直接因子,在自由取食条件下,实验室控制日-日和日-夜环境温度.温度变化模拟西班牙中部地中海山区秋季日-夜温度的变化.夜间体重取决于黄昏时的体重以及前一天体重的增加值.当前一日白天煤山雀体重增加最大时,记录夜间体重最大降低的比率.然而,环境温度的不可预见性没有影响煤山雀夜间体重降低,可以解释煤山雀内在的生理能量平衡.这些结果提示,当一些环境因子如温度变得不可预见时,鸟类在狭小范围内保持体内储备物%The environmental temperature and the l evel of body reserves have been described as important regulating factors of the amount of energy used at resting (I.e. Nocturnal body mass loss). However, because these variables are associ ated in natural conditions, previous studies have not made a clear distinction between the separate effect of ambient temperature and body reserves on nightly energy management. To investigate whether ambient temperature acts as a proximate factor on nocturnal body mass regulation in captive coal tits Periparus ater, the day-to-day and day-to-night changes in environmental temperatures were experimentally manipulated, under unrestricted food availability. The experiment was conducted within the normal autumn range of temperature variation in a mountain area of continental Mediterranean climate in Central Spain. Nocturnal body mass loss depended on the level of body mass at dusk and daily body-mass gain in the previous day. The largest rates of body mass loss at night were recorded when birds ended the previous day-time period with the highest levels of body reserves obtained

  11. Relationship between mean body temperature calculated by two- or three-compartment models and active cutaneous vasodilation in humans: a comparison between cool and warm environments during leg exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demachi, Koichi; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Tsuneoka, Hideyuki

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the three-compartment model of mean body temperature (Tb3) calculated from the esophageal temperature (Tes), temperature in deep tissue of exercising muscle (Tdt), and mean skin temperature (Tsk) has the potential to provide a better match with the thermoregulatory responses than the two-component model of mean body temperature (Tb2) calculated from Tes and Tsk. Seven male subjects performed 40 min of a prolonged cycling exercise at 30% maximal oxygen uptake at 21°C or 31°C (50% relative humidity). Throughout the experiment, Tsk, Tb2, Tb3, and Tdt were significantly (P temperature conditions, while Tes was similar under both conditions. During exercise, an increase in cutaneous vascular conductance (skin blood flow / mean arterial pressure) over the chest (%CVCc) was observed at both 21°C and 31°C, while no increase was observed at the forearm at 21°C. Furthermore, the Tb3 and Tdt threshold for the onset of the increase in %CVCc was similar, but the Tes and Tb2 threshold differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the conditions tested. These results suggest that active cutaneous vasodilation at the chest is related more closely to Tb3 or Tdt than that measured by Tes or Tb2 calculated by Tes and Tsk during exercise at both 21°C and 31°C.

  12. The timing of the human circadian clock is accurately represented by the core body temperature rhythm following phase shifts to a three-cycle light stimulus near the critical zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, M. E.; Duffy, J. F.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    A double-stimulus experiment was conducted to evaluate the phase of the underlying circadian clock following light-induced phase shifts of the human circadian system. Circadian phase was assayed by constant routine from the rhythm in core body temperature before and after a three-cycle bright-light stimulus applied near the estimated minimum of the core body temperature rhythm. An identical, consecutive three-cycle light stimulus was then applied, and phase was reassessed. Phase shifts to these consecutive stimuli were no different from those obtained in a previous study following light stimuli applied under steady-state conditions over a range of circadian phases similar to those at which the consecutive stimuli were applied. These data suggest that circadian phase shifts of the core body temperature rhythm in response to a three-cycle stimulus occur within 24 h following the end of the 3-day light stimulus and that this poststimulus temperature rhythm accurately reflects the timing of the underlying circadian clock.

  13. 基于AT89C51单片机的心率体温测量仪设计%Design of heart rate and body temperature measuring instrument based on AT89C51 MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰羽

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate and body temperature are important indicators to measure the health of human body. In order to measure heart rate and body temperature quickly and conveniently at the same time,this paper designs a set of simple device to measure heart rate and body temperature. The hardware of the system based on AT89C51 SCM as the core,adopts temperature sensor-DS18B20 to acquire the signal of temperature,and it adopts pressure sensor-MPX2100 to acquire the signal of heart rate, then it sends them into microcontroller-AT89S51. The software uses C language programming to processes the collected signals by AT89C51and then displays them through the liquid crystal. The system shows that it accords with the expected design through Proteus simulation.%心率与体温是衡量人体健康的重要指标,为了快速、便捷对心率和体温同时测量,设计了一种简易的集心率、体温测量于一体的装置.系统硬件以单片机AT89C51为核心,采用DS18B20温度传感器采集体温信号,MPX2100压力传感器采集心率信号,送人单片机AT89S51,软件采用C语言编程,将采集到的信号由AT89C51运算处理后,再由液晶显示出来.系统经Proteus仿真表明,符合设计的预期要求.

  14. Investigation of radiofrequency heating for a closed conducting loop formed in a part of the patient's body in 1.5 tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and 3.0 tesla MR imaging. Measurement of temperature by use of human body-equivalent phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal injuries have been sometimes reported due to a closed conducting loop formed in a part of the patient's body during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In recent years, 3.0 T-MRI scanner has been widely used. However, it is considered that the specific absorption rate (SAR) of 3.0 T-MRI can affect the heat of the loop because its own SAR becomes approximately 4 times as much as that of the 1.5 T-MRI scanner. With this, the change in temperature was measured with human body-equivalent loop phantom in both 1.5 T-MRI and 3.0 T-MRI. In the two scanners, the temperature during 20 min of scanning time was measured with three types of sequences such as field echo (FE), spin echo (SE), and turbo SE (TSE) set up with the same scanning condition. It was found from the result that rise in temperature depended on SAR of the scanning condition irrespective of static magnetic field intensity and any pulse sequences. Furthermore, the increase of SAR and rise in temperature were not only in proportion to each other but also were indicated to have good correlation. However, even low SAR can occasionally induce serious thermal injuries. It was found from result that we had to attempt not to form a closed conducting loop with in a part of the patient's body during MRI. (author)

  15. 豚鼠耳蜗电图变化与体温影响的关系%Association between the changes of electrocochleogram and the effects of body temperature in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何斯纯; 周丽丽; 姚平

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Body temperature has significant effects on brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP). The wave latency of BAEP is the sensitive and objective index for reflecting the effects of body temperature on the synaptic transmission and nerve fiber conduction. The wave origin of electrocochleogram (ECochG) and the effects of body temperature on it need to be probed into to further define its wave origin so as to guide its clinical application.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of body temperature on ECochG and provide important basis for further defining its wave origin and guiding its clinical application.DESIGN: A randomized block design.MATERIALS: This study was performed in the Department of Physiology, Medical College of Jinan University between July and September 2002. Forty adult guinea pigs were randomly divided into hypothermia group (n=20) and hyperthermia group (n=20).INTERVENTIONS: The body temperature of the guinea pigs was decreased or increased step by step with their body contacted with physical method. and the changed rate of body temperature was kept as decreased or increased by 1 ℃ every 5-10 minutes. BAEP and ECochG were detected when the body temperature was changed by 1 ℃.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The PL and IPL of BAEP and ECochG were observed.RESULTS: Finally, 37 guinea pigs were involved in the analysis of relonged as the body temperature was decreased step by step from 36 ℃ to 25 ℃, and shortened as the body temperature was increased gradually from 36 ℃ to 42 ℃. The PL and Ⅰ-Ⅳ IPL prolonged or shortened more significantly with the temperature changed. The PL of wave N1, N2 and N3 and N1-N3 IPL of ECochG also prolonged or shortened as the body temperature perature,the total prolonged and shortened values of Ⅰ -Ⅳ IPL representing the central transmission time of brainstem were much greater than that of wave Ⅰ PL representing the peripheral conduction time, .and the total prolonged and shortened values of thePL of wave

  16. 降低手术患者麻醉诱导期低体温发生率%Reduction of the Incidence of Low Body Temperature during Anesthesia Induction Period in Surgical Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏凯静; 于恩杰

    2012-01-01

    目的 降低手术患者麻醉诱导期低体温发生率.方法 QC小组活动.结果 手术患者麻醉诱导期低体温发生率由活动前的43%下降到活动后的3.8%.结论 降低手术患者麻醉诱导期低体温发生率,可降低患者术后并发症发生率,确保患者安全.%Objective To reduce the incidence of low body temperature during anesthesia induction period in surgical patients. Method QC group activities. Result The incidence of low body temperature during anesthesia induction period in surgical patients was reduced from 43% to 3. 8% after the activities. Conclusion Reduction of the incidence of low body temperature during anesthesia induction period in surgical patients can reduce the incidence of postoperative complications to ensure patient safety.

  17. Coping with heat: function of the natal coat of cape fur seal (Arctocephalus Pusillus Pusillus pups in maintaining core body temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Erdsack

    Full Text Available Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pups spend the first weeks of life exclusively or mainly ashore. They are exposed to intense solar radiation and high temperatures for long time periods, which results in temperatures up to at least 80°C on their black natal coat. To test the hypothesis that the natal coat has a crucial function in coping with these extreme conditions, we investigated the insulating properties of the natal coat in six captive newborn Cape fur seals during the first 50 days after birth. The natal fur differs from the adult fur not only in colour, but also in density, structure, and water repellence. We measured temperature on the fur surface and within the fur, as well as skin and rectal temperature under varying environmental conditions, comparable to the species' habitat. Experiments were designed to not influence the spontaneous behaviour of the pups. Rectal temperature was constant as long as the pups stayed dry, even during long-lasting intense solar radiation for up to 3 h. Skin temperature remained close to rectal temperature as long as the fur was dry, while with wet fur, skin temperature was significantly reduced as well. Our results show that the natal coat provides an effective insulation against overheating. The severely reduced insulation of wet natal fur against cold supports the assumption that the natal fur is an adaptation to the pups' terrestrial phase of life.

  18. Body Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Diaper-Changing Steps for Childcare Settings Body Hygiene Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Facial Cleanliness Fish Pedicures and ... spread of hygiene-related diseases . Topics for Body Hygiene Facial Cleanliness Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Fish Pedicures and Fish Spas ...

  19. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help your child have a healthy body image Cosmetic surgery Breast surgery Botox Liposuction Varicose or spider veins Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa Binge eating ... nervosa Cosmetics and your health Depression during and after pregnancy ...

  20. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  1. Body embellishment

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The exhibition Body Embellishment explores the most innovative artistic expression in the 21st-century international arenas of body extension, augmentation, and modification, focusing on jewelry, tattoos, nail arts, and fashion. The areas of focus are jewelry, tattoos, nail arts, and fashion. Avant-garde jewelry consciously engages the body by intersecting and expanding the planes of the human form. Tattoos are at once on and in the body. Nail art, from manicures to pedicures, has humble ...

  2. Body Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2000-01-01

    Body clocks” are biological methods of controling body activities.Every living thing has one. In humans, a body clock controls normal periods of sleeping and waking. It controls the time swhen you are most likely to feel pain.Eating, sleeping and exercising at about the same time each day will help keep body activities normal. But changes in your life, a new job, for example, destroy the balance and thus cause health problems.

  3. 低温点源黑体关键技术及国内外发展现状%Key technologies and development of point-source black body working at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许杰; 杨林华; 李娜

    2011-01-01

    文章分析了低温点源黑体设备研制中的几项关键技术,包括3种常见发射腔腔形的特点,腔体发射率的计算方法,以及热管,恒温浴和液氮电加热3种恒温方式的原理和技术特性;比较了国内外典型低温黑体设备、产品的性能指标;并简述低温点源黑体设备在红外定标试验中的原理和应用.最后总结出现阶段低温点源黑体的发展水平以及未来的研究重点.%In this paper, some key technologies of point-source black body working at low temperature are analyzed, including the features of three kinds of black body cavities, the emissivity calculation methods, and the principle of maintaining the temperature of the cavity with heat pipe, water or oil bath, or liquid nitrogen and electric heater. The characteristics of the facilities developed in China and other countries are compared, the principle and applications of this kind of black body in the radiometric calibration experimentation are discussed in details. Finally, the development level and future concerns related with this kind of facilities are discussed.

  4. Analysis of the best time of body temperature measured after physical cooling%物理降温后测量体温的最佳时间探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩; 姜岚; 杨佳红; 谭玲; 马红波

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the best time of body temperature measured after physical cooling. Methods 90 patients with T≥38.5℃ were randomly divided into three groups of children received sponge bath with warm water (CW group), adult sponge bath with warm water (AW group) and adult sponge bath with alcohol (AA group). The body temperatures were measured and assessed before sponge bath (T0) and after 30 min (Ti) , 45 min (T2), 60 min (T3) and 75 min (T4) of the end sponge bath. Results The body temperatures at T3 were lower than that at T0-2 (P<0.01) , and the temperatures of three groups were equivalent at the same time point (P>0. 05 ). Conclusion The best time of body temperature measured was at 60 minutes after physical cooling, and there was no significant impact on the cooling effect by taking alcohol or warm water sponge bath.%目的 探讨物理降温后测量体温的最佳时间.方法 将90例T≥38.5℃的患者随机均分成3组,分别接受小儿温水擦浴(CW组)、成人温水擦浴(AW组)和成人酒精擦浴(AA组),测量并记录基础体温(T0)及擦浴结束后30分钟(T1)、45分钟(T2)、60分钟(T3)、75分钟(T4)患者的体温.结果 与T0~2时间点体温比较,患者在T3时间点上体温降至最低(P<0.01);在同一时间点的组间比较,3组体温下降无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 物理降温后测量体温的最佳时间为60分钟,采取酒精或温水擦浴对降温效果无明显影响.

  5. 护理指导母婴肌肤接触对新生儿体温的影响%Effect of nursing guidance on maternal skin contact to neonatal body temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵月宝; 陈小梅; 卢慕娟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of the nursing care guidance on maternal skin contact to neonatal body temperature. Methods 55 cases were carried out with early nursing care guidance on maternal skin contact as observation group, and other 50 cases were treated with normal care, the rectal temperature 5 minutes, 30minutes and 60 minutes after birth were compared in two groups, as well as the time for neonatal body temperature to reach 36.5 ℃. Results The body temperatures of observation group 30 minutes and 60 minutes after birth were higher than those of the normal group(P< 0.05), and the time needed to reach 36.5 ℃ in the observation group was less than that of normal group (P< 0.05). Conclusion Effective nursing care guidance on maternal skin contact can play a very significant role in preventing low temperature for the neonatal body.%目的 探讨护理指导母婴肌肤接触对新生儿体温的影响.方法 选择55例产妇进行早期母婴肌肤接触的护理指导,比较50例常规产后护理进行对比,新生儿生后5 min、30 min和60 min的肛温以及新生儿体温达到36.5℃所需的时间.结果 观察组新生儿生后30min和生后60min体温均高于对照组(P<0.05),观察组新生儿体温达到365℃以上所需时间少于对照组(P<0.05).结论 有效的护理指导母婴肌肤接触对于新生儿低温的预防起到十分重要的作用.

  6. Correlation between skin temperature and heart rate during exercise and recovery, and the influence of body position in these variables in untrained women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Eduardo Borba; Cunha, Raphael Martins; Rosa, Claudio; Antunes, Natacha Sousa; Felisberto, Ivo Miguel Vieira; Vilaça-Alves, José; Reis, Victor Machado

    2016-03-01

    It was known that the thermal response varies according to some variables. Until now, there are no studies that have investigated the relationship of skin temperature and heart rate during and after the workout, either the thermal behavior during postural changes. Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of skin temperature and heart rate, during exercise and up to an hour of recovery (with postural change), performed in two different intensities sessions (70% and 85% of 10 repetitions maximum) and observe the correlation between them. Method: This was a short longitudinal study, carried out with women aged from 18 to 30 years. A sample of 31 untrained women, aged 18 and 30 was used. The volunteers were randomized into two groups: Biceps Group (BG), with 15 women, and Quadriceps Group (QG) with 16 women. Results: During and after completion of the exercise session, there was a significant reduction in skin temperature on the active muscles in both groups (BG and QG), with similar thermal responses for the two intensities studied (70% and 85%) to the minute 15 (which marks the end of the recovery in the standing position). From minute 15 to minute 20-60, the skin temperature increases abruptly and significantly, returning to levels close to those observed before exercise. Conclusion: There were no statistical differences in thermal response to exercises in 70% or 85% of 10RM. There is a negative correlation between heart rate and skin temperature when untrained women perform anaerobic exercise. It was observed that after a change of posture (from a standing position to a sitting posture) skin temperature increased abruptly and significantly.

  7. 基于光纤布拉格光栅的智能服装人体测温模型研究%Research on human body temperature measurement models of intelligent clothing based on optical fiber Bragg grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓刚; 苗长云; 李鸿强; 陈弘达; 习江涛; 杨海静; 张诚

    2011-01-01

    根据热量传递机理建立了智能服装中光纤布拉格光栅人体测温的热传递物理模型,对人体、空气层和服装之间的热传递进行了有限元建模和稳态热分析,确定了智能服装中光纤布拉格光栅温度场的数学模型,利用该数学模型对光纤布拉格光栅测量温度值进行了修正.在多点加权皮肤平均温度的基础上,提出了由左右胸、左右腋和后背五处皮肤温度构成的智能服装人体温度加权模型.由克拉默法则得出了智能服装人体温度加权系数:左前胸为0.0826,左腋为0.3706,右腋为0.3706,后背为0.0936,右前胸为0.0826.人体穿着智能服装的实验结果表明,基于光纤布拉格光栅的智能服装温度检测动态范围为33~42℃,人体温度测量误差为±0.2℃,可应用于人体温度的高精度监测.%A functioning prototype of intelligent biomedical clothing is introduced. It aims at the integration of optical fibers based sensors into functional textiles for extending the capabilities of wearable solutions for body temperature monitoring. According to the laws of human body physiology and heat transmission in fabric, the mathematical model of heat transmission between body and clothed FBG sensors is studied and the steady-state thermal analysis using ANSYS soft-ware is presented. The actual human body temperature can be corrected by the simulation results. Based on the skin temperature by a multi-weighted average, five points weight coefficient model using both sides chest, both sides axilla and back for the intelligent clothing human body temperature is presented. Using Cramer's Rule, the weighted coefficient of 0. 0826 for left chest, 0. 3706 for left axilla, 0. 3706 for right axilla, 0. 0936 for back and 0. 0826 for right chest is obtained. Experimental results show that it can detect the temperature of the dynamic around the 33~42°C and the analysis of a deviation is +0. 2°C. It can be applied to the human body

  8. Comparative Study of Body Temperature and Measuring Speed Among Several Thermometers%几种体温计测量体温和测温速度的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇薇; 郭鑫媛; 杨琳; 王杨柳; 张蕾; 张松; 杨益民

    2011-01-01

    目的 目前市场上体温计的种类很多,但各类体温计测量的体温和测温速度不尽相同.本文通过温度试验对五种不同原理和不同品牌的体温计测量的体温和测量速度进行了对比研究.方法 以水银体温计为温度测量的标准,使用额温体温计、耳温体温计、电子体温计和伟伦体温计分别测量受试者体温,对四种体温计测量的体温和测温速度进行对比分析.结果 伟伦体温计测量的腋温与水银体温计测量腋温没有统计学差异;电子体温计测量的腋温、额温测温计测量的额温和耳温测温计测量的耳温与水银体温计测量的腋温相比有统计学差异.耳温体温计测量耳温的时间最短,但有4s的复位时间,且易因操作不当产生误差;额温体温计在4s左右温度会达到稳定;电子体温计测温时间最长,连续使用时需要3s复位;伟伦体温计测量口腔温度较快,但连续测量时脱去和再次取用口套约需3s,伟伦体温计测量腋温时间相对其它腋温测量方式最短.结论 耳温体温计与额温体温计测量温度方便、快速,能够满足快速体温测量场合的需要,但其测量的额温或耳温与水银体温计测量的腋温有一定差异;伟伦体温计和电子体温计测量的腋温与水银体温计测量的腋温相比,伟伦体温计更为快速、准确.%Objective There are many types of thermometers on the market, however the body temperature and measuring speed of thermometer are different. In this paper, a comparative study of body temperature and measuring speed among five thermometers, which work in different principles and are with different brands, was performed. Methods With the mercury thermometer as standard, forehead thermometer, ear thermometer, electronic thermometer and Welch Allyn thermometer were enclosed to measure subjects' body temperature. And the body temperature and measuring speed of four thermometers were investigated. Results

  9. The influence of the starvation-predation trade-off on the relationship between ambient temperature and body size among endotherms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McNamara, John M.; Higginson, Andrew D.; Verhulst, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The tendency for animals at higher latitudes to be larger (Bergmann's rule) is generally explained by recourse to latitudinal effects on ambient temperature and the food supply, but these receive only mixed support and do not explain observations of the inverse to Bergmann's rule. Our aim was t

  10. Influência da temperatura corporal de cascavéis (Crotalus durissus submetidas à anestesia com cetamina Influence of body temperature on rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus anesthetized with ketamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano B. Carregaro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou verificar a influência da temperatura corporal nos parâmetros fisiológicos e nos períodos de indução e recuperação anestésicos de cascavéis (Crotalus durissus anestesiadas com cetamina. Os animais foram previamente submetidos à hipotermia (HIPO (The aim of the study was to verify the influence of the body temperature under physiological values and latency and recovery times on rattlesnakes anesthetized with ketamine. The animals were previously submitted to hypothermia (HYPO (<22°C and normothermia (30°C (NORMO and then, anesthetized with 80 mg/kg IM of ketamine. Latency and recovery times were evaluated by head tonus, muscular tonus and righting reflex. Heart rate (HR, time of apnea and body temperature were measured before and 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ketamine administration. Blood gases parameters were measured before, 30 and 60 minutes. It was not observed difference on latency time in both groups. The recovery time was higher on HYPO (5,5 hours compared to NORMO (3,5 hours. HR was higher on NORMO compared to HYPO. Time of apnea was the same pattern on both groups. Compared to basal levels, time of apnea was shorter between 5 to 30 min on both groups. Respiratory acidosis was observed only at 0 min in NORMO. SvO2 was higher after 30 min, the same as with PvO2 in both groups. PvCO2 reduced after 30 min in both groups. It was evident that body temperature exerts intense influence on the recovery time on rattlesnakes anesthetized with ketamine.

  11. 术中应用保温措施防止剖宫产产妇寒颤%Intraoperative body-temperature maintenance to prevent shivering during Caesarean section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈少娟; 郭雅梅; 赖梅; 黄素娟; 张莹

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨术中应用积极的保温措施对防止剖宫产产妇低体温寒颤的影响.方法 选取拟行剖宫产产妇100例,随机分为保温组和对照组,每组50例.对照组术中按传统护理常规进行护理,保温组采用多种积极的综合保温措施.结果 低体温寒颤发生率对照组为60%,保温组16%,两组比较差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论 术中采取积极有效的保温措施有助于预防剖宫产产妇低体温寒颤的发生.%Objective To explore the effect of aggressive intraoperative body-temperature maintenance on prevention of hypothermia-induced shivering in puerperas during Caesarean section.Methods 100 puerperas undergoing Caesarean section were randomly assigned to receive routine intraoperaive nursing (50 puerperas, control group)or various aggressive approachs for body-temperature maintenance (50 puerperas, study group). Results The rate of hypothermia-induced shivering differed significantly between the control group and the study group (60% vs. 16%, P< 0.05). Conclusions Aggressive intraoperative body-temperature maintenance is helpful for preventing the occurrence of hypothermia-induced shivering in puerperas undergoing Caesarean section.

  12. The relationship between body temperature, heart rate, breathing rate, and rate of oxygen consumption, in the tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) at various levels of activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercy, Joanna; Rogers, Kip; Reichert, Michelle; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Tattersall, Glenn J; Milsom, William K

    2015-12-01

    The present study determined whether EEG and/or EMG recordings could be used to reliably define activity states in the Brazilian black and white tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and then examined the interactive effects of temperature and activity states on strategies for matching O2 supply and demand. In a first series of experiments, the rate of oxygen consumption (VO2), breathing frequency (fR), heart rate (fH), and EEG and EMG (neck muscle) activity were measured in different sleep/wake states (sleeping, awake but quiet, alert, or moving). In general, metabolic and cardio-respiratory changes were better indictors of the transition from sleep to wake than were changes in the EEG and EMG. In a second series of experiments, the interactive effects of temperature (17, 27 and 37 °C) and activity states on fR, tidal volume (VT), the fraction of oxygen extracted from the lung per breath (FIO2-FEO2), fH, and the cardiac O2 pulse were quantified to determine the relative roles of each of these variables in accommodating changes in VO2. The increases in oxygen supply to meet temperature- and activity-induced increases in oxygen demand were produced almost exclusively by increases in fH and fR. Regression analysis showed that the effects of temperature and activity state on the relationships between fH, fR and VO2 was to extend a common relationship along a single curve, rather than separate relationships for each metabolic state. For these lizards, the predictive powers of fR and fH were maximized when the effects of changes in temperature, digestive state and activity were pooled. However, the best r(2) values obtained were 0.63 and 0.74 using fR and fH as predictors of metabolic rate, respectively.

  13. Driven-dissipative many-body systems with mixed power-law interactions: Bistabilities and temperature-driven nonequilibrium phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šibalić, N.; Wade, C. G.; Adams, C. S.; Weatherill, K. J.; Pohl, T.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the nonequilibrium dynamics of a driven-dissipative spin ensemble with competing power-law interactions. We demonstrate that dynamical phase transitions as well as bistabilities can emerge for asymptotic van der Waals interactions, but critically rely on the presence of a slower decaying potential core. Upon introducing random particle motion, we show that a finite gas temperature can drive a phase transition with regards to the spin degree of freedom and eventually leads to mean-field behavior in the high-temperature limit. Our work reconciles contrasting observations of recent experiments with Rydberg atoms in the cold-gas and hot-vapor domain, and introduces an efficient theoretical framework in the latter regime.

  14. SSPM在蓝宝石光纤黑体腔瞬态高温传感器中的应用%Application of the SSPM in Sapphire Fiber Black-Body Cavity Transient High Temperature Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘保武; 郝晓剑; 李伟; 周汉昌

    2011-01-01

    介绍了一种基于黑体全辐射原理的蓝宝石光纤黑体腔高温传感器,从黑体腔制作和微光信号探测方面进行了分析,测试了固态光电倍增管(Solid-State Photomultiplier,SSPM)的输入输出特性,并给出了实验结果.实验结果表明:由于采用新型光电探测器和膜层材料,大大提高了传感器的测温范围和信噪比.该高温传感器的测试范围上限大于2000 C,响应时间小于100 ms,能够满足科研和工业生产中特殊环境下的温度测量.%Sapphire fiber blackbody cavity transient high temperature sensor based on a whole blank-body radiation theory was introduced, and blank-body cavity production and weak photoelectric signal detection was analyzed. Testing results of input and output characteristics for the solid-state photomultiplier(SSPM) were also given. The experimental results show that the temperature range and signal to noise ratio of the sensor are increased using new photoelectric detector and film material. The temperature sensor measuring range upper limit is greater than 2 000 C and the response time less than 100 ms. It can meet the research and industrial production with some specific environment for temperature measurement.

  15. Research and application of handy muscle strength and body temperature tester%便携式肌力和体温诊断仪的研制与开发应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    In this study,muscle strength and temperature tester is designed to take accurate and quick measurements of strength and temperature variations among physical rehabilitation trainers.The pressure sensor and the temperature sensor are assembled.Through this instrument the body reaction and muscle force values are easily and quickly captured and recorded because Temperature changes can efficiently reflect local blood flow and damage.The remote temperature sensor is used to capture the changes of body temperatures.Based on a multidisciplinary involvement,research group developed the “strength and temperature tester”and verified its effect and accuracy during the students’internship program in the hospital so as to improve the present situation of muscle strength testing and provide a scientific basis and constructive recommendations on physical rehabilitation training for the elite athletes and relative patients.%  本研究通过设计“肌力和体温诊断仪”来对体能康复训练者的肌力和温度变化进行准确快速的测量。对压力传感器和温度传感器进行组装,通过压力传感器的受力面捕捉人体的反作用力并记录肌力力值变化,因为体温的变化可以简便快速的对局部的血流和损伤情况有所反映,我们用遥测温度传感器来捕捉人体温度变化。团队借助多学科的介入,研发了“肌力与体温诊断仪”,学生利用在医院实习过程中对仪器进行了效果和精度验证。希望我们的研究能改善现有康复肌肉力量的测试现状。以便为我国的优秀运动员和需要运动康复的患者进行体能康复训练时提供科学依据和建议。

  16. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...... with an analysis of the embodied meaning of men‘s bodybuilding....

  17. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along with an...... analysis of the embodied meaning of men‘s bodybuilding....

  18. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JosephDeVeto

    2004-01-01

    When we speak,we use much more than just words. We also communicate with our face. our hands,and even our own body. This Kind of communication ean be called “body language” or “non-verbal eommunieation”. Non-verbal

  19. Body Weight and Body Image

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane Traci; Olmsted Marion P

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs...

  20. Study on influence of comprehensive thermal insulation on body temperature of patients undergoing abdominal surgery%开腹手术患者全程综合保温对体温变化影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭玉娜; 薄金华; 苑广洁; 张华; 刘春英

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过探讨3种不同保温措施对开腹手术患者围术期体温变化的影响,为患者采取有效的保温措施提供依据。方法选取择期开腹手术患者共90例,随机分为3组,医用升温毯组、充气式升温毯组和综合保温组,每组各30例,对患者在手术中的不同时间点监测其直肠温度、脉搏、血压和麻醉复苏时间等变化。结果3组患者所在手术间温度及其入手术室的体温差异无统计学意义;麻醉1 h开始医用升温毯组患者体温为(36.43±0.48)℃与充气加温组(36.69±0.40)℃比较显著下降( P<0.05),麻醉2 h 医用电热升温毯组(36.12±0.46)℃较充气组(36.61±0.43℃和综合保温组(36.47±0.42)℃均显著下降( P<0.05),而充气加温组和综合保温组间差异无统计学意义。结论在开腹手术过程中应用医用升温毯虽能起到一定保温作用,但是随着手术时间延长,患者仍然会有低体温出现,充气式升温毯法和综合保温法均可有效避免围手术期低体温的发生。%OBJECTIVE To observe the influence of three thermal insulation measures on change of body tempera‐ture during the perioperative period of abdominal surgery so as to take more effective thermal insulation method . METHODS A total of 90 patients who underwent the elective abdominal surgery were enrolled in the study and randomly divided into the three groups :the medical electric blanket group ,the forced‐air warming blanket group , and the comprehensive thermal insulation group ;the changes of rectal temperature ,pulse rate ,blood pressure , and time of recovery from anesthesia were monitored at different time points during the surgery .RESULTS There was no statistically significant difference in the intraoperative body temperature or the body temperature at admis‐sion to the hospital between the three groups of patients .At 1 hour of anesthesia ,the body

  1. Preventive Measure for Generating Bend Pipe Caused From Different Temperature in Pipe Body During HFW Pipe Production%高频焊管生产中管体温度不均造成弯管的防止措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆根

    2011-01-01

    Through analysis on generation reason of bend pipe caused by various factors during HFW pipe production,it stress discussed the reason resulted in bend pipe by outside diameter, steel grade and thickness under different running speed and weld heat treatment temperature. Controlling the surface temperature of the pipe body before entering into cooling water tank,matching unit running speed,and adjusting bend pipe according to different direction to make the straightness of pipe body be in accordance with the standard.%通过对HFW焊管生产过程中不同因素导致产生弯管的原因分析,着重论述了钢管外径、钢级、壁厚三者之间在不同运行速度和焊缝热处理温度下形成弯管的原因.通过采取控制焊管进入冷却水槽前的管体表面温度,配合机组运行速度,根据钢管弯曲的不同方向进行必要调整,使管体达到符合标准的直度.

  2. Finite-temperature coupled-cluster, many-body perturbation, and restricted and unrestricted Hartree–Fock study on one-dimensional solids: Luttinger liquids, Peierls transitions, and spin- and charge-density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-dimensional (1D) solids exhibit a number of striking electronic structures including charge-density wave (CDW) and spin-density wave (SDW). Also, the Peierls theorem states that at zero temperature, a 1D system predicted by simple band theory to be a metal will spontaneously dimerize and open a finite fundamental bandgap, while at higher temperatures, it will assume the equidistant geometry with zero bandgap (a Peierls transition). We computationally study these unique electronic structures and transition in polyyne and all-trans polyacetylene using finite-temperature generalizations of ab initio spin-unrestricted Hartree–Fock (UHF) and spin-restricted coupled-cluster doubles (CCD) theories, extending upon previous work [He et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024702 (2014)] that is based on spin-restricted Hartree–Fock (RHF) and second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theories. Unlike RHF, UHF can predict SDW as well as CDW and metallic states, and unlike MP2, CCD does not diverge even if the underlying RHF reference wave function is metallic. UHF predicts a gapped SDW state with no dimerization at low temperatures, which gradually becomes metallic as the temperature is raised. CCD, meanwhile, confirms that electron correlation lowers the Peierls transition temperature. Furthermore, we show that the results from all theories for both polymers are subject to a unified interpretation in terms of the UHF solutions to the Hubbard–Peierls model using different values of the electron-electron interaction strength, U/t, in its Hamiltonian. The CCD wave function is shown to encompass the form of the exact solution of the Tomonaga–Luttinger model and is thus expected to describe accurately the electronic structure of Luttinger liquids

  3. Experiment of surface thermal features of wake behind a going body underwater in a temperature stratification water tank%温度分层水槽中水下航行体尾流水面热特征实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴猛猛; 陈伯义; 张修峰; 杨立; 袁宝吉

    2011-01-01

    The surface thermal features caused by the wake behind a going body underwater in the temperature stratification ocean are the key topic to the development of infrared anti-submarine technology. The buoyant process of the thermal wake and its interaction with the surface were displayed and measured in a water tank with the vertical negative temperature gradient. The variation laws of the surface temperature caused by the wake behind a going body underwater, as well as the buoyancy image and surface infrared image of the thermal wake were obtained. Based on these research, the effects of sail depths, temperature gradients, surface wave and sun radiation on the surface thermal features were discussed. The present results may provide a certain theoretical basis and important reference value for the infrared detection of a going body underwater.%温度分层海洋中水下航行体尾流引起的水面热特征是发展红外反潜技术的关键课题.在具有垂直负温度梯度的水槽中,对水下航行体热尾流的浮升过程及其与自由表面的相互作用进行了显示和测量,得到了水下航行体尾流引起的自由表面温度变化规律以及热尾流的浮升图像和其自由表面的红外图像,并在此基础上讨论了航行深度、温度梯度、水面波浪和太阳辐射等对自由表面热特征的影响.研究结果可为水下航行体的红外探测提供一定的理论基础和重要参考价值.

  4. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma...... and shrink, leading to potential pitfalls in paleopathological diagnostics. Bog bodies have in several instances been crucial in determining the last meal, as gut contents may be preserved, and thus augment our knowledge on pre-historic diet by adding to, for example, stable isotope analyses. This article...

  5. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2008-01-01

    @@ For Teachers: The Wordless Language Spoken by Everyone by Pamela Osment An old saying goes:"Actions speak louder than words."That's true according to communication experts.Some studies show that up to 90 percent of communication is nonverbal.Though you might say one thing,your body movements may indicate something entirely different.This nonverbal way of communicating is called body language.The Universal(通用的)Language

  6. 不同体温对兔不同剂量顺式阿曲库铵肌松效应的影响%Effects of different body temperatures on neuromuscular block induced by different doses of cisatracurinm in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨贵英; 闵苏

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of different body temperatures on the neuromuscular block induced by different doses of cisatracurium in rabbits. Methods Seventy-two healthy New Zealand white rabbits of both sexes weighing 2.0-2.2 kg were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=24 each): hypothermia group (L), normothermia group (N) and hyperthermia group (H). The rectal temperature was set at 34.5℃, 38.5℃ and 41.8℃ in group L, N and H respectively. Each group was further divided into 4 subgroups (n=6 each) receiving intravenous cisatracurinm 0.33, 0.66, 0.99 and 1.32 mg/kg respectively after rectal temperature was stabilized for 20 min. The animals were anesthetized with iv 20% methane 1 g/kg, tracheostomized and mechanically ventilated (VT 12 ml/kg, RR 60 bpm, I:E = 1:2;FiO2 100% ). TOF was monitored. The onset time, the duration of action (from the end of cisatracurium injection to the recovery of T1 to 5%, 25% and 95% of control height) and recovery index (recovery of T1 from 25% to 75% of control height) were recorded. MAP, HR and rectal temperature were recorded at 5 min before alteration of the body temperature, at 2 min before and 5, 10, 30, 60 and 90 min after administration of cisatracurium. Results (1) With the same dose of cisatracurium the onset time and duration of action were significantly shorter in group H, longer in group L and recovery from N-M block faster in group H, slower in group L as compared with group N. (2) At the same body temperature the onset time was significantly shortened and the duration of action and recovery were significantly prolonged as the dose of cisatracurium increased. (3) There was significant difference in the effect of interaction between different doses of cisatracurium and different temperatures on the onset time. (4) With the same dose of cisatracurium MAP was significantly decreased in group H, increased in group L, while HR was significantly increased in group H, decreased in group L. Conclusion The

  7. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    ­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based...... on the Dance Therapy Form Dansergia. The author, who is a practi­tioner-researcher, is methodologically inspir­ed by phenomenology, performative methods and a narrative and auto-ethnographic approach. The project will be presented in an organic, cre­at­ive and performative way. Through a moving dia......Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves...

  8. Circadian Rhythms of Body Temperature, Metabolic Rates and Evaporative Water Loss in Tupaia belangeri%中缅树鼩体温、代谢率和蒸发失水日节律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春梅; 胡黎娅; 杨盛昌; 朱万龙; 李晓婷; 蔡金红; 王政昆

    2012-01-01

    To study daily rhythms of body temperature, metabolic rates and evaporative water loss of Tupaia belangeri, we took measurements on body temperature ( Tb) for 24 h by implanting thermometer into their body. We also measured rest metabolic rate (RMR) , nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) and evaporative water loss (EWL) in 4 periods of 05:00-07:00, 11:00-13:00, 17 :00 - 19 :00 and 23 :00-01 :00 within 24 h. The body temperature showed a change in circadian rhythm with a maximum and minimum value of 39. 45 ± 0. 26t and 36. 34 ±0. 241: at 11:00 and 03 :00, respectively. The value of NST, RMR and EWL taken in the four periods within 24 h also significantly varied and exhibited a circadian rhythm. The minimum value of RMRTNZ was 2. 28 ± 0. 09 ml/( g · h) at 11 : 00 - 13 : 00 and maximum value was 2. 58 ± 0. 04 ml/( g · h ) occurred at 23 :00 -01 :00; the highest value of NST occurred at 05:00 -07:00 valued at 3.08 ±0. 14 ml/ ( g · h) and the lowest value was 2. 69 ± 0. 06 ml/ ( g · h) exhibited at period of 11 :00 - 13 :00; The maximum value of EWL was taken at 17 :00 - 19 :00 with 3. 60 ± 0. 31 mg/( g- h) . The body temperature variation was varied with change of ambient temperature and with the activeness of the animal in the different period in the 24 h rhythm. The RMR and NST was increase in the night when the ambient temperature was decrease. The animal adjusted their body temperature by increasing EWL in the day.%为研究中缅树鼩(Tupaia belangeri)体温、代谢率和蒸发失水的日节律变化,采用植入式体温计测定了中缅树鼩24 h的体温,以及24 h中4个时间段(05:00 ~ 07:00时、11:00~13:00时、17:00 ~ 19:00时和23:00~ 01:00时)热中性区(30℃)的静止代谢率(RMR)、非颤抖性产热(NST)和蒸发失水(EWL).结果显示,中缅树鼩的体温具有日节律变化,最高值和最低值分别出现在11:00时和03:00时,各为(39.45±0.26)℃和(36.34 ±0.24)℃;静止代谢率、非颤

  9. Effect of body temperature on anesthetized recovery time and extubation time%麻醉患者体温变化对麻醉后苏醒效果和拔管时间的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕胜

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨麻醉患者体温变化对麻醉后苏醒和拔管时间的影响。方法选取攀枝花市中心医院2011年9月~2013年9月间行全麻手术患者120例,随机分为对照组和观察组,对照组麻醉后常规手术处理,观察组麻醉后给予保温措施,观察两组患者麻醉过程中体温变化情况、麻醉后苏醒和拔管时间及不良反应发生情况。结果给予保温措施的观察组患者体温高于对照组,患者苏醒及拔管时间短于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),术中心率、血压及寒颤异常等不良反应的发生率明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论麻醉患者体温下降发生低体温时可延长麻醉后苏醒和拔管时间,对患者机体有较大危害,临床需积极采取措施降低患者低体温的发生。%Objective To investigate the effect of changes in body temperature on the patients anesthetized recover and extubation time. Methods 120 patients for operation from September 2011 to September 2013 in Central Hospital of Panzhihua City were selected and divided into control group underwent conventional surgical treatment, and observation group given insulation measure. The body temperature changes during anesthesia, anesthetized recovery time, extuba-tion time and occurrence of adverse reactione in the two groups were observed. Results The body temperature of pa-tients in observation group given insulation measure were higher than control group, time of patients recovery and extu-bation in observation group were shorter than the control group (P<0.05). The occurrence of adverse reaction including heart rate, blood pressure and shivering in the observation group was lower than the control group (P< 0.05). Conclu-sion Anesthesia patients with hypothermia can prolong recovery and extubation time, which is harmful to patients, the clinical need to take active measures to reduce the occurrence of low body temperature.

  10. Body Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  11. The lavender plumage colour in Japanese quail is associated with a complex mutation in the region of MLPH that is related to differences in growth, feed consumption and body temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bed’hom Bertrand

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lavender phenotype in quail is a dilution of both eumelanin and phaeomelanin in feathers that produces a blue-grey colour on a wild-type feather pattern background. It has been previously demonstrated by intergeneric hybridization that the lavender mutation in quail is homologous to the same phenotype in chicken, which is caused by a single base-pair change in exon 1 of MLPH. Results In this study, we have shown that a mutation of MLPH is also associated with feather colour dilution in quail, but that the mutational event is extremely different. In this species, the lavender phenotype is associated with a non-lethal complex mutation involving three consecutive overlapping chromosomal changes (two inversions and one deletion that have consequences on the genomic organization of four genes (MLPH and the neighbouring PRLH, RAB17 and LRRFIP1. The deletion of PRLH has no effect on the level of circulating prolactin. Lavender birds have lighter body weight, lower body temperature and increased feed consumption and residual feed intake than wild-type plumage quail, indicating that this complex mutation is affecting the metabolism and the regulation of homeothermy. Conclusions An extensive overlapping chromosome rearrangement was associated with a non-pathological Mendelian trait and minor, non deleterious effects in the lavender Japanese quail which is a natural knockout for PRLH.

  12. Body Rainbow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Phubu did not know how long hehad walked after leaving Baxoi, buthe did know that he was halfwaybetween home and Lhasa. Feelingthe weight of the sack containingPhumo's body on his back, Fhubuhad calmed down from the grief anddesperation. He had just one wish:to carry Phumo to Lhasa. He knewthat Phumo had gone, and her soulwas no longer in this body. But hewas determined to finish the trip, notonly because he had promised so, butalso that he believed that it would beredemption for him.

  13. 热应激对荷斯坦奶牛体温和呼吸的影响%Effect of Heat Stress on Body Temperature and Respiration of Dairy Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚焰础; 江山; 肖融; 黄健; 杜瑞平; 高民

    2012-01-01

    本试验旨在研究热应激对不同泌乳阶段奶牛直肠温度、皮肤温度和呼吸频率的影响.选用不同泌乳阶段、胎次相近的荷斯坦奶牛18头,按泌乳天数分为泌乳前期、泌乳中期和泌乳后期3组,每组6个重复,根据牛舍温湿指数(THI)变化情况,进行热应激与非热应激的自身对照试验.结果表明:热应激极显著增加各泌乳阶段奶牛的直肠温度、皮肤温度和呼吸频率(P<0.01);THI与各泌乳阶段奶牛的直肠温度、皮肤温度、呼吸频率呈显著正相关(P<0.05);在同一环境下,不同泌乳阶段奶牛的直肠温度、皮肤温度及呼吸频率无显著差异(P>0.05).热应激严重影响奶牛的直肠温度、皮肤温度和呼吸频率,与泌乳中、后期奶牛相比,热应激对泌乳前期奶牛的影响趋于较大.%The experiment was conducted to study the effect of heat stress on rectal temperature, skin temperature and respiratory rate of dairy cows. Eighteen Holstein dairy cows were divided into three groups, including early lactation stage, mid-lactation stage and late lactation stage,with six cows in each group. According to THI (temperature-humidity index) of the cowhouse, each group was compared with itself as heat stress or non-heat stress. The results showed that heat stress could very significantly increase the rectal temperature, skin temperature and respiratory rate of dairy cows (P0.05). Heat stress had seriously effect on body temperature and respiration of dairy cows. Compared with the middle and late lactation, the effect of heat stress on early lactation tended to be higher.

  14. Susceptible Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünenberg, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    is understood as ‘susceptible bodies’ by acupuncturists and reflexologists, are brought into being through various bodily and narrative practices. From a practitioners’ perspective, these practices potentially influence treatment outcomes and enables the emergence of not just new bodies, but also potentially...

  15. 补骨脂、生地黄对正常大鼠体温及ATP酶活性的影响%Effect of Psoraleae Fructus and Rehmanniae Radix on Body Temperature and ATPase Activity in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓玲; 李峰; 崔光志

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨补骨脂、生地黄对正常大鼠体温及ATP酶活性的影响.方法:将大鼠随机分为空白对照组、附子热性对照组、大黄寒性对照组、补骨脂组与生地黄组,附子组6.75 g·kg-1,大黄组13.5 g·kg-1,补骨脂组4.05 g·kg-1,生地黄组6.75 g·kg-1,按10 mL·kg-1ig,1次/d,每周给药6d,停药1d,共给药28 d,空白组ig等量(10 mL·kg-1)生理盐水.给药28 d后测量大鼠趾温、肛温,大鼠处死后,取出肝脏,制备组织匀浆,测定三磷酸腺苷(ATP)酶活性.结果:与空白对照组相比,补骨脂组大鼠趾温、肛温均明显升高(P<0.05),生地黄组大鼠趾温、肛温均明显降低(P<0.05).与空白对照组相比,补骨脂组肝组织中Na+-K+-ATP酶、Ca2+-Mg2+-ATP酶活性均明显升高(P<0.05);生地黄组Na+-K+-ATP酶,Ca2+-Mg2+-ATP酶活性均明显降低(P<0.05).结论:补骨脂、生地黄对正常大鼠体温及ATP酶活性影响明显,提示寒、热药性不同的药物与对体内ATP酶活性的影响不同可能是对体温产生不同的作用趋势的原因之一.%Objective: To discuss the effect of Psoraleae Fructus and Rehmanniae Radix on body temperature and ATPase activity in rats. Method: Fifty rats were randomly divided into the blank control group, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata control group, Rhei Radix et Rhizoma control group, psoraleae fructus group and Rehmanniae Radix group, the dosage of aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata control group was 6. 75 g ·kg-1; the dosage of Rhei Radix et Rhfizoma control group was 13. 5 g·kg-1; the dosage of Psoraleae Fructus group was 4. 05 g ·kg-1 ; the dosage of Rehmanniae Radix group was 6. 75 g ·kg-1. The rats were fed with the amount of 10 mL · kg-1 for 28 days ( the blank group was fed with equal volume of physiological saline irrigation ) , 1 time a day, lasting 6 days, stopping 1 day. The toe temperature and Rectal Temperature of the rats were measured 28 days after administration. The liver was removed and

  16. Sacralising Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    In post-revolution Iran, the sacred notion of martyrdom has been transformed into a routine act of government – a moral sign of order and state sovereignty. Moving beyond the debates of the secularisation of the sacred and the making sacred of the secular, this article argues that the moment...... of sacralisation is realised through co-production within a social setting when the object of sacralisation is recognised as such by others. In contemporary Iran, however, the moment of sacralising bodies by the state is also the moment of its own subversion as the political-theological field of martyrdom......-sacrifice became central to the mass mobilisation against the monarchy. Once the revolutionary government came into existence, this sacred tradition was regulated to create ‘martyrs’ as a fixed category, in order to consolidate the legacy of the revolution. In this political theatre, the dead body is a site...

  17. Thermophoretic motion of bodies with axial symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermophoresis of axially symmetric bodies is investigated to first order in the Knudsen number, K n. The study is made in the limit where the typical length of the immersed body is small compared with the mean free path. It is shown that in this case, in contrast to what is the case for spherical bodies, the arising thermal force on the body is not in general anti-parallel to the temperature gradient. It is also shown that the gas exerts a torque on the body, which in magnitude and direction depends on the body geometry. Equations of motion describing the body movement are derived. Stationary solutions are studied

  18. 高效辐射烧伤治疗仪对烧伤患者体温的影响及护理%Effect of efficient radiation burning therapeutic instrument on body temperature of burn patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽芝; 杨素敏; 陈凯燕; 杨翠玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of efficient radiation burning therapeutic instrument on the body temperature of bum patients. Methods 60 burn patients hospitalized during October 2010 and July 2011 were randomly divided into experiment group (n = 33) and control group (n s 27). The burn wounds of the control group was treated with external application of silver sulfadiazine and dressed after debridement, followed by intravenous transfusion of antibiotics. The wounds in the experimental group received treatment by efficient radiation burning therapeutic instrument for 10 days, 2-4 times/d. The two groups were compared concerning the body temperature. Results 10 days after treatment, the incidence of fever was lower than that of the control group and the fever was less serious and the duration of fever was shorter than that of the control group (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusions The auxiliary therapy byefficient radiation burning therapeutic instrument is effective for the decrease of fever incidence, alleviate fever degree and shorter the fever duration. So it may lower the possibility of infection and promote the recovery of patients.%目的 观察高效辐射烧伤治疗仪对烧伤患者体温的影响及护理要点.方法 选择2010年10月~2011年7月本科室收治的60例烧伤患者,随机分为实验组33例和对照组27例.对照组采用对烧伤创面进行清创,磺胺嘧啶银粉外涂并包扎,常规静脉滴注抗生素消炎治疗,实验组在此基础上加用高效辐射烧伤治疗仪照射烧伤创面,比较两组患者体温变化的差异.结果 实验组患者入院后10 d出现发热的发生率低于对照组,发热程度轻于对照组,发热时间短于对照组(均P<0.05).结论 烧伤患者采用高效辐射烧伤治疗仪进行辅助治疗,能有效降低患者发热的发生率,减轻发热程度,缩短患者的发热持续时间,从而有效控制感染,促进患者早日康复.

  19. Effects of Tufu Decoction Rectal Medication on Body Temperature and Gastrointestinal Function of Fushi Syndrome Rats%通腑方直肠滴入对腑实证大鼠体温及胃肠功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶冬兰

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过观察不同剂量通腑方直肠滴入对腑实证大鼠体温及胃肠动力的影响,探讨相关作用机理.方法 以中药灌服制备大鼠腑实证模型,各治疗组均从造模成功后第2日开始连续3d给药,观察各组大鼠体温、胃肠蠕动、胃泌素水平.结果 与模型组比较,通腑方有一定的解热作用,并且其解热作用比阳性药物作用更持久.通腑方能促进胃动素、胃泌素产生,对肠蠕动均有推动作用,中剂量组与高剂量组无明显差异.结论 通腑方有一定的解热作用,其对胃排空有一定的促进作用,且能促进胃动素和胃泌素的产生,对消化功能有着积极的作用.%Objective: To explore the mechanism of tongfu decoction treating pediatric related disease by the way observing of Effects Tufu Decoction rectal medication on body temperature and gastrointestinal function of Fushi Syndrome rats. Methods: Empirical model of Fushi Pattern rats were set by Chinese traditional irrigation . Each treatment group were given Tongfu decoction from the second day after the success of the Setting model for three consecutive days,and the rats body temperature,gastrointestinal peristalsis,gastrin were observed in every group.Result: Compared with model group,the tongfu Decoction had antipyretic effect,and itsantipyretic effect is more lasting than positive drug effect. The Tongfu decoction were role to bowel movements. There were no obvious difference between the dose group and high dose group.The dose and high dose group could promote motilin,gastrin produce,and there were no obvious difference in the dose and high dose group. Conclusion:The Tongfu Decoction has antipyretic effect, gastric emptying effect, gastrointestinal peristalsis promotion effect, motilin and gastrin generation promotion effect,which contributs positively to digestion.

  20. Pacemakers charging using body energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Dinesh; Bairagi, Sweeti; Goel, Sanat; Jangra, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Life-saving medical implants like pacemakers and defibrillators face a big drawback that their batteries eventually run out and patients require frequent surgery to have these batteries replaced. With the advent of technology, alternatives can be provided for such surgeries. To power these devices, body energy harvesting techniques may be employed. Some of the power sources are patient's heartbeat, blood flow inside the vessels, movement of the body parts, and the body temperature (heat). Different types of sensors are employed, such as for sensing the energy from the heartbeat the piezoelectric and semiconducting coupled nanowires are used that convert the mechanical energy into electricity. Similarly, for sensing the blood flow energy, nanogenerators driven by ultrasonic waves are used that have the ability to directly convert the hydraulic energy in human body to electrical energy. Another consideration is to use body heat employing biothermal battery to generate electricity using multiple arrays of thermoelectric generators built into an implantable chip. These generators exploit the well-known thermocouple effect. For the biothermal device to work, it needs a 2°C temperature difference across it. But there are many parts of the body where a temperature difference of 5°C exists - typically in the few millimeters just below the skin, where it is planned to place this device. This study focuses on using body heat as an alternative energy source to recharge pacemaker batteries and other medical devices and prevent the possibility of life-risk during repeated surgery.

  1. Pacemakers charging using body energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Bhatia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Life-saving medical implants like pacemakers and defibrillators face a big drawback that their batteries eventually run out and patients require frequent surgery to have these batteries replaced. With the advent of technology, alternatives can be provided for such surgeries. To power these devices, body energy harvesting techniques may be employed. Some of the power sources are patient′s heartbeat, blood flow inside the vessels, movement of the body parts, and the body temperature (heat. Different types of sensors are employed, such as for sensing the energy from the heartbeat the piezoelectric and semiconducting coupled nanowires are used that convert the mechanical energy into electricity. Similarly, for sensing the blood flow energy, nanogenerators driven by ultrasonic waves are used that have the ability to directly convert the hydraulic energy in human body to electrical energy. Another consideration is to use body heat employing biothermal battery to generate electricity using multiple arrays of thermoelectric generators built into an implantable chip. These generators exploit the well-known thermocouple effect. For the biothermal device to work, it needs a 2°C temperature difference across it. But there are many parts of the body where a temperature difference of 5°C exists - typically in the few millimeters just below the skin, where it is planned to place this device. This study focuses on using body heat as an alternative energy source to recharge pacemaker batteries and other medical devices and prevent the possibility of life-risk during repeated surgery.

  2. Application of change-point analysis to determine winter sleep patterns of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides from body temperature recordings and a multi-faceted dietary and behavioral study of wintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustonen Anne-Mari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A multi-faceted approach was used to investigate the wintertime ecophysiology and behavioral patterns of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, a suitable model for winter sleep studies. By utilizing GPS tracking, activity sensors, body temperature (Tb recordings, change-point analysis (CPA, home range, habitat and dietary analyses, as well as fatty acid signatures (FAS, the impact of the species on wintertime food webs was assessed. The timing of passive bouts was determined with multiple methods and compared to Tb data analyzed by CPA. Results Raccoon dogs displayed wintertime mobility, and the home range sizes determined by GPS were similar or larger than previous estimates by radio tracking. The preferred habitats were gardens, shores, deciduous forests, and sparsely forested areas. Fields had close to neutral preference; roads and railroads were utilized as travel routes. Raccoon dogs participated actively in the food web and gained benefit from human activity. Mammals, plants, birds, and discarded fish comprised the most important dietary classes, and the consumption of fish could be detected in FAS. Ambient temperature was an important external factor influencing Tb and activity. The timing of passive periods approximated by behavioral data and by CPA shared 91% similarity. Conclusions Passive periods can be determined with CPA from Tb recordings without the previously used time-consuming and expensive methods. It would be possible to recruit more animals by using the simple methods of data loggers and ear tags. Hunting could be used as a tool to return the ear-tagged individuals allowing the economical extension of follow-up studies. The Tb and CPA methods could be applied to other northern carnivores.

  3. [Multifaceted body. I. The bodies of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This first article discusses four distinct types of representation of the body within medicine, each related to a specific epistemology and shaping a distinct kind of clinical legitimacy: the body-object of anatomy, the body-machine of physiology, the cybernetic body of biology, the statistical body of epidemiology.

  4. Changes of body temperature and threshold of thermoregulatory vasoconstriction under general anesthesia%全身麻醉下吸烟病人体温与体温调节性血管收缩阈值的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 王朝忠

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨全身麻醉下吸烟病人体温与体温调节性血管收缩阈值的变化。方法43例 ASA 1~2级,分为吸烟组(n =22)与对照组(n =21组)。麻醉诱导:丙泊酚、芬太尼、维库溴铵。麻醉维持:异氟烷、瑞芬太尼、维库溴铵。用呼吸机行间歇正压肺通气(IPPV)。记录麻醉诱导前(T0)至诱导后180 min(T180)内的体温、血压、心率的变化。结果不同时间点心率和平均动脉压之间的差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),观察组与对照组患者的心率和平均动脉压之间的差别有统计学意义(P <0.05),吸烟与否对心率和平均动脉压的影响和时间之间无交互作用(P >0.05),两组间不同时间点的食道温度和平均皮肤温度之间的差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),食道温、平均皮肤温度、食道—皮肤温度差和前臂—指尖温度差在不同人群之间的变化与时间之间均无交互作用(P >0.05),而前臂—指尖温度差随着麻醉时间的增加而先降低后升高,且吸烟组的食道皮肤温度差在 T30、T60、T120、T150及 T180值均低于对照组,吸烟组的前臂—指尖温度差在 T120、T150以及 T180的值均低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义。血管收缩阈值及其增益:对照组与吸烟组血管收缩阈值分别为(35.48±0.18)、(34.89±0.20)℃,吸烟组显著低于对照组(P <0.01)。对照组与吸烟组血管收缩阈值的增益分别为(6.57±2.31)、(6.83±1.68)℃,两组相比无显著性差异(P >0.05)。结论全身麻醉下吸烟病人核心温及体温调节性血管收缩阈值显著下降。其原因可能与长期吸烟致体温调节中枢受体与神经递质改变、周围血管功能障碍及压力感受器受损等有关。吸烟病人全身麻醉时更应加强体温管理。%Objective To investigate changes of body temperature

  5. The effects of body weight and temperature on resting metabolism in Siniperca kneri Garman%体重和温度对大眼鳜静止代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫常春; 闫玉莲; 王汨; 彭涛; 岳南南; 罗其勇; 谢小军

    2013-01-01

    In order to examine the effects of body weight ( W) and temperature ( T) on metabolic level, the resting metabolic rates (A/) of 97 Siniperca kneri were measured by a flowing respirometer at different temperatures. The results showed that at 15, 20, 25 or 30℃ the weight-specific metabolic rates (Af) were 74. 06 ±6. 24, 135. 24 ± 18. 27, 186. 19 ± 29.03, 196. 78 ±34.31 mgO2/kg · h, respectively. There were significant double-logarithmic linear correlations between the M and W at all temperatures (P <0. 01). The covariance analysis showed that the differences were significant among the slopes (weight exponent b) in the regression equations (P < 0. 05 ) , and b decreased with temperature increasing, which indicated that W and T had a significant interaction effect on the resting metabolism in this fish. The regression e-quation described the relationship for M' with W and T was M' = 3.7970.902 W(0.345-0.202In T) or M' = 3.79W0.345 T( 0.902 -o.202Inw) (P<0.001),and here-0.202 was the exponent of interaction effect of W and T on M'. Compared with other carnivorous and benthic fish, 5. kneri had higher M', which may be related with its special ecological habits, such as preference of abundant oxygen dissolved in flowing water and higher energy expense in its predation.%采用流水式呼吸仪,测定了97尾大眼鳜(Siniperca kneri Garman)在不同温度条件下的静止代谢率(M),以检验温度与体重对该种鱼代谢水平的影响.结果表明,在15、20、25及30℃条件下大眼鳜的特定体重代谢率(M')分别为(74.06±6.24)、(135.24±18.27)、(186.19±29.03)、(196.78±34.31) mg02/(kg·h).在各温度条件下,大眼鳜的静止代谢率均与体重呈显著的双对数直线相关(P<0.01).协方差分析表明,各回归方程的斜率(体重指数b)之间差异显著(P<0.01),且b值随温度的升高呈下降的趋势,提示体重和温度对大眼鳜静止代谢的影响存在交互作用.特定体重代谢率与体重(W,kg)和温度(T

  6. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures. PMID:27634782

  7. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures.

  8. Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Dementia With Lewy Bodies Information Page Synonym(s): Lewy Body ... and Information Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Dementia With Lewy Bodies? Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) ...

  9. STUDY ON BODY FAT DENSITY PREDICTION BASED ON ANTHROPOMETRIC VARIABLES

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva Shanth Reddy Ainala,; Nawaf Aljohani; Kaushik Roy; Xiaohong Yuan; Huiming A. Yu

    2015-01-01

    For a human body to function properly it is essential to have a certain amount of body fat. Fat serves to manage body temperature, pads and protects the organs. Fat is the fundamental type of the body's vitality stockpiling. It is important to have a healthy amount of body fat. Overabundance of fat quotient can build danger of genuine wellbeing issues. Anthropometry is a broadly accessible and basic strategy for the appraisal of body composition. Anthropometry measures are weight,...

  10. [Multifaceted body. 2. The lived body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykretowicz, H; Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This second article distinguishes between the body as an object of knowledge or representation and the way the body is lived. This distinction which originates in phenomenological psychiatry aims to understand how the patient experiences his body and to surpass the classical somatic and psychiatric classifications. PMID:25895215

  11. [Multifaceted body. 2. The lived body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykretowicz, H; Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This second article distinguishes between the body as an object of knowledge or representation and the way the body is lived. This distinction which originates in phenomenological psychiatry aims to understand how the patient experiences his body and to surpass the classical somatic and psychiatric classifications.

  12. 湿热环境下作业的男性青年人体动态平均体温上限的探讨%Upper limit of dynamic mean body temperature of young men trained in heat-humid environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; 房晓; 张帆; 包瀛春

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the definitive upper limit for training with different intensities in heat-humid environment, so as to provide evidence for safe working in heat-humid environment. Methods Thirty male volunteers aged 18-23 years old who passed both health examination and physical agility test were selected from a total of 576 trainees. The body temperature, including 5-point temperatures on the skin, rectal temperature and mean body temperature calculated, were obtained before and after each training episode; the results were compared with previously reported. Then a regression equation on the mean body temperature was developed and point estimation was done subsequently. Results (1) We found that 35. 83% of the subjects had a mean body temperature higher than the upper limit previously reported. (2) If y was the mean body temperature, X1 was the temperature in environment, X2 was the humidity in environment, and X3 was the intensity of work, the regression equations was y = 14. 247 68 + 0. 604 67X1 -0. 018 29X2 +0. 343 53X3 and a table was developed according to related point estimation. (3) There were 11 person/times (2. 49%) out of 441 person/times whose mean body temperature surpassed the dynamic upper limit according to the table. Conclusion The mean body temperature is related to the environment temperature, humidity and work intensity in the heat-humid environment. The table developed by point estimation of the regression equation may help to ensure safe working in heat-humid environment.%目的 确定湿热环境下不同作业强度时的平均体温上限,用以保证作业安全.方法 从576名受试者中筛选30名男性志愿者为受试者,年龄18~23岁,经体检和体能测试合格.每次训练前后测量体温度相关指标(包括皮肤5点温度、肛温以及由此计算出的平均体温).与文献报道对比,确定其符合度.通过多元回归方程分析建立相关模型,并对模型进行点估计.结果 (1)受试者平均

  13. Effects of irrigation fluid temperature on patients' body temperature and hemorheology during perioperative period of PKRP%冲洗液温度对前列腺等离子电切术患者围术期体温及血液流变学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳峰; 沙玉亭; 万继英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of irrigation fluid temperature on patients' body temperature and hemorheology during transurethral plasmakinetic resection of prostate(PKRP).Methods 60 ASA Ⅰ -Ⅲ elderly patients scheduled for PKRP were selected for the study,L2-3 combined spinal-epidural anesthesia was applied.0.9% sodium chloride solution was chosen as the irrigation fluid.The patients were randomly divided into two groups by different temperature of irrigation fluid.There were 30 patients in each group.Group Ⅰ used the irrigation fluid of room temperature; while group Ⅱ used the fluid of 37℃.The patients' rectal temperature,blood pressure,and heart rate were recorded,and hemoglobin (Hb),hematocrit (Hct),indicators of plasma electrolytes and hemorheology were measured by extracting venous blood at time points of before operation (T0),at the end of operation (T1),6 h after operation (T2) and 24 h after operation (T3).Results The temperature of the patients after operation in group Ⅰ was significantly lower than that before surgery [(35.3±0.3)℃ vs (36.7±0.1)℃,P<0.05)],while group Ⅱ displayed no significant changes.There were no significant changes of electrolytes in both of the two groups.Hematocrit changed in different degrees.The whole blood viscosity[group Ⅰ (4.88±0.77),(4.12±0.34); Ⅱ group(4.92±0.66),(4.34±0.43)]and reduction viscosity [ group Ⅰ (6.75±0.92),(6.34±2.67); group Ⅱ (6.78±0.81),(6.63±1.95)]were reduced in both groups,but significantly increased 24 h after operation in group Ⅰ [(5.28±0.22),(7.99±0.89);(1.96±0.18)].Conclusion The temperature of irrigation fluid can cause changes of patients' body temperature and hemorheology during PKRP.Hypothermia can increase blood viscosity after surgery.%目的 比较经尿道前列腺等离子电切术(plasmakinetic resection of prostate,PKRP)采取不同温度冲洗液对患者体温及血液流变学的影响.方法 选择60例拟行PKRP的老年患者,ASA Ⅰ

  14. The gradient heat stress impact on the convalescent core body temperature and prognosis in heatstroke rats%梯度热应激对大鼠核心体温调节及预后的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付炜; 刘亚楠; 耿焱; 彭娜; 雷玉梅; 苏磊; 唐忠志

    2014-01-01

    目的:构建梯度热应激大鼠模型,探讨不同程度热应激对大鼠核心体温(Tc)调节以及预后的影响。方法雄性SPF级SD大鼠随机分为正常对照组、41℃组、42℃组、43℃组、44℃组。除正常对照组置于室温环境下外,其余各组大鼠于39℃进行热打击,直肠热电偶测量直肠温度,代表Tc。监测各组大鼠Tc 的变化,频率为10 min/次。41℃、42℃、43℃、44℃组分别达到对应的预设温度41、42、43、44℃时取出大鼠,将大鼠放入环境温度25℃的室温环境下,恢复自由进食、水,并继续监测8 h内Tc 变化,观察72 h内大鼠的生存情况。结果随热应激的程度不同,大鼠T c 呈现不同的特征性改变。热应激期间,41℃和42℃组大鼠表现为双相式T c 上升,而43℃和44℃组大鼠表现为三相式Tc上升。脱离热应激后,41℃和42℃组大鼠Tc 在1 h内恢复正常水平,而43℃和44℃组均出现低Tc ,以44℃组为明显。41℃和42℃组大鼠72 h内未出现死亡,43℃和44℃组出现不同比例的大鼠死亡,生存分析显示,44℃组大鼠预后显著差于43℃组大鼠( P<0.01)。结论不同程度热应激对于大鼠Tc 调节特征有显著影响,热应激程度越高,恢复期低Tc 程度越深,预后越差。%Objective To construct the gradient heat stress rat model and thus to study its influence on core body temperature ( Tc ) during heat stress and prognosis .Methods Male SPF SD rats were randomly divided into normal con-trol group, 41℃group, the 42℃group, 43℃group and 44℃group.Except for normal control group , the rats were ex-posed 39℃heat stress .The rectal thermocouple was used to measure rectal temperature as Tc , which was monitored every 10 min.When the corresponding preset temperatures were reached , the rats in the 41℃, 42℃, 43℃ and 44℃ groups were placed in ambient temperature of 25℃.The Tc was monitored within 8 h, and

  15. [Multifaceted body. I. The bodies of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This first article discusses four distinct types of representation of the body within medicine, each related to a specific epistemology and shaping a distinct kind of clinical legitimacy: the body-object of anatomy, the body-machine of physiology, the cybernetic body of biology, the statistical body of epidemiology. PMID:25895214

  16. Clinical Significance of Body Surface and Tongue Temperatures and Body Surface Humidity on Diagnosis of Chronic Gastritis of Syndromes of Spleen and Stomach Asthenia-cold and Stomach-yin Deficiency%慢性胃炎脾胃虚寒证与胃阴亏虚证体表温度、湿度及舌温度变化的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李果刚; 程建丽; 张妍妤; 王欢

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨慢性胃炎脾胃虚寒证与胃阴亏虚证患者体表温度、湿度及舌中温度变化的临床意义.方法:运用寒热湿诊测仪测定慢性胃炎脾胃虚寒证和胃阴亏虚证患者的手心、手背、手臂尺肤、额头、舌中温度及手心、手背、手臂尺肤、额头湿度,并与正常志愿者的体表、舌中温度及体表湿度进行比较分析.结果:与正常对照组比较,胃阴亏虚组患者的手心温度、手背温度、尺肤温度、额头温度和舌中温度均显著升高(P<0.05),而脾胃虚寒组患者的手心温度、手背温度、尺肤温度、额头温度则显著降低(P<0.05);脾胃虚寒组患者的手背湿度、尺肤湿度、额头湿度均显著降低(P<0.05).结论:慢性胃炎的虚寒证与虚热证患者其体表温度及湿度存在一定的差异性,通过检测其定量值可能对慢性胃炎虚寒证与虚热证的诊断有一定的参考价值.%Objective: To explore the clinical significance of body surface and tongue temperatures and body surface humidity on diagnosis of chronic gastritis of syndromes of spleen and stomach asthenia-cold and stomach-yin deficiency. Methods: The cold-heat-dampness diagnostic instrument was applied to test the body surface (including the palm, the back of the hand, the forearm and forehead) and tongue temperatures and body surface (including the palm, the back of the hand, the forearm and forehead) humidity of patients with chronic gastritis of syndromes of spleen and stomach asthenia-cold and stomach-yin deficiency, and the temperatures and humidities were compared with the normal volunteers. Results: Compared with the normal control group, the temperatures of the palm, back of the hand, forearm, forehead and tongue in stomach-yin deficiency group increased significantly (P <0.05) , while the temperatures of the palm, back of the hand, forearm and forehead in spleen and stomach asthenia-cold group decreased obviously ( P < 0. 05 ) s the

  17. 2-BODY AND 3-BODY PARQUET THEORY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LANDE, A; SMITH, RA

    1992-01-01

    One of the fundamental approaches to microscopic many-body theory is through the use of perturbation theory. This paper presents a clear derivation of the equations that sum the two-body and three body reducible diagrams that are generated from some input set of irreducible diagrams (typically the b

  18. [Perspectives on body: embodiment and body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shiow-Ru; Chao, Yu-Mei Yu

    2007-06-01

    "Body" is a basic concept of both the natural and human sciences. This extensive review of the literature explores the various philosophical approaches to the body, including empiricism, idealism, existentialism and phenomenology, as well as the relationship between body and mind. Embodiment and body image are the two main concepts of body addressed in this article. Merleau-Ponty's perspective on embodiment, an important new area of theory development, emphasizes that embodiment research must focus on life experiences, such as the study of body image. Using Schilder's framework of psychosocialology, this article provides a comprehensive understanding of the concept of body image and women's perspectives on the "body" in both Western culture and Eastern cultures. Body size and shape significantly influence the self-image of women. Body image is something that develops and changes throughout one's life span and is continually being constructed, destructed, and reconstructed. Personal body image has important psychological effects on the individual, especially women. This integrative review can make a significant contribution to knowledge in this area and, consequently, to related practice and research.

  19. Lewy Body Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewy body disease is one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Dementia is the loss of mental ... to affect normal activities and relationships. Lewy body disease happens when abnormal structures, called Lewy bodies, build ...

  20. Body & Lifestyle Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close X Home > Pregnancy > Body & lifestyle changes Body & lifestyle changes E-mail to a friend Please fill ... between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care ...

  1. Inclusion Body Myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Inclusion Body Myositis Information Page Table of Contents (click ... and Information Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Inclusion Body Myositis? Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is one ...

  2. Water Loss Under Hot Ambient Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Basu

    1978-07-01

    Full Text Available Male 4 rates were ambient temperature (40 degree,42 degree, and 44 degree calcius for different durations of time upto a maximum of 3 hours. It was observed that there was a rapid loss in body weight accompanied by considerable increase in body temperature of the animals during the first hour of exposure. Thereafter the rate of body weight loss and increase in body temperature were slow till the end of observation period. Intolerance to heat appears to be more correlated with critical body temperature rather than the extent of dehydration.

  3. Foreign body orbital cyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanfard, Younes; Heegard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.;

    2001-01-01

    Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology......Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology...

  4. Rheological investigation of body cream and body lotion in actual application conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Min-Sun; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Song, Ki-Won

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically evaluate and compare the rheological behaviors of body cream and body lotion in actual usage situations. Using a strain-controlled rheometer, the steady shear flow properties of commercially available body cream and body lotion were measured over a wide range of shear rates, and the linear viscoelastic properties of these two materials in small amplitude oscillatory shear flow fields were measured over a broad range of angular frequencies. The temperature dependency of the linear viscoelastic behaviors was additionally investigated over a temperature range most relevant to usual human life. The main findings obtained from this study are summarized as follows: (1) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a finite magnitude of yield stress. This feature is directly related to the primary (initial) skin feel that consumers usually experience during actual usage. (2) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a pronounced shear-thinning behavior. This feature is closely connected with the spreadability when cosmetics are applied onto the human skin. (3) The linear viscoelastic behaviors of body cream and body lotion are dominated by an elastic nature. These solid-like properties become a criterion to assess the selfstorage stability of cosmetic products. (4) A modified form of the Cox-Merz rule provides a good ability to predict the relationship between steady shear flow and dynamic viscoelastic properties for body cream and body lotion. (5) The storage modulus and loss modulus of body cream show a qualitatively similar tendency to gradually decrease with an increase in temperature. In the case of body lotion, with an increase in temperature, the storage modulus is progressively decreased while the loss modulus is slightly increased and then decreased. This information gives us a criterion to judge how the characteristics of cosmetic products are changed by the usual human environments.

  5. Sleeping position and rectal temperature.

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, S A; Anderson, E.S.; Lodemore, M; Rawson, D.; Wailoo, M P

    1991-01-01

    The effects of sleeping position upon body temperature were assessed by continuous monitoring of rectal temperature in 137 babies sleeping at home under conditions chosen by their parents. There were three groups of subjects: (1) normal babies aged 12-22 weeks whose temperature rhythms were developed, (2) normal babies aged 6-12 weeks who were developing their night time temperature rhythms, and (3) babies the night after diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus immunisation, whose temperature rhyt...

  6. Body Matters: Narratives of the Body

    OpenAIRE

    Asandi, Iren; Filipovska, Kalina; Neault, Megan; Olsen, Sara Høier

    2014-01-01

    This project engages the notion of the subjective body in a pasture of social constructions in order to gather an understanding of the narratives created by women about their bodies in relation to cosmetic surgery. The empirical data for this project comes from our virtual ethnographic research on the various forums from the MyLooks website. Moreover, perspectives regarding the body, beauty ideals and theoretical positions from Kathryn Morgan and Kathy Davis fill out the structure of the proj...

  7. [Multifaceted body. 3. The contextualised body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Saraga, M; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This third and last article focuses on the psychosomatic and socio-anthropological facets of the body and their contribution to its understanding. PMID:25895216

  8. Determination of Star Bodies from -Centroid Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lujun Guo; Gangsong Leng

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we prove that an origin-symmetric star body is uniquely determined by its -centroid body. Furthermore, using spherical harmonics, we establish a result for non-symmetric star bodies. As an application, we show that there is a unique member of $_p\\langle K \\rangle$ characterized by having larger volume than any other member, for all real ≥ 1 that are not even natural numbers, where $_p\\langle K \\rangle$ denotes the -centroid equivalence class of the star body .

  9. [Multifaceted body. 3. The contextualised body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Saraga, M; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This third and last article focuses on the psychosomatic and socio-anthropological facets of the body and their contribution to its understanding.

  10. Media and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Media and Body Image Home For Patients Search FAQs Media and Body ... and Body Image TFAQ002, June 2016 PDF Format Media and Body Image Especially For Teens How can the media make ...

  11. Adolescence and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  12. Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...

  13. General -Harmonic Blaschke Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yibin Feng; Weidong Wang

    2014-02-01

    Lutwak introduced the harmonic Blaschke combination and the harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. Further, Feng and Wang introduced the concept of the -harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. In this paper, we define the notion of general -harmonic Blaschke bodies and establish some of its properties. In particular, we obtain the extreme values concerning the volume and the -dual geominimal surface area of this new notion.

  14. Body Image and Body Dysmorphic Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas-Aragones, Lucia; Marron, Servando E

    2016-08-23

    Most people would like to change something about their bodies and the way that they look, but for some it becomes an obsession. A healthy skin plays an important role in a person's physical and mental wellbeing, whereas a disfiguring appearance is associated with body image concerns. Skin diseases such as acne, psoriasis and vitiligo produce cosmetic disfigurement and patients suffering these and other visible skin conditions have an increased risk of depression, anxiety, feelings of stigmatization and self-harm ideation. Body image affects our emotions, thoughts, and behaviours in everyday life, but, above all, it influences our relationships. Furthermore, it has the potential to influence our quality of life. Promotion of positive body image is highly recommended, as it is important in improving people's quality of life, physical health, and health-related behaviors. Dermatologists have a key role in identifying body image concerns and offering patients possible treatment options. PMID:27283435

  15. Effects of body temperature on serum levels of ischemia-modified albumin and malondialdehyde after surgery for intracranial hematomas in patients with severe traumatic brain injury%体温控制对重型颅脑损伤血肿清除术后的疗效及血清IMA、MDA的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 袁辉纯; 徐立新

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨体温控制对重型颅脑损伤(sTBI)血肿清除术后的疗效及血清缺血修饰蛋白(IMA)、丙二醛(MDA)的影响。方法2012年3月到2013年1月收治符合标准的sTBI 45例,均行开颅血肿清除术;术后根据体温控制水平分为观察组(25例)和对照组(20例)。观察组使用亚低温治疗仪联合冬眠药物将肛温控制在36.0~36.4℃,维持7 d后自然复温;对照组采用传统降温措施将肛温控制在36.5~37.7℃。采用ELISA法检测血清IMA、MDA水平。结果观察组颅内压在治疗后3 d开始逐渐下降,7 d明显低于对照组(P0.05)。两组血清IMA及MDA水平均在治疗前最高,治疗后1~7 d逐渐下降,治疗组较对照组下降更明显(P<0.05)。结论肛温控制在36.0~36.4℃对sTBI颅内血肿清除术后患者有脑保护作用,其机制可能与降低血清IMA及MDA水平,减轻缺血再灌注损伤有关。%Objective To investigate the effect of body temperature on the serum levels of ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) and malondialdehyde (MDA) after the surgery for the intracranial hematomas in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). Methods Forty-five patients with sTBI after the surgery for intracranial hematomas were divided into observed group (n=25) and control group (n=20). In observed group, mild hypothermia therapy apparatus and hibernation drugs were used to control rectal temperature at 36.0~36.4℃for 7 days. In control group, conventional cooling methods were used to control rectal temperature at 36.5~37.7℃. The serum levels of IMA and MDA were detected by ELISA. Results The intracranial pressure, which began to decline 3 days after the body temperature control, was significantly lower in observed group than control group 7 days after the body temperature control (P<0.05). The prognosis was significantly better in observed group than control group 3 months after the body temperature control (P<0.05). There

  16. Abstract: Body Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Lene

    2012-01-01

    . The British sociologist Julia Twigg has introduced and explored the term `bodywork', most recently in Body Work in Health and Social Care - Critical Themes, New Agendas (2011). She extends the term body work from applying to the work that individuals undertake on their own bodies, often as part of regimens......This panel will explore the usefulness of the term ‘body work’ in cultural history. Body work is understood as work focusing on the bodies of others as component in a range of occupations in health and social care, as well as in unpaid work in the family. How can the notion of body work inform...... cultural history of health and illness whether through a micro-social focus on the intercorporeal aspects of work in health and social care, or through clarifying our understanding of the times and spaces of work, or through highlighting the relationship between mundane body work and global processes...

  17. Lewy Body Dementia Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis Symptoms Treatment Options Help end Lewy body dementia now! Donate Diagnosis An experienced clinician within the ... an experienced diagnostic team skilled in Lewy body dementia. A thorough dementia diagnostic evaluation includes physical and ...

  18. Lewy Body Dementia Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Abstracts Clinical Trials Help end Lewy body dementia now! Donate Research Links Treating Psychosis in Parkinson’s ... The use of antipsychotic medications in Lewy body dementias is a known challenge. Are the medications helpful ...

  19. About Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Insulin Delivery Additional Content Medical News About Body Water By James L. Lewis, III, MD NOTE: This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Water Balance About Body Water Dehydration Overhydration Water accounts ...

  20. Body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm Body mass index To use the sharing features on this ... your height is to figure out your body mass index (BMI). You and your health care provider ...

  1. Effects of the body temperature on the synthetic wave of electrocochleogram and brain stem auditory evoked potentials in guinea pigs%体温对豚鼠耳蜗电图-脑干听觉诱发电位综合波的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何斯纯; 马宁; 周卓妍; 周丽丽

    2005-01-01

    .PARTICIPANTS: The study was performed in the Department of Physiology, Medical College of Jinan University. Adult guinea pigs of either gender weighting 300 - 350 g, provided by the Animal Center of the First Military Medical University of Chinese PLA, were randomly divided into hypothermia group( n = 20) and hyperthermia group( n = 20).INTERVENTIONS: The body temperature of the guinea pigs was decreased step by step with their body contacted with a metal tray filled with ice in hypothermia group, and the body temperature of them was increased stepwise with their body contacted with a hot steel box filled with 50 ℃ circulating water in hyperthermia group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The waveforms, peak latencies (PL), interpeak latencies(IPL) and wave amplitudes of ECochG-BAEP SW had been observed as the body temperature changed gradually.RESULTS: The waveforms of ECochG-BAEP SW had the characteristics of both BAEP and ECochG, and wave 1 was the most obvious, with body temperatures decreased from 36 ℃ to 25 ℃ and increased from 36 ℃ to 42 ℃. The PL and IPL of ECochG-BAEP SW prolonged more and more as the body temperature was decreased stepwise, and shortened more and more as the body temperature was increased gradually. The amplitudes of wave 1, 2 and 3 of ECochG-BAEP SW became significant smaller as the body temperature was decreased to 30 ℃ or 29 ℃, and the amplitudes of wave 1 and 2 were decreased significantly as the body temperature was increased to 40 ℃.CONCLUSION: The effects of hypothermia and hyperthermia on PL, IPL and wave amplitudes of ECochG-BAEP SW were significant, but its waveforms always had the characteristics of both BAEP and ECochG.

  2. Zooplankton body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinous forms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most...... groups body composition is size independent. Exceptions are protozoans, chaetognaths, and pteropods, where larger individuals become increasingly watery. I speculate about the dichotomy in body composition and argue that differences in feeding mechanisms and predator avoidance strategies favor either a...

  3. 低温体外循环术后体温变化对血乳酸及氧代谢的影响%Effects of body temperature change on the level of lactic acid and oxygen metabolism after the hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继芝; 彭玉兰; 秦卫华

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of body temperature change on the level of arterial blood lactic acid and oxygen metabolism after the hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB),and to provide a basis for controlling body temperature of patients.Methods 60 patients performed the open cardiac operation under hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass were monitored.The arterial and mixed venous blood gas,and the level of lactic acid were measured at four different rectal temperatures:37,37.5,38℃ and 38.5℃,by taking samples of arterial and venous bloods.Results The systemic arterial-venous oxygen content and oxygen extraction were increased during rewarming time.The level of arterial blood lactic acid at the rectal temperature of 37.5℃ mostly approachs the nornlal value.next is at the rectal temperature of 37℃ and 38 ℃,respectively.And the level of arterial blood laetic acid at the rectal temperature of 38.5℃ is the hilghest (hyperlactacidemia).The difference shows a statistically significance.Conclusions During the rewarming process after the hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB),the body temperature change is a key factor influencing oxygen extraction and blood lactic acid level.The nursing staff should control the body temperature of patients with the safe range of around 37.5℃.%目的 探讨低温体外循环心脏术后复温过程中体温变化对血乳酸水平及氧代谢的影响,为合理控制患者体温提供依据.方法 对60例低温体外循环心脏术后患者进行监测,分别在肛温37,37.5,38,38.5℃时采集动、静脉血标本,检测动静脉血氧代谢及血乳酸值.结果 复温时全身的氧耗量明显增加;动脉血乳酸值在肛温37.5℃时最接近正常,37,38℃时次之,肛温38.5℃时血乳酸值最高(高乳酸血症),差异有统计学意义.结论 在低温体外循环心脏术后复温过程中,体温变化是影响氧耗量和血乳酸水平的重要因素,护理人员应将患者体温控制在37.5℃左右的安全范围内.

  4. Michel Foucault's bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Potte-Bonneville, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    How is it possible for Foucault to present the body at the same time as the foundation and the result of history, as condition and horizon of the theory that takes hold of it ? One has to pay attention to the various registers in which Foucault distributes the acceptations ordinarily confused with the general notion of the body : from "my body" (as it appears in Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology) to "the body' (as it is understood by modern medicine) ; from this body as an object for positive exp...

  5. Written on the Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Steen Ledet

    may choose to alter how we are perceived and to at least some extent control the discontent we may project onto our own body. Through body modification, we can alter the impression of our personality and express a cultural solidarity, as Chris Rojek points out. Tattoos, piercings and other body...... as a semiotic strategy to negotiate and navigate cultural borders. Suicidegirls.com is a website which is both an online community, but also a softcore pin-up site, where the models feature extensive body modifications in the form of tattoos and piercings. The website promotes a democratic approach to the photo...... Butler's account of subversive bodily acts, the pin-up shoots of the Suicide Girls mount a critique of a culture's view of the body as a natural entity. Cultural borders are crossed, as the bodies of the Suicide Girls embed ink into their bodies in the form of tattoos, and gender is played...

  6. 自体腱与同种异体腱重建前交叉韧带术后体温的对照研究%Comparing research of post operative body temperature for patients reconstructing the knee anterior cruciate ligament with autograft or allograft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭冬梅; 刘秀敏; 刘静

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study post-operative body temperature of patients after reconstruction of the knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)with autograft and allograft,and find out related nursing methodology. Methods 60 patients performed ACL reconstruction (autograft 30 as group A,and allograft 30 as group B) were selected.Temperature were measured 1 day before operation,the day of operation up to 4 days after operation at 6AM、10AM、2PM、6PM. Results The mean temperature and the lowest temperature of the second day after the operation of group B were higher than of group A,showing a significant difference (P0.05)。结论应对自体腱和异体腱重建前交叉韧带术后体温变化予以同等对待,改变同种异体移植术后早期体温高于自体移植的传统观念,并根据体温变化规律,做到科学护理。

  7. High temperature x ray diffraction determination of the body-centered-cubic-face-centered-cubic transformation temperature in (Fe{sub 70}Ni{sub 30}){sub 88}Zr{sub 7}B{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipus, J. J.; McHenry, M. E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Herre, P. [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, Dresden D-01069 (Germany); Ohodnicki, P. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    In situ high-temperature x ray diffraction and magnetization measurements were performed on a melt-spun (Fe{sub 70}Ni{sub 30}){sub 88}Zr{sub 7}B{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} amorphous alloy to follow its structural evolution. At 728 K, a bcc-FeNi phase was observed as the primary crystallization product followed by transformation to an fcc phase {approx}773 K. During cooling to room temperature, the fcc-to-bcc transformation was not observed, and the metastable fcc-NiFe phase was retained at room temperature.

  8. Nucleation of nuclear bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundr, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    The nucleus is a complex organelle containing numerous highly dynamic, structurally stable domains and bodies, harboring functions that have only begun to be defined. However, the molecular mechanisms for their formation are still poorly understood. Recently it has been shown that a nuclear body can form de novo by self-organization. But little is known regarding what triggers the formation of a nuclear body and how subsequent assembly steps are orchestrated. Nuclear bodies are frequently associated with specific active gene loci that directly contribute to their formation. Both coding and noncoding RNAs can initiate the assembly of nuclear bodies with which they are physiologically associated. Thus, the formation of nuclear bodies occurs via recruitment and consequent accumulation of resident proteins in the nuclear bodies by nucleating RNA acting as a seeder. In this chapter I describe how to set up an experimental cell system to probe de novo biogenesis of a nuclear body by nucleating RNA and nuclear body components tethered on chromatin. PMID:23980018

  9. The Mallory body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    To aid understanding of markers of disease and predictors of outcome in alcohol-exposed systems, we undertook a literature survey of more than 700 articles to view the morphological characteristics and the clinical and experimental epidemiology of the Mallory body. Mallory bodies are filaments...... suggest a hit-and-run effect of alcohol, whereas other chronic liver diseases show evidence of gradual increase in prevalence of Mallory bodies with severity of hepatic pathology. Mallory bodies in cirrhosis do not imply alcoholic pathogenesis. Obesity, however, is associated with alcoholism and diabetes...

  10. Hydroscopic Properties of Organic Objects That May Present as Aural Foreign Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Julie C; Rizvi, Sidrah; Klein, Eileen J.; Bittner, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Background Organic foreign bodies swell when irrigated with water, potentially making extraction more difficult. As the degree and rate of swelling of different types of organic foreign bodies has not been established, we aimed to analyze the hydroscopic properties of different organic foreign bodies in body temperature water. Methods Dry kidney beans, brown beans, peas, popcorn kernels, and dried fruits were soaked in a body temperature (37oC) water bath. Volume of these organic materials wa...

  11. Body-Worn Antennas for Body-Centric Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Ôzden, Sinasi ̈;

    2014-01-01

    Ear-to-ear (E2E) on-body propagation and on-body antennas for body-centric wireless communications are presented.......Ear-to-ear (E2E) on-body propagation and on-body antennas for body-centric wireless communications are presented....

  12. 神阙穴贴敷大蒜膏对睡眠剥夺所致昼夜节律紊乱人体体温影响的研究%ADJUSTING EFFECTS OF APPLICATION OF GARLIC PASTE AT SH(E)NQU(E) (神阙CV8)ON THE CIRCADIAN RHYTHM OF BODY TEMPERATURE INDUCED BY SLEEP DEPRIVATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱崇田; 石娜; 吴东; 黄泳

    2007-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of application of garlic paste at Shénquè(神阙CV8)on the circadian rhythm in sleep deprivation young students. Methods Twenty healthy volunteer young male students from Southern Medical University were randomly divided into three groups: normal group(A),sleep deprivation group(B)and treatment group(C). Volunteers in group B and C received 48 h sleep deprivation while those in group A had no any treatment. The body temperature of all the volunteers was detected at 6:00 am, 12:00 am,6:00 pm and 0:00 am, respectively, after the treatment. Results The mean body temperature values in group A and C both were highest at 6:00 pm and lowest at 6:00 am which had a significant difference in each group(P<0.01);in group B,the mean body temperature was highest at 0:00 am and lowest at 6:00 am,no significant difference was found between them(P>0.05). Results of cosine analysis showed that in subjects of group B the circadian rhythm of body temperature still kept going well after SD, but the peak amplitude and amplitude of vibration were higher than those of group A, denoting that garlic paste application of Shénquè(神阙CV8)could prevent disorders of circadian rhythm of the body temperature.Conclusion The garlic paste application at Shénquè(神阙CV8)can adjust circadian rhythm and accelerate the recovery processes of circadian rhythm in SD young students.%目的:观察神阙穴外贴大蒜膏对抗睡眠剥夺所致昼夜节律紊乱的整复作用,初步探讨大蒜膏的抗昼夜节律作用.方法:将南方医科大学20名健康成年男性随机分为三组:正常对照组(A)、睡眠剥夺组(B)、睡眠剥夺并贴药组(C),对B和C组同时进行48小时睡眠剥夺,A组不做任何处理,观察A组及睡眠剥夺后B和C组的体温昼夜变化.结果:三组的体温都有昼夜节律性,A组峰值为280.620,大约出现在19:11;B组峰值305.538,出现在20:37左右;C组峰值278.130,出现在18:54左右.B组经睡眠剥

  13. Simulation of Rings about Ellipsoidal Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akash; Nadkarni-Ghosh, Sharvari; Sharma, Ishan

    2016-10-01

    Recent discovery of rings around Chariklo, a centaur orbiting the Sun (F. Braga-Ribas et al., 2014) and speculations of rings around minor planet, Chiron (Ortiz et al., 2015), Saturn's satellites, Rhea (Jones et al., 2008; Schenk et al., 2011), Iapetus (Ip, 2006) or exoplanets, suggest that rings about non-spherical bodies is perhaps a more general phenomenon than anticipated. As a first step towards understanding such systems, we examine the dynamical behavior of rings around similar bodies using N-body simulations. Our code employs the `local simulation method' (Wisdom & Tremaine, 1988; Salo, 1995) and accounts for particle interactions via collisions using Discrete Element Method (Cundall & Strack, 1978; Bhateja et al., 2016) and mutual gravitation. The central body has been modeled as an axisymmetric ellipsoid characterized by its axis ratio, or defined via characteristic frequencies (circular, vertical and epicyclic frequency) representing the gravitational field of an axisymmetric body. We vary the central body's characterizing parameter and observe the change in various ring properties like the granular temperature, impact frequency, radial width and vertical thickness. We also look into the effect on ring properties upon variation in the size of the central body-ring system. Further, we investigate the role of characteristic frequencies in dictating the ring dynamics, and how this could help in qualitatively estimating the ring dynamics about any arbitrary central body with symmetry about the equatorial plane and the axis normal to it.

  14. Changes of Body Temperature and Oxygen Consumption of Shivering or Non-shivering Patients in Postoperative Forepart after General Anesthesia%全麻术后早期寒颤与非寒颤病人体温和耗氧量变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康孝荣; 李晓强; 王恩真

    2001-01-01

    探讨全麻术后早期寒颤与非寒颤病人体温恢复和耗氧量变化的关系。方法:随机对21例寒颤和29例非寒颤病人的鼓膜温度和耗氧量进行监测,比较两组病人手术结束到术后40分鼓膜温度和耗氧量的变化,并对寒颤前后耗氧量进行比较。结果:两组病人的鼓膜温度均无显著升高,升高程度两组间也无显著性差异。术后40分的耗氧量都高于手术结束时,寒颤病人耗氧量增加显著,寒颤后耗氧量高于寒颤前。结论:寒颤对全麻术后早期病人体温恢复没有显著影响,相反增加耗氧量。%To probe into the relationship between the recoveries of body temperature and the changes of oxygen consumption of shivering or non-shivering patients in the postoperative forepart after general anesthesia. Methods:The tympanic temperatures and oxygen consumptions were randomly observed in 21 shivering and 29 non-shivering patients. The changes of tympanic temperatures and oxygen consumptions from the end of operation to 40 minutes after operation were compared between the two group patients,and the oxygen consumptions between before and after shivering were also compared. Results: The tympanic temperatures of all the two group patients did not significantly increase, and there was no significant difference in the increase degree between the two groups. All the oxygen consumptions at 40 minutes after operation were very significantly higher than those at the end of operation, the increase of oxygen consumptions in shivering patients markedly more than that in non-shivering patients, and the oxygen consumptions after shivering was very significantly higher than those before shivering. Conclusion:Shivering has no significant effect on the recovery of body temperature in the postoperative forepart after general anesthesia and increases the oxygen consumptions contrarily.

  15. Low Temperature Emissivity Measurement System

    OpenAIRE

    Jignesh A. Patel

    2014-01-01

    The emissivity of a material is the relative ability of its surface to emit energy by radiation. It is the ratio of energy radiated by a particular material to energy radiated by a black body at the same temperature. Knowledge about the low temperature emissivity of materials and coatings can be essential to the design of fusion cryoplants and in the thermal modeling for space satellite missions. The emittance of materials at cryogenics temperatures often cannot be predicted f...

  16. Development of Temperature Sensing Fabric

    OpenAIRE

    Husain, Muhammad Dawood

    2012-01-01

    Human body temperature is an important indicator of physical performance and condition in terms of comfort, heat or cold stress. The aim of this research was to develop Temperature Sensing Fabric (TSF) for continuous temperature measurement in healthcare applications. The study covers the development and manufacture of TSF by embedding fine metallic wire into the structure of textile material using a commercial computerised knitting machine. The operational principle of TSF is based on the in...

  17. Teaching Bodies in Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie; Woglom, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: This piece draws on literature in justice-oriented teacher education, feminist pedagogy, and postmodern notions of bodies and place to make sense of data generated from a three-year study of an undergraduate teacher education course. A feminist lens was used to engage a body- and place-focused pedagogy that aimed to engage…

  18. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library Print A A A Text Size Did you ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  19. Healthy Mouth, Healthy Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOR THE DENTAL PATIENT ... Healthy mouth, healthy body T he mouth is a window into the health of the body. It can show signs of nutri- tional ... Sjögren’s syndrome—may first become apparent because of mouth lesions or other oral problems. The mouth is ...

  20. Our Bodies Are Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程国清

    2004-01-01

    Have you ever thought about your body changes?Up to about the age of eight or nine,girls and boys look quite alike.They have similar shaped bodies(形体相似)and their voices sound almost the same.As they grow, all their organs(器官)grow,too.

  1. The Body Bites Back!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Steve

    2011-01-01

    How should we think about the body in science education? What ought it mean to be alive and live within epistemologies and pedagogies? What does it mean to be human in science education? In response to Auli Arvola Orlander and Per-Olof Wickram's article, this essay explores some of the possibilities and questions that the body evokes in science…

  2. Body-building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正In recent years, more and more people spare no pains to join in the body-building group. People begin to take part in various fitness clubs or fitness centers in their spare time. This shows body-building has become an indispensable part of many people’s life.

  3. Bodies and Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A wide-ranging collection of essays centred on readings of the body in contemporary literary and socio-anthropological discourse, from slavery and rape to female genital mutilation, from clothing, ocular pornography, voice, deformation and transmutation to the imprisoned, dismembered, remembered......, abducted or ghostly body, in Africa, Australasia and the Pacific, Canada, the Caribbean, Great Britain and Eire...

  4. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category......, they translate such measurements and recommendations in meaningful ways to fit their everyday life. Conclusions : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people are concerned with their body size and continuously monitor it. Future health promotion work should consider the kind of practices already established...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...

  5. The Semiotic Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    Most bodies in this world do not have brains and the minority of animal species that do have brained bodies are descendents from species with more distributed or decentralized nervous systems. Thus, bodies were here first, and only relatively late in evolution did the bodies of a few species grow...... of these seemingly ‘unnatural’ mental and even linguistic kinds of species. It is shown how the skin, on the one hand, makes us belong in the world, and on the other hand, is part of the huge landscape of membranes across which the semiotic self incessantly must be reconstituted. The discussion moves...... on to the intracellular world of signal transduction through which the activity of single cells are put to service for bodily needs. The paper further considers the mechanisms behind homeostasis and the semiotics of the psycho-neuro-endocrine integration in the body. The concept of semiotic emergence is introduced...

  6. Pseudotumor of Ciliary Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Varghese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital pseudotumor is a benign disease involving the orbital structures. Pseudotumor of the ciliary body is rare. We present a case of a 27-year-old male who presented with gradual visual loss, pain, and redness in his left eye. On examination he was found to have a yellowish white mass at the periphery of anterior chamber in his left eye and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM revealed a ciliary body mass in the same eye. He was treated with systemic steroids, which was tapered over a period of 8 weeks. His symptoms improved and the ciliary body mass disappeared with no recurrence over the next 6 months. UBM is an important diagnostic tool for diagnosing ciliary body mass. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with systemic steroids may help resolve pseudotumor of the ciliary body.

  7. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (body(ies). It follows that an impact origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system.

  8. The impact of oxygen consumption by the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei according to body weight, temperature, salinity and stocking density on pond aeration: a simulation - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i2.7018 The impact of oxygen consumption by the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei according to body weight, temperature, salinity and stocking density on pond aeration: a simulation - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i2.7018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Arantes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A simulation was conducted to determinate the impact caused by the combination of Litopenaeus vannamei respiratory rate (mg O2 shrimp-1 h-1, the behavior of SOTR (kg O2 h-1 of mechanical aerators as a function of salinity, as well as the oxygen consumption rate of the pond water and soil (mg O2 L-1 h-1 on the aeration of shrimp ponds (1, 10, 50 and 100 ha stocked with different densities (10, 40 and 120 shrimp m-2, salinities (1, 13, 25 and 37 ppt, temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C, and shrimp wet weight (5, 10, 15 and 20 g. Results showed that under lower salinity, with larger shrimp, and higher stocking density, higher will be the quantity of required 2-HP aerators to keep dissolved oxygen over 50% saturation. In addition, under low salinity, with 5 and 10 g shrimp, independent of stocking density, more aerators per hectare are required and electricity cost is higher at 20°C and salinity 1 ppt. Less aerators and lower electricity cost was observed at 30°C, salinities of 25 and 37 ppt, and shrimp of 15 and 20 g.A simulation was conducted to determinate the impact caused by the combination of Litopenaeus vannamei respiratory rate (mg O2 shrimp-1 h-1, the behavior of SOTR (kg O2 h-1 of mechanical aerators as a function of salinity, as well as the oxygen consumption rate of the pond water and soil (mg O2 L-1 h-1 on the aeration of shrimp ponds (1, 10, 50 and 100 ha stocked with different densities (10, 40 and 120 shrimp m-2, salinities (1, 13, 25 and 37 ppt, temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C, and shrimp wet weight (5, 10, 15 and 20 g. Results showed that under lower salinity, with larger shrimp, and higher stocking density, higher will be the quantity of required 2-HP aerators to keep dissolved oxygen over 50% saturation. In addition, under low salinity, with 5 and 10 g shrimp, independent of stocking density, more aerators per hectare are required and electricity cost is higher at 20°C and salinity 1 ppt. Less aerators and lower electricity cost was

  9. The body as art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, D J; Barker, M J

    2002-07-01

    For millennia people have altered the appearance of their bodies with cosmetics, jewellery, tattoos, piercings, and other surgical procedures. It would appear that they wish to conform to a perceived 'ideal body', although the actual appearance of such a body is subject to temporal, cultural and geographical change. In contemporary society the media are largely responsible for providing the yardsticks against which individual body shape is measured. Today the desired form is generally young, slim, tanned and blemish-free. Sadly, dissatisfaction with body image can be the source of great unhappiness and may even lead to suicide. Interested scholars have debated the meaning of beauty for centuries but it seems that every human society has its own standards. At the simplest it would appear that youth and symmetry are the most highly prized ingredients. There is no doubt that those who fit the conventional standards of attractiveness are treated better by society. Individuals have an inalienable right to their own body appearance, and to alter it as they see fit, however such modifications may not always be in their own best interests. Practitioners of cosmetic procedures must be alert to clients with histories of weight fluctuation, unrealistic body image, or low self-esteem. Psychological disorders may present with dysmorphophobic symptoms. Doctors providing cosmetic services need to be adept at diagnosing psychological illness. PMID:17147524

  10. Materiality, Practice and Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Skovbjerg-Karoff, Helle

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand the interaction between human and technology, the relationship must be emphasized as a triangulation between materiality, body and practice. By introducing play situations from a just finished empirical study in three bigger cities in Denmark, this paper will address...... the interplay from the human‟s point of view, as a body doing a certain practice, which is constantly produced by taking approaches which comes from phenomenology and practice theory. We introduce aspects of play understood as a dynamic between materiality, body and practice with the goal of inspiring not only...

  11. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Cam Ray

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Body dysmorphic disorder is a type of mental illness, wherein the affected person is concerned with body image, manifested as excessive concern about and preoccupation with a perceived defect of their physical features. Although it is a common disease and has been defined in the literature over a century, it is not a well known disease. Chronic, treatment resistant and sometimes delusional nature could result in severe functional impairment. The diagnosis and appropriate therapy of disorder are crucial because of increased suicidality and reduction in life quality. In this article the symptoms, etiology, clinical features and treatment of body dysmorphic disorder are briefly reviewed.

  12. Adolescence and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-05-01

    Concerns about body image range from a normal desire to look attractive to a pathological concern with thinness or physical perfection. Today, more than ever, adolescents in America are prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction. The reasons for this are multi-determined and include the influence of the media and cultural expectations, as well as a discrepancy between an adolescent's own physical characteristics and the expectations of his or her social environment. Adolescents with severe body image distortions are vulnerable to developing serious psychiatric disorders that can have life-threatening consequences. Schools can help by providing guidance and information in a time of uncertainty. PMID:12046161

  13. Cortical Lewy Body Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. G. Gibb

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In cortical Lewy body dementia the distribution of Lewy bodies in the nervous system follows that of Parkinson's disease, except for their greater profusion in the cerebral cortex. The cortical tangles and plaques of Alzheimer pathology are often present, the likely explanation being that Alzheimer pathology provokes dementia in many patients. Pure cortical Lewy body dementia without Alzheimer pathology is uncommon. The age of onset reflects that of Parkinson's disease, and clinical features, though not diagnostic, include aphasias, apraxias, agnosias, paranoid delusions and visual hallucinations. Parkinsonism may present before or after the dementia, and survival duration is approximately half that seen in Parkinson's disease without dementia.

  14. Markets, Bodies, Rhythms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian; Bondo Hansen, Kristian; Lange, Ann-Christina

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between bodily rhythms and market rhythms in two distinctly different financial market configurations, namely the open-outcry pit (prevalent especially in the early 20th century) and present-day high-frequency trading. Drawing on Henri Lefebvre...... irrelevant. Yet high-frequency trading does change the role of the body rather than seeking to attune their bodies to the markets, high-frequency traders seek to calibrate their bodies to their algorithms. While the article demonstrates the usefulness of deploying Lefebvre's rhythmanalysis in analyses...... of financial markets, it also suggests that high-frequency trading in particular might produce new types of market rhythms that, contra Lefebvre, do not revolve around traders' bodies....

  15. Post Newtonian Rigid Body

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, C; Wu, X; Wu, Xuejun

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, it is the first time to construct a complete post-Newtonian (PN) model of a rigid body by means of a new constraint on the mass current density and mass density. In our PN rigid body model most of relations, such as spin vector proportional to the angular velocity, the definition on the moment of inertia tensor, the key relation between the mass quadrupole moment and the moment of inertia tensor, rigid rotating formulae of mass quadrupole moment and the moment of inertia tensor, are just the extension of the main relations in Newtonian rigid body model. When all of $1/c^2$ terms are neglected, the PN rigid body model and the corresponding formulae reduce to Newtonian version. The key relation is obtained in this paper for the first time, which might be very useful in the future application to problems in geodynamics and astronomy.

  16. Investigating body function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to the investigation of body function, especially small bowel function but also liver function, using bile acids and bile salts or their metabolic precursors labelled with radio isotopes and selenium or tellurium. (author)

  17. Unusual orbital foreign bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Retained intraorbital organic foreign bodies, particularly wooden, are commonly encountered in ophthalmologic practice. We treated two children who had sustained such injury while playing. They presented to us with non-healing sinus with purulent discharge. In one of the patients, X-rays and CT scan helped to clinch the diagnosis, whereas in the other patient diagnosis was possible by correlating history with clinical findings. Surgical exploration in both patients helped us to remove the foreign bodies. Surprisingly, both the foreign bodies were 7 cm long wooden pieces. We, however, caution that management of such cases should be conservative and that surgical exploration be done only in case of complication. From our experience, we recommend proper localisation by all possible means, blunt dissection, careful haemostasis coupled with excellent lighting and exposure in the atraumatic removal of intraorbital foreign bodies.

  18. [Towards the bionic body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieu, Bernard

    2011-06-01

    Global technological progress is enabling people to see their mutilated bodies assisted by sophisticated prostheses. Multi-disciplinary and associative care help patients relearn daily living activities and accomplish various exploits.

  19. Core formation in silicate bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, F.; O'Brien, D. P.; Kleine, T.

    2008-12-01

    Differentiation of a body into a metallic core and silicate mantle occurs most efficiently if temperatures are high enough to allow at least the metal to melt [1], and is enhanced if matrix deformation occurs [2]. Elevated temperatures may occur due to either decay of short-lived radio-isotopes, or gravitational energy release during accretion [3]. For bodies smaller than the Moon, core formation happens primarily due to radioactive decay. The Hf-W isotopic system may be used to date core formation; cores in some iron meteorites and the eucrite parent body (probably Vesta) formed within 1 My and 1-4~My of solar system formation, respectively [4]. These formation times are early enough to ensure widespread melting and differentiation by 26Al decay. Incorporation of Fe60 into the core, together with rapid early mantle solidification and cooling, may have driven early dynamo activity on some bodies [5]. Iron meteorites are typically depleted in sulphur relative to chondrites, for unknown reasons [6]. This depletion contrasts with the apparently higher sulphur contents of cores in larger planetary bodies, such as Mars [7], and also has a significant effect on the timing of core solidification. For bodies of Moon-size and larger, gravitational energy released during accretion is probably the primary cause of core formation [3]. The final stages of accretion involve large, stochastic collisions [8] between objects which are already differentiated. During each collision, the metallic cores of the colliding objects merge on timescales of a few hours [9]. Each collision will reset the Hf-W isotopic signature of both mantle and core, depending on the degree to which the impactor core re-equilibrates with the mantle of the target [10]. The re-equilibration efficiency depends mainly on the degree to which the impactor emulsifies [11], which is very uncertain. Results from N-body simulations [8,12] suggest that significant degrees of re- equilibration are required [4,10]. Re

  20. Giant peritoneal loose bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris van Zyl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Giant peritoneal loose bodies are rare lesions, originating from auto-amputated appendices epiploicae. They may cause urinary or gastrointestinal obstruction and, should the radiologist not be familiar with the entity, can potentially be confused with malignant or parasitic lesions.Familiarity with their characteristic computed tomographic features is essential to prevent unnecessary surgery in the asymptomatic patient. We present a case of a 70-year-old man diagnosed with two giant peritoneal loose bodies.

  1. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Perihan Çam; Demirkol, Mehmet Emin; Tamam, Lut

    2012-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder is a type of mental illness, wherein the affected person is concerned with body image, manifested as excessive concern about and preoccupation with a perceived defect of their physical features. Although it is a common disease and has been defined in the literature over a century, it is not a well known disease. Chronic, treatment resistant and sometimes delusional nature could result in severe functional impairment. The diagnosis and appropriate therapy of disorder a...

  2. Body dysmorphic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Veale, D

    2004-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is defined as a preoccupation with an "imagined" defect in one's appearance. Alternatively, where there is a slight physical anomaly, then the person's concern is markedly excessive. The preoccupation is associated with many time consuming rituals such as mirror gazing or constant comparing. BDD patients have a distorted body image, which may be associated with bullying or abuse during childhood or adolescence. Such patients have a poor quality of life, are soci...

  3. [Colorectal foreign bodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thim, Troels; Laurberg, Søren

    2006-09-25

    A patient with a retained anally introduced colorectal foreign body or complications hereof needs appropriate treatment. The patient may be in danger and is certainly in discomfort. The problem is relatively rare; however, its incidence may be expected to increase. Guidelines for handling of the situation are lacking in many textbooks. Here, a suggestion for handling of a patient with a retained colorectal foreign body or complications hereof is presented. PMID:17032594

  4. Multichannel Human Body Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przystup, Piotr; Bujnowski, Adam; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Human Body Communication is an attractive alternative for traditional wireless communication (Bluetooth, ZigBee) in case of Body Sensor Networks. Low power, high data rates and data security makes it ideal solution for medical applications. In this paper, signal attenuation for different frequencies, using FR4 electrodes, has been investigated. Performance of single and multichannel transmission with frequency modulation of analog signal has been tested. Experiment results show that HBC is a feasible solution for transmitting data between BSN nodes.

  5. Hacking the body

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, C

    2013-01-01

    This conference paper is available to download from the publisher’s website at the link below. Hacking the Body is a proposed collaborative re-search project that explores the use of the concept of 'hacking' to repurpose and re-imagine internal signals from the body through DIY biosensors and soft circuits. This paper outlines definitions of hacking and how these apply to workshops exploring how to create these sensors.

  6. Bursting bodies of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls.......A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls....

  7. Esophageal Foreign Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal foreign body aspiration is a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For that reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threateining complications. Children most often ingest coins and toys whereas adults commonly tend to have problems with meat and bones. Esophageal foreign bodies are located at the cricopharyngeus muscle level in 70%, the thoracic esophagus in 15% and the gastroesophageal junction in the remaining 15%. Symptoms can vary according to the shape and structure of the ingested object, type of location, patient%u2019s age and complications caused by the foreign body. Delay in treatment, esophageal perforation and an underlying esophageal disease are poor prognostic factors. In treatment, observation, foley catheter, rigid or flexible esophagoscopy and removing the foreign body with a Magill forceps, pushing the foreign body into the stomach, giving intravenous glucagon and surgical treatment methods can be used. Rigid esophagoscopy is an effective and safe procedure for foreign body diagnosis and removal. Improved endoscopic experience and clinical management of thoracic surgeons led to reduced morbidity and mortality in recent years. Most of those emergencies of childhood are preventable. Family education is very important.

  8. The neural basis of body form and body action agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Valentina; Urgesi, Cosimo; Pernigo, Simone; Lanteri, Paola; Pazzaglia, Mariella; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2008-10-23

    Visual analysis of faces and nonfacial body stimuli brings about neural activity in different cortical areas. Moreover, processing body form and body action relies on distinct neural substrates. Although brain lesion studies show specific face processing deficits, neuropsychological evidence for defective recognition of nonfacial body parts is lacking. By combining psychophysics studies with lesion-mapping techniques, we found that lesions of ventromedial, occipitotemporal areas induce face and body recognition deficits while lesions involving extrastriate body area seem causatively associated with impaired recognition of body but not of face and object stimuli. We also found that body form and body action recognition deficits can be double dissociated and are causatively associated with lesions to extrastriate body area and ventral premotor cortex, respectively. Our study reports two category-specific visual deficits, called body form and body action agnosia, and highlights their neural underpinnings.

  9. Retained, incarcerated oropharyngeal foreign bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Sonkhya, Nishi; Luckwani, Ashok; Mishra, Prakash; Yadav, Ramesh

    2006-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a well documented entity. Incarcerated oropharyngel foreign bodies are fre quently observed. Care should be taken for the symptoms like dysphagia and odynophagia, even if no positive history for foreign body ingestion is present. Two cases of incarcerated oropharyngeal foreign bodies are presented here who did not report with history of foreign body ingestion.

  10. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D solar system.

  11. Managing Regulatory Body Competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2001, the IAEA published TECDOC 1254, which examined the way in which the recognized functions of a regulatory body for nuclear facilities results in competence needs. Using the systematic approach to training (SAT), TECDOC 1254 provided a framework for regulatory bodies for managing training and developing and their maintaining their competence. It has been successfully used by many regulators. The IAEA has also introduced a methodology and an assessment tool - Guidelines for Systematic Assessment of Regulatory Competence Needs (SARCoN) - which provides practical guidance on analysing the training and development needs of a regulatory body and, through a gap analysis, guidance on establishing competence needs and how to meet them. In 2009, the IAEA established a steering committee (supported by a bureau) with the mission to advise the IAEA on how it could best assist Member States to develop suitable competence management systems for their regulatory bodies. The committee recommended the development of a safety report on managing staff competence as an integral part of a regulatory body's management system. This Safety Report was developed in response to this request. It supersedes TECDOC 1254, broadens its application to regulatory bodies for all facilities and activities, and builds upon the experience gained through the application of TECDOC 1254 and SARCoN and the feedback received from Member States. This Safety Report applies to the management of adequate competence as needs change, and as such is equally applicable to the needs of States 'embarking' on a nuclear power programme. It also deals with the special case of building up the competence of regulatory bodies as part of the overall process of establishing an 'embarking' State's regulatory system

  12. Brain temperature and exercise performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars

    2012-01-01

    will impair voluntary motor activation during sustained maximal contractions. In humans the brain temperature increases in parallel with that of the body core making it very difficult to evaluate the independent effect of the cerebral temperature. Experiments with separate manipulation of the brain...... temperature in exercising goats indicate that excessive brain hyperthermia will directly affect motor performance. However, several homeostatic changes arise in parallel with hyperthermia including factors that may influence both peripheral and central fatigue and it is likely that these changes interact...... with the inhibitory effect of an elevated brain temperature....

  13. Metal spring stub and ceramic body electrode assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf, R.L.; Sharp, M.L.

    1984-06-26

    An electrode assembly is disclosed comprising an electrically conductive ceramic electrode body having an opening therein and a metal stub retained in the opening with at least a surface of the stub in intimate contact with a surface of the body and the stub adapted with a spring to flex and prevent damage to the body from expansion of the stub when subjected to a temperature differential. 1 fig.

  14. Body Building on Diamonds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei P. Sommer; Dan Zhu; Tim Scharnweber; Hans-Joerg Fecht

    2009-01-01

    Whereas conservative therapies aim to stall the advance of disease, regenerative medicine strives to reverse it. The capacity of most tissues to regenerate derives from stem cells, but there are a number of barriers which have to be circumvented before it will be possible to use stem-cell-based therapies. Such therapies, however, are expected to improve human health enormously,and knowledge gained from studying stem cells in culture and in model organisms is now laying the groundwork for a new era of regenerative medicine. One of the most prominent methods to study stem cell differentiation is to let them to form embryoid bodies. Under favourable conditions any stem cell line will form embryoid bodies. However, the mechanism of the formation of embryoid bodies is not very well understood, and to produce them in the laboratory is in no way trivial - an important technical barrier in stem cell research. Recently, the embryoid body cultivation step has been successfully circumvented for the derivation of osteogenic cultures of embryonic stem cells. Here we report on a simple and reusable system to cultivate embryoid bodies in extremely short times. The method is inspired by the principles that lead to the establishment of the biomimetic triangle.

  15. Symptoms of Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lewy body dementia now! Donate Symptoms Lewy body dementia symptoms and diagnostic criteria Every person with LBD ... an umbrella term for two related clinical diagnoses, dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia. The ...

  16. 'Bad boys'' Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skårderud, Finn; Nygren, Pär; Edlund, Birgitta

    2005-01-01

    Children residing in care (hereafter referred to as childcare residents) are a risk¬group for emotional disturbances and behaviour problems. Based on existing knowledge of risk factors one would also expect this population to be a high-risk group for eating disorders and related body-image...... resident group; few differences between girls in the two samples; and a high frequency of having used anabolic?androgenic steroids among boys in care. Body-image problems among boys have hitherto been given little attention. The results call for increased efforts in describing and detecting patho...... disorders. The objective of this study was to describe pathological eating behaviour, dysfunctional body focusing and psychological symptoms in a sample of childcare residents compared with a non-clinical sample. Sixty-one childcare residents (aged 14?21 years, mean 16.2) and a non-clinical comparison group...

  17. Culture and body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the relationship between culture and body image. We intend to know how socio-cultural factors influence the levels of satisfaction with body image. The emphasis is given to the cultural values as represented by the sociocultural norms of societies such as the United States of America and Europe. It is argued that through the media, the values of these industrialized societies are dissipated throughout the world provoking cultural changes and uniformization of behavioural standards. From the literature review, it is possible to conclude that body dissatisfaction is a reality to both sexes and a direct result of the non-conformity to cultural-esthetical patterns promoted by the profit-oriented societies.

  18. Body integrity identity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne M Blom

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal cord in order to become paralyzed. Aim of the study is to broaden the knowledge of BIID amongst medical professionals, by describing all who deal with BIID. METHODS: Somatic, psychiatric and BIID characteristic data were collected from 54 BIID individuals using a detailed questionnaire. Subsequently, data of different subtypes of BIID (i.e. wish for amputation or paralyzation were evaluated. Finally, disruption in work, social and family life due to BIID in subjects with and without amputation were compared. RESULTS: Based on the subjects' reports we found that BIID has an onset in early childhood. The main rationale given for their desire for body modification is to feel complete or to feel satisfied inside. Somatic and severe psychiatric co-morbidity is unusual, but depressive symptoms and mood disorders can be present, possibly secondary to the enormous distress BIID puts upon a person. Amputation and paralyzation variant do not differ in any clinical variable. Surgery is found helpful in all subjects who underwent amputation and those subjects score significantly lower on a disability scale than BIID subjects without body modification. CONCLUSIONS: The amputation variant and paralyzation variant of BIID are to be considered as one of the same condition. Amputation of the healthy body part appears to result in remission of BIID and an impressive improvement of quality of life. Knowledge of and respect for the desires of BIID individuals are the first steps in providing care and may decrease the huge burden they experience.

  19. Listening to the body?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Based on a single case study of a Danish elite golfer, this article focuses on describing the different ways in which the golfer experiences the physicality of her body during training. The aim of the article is to explore how phenomenological insights concerning self-consciousness can be used...... suggest that the golfer’s experience of the physicality of her body can be considered in relation to three possible dimensions of self-consciousness: a pre-reflective subject-related dimension, a reflective object-directed dimension and a pre-reflective performative dimension. The pre...

  20. Post Newtonian Rigid Body

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chongming; Tao, Jin-he; Wu, Xuejun

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, it is the first time to construct a complete post-Newtonian (PN) model of a rigid body by means of a new constraint on the mass current density and mass density. In our PN rigid body model most of relations, such as spin vector proportional to the angular velocity, the definition on the moment of inertia tensor, the key relation between the mass quadrupole moment and the moment of inertia tensor, rigid rotating formulae of mass quadrupole moment and the moment of inertia tensor...

  1. Biometrics Bodies, Technologies, Biopolitics

    CERN Document Server

    Pugliese, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Biometric technologies, such as finger- or facial-scan, are being deployed across a variety of social contexts in order to facilitate and guarantee identity verification and authentication. In the post-9/11 world, biometric technologies have experienced an extraordinary period of growth as concerns about security and screening have increased. This book analyses biometric systems in terms of the application of biopolitical power - corporate, military and governmental - on the human body. It deploys cultural theory in examining the manner in which biometric technologies constitute the body as a

  2. Effect of Environmental Temperature During the First Week of Brooding Period on Broiler Chick Body Weight, Viscera and Bone Development Efeito da Temperatura Ambiente Durante a Primeira Semana de Vida de Frangos Sobre o Peso Vivo, Desenvolvimento de Vísceras e Crescimento Ósseo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VMB Moraes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the development of broiler chicks during the first week post-hatching when reared at three different environmental temperatures. A total of 480 day-old chicks were placed in three environmentally controlled rooms (20, 25 and 35°C from 1 to 7 days of age. Body weight gain, feed and water intake, as well as liver, gizzard, heart, yolk sac and bursa of Fabricius weights were measured daily. Tibia and femur bones were weighed and their length and width (medial diameter were also obtained. The chicks reared at 20º C had lower weight gain and ingested less food than chicks reared at 25°C and less water than chicks kept at 35°C. Relative weights of the liver, heart, and gizzard were affected by environmental temperature, whereas yolk sac and bursa of Fabricius relative weights were not. The data showed that all bone parameters increased with bird age. Environmental temperature did not affect tibia or femur width, however a significant increase in bone weight and length occurred with increasing environmental temperature. These results indicate that brooding temperature of 20°C during the first seven days post-hatching was stressful decreasing broiler bone development and reducing chicks body weight.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas-ambiente durante a primeira semana de vida de pintos de corte sob parâmetros zootécnicos, desenvolvimento visceral e crescimento ósseo. Foram utilizados 240 pintos de um dia, alojados em 3 câmaras climáticas, com temperaturas constantes de 20, 25 e 35°C do 1° ao 7° dia de vida. Diariamente, o consumo de água e ração, bem como o peso vivo, o peso relativo do fígado, moela, coração, saco vitelino e bursa de Fabricius foram avaliados. A tíbia e o fêmur também foram pesados e o comprimento e espessura (diâmetro médio mensurados. As aves criadas a 20°C ganharam menos peso e consumiram menos ração do que aves

  3. Very Young Children's Body Image: Bodies and Minds under Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbeck, David; Drummond, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In recent years research has recognised that notions of body image, body image ideals and body dissatisfaction develop much earlier than was once thought. Forty-seven children (25 male; 22 female) aged between 5 and 6 years were interviewed on three occasions over 12 months regarding their perceptions of body image. The interviews revealed…

  4. Motion of isolated bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne [Academie des Sciences, 23 Quai de Conti, 75270 Paris Cedex 06 (France); Friedrich, Helmut [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Golm (Germany)

    2006-10-21

    It is shown that sufficiently smooth initial data for the Einstein-dust or the Einstein-Maxwell-dust equations with non-negative density of compact support develop into solutions representing isolated bodies in the sense that the matter field has spatially compact support and is embedded in an exterior vacuum solution.

  5. Motion of Isolated bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Choquet-Bruhat, Y; Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne; Friedrich, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that sufficiently smooth initial data for the Einstein-dust or the Einstein-Maxwell-dust equations with non-negative density of compact support develop into solutions representing isolated bodies in the sense that the matter field has spatially compact support and is embedded in an exterior vacuum solution.

  6. Understanding Body Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielski, Lester M.

    1979-01-01

    The article details the significance of nonverbal communication or body language for the counselor in interview situations. It gives background material of the research done in the area of nonverbal communication, and quotes extensively from the leaders in the field. (Author)

  7. Magnetic catalyst bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, Wendy; Bol, A.A.; Geus, John W.

    2001-01-01

    After a discussion about the importance of the size of the catalyst bodies with reactions in the liquid-phase with a suspended catalyst, the possibilities of magnetic separation are dealt with. Deficiencies of the usual ferromagnetic particles are the reactivity and the clustering of the particles.

  8. Brain, body and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2010-01-01

    This essay sketches out a biocultural theory of religion which is based on an expanded view of cognition that is anchored in brain and body (embrained and embodied), deeply dependent on culture (enculturated) and extended and distributed beyond the borders of individual brains. Such an approach u...... to scholars of religion and be submitted to further hypotheses and tests by cognitive scientists....

  9. Effect of Early Enteral Nutrition with Nutrition Solution Close to Body Temperature on Patients after Gastric Carcinoma Surgery%胃癌术后患者近人体温度营养液早期肠内营养的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪菁; 郭芸; 周桂兰; 苏梅芳; 廖桂兰

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨胃癌术后患者近人体胃肠道温度营养液早期肠内营养的应用效果。方法选取留置液囊空肠导管给予早期肠内营养支持的胃癌术后患者80例,根据入院先后顺序编号,按随机数字表法分为观察组和对照组,每组各40例。通过输液加温器设定营养液输注温度:观察组温度为36.9~37.9℃;对照组温度为38~42℃。观察2组患者腹泻发生率、血清钾及血清钠数值变化。结果观察组腹泻及低钾血症发生率低于对照组(P<0.05),2组患者高钠血症发生率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论营养液温度为36.9~37.9℃可降低胃癌患者术后早期肠内营养腹泻发生,减轻血清钾电解质紊乱。%Objective To explore the effect of EEN (early enteral nutrition) with nutrition solution close to body temperature on patients after gastric carcinoma surgery. Methods Eighty patients after gastric carcinoma surgery were divided into observation group and control group with 40 cases in each group. Nutrition solution with temperature ranging from 36.9 to 37.9℃ and that with temperature from 38 to 42℃ were applied in observation group and control group respectively. The incidence of diarrhea and the change of serum sodium and serum potassium were recorded in both groups. Results The incidence of diarrhea and hypokalemia in observation group was lower (P0.05). Conclusion EEN with nutrition solution with the temperature ranging from 36.9 to 37.9℃ can reduce the incidence of diarrhea and hypokalemia for patients after gastric carcinoma surgery.

  10. Self-sterilization of bodies during outer planet entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Jaworski, W.; Taylor, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    A body encountering the atmosphere of an outer planet is subjected to heat loads which could result in high temperature conditions that render terrestrial organisms on or within the body nonviable. To determine whether an irregularly shaped entering body, consisting of several different materials, would be sterilized during inadvertent entry at high velocity, the thermal response of a typical outer planet spacecraft instrument was studied. The results indicate that the Teflon insulated cable and electronic circuit boards may not experience sterilizing temperatures during a Jupiter, Saturn, or Titan entry. Another conclusion of the study is that small plastic particles entering Saturn from outer space have wider survival corridors than do those at Jupiter.

  11. Body composition analysis: Cellular level modeling of body component ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Wang; Heymsfield, S. B.; PI-SUNYER, F.X.; Gallagher, D.; PIERSON, R.N.

    2008-01-01

    During the past two decades, a major outgrowth of efforts by our research group at St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital is the development of body composition models that include cellular level models, models based on body component ratios, total body potassium models, multi-component models, and resting energy expenditure-body composition models. This review summarizes these models with emphasis on component ratios that we believe are fundamental to understanding human body composition during growt...

  12. Comparison between core temperatures measured telemetrically using the CorTemp® ingestible temperature sensor and rectal temperature in healthy Labrador retrievers

    OpenAIRE

    Osinchuk, Stephanie; Taylor, Susan M.; Shmon, Cindy L.; Pharr, John; Campbell, John

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the CorTemp® ingestible telemetric core body temperature sensor in dogs, to establish the relationship between rectal temperature and telemetrically measured core body temperature at rest and during exercise, and to examine the effect of sensor location in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract on measured core temperature. CorTemp® sensors were administered orally to fasted Labrador retriever dogs and radiographs were taken to document sensor location. Core and rectal temperatu...

  13. Introduction to many-body physics

    CERN Document Server

    Coleman, Piers

    2015-01-01

    A modern, graduate-level introduction to many-body physics in condensed matter, this textbook explains the tools and concepts needed for a research-level understanding of the correlated behavior of quantum fluids. Starting with an operator-based introduction to the quantum field theory of many-body physics, this textbook presents the Feynman diagram approach, Green's functions and finite-temperature many body physics before developing the path integral approach to interacting systems. Special chapters are devoted to the concepts of Fermi liquid theory, broken symmetry, conduction in disordered systems, superconductivity and the physics of local-moment metals. A strong emphasis on concepts and numerous exercises make this an invaluable course book for graduate students in condensed matter physics. It will also interest students in nuclear, atomic and particle physics.

  14. 综合保温措施在晚期肝泡状棘球蚴病自体肝移植围术期的应用%Application of comprehensive thermal insulation measures for maintaining body temperature during period of liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 罗新玲; 陈晓晴; 王梅新

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨综合保温措施在晚期肝泡状棘球蚴病自体肝移植围术期的应用效果,为提高手术成功率提供理论依据。方法选取18例晚期肝泡状棘球蚴病行自体肝移植术的患者,采用适度提高室温、身体包裹、输液加温、湿敷料加温、冲洗液加温与铺置保温毯的综合保温措施,通过监测肛温、鼻咽温、心率、血压、pH值,验证此法是否有效。结果在新肝再灌注5 min时,患者鼻咽温、肛温分别为:(35.78±0.69),(35.97±0.65)℃,pH值为(7.29±0.08),均显著下降;心率加快为(100.58±5.47)次/min,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。在无肝期后30 min和新肝再灌注5 min时,收缩压分别为(82.21±10.45),(83.59±12.71)mmHg,均显著下降,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);以上指标均在新肝再灌注30 min后恢复正常。结论在晚期肝泡状棘球蚴病自体肝移植围术期,综合保温措施的应用能有效地预防术中低体温的发生。%Objective To evaluate the effects of comprehensive thermal insulation measure for maintaining body temperature during perioperative period of liver transplantation for the late hepatic alveolar echinococcosis, and provide theoretical basis for improving the success rate of the operation. Methods A total of 18 patients undergoing liver transplantation for the late hepatic alveolar echinococcosis received comprehensive thermal insulation measure. The changes of nasopharyngeal and rectal temperature, pH, heart rate and blood pressure were monitored in the whole process of operation to justify the effective. Results After 5 min the new liver reperfusion, the nasopharyngeal and rectal temperature were (35. 78 ± 0. 69) and (35. 97 ± 0. 65)℃, and the value of pH decreased dramatically to (7. 29 ± 0. 08), but the heart rate increased to (100. 58 ± 5. 47) times/min (P<0. 01). The systolic blood pressure were (82. 21 ± 10. 45) and (83. 59 ± 12. 71) mmHg during no liver period and 5 min new liver

  15. 连续性肾脏替代治疗中滤器后加热法对患者体温的影响%Effect of post-filter heating on body temperature of patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏培红; 冉晓; 刘伟权; 涂莉娜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of post-filter heating on body temperature of patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Methods A total of 60 patients treated with CRRT were divided into a control group (n = 30) and an observation group (n = 30) randomly. In the control group, a heating device was connected to a tubing system responsible for fluid substitution. In the observation group, the same heating device~was connected to post-filter return tube through which blood cycled back to patients. Body temperature and the temperature of blood at arterial and venous ends of deep venous catheterization were measured at 3 h, 6 h and 12 h of CRRT. Indicators of hemolysis were tested before and after the treatment. Results The group effect between the 2 groups in arterial and venous blood temperature were significant at varied time points of CRRT (P0. 05 for all). Conclusion Heating of post-filter return tube in CRRT treatment can reduce heat loss, and decrease the incidence of hypothermia.%目的 探讨连续性肾脏替代治疗(CRRT)中滤器后加热法对患者体温的影响.方法 将60例行CRRT治疗的患者随机分为对照组和观察组各30例,对照组按常规将加温装置连接到置换液的管路上,观察组将加温装置连接到滤器后静脉端血液回输管路上.两组均于CRRT治疗开始3h、6h、12h时测量患者体温及深静脉置管的动、静脉端的血液温度;比较两组治疗前后溶血反应相关检验结果.结果 在CRRT治疗不同时段,两组深静脉置管的动、静脉端的血液温度比较,干预主效应均P<0.05;治疗12h时观察组低体温发生率显著低于对照组(P<0.05).两组治疗前后溶血反应相关检验结果比较,差异无统计学意义(均P>0.05).结论 滤器后加热血液回输管路的方式可安全有效地补充CRRT治疗中循环热量,降低CRRT治疗中低体温发生率.

  16. ‘ SILENT’ LARYNGEAL FOREIGN BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekhar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal foreign bodies in adults are rare. The foreign bodies accidentally entering the larynx are symptomatic in the form of choking , stridor or even death. We are presenting a rare case of foreign body in the larynx in a 42 year old male who was symptom free except for dysphonia. The foreign body was removed successfully under local anesthesia.

  17. Body Art: A Panel Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgenor, Peter; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Three camp directors discuss their policies regarding body art and body piercing. Only one director reported a strict policy prohibiting tattoos or body art based on standards that the camp portrays to families. However, all directors enforced policies prohibiting clothing or body art that mentions alcohol, tobacco, drug use, or inappropriate…

  18. Inclusion bodies in Plesiomonas shigelloides.

    OpenAIRE

    Pastian, M R; Bromel, M C

    1984-01-01

    Inclusion bodies were discovered in seven environmental isolates of Plesiomonas shigelloides and the P. shigelloides control (ATCC 14029). Differential staining indicated that the inclusion bodies may be composed of polyphosphates, and developmental stages of the bodies may occur. The inclusion bodies may be useful for rapid presumptive identification of this organism.

  19. Quasi Lp-Intersection Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yang YU; Dong Hua WU; Gang Song LENG

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to generalize the notion of intersection bodies to that of quasi Lp-intersection bodies. The Lp-analogs of the Busemann intersection inequality and the Brunn Minkowski inequality for the quasi Lp-intersection bodies are obtained. The Aleksandrov-Fenchel inequality for the mixed quasi Lp-intersection bodies is also established.

  20. Body image inflexibility mediates the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Serafino G

    2016-03-01

    Body image inflexibility, the unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions, is associated with negative body image and eating disorder symptoms. The present study investigated whether body image inflexibility mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies (appearance-fixing and experiential avoidance) in a college and community sample comprising 156 females aged 18-51 years (M=22.76, SD=6.96). Controlling for recruitment source (college vs. community), body image inflexibility fully mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies. Results indicated that an unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions is likely responsible for negative body image evaluation's relationship to appearance-fixing behaviours and experiential avoidance. Findings support extant evidence that interventions that explicitly target body image inflexibility, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, may have utility in treating body dissatisfaction in nonclinical populations. PMID:26595857

  1. Body image inflexibility mediates the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Serafino G

    2016-03-01

    Body image inflexibility, the unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions, is associated with negative body image and eating disorder symptoms. The present study investigated whether body image inflexibility mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies (appearance-fixing and experiential avoidance) in a college and community sample comprising 156 females aged 18-51 years (M=22.76, SD=6.96). Controlling for recruitment source (college vs. community), body image inflexibility fully mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies. Results indicated that an unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions is likely responsible for negative body image evaluation's relationship to appearance-fixing behaviours and experiential avoidance. Findings support extant evidence that interventions that explicitly target body image inflexibility, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, may have utility in treating body dissatisfaction in nonclinical populations.

  2. Body composition in detoxified alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, J L; Pendergast, D E

    1990-04-01

    Body composition was evaluated in healthy detoxified alcoholics (aged 20-39) and lifestyle controls, with the expectation that prolonged, excessive consumption of alcohol may bring about nutritional or toxicologic alterations in the relationship between body fat and lean body mass. Body fat was assessed by measurements of skin-fold thickness and by means of bioelectric impedance methodology. No noteworthy differences were observed between alcoholics and controls with regard to the relationship between lean body mass and body fat or in the relationship between extracellular and intracellular water. It would appear that 15-20 years of heavy alcohol consumption does not necessarily alter body composition in healthy, young alcoholics. PMID:2190482

  3. Thermal history modeling of the H chondrite parent body

    CERN Document Server

    Henke, Stephan; Trieloff, Mario; Schwarz, Winfried H; Kleine, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    The cooling histories of individual meteorites can be empirically reconstructed by using ages from different radioisotopic chronometers with distinct closure temperatures. For a group of meteorites derived from a single parent body such data permit the reconstruction of the cooling history and properties of that body. Particularly suited are H chondrites because precise radiometric ages over a wide range of closure temperatures are available. A thermal evolution model for the H chondrite parent body is constructed by using all H chondrites for which at least three different radiometric ages are available. Several key parameters determining the thermal evolution of the H chondrite parent body and the unknown burial depths of the H chondrites are varied until an optimal fit is obtained. The fit is performed by an 'evolution algorithm'. Empirical data for eight samples are used for which radiometric ages are available for at least three different closure temperatures. A set of parameters for the H chondrite pare...

  4. Thermodynamic properties of nuclear matter with three-body forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somà, V.; Bożek, P.

    2009-08-01

    We calculate thermodynamic quantities in symmetric nuclear matter within the self-consistent Green's functions method including three-body forces. The thermodynamic potential is computed directly from a diagrammatic expansion, implemented with the CD-Bonn and Nijmegen nucleon-nucleon potentials and the Urbana three-body forces. We present results for entropy and pressure up to temperatures of 20 MeV and densities of 0.32fm-3. While the pressure is sensitive to the inclusion of three-body forces, the entropy is not. The unstable spinodal region is identified and the critical temperature associated to the liquid-gas phase transition is determined. When three-body forces are added we find a strong reduction of the critical temperature, obtaining Tc≃12MeV.

  5. Thermodynamic properties of nuclear matter with three-body forces

    CERN Document Server

    Soma, V

    2009-01-01

    We calculate thermodynamic quantities in symmetric nuclear matter within the self-consistent Green's functions method including three-body forces. The thermodynamic potential is computed directly from a diagrammatic expansion, implemented with the CD-Bonn and Nijmegen nucleon-nucleon potentials and the Urbana three-body forces. We present results for entropy and pressure up to temperatures of 20 MeV and densities of 0.32 fm^-3. While the pressure is sensitive to the inclusion of three-body forces, the entropy is not. The unstable spinodal region is identified and the critical temperature associated to the liquid-gas phase transition is determined. When three-body forces are added we find a strong reduction of the critical temperature, obtaining T_c ~ 12 MeV.

  6. Thermal management of an urban groundwater body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Epting

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a management concept for the sustainable thermal use of an urban groundwater body. The concept is designed to be applied for shallow thermal groundwater use and is based on (1 a characterization of the present thermal state of the investigated urban groundwater body; (2 the definition of development goals for specific aquifer regions, including future aquifer use and urbanization; and (3 an evaluation of the thermal use potential for these regions.

    The investigations conducted in the city of Basel (Switzerland focus on thermal processes down-gradient of thermal groundwater use, effects of heated buildings in the aquifer as well as the thermal influence of river-groundwater interaction. Investigation methods include: (1 short- and long-term data analysis; (2 high-resolution multilevel groundwater temperature monitoring; as well as (3 3-D numerical groundwater flow and heat-transport modeling and scenario development. The combination of these methods allows quantifying the thermal influence on the investigated urban groundwater body, including the influences of thermal groundwater use and additional heat from urbanization. Subsequently, management strategies for minimizing further groundwater temperature increase, targeting "potential natural" groundwater temperatures for specific aquifer regions and exploiting the thermal use potential are discussed.

  7. Stirring by swimming bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the stirring of an inviscid fluid caused by the locomotion of bodies through it. The swimmers are approximated by non-interacting cylinders or spheres moving steadily along straight lines. We find the displacement of fluid particles caused by the nearby passage of a swimmer as a function of an impact parameter. We use this to compute the effective diffusion coefficient from the random walk of a fluid particle under the influence of a distribution of swimming bodies. We compare with the results of simulations. For typical sizes, densities and swimming velocities of schools of krill, the effective diffusivity in this model is five times the thermal diffusivity. However, we estimate that viscosity increases this value by two orders of magnitude.

  8. Imaging body armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcke, H Theodore; Schauer, David A; Harris, Robert M; Campman, Steven C; Lonergan, Gael J

    2002-04-01

    This study examined the feasibility of performing radiographic studies on patients wearing standard-issue body armor. The Kevlar helmet, fragmentation vest, demining suit sleeve, and armor plate were studied with plain film and computed tomography in a simulated casualty situation. We found that the military helmet contains metal screws and metal clips in the headband, but diagnostic computed tomographic images can be obtained. Kevlar, the principal component of soft armor, has favorable photon attenuation characteristics. Plate armor of composite material also did not limit radiographic studies. Therefore, when medically advantageous, patients can be examined radiographically while wearing standard military body armor. Civilian emergency rooms should be aware of these observations because law enforcement officers wear similar protective armor. PMID:11977874

  9. Marijuana and Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patien...

  10. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Perihan Cam Ray; Mehmet Emin Demirkol; Lut Tamam

    2012-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common disorder that consists of a distressing or impairing preoccupation with imagined or slight defects in appearance. BDD is commonly considered to be an obsessivecompulsive spectrum disorder, based on similarities it has with obsessive-compulsive disorder. It is important to recognize and appropriately treat BDD, as this disorder is associated with marked impairment in psychosocial functioning, notably poor quality of life, and high suicidali...

  11. PML body meets telomere

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Inn; Osterwald, Sarah; Deeg, Katharina I.; Rippe, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    The unlimited proliferation potential of cancer cells requires the maintenance of their telomeres. This is frequently accomplished by reactivation of telomerase. However, in a significant fraction of tumors an alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism is active. The molecular mechanism of the ALT pathway remains elusive. In particular, the role of characteristic complexes of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) with telomeres, the ALT-associated PML-NBs (APBs), is curren...

  12. Stab resistant body armour

    OpenAIRE

    Horsfall, Ian

    2000-01-01

    There is now a widely accepted need for stab resistant body armour for the police in the UK. However, very little research has been done on knife resistant systems and the penetration mechanics of sharp projectiles are poorly understood. This thesis explores the general background to knife attack and defence with a particular emphasis on the penetration mechanics of edged weapons. The energy and velocity that can be achieved in stabbing actions has been determined for a numb...

  13. Splintered body image

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Ballén, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Body image presentation, which made painting morevisual in the 20th century, offers visions of splinteredbodies in different versions of its extention in space andin its proyection in time. This splintered vision in visualpainting was structured by diverse factors, such as theearlier development of photography, and later by audiovisual,videography and rising virtual media. Painting´sclose-up shots on corporal action in the middle of the20th century, allowed us to question new paradigms ofcont...

  14. Few-body physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few-body hadronic observables play an essential role in a wide number of processes relevant for both particle and nuclear physics. In order for Lattice QCD to offer insight into the interpretation of few-body states, a theoretical infrastructure must be developed to map Euclidean-time correlation functions to the desired Minkowski-time few-body observables. In this talk, I will first review the formal challenges associated with the studies of such systems via Lattice QCD, as first introduced by Maiani and Testa, and then review methodology to circumvent said limitations. The first main example of the latter is the formalism of Luscher to analyze elastic scattering and a second is the method of Lellouch & Luscher to analyze weak decays. I will then proceed to discus recent theoretical generalizations of these frameworks that allow for the determination of scattering amplitudes, resonances, transition and elastic form factors. Finally, I will outline outstanding problems, including those that are now beginning to be addressed.

  15. Few-body physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briceno, Raul [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Few-body hadronic observables play an essential role in a wide number of processes relevant for both particle and nuclear physics. In order for Lattice QCD to offer insight into the interpretation of few-body states, a theoretical infrastructure must be developed to map Euclidean-time correlation functions to the desired Minkowski-time few-body observables. In this talk, I will first review the formal challenges associated with the studies of such systems via Lattice QCD, as first introduced by Maiani and Testa, and then review methodology to circumvent said limitations. The first main example of the latter is the formalism of Luscher to analyze elastic scattering and a second is the method of Lellouch & Luscher to analyze weak decays. I will then proceed to discus recent theoretical generalizations of these frameworks that allow for the determination of scattering amplitudes, resonances, transition and elastic form factors. Finally, I will outline outstanding problems, including those that are now beginning to be addressed.

  16. Body Language in Drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat ÇALIŞKAN

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Drama is an act continuing life-long of a human and is an art of living. Owing to drama a child can gain the apportunity of practising and learning his life in games that he likes most. Today drama is scrutinized in four subtitles as creative, educational, psychodrama and sociodrama. The concepts about drama can be explained as creaticeness, metaksis, interraction, action, activity and empathy.Drama is the explanation of a sense or thought by motion, mimic, gesture and in words. In other words it is the animation of a situation or a subject using body language, reflecting by living, transforming into life.By using the body language consciously and effectively, it has an important function at dramatizing the events, getting students’ attention in education, concretizing abstract expressions, at stres accent and increasing the understandability of messages.Pantomime technic in drama method has a great importance at using the activities and human’s world consciously and animating the expressions and events. Because a teacher’s acting biology is importatnt an educational period.In this study related to drama expression, the importance of creative, educational, psychodrama, sociodrama, body language and pandomime technic in educational period has been tried to explaired.

  17. Note on the Relativistic Thermodynamics of Moving Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Sewell, Geoffrey L

    2010-01-01

    We employ a novel thermodynamical argument to show that, at the macroscopic level,there is no intrinsic law of temperature transformation under Lorentz boosts. This result extends the corresponding microstatistical one of earlier works to the purely macroscopic regime and signifies that the concept of temperature as an objective entity is restricted to the description of bodies in their rest frames. The argument on which this result is based is centred on the thermal transactions between a body that moves with uniform velocity relative to a certain inertial frame and a thermometer, designed to measure its temperature, that is held at rest in that frame.

  18. Optimization study of using PTC for human body heating dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Adrian SALAORU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A better knowledge of the human body heat loses mechanisms is important for both diminishing the number of deaths during the surgical procedures of the patients under effect of full anaesthesia and increasing the efficiency of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC systems. For these studies it is necessary to manufacture a human body mannequin having its surface temperature maintained on a value close to the real human body temperature. A number of PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient thermistors placed on the entire external surface of the mannequin can be used for this purpose. This paper presents a study of the transient heating regime and the stability of the maintained temperature, performed on these devices.

  19. Implicit Beliefs about Ideal Body Image Predict Body Image Dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas eHeider

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin. Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential influence on the two IRAP scores. Specifically, the implicit belief that one is thin was lower in participants who exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction than in participants who exhibited a low degree of body dissatisfaction. In contrast, the implicit desire to be thin (i.e., thin ideal body image was stronger in participants who exhibited a high level of body dissatisfaction than in participants who were less dissatisfied with their body. Adding further weight to the idea that both IRAP measures captured different underlying constructs, we also observed that they correlated differently with body mass index, explicit body dissatisfaction, and explicit measures of actual and ideal body image. More generally, these findings underscore the advantage of using implicit measures that incorporate relational information relative to implicit measures that allow for an assessment of associative relations only.

  20. 饱和脂肪酸对泌乳中期热应激奶牛呼吸、体温和能量平衡的影响%Effect of Saturated Fatty Acids on Body Temperatures, Respiration and Energy Balance of Mid- lactation Heat- stressed Dairy Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建平; 王加启; 卜登攀

    2011-01-01

    为研究饱和脂肪酸对高温环境条件下泌乳中期奶牛呼吸、体温和能量平衡的影响.选择产后150 ~210 d的中国荷斯坦奶牛48头,根据产奶量、分娩时间和胎次分为对照组(SFA0)、1.5% (SFA1.5)和3%( SFA3)饱和脂肪酸试验组.试验期间牛舍最小湿热指数(THI)在72以上.结果表明饱和脂肪酸可以显著提高奶牛产奶量、乳脂和干物质含量(P<0.05),降低14:00牛的直肠温度(P<0.05),但试验组之间差异不显著,添加量对14:00奶牛的直肠温度的效应呈显著的二次关系(P<0.05),呼吸频率试验牛之间差异不显著.SFA0、SFA1.5和SFA3.0组的能量平衡分别为1.49 Mcal/d、0.27 Mcal/d和1.22 Mcal/d,差异不显著.日粮添加饱和脂肪酸降低了泌乳中期热应激奶牛日高温时间的体温,对呼吸频率和能量平衡无影响.%The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of saturated fatty acids on body temperatures, respirations and energy balances of mid - lactating dairy cows under heat stress. For the experiment, forty eight post-partum Chinese Holstein cows( 150 ~210 days after parturition) were selected and divided into three groups according to milkability, parturition time and calving number for comparison. The animals were fed with the fodder containing (SFAO) ,1.5%(SFA1.5)and 3% (SFA3)saturated fatty acid for group l(control) ,group 2(SFA1.5)and group 3 (SFA3) , respectively. The minimum THI in the cowshed was normally more than 72 during experimental period. The result showed that the milkability, milk fat content and total solid content were obviously raised by saturated fatty acid ( P <0.05),which also cut the rectal temperatures(P <0.05)of 14:00 h cows. However,there was no obvious difference on rectal temperatures between test groups. The rectal temperatures of the tested dairy cows showed a quadratic relation due to the amount of added saturated fatty acid(P<0.05) ,but there was no remarkable effect on respiration