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Sample records for body temperature water

  1. Water temperature, body mass and fasting heat production of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDY A.A. AGUILAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge on fasting heat production (HEf of fish is key to develop bioenergetics models thus improving feeding management of farmed species. The core of knowledge on HEf of farmed, neotropical fish is scarce. This study assessed the effect of body mass and water temperature on standard metabolism and fasting heat production of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, an omnivore, Neotropical fresh water characin important for farming and fisheries industries all through South American continent. An automated, intermittent flow respirometry system was used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR of pacu (17 - 1,050 g at five water temperatures: 19, 23, 26, 29 and 33 °C. Mass specific SMR increased with increasing water temperature but decreased as function of body mass. The allometric exponent for scaling HEf was 0.788, and lied in the range recorded for all studied warm-water fish. The recorded van't Hoff factor (Q10 for pacu (2.06 shows the species low response to temperature increases. The model HEf = 0.04643×W0.7882×T1.837 allows to predict HEf (kJ d-1 from body mass (W, kg and water temperature (T, °C, and can be used in bioenergetical models for the species.

  2. The effect of water temperature and synoptic winds on the development of surface flows over narrow, elongated water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, M.; Pielke, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Simulations of the thermally induced breeze involved with a relatively narrow, elongated water body is presented in conjunction with evaluations of sensible heat fluxes in a stable marine atmospheric surface layer. The effect of the water surface temperature and of the large-scale synoptic winds on the development of surface flows over the water is examined. As implied by the sensible heat flux patterns, the simulation results reveal the following trends: (1) when the synoptic flow is absent or light, the induced surface breeze is not affected noticeably by a reduction of the water surface temperature; and (2) for stronger synoptic flow, the resultant surface flow may be significantly affected by the water surface temperature.

  3. Body temperature norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal body temperature; Temperature - normal ... Morrison SF. Regulation of body temperature. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 59. Sajadi MM, Mackowiak PA. ...

  4. Effect of short-term decrease in water temperature on body temperature and involvement of testosterone in steelhead and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Go; Munakata, Arimune; Yada, Takashi; Schreck, Carl B; Noakes, David L G; Matsuda, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-01

    The Pacific salmonid species Oncorhynchus mykiss is separated into a migratory form (steelhead trout) and a non-migratory form (rainbow trout). A decrease in water temperature is likely a cue triggering downstream behavior in the migratory form, and testosterone inhibits onset of this behavior. To elucidate differences in sensitivity to water temperature decreases between the migratory and non-migratory forms and effect of testosterone on the sensitivity, we examined two experiments. In experiment 1, we compared changes in body temperature during a short-term decrease in water temperature between both live and dead steelhead and rainbow trout. In experiment 2, we investigated effects of testosterone on body temperature decrease in steelhead trout. Water temperature was decreased by 3°C in 30min. The body temperature of the steelhead decreased faster than that of the rainbow trout. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the decrease in body temperature between dead steelhead and rainbow trout specimens. The body temperature of the testosterone-treated steelhead trout decreased more slowly than that of control fish. Our results suggest that the migratory form is more sensitive to decreases in water temperature than the non-migratory form. Moreover, testosterone might play an inhibitory role in sensitivity to such decreases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in body temperature and water intake following intracerebral implantation of carbachol in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, S.G.T.; Wied, D. de

    1967-01-01

    Intracerebral carbachol produced a fall in core temperature in the rat when implanted in the area preoptica, the nucleus lateralis septi and the area between the thalamic nuclei and the nucleus ruber. Cholinergic stimulation of the anterohypothalamic region did not affect body temperature, while

  6. Disorders of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Camilo R

    2014-01-01

    The human body generates heat capable of raising body temperature by approximately 1°C per hour. Normally, this heat is dissipated by means of a thermoregulatory system. Disorders resulting from abnormally high or low body temperature result in neurologic dysfunction and pose a threat to life. In response to thermal stress, maintenance of normal body temperature is primarily maintained by convection and evaporation. Hyperthermia results from abnormal temperature regulation, leading to extremely elevated body temperature while fever results from a normal thermoregulatory mechanism operating at a higher set point. The former leads to specific clinical syndromes with inability of the thermoregulatory mechanism to maintain a constant body temperature. Heat related illness encompasses heat rash, heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke, in order of severity. In addition, drugs can induce hyperthermia and produce one of several specific clinical syndromes. Hypothermia is the reduction of body temperature to levels below 35°C from environmental exposure, metabolic disorders, or therapeutic intervention. Management of disorders of body temperature should be carried out decisively and expeditiously, in order to avoid secondary neurologic injury. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tribocorrosion in pressurized high temperature water: a mass flow model based on the third body approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guadalupe Maldonado, S.

    2014-07-01

    Pressurized water reactors (PWR) used for power generation are operated at elevated temperatures (280-300 °C) and under higher pressure (120-150 bar). In addition to these harsh environmental conditions some components of the PWR assemblies are subject to mechanical loading (sliding, vibration and impacts) leading to undesirable and hardly controllable material degradation phenomena. In such situations wear is determined by the complex interplay (tribocorrosion) between mechanical, material and physical-chemical phenomena. Tribocorrosion in PWR conditions is at present little understood and models need to be developed in order to predict component lifetime over several decades. The goal of this project, carried out in collaboration with the French company AREVA NP, is to develop a predictive model based on the mechanistic understanding of tribocorrosion of specific PWR components (stainless steel control assemblies, stellite grippers). The approach taken here is to describe degradation in terms of electro-chemical and mechanical material flows (third body concept of tribology) from the metal into the friction film (i.e. the oxidized film forming during rubbing on the metal surface) and from the friction film into the environment instead of simple mass loss considerations. The project involves the establishment of mechanistic models for describing the single flows based on ad-hoc tribocorrosion measurements operating at low temperature. The overall behaviour at high temperature and pressure in investigated using a dedicated tribometer (Aurore) including electrochemical control of the contact during rubbing. Physical laws describing the individual flows according to defined mechanisms and as a function of defined physical parameters were identified based on the obtained experimental results and from literature data. The physical laws were converted into mass flow rates and solved as differential equation system by considering the mass balance in compartments

  8. Intracerebral implantation of carbachol in the rat: Its effect on water intake and body temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, S.G.Th.

    Intracerebral carbachol produces a fall in body temperature as well as drinking in the rat when implanted in various subcortical structures, related to the emotion-motivation limbic circuit. These effects are due to a central cholinergic stimulation since they can be prevented by the systemic

  9. COMBINATION OF COLD PACK, WATER SPRAY, AND FAN COOLING ON BODY TEMPERATURE REDUCTION AND LEVEL OF SUCCESS TO REACH NORMAL TEMPERATURE IN CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS WITH HYPERTHERMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Eka Dzulfaijah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the effect of the combination of cold pack, water spray, and fan cooling on body temperature reduction and level of success to reach normal temperature in critically ill patients with hyperthermia. Methods: This was a randomized control trial (RCT with pretest postest control group design and repeated measurement, conducted on December 2016 – January 2017. There were 32 respondents selected using total sampling, with 16 respondents randomly assigned in the experiment and control group. A digital thermometer was used to measure hyperthermia. Paired t-test, Repeated Anova with post hoc, and Mann Whitney were used for data analysis. Results: Findings showed that the mean of body temperature in the experiment group in pretest was 38.762oC and decreased to 37.3oC after given intervention for 60 minutes. The mean difference of body temperature was 1.4625, with p-value 0.000 (<0.05. In control group, the mean of body temperature in pretest was 38.669oC and decreased to 38.188oC given intervention for 60 minutes. The mean difference of body temperature was 0.4812, with p-value 0.000 (<0.05. Conclusion: There was a significant effect of the combination of cold pack, water spray, and fan cooling on body temperature reduction and level of success to reach normal temperature in critically ill patients with hyperthermia. This combination is more effective than water compress alone.

  10. About Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video) Diabetic Retinopathy Additional Content Medical News About Body Water By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending ... here for the Professional Version Water Balance About Body Water Dehydration Dehydration Overhydration Water accounts for about ...

  11. LakeSST: Lake Skin Surface Temperature in French inland water bodies for 1999-2016 from Landsat archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, Jordi; Reynaud, Nathalie; Rebière, Delphine; Peroux, Tiphaine; Tormos, Thierry; Danis, Pierre-Alain

    2018-04-01

    The spatial and temporal coverage of the Landsat satellite imagery make it an ideal resource for the monitoring of water temperature over large territories at a moderate spatial and temporal scale at a low cost. We used Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 archive images to create the Lake Skin Surface Temperature (LakeSST) data set, which contains skin water surface temperature data for 442 French water bodies (natural lakes, reservoirs, ponds, gravel pit lakes and quarry lakes) for the period 1999-2016. We assessed the quality of the satellite temperature measurements by comparing them to in situ measurements and taking into account the cool skin and warm layer effects. To estimate these effects and to investigate the theoretical differences between the freshwater and seawater cases, we adapted the COARE 3.0 algorithm to the freshwater environment. We also estimated the warm layer effect using in situ data. At the reservoir of Bimont, the estimated cool skin effect was about -0.3 and -0.6 °C most of time, while the warm layer effect at 0.55 m was negligible on average, but could occasionally attain several degrees, and a cool layer was often observed in the night. The overall RMSE of the satellite-derived temperature measurements was about 1.2 °C, similar to other applications of satellite images to estimate freshwater surface temperatures. The LakeSST data can be used for studies on the temporal evolution of lake water temperature and for geographical studies of temperature patterns. The LakeSST data are available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1193745.

  12. The effects of floor heating on body temperature, water consumption, stress response and immune competence around parturition in loose-housed sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, B M; Malmkvist, J; Pedersen, L J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to study whether floor heating from 12 h after onset of nest building until 48 h after birth of the first piglet had any effect on measures related to body temperature, water consumption, stress response and immune competence in loose-housed sows (n = 23......). In conclusion, the present results indicate that floor heating for a limited period around parturition did not compromise physiological and immunological parameters, water intake and body temperature in loose-housed sows. The water intake peaked the day before parturition and the body temperature peaked...

  13. Dinosaur Fossils Predict Body Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Charnov, Eric L

    2006-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest mystery surrounding dinosaurs concerns whether they were endotherms, ectotherms, or some unique intermediate form. Here we present a model that yields estimates of dinosaur body temperature based on ontogenetic growth trajectories obtained from fossil bones. The model predicts that dinosaur body temperatures increased with body mass from approximately 25 °C at 12 kg to approximately 41 °C at 13,000 kg. The model also successfully predicts observed increases in body temperature with body mass for extant crocodiles. These results provide direct evidence that dinosaurs were reptiles that exhibited inertial homeothermy. PMID:16817695

  14. Dinosaur fossils predict body temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Gillooly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the greatest mystery surrounding dinosaurs concerns whether they were endotherms, ectotherms, or some unique intermediate form. Here we present a model that yields estimates of dinosaur body temperature based on ontogenetic growth trajectories obtained from fossil bones. The model predicts that dinosaur body temperatures increased with body mass from approximately 25 degrees C at 12 kg to approximately 41 degrees C at 13,000 kg. The model also successfully predicts observed increases in body temperature with body mass for extant crocodiles. These results provide direct evidence that dinosaurs were reptiles that exhibited inertial homeothermy.

  15. Central control of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis.

  16. Body Temperature Regulation in Hot Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Molokwu, Mary Ngozi; Olsson, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Organisms in hot environments will not be able to passively dissipate metabolically generated heat. Instead, they have to revert to evaporative cooling, a process that is energetically expensive and promotes excessive water loss. To alleviate these costs, birds in captivity let their body temperature increase, thereby entering a state of hyperthermia. Here we explore the use of hyperthermia in wild birds captured during the hot and dry season in central Nigeria. We found pronounced hyperthermia in several species with the highest body temperatures close to predicted lethal levels. Furthermore, birds let their body temperature increase in direct relation to ambient temperatures, increasing body temperature by 0.22°C for each degree of increased ambient temperature. Thus to offset the costs of thermoregulation in ambient temperatures above the upper critical temperature, birds are willing to let their body temperatures increase by up to 5°C above normal temperatures. This flexibility in body temperature may be an important mechanism for birds to adjust to predicted increasing ambient temperatures in the future.

  17. Bursting bodies of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls.......A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls....

  18. Portable Body Temperature Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    patients become hypothermic after severe injury due to environmental exposure during transport. These patients also have decreased thermoregulation due to...based on the load demand to conserve power consumption 4 Requires glycol solution to prevent H20 freezing at cold ambient temperatures 3. Product...three days. To encompass the range of the temperature to be used during the Patient Simulation testing (15oC – 40oC); cold (15oC), neutral (25oC

  19. Core body temperature in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikens, Marc J; Gorbach, Alexander M; Eden, Henry S; Savastano, David M; Chen, Kong Y; Skarulis, Monica C; Yanovski, Jack A

    2011-05-01

    A lower core body temperature set point has been suggested to be a factor that could potentially predispose humans to develop obesity. We tested the hypothesis that obese individuals have lower core temperatures than those in normal-weight individuals. In study 1, nonobese [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) temperature-sensing capsules, and we measured core temperatures continuously for 24 h. In study 2, normal-weight (BMI of 18-25) and obese subjects swallowed temperature-sensing capsules to measure core temperatures continuously for ≥48 h and kept activity logs. We constructed daily, 24-h core temperature profiles for analysis. Mean (±SE) daily core body temperature did not differ significantly between the 35 nonobese and 46 obese subjects (36.92 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.89 ± 0.03°C; P = 0.44). Core temperature 24-h profiles did not differ significantly between 11 normal-weight and 19 obese subjects (P = 0.274). Women had a mean core body temperature ≈0.23°C greater than that of men (36.99 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.76 ± 0.03°C; P body temperature. It may be necessary to study individuals with function-altering mutations in core temperature-regulating genes to determine whether differences in the core body temperature set point affect the regulation of human body weight. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00428987 and NCT00266500.

  20. Portable Body Temperature Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    4 Gantt Chart...Receive/Training on Thermal Manikin/ Software ........................................................... 38 4c. Validation of Thermal...Hyperthermia, Circulating Water-blanket, Trauma, Military, Thermal Mankin OVERALL PROJECT SUMMARY: Gantt Chart (Outlining current progress and

  1. Minimum daily core body temperature in western grey kangaroos decreases as summer advances: a seasonal pattern, or a direct response to water, heat or energy supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Kamerman, Peter R; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan

    2011-06-01

    Using implanted temperature loggers, we measured core body temperature in nine western grey kangaroos every 5 min for 24 to 98 days in spring and summer. Body temperature was highest at night and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00 h, after ambient temperature and solar radiation had begun to increase. On hotter days, the minimum morning body temperature was lower than on cooler days, decreasing from a mean of 36.2°C in the spring to 34.0°C in the summer. This effect correlated better with the time of the year than with proximate thermal stressors, suggesting that either season itself or some factor correlated with season, such as food availability, caused the change. Water saving has been proposed as a selective advantage of heterothermy in other large mammals, but in kangaroos the water savings would have been small and not required in a reserve with permanent standing water. We calculate that the lower core temperature could provide energy savings of nearly 7%. It is likely that the heterothermy that we observed on hot days results either from decreased energy intake during the dry season or from a seasonal pattern entrained in the kangaroos that presumably has been selected for because of decreased energy availability during the dry season.

  2. Impact of shallow water bodies on the permafrost temperature and estimation of risk of thermokarst development at the Barrow Environmental Observatory area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, A. L.; Liljedahl, A. K.; Chamberlain, A. J.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Cable, W.

    2015-12-01

    Extension of the thermokarst features such as lakes and ponds had been noticed in many regions of the Arctic affected by the modern climate warming. Thermokarst is a process of permafrost thawing under the water bodies with depths larger than maximal thickness of seasonal ice in the area, i.e. with permanent positive temperature at the bottom. This process is most probable in the areas where massive ice bodies (wedges, lenses, layers etc) or ice rich deposits exist close to ground surface and even insignificant increasing of thaw depth can lead to its melting and surface subsidence. Local depressions such as low-centered polygonal ponds or interpolygonal troughs can potentially become triggers of thermokarst development. Current research was aimed on determination of warming impact of small water bodies on the permafrost temperature and seasonal thawing and estimation of risk of thermokarst development at Barrow Environmental Observatory area. Comparison of temperature measurements under shallow (10 - 40 cm deep) with relatively dry spots and active layer thickness survey show that warming impact of small water bodies (mean annual temperature at the permafrost table here is up to 2oC higher then under "dry" geomorphological features) is not realized in increasing of the thawing depth. Active layer thickness does not exceed values of 45 cm under polygonal ponds and 35 cm under troughs that is less then thickness of protective layer above ice wedges in the area. For estimation of risk of thermokarst development we used analytical equations developed by V.Kudryavtsev (1974). Results of calculations show that in this area crucial depth of water bodies required for mean annual temperature at the bottom of the pond became higher then freezing point consists of 0.95 cm. Current research was supported by US DOE as a part of research project Next Generation of Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE).

  3. A satellite-based climatology (1989-2012) of lake surface water temperature from AVHRR 1-km for Central European water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffler, Michael; Wunderle, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The temperature of lakes is an important parameter for lake ecosystems influencing the speed of physio-chemical reactions, the concentration of dissolved gazes (e.g. oxygen), and vertical mixing. Even small temperature changes might have irreversible effects on the lacustrine system due to the high specific heat capacity of water. These effects could alter the quality of lake water depending on parameters like lake size and volume. Numerous studies mention lake water temperature as an indicator of climate change and in the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) requirements it is listed as an essential climate variable. In contrast to in situ observations, satellite imagery offers the possibility to derive spatial patterns of lake surface water temperature (LSWT) and their variability. Moreover, although for some European lakes long in situ time series are available, the temperatures of many lakes are not measured or only on a non-regular basis making these observations insufficient for climate monitoring. However, only few satellite sensors offer the possibility to analyze time series which cover more than 20 years. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is among these and has been flown on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and on the Meteorological Operational Satellites (MetOp) from the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) as a heritage instrument for almost 35 years. It will be carried on for at least ten more years finally offering a unique opportunity for satellite-based climate studies. Herein we present the results from a study initiated by the Swiss GCOS office to generate a satellite-based LSWT climatology for the pre-alpine water bodies in Switzerland. It relies on the extensive AVHRR 1-km data record (1985-2012) of the Remote Sensing Research Group at the University of Bern (RSGB) and has been derived from the AVHRR/2

  4. Development of anaesthetic protocols for lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.: Effect of anaesthetic concentrations, sea water temperature and body weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malene W Skår

    Full Text Available In recent years, use of lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L. as cleaner-fish to remove sea-lice have been chosen by many salmon farmers in Europe and Canada as an alternative to medical treatment, which has led to large scale production of lumpfish. At present, there is limited knowledge of how lumpfish respond upon anaesthesia, which anaesthetics and concentrations that are efficient and conditions for euthanasia. We have therefore tested and developed protocols for bath immersion for three commonly used anaesthetics metacaine (Finquel, buffered tricaine methanesulfonate, MS-222 and Tricaine Pharmaq, benzocaine (Benzoak vet and isoeugenol (Aqui-S, determined concentration for normal and fast anaesthesia and evaluated safety margin for each condition. Also, a behavioral matrix has been developed. We have examined the effect of fish size (10-20 g, 200-400 g and 600-1300 g and sea water temperature (6°C and 12°C. We found that 200 mg L-1 metacaine is an efficient dose for deep narcosis independently for fish size and temperature due to good safety margins with regards to both exposure times and doses. However, for many tasks lighter anaesthesia is sufficient, and then 100 mg L-1 metacaine can be used. Benzocaine is less efficient than metacaine, but can be used as anaesthetic of fish 600 g, benzocaine is not suitable. Isoeugenol cannot be recommended for full anesthesia of lumpfish. The conditions for lethal doses varied with chosen anaesthetic, fish size and temperature. For small fish (10-20 g, exposure to 1600 mgL-1 of metacaine in 10 minutes it lethal. Guided protocols for non-lethal anaesthesia will contribute to ensure safe treatment of lumpfish according to an ethical standard for good fish welfare.

  5. Relationship between body temperature and air temperature in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body temperatures of singing male Gryllus bimaculatus were measured for the first time. Body temperatures were strongly correlated with ambient temperature. This indicates that, unlike some other orthopterans, larger crickets are not dependent on an elevated body temperature for efficient calling. Our results confirm that it ...

  6. Hydrography - Water Bodies

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The hydrography layer consists of flowing waters (rivers and streams), standing waters (lakes and ponds), and wetlands -- both natural and manmade. Two separate...

  7. Relationship between body temperature and air temperature In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1992-06-22

    Jun 22, 1992 ... Considering the fact that insect stridulation may be associated with elevated body temperature, it is most appropriate to investigate the correlation between ambient temperature and body tempera- ture of calling males of this species. This is the first time that the body temperatures of a grylline cricket species ...

  8. The effect of firing temperature on the irreversible expansion, water absorption and pore structure of a brick body during freeze-thaw cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikuláš ŠVEDA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the monitoring of brick body in the process of volumetric freezing and thawing. The samples were fired at temperatures of 900, 1000 and 1060 °C. Attention is focused on monitoring of the irreversible expansion, water absorption and pore structure of a brick body. We found that in all cases the endpoints take place continuously, where the amount firing temperature plays a crucial role. The greatest influence of freeze/thaw cycles on the change of the pore structure was also observed at the lowest temperature. The change of the pore system during the freeze-thaw cycles occurs in such a way, that the pore volume of small pores further decreases and conversely, the pore volume of large pores increases. The knowledge gained can be used not only in the production of new but also in predicting the remaining durability of older clay roofing tiles. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.2741

  9. Body temperature variability (Part 2): masking influences of body temperature variability and a review of body temperature variability in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gregory S

    2007-03-01

    This is the second of a two-part review on body temperature variability. Part 1 discussed historical and modern findings on average body temperatures. It also discussed endogenous sources of temperature variability, including variations caused by site of measurement; circadian, menstrual, and annual biological rhythms; fitness; and aging. Part 2 reviews the effects of exogenous masking agents - external factors in the environment, diet, or lifestyle that can be a significant source of body temperature variability. Body temperature variability findings in disease states are also reviewed.

  10. Body temperature stability achieved by the large body mass of sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsufumi

    2014-10-15

    To investigate the thermal characteristics of large reptiles living in water, temperature data were continuously recorded from 16 free-ranging loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, during internesting periods using data loggers. Core body temperatures were 0.7-1.7°C higher than ambient water temperatures and were kept relatively constant. Unsteady numerical simulations using a spherical thermodynamic model provided mechanistic explanations for these phenomena, and the body temperature responses to fluctuating water temperature can be simply explained by a large body mass with a constant thermal diffusivity and a heat production rate rather than physiological thermoregulation. By contrast, body temperatures increased 2.6-5.1°C in 107-152 min during their emergences to nest on land. The estimated heat production rates on land were 7.4-10.5 times the calculated values in the sea. The theoretical prediction that temperature difference between body and water temperatures would increase according to the body size was confirmed by empirical data recorded from several species of sea turtles. Comparing previously reported data, the internesting intervals of leatherback, green and loggerhead turtles were shorter when the body temperatures were higher. Sea turtles seem to benefit from a passive thermoregulatory strategy, which depends primarily on the physical attributes of their large body masses. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Assessment of body surface temperature in cetaceans: an iterative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Silva

    Full Text Available Heat transfer from skin surface to ambient water is probably the most important aspect of thermal balance in marine mammals, but the respective calculations depend on knowing the surface temperature (T S, the direct measurement of which in free animals is very difficult. An indirect iterative method is proposed for T S prediction in free cetaceans from deep body temperature, swimming speed, and temperature and thermodynamic properties of the water.

  12. The relationship between body and ambient temperature and corneal temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Johnson, Leif; Arvidsson, Henrik Sven

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature.......Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature....

  13. Astronaut James Lovell checks body temperature with oral temperature probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Gemini 7 pilot Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr. has temperature check with oral temperature probe attached to his space suit during final preflight preparations for the Gemini 7 space mission. The temperature probe allows doctors to monitor astronauts body temperature at any time during the mission.

  14. Predicting body temperature of endotherms during shuttling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Girones, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents two models that can be used to predict the temporal dynamics of body temperature in endotherms. A first-order model is based on the assumption that body temperature is uniform at all times, while a second-order model is based on the assumption that animals can be divided in a

  15. Assessment of body temperature measurement options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund-Levander, Märtha; Grodzinsky, Ewa

    Assessment of body temperature is important for decisions in nursing care, medical diagnosis, treatment and the need of laboratory tests. The definition of normal body temperature as 37°C was established in the middle of the 19th century. Since then the technical design and the accuracy of thermometers has been much improved. Knowledge of physical influence on the individual body temperature, such as thermoregulation and hormones, are still not taken into consideration in body temperature assessment. It is time for a change; the unadjusted mode should be used, without adjusting to another site and the same site of measurement should be used as far as possible. Peripheral sites, such as the axillary and the forehead site, are not recommended as an assessment of core body temperature in adults. Frail elderly individuals might have a low normal body temperature and therefore be at risk of being assessed as non-febrile. As the ear site is close to the hypothalamus and quickly responds to changes in the set point temperature, it is a preferable and recommendable site for measurement of body temperature.

  16. Body temperature of the loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lepidochelys olivacea L respectively, after emerging from water of 27,SoC to nest. (Mrosovsky &. Pritchard 1971). Smaller but significant temperature differentials have been reported for green and hawksbill turtles by Hirth (1962). Records of body temperatures of free-ranging animals are scarce; the only record being.

  17. Core body temperature in obesity123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikens, Marc J; Gorbach, Alexander M; Eden, Henry S; Savastano, David M; Chen, Kong Y; Skarulis, Monica C

    2011-01-01

    Background: A lower core body temperature set point has been suggested to be a factor that could potentially predispose humans to develop obesity. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that obese individuals have lower core temperatures than those in normal-weight individuals. Design: In study 1, nonobese [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) <30] and obese (BMI ≥30) adults swallowed wireless core temperature–sensing capsules, and we measured core temperatures continuously for 24 h. In study 2, normal-weight (BMI of 18–25) and obese subjects swallowed temperature-sensing capsules to measure core temperatures continuously for ≥48 h and kept activity logs. We constructed daily, 24-h core temperature profiles for analysis. Results: Mean (±SE) daily core body temperature did not differ significantly between the 35 nonobese and 46 obese subjects (36.92 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.89 ± 0.03°C; P = 0.44). Core temperature 24-h profiles did not differ significantly between 11 normal-weight and 19 obese subjects (P = 0.274). Women had a mean core body temperature ≈0.23°C greater than that of men (36.99 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.76 ± 0.03°C; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Obesity is not generally associated with a reduced core body temperature. It may be necessary to study individuals with function-altering mutations in core temperature–regulating genes to determine whether differences in the core body temperature set point affect the regulation of human body weight. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00428987 and NCT00266500. PMID:21367952

  18. Effect of body fat and gender on body temperature distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Eduardo Borba; Salamunes, Ana Carla Chierighini; de Oliveira, Rafael Melo; Stadnik, Adriana Maria Wan

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that body composition can influence peripheral heat loss and skin temperature. That the distribution of body fat is affected by gender is well known; however, there is little information on how body composition and gender influences the measure of skin temperature. This study evaluated skin temperature distribution according to body fat percentage (BF%) and gender. A sample of 94 apparently healthy volunteers (47 women and 47 men) was assessed with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and infrared thermography (mean, maximum and minimum temperatures - T Mean , T Max and T Min ). The sample was divided into groups, according to health risk classification, based on BF%, as proposed by the American College of Sports Medicine: Average (n = 58), Elevated (n = 16) or High (n = 20). Women had lower T Mean in most regions of interest (ROI). In both genders, group High had lower temperature values than Average and Elevated in the trunk, upper and lower limbs. In men, palms and posterior hands had a tendency (p temperature along with increased BF%. T Mean , T Max and T Min of trunk, upper and lower limbs were negatively correlated with BF% and the fat percentage of each segment (upper limbs, lower limbs and trunk). The highest correlations found in women were between posterior trunk and BF% (rho = -0.564, p temperature than men, which was related with higher BF%. Facial temperature seems not to be influenced by body fat. With the future collection of data on the relationship between BF% and skin temperature while taking into account factors such as body morphology, gender, and ethnicity, we conclude that measurement of BF may be reliably estimated with the use of thermal imaging technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship between insomnia and body temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lack, L.C.; Gradisar, M.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Wright, H.R.; Lushington, K.

    2008-01-01

    Sleepiness and sleep propensity are strongly influenced by our circadian clock as indicated by many circadian rhythms, most commonly by that of core body temperature. Sleep is most conducive in the temperature minimum phase, but is inhibited in a "wake maintenance zone" before the minimum phase, and

  20. Stratification in Natural Water Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob Steen

    2004-01-01

    Density stratification of natural water bodies plays an important role for a number of civil engineering problems. The origin of stratification in natural water is discussed and the Black Sea, the Gulf of Katchch, and Maarmorilik Fiord in Greenland are described and used as examples. Stratification...... of negative estuaries, immersing of tunnel elements, and others. The paper describes the methods available when the civil engineer encounters a stratification related problem: Field experimentation and monitoring, analytical methods, physical and numerical modelling. Finally the paper advocates...

  1. Modelling water temperature in TOXSWA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, C.M.J.; Deneer, J.W.; Adriaanse, P.I.

    2010-01-01

    A reasonably accurate estimate of the water temperature is necessary for a good description of the degradation of plant protection products in water which is used in the surface water model TOXSWA. Based on a consideration of basic physical processes that describe the influence of weather on the

  2. Structural transition temperature of hemoglobins correlates with species' body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerlin, Kay Frank Thorsten; Kasischke, Nicole; Digel, Ilya; Maggakis-Kelemen, Christina; Temiz Artmann, Aysegül; Porst, Dariusz; Kayser, Peter; Linder, Peter; Artmann, Gerhard Michael

    2007-12-01

    Human red blood cells (RBCs) exhibit sudden changes in their biophysical properties at body temperature (T (B)). RBCs were seen to undergo a spontaneous transition from blockage to passage at T (C) = 36.4 +/- 0.3 degrees C, when the temperature dependency of RBC-passages through 1.3 mum narrow micropipettes was observed. Moreover, concentrated hemoglobin solutions (45 g/dl) showed a viscosity breakdown between 36 and 37 degrees C. With human hemoglobin, a structural transition was observed at T (B) as circular dichroism (CD) experiments revealed. This leads to the assumption that a species' body temperature occupies a unique position on the temperature scale and may even be imprinted in the structure of certain proteins. In this study, it was investigated whether hemoglobins of species with a T (B) different from those of human show temperature transitions and whether those were also linked to the species' T (B). The main conclusion was drawn from dynamic light scattering (DLS) and CD experiments. It was observed that such structural temperature transitions did occur in hemoglobins from all studied species and were correlated linearly (slope 0.81, r = 0.95) with the species' body temperature. We presumed that alpha-helices of hemoglobin were able to unfold more readily around T (B). alpha-helical unfolding would initiate molecular aggregation causing RBC passage and viscosity breakdown as mentioned above. Thus, structural molecular changes of hemoglobin could determine biophysical effects visible on a macroscopic scale. It is hypothesized that the species' body temperature was imprinted into the structure of hemoglobins.

  3. Relationship between body temperature and air temperature In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1992-06-22

    Jun 22, 1992 ... Body temperatures of singing male Gryllus bimaculatus were measured for the first time. ... this can create special problems for the female, since the ... each male. Each cricket was cooled to 4°C and the thermo- couple was glued to the exoskeleton with cyano-acrylic glue. The thermocouple was connected ...

  4. A hypothalamic circuit that controls body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng-Dong; Yang, Wen Z; Gao, Cuicui; Fu, Xin; Zhang, Wen; Zhou, Qian; Chen, Wanpeng; Ni, Xinyan; Lin, Jun-Kai; Yang, Juan; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Shen, Wei L

    2017-02-21

    The homeostatic control of body temperature is essential for survival in mammals and is known to be regulated in part by temperature-sensitive neurons in the hypothalamus. However, the specific neural pathways and corresponding neural populations have not been fully elucidated. To identify these pathways, we used cFos staining to identify neurons that are activated by a thermal challenge and found induced expression in subsets of neurons within the ventral part of the lateral preoptic nucleus (vLPO) and the dorsal part of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMD). Activation of GABAergic neurons in the vLPO using optogenetics reduced body temperature, along with a decrease in physical activity. Optogenetic inhibition of these neurons resulted in fever-level hyperthermia. These GABAergic neurons project from the vLPO to the DMD and optogenetic stimulation of the nerve terminals in the DMD also reduced body temperature and activity. Electrophysiological recording revealed that the vLPO GABAergic neurons suppressed neural activity in DMD neurons, and fiber photometry of calcium transients revealed that DMD neurons were activated by cold. Accordingly, activation of DMD neurons using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) or optogenetics increased body temperature with a strong increase in energy expenditure and activity. Finally, optogenetic inhibition of DMD neurons triggered hypothermia, similar to stimulation of the GABAergic neurons in the vLPO. Thus, vLPO GABAergic neurons suppressed the thermogenic effect of DMD neurons. In aggregate, our data identify vLPO→DMD neural pathways that reduce core temperature in response to a thermal challenge, and we show that outputs from the DMD can induce activity-induced thermogenesis.

  5. Influence of elevated body temperature on circulating immunoglobulin-secreting cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, M; Barington, T; Gyhrs, A

    1995-01-01

    This work was designed to investigate the effect of in vivo hyperthermia in man on circulating immunoglobulin-secreting cells. Eight healthy male volunteers were immersed into a hot waterbath (WI) (water temperature 39.5 degrees C) for 2 h, whereby their body temperature rose to 39.5 degrees C....... On another occasion they served as their own controls, being immersed into thermoneutral water (water temperature 34.5 degrees C) for 2 h. Blood samples were drawn before immersion, at body temperatures of 38, 39 and 39.5 degrees C, as well as 2 h after WI when their body temperatures were normalized...

  6. Water Ice Radiolytic O2, H2, and H2O2 Yields for Any Projectile Species, Energy, or Temperature: A Model for Icy Astrophysical Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teolis, B. D.; Plainaki, C.; Cassidy, T. A.; Raut, U.

    2017-10-01

    O2, H2, and H2O2 radiolysis from water ice is pervasive on icy astrophysical bodies, but the lack of a self-consistent, quantitative model of the yields of these water products versus irradiation projectile species and energy has been an obstacle to estimating the radiolytic oxidant sources to the surfaces and exospheres of these objects. A major challenge is the wide variation of O2 radiolysis yields between laboratory experiments, ranging over 4 orders of magnitude from 5 × 10-7 to 5 × 10-3 molecules/eV for different particles and energies. We revisit decades of laboratory data to solve this long-standing puzzle, finding an inverse projectile range dependence in the O2 yields, due to preferential O2 formation from an 30 Å thick oxygenated surface layer. Highly penetrating projectile ions and electrons with ranges ≳30 Å are therefore less efficient at producing O2 than slow/heavy ions and low-energy electrons (≲ 400 eV) which deposit most energy near the surface. Unlike O2, the H2O2 yields from penetrating projectiles fall within a comparatively narrow range of (0.1-6) × 10-3 molecules/eV and do not depend on range, suggesting that H2O2 forms deep in the ice uniformly along the projectile track, e.g., by reactions of OH radicals. We develop an analytical model for O2, H2, and H2O2 yields from pure water ice for electrons and singly charged ions of any mass and energy and apply the model to estimate possible O2 source rates on several icy satellites. The yields are upper limits for icy bodies on which surface impurities may be present.

  7. Room temperature water Leidenfrost droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestini, Franck; Frisch, Thomas; Pomeau, Yves

    2013-10-28

    We experimentally investigate the Leidenfrost effect at pressures ranging from 1 to 0.05 atmospheric pressure. As a direct consequence of the Clausius–Clapeyron phase diagram of water, the droplet temperature can be at ambient temperature in a non-sophisticated lab environment. Furthermore, the lifetime of the Leidenfrost droplet is significantly increased in this low pressure environment. The temperature and pressure dependence of the evaporation rate is successfully tested against a recently proposed model. These results may pave the way for reaching efficient Leidenfrost micro-fluidic and milli-fluidic applications.

  8. Water-body preferences of dominant calanoid copepod species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of five dominant calanoid copepods was related to different water masses in the Angola-Benguela Front system. Five water bodies were identified by principal component analysis, on the basis of abiotic parameters such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, silicate, nitrate and nitrite.

  9. Body water, extracellular water, body potassium, and exchangeable sodium in body builders using anabolic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Colt, E.D.W.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Nine competitive male body builders aged 21 to 34 who were determined to take anabolic steroids were studied before and 6 to 10 weeks after a training cycle which included steroid administration. A control group of nine subjects matched in age and duration of competitive career, but using only natural training methods were studied on a single occasion while in training. Total body potassium (TBK) by 40 K, total body water (TBW) by 3 H 2 O dilution, extracellular water (ECW) by 35 SO 4 dilution and zero time extrapolation, and exchangeable sodium by 24 Na dilution were measured before and after training. Intracellular water (ICW) was calculated from TBW - ECW. Initially steroid users had a greater skeletal muscle mass than control subjects, and obtained a further weight gain on steroids, all in skeletal muscle, based on parallel increases in TBK and ICW. Other body composition measurements did not change significantly. A single steroid user became ill taking steroids, decreased potassium by 5%, and increased extracellular water, changes which may represent the effects of hepatic dysfunction which occurred while on anabolic steroids

  10. Energetic consequences of field body temperatures in the green iguana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, WDVM; Wesselingh, RA

    We investigated body temperatures of free-ranging green iguanas (Iguana iguana) on Curacao (Netherlands Antilles), and how metabolic costs and benefits of food processing affect body temperatures. Body temperatures of free-living iguanas were measured by radio telemetry. We also used a model, with

  11. Water and the thermal evolution of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Robert E.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Two hypotheses are proposed for the aqueous alteration of carbonaceous chondrites within their parent bodies, in which respectively the alteration occurs (1) throughout the parent body interior, or (2) in a postaccretional surface regolith; both models assume an initially homogeneous mixture of ice and rock that is heated through the decay of Al-26. Water is seen to exert a powerful influence on chondrite evolution through its role of thermal buffer, permitting substitution of a low temperature aqueous alteration for high temperature recrystallization. It is quantitatively demonstrated that liquid water may be introduced by either hydrothermal circulation, vapor diffusion from below, or venting due to fracture.

  12. Bacteriological physicochemical quality of recreational water bodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tinsae

    Key words: Swimming pools, microbiological indicators, microbial water quality, recreational water quality. INTRODUCTION. Recreational ... quality of the selected recreational waters bodies in Addis. Ababa and Oromiya Region in ..... Le Chevallier MW, Evans TM, Seidler RJ (1981). Effect of Turbidity on. Chlorination ...

  13. Temperature distribution in the human body under various conditions of induced hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobko, O. V.; Perelman, T. L.; Fradkin, S. Z.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model based on heat balance equations was developed for studying temperature distribution in the human body under deep hyperthermia which is often induced in the treatment of malignant tumors. The model yields results which are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The distribution of temperature under various conditions of induced hyperthermia, i.e. as a function of water temperature and supply rate, is examined on the basis of temperature distribution curves in various body zones.

  14. Systems Modeling for Crew Core Body Temperature Prediction Postlanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Cynthia; Ochoa, Dustin

    2010-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, NASA s latest crewed spacecraft project, presents many challenges to its designers including ensuring crew survivability during nominal and off nominal landing conditions. With a nominal water landing planned off the coast of San Clemente, California, off nominal water landings could range from the far North Atlantic Ocean to the middle of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. For all of these conditions, the vehicle must provide sufficient life support resources to ensure that the crew member s core body temperatures are maintained at a safe level prior to crew rescue. This paper will examine the natural environments, environments created inside the cabin and constraints associated with post landing operations that affect the temperature of the crew member. Models of the capsule and the crew members are examined and analysis results are compared to the requirement for safe human exposure. Further, recommendations for updated modeling techniques and operational limits are included.

  15. Diurnal Temperature Cycles in Shallow Water Pools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.F.G.; Paaijmans, K.P.; Heusinkveld, B.G.

    2006-01-01

    Larvas of malaria mosquito species live close to the water surface in shallow waters, and are exposed to water temperatures which differ considerably from the air or bulk water temperature. The present research aims to obtain a sound physical insight into processes which determine the water

  16. Water and electrolytes. [in human bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Harrison, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that the performance of the strongest and fittest people will deteriorate rapidly with dehydration. The present paper is concerned with the anatomy of the fluid spaces in the body, taking into account also the fluid shifts and losses during exercise and their effects on performance. Total body water is arbitrarily divided into that contained within cells (cellular) and that located outside the cells (extracellular). The anatomy of body fluid compartments is considered along with the effects of exercise on body water, fluid shifts with exercise, the consequences of sweating, dehydration and exercise, heat acclimatization and endurance training, the adverse effects of dehydration, thirst and drinking during exercise, stimuli for drinking, and water, electrolyte, and carbohydrate replacement during exercise. It is found that the deterioration of physical exercise performance due to dehydration begins when body weight decreases by about 1 percent.

  17. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Moerman, A.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According to the Dutch Drinking Water Act the drinking water temperature may not exceed the 25 °C threshold at point-of-use level. This paper provides a mathematical approach to model the heating of drinking...

  18. Regulation of the peripheral body temperature by foods: a temperature decrease induced by the Japanese persimmon (kaki, Diospyros kaki).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Gaku; Nadamoto, Tomonori; Fujisawa, Fumiko; Fushiki, Tohru

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether the ingestion of the Japanese persimmon (kaki, Diospyros kaki) could lower the human peripheral body temperature. It was found that the temperatures recorded at the foot and wrist were depressed after kaki consumption compared to after the same amount of water consumption. The effects of ingesting freeze-dried kaki and eating a cookie (as its nutritional counterpart) containing the same amount of carbohydrate, protein, fat, and water were compared. A similar temperature-reducing effect of kaki was observed. The recovery of finger temperature after soaking the finger in ice-cooled water was also studied. The temperature recovery was delayed after kaki consumption. It was thus quantitatively demonstrated that ingesting kaki indeed had the effect of lowering (or repressing the rise) of the peripheral human body temperature, as has been traditionally believed in China for many hundreds of years.

  19. The effect of body temperature on the hunting response of the middle finger skin temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daanen, H A; Van de Linde, F J; Romet, T T; Ducharme, M B

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between body temperature and the hunting response (intermittent supply of warm blood to cold exposed extremities) was quantified for nine subjects by immersing one hand in 8 degree C water while their body was either warm, cool or comfortable. Core and skin temperatures were manipulated by exposing the subjects to different ambient temperatures (30, 22, or 15 degrees C), by adjusting their clothing insulation (moderate, light, or none), and by drinking beverages at different temperatures (43, 37 and 0 degrees C). The middle finger temperature (Tfi) response was recorded, together with ear canal (Tear), rectal (Tre), and mean skin temperature (Tsk). The induced mean Tear changes were -0.34 (0.08) and +0.29 (0.03) degrees C following consumption of the cold and hot beverage, respectively. Tsk ranged from 26.7 to 34.5 degrees C during the tests. In the warm environment after a hot drink, the initial finger temperature (T(fi,base)) was 35.3 (0.4) degrees C, the minimum finger temperature during immersion (T(fi,min)) was 11.3 (0.5) degrees C, and 2.6 (0.4) hunting waves occurred in the 30-min immersion period. In the neutral condition (thermoneutral room and beverage) T(fi,base) was 32.1 (1.0) degrees C, T(fi,min) was 9.6 (0.3) degrees C, and 1.6 (0.2) waves occurred. In the cold environment after a cold drink, these values were 19.3 (0.9) degrees C, 8.7 (0.2) degrees C, and 0.8 (0.2) waves, respectively. A colder body induced a decrease in the magnitude and frequency of the hunting response. The total heat transferred from the hand to the water, as estimated by the area under the middle finger temperature curve, was also dependent upon the induced increase or decrease in Tear and Tsk. We conclude that the characteristics of the hunting temperature response curve of the finger are in part determined by core temperature and Tsk. Both T(fi,min) and the maximal finger temperature during immersion were higher when the core temperature was elevated; Tsk

  20. Body Temperature Measurements for Metabolic Phenotyping in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola W. Meyer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Endothermic organisms rely on tightly balanced energy budgets to maintain a regulated body temperature and body mass. Metabolic phenotyping of mice, therefore, often includes the recording of body temperature. Thermometry in mice is conducted at various sites, using various devices and measurement practices, ranging from single-time probing to continuous temperature imaging. Whilst there is broad agreement that body temperature data is of value, procedural considerations of body temperature measurements in the context of metabolic phenotyping are missing. Here, we provide an overview of the various methods currently available for gathering body temperature data from mice. We explore the scope and limitations of thermometry in mice, with the hope of assisting researchers in the selection of appropriate approaches, and conditions, for comprehensive mouse phenotypic analyses.

  1. Body Temperature Measurements for Metabolic Phenotyping in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carola W.; Ootsuka, Youichirou; Romanovsky, Andrej A.

    2017-01-01

    Endothermic organisms rely on tightly balanced energy budgets to maintain a regulated body temperature and body mass. Metabolic phenotyping of mice, therefore, often includes the recording of body temperature. Thermometry in mice is conducted at various sites, using various devices and measurement practices, ranging from single-time probing to continuous temperature imaging. Whilst there is broad agreement that body temperature data is of value, procedural considerations of body temperature measurements in the context of metabolic phenotyping are missing. Here, we provide an overview of the various methods currently available for gathering body temperature data from mice. We explore the scope and limitations of thermometry in mice, with the hope of assisting researchers in the selection of appropriate approaches, and conditions, for comprehensive mouse phenotypic analyses. PMID:28824441

  2. Micro-scale heterogeneity in water temperature | Dallas | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micro-scale heterogeneity in water temperature was examined in 6 upland sites in the Western Cape, South Africa. Hourly water temperature data converted to daily data showed that greatest differences were apparent in daily maximum temperatures between shallow- and deep-water biotopes during the warmest period of ...

  3. Relationship between alertness, performance, and body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth P Jr; Hull, Joseph T.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature has been reported to influence human performance. Performance is reported to be better when body temperature is high/near its circadian peak and worse when body temperature is low/near its circadian minimum. We assessed whether this relationship between performance and body temperature reflects the regulation of both the internal biological timekeeping system and/or the influence of body temperature on performance independent of circadian phase. Fourteen subjects participated in a forced desynchrony protocol allowing assessment of the relationship between body temperature and performance while controlling for circadian phase and hours awake. Most neurobehavioral measures varied as a function of internal biological time and duration of wakefulness. A number of performance measures were better when body temperature was elevated, including working memory, subjective alertness, visual attention, and the slowest 10% of reaction times. These findings demonstrate that an increased body temperature, associated with and independent of internal biological time, is correlated with improved performance and alertness. These results support the hypothesis that body temperature modulates neurobehavioral function in humans.

  4. Assessment of the use of temperature-sensitive microchips to determine core body temperature in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrao, N A; Hetem, R S; Meyer, L C R; Fick, L G

    2011-03-26

    Body temperature was measured at five different body sites (retroperitoneum, groin, semimembranosus muscle, flank and shoulder) using temperature-sensitive microchips implanted in five female goats, and compared with the core body and rectal temperatures. Body temperature was measured while the goats were kept in different ambient temperatures, with and without radiant heat, as well as during a fever induced experimentally by injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Bland-Altman limit of agreement analysis was used to compare the temperature measurements at the different body sites during the different interventions. Temperatures measured by the microchip implanted in the retroperitoneum showed the closest agreement (mean 0.2 °C lower) with core and rectal temperatures during all interventions, whereas temperatures measured by the microchips implanted in the groin, muscle, flank and shoulder differed from core body temperature by up to 3.5 °C during the various interventions.

  5. Body/bone-marrow differential-temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Berdahl, C. M.

    1978-01-01

    Differential-temperature sensor developed to compare bone-marrow and body temperature in leukemia patients uses single stable amplifier to monitor temperature difference recorded by thermocouples. Errors are reduced by referencing temperatures to each other, not to separate calibration points.

  6. Effect of irrigation fluid temperature on body temperature during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of dogs were hypothermic (<37oC). The addition of warmed irrigation fluids to a temperature management protocol in dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy during general anaesthesia did not lead to decreased temperature losses. Keywords: Arthroscopy, Hypothermia, Irrigation fluid temperature, Thermoregulation.

  7. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, A.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; Van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According

  8. Seasonal changes in total body water; body composition and water turnover in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje S. Larsen

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Total body water and water turnover were measured at different times throughout the year in 3 captive Norwegian reindeer, using a tritiated water dilution method (Holleman et al. 1982. Total body water (percent of body weight increased during late autumn and winter, from 59.1 ± 1.5 % in October to 72.5 ± 2.0 % in April. Using the equatation by Pace and Rathbun (1945 for predicting total body fat (% fat = 100 - % water/0.732, this increase in total body water indicates a concomitant reduction in body fat, from a maximum value of 18.9 ± 2.6 % (of body weight in October to a minimum of 0.9 ± 2.7 % in April. During summer, on the other hand, fat content increased at the expense of a reduced percentage of body water. Water turnover was low in winter (December - April, ranging between 30.8 ± 5.2and43.6 ± 13.5ml.d-'. kg-1, but increased nearly fourfold during summer (June-August with a maximum of 117.7 ± 5.9 ml.d-1. kg-1 in August. Positive correlations between water turnover and food intake and between water turnover and ambient temperature were found, the latter probably resulting from an incidental correlation between food intake and ambient temperature.Sesongmessige forandringer i totalt kroppsvann, kropps-sammensetning og vannomsetning hos reinsdyr.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Totalt kroppsvann og vannomsetning av vann ble målt til forskjellige årstider i 3 norske reinsdyr ved hjelp av utvasking av tritiert vann (Holleman et al. 1982. Totalt kroppsvann (prosent av kroppsvekt økte utover høsten og vinteren, fra 59.1 ± 1.5 % i oktober til 72.5 ± 2.0 % i april. Ved hjelp av en ligning som er gitt av Pace og Rathbun (1945 for beregning av totalt kroppsfett (% fett = 100 - % vann/0.732, fant en at denne økningen i vanninnhold tilsvarte en samtidig reduksjon i fettinnhold, fra en maksimums-verdi på 18.9 ± 2.6 % av kroppsvekt i oktober til et minimum på 0.9 ± 2.7 % i april. Utover sommeren økte derimot innholdet av fett p

  9. The influence of body temperature on sprint speed and anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... increases as body temperature is further reduced. This monitor lives in the savanna regions of northern Nigeria where the vegetation is low and hiding places are rare. The lizard might have evolved this antipredatory mechanism at low body temperatures as its last resort to survive since there is no place to take refuge in a ...

  10. Microchip-based body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Lohse, Louise

    In the present study, we tested whether an electronic identification and body temperature monitorring technology presently applied in small experimental animals could be transferred for use in pigs.......In the present study, we tested whether an electronic identification and body temperature monitorring technology presently applied in small experimental animals could be transferred for use in pigs....

  11. Miniature ingestible telemeter devices to measure deep-body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, J. M.; Fryer, T. B. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A telemetry device comprised of a pill-size ingestible transmitter developed to obtain deep body temperature measurements of a human is described. The device has particular utility in the medical field where deep body temperatures provide an indication of general health.

  12. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  13. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation

  14. Air temperature investigation in microenvironment around a human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sekhar, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the temperature boundary layer around a human body in a quiescent indoor environment. The air temperature, mean in time and standard deviation of the temperature fluctuations around a breathing thermal manikin are examined in relation to the room temperature......, body posture and human respiratory flow. To determine to what extent the experiments represent the realistic scenario, the additional experiments were performed with a real human subject. The results show that at a lower room air temperature (20°C), the fluctuations of air temperature increased close...... to the surface of the body. The large standard deviation of air temperature fluctuations, up to 1.2°C, was recorded in the region of the chest, and up to 2.9°C when the exhalation was applied. The manikin leaned backwards increased the air temperature in the breathing zone, which was opposite from the forward...

  15. (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from water bodies impacted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mossambicus tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from water bodies impacted by urban waste carries extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and ... Microbial Culture Collection, National Centre for Cell Science, Pune 411 007, India; Department of Biotechnology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411 007, ...

  16. Body Temperature Cycles Control Rhythmic Alternative Splicing in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preußner, Marco; Goldammer, Gesine; Neumann, Alexander; Haltenhof, Tom; Rautenstrauch, Pia; Müller-McNicoll, Michaela; Heyd, Florian

    2017-08-03

    The core body temperature of all mammals oscillates with the time of the day. However, direct molecular consequences of small, physiological changes in body temperature remain largely elusive. Here we show that body temperature cycles drive rhythmic SR protein phosphorylation to control an alternative splicing (AS) program. A temperature change of 1°C is sufficient to induce a concerted splicing switch in a large group of functionally related genes, rendering this splicing-based thermometer much more sensitive than previously described temperature-sensing mechanisms. AS of two exons in the 5' UTR of the TATA-box binding protein (Tbp) highlights the general impact of this mechanism, as it results in rhythmic TBP protein levels with implications for global gene expression in vivo. Together our data establish body temperature-driven AS as a core clock-independent oscillator in mammalian peripheral clocks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mapping the body surface temperature of cattle by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Marcia Saladini Vieira; da Silva, Suelen Corrêa; Salles, Fernando André; Roma, Luiz Carlos; El Faro, Lenira; Bustos Mac Lean, Priscilla Ayleen; Lins de Oliveira, Celso Eduardo; Martello, Luciane Silva

    2016-12-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) is an alternative non-invasive method that has been studied as a tool for identifying many physiological and pathological processes related to changes in body temperature. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the body surface temperature of Jersey dairy cattle in a thermoneutral environment in order to contribute to the determination of a body surface temperature pattern for animals of this breed in a situation of thermal comfort. Twenty-four Jersey heifers were used over a period of 35 days at APTA Brazil. Measurements were performed on all animals, starting with the physiological parameters. Body surface temperature was measured by IRT collecting images in different body regions: left and right eye area, right and left eye, caudal left foreleg, cranial left foreleg, right and left flank, and forehead. High correlations were observed between temperature and humidity index (THI) and right flank, left flank and forehead temperatures (0.85, 0.81, and 0.81, respectively). The IRT variables that exhibited the five highest correlation coefficients in principal component 1 were, in decreasing order: forehead (0.90), right flank (0.87), left flank (0.84), marker 1 caudal left foreleg (0.83), marker 2 caudal left foreleg (0.74). The THI showed a high correlation coefficient (0.88) and moderate to low correlations were observed for the physiological variables rectal temperature (0.43), and respiratory frequency (0.42). The thermal profile obtained indicates a surface temperature pattern for each region studied in a situation of thermal comfort and may contribute to studies investigating body surface temperature. Among the body regions studied, IRT forehead temperature showed the highest association with rectal temperature, and forehead and right and left flank temperatures are strongly associated with THI and may be adopted in future studies on thermoregulation and body heat production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Implanted telemeter for electrocardiogram and body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    Measuring system requiring one blocking oscillator to generate modulated pulse repetition rate is implantable in the bodies of small animals. Device has life of two years and transmission range of about three feet. EKG sensing unit also is used to sense electromyogram or electrooculogram of laboratory animals.

  19. Patterns of Body Temperature During Feeding in Rats Under Varying Ambient Temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Jan; Strubbe, Jan H.; Wildering, Wic C.; Gorter, Jan A.; Prins, Ab J.A.

    Relationships between feeding and body temperature of rats were investigated at three ambient temperatures during the whole light/dark cycle. Basal liver temperature was negatively correlated with ambient temperature. Only at 29-degrees-C liver temperature indicated activation of autonomic and

  20. Continued decrease of open surface water body area in Oklahoma during 1984-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhenhua; Dong, Jinwei; Menarguez, Michael A; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Doughty, Russell B; Hooker, Katherine V; David Hambright, K

    2017-10-01

    Oklahoma contains the largest number of manmade lakes and reservoirs in the United States. Despite the importance of these open surface water bodies to public water supply, agriculture, thermoelectric power, tourism and recreation, it is unclear how these water bodies have responded to climate change and anthropogenic water exploitation in past decades. In this study, we used all available Landsat 5 and 7 images (16,000 scenes) from 1984 through 2015 and a water index- and pixel-based approach to analyze the spatial-temporal variability of open surface water bodies and its relationship with climate and water exploitation. Specifically, the areas and numbers of four water body extents (the maximum, year-long, seasonal, and average extents) were analyzed to capture variations in water body area and number. Statistically significant downward trends were found in the maximum, year-long, and annual average water body areas from 1984 through 2015. Furthermore, these decreases were mainly attributed to the continued shrinking of large water bodies (>1km 2 ). There were also significant decreases in maximum and year-long water body numbers, which suggested that some of the water bodies were vanishing year by year. However, remarkable inter-annual variations of water body area and number were also found. Both water body area and number were positively related to precipitation, and negatively related to temperature. Surface water withdrawals mainly influenced the year-long water bodies. The smaller water bodies have a higher risk of drying under a drier climate, which suggests that small water bodies are more vulnerable under climate-warming senarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A nonintrusive temperature measuring system for estimating deep body temperature in bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, S Y; Lee, W K; Baek, H J; Park, K S

    2012-01-01

    Deep body temperature is an important indicator that reflects human being's overall physiological states. Existing deep body temperature monitoring systems are too invasive to apply to awake patients for a long time. Therefore, we proposed a nonintrusive deep body temperature measuring system. To estimate deep body temperature nonintrusively, a dual-heat-flux probe and double-sensor probes were embedded in a neck pillow. When a patient uses the neck pillow to rest, the deep body temperature can be assessed using one of the thermometer probes embedded in the neck pillow. We could estimate deep body temperature in 3 different sleep positions. Also, to reduce the initial response time of dual-heat-flux thermometer which measures body temperature in supine position, we employed the curve-fitting method to one subject. And thereby, we could obtain the deep body temperature in a minute. This result shows the possibility that the system can be used as practical temperature monitoring system with appropriate curve-fitting model. In the next study, we would try to establish a general fitting model that can be applied to all of the subjects. In addition, we are planning to extract meaningful health information such as sleep structure analysis from deep body temperature data which are acquired from this system.

  2. Cardiovascular and metabolic responses to tap water ingestion in young humans: does the water temperature matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona, M; Grasser, E K; Dulloo, A G; Montani, J P

    2014-06-01

    Drinking water induces short-term cardiovascular and metabolic changes. These effects are considered to be triggered by gastric distension and osmotic factors, but little is known about the influence of water temperature. We determined, in a randomized crossover study, the acute cardiovascular and metabolic responses to 500 mL of tap water at 3 °C (cold), 22 °C (room) and 37 °C (body) in 12 young humans to ascertain an effect of water temperature. We measured continuous beat-to-beat haemodynamics, skin blood flux with laser-Doppler flowmetry and resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry starting with a 30-min baseline followed by a 4-min drink period and a subsequent 90-min post-drink observation. Ingestion of cold- and room-tempered water led to decreased heart rate (P body-tempered water. Drinking cold- and room-, but not body-tempered water, led to increased high frequency power of heart rate variability (P water increased energy expenditure over 90 min by 2.9% (P water to intra-abdominal temperature levels. Overall, ingestion of cold- and room-, but not body-tempered water reduced the workload to the heart through a reduction in heart rate and double product which could be mediated by an augmented cardiac vagal tone. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Protection of Urban Water body Infrastructure – Policy Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, T. R.; Ramakrishnan, K.

    2017-07-01

    Water body is an important infrastructure of urban landscape. Water bodies like tanks and ponds are constructed to harvest rainwater for local use. Such water bodies serve many environmental functions including flood and soil erosion control and are useful for irrigation, drinking water supply and groundwater recharge. A large number of water bodies recently have been lost due to anthropogenic activities and the remaining water bodies are under stress due to risk of degradation. There are many phases to solve or control the problem; starting from stopping the abuse, to restoration to monitoring and maintenance. In this situation, the existing urban and peri-urban water bodies are to be preserved and rehabilitated. In this study, policy requirements for the protection (preservation and rehabilitation) of water bodies are analyzed with special reference to Thanjavur city. Thanjavur city has many water bodies and moat around the Big-Temple and the palace, and stands as an evidence for water management in ancient days. These water bodies are to be protected and used properly for sustainable growth of the city. This paper envisages the following three: (a) need for evaluation of hydraulic and hydrologic properties of the water bodies for conserving rainwater and controlling flood water in the existing urban water bodies; (b) need for evaluation of potential of socio-environmental services by the water bodies, and (c) need for developing a relative importance index for protection of water bodies to prioritize the remedial actions.

  4. Body mass modulates huddling dynamics and body temperature profiles in rabbit pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Amando; Zepeda, José Alfredo; Reyes-Meza, Verónica; Féron, Christophe; Rödel, Heiko G; Hudson, Robyn

    2017-10-01

    Altricial mammals typically lack the physiological capacity to thermoregulate independently during the early postnatal period, and in litter-bearing species the young benefit strongly from huddling together with their litter siblings. Such litter huddles are highly dynamic systems, often characterized by competition for energetically favorable, central positions. In the present study, carried out in domestic rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus, we asked whether individual differences in body mass affect changes in body temperature during changes in the position within the huddle. We predicted that pups with relatively lower body mass should be more affected by such changes arising from huddle dynamics in comparison to heavier ones. Changes in pups' maximum body surface temperature (determined by infrared thermography) were significantly affected by changes in the number of their neighbors in the litter huddle, and indeed these temperature changes largely depended on the pups' body mass relative to their litter siblings. Lighter pups showed significant increases in their maximum body surface temperature when their number of huddling partners increased by one or two siblings whereas pups with intermediate or heavier body mass did not show such significant increases in maximum body temperature when experiencing such changes. A similar pattern was found with respect to average body surface temperature. This strong link between changes in the number of huddling partners and body surface temperature in lighter pups might, on the one hand, arise from a higher vulnerability of such pups due to their less favorable body surface area-to-volume ratio. On the other hand, as lighter pups generally had fewer neighbors than heavier ones and thus typically a comparatively smaller body surface in contact with siblings, they potentially had more to gain from increasing their number of neighbors. The present findings might help to understand how individual differences in body mass within a

  5. The Effects of the Heat and Moisture Exchanger on Humidity, Airway Temperature, and Core Body Temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delventhal, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Findings from several studies have demonstrated that the use of a heat and moisture exchanger increases airway humidity, which in turn increases mean airway temperature and prevents decreases in core body temperature...

  6. Hypercoagulability in response to elevated body temperature and central hypovolemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Martin; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Overgaard, Flemming Anders

    2013-01-01

    Coagulation abnormalities contribute to poor outcomes in critically ill patients. In trauma patients exposed to a hot environment, a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, elevated body temperature, and reduced central blood volume occur in parallel with changes in hemostasis and endothelial...... damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether experimentally elevated body temperature and reduced central blood volume (CBV) per se affects hemostasis and endothelial activation....

  7. Elevated body temperature in ischemic stroke associated with neurological improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanevski, A N; Naess, H; Thomassen, L; Waje-Andreassen, U; Nacu, A; Kvistad, C E

    2017-11-01

    Some studies suggest that high body temperature within the first few hours of ischemic stroke onset is associated with improved outcome. We hypothesized an association between high body temperature on admission and detectable improvement within 6-9 hours of stroke onset. Consecutive ischemic stroke patients with NIHSS scores obtained within 3 hours and in the interval 6-9 hours after stroke onset were included. Body temperature was measured on admission. A total of 315 patients with ischemic stroke were included. Median NIHSS score on admission was 6. Linear regression showed that NIHSS score 6-9 hours after stroke onset was inversely associated with body temperature on admission after adjusting for confounders including NIHSS score body temperature and neurological improvement within few hours after admission. This finding may be limited to patients with documented proximal middle cerebral artery occlusion on admission and suggests a beneficial effect of higher body temperature on clot lysis within the first three hours. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The pupal body temperature and inner space temperature of cocoon under microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagawa, T.

    1996-01-01

    The temperature of pupal surface,body and inner space of cocoon on cocoon drying of microwave irradiation was investigated to make clear the effect of temperature with pupa and cocoon shell. After pupal surface temperature and body temperature were risen rapidly in early irradiation and slowly thereafter, these were done fast again. Then these rising degrees fell. The variation of inner space temperature consists three terms: as the first stage of rapidly rising on early irradiation, the second stage of slowly doing and the third stage of fast doing again in temperature. In the first stage and the second stage, the higher the temperature of sending air during irradiation was, the shorter the term was and the higher the reached temperature was. The surface, pupal body and inner space have reached higher temperature than the sending air before cocoon drying was over

  9. Metabolic rate and body temperature of an African sun bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oxygen consumption (VO2) of the lesser double-collared sunbird, Nectarinia chalybea, was measured at ambient temperatures (Ta) from 7 to 35°C. The diel variation in body temperature (Tb) and wet thermal conductance (C) was also determined. The sunbirds (mean mass 8.36 g ± S.E. 0.21 g) showed a pronounced ...

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of routine postoperative body temperature measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Hester; Storm-Versloot, Marja N.; Goossens, Astrid; Speelman, Peter; Legemate, Dink A.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: On surgical wards, body temperature is routinely measured, but there is no proof that this is useful for detecting postoperative infection. The aim of this study was to compare temperature measurements (the test) with the confirmed absence or presence of a postoperative infection (the

  11. Estimation of temperature change in human body using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikawa, Yoshio; Nakamura, Suguru

    2016-01-01

    In the field of traditional oriental medicine, two types of treatment style, which are an acupuncture treatment and a moxibustion treatment have been performed. These treatments are used and effected by doctor or acupuncturist in their clinic or hospital and are widely spread. In spite of such a general treatment, it is not deeply discussed about mechanism of heat transfer modality and about temperature distribution in the treatment of moxibustion. Also, it is not discussed about temperature distribution deep inside human tissue during acupuncture treatment. It comes from the difficulty of noninvasive measurement of temperature deep inside human body. In this study, a temperature distribution for acupuncture and moxibustion treatment is measured and analyzed using thermograph and MRI by measuring the phase of longitudinal relaxation time of protons. The experimental results of measured temperature distribution under the human legs have been demonstrated. The result of temperature analysis in the human body is also reported. (author)

  12. [The temperature and temperature gradients distribution in the rabbit body thermophysical model with evaporation of moisture from its surface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiantsev, G V

    2004-04-01

    On created in laboratory heat-physical model of a rabbit body reflecting basic heat-physical parameters of the body such as: weight, size of a relative surface, heat absorption and heat conduction, heat capacity etc., a change of radial distribution of temperature and size was found across a superficial layer of evaporation of water from its surface, that simulates sweating, with various ratio of environmental temperature and capacity of electrical heater simulating heat production in animal. The experiments have shown that with evaporation of moisture from a surface of model in all investigated cases, there is an increase of superficial layer of body of a temperature gradient and simultaneous decrease of temperature of a model inside and on the surface. It seems that, with evaporation of a moisture from a surface of a body, the size of a temperature gradient in a thin superficial layer dependent in our experiments on capacity for heat production and environmental temperature, is increased and can be used in a live organism for definition of change in general heat content of the body with the purpose of maintenance of its thermal balance with environment.

  13. Rhythms of mammalian body temperature can sustain peripheral circadian clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven A; Zumbrunn, Gottlieb; Fleury-Olela, Fabienne; Preitner, Nicolas; Schibler, Ueli

    2002-09-17

    Low-amplitude temperature oscillations can entrain the phase of circadian rhythms in several unicellular and multicellular organisms, including Neurospora and Drosophila. Because mammalian body temperature is subject to circadian variations of 1 degrees C-4 degrees C, we wished to determine whether these temperature cycles could serve as a Zeitgeber for circadian gene expression in peripheral cell types. In RAT1 fibroblasts cultured in vitro, circadian gene expression could be established by a square wave temperature rhythm with a (Delta)T of 4 degrees C (12 hr 37 degrees C/12 hr 33 degrees C). To examine whether natural body temperature rhythms can also affect circadian gene expression, we first measured core body temperature cycles in the peritoneal cavities of mice by radiotelemetry. We then reproduced these rhythms with high precision in the liquid medium of cultured fibroblasts for several days by means of a homemade computer-driven incubator. While these "in vivo" temperature rhythms were incapable of establishing circadian gene expression de novo, they could maintain previously induced rhythms for multiple days; by contrast, the rhythms of control cells kept at constant temperature rapidly dampened. Moreover, circadian oscillations of environmental temperature could reentrain circadian clocks in the livers of mice, probably via the changes they imposed upon both body temperature and feeding behavior. Interestingly, these changes in ambient temperature did not affect the phase of the central circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. We postulate that both endogenous and environmental temperature cycles can participate in the synchronization of peripheral clocks in mammals.

  14. Patterns of activity and body temperature of Aldabra giant tortoises in relation to environmental temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón, Wilfredo; Baxter, Rich P; Furrer, Samuel; Bauert, Martin; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela; Ozgul, Arpat; Bunbury, Nancy; Clauss, Marcus; Hansen, Dennis M

    2018-02-01

    We studied the temperature relations of wild and zoo Aldabra giant tortoises ( Aldabrachelys gigantea ) focusing on (1) the relationship between environmental temperature and tortoise activity patterns ( n  = 8 wild individuals) and (2) on tortoise body temperature fluctuations, including how their core and external body temperatures vary in relation to different environmental temperature ranges (seasons; n  = 4 wild and n  = 5 zoo individuals). In addition, we surveyed the literature to review the effect of body mass on core body temperature range in relation to environmental temperature in the Testudinidae. Diurnal activity of tortoises was bimodally distributed and influenced by environmental temperature and season. The mean air temperature at which activity is maximized was 27.9°C, with a range of 25.8-31.7°C. Furthermore, air temperature explained changes in the core body temperature better than did mass, and only during the coldest trial, did tortoises with higher mass show more stable temperatures. Our results, together with the overall Testudinidae overview, suggest that, once variation in environmental temperature has been taken into account, there is little effect of mass on the temperature stability of tortoises. Moreover, the presence of thermal inertia in an individual tortoise depends on the environmental temperatures, and we found no evidence for inertial homeothermy. Finally, patterns of core and external body temperatures in comparison with environmental temperatures suggest that Aldabra giant tortoises act as mixed conformer-regulators. Our study provides a baseline to manage the thermal environment of wild and rewilded populations of an important island ecosystem engineer species in an era of climate change.

  15. Effects of MDMA on body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a severe complication associated with the recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy). In this review, the clinical laboratory studies that tested the effects of MDMA on body temperature are summarized. The mechanisms that underlie the hyperthermic effects of MDMA in humans and treatment of severe hyperthermia are presented. The data show that MDMA produces an acute and dose-dependent rise in core body temperature in healthy subjects. The increase in body temperature is in the range of 0.2-0.8°C and does not result in hyperpyrexia (>40°C) in a controlled laboratory setting. However, moderately hyperthermic body temperatures >38.0°C occur frequently at higher doses, even in the absence of physical activity and at room temperature. MDMA primarily releases serotonin and norepinephrine. Mechanistic clinical studies indicate that the MDMA-induced elevations in body temperature in humans partially depend on the MDMA-induced release of norepinephrine and involve enhanced metabolic heat generation and cutaneous vasoconstriction, resulting in impaired heat dissipation. The mediating role of serotonin is unclear. The management of sympathomimetic toxicity and associated hyperthermia mainly includes sedation with benzodiazepines and intravenous fluid replacement. Severe hyperthermia should primarily be treated with additional cooling and mechanical ventilation. PMID:27626046

  16. Full body illusion is associated with widespread skin temperature reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy eSalomon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A central feature of our consciousness is the experience of the self as a unified entity residing in a physical body, termed bodily self-consciousness. This phenomenon includes aspects such as the sense of owning a body (also known as body ownership and has been suggested to arise from the integration of sensory and motor signals from the body. Several studies have shown that temporally synchronous tactile stimulation of the real body and visual stimulation of a fake or virtual body can induce changes in bodily self-consciousness, typically resulting in a sense of illusory ownership over the fake body. The present study assessed the effect of anatomical congruency of visuo-tactile stimulation on bodily self-consciousness. A virtual body was presented and temporally synchronous visuo-tactile stroking was applied simultaneously the participants’ body and to the virtual body. We manipulated the anatomical locations of the visuo-tactile stroking (i.e. on the back, on the leg, resulting in congruent stroking (stroking was felt and seen on the back or the leg or incongruent stroking (i.e. stroking was felt on the leg and seen on the back. We measured self-identification with the virtual body and self-location as well as skin temperature. Illusory self-identification with the avatar as well as changes in self-localization were experienced in the congruent stroking conditions. Participants showed a decrease in skin temperature across several body locations during congruent stimulation. These data establish that the full-body illusion alters bodily self-consciousness and instigates widespread physiological changes in the participant’s body.

  17. Method and apparatus for recovering oil from an oil spill on the surface of a body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, R.W.; Patel, K.P.; Lau, P.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method of recovering a hydrophobic hydrocarbon oil from the surface of a body of water, the body of water having a water temperature, the oil having a specific gravity which is less than the specific gravity of the water in the body of water and a viscosity which is greater than approximately 80 centipoise at the water temperature. It comprises continuously withdrawing a feed oil-water mixture from the surface of the body of water; continuously adjusting the viscosity of the oil in the feed oil-water mixture to a level below approximately 80 centipoise to form an adjusted oil-water mixture; and continuously passing the adjusted oil-water mixture through an oil-water coalescer to separate the oil in the adjusted oil-water mixture from the water in the adjusted oil-water mixture

  18. Relationship between water temperature predictability and aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variable seasonal stream temperatures are a critical factor in maintaining aquatic invertebrate community patterns. We investigated whether the degree of predictability in a stream's water temperature profile provides insights into the structure and functional predictability of macroinvertebrate communities. Quarterly ...

  19. Effect of ‘Water Induced Thermogenesis’ on Body Weight, Body Mass Index and Body Composition of Overweight Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Vij, Vinu A.; Joshi, Anjali S.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Drinking lots of water is commonly suggested as a part of weight loss regimens. However, only few systematic studies have addressed this notion. In this study, the effect of drinking 1500 ml of water, over and above the daily water intake on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and body composition of overweight subjects was assessed.

  20. Wall temperature control of low-speed body drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. C.; Ash, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of thermal means to control drag under turbulent boundary layer conditions is examined. Numerical calculations are presented for both skin friction and (unseparated) pressure drag for turbulent boundary-layer flows over a fuselage-like body with wall heat transfer. In addition, thermal control of separation on a bluff body is investigated. It is shown that a total drag reduction of up to 20 percent can be achieved for wall heating with a wall-to-total-freestream temperature ratio of 2. For streamlined slender bodies, partial wall heating of the forebody can produce almost the same order of total drag reduction as the full body heating case. For bluff bodies, the separation delay from partial wall cooling of the afterbody is approximately the same as for the fully cooled body.

  1. A Framework to Simulate Small Shallow Inland Water Bodies in Semi-arid Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasi, A.; Annor, F.O.; van de Giesen, N.C.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a framework for simulating the flow field and heat transfer processes in small shallow inland water bodies has been developed. As the dynamics and thermal structure of these water bodies are crucial in studying the quality of stored water , and in assessing the heat fluxes from their surfaces as well, the heat transfer and temperature simulations were modeled. The proposed model is able to simulate the full 3-D water flow and heat transfer in the water body by applying complex ...

  2. Core body temperature control by total liquid ventilation using a virtual lung temperature sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Mathieu; Micheau, Philippe; Robert, Raymond; Avoine, Olivier; Tissier, Renaud; Germim, Pamela Samanta; Vandamme, Jonathan; Praud, Jean-Paul; Walti, Herve

    2014-12-01

    In total liquid ventilation (TLV), the lungs are filled with a breathable liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC) while a liquid ventilator ensures proper gas exchange by renewal of a tidal volume of oxygenated and temperature-controlled PFC. Given the rapid changes in core body temperature generated by TLV using the lung has a heat exchanger, it is crucial to have accurate and reliable core body temperature monitoring and control. This study presents the design of a virtual lung temperature sensor to control core temperature. In the first step, the virtual sensor, using expired PFC to estimate lung temperature noninvasively, was validated both in vitro and in vivo. The virtual lung temperature was then used to rapidly and automatically control core temperature. Experimentations were performed using the Inolivent-5.0 liquid ventilator with a feedback controller to modulate inspired PFC temperature thereby controlling lung temperature. The in vivo experimental protocol was conducted on seven newborn lambs instrumented with temperature sensors at the femoral artery, pulmonary artery, oesophagus, right ear drum, and rectum. After stabilization in conventional mechanical ventilation, TLV was initiated with fast hypothermia induction, followed by slow posthypothermic rewarming for 1 h, then by fast rewarming to normothermia and finally a second fast hypothermia induction phase. Results showed that the virtual lung temperature was able to provide an accurate estimation of systemic arterial temperature. Results also demonstrate that TLV can precisely control core body temperature and can be favorably compared to extracorporeal circulation in terms of speed.

  3. The impact of morning light intensity and environmental temperature on body temperatures and alertness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Kulve, Marije; Schlangen, Luc J M; Schellen, Lisje; Frijns, Arjan J H; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2017-06-01

    Indoor temperature and light exposure are known to affect body temperature, productivity and alertness of building occupants. However, not much is known about the interaction between light and temperature exposure and the relationship between morning light induced alertness and its effect on body temperature. Light intensity and room temperature during morning office hours were investigated under strictly controlled conditions. In a randomized crossover study, two white light conditions (4000K, either bright 1200lx or dim 5lx) under three different room temperatures (26, 29 and 32°C) were investigated. A lower room temperature increased the core body temperature (CBT) and lowered skin temperature and the distal-proximal temperature gradient (DPG). Moreover, a lower room temperature reduced the subjective sleepiness and reaction time on an auditory psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), irrespective of the light condition. Interestingly, the morning bright light exposure did affect thermophysiological parameters, i.e. it decreased plasma cortisol, CBT and proximal skin temperature and increased the DPG, irrespective of the room temperature. During the bright light session, subjective sleepiness decreased irrespective of the room temperature. However, the change in sleepiness due to the light exposure was not related to these physiological changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, D

    2005-01-01

    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  5. Regulation of body temperature by some Mesozoic marine reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aurélien; Lécuyer, Christophe; Vincent, Peggy; Amiot, Romain; Bardet, Nathalie; Buffetaut, Eric; Cuny, Gilles; Fourel, François; Martineau, François; Mazin, Jean-Michel; Prieur, Abel

    2010-06-11

    What the body temperature and thermoregulation processes of extinct vertebrates were are central questions for understanding their ecology and evolution. The thermophysiologic status of the great marine reptiles is still unknown, even though some studies have suggested that thermoregulation may have contributed to their exceptional evolutionary success as apex predators of Mesozoic aquatic ecosystems. We tested the thermal status of ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, and mosasaurs by comparing the oxygen isotope compositions of their tooth phosphate to those of coexisting fish. Data distribution reveals that these large marine reptiles were able to maintain a constant and high body temperature in oceanic environments ranging from tropical to cold temperate. Their estimated body temperatures, in the range from 35 degrees +/- 2 degrees C to 39 degrees +/- 2 degrees C, suggest high metabolic rates required for predation and fast swimming over large distances offshore.

  6. Circadian variability of body temperature responses to methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrouzvaziri, Abolhassan; Zaretskaia, Maria V; Rusyniak, Daniel E; Zaretsky, Dmitry V; Molkov, Yaroslav I

    2018-01-01

    Vital parameters of living organisms exhibit circadian rhythmicity. Although rats are nocturnal animals, most of the studies involving rats are performed during the day. The objective of this study was to examine the circadian variability of the body temperature responses to methamphetamine. Body temperature was recorded in male Sprague-Dawley rats that received intraperitoneal injections of methamphetamine (Meth, 1 or 5 mg/kg) or saline at 10 AM or at 10 PM. The baseline body temperature at night was 0.8°C higher than during the day. Both during the day and at night, 1 mg/kg of Meth induced monophasic hyperthermia. However, the maximal temperature increase at night was 50% smaller than during the daytime. Injection of 5 mg/kg of Meth during the daytime caused a delayed hyperthermic response. In contrast, the same dose at night produced responses with a tendency toward a decrease of body temperature. Using mathematical modeling, we previously showed that the complex dose dependence of the daytime temperature responses to Meth results from an interplay between inhibitory and excitatory drives. In this study, using our model, we explain the suppression of the hyperthermia in response to Meth at night. First, we found that the baseline activity of the excitatory drive is greater at night. It appears partially saturated and thus is additionally activated by Meth to a lesser extent. Therefore, the excitatory component causes less hyperthermia or becomes overpowered by the inhibitory drive in response to the higher dose. Second, at night the injection of Meth results in reduction of the equilibrium body temperature, leading to gradual cooling counteracting hyperthermia.

  7. Changes in total body water during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Inners, L. D.; Charles, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) changes occurring in humans as a consequence of prolonged exposure to microgravity were measured in five male crewmembers of Space Shuttle missions STS-61C and STS-26. It was found that the inflight mean TBW values were significantly different from the preflight and postflight values, while the preflight TBW values were not significantly different from the postflight values. It was also found that individuals may differ in the rate at which they respond to weightlessness. Of the three crewmen who reported experiencing no symptoms of space motion sickness (SMS), two had not exhibited a decrease of TBW at the time of measurements (24 hrs after launch), while the two crewmen who reported SMS of intermediate severity showed a decrease of several kg by 24 hrs, suggesting that dehydration might be an important factor affecting the rate of TBW decrease.

  8. Water Transport and the Evolution of CM Parent Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, R.; Cohen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Extraterrestrial water-bearing minerals are of great importance both for understanding the formation and evolution of the solar system and for supporting future human activities in space. Asteroids are the primary source of meteorites, many of which show evidence of an early heating episode and varying degrees of aqueous alteration. The origin and characterization of hydrated minerals (minerals containing H2O or OH) among both the main-belt and near-earth asteroids is important for understanding a wide range of solar system formation and evolutionary processes, as well as for planning for human exploration. Current hypotheses postulate asteroids began as mixtures of water ice and anhydrous silicates. A heating event early in solar system history was then responsible for melting the ice and driving aqueous alteration. The link between asteroids and meteorites is forged by reflectance spectra, which show 3-µm bands indicative of bound OH or H2O on the C-class asteroids, which are believed to be the parent bodies of the carbonaceous chondrites in our collections. The conditions at which aqueous alteration occurred in the parent bodies of carbonaceous chondrites are thought to be well-constrained: at 0-25 C for less than 15 Myr after asteroid formation. In previous models, many scenarios exhibit peak temperatures of the rock and co-existing liquid water in more than 75 percent of the asteroid's volume rising to 150 C and higher, due to the exothermic hydration reactions triggering a thermal runaway effect. However, even in a high porosity, water-saturated asteroid very limited liquid water flow is predicted (distances of 100's nm at most). This contradiction has yet to be resolved. Still, it may be possible for water to become liquid even in the near-surface environment, for a long enough time to drive aqueous alteration before vaporizing or freezing then subliming. Thus, we are using physics- and chemistry-based models that include thermal and fluid transport as well

  9. Body Fat and Muscle Mass as Functions of Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, R. A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Hydrostatic weighing and chemical dilution are well accepted methods for measuring body composition. Recently, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) has become the preferred method. The two compartment algorithms used by these methods assume a fixed constant for lean body tissue. This constant has long been suspect of variations due to many…

  10. Mechanically Enhanced Liquid Interfaces at Human Body Temperature Using Thermosensitive Methylated Nanocrystalline Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuble, N; Geue, T; Kuster, S; Adamcik, J; Mezzenga, R; Windhab, E J; Fischer, P

    2016-02-09

    The mechanical performance of materials at oil/water interfaces after consumption is a key factor affecting hydrophobic drug release. In this study, we methylated the surface of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) by mercerization and dimethyl sulfate exposure to produce thermosensitive biopolymers. These methylated NCC (metNCC) were used to investigate interfacial thermogelation at air/water and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)/water interfaces at body temperature. In contrast to bulk fluid dynamics, elastic layers were formed at room temperature, and elasticity increased significantly at body temperature, which was measured by interfacial shear and dilatational rheology in situ. This unique phenomenon depends on solvent quality, temperature, and polymer concentration at interfaces. Thus, by adjusting the degree of hydrophobicity of metNCC, the interfacial elasticity and thermogelation of the interfaces could be varied. In general, these new materials (metNCC) formed more brittle interfacial layers compared to commercial methylcellulose (MC A15). Thermogelation of methylcellulose promotes attractive intermolecular forces, which were reflected in a change in self-assembly of metNCC at the interface. As a consequence, layer thickness and density increased as a function of temperature. These effects were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the displaced interface and confirmed by neutron reflection. The substantial structural and mechanical change of methylcellulose interfaces at body temperature represents a controllable encapsulation parameter allowing optimization of lipid-based drug formulations.

  11. Body lengths and temperatures of the crabeater seal Lobodon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BODY LENGTHS AND TEMPERATURES OF THE CRABEA'I..ER SEAL. LOBO DON CARCINOPHAGUS. I. A. I. NEL. Department of Zoology, University of Pretoria. The following data were collected en route to the South African National Antarctic Expedition base (S.A.N.A.E.) in Queen Maud Land, Antarctica, during the early ...

  12. Environmental stressors during space flight: potential effects on body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauchem, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    1. Organisms may be affected by many environmental factors during space flight, e.g., acceleration, weightlessness, decreased pressure, changes in oxygen tension, radiofrequency radiation and vibration. 2. Previous studies of change in body temperature--one response to these environmental factors--are reviewed. 3. Conditions leading to heat stress and hypothermia are discussed.

  13. Heat Shock Factor 1 Deficiency Affects Systemic Body Temperature Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenwerth, Marc; Noichl, Erik; Stahr, Anna; Korf, Horst-Werner; Reinke, Hans; von Gall, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a ubiquitous heat-sensitive transcription factor that mediates heat shock protein transcription in response to cellular stress, such as increased temperature, in order to protect the organism against misfolded proteins. In this study, we analysed the effect of HSF1 deficiency on core body temperature regulation. Body temperature, locomotor activity, and food consumption of wild-type mice and HSF1-deficient mice were recorded. Prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were measured by ELISA. Gene expression in brown adipose tissue was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Hypothalamic HSF1 and its co-localisation with tyrosine hydroxylase was analysed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. HSF1-deficient mice showed an increase in core body temperature (hyperthermia), decreased overall locomotor activity, and decreased levels of prolactin in pituitary and blood plasma reminiscent of cold adaptation. HSF1 could be detected in various hypothalamic regions involved in temperature regulation, suggesting a potential role of HSF1 in hypothalamic thermoregulation. Moreover, HSF1 co-localises with tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, suggesting a potential role of HSF1 in the hypothalamic control of prolactin release. In brown adipose tissue, levels of prolactin receptor and uncoupled protein 1 were increased in HSF1-deficient mice, consistent with an up-regulation of heat production. Our data suggest a role of HSF1 in systemic thermoregulation. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes

    body temperature was tested, in order to evaluate the utility and reliability of this tool, in domestic pigs. The system is presently used and well optimized in small laboratory animals [1, 2]. We tested the microchip transponders during experimental infection of pigs with classical swine fever virus...... (CSFV), a viral infection, which can cause high fever in infected animals. Materials and Methods Implantable, programmable temperature transponders (IPTT-300TM) from Bio Medic Data System (Plexx, the Netherlands), designed for non-surgical implantation into animals, was tested in 30 weaner pigs. One...... methods showed that the peripheral subcutaneous body temperature recorded by a microchip transponder may be interesting as a monitoring tool in the clinical surveillance of the health status of domestic pigs. This technology has not at present the power to monitor individually sick pigs, where accurate...

  15. Machine-learning methods in the classification of water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sołtysiak Marek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Amphibian species have been considered as useful ecological indicators. They are used as indicators of environmental contamination, ecosystem health and habitat quality., Amphibian species are sensitive to changes in the aquatic environment and therefore, may form the basis for the classification of water bodies. Water bodies in which there are a large number of amphibian species are especially valuable even if they are located in urban areas. The automation of the classification process allows for a faster evaluation of the presence of amphibian species in the water bodies. Three machine-learning methods (artificial neural networks, decision trees and the k-nearest neighbours algorithm have been used to classify water bodies in Chorzów – one of 19 cities in the Upper Silesia Agglomeration. In this case, classification is a supervised data mining method consisting of several stages such as building the model, the testing phase and the prediction. Seven natural and anthropogenic features of water bodies (e.g. the type of water body, aquatic plants, the purpose of the water body (destination, position of the water body in relation to any possible buildings, condition of the water body, the degree of littering, the shore type and fishing activities have been taken into account in the classification. The data set used in this study involved information about 71 different water bodies and 9 amphibian species living in them. The results showed that the best average classification accuracy was obtained with the multilayer perceptron neural network.

  16. Impact of nesting material on mouse body temperature and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Gordon, Christopher J; Pajor, Edmond A; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Davis, Jerry K; Garner, Joseph P

    2013-02-17

    In laboratories, mice are housed at 20-24 °C, which is below their lower critical temperature (≈30 °C). Thus, mice are potentially cold stressed, which can alter metabolism, immune function, and reproduction. These physiological changes reflect impaired wellbeing, and affect scientific outcomes. We hypothesized that nesting material would allow mice to alleviate cold stress by controlling their thermal microenvironment, thus insulating them, reducing heat loss and thermogenic processes. Naïve C57BL/6, CD-1, and BALB/c mice (24 male and 24 female/strain in groups of 3) were housed in standard cages at 20 °C either with or without 8 g nesting material for 4 weeks. Core body temperature was followed using intraperitoneal radio telemetry. The thermal properties of the nests were assessed using a thermal imaging camera, and related to nest quality. Higher scoring nests were negatively correlated with the mean radiated temperature and were thus more insulating. No effects of nesting material on body temperature were found. CD-1 mice with nesting material had higher end body weights than controls. No effect was seen in the other two strains. Mice with the telemetry implant had larger spleens than controls, possibly indicating an immune response to the implant or low level infection from the surgery. BALB/c mice express less mRNA for the UCP1 protein than mice without nesting material. This indicates that BALB/c's with nesting material do not utilize their brown fat to create heat as readily as controls. Nests can alleviate thermal discomfort by decreasing the amount of radiated heat and reduce the need for non-shivering thermogenesis. However, different strains appear to use different behavioral (through different primary modes of behavioral thermoregulation) and physiological strategies (utilizing thermogenesis to different degrees) to maintain a constant body temperature under cool standard laboratory ambient temperatures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  17. Temperature dependence of three-body ion-molecule reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, H.; Arnold, F.

    1983-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the ion-molecule association reactions (i) N 2 + + N 2 + M → N 4 + + M (M=N 2 , He), (ii) O 2 + + O 2 + M → O 4 + + M (M=O 2 , He) and (iii) He + + 2He → He 2 + + He have been studied over an extended temperature range to temperatures as low as 30K with a recently constructed liquid helium-cooled ion drift tube. Over most of the temperature range the threebody reaction rate coefficients show an inverse temperature dependence proportional to Tsup(-n) with n in the range 0.6 to 2.9. This temperature dependence is quite consistent with current theories of ion molecule association. At low temperatures, however, a deviation from the Tsup(-n) dependence was observed for the association reactions (ii). For reactions (i) different temperature dependences were obtained for N 2 and He third bodies indicating an additional temperature dependence of the collisional stabilisation process. (Authors)

  18. Validation of temperature-sensitive radio transmitters for measurement of body temperature in small animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Joseph B.; Tieleman, B. I.; Shobrak, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study on the core body temperature (T(b)) of desert birds, we purposed to use temperature-sensitive implantable radio transmitters. Because of the difficulty in recapturing these birds, we needed to know if these electronic devices held their calibration over the duration of normal

  19. Changes in body core temperatures and heat balance after an abrupt release of lower body negative pressure in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Minoru; Shido, Osamu

    1994-03-01

    Changes in body core temperature ( T cor) and heat balance after an abrupt release of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) were investigated in 5 volunteers under the following conditions: (1) an ambient temperature ( T a) of 20 °C or (2) 35 °C, and (3) T a of 25 °C with a leg skin temperature of 30°C or (4) 35°C. The leg skin temperature was controlled with water perfusion devices wound around the legs. Rectal ( T re), tympanic ( T ty) and esophageal ( T es) temperatures, skin temperatures (7 sites) and oxygen consumption were measured. The intensity of LBNP was adjusted so that the amount of blood pooled in the legs was the same under all conditions. When a thermal balance was attained during LBNP, application of LBNP was suddenly halted. The skin temperatures increased significantly after the release of LBNP under all conditions, while oxygen consumption hardly changed. The release of LBNP caused significant falls in T cor s under conditions (1) and (3), but lowered T cor s very slightly under conditions (2) and (4). The changes in T es were always more rapid and greater than those of T ty and T re. The falls in T ty and T re appeared to be explained by changes in heat balance, whereas the sharp drop of T es could not be explained especially during the first 8 min after the release of LBNP. The results suggest that a fall in T cor after a release of LBNP is attributed to an increase in heat loss due to reflexive skin vasodilation and is dependent on the temperature of venous blood returning from the lower body. It is presumed that T es may not be an appropriate indicator for T cor when venous return changes rapidly.

  20. Is Oral Temperature an Accurate Measurement of Deep Body Temperature? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Ganio, Matthew S.; Casa, Douglas J.; Vingren, Jakob; Klau, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Context: Oral temperature might not be a valid method to assess core body temperature. However, many clinicians, including athletic trainers, use it rather than criterion standard methods, such as rectal thermometry. Objective: To critically evaluate original research addressing the validity of using oral temperature as a measurement of core body temperature during periods of rest and changing core temperature. Data Sources: In July 2010, we searched the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), SPORTDiscus, Academic Search Premier, and the Cochrane Library for the following concepts: core body temperature, oral, and thermometers. Controlled vocabulary was used, when available, as well as key words and variations of those key words. The search was limited to articles focusing on temperature readings and studies involving human participants. Data Synthesis: Original research was reviewed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria and subsequently were evaluated by 2 independent reviewers. All 16 were included in the review because they met the minimal PEDro score of 4 points (of 10 possible points), with all but 2 scoring 5 points. A critical review of these studies indicated a disparity between oral and criterion standard temperature methods (eg, rectal and esophageal) specifically as the temperature increased. The difference was −0.50°C ± 0.31°C at rest and −0.58°C ± 0.75°C during a nonsteady state. Conclusions: Evidence suggests that, regardless of whether the assessment is recorded at rest or during periods of changing core temperature, oral temperature is an unsuitable diagnostic tool for determining body temperature because many measures demonstrated differences greater than the predetermined validity threshold of 0.27°C (0.5°F). In addition, the differences were greatest at the highest rectal temperatures. Oral temperature cannot

  1. Warm Body Temperature Facilitates Energy Efficient Cortical Action Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuguo; Hill, Adam P.; McCormick, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na+ channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na+, and outward K+, currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na+ entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37–42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code. PMID:22511855

  2. Escherichia coli survival in waters: Temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 mo...

  3. Development of fauna of water beetles (Coleoptera in waters bodies of a river valley – habitat factors, landscape and geomorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakulnicka Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to identify the beetle fauna of a small lowland river valley against its spatial arrangement and the directions of beetle migrations between habitats, as well as to determine which environmental factors affect the characteristics of water beetle populations in a river valley's lentic water bodies. The field studies were carried out in various types of water bodies. 112 species of beetles with various ecological characteristics were identified. It was demonstrated that the diversity of water bodies in the valley is conducive to high local species richness. At the same time, the observed high degree of faunistic individualism may be regarded as a sign of poor symmetry in the directions of fauna propagation, particularly that of stagnobionts. The authors argue that high individualism is the consequence of poor hydrological contact between the water bodies due to topography and rare instances of high tide in the river, which, in turn, is the reason for active overflights remaining the main mean of migration between those water bodies. The factors restricting migration of fauna between the water bodies include certain landscape characteristics of the catchment which form topographical obstacles, mainly numerous and dense forest areas. The character of fauna in the respective types of water bodies is affected also by internal environmental factors, particularly the degree to which they are overgrown with macrophytes, type of bottom, type of mineral and organic matter as well as physical parameters of water, such as saturation, pH, temperature and biological oxygen demand.

  4. Seasonal variability and influence of outdoor temperature on body temperature of cardiac arrest victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratil, Peter; Wallmueller, Christian; Schober, Andreas; Stoeckl, Mathias; Hoerburger, David; Weiser, Christoph; Testori, Christoph; Krizanac, Danica; Spiel, Alexander; Uray, Thomas; Sterz, Fritz; Haugk, Moritz

    2013-05-01

    Mild therapeutic hypothermia is a major advance in post-resuscitation-care. Some questions remain unclear regarding the time to initiate cooling and the time to achieve target temperature below 34 °C. We examined whether seasonal variability of outside temperature influences the body temperature of cardiac arrest victims, and if this might have an effect on outcome. Patients with witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrests were enrolled retrospectively. Temperature variables from 4 climatic stations in Vienna were provided from the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics. Depending on the outside temperature at the scene the study participants were assigned to a seasonal group. To compare the seasonal groups a Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test was performed as appropriate. Of 134 patients, 61 suffered their cardiac arrest during winter, with an outside temperature below 10 °C; in 39 patients the event occurred during summer, with an outside temperature above 20 °C. Comparing the tympanic temperature recorded at hospital admission, the median of 36 °C (IQR 35.3-36.3) during summer differed significantly to winter with a median of 34.9 °C (IQR 34-35.6) (ptemperature had no impact on the time-to-target-temperature, survival rate or neurologic recovery. The seasonal variability of outside temperature influences body temperature of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Whole-body cryostimulation increases parasympathetic outflow and decreases core body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Pawel; Bitner, Anna; Słomko, Joanna; Szrajda, Justyna; Klawe, Jacek J; Tafil-Klawe, Malgorzata; Newton, Julia L

    2014-10-01

    The cardiovascular, autonomic and thermal response to whole-body cryostimulation exposure are not completely known. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate objectively and noninvasively autonomic and thermal reactions observed after short exposure to very low temperatures. We examined 25 healthy men with mean age 30.1 ± 3.7 years and comparable anthropomorphical characteristic. Each subject was exposed to cryotherapeutic temperatures in a cryogenic chamber for 3 min (approx. -120 °C). The cardiovascular and autonomic parameters were measured noninvasively with Task Force Monitor. The changes in core body temperature were determined with the Vital Sense telemetric measurement system. Results show that 3 min to cryotherapeutic temperatures causes significant changes in autonomic balance which are induced by peripheral and central blood volume changes. Cryostimulation also induced changes in core body temperature, maximum drop of core temperature was observed 50-60 min after the stimulation. Autonomic and thermal reactions to cryostimulation were observed up to 6 h after the exposure and were not harmful for examined subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Black-body anomaly: analysis of temperature offsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szopa, M.; Hofmann, R.; Schwarz, M.; Giacosa, F.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the postulate that photon propagation is governed by a dynamically broken SU(2) gauge symmetry (scale ∝10 -4 eV) we make predictions for temperature offsets due to a low-temperature (a few times the present CMB temperature) spectral anomaly at low frequencies. Temperature offsets are extracted from least-square fits of the anomalous black-body spectra to their conventional counterparts. We discuss statistical errors, compare our results with those obtained from calibration data of the FIRAS instrument, and point out that our predicted offsets are screened by experimental errors given the frequency range used by FIRAS to perform their spectral fits. We also make contact with the WMAP observation by blueshifting their frequency bands. Although our results hint towards a strong dynamical component in the CMB dipole and an explanation of low-l suppression, it is important in view of its particle-physics implications that the above postulate be verified/falsified by an independent low-temperature black-body precision experiment. (orig.)

  7. Black Body Detector Temperature from Gall and Planck Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Clarence A.

    2009-05-01

    The laws of Gall (http://sites.google.com/site/purefieldphysics) and Planck are generally defined with zero intensity at 0 K. However actual measurements involve detectors above absolute zero. These detectors must also be treated as approximate black body radiators. The zero intensity reference point is thus defined by the radiated intensity at the detector temperature. Planck's law thus becomes ( IP=c1λ^51e^c2λT;-1-c1λ^51e^c2λTd;-1) where Td is the detector temperature. Provided that T>Td;;;IP;is;always>0. Thus from a Planck perspective, wavelength increase should not be a factor in defining detector temperature. The corresponding expression for Gall's law is ( IG=σT^6b^2λe^-λTb-σTd^6b^2λe^-λTdb) . Above the crossover wavelength (http://absimage.aps.org/image/MWSMAR09-2008-000004.pdf), even though T>Td;;;IG<0. From a Gall perspective, this sets a limit on the long wavelength range for a given detector temperature. Longer wavelength measurements require lower detector temperatures. For a 6000 K black body radiator, the long wavelength crossover limits for detectors at 300 K, 100 K and 4 K are 9.138, 12.066 and 21.206 microns respectively.

  8. The effect of anesthesia on body temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Rainer

    2010-06-01

    The human thermoregulatory system usually maintains core body temperature near 37 degrees C. This homeostasis is accomplished by thermoregulatory defense mechanisms such as vasoconstriction and shivering or sweating and vasodilatation. Thermoregulation is impaired during general anesthesia. Suppression of thermoregulatory defense mechanisms during general anesthesia is dose dependant and mostly results in perioperative hypothermia. Several adverse effects of hypothermia have been identified, including an increase in postoperative wound infection, perioperative coagulopathy and an increase of postoperative morbid cardiac events. Perioperative hypothermia can be avoided by warming patients actively during general anesthesia. Fever is a controlled increase of core body temperature. Various causes of perioperative fever are given. Fever is usually attenuated by general anesthesia. Typically, patients develop a fever of greater magnitude in the postoperative phase. Postoperative fever is fairly common. The incidence of fever varies with type and duration of surgery, patient's age, surgical site and preoperative inflammation.

  9. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  10. Body temperatures in dinosaurs: what can growth curves tell us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Griebeler

    Full Text Available To estimate the body temperature (BT of seven dinosaurs Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006 used an equation that predicts BT from the body mass and maximum growth rate (MGR with the latter preserved in ontogenetic growth trajectories (BT-equation. The results of these authors evidence inertial homeothermy in Dinosauria and suggest that, due to overheating, the maximum body size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. In this paper, I revisit this hypothesis of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006. I first studied whether BTs derived from the BT-equation of today's crocodiles, birds and mammals are consistent with core temperatures of animals. Second, I applied the BT-equation to a larger number of dinosaurs than Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006 did. In particular, I estimated BT of Archaeopteryx (from two MGRs, ornithischians (two, theropods (three, prosauropods (three, and sauropods (nine. For extant species, the BT value estimated from the BT-equation was a poor estimate of an animal's core temperature. For birds, BT was always strongly overestimated and for crocodiles underestimated; for mammals the accuracy of BT was moderate. I argue that taxon-specific differences in the scaling of MGR (intercept and exponent of the regression line, log-log-transformed and in the parameterization of the Arrhenius model both used in the BT-equation as well as ecological and evolutionary adaptations of species cause these inaccuracies. Irrespective of the found inaccuracy of BTs estimated from the BT-equation and contrary to the results of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006 I found no increase in BT with increasing body mass across all dinosaurs (Sauropodomorpha, Sauropoda studied. This observation questions that, due to overheating, the maximum size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. However, the general high inaccuracy of dinosaurian BTs derived from the BT-equation makes a reliable test of whether body size in dinosaurs was ultimately

  11. Body temperatures in dinosaurs: what can growth curves tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the body temperature (BT) of seven dinosaurs Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) used an equation that predicts BT from the body mass and maximum growth rate (MGR) with the latter preserved in ontogenetic growth trajectories (BT-equation). The results of these authors evidence inertial homeothermy in Dinosauria and suggest that, due to overheating, the maximum body size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. In this paper, I revisit this hypothesis of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006). I first studied whether BTs derived from the BT-equation of today's crocodiles, birds and mammals are consistent with core temperatures of animals. Second, I applied the BT-equation to a larger number of dinosaurs than Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) did. In particular, I estimated BT of Archaeopteryx (from two MGRs), ornithischians (two), theropods (three), prosauropods (three), and sauropods (nine). For extant species, the BT value estimated from the BT-equation was a poor estimate of an animal's core temperature. For birds, BT was always strongly overestimated and for crocodiles underestimated; for mammals the accuracy of BT was moderate. I argue that taxon-specific differences in the scaling of MGR (intercept and exponent of the regression line, log-log-transformed) and in the parameterization of the Arrhenius model both used in the BT-equation as well as ecological and evolutionary adaptations of species cause these inaccuracies. Irrespective of the found inaccuracy of BTs estimated from the BT-equation and contrary to the results of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) I found no increase in BT with increasing body mass across all dinosaurs (Sauropodomorpha, Sauropoda) studied. This observation questions that, due to overheating, the maximum size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. However, the general high inaccuracy of dinosaurian BTs derived from the BT-equation makes a reliable test of whether body size in dinosaurs was ultimately limited

  12. Genetic variablilities of body temperature and resting behaviour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implies that neither progeny nor generation had effect on body temperature. The Alpha strain exhibited more resting behaviour than did the exotic and the pure native types. Majority of the birds rested in the afternoon at 2.00 pm. This could be attributed to the fact that at 2.00 pm the weather is hot and birds search for a ...

  13. Basal body temperature as a biomarker of healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsick, Eleanor M; Meier, Helen C S; Shaffer, Nancy Chiles; Studenski, Stephanie A; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Scattered evidence indicates that a lower basal body temperature may be associated with prolonged health span, yet few studies have directly evaluated this relationship. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between early morning oral temperature (95.0-98.6 °F) and usual gait speed, endurance walk performance, fatigability, and grip strength in 762 non-frail men (52 %) and women aged 65-89 years participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Since excessive adiposity (body mass index ≥35 kg/m 2 or waist-to-height ratio ≥0.62) may alter temperature set point, associations were also examined within adiposity strata. Overall, controlling for age, race, sex, height, exercise, and adiposity, lower temperature was associated with faster gait speed, less time to walk 400 m quickly, and lower perceived exertion following 5-min of walking at 0.67 m/s (all p ≤ 0.02). In the non-adipose (N = 662), these associations were more robust (all p ≤ 0.006). Direction of association was reversed in the adipose (N = 100), but none attained significance (all p > 0.22). Over 2.2 years, basal temperature was not associated with functional change in the overall population or non-adipose. Among the adipose, lower baseline temperature was associated with greater decline in endurance walking performance (p = 0.006). In longitudinal analyses predicting future functional performance, low temperature in the non-adipose was associated with faster gait speed (p = 0.021) and less time to walk 400 m quickly (p = 0.003), whereas in the adipose, lower temperature was associated with slower gait speed (p = 0.05) and more time to walk 400 m (p = 0.008). In older adults, lower basal body temperature appears to be associated with healthy aging in the absence of excessive adiposity.

  14. Thermometry, calorimetry, and mean body temperature during heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Glen P; Jay, Ollie

    2013-10-01

    Heat balance in humans is maintained at near constant levels through the adjustment of physiological mechanisms that attain a balance between the heat produced within the body and the heat lost to the environment. Heat balance is easily disturbed during changes in metabolic heat production due to physical activity and/or exposure to a warmer environment. Under such conditions, elevations of skin blood flow and sweating occur via a hypothalamic negative feedback loop to maintain an enhanced rate of dry and evaporative heat loss. Body heat storage and changes in core temperature are a direct result of a thermal imbalance between the rate of heat production and the rate of total heat dissipation to the surrounding environment. The derivation of the change in body heat content is of fundamental importance to the physiologist assessing the exposure of the human body to environmental conditions that result in thermal imbalance. It is generally accepted that the concurrent measurement of the total heat generated by the body and the total heat dissipated to the ambient environment is the most accurate means whereby the change in body heat content can be attained. However, in the absence of calorimetric methods, thermometry is often used to estimate the change in body heat content. This review examines heat exchange during challenges to heat balance associated with progressive elevations in environmental heat load and metabolic rate during exercise. Further, we evaluate the physiological responses associated with heat stress and discuss the thermal and nonthermal influences on the body's ability to dissipate heat from a heat balance perspective.

  15. Detection of water bodies in Saline County, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, B. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A total of 2,272 water bodies were mapped in Saline County, Kansas in 1972 using ERTS-1 imagery. A topographic map of 1955 shows 1,056 water bodies in the county. The major increase took place in farm ponds. Preliminary comparison of image and maps indicates that water bodies larger than ten acres in area proved consistently detectable. Most water areas between four and ten acres are also detectable, although occasionally image context prevents detection. Water areas less than four acres in extent are sometimes detected, but the number varies greatly depending on image context and the individual interpretor.

  16. Bacteriological physicochemical quality of recreational water bodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tinsae

    Key words: Swimming pools, microbiological indicators, microbial water quality, recreational water quality. INTRODUCTION. Recreational waters ... exposure, the type of water, geographical location and local conditions. Perhaps, the ... from two natural lakes and six different outdoor swimming pools that are located at Addis ...

  17. Temporal thermometry fails to track body core temperature during heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, David A; Vu, Albert; Brown, Marilee; Davis, Scott L; Keller, David M; Levine, Benjamin D; Crandall, Craig G

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of temporal scanning thermometry in monitoring internal temperature increases during passive heating. Sixteen subjects (5 males and 11 females) underwent a whole-body passive heat stress (water-perfused suit) to increase internal temperature. Temperatures were obtained with a temporal scanner and with an ingestible-pill telemetry system that tracks intestinal temperature. Temperatures were recorded while subjects were normothermic (34 degrees C water-perfusing suit) and every 10 min during passive heating (48 degrees C water-perfusing suit). Heart rate (ECG), mean skin temperature (weighted six-site average), skin blood flow (laser Doppler flowmetry), and sweat rate (capacitance hygrometry) were all significantly elevated at the end of heating (all P heat stress temporal-derived temperature was not different from intestinal temperature (36.98 +/- 0.09 vs 37.01 +/- 0.09 degrees C, respectively, P = 0.76). However, after 30 min of heating (the greatest duration of heating completed by all subjects), temporal-derived temperature decreased to below the pre-heat stress baseline (-0.22 +/- 0.11), whereas intestinal temperature increased by 0.39 +/- 0.07 degrees C (P heating (N = 11), intestinal-derived internal temperature increased by 0.70 +/- 0.09 degrees C, whereas temporal-derived temperature decreased by 0.29 +/- 0.10 degrees C (P heating. Given these findings, it is recommended that this technique not be used to assess temperature in hyperthermic diaphoretic subjects.

  18. Lower core body temperature and greater body fat are components of a human thrifty phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, M; Schlögl, M; Bonfiglio, S; Votruba, S B; Krakoff, J; Thearle, M S

    2016-05-01

    In small studies, a thrifty human phenotype, defined by a greater 24-hour energy expenditure (EE) decrease with fasting, is associated with less weight loss during caloric restriction. In rodents, models of diet-induced obesity often have a phenotype including a reduced EE and decreased core body temperature. We assessed whether a thrifty human phenotype associates with differences in core body temperature or body composition. Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from 77 individuals participating in one of two normal physiology studies while housed on our clinical research unit. Twenty-four-hour EE using a whole-room indirect calorimeter and 24-h core body temperature were measured during 24 h each of fasting and 200% overfeeding with a diet consisting of 50% carbohydrates, 20% protein and 30% fat. Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. To account for the effects of body size on EE, changes in EE were expressed as a percentage change from 24-hour EE (%EE) during energy balance. A greater %EE decrease with fasting correlated with a smaller %EE increase with overfeeding (r=0.27, P=0.02). The %EE decrease with fasting was associated with both fat mass and abdominal fat mass, even after accounting for covariates (β=-0.16 (95% CI: -0.26, -0.06) %EE per kg fat mass, P=0.003; β=-0.0004 (-0.0007, -0.00004) %EE kg(-1) abdominal fat mass, P=0.03). In men, a greater %EE decrease in response to fasting was associated with a lower 24- h core body temperature, even after adjusting for covariates (β=1.43 (0.72, 2.15) %EE per 0.1 °C, P=0.0003). Thrifty individuals, as defined by a larger EE decrease with fasting, were more likely to have greater overall and abdominal adiposity as well as lower core body temperature consistent with a more efficient metabolism.

  19. Influence of MR imaging on the central body temperature and peripheral temperature in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, T.; Krimmel, K.; Dopmeier, D.; Seiderer, M.; Lissner, J.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal effects of in vitro and in vivo MR imaging were studied at different field strengths (0.35 T, 1.5 T) and radio frequency power, using a modified fluoroptical technique. A fiber optic probe that measures with an accuracy of up to 0.1 0 C was inserted via esophageal and rectal tubes in 20 test subjects to measure central body temperature. In another ten subjects the temperature was measured subcutaneously and by an intravenous catheter system. No significant temperature change was measurable in the central parts of the body (rectum, esophagus) within the static magnetic field and during MR imaging. Subcutaneous and intravenous measurements of the superficial temperature of the arm led to the same conclusions. Theoretical calculations of the absorbed energy confirm these findings

  20. Effect of physical activity on body water in sedentary young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a walking exercise on body water in order to restore body water and reduction dehydration among sedentary obese and thin women. Forty young untrained girls between the age of 20-25 years (obese n=20, BMI>30 and thin n=20, BMI <20) volunteered to ...

  1. Primate body temperature and sleep responses to lower body positive pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, D. M.; Fuller, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Cephalic fluid shifts, induced by lower body positive pressure (LBPP) are known to influence various physiological systems (i.e., cardiovascular and renal). In earlier experiments, an apparent change in the arousal state of primates in such LBPP conditions was observed. This study was designed to examine the effects of LBPP on arousal state and body temperature level which is normally correlated with sleep. Chair-restrained male squirrel monkeys were exposed to 40 mmHg LBPP for 90-100 minutes between the daytime hours of 13:00-15:00. Each monkey was placed in a specially modified restraint chair to which they were highly trained. Deep body temperature (DBT) was collected from 10 animals. Sleep parameters were obtained from six animals chronically implanted for sleep recording. A video camera was used to observe each animal's apparent state of arousal. LBPP resulted in an approximate 0.9 C decrease in DBT. During video observation, some animals appeared drowsy during LBPP; however, sleep recording revealed no significant changes in the state of arousal. Thus, LBPP is capable of inducing a mild hyperthermia. Further, the mechanisms underlying the observed lowering of body temperature appear to be independent of arousal state.

  2. The Impact Analysis of Water Body Landscape Pattern on Urban Heat Island: A Case Study of Wuhan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the LST and the landscape metrics of water body with remote sensing technique and spatial analysis, the relationship between the mean LST and the attributes of water body was revealed via Pearson’s correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. Result showed that, in 32 class-based metrics we selected, the proportion of water body, average water body size, the isolation and fragmentation of water body, and other eight metrics have high correlation with the LST. As a resultant force, the quantity, shape, and spatial distribution of water body affect the forming of temperature. We found that the quantity and spatial pattern of city water body could be allocated reasonably to maximize its cooling effect.

  3. The spatial-temporal dynamics of open surface water bodies in CONUS during 1984-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Z.; Xiao, X.; Dong, J.; Qin, Y.; Doughty, R.; Menarguez, M.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Open surface water bodies provided 80% of the total water withdrawals in the Contiguous United States (CONUS) in 1985-2010. The inter-annual variability and changing trends of surface water body areas have various impacts on the human society and ecosystems. This study made use of all Landsat 5, 7, and 8 surface reflectance archives ( 370,000 images) during 1984-2016 and a water index- and pixel-based approach to detect and map open surface water bodies in the cloud-based platform of Google Earth Engine. The year-long water body area and annual average water body area were calculated for each of the last 33 years and their inter-annual variations during 1984-2016 were analyzed through anomaly analysis while their changing trends were analyzed through linear regressions. The national annual average water body areas varied from 265,000 to 281,000 km2 during 1984-2016, which is 3% below to 3% above the mean value 274,000 km2. In state level, significant decreasing trends were found in both year-long and annual average water body areas in some states of dry climates in west and southwest U.S., including Oregon, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. In comparison, significant increasing trends were found in some states of wet climates in the southeast and north U.S., including Indiana, Ohio, New Jersey, Delaware, Virginia, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Louisiana, Alabama, Georgia, North Dakota and South Dakota. Open surface water body areas in CONUS decreased in relatively dry areas but increased in relatively wet areas. The relationships between open surface water body area variability and climate factors (precipitation, temperature) and human impacts (water exploitation) were also analyzed.

  4. Temperature Evaluation of Heat Transferring Body while Preparing Temperature Chart of Heating Technologies and Metal Thermal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to temperature evaluation of a heat transferring body in the operational space of high temperature installations. A formula for evaluation of this temperature has been written down in the paper. Calculation of a heating transferring body (furnace makes it possible to realize temperature chart parameters in the plant heating technologies and steel thermal treatment.

  5. Ingested water equilibrates isotopically with the body water pool of a shorebird with unrivaled water fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G.H.; Dekinga, A; Achterkamp, B.; Piersma, T.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the applicability of H-2 to measure the amount of body water (TBW) and water fluxes in relation to diet type and level of food intake in a mollusk-eating shorebird, the Red Knot (Calidris canutus). Six birds were exposed to eight experimental indoor conditions. Average fractional H-2

  6. Measuring core body temperature with a non-invasive sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazgaoker, Savyon; Ketko, Itay; Yanovich, Ran; Heled, Yuval; Epstein, Yoram

    2017-05-01

    In various occupations, workers may be exposed to extreme environmental conditions and physical activities. Under these conditions the ability to follow the workers' body temperature may protect them from overheating that may lead to heat related injuries. The "Dräger" Double Sensor (DS) is a novel device for assessing body-core temperature (T c ). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the DS in measuring T c under heat stress. Seventeen male participants performed a three stage protocol: 30min rest in a thermal comfort environment (20-22°C, 50% relative humidity), followed by an exposure to a hot environment of 40°C, 40% relative humidity -30min at rest and 60min of exercise (walking on a treadmill at 5km/h and 2% elevation). Simultaneously temperatures measured by the DS (T DS ) and by rectal temperature (T re ) (YSI-401 thermistor) were recorded and then compared. During the three stages of the study the average temperature obtained by the DS was within±0.3°C of rectal measurement. The correlation between T DS and T re was significantly better during the heat exposures phases than during resting under comfort conditions. These preliminary results are promising for potential use of the DS by workers under field conditions and especially under environmental heat stress or when dressed in protective garments. For this goal, further investigations are required to validate the accuracy of the DS under various levels of heat stress, clothing and working levels. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effects of dehydration and rehydration on body temperatures in the black bedouin goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, C; Dmi'el, R; Choshniak, I; Ezra, D; Kuhnen, G

    1998-10-01

    The temperatures of the arterial blood and the brain in black Bedouin goats were measured continuously by miniature data loggers. The animals were either euhydrated or dehydrated to 75-80% of the initial body mass by withholding water for 3-4 days during exposure to intense solar radiation. The daily blood temperature means and maxima of were significantly higher in dehydration than in euhydration, but 40 degreesC was rarely exceeded even during the hot hours of the day. Selective brain cooling occurred in euhydration, but its extent was small when blood temperature was below 39.5 degreesC. In dehydration, however, selective brain cooling was frequent and the standard response when blood temperature exceeded 39 degreesC. We believe that selective brain cooling contributes to the inhibition of evaporative heat loss, which is the primary cause of the higher blood temperature in dehydration. Rapid rehydration with cold water induced long-lasting depression of blood temperature. No evidence was found for mechanisms attenuating the subsequent decrease of brain temperature which occurred a few minutes after the uptake of cold water.

  8. Body temperature patterns before, during, and after semi-natural hibernation in the European ground squirrel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, R.A.; Barnes, B.M.; Daan, S.; Heldmaier, G.

    Ground squirrels undergo extreme body temperature fluctuations during hibernation. The effect of low body temperatures on the mammalian circadian system is still under debate. Using implanted temperature loggers, we recorded body temperature patterns in European ground squirrels kept in an enclosure

  9. Gap in the black-body spectrum at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Markus; Hofmann, Ralf; Giacosa, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    We postulate that the U(1) Y factor of the Standard Model is an effective manifestation of SU(2) gauge dynamics being dynamically broken by nonperturbative effects. The modified propagation properties of the photon at low temperatures and momenta are computed. As a result of strong screening, the presence of a sizable gap in the spectral power of a black body at temperatures T = 5...20 K and for low frequencies is predicted: A table-top experiment should be able to discover this gap. If the gap is observed then the Standard Model's mechanism for electroweak symmetry-breaking is endangered by a contradiction with Big-Bang nucleosynthesis. Based on our results, we propose an explanation for the stability of cold, old, dilute, and large clouds of atomic hydrogen in between spiral arms of the outer galaxy

  10. Water in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayer, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (or RTILs, salts with a melting point below 25 °C) have become a subject of intense study over the last several decades. Currently, RTIL application research includes synthesis, batteries, solar cells, crystallization, drug delivery, and optics. RTILs are often composed of an inorganic anion paired with an asymmetric organic cation which contains one or more pendant alkyl chains. The asymmetry of the cation frustrates crystallization, causing the salt's melting point to drop significantly. In general, RTILs are very hygroscopic, and therefore, it is of interest to examine the influence of water on RTIL structure and dynamics. In addition, in contrast to normal aqueous salt solutions, which crystallize at low water concentration, in an RTIL it is possible to examine isolated water molecules interacting with ions but not with other water molecules. Here, optical heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) measurements of orientational relaxation on a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate RTILs as a function of chain length and water concentration are presented. The addition of water to the longer alkyl chain RTILs causes the emergence of a long time bi-exponential orientational anisotropy decay. Such decays have not been seen previously in OHD-OKE experiments on any type of liquid and are analyzed here using a wobbling-in-a-cone model. The orientational relaxation is not hydrodynamic, with the slowest relaxation component becoming slower as the viscosity decreases for the longest chain, highest water content samples. The dynamics of isolated D2O molecules in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BmImPF6) were examined using two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy. Spectral diffusion and incoherent and coherent transfer of excitation between the symmetric and antisymmetric modes are examined. The coherent transfer experiments are used to address the nature of inhomogeneous

  11. Phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with radioactive heavy metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhen; Yuan Shichao; Ling Hui; Xie Shuibo

    2012-01-01

    The sources of the radioactive heavy metal in the water bodies were analyzed. The factors that affect phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were discussed. The plant species, mechanism and major technology of phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were particularly introduced. The prospective study was remarked. (authors)

  12. Effects of temperature and body size on radiocaesium retention in brown trout, Salmo trutta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugedal, O.; Jonsson, B.; Njastad, O.; Naeumann, R.

    1992-01-01

    The elimination rate of radiocaesium in brown trout Salmo trutta L. was determined in the laboratory at four water temperatures (range 4.4 -15.6 0 C). In the experiments three or four homogeneous size-groups of fish (mean weights 23-496g) were studied at each temperature. The brown trout received acute oral doses of 134 Cs and were killed at intervals for radioactivity counting. The retention versus time curves were composed of two distinct exponential components. The long-lived component was quantitatively the most important for retention of radiocaesium. Elimination rate increased with increasing water temperature and decreased with increasing body weight. The biological half-life of 134 Cs (T b , days) was related to fresh body weight (W, g) and water temperature (t, 0 C) by the equation: T b = 290 x W 0.176 x e -0.106 x t . The elimination rate of Cs could be predicted from weight-specific metabolic rate as given by Elliott's equations for brown trout. (author)

  13. Little ice bodies, huge ice lands, and the up-going of the big water body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultee, E.; Bassis, J. N.

    2017-12-01

    Ice moving out of the huge ice lands causes the big water body to go up. That can cause bad things to happen in places close to the big water body - the land might even disappear! If that happens, people living close to the big water body might lose their homes. Knowing how much ice will come out of the huge ice lands, and when, can help the world plan for the up-going of the big water body. We study the huge ice land closest to us. All around the edge of that huge ice land, there are smaller ice bodies that control how much ice makes it into the big water body. Most ways of studying the huge ice land with computers struggle to tell the computer about those little ice bodies, but we have found a new way. We will talk about our way of studying little ice bodies and how their moving brings about up-going of the big water.

  14. Importance of body-water circulation for body-heat dissipation in hot-humid climates: a distinctive body-water circulation in swamp buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chanpongsang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermo-regulation in swamp buffaloes has been investigated as an adaptive system to hot-humid climates, and several distinctive physiological responses were noted. When rectal temperature increased in hot conditions, blood volume, blood flow to the skin surface and skin temperature markedly increased in buffaloes relatively to cattle. On the other hand, the correlation between blood volume and plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin (AVP was compared between buffaloes and cattle under dehydration. Although plasma AVP in cattle increased immediately for reducing urine volume against a decrease in blood volume as well as the response observed in most animal species, the increase in plasma AVP was delayed in buffaloes, even after a large decrease in blood volume. In buffaloes, a marked increase in blood volume facilitated the dissipation of excess heat from the skin surface during wallowing. In addition, the change in plasma AVP observed in buffaloes was consistent with that of other animals living in habitats with the high availability of water. These results suggest that the thermo-regulatory system in buffaloes accelerates body-water circulation internally and externally. This system may be adaptive for heat dissipation in hot-humid climates, where an abundance of water is common.

  15. Hormonal Contraception, Body Water Balance and Thermoregulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nadel, Ethan

    1998-01-01

    To test the hypothesis estrogen enhances water and sodium retention, we compared the fluid regulatory responses to 150 mm of exercise-induced dehydration, followed by 180 ruin of ad libitum drinking...

  16. Estimation of paddy water temperature during crop development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centeno, H.G.S.; Horie, T.

    1996-01-01

    The crop meristem is in direct contact with paddy water during crop's vegetative stage. Ambient air temperature becomes an important factor in crop development only when internodes elongate sufficiently for the meristem to rise above the water surface. This does not occur until after panicle initiation. Crop growth at vegetative stage is affected more by water temperature than the most commonly measured air temperature. During transplanting in 1992 dry season, the maximum paddy water temperature was 10 deg C higher than the maximum air temperature. For rice crop models, the development of a submodel to estimate water temperature is important to account the effect of paddy water temperature on plant growth. Paddy water temperature is estimated from mean air temperature, solar radiation, and crop canopy. The parameters of the model were derived using the simplex method on data from the 1993 wet- and dry-season field experiments at IRRI

  17. Forced-Air Warming Provides Better Control of Body Temperature in Porcine Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Brian T; Stevens, Karla A; Clymer, Jeffrey W

    2016-09-09

    Background: Maintaining normothermia during porcine surgery is critical in ensuring subject welfare and recovery, reducing the risk of immune system compromise and surgical-site infection that can result from hypothermia. In humans, various methods of patient heating have been demonstrated to be useful, but less evaluation has been performed in techniques to prevent hypothermia perioperatively in pigs. Methods: We compared body temperature regulation during surgery before and after modification of the ambient temperature of the operating laboratories. Three different methods of heating were then compared; a standard circulating water mattress, a resistive fabric blanket, and a forced hot air system. The primary measure was percentage of temperature readings outside a specification range of 36.7-40.0 °C. Results: Tighter control of the ambient temperature while using a circulating water mattress reduced the occurrence of out-of-specification body temperature readings from 20.8% to 5.0%, with most of these the result of hypothermia. Use of a resistive fabric blanket further reduced out-of-specification readings to 1.5%, with a slight increase in the occurrence of hyperthermia. Use of a forced air system reduced out-of-specification readings to less 0.1%. Conclusions: Maintenance of normothermia perioperatively in pig can be improved by tightly controlling ambient temperatures. Use of a resistive blanket or a forced air system can lead to better control than a circulating water mattress, with the forced air system providing a faster response to temperature variations and less chance of hyperthermia.

  18. Forced-Air Warming Provides Better Control of Body Temperature in Porcine Surgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T. Dent

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maintaining normothermia during porcine surgery is critical in ensuring subject welfare and recovery, reducing the risk of immune system compromise and surgical-site infection that can result from hypothermia. In humans, various methods of patient heating have been demonstrated to be useful, but less evaluation has been performed in techniques to prevent hypothermia perioperatively in pigs. Methods: We compared body temperature regulation during surgery before and after modification of the ambient temperature of the operating laboratories. Three different methods of heating were then compared; a standard circulating water mattress, a resistive fabric blanket, and a forced hot air system. The primary measure was percentage of temperature readings outside a specification range of 36.7–40.0 °C. Results: Tighter control of the ambient temperature while using a circulating water mattress reduced the occurrence of out-of-specification body temperature readings from 20.8% to 5.0%, with most of these the result of hypothermia. Use of a resistive fabric blanket further reduced out-of-specification readings to 1.5%, with a slight increase in the occurrence of hyperthermia. Use of a forced air system reduced out-of-specification readings to less 0.1%. Conclusions: Maintenance of normothermia perioperatively in pig can be improved by tightly controlling ambient temperatures. Use of a resistive blanket or a forced air system can lead to better control than a circulating water mattress, with the forced air system providing a faster response to temperature variations and less chance of hyperthermia.

  19. Human body temperature and new approaches to constructing temperature-sensitive bacterial vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Matthew D; Bosio, Catharine M; Duplantis, Barry N; Nano, Francis E

    2011-09-01

    Many of the live human and animal vaccines that are currently in use are attenuated by virtue of their temperature-sensitive (TS) replication. These vaccines are able to function because they can take advantage of sites in mammalian bodies that are cooler than the core temperature, where TS vaccines fail to replicate. In this article, we discuss the distribution of temperature in the human body, and relate how the temperature differential can be exploited for designing and using TS vaccines. We also examine how one of the coolest organs of the body, the skin, contains antigen-processing cells that can be targeted to provoke the desired immune response from a TS vaccine. We describe traditional approaches to making TS vaccines, and highlight new information and technologies that are being used to create a new generation of engineered TS vaccines. We pay particular attention to the recently described technology of substituting essential genes from Arctic bacteria for their homologues in mammalian pathogens as a way of creating TS vaccines.

  20. Correlated colour temperature of morning light influences alertness and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Kulve, Marije; Schlangen, Luc; Schellen, Lisje; Souman, Jan L; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2018-03-01

    Though several studies have reported human alertness to be affected by the intensity and spectral composition of ambient light, the mechanism behind this effect is still largely unclear, especially for daytime exposure. Alerting effects of nocturnal light exposure are correlated with melatonin suppression, but melatonin levels are generally low during the day. The aim of this study was to explore the alerting effect of light in the morning for different correlated colour temperature (CCT) values, as well as its interaction with ambient temperature. Body temperature and perceived comfort were included in the study as possible mediating factors. In a randomized crossover design, 16 healthy females participated in two sessions, once under 2700K and once under 6500K light (both 55lx). Each session consisted of a baseline, a cool, a neutral and a warm thermal environment. Alertness as measured in a reaction time task was lower for the 6500K exposure, while subjective sleepiness was not affected by CCT. Also, core body temperature was higher under 6500K. Skin temperature parameters and perceived comfort were positively correlated with subjective sleepiness. Reaction time correlated with heat loss, but this association did not explain why the reaction time was improved for 2700K. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Are the surface areas of the gills and body involved with changing metabolic scaling with temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ge; Lv, Xiao; Zhou, Jing; Shen, Cong; Xia, Danyang; Xie, Hang; Luo, Yiping

    2018-03-20

    The metabolic-level boundaries (MLB) hypothesis proposes that metabolic level mediates the relative influence of surface area (SA) vs volume related metabolic processes on the body-mass scaling of metabolic rate in organisms. The variation in the scaling of SA may affect how metabolic level affects the metabolic scaling exponent. This study aimed to determine the influence of increasing metabolic level at a higher temperature on the metabolic scaling exponent of the crucian carp and determine the link between metabolic scaling exponents and SA parameters of both gills and body. The SA of gills and body and the resting metabolic rate (RMR) of the crucian carp were assessed at 15 o C and 25 o C, and their mass scaling exponents were analyzed. The results showed a significantly higher RMR, with a lower scaling exponent, in the crucian carp at a higher temperature. The gills SA and the total SA of the fish (TSA) are reduced with the increasing temperature. The b RMR tends to be close to that of the TSA at a higher temperature. This suggests that temperature positively affects metabolic level but negatively affects the scaling exponent of RMR ( b RMR ). The findings support the MLB hypothesis. The lower scaling exponent at a higher temperature can be alternatively explained as that the higher viscosity of cold water impedes respiratory ventilation and oxygen uptake and reduces MR more in smaller individuals than in larger individuals at lower temperature, thus resulting in a negative association between temperature and b RMR . © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. The influence of body temperature on image contrast in post mortem MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Thomas D; Hatch, Gary M; Siegenthaler, Lea; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Mathier, Sandra; Thali, Michael J; Weber, Oliver M

    2012-06-01

    To assess the temperature dependency of tissue contrast on post mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR) images both objectively and subjectively; and to visually demonstrate the changes of image contrast at various temperatures. The study was approved by the responsible justice department and the ethics committee. The contrast of water, fat, and muscle was measured using regions of interest (ROI) in the orbit of 41 human corpses to assess how body temperature (range 2.1-39.8 °C) relates to image contrast of T1-weighted (T1W) and T2-weighted (T2W) sequences on PMMR. Regressions were calculated using the method of least squares. Three readers judged visible changes of image contrast subjectively by consensus. There was a positive relationship between temperature and contrast on T1-weighted (T1W) images and between temperature and the contrast of fat/muscle on T2-weighted (T2W) images. There was a negative relationship between temperature and the contrast of water/fat and water/muscle on T2W images. Subjectively, the influence of temperature became visible below 20 °C on T2W images, and below 10 °C on T1W images. Image contrast on PMMR depends on the temperature of a corpse. Radiologists involved in post mortem imaging must be aware of temperature-related changes in MR image contrast. To preserve technical quality, scanning corpses below 10 °C should be avoided. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of body temperature on image contrast in post mortem MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruder, Thomas D.; Hatch, Gary M.; Siegenthaler, Lea; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Mathier, Sandra; Thali, Michael J.; Weber, Oliver M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the temperature dependency of tissue contrast on post mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR) images both objectively and subjectively; and to visually demonstrate the changes of image contrast at various temperatures. Materials and methods: The study was approved by the responsible justice department and the ethics committee. The contrast of water, fat, and muscle was measured using regions of interest (ROI) in the orbit of 41 human corpses to assess how body temperature (range 2.1–39.8 °C) relates to image contrast of T1-weighted (T1W) and T2-weighted (T2W) sequences on PMMR. Regressions were calculated using the method of least squares. Three readers judged visible changes of image contrast subjectively by consensus. Results: There was a positive relationship between temperature and contrast on T1-weighted (T1W) images and between temperature and the contrast of fat/muscle on T2-weighted (T2W) images. There was a negative relationship between temperature and the contrast of water/fat and water/muscle on T2W images. Subjectively, the influence of temperature became visible below 20 °C on T2W images, and below 10 °C on T1W images. Conclusion: Image contrast on PMMR depends on the temperature of a corpse. Radiologists involved in post mortem imaging must be aware of temperature-related changes in MR image contrast. To preserve technical quality, scanning corpses below 10 °C should be avoided.

  4. Still too hot: examination of water temperature and water heater characteristics 24 years after manufacturers adopt voluntary temperature setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Wendy C; McDonald, Eileen; Frattaroli, Shannon; Perry, Elise C; Zhu, Jeffrey; Gielen, Andrea C

    2013-01-01

    Although water heater manufacturers adopted a voluntary standard in the 1980s to preset thermostats on new water heaters to 120°F, tap water scald burns cause an estimated 1500 hospital admissions and 100 deaths per year in the United States. This study reports on water temperatures in 976 urban homes and identifies water heater and household characteristics associated with having safe temperatures. The temperature of the hot water, type and size of water heater, date of manufacture, and the setting of the temperature gauge were recorded. Demographic data, including number of people living in the home and home ownership, were also recorded. Hot water temperature was unsafe in 41% of homes. Homeowners were more likely to have safer hot water temperature (heaters, the water temperature was >130°F, although the gauge was set at less than 75% of its maximum setting. In a multivariate logistic regression, electric water heaters were more likely to have safe hot water temperatures than gas water heaters (odds ratio R=4.99; P heaters with more gallons per person in the household were more likely to be at or below the recommended 120°F. Our results suggest that hot water temperatures remain dangerously high for a substantial proportion of urban homes despite the adoption of voluntary standards to preset temperature settings by manufacturers. This research highlights the need for improved prevention strategies, such as installing thermostatic mixing valves, to ensure a safer temperature.

  5. Body temperature increases during pediatric full mouth rehabilitation surgery under general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shan Chuang

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Body temperature transiently increased during pediatric full mouth rehabilitation surgery. The increase in body temperature was associated with operation duration. The etiology is uncertain. Continuous body temperature monitoring and the application of both heating and cooling devices during pediatric full mouth rehabilitation surgery should be mandatory.

  6. Indices of quality surface water bodies in the planning of water resources

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Miranda, Juan Pablo; Serna Mosquera, Jorge Antonio; Sánchez Céspedes, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers a review of the literature major and significant methods of quality indices of water applied in surface water bodies, used and proposed for assessing the significance of parameters of water quality in the assessment of surface water currents and they are usually used in making decisions for intervention and strategic prevention measures for those responsible for the conservation and preservation of watersheds where these water bodies belong. An exploratory methodology was...

  7. The effect of body fat percentage and body fat distribution on skin surface temperature with infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamunes, Ana Carla Chierighini; Stadnik, Adriana Maria Wan; Neves, Eduardo Borba

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to search for relations between body fat percentage and skin temperature and to describe possible effects on skin temperature as a result of fat percentage in each anatomical site. Women (26.11±4.41 years old) (n =123) were tested for: body circumferences; skin temperatures (thermal camera); fat percentage and lean mass from trunk, upper and lower limbs; and body fat percentage (Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry). Values of minimum (T Mi ), maximum (T Ma ), and mean temperatures (T Me ) were acquired in 30 regions of interest. Pearson's correlation was estimated for body circumferences and skin temperature variables with body fat percentage. Participants were divided into groups of high and low fat percentage of each body segment, of which T Me values were compared with Student's t-test. Linear regression models for predicting body fat percentage were tested. Body fat percentage was positively correlated with body circumferences and palm temperatures, while it was negatively correlated with most temperatures, such as T Ma and T Me of posterior thighs (r =-0.495 and -0.432), T Me of posterior lower limbs (r =-0.488), T Ma of anterior thighs (r =-0.406) and T Mi and T Me of posterior arms (r =-0.447 and -0.430). Higher fat percentages in the specific anatomical sites tended to decrease T Me , especially in posterior thighs, shanks and arms. Skin temperatures and body circumferences predicted body fat percentage with 58.3% accuracy (R =0.764 and R 2 =0.583). This study clarifies that skin temperature distribution is influenced by the fat percentage of each body segment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of peritoneal lavage solution temperature on body temperature in anaesthetised cats and small dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D C; Leece, E A; Trimble, T A; Demetriou, J L

    2017-05-20

    A prospective, randomised, non-blinded, clinical study to assess the effect of peritoneal lavage using warmed fluid on body temperature in anesthetised cats and dogs of less than 10 kg body mass undergoing coeliotomy. A standardised anaesthetic protocol was used. Oesophageal and rectal temperatures were measured at various time points. At the end of surgery, group 1 patients (n=10) were lavaged with 200 ml/kg sterile isotonic saline at 34±1°C and group 2 (n=10) at 40±1°C. Groups were similar with respect to age, mass, body condition and surgical incision length. Duration of anaesthesia, surgical procedures and peritoneal lavage was similar between groups. Linear regression showed no significant change in oesophageal temperature during the lavage period for group 1 (P=0.64), but a significant increase for group 2 patients (Ptemperature changes of -0.5°C (from (36.3°C to 35.9°C) and +0.9°C (from 35.4°C to 36.3°C), respectively. Similar results were found for rectal temperature, with mean changes of -0.5°C and +0.8°C (P=0.922 and 0.045), respectively. The use of isotonic crystalloid solution for peritoneal lavage at a temperature of 40±1°C significantly warms small animal patients, when applied in a clinical setting, compared with lavage solution at 34±1°C. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Body temperature regulation: Sasang typology-based perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Duc Pham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming induces a dramatic elevation of heat-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Individual variation of heat stress vulnerability depends on various factors such as age, gender, living area and conditions, health status, and individual innate characteristics. Sasang typology is a unique form of Korean traditional medicine, which is based on the hypothesis that constitution-specific traits of an individual determine the particular distinctive tendency in various aspects, including responses to the external environment. Recent scientific evidence shows that Sasang types differ in body composition, metabolic profile, susceptibility to certain disease patterns, and perspiration. This review aims to interpret these findings under the context of heat balance consisting of heat production (Hprod, heat loss (Hloss, and heat load (Hload. Based on the published data, at a given body mass, the TaeEum type tended to have a lower Hprod at rest and at the exhaustion state, which may indicate the lower metabolic efficiency of this type. Meanwhile, the surface-to-mass ratio and heat capacity of the TaeEum type appear to be lower, implying a lower heat dissipation capacity and heat storage tolerance. Thus, because of these characteristics, the TaeEum type seems to be more vulnerable to heat stress than the other constitutions. Differences in temperature regulation across constitutional types should be taken into account in daily physical activity, health management, and medical research.

  10. Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature Patterns over a Temperature Gradient in the Highveld Mole-Rat (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Meghan; Bennett, Nigel C; Oosthuizen, Maria K

    2017-01-01

    African mole-rats are strictly subterranean mammals that live in extensive burrow systems. High humidity levels in the burrows prevent mole-rats from thermoregulating using evaporative cooling. However, the relatively stable environment of the burrows promotes moderate temperatures and small daily temperature fluctuations. Mole-rats therefore display a relatively wide range of thermoregulation abilities. Some species cannot maintain their body temperatures at a constant level, whereas others employ behavioural thermoregulation. Here we test the effect of ambient temperature on locomotor activity and body temperature, and the relationship between the two parameters, in the highveld mole-rat. We exposed mole-rats to a 12L:12D and a DD light cycle at ambient temperatures of 30°C, 25°C and 20°C while locomotor activity and body temperature were measured simultaneously. In addition, we investigated the endogenous rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature at different ambient temperatures. Mole-rats displayed nocturnal activity at all three ambient temperatures and were most active at 20°C, but least active at 30°C. Body temperature was highest at 30°C and lowest at 20°C, and the daily cycle was highly correlated with locomotor activity. We show that the mole-rats have endogenous rhythms for both locomotor activity and body temperature. However, the endogenous body temperature rhythm appears to be less robust compared to the locomotor activity rhythm. Female mole-rats appear to be more sensitive to temperature changes than males, increased heterothermy is evident at lower ambient temperatures, whilst males show smaller variation in their body temperatures with changing ambient temperatures. Mole-rats may rely more heavily on behavioural thermoregulation as it is more energy efficient in an already challenging environment.

  11. Effect of irrigation fluid temperature on core body temperature and inflammatory response during arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyun; Ye, Luyou; Liu, Zhongtang; Wen, Hong; Hu, Yuezheng; Xu, Xinxian

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of irrigation fluid on the patients' physiological response to arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Patients who were scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery were prospectively included in this study. They were randomly assigned to receive warm arthroscopic irrigation fluid (Group W, n = 33) or room temperature irrigation fluid (Group RT, n = 33) intraoperatively. Core body temperature was measured at regular intervals. The proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-10 were measured in drainage fluid and serum. The changes of core body temperatures in Group RT were similar with those in Group W within 15 min after induction of anesthesia, but the decreases in Group RT were significantly greater after then. The lowest temperature was 35.1 ± 0.4 °C in Group RT and 35.9 ± 0.3 °C in Group W, the difference was statistically different (P irrigation fluid compared with warm irrigation fluid. And local inflammatory response is significantly reduced by using warm irrigation fluid. It seems that warm irrigation fluid is more recommendable for arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

  12. Warm-Sensitive Neurons that Control Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chan Lek; Cooke, Elizabeth K; Leib, David E; Lin, Yen-Chu; Daly, Gwendolyn E; Zimmerman, Christopher A; Knight, Zachary A

    2016-09-22

    Thermoregulation is one of the most vital functions of the brain, but how temperature information is converted into homeostatic responses remains unknown. Here, we use an unbiased approach for activity-dependent RNA sequencing to identify warm-sensitive neurons (WSNs) within the preoptic hypothalamus that orchestrate the homeostatic response to heat. We show that these WSNs are molecularly defined by co-expression of the neuropeptides BDNF and PACAP. Optical recordings in awake, behaving mice reveal that these neurons are selectively activated by environmental warmth. Optogenetic excitation of WSNs triggers rapid hypothermia, mediated by reciprocal changes in heat production and loss, as well as dramatic cold-seeking behavior. Projection-specific manipulations demonstrate that these distinct effectors are controlled by anatomically segregated pathways. These findings reveal a molecularly defined cell type that coordinates the diverse behavioral and autonomic responses to heat. Identification of these warm-sensitive cells provides genetic access to the core neural circuit regulating the body temperature of mammals. PAPERCLIP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ingested water equilibrates isotopically with the body water pool of a shorebird with unrivaled water fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, G H; Dekinga, A; Achterkamp, B; Piersma, T

    2000-11-01

    We investigated the applicability of (2)H to measure the amount of body water (TBW) and water fluxes in relation to diet type and level of food intake in a mollusk-eating shorebird, the Red Knot (Calidris canutus). Six birds were exposed to eight experimental indoor conditions. Average fractional (2)H turnover rates ranged between 0. 182 day(-1) (SD = 0.0219) for fasting birds and 7.759 day(-1) (SD = 0.4535) for birds feeding on cockles (Cerastoderma edule). Average TBW estimates obtained with the plateau method were within the narrow range of 75.9-85.4 g (or between 64.6 and 70.1% of the body mass). Those obtained with the extrapolation method showed strong day-to-day variations (range 55.7-83.7 g, or between 49.7 and 65.5%). Average difference between the two calculation methods ranged between 0.6% and 36.3%, and this difference was strongly negatively correlated with water flux rate. Average water influx rates ranged between 15.5 g/day (fasting) and 624.5 g/day (feeding on cockles). The latter value is at 26.6 times the allometrically predicted value and is the highest reported to date. Differences in (2)H concentrations between the blood and feces (i.e., biological fractionation) were small but significant (-3.4% when fed a pellet diet, and -1.1% for all the other diets), and did not relate to the rate of water flux (chi(2)(1) = 0.058, P < 0.81). We conclude that the ingested water equilibrated rapidly with the body water pool even in an avian species that shows record water flux rates when living on ingested marine bivalves.

  14. Keratinophilic fungi in various types of water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The keratinophilic fungi in various types of water bodies (slough. pond. beach pool. two lakes and two rivers were studied. Samples of water were collected every other month for bydrochemical analysis and once a month (1989-1990 in order to determine the fungus content. Human hair, snippings of finger-nails, chips of hoofs, feathers and snake exuviae were used as bait. Twenty-five species of keratinophilic fungi were found in various types of water bodies. Hyphochytrium catenoides, Aphanomyces stellatus, Leptolegniella caudala and Achlya oligacantha represent new records as koratinophilic fungi.

  15. Deviation from goal pace, body temperature and body mass loss as predictors of road race performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M; Hosokawa, Yuri; Belval, Luke N; Huggins, Robert A; Stearns, Rebecca L; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between pacing, gastrointestinal temperature (T GI ), and percent body mass loss (%BML) on relative race performance during a warm weather 11.3km road race. Observational study of a sample of active runners competing in the 2014 Falmouth Road Race. Participants ingested a T GI pill and donned a GPS enabled watch with heart rate monitoring capabilities prior to the start of the race. Percent off predicted pace (% OFF ) was calculated for seven segments of the race. Separate linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between pace, T ​GI , and %BML on relative race performance. One-way ANOVA was used to analyse post race T GI (≥40°C vs Body temperature (pre race T GI and post race T GI ) was not predictive of overall finish time (p>0.05). There was a trend in a slower pace (p=0.055) and greater % OFF (p=0.056) in runners finishing the race with a T GI >40°C. Overall, finish time was influenced by greater variations in pace during the first two miles of the race. In addition, runners who minimized fluid losses and had lower T GI were associated with meeting self-predicted goals. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between body temperature, weight, and hematological parameters of black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lucas Cardoso; Barros, Marilia

    2016-06-01

    Basal thermal values of captive adult black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) in a thermoneutral environment were measured via different methods, along with body weight and hematological parameters. Body temperatures were recorded with rectal (RC), subcutaneous (SC) microchip transponder and infrared (left and right) tympanic membrane (TM) thermometries. Thermal values were correlated with body mass and some hematological data. Similar RC and SC temperatures were observed, these being significantly higher than the left and right TM values. SC temperature was positively correlated and in close agreement with RC measurements. Although body temperatures were not influenced by gender, capture time, or body weight, they were correlated with hematological parameters. Thus, body temperatures in this species seem to reflect some of the characteristics of the assessments' location, with SC microchip transponders being a less invasive method to assess body temperature in these small-bodied non-human primates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Body temperature change in live and dead gizzard shad, Dorosoma Cepedianum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitinger, T. L.; Thommes, M. M.; Spigarelli, S. A.; Rowland, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Temperature change kinetics were determined for a sample of 22 gizzard shad, ranging in weight from 13.2 to 467.5 grams. Tests consisted of monitoring the intestinal temperatures of shad transferred between two well aerated water baths held at 9.2 +- 0.13 C (mean and standard error) and 18.7 +- 0.08 C. None of the 22 live shad subjected to the +- ..delta..T of 9.5 C died during exposure. The similarity of double logarithmic regressions of body weight and half-time (Table 1) indicate that neither the direction of exposure nor the state of the test fish greatly influenced temperature change kinetics.

  18. A framework to simulate small shallow inland water bodies in semi-arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Ali; Ohene Annor, Frank; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-12-01

    In this study, a framework for simulating the flow field and heat transfer processes in small shallow inland water bodies has been developed. As the dynamics and thermal structure of these water bodies are crucial in studying the quality of stored water , and in assessing the heat fluxes from their surfaces as well, the heat transfer and temperature simulations were modeled. The proposed model is able to simulate the full 3-D water flow and heat transfer in the water body by applying complex and time varying boundary conditions. In this model, the continuity, momentum and temperature equations together with the turbulence equations, which comprise the buoyancy effect, have been solved. This model is built on the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations with the widely used Boussinesq approach to solve the turbulence issues of the flow field. Micrometeorological data were obtained from an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) installed on the site and combined with field bathymetric measurements for the model. In the framework developed, a simple, applicable and generalizable approach is proposed for preparing the geometry of small shallow water bodies using coarsely measured bathymetry. All parts of the framework are based on open-source tools, which is essential for developing countries.

  19. Temperature control system for water-perfused suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brengelmann, G. L.; Mckeag, M.; Rowell, L. B.

    1977-01-01

    A system used to control skin temperature in human subjects wearing water-perfused garments is described. It supplies 8 l/min at 10 psi with water temperature controlled within plus or minus 0.1 C. Temperature control is facilitated by a low circulating thermal mass and a fast responding heater based on a commercially available quartz heat lamp. The system is open so that hot or cold water can be added from the building mains to produce rates of change of water temperature exceeding 5 C/min. These capabilities allow semiautomatic control of skin temperature within plus or minus 0.1 C of desired wave forms.

  20. Internal and external cooling methods and their effect on body temperature, thermal perception and dexterity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Maley

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare a range of cooling methods possibly utilised by occupational workers, focusing on their effect on body temperature, perception and manual dexterity.Ten male participants completed eight trials involving 30 min of seated rest followed by 30 min of cooling or control of no cooling (CON (34°C, 58% relative humidity. The cooling methods utilised were: ice cooling vest (CV0, phase change cooling vest melting at 14°C (CV14, evaporative cooling vest (CVEV, arm immersion in 10°C water (AI, portable water-perfused suit (WPS, heliox inhalation (HE and ice slushy ingestion (SL. Immediately before and after cooling, participants were assessed for fine (Purdue pegboard task and gross (grip and pinch strength manual dexterity. Rectal and skin temperature, as well as thermal sensation and comfort, were monitored throughout.Compared with CON, SL was the only method to reduce rectal temperature (P = 0.012. All externally applied cooling methods reduced skin temperature (P0.05.The present study observed that ice ingestion or ice applied to the skin produced the greatest effect on rectal and skin temperature, respectively. AI should not be utilised if workers require subsequent fine manual dexterity. These results will help inform future studies investigating appropriate pre-cooling methods for the occupational worker.

  1. Internal and external cooling methods and their effect on body temperature, thermal perception and dexterity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minett, Geoffrey M.; Bach, Aaron J. E.; Zietek, Stephanie A.; Stewart, Kelly L.; Stewart, Ian B.

    2018-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to compare a range of cooling methods possibly utilised by occupational workers, focusing on their effect on body temperature, perception and manual dexterity. Methods Ten male participants completed eight trials involving 30 min of seated rest followed by 30 min of cooling or control of no cooling (CON) (34°C, 58% relative humidity). The cooling methods utilised were: ice cooling vest (CV0), phase change cooling vest melting at 14°C (CV14), evaporative cooling vest (CVEV), arm immersion in 10°C water (AI), portable water-perfused suit (WPS), heliox inhalation (HE) and ice slushy ingestion (SL). Immediately before and after cooling, participants were assessed for fine (Purdue pegboard task) and gross (grip and pinch strength) manual dexterity. Rectal and skin temperature, as well as thermal sensation and comfort, were monitored throughout. Results Compared with CON, SL was the only method to reduce rectal temperature (P = 0.012). All externally applied cooling methods reduced skin temperature (Ptemperature versus other cooling methods. Participants felt cooler with CV0, CV14, WPS, AI and SL (P0.05). Conclusion The present study observed that ice ingestion or ice applied to the skin produced the greatest effect on rectal and skin temperature, respectively. AI should not be utilised if workers require subsequent fine manual dexterity. These results will help inform future studies investigating appropriate pre-cooling methods for the occupational worker. PMID:29357373

  2. [The reaction of human surface and inside body temperature to extreme hypothermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, O A; Onishchenko, V O; Liakh, Iu Ie

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of changes in the parameters of the surface and core body temperature under the systematic impact of ultra-low temperature is described in this article. As a source of ultra-low temperature was used (Cryo Therapy Chamber) Zimmer Medizin Systeme firm Zimmer Electromedizin (Germany) (-110 degrees C). Surface and internal body temperature was measured by infrared thermometer immediately before visiting cryochamber and immediately after exiting. In the study conducted 47,464 measurements of body temperature. It was established that the internal temperature of the human body under the influence of ultra-low temperatures in the proposed mode of exposure remains constant, and the surface temperature of the body reduces by an average of 11.57 degrees C. The time frame stabilization of adaptive processes of thermoregulation under the systematic impact of ultra-low temperature was defined in the study.

  3. Body temperatures of fish feeding in the Point Beach thermal discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.A.; Thommes, M.M.

    1974-01-01

    Between April and November, 1973, measurements of internal body temperature were made on 1310 fish caught by fishermen at the Point Beach Nuclear Plant. Records were also made of fish weight, length, and sex and intake and discharge temperatures. A table is presented to show mean monthly body temperatures and numbers of each species. Approximately 76 percent of the measurements were made on rainbow and brown trout, since these species accounted for 74 percent of the catch. Body temperatures of most fish were intermediate between intake and discharge temperatures. Results suggested that each species has rather specific seasonal temperature requirements and that the maximum discharge temperature was normally avoided by feeding fish

  4. Water quality of fresh water bodies in the lower Volta Basin: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out on water from lakes Kasu and Nyafie, two of the fresh water bodies situated near Asutsuare, an agricultural town in the lower Volta basin of Ghana to determine the level of water quality parameters. To be able to this, water samples were taken from designated points in both lakes. Sampling was ...

  5. Effects of temperature and growing seasons on crop water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through shifting growing seasons and minimizing the effects of temperature for the major crops, significant amount of groundwater may be saved, which can reduce the production of costly desalinated water. Keywords: Water resources; conservation; crop water requirement; temperature; growing seasons; policy ...

  6. Ingested water equilibrates isotopically with the body water pool of a shorebird with unrivaled water fluxes

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, G.H.; Dekinga, A; Achterkamp, B.; Piersma, T.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the applicability of H-2 to measure the amount of body water (TBW) and water fluxes in relation to diet type and level of food intake in a mollusk-eating shorebird, the Red Knot (Calidris canutus). Six birds were exposed to eight experimental indoor conditions. Average fractional H-2 turnover rates ranged between 0.182 day(-1) (SD = 0.0219) for fasting birds and 7.759 day(-1) (SD = 0.4535) for birds feeding on cockles (Cerastoderma edule). Average TBW estimates obtained with t...

  7. Efficacy of a water-cooled garment for auxiliary body cooling in heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, P K; Pradhan, C K; Nag, A; Ashtekar, S P; Desai, H

    1998-02-01

    The efficacy of a water-cooled jacket for auxiliary body cooling was examined under a simulated hot environment. The personal garment comprised of a water re-circulating three-layered vest of cotton fabric lined with 2 mm diameter latex tubing and inter-spaced coating of rubberized solution. Four subjects wearing the water-cooled jacket were tested in the environment chamber (30, 35 and 40 degrees C DB, 50-60% RH, air velocity 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m/s, with corresponding average effective temperature of 26 +/- 2.3, 33 +/- 1.1 and 36 +/- 1.5 degrees C). The inlet water temperature was maintained at 10-12 degrees C, with flow rates of 2.6 +/- 0.3, 4.3 +/- 0.3 and 5.1 +/- 0.3 l/h). At 30 degrees C DB, variation in water flow had marginal effect on microclimate, while at higher temperatures (35 and 40 degrees C DB), the re-circulating cooled water had noticeable effects in lowering microclimate, trunk and other skin temperatures, and maintaining the body core within 36.7 +/- 0.2 to 37.5 +/- 0.2 degrees C, over 2 h exposure at 35 and 40 degrees C DB. The observation indicates that the water-cooled jacket provided auxiliary cooling to maintain comfortable microclimate, skin and body core temperatures. This enabled subjects to sustain comfortable heat balance over 2 h heat exposure without any noticeable heat strain.

  8. Impact of highway construction on water bodies: a geospatial assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Kushwaha, Vikash K; Mardikar, Trupti; Labhasetwar, P K

    2017-08-01

    India has witnessed a massive infrastructure boom in the past few years. One of such projects is National Highway-7 (NH-7), a North-South highway connecting Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, to Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, traversing many water bodies. The present study aims to assess the pre- and post-construction impact due to existing, new and widened NH-7 on the physical status of the water bodies, using remote sensing techniques. Satellite images spanning 22 years were procured and analysed for change detection in land use and land cover within the waterbodies. The study indicates that construction activities have led to transformation within the water bodies regarding reduction in area and inter-changing of land use and land cover classes, in turn leading to siltation and reduction of recharge.

  9. Effect of drinking water temperature on water intake and performance of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuskonen, A; Tuomisto, L; Kauppinen, R

    2011-05-01

    Very limited information is available on the effects of drinking water temperature on dairy calves. Therefore, the present experiment was designed to study the effects on performance, health, and water consumption of dairy calves offered drinking water either warm (16 to 18 °C) or cold (6 to 8 °C). The calves (60 calves/treatment) were housed in an insulated barn in pens (3.0 × 3.5m; 5 calves in each) providing 2.1m(2)/calf. During the experimental period (20 to 195 d of age), the calves had free access to water from an open water bowl (depth 80 mm, diameter 220 mm, 2-L capacity, 1 bowl/pen). During the preweaning period (20 to 75 d of age), all calves received milk replacer (7.5L/calf daily) and had free access to commercial starter, grass silage, and hay. During the postweaning period (75 to 195 d), the weaned calves had free access to grass silage and hay and were given 3 kg/d (air-dry basis) of a commercial concentrate mixture. During the preweaning period, the water intake of the calves offered warm water was 47% higher than that of the calves offered cold water. Water intake in both treatments increased rapidly during weaning and for a few days following weaning. At 180 to 195 d of age, the calves consumed approximately 18 to 20 L of water daily. Calves offered warm water drank 7 and 8% more water during the postweaning period and overall during the experimental period, respectively, compared with those offered cold water. No treatment differences were observed in dry matter or energy intakes, body weight gains, or feed conversion rates. Furthermore, total serum IgG concentrations of the calves did not differ during the preweaning or postweaning periods. Dairy calves consumed more warm than cold water, but the increase in water intake did not influence feed intake, body weight gain, or health parameters. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of stress on core and peripheral body temperature in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkers, Christiaan H; Penning, Renske; Hellhammer, Juliane; Verster, Joris C; Klaessens, John H G M; Olivier, Berend; Kalkman, Cor J

    2013-09-01

    Even though there are indications that stress influences body temperature in humans, no study has systematically investigated the effects of stress on core and peripheral body temperature. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of acute psychosocial stress on body temperature using different readout measurements. In two independent studies, male and female participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a non-stressful control task. Core temperature (intestinal and temporal artery) and peripheral temperature (facial and body skin temperature) were measured. Compared to the control condition, stress exposure decreased intestinal temperature but did not affect temporal artery temperature. Stress exposure resulted in changes in skin temperature that followed a gradient-like pattern, with decreases at distal skin locations such as the fingertip and finger base and unchanged skin temperature at proximal regions such as the infra-clavicular area. Stress-induced effects on facial temperature displayed a sex-specific pattern, with decreased nasal skin temperature in females and increased cheek temperature in males. In conclusion, the amplitude and direction of stress-induced temperature changes depend on the site of temperature measurement in humans. This precludes a direct translation of the preclinical stress-induced hyperthermia paradigm, in which core temperature uniformly rises in response to stress to the human situation. Nevertheless, the effects of stress result in consistent temperature changes. Therefore, the present study supports the inclusion of body temperature as a physiological readout parameter of stress in future studies.

  11. Estimation of Circadian Body Temperature Rhythm Based on Heart Rate in Healthy, Ambulatory Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Soo Young; Joo, Kwang Min; Kim, Han Byul; Jang, Seungjin; Kim, Beomoh; Hong, Seungbum; Kim, Sungwan; Park, Kwang Suk

    2017-03-01

    Core body temperature is a reliable marker for circadian rhythm. As characteristics of the circadian body temperature rhythm change during diverse health problems, such as sleep disorder and depression, body temperature monitoring is often used in clinical diagnosis and treatment. However, the use of current thermometers in circadian rhythm monitoring is impractical in daily life. As heart rate is a physiological signal relevant to thermoregulation, we investigated the feasibility of heart rate monitoring in estimating circadian body temperature rhythm. Various heart rate parameters and core body temperature were simultaneously acquired in 21 healthy, ambulatory subjects during their routine life. The performance of regression analysis and the extended Kalman filter on daily body temperature and circadian indicator (mesor, amplitude, and acrophase) estimation were evaluated. For daily body temperature estimation, mean R-R interval (RRI), mean heart rate (MHR), or normalized MHR provided a mean root mean square error of approximately 0.40 °C in both techniques. The mesor estimation regression analysis showed better performance than the extended Kalman filter. However, the extended Kalman filter, combined with RRI or MHR, provided better accuracy in terms of amplitude and acrophase estimation. We suggest that this noninvasive and convenient method for estimating the circadian body temperature rhythm could reduce discomfort during body temperature monitoring in daily life. This, in turn, could facilitate more clinical studies based on circadian body temperature rhythm.

  12. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p body temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p body temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p body temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p body temperature compared to rats born with low exercise capacity and disease risk. Voluntary running allowed HCRs to maintain high body temperature during aging, which suggests that high PA level was crucial in maintaining the high body temperature of HCRs. PMID:27504097

  13. Evidence for Reduced Fatigue Resistance of Contemporary Rotary Instruments Exposed to Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Rafaela Andrade; Murphy, Sarah; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge; Govindjee, Rajiv G; Govindjee, Sanjay; Peters, Ove A

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2 different temperatures (20°C and 37°C) on the cyclic fatigue life of rotary instruments and correlate the results with martensitic transformation temperatures. Contemporary nickel-titanium rotary instruments (n = 20 each and tip size #25, including Hyflex CM [Coltene, Cuyahoga Falls, OH], TRUShape [Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK], Vortex Blue [Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties], and ProTaper Universal [Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties]) were tested for cyclic fatigue at room temperature (20°C ± 1°C) and at body temperature (37°C ± 1°C). Instruments were rotated until fracture occurred in a simulated canal with an angle curvature of about 60° and a radius curvature of 3 mm; the center of the curvature was 4.5 mm from the instrument tip. The number of cycles to fracture was measured. Phase transformation temperatures for 2 instruments of each brand were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry. Data were analyzed using the t test and 1-way analysis of variance with the significance level set at 0.05. For the tested size and at 20°C, Hyflex CM showed the highest resistance to fracture; no significant difference was found between TRUShape and Vortex Blue, whereas ProTaper Universal showed the lowest resistance to fracture. At 37°C, resistance to fatigue fracture was significantly reduced, up to 85%, for the tested instruments (P temperature, Hyflex CM and Vortex Blue had similar and higher fatigue resistance compared with TRUShape and ProTaper Universal. Under the conditions of this study, using a novel testing design, immersion in water at simulated body temperature was associated with a marked decrease in the fatigue life of all rotary instruments tested. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The circadian rhythm of core body temperature (Part I: The use of modern telemetry systems to monitor core body temperature variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słomko Joanna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The best known daily rhythms in humans include: the sleep-wake rhythm, the circadian core body temperature variability, daily fluctuations in arterial blood pressure and heartbeat frequency, and daily changes in hormone secretion: e.g. melatonin, cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin. The core body temperature in humans has a characteristic sinusoidal course, with the maximum value occurring between 3:00-5:00 pm and the minimum between 3:00-5:00 am. Analysis of literature indicates that the obtained results concerning core body temperature are to a large extent influenced by the type of method applied in the measurement. Depending on test protocols, we may apply various methodologies to measuring core body temperature. One of the newest methods of measuring internal and external body temperature consists in the utilisation of remote temperature sensors transmitting the obtained value via a radio signal. The advantages of this method includes the ability to perform: continuous core temperature measurement, observe dynamic changes in core body temperature occurring in circadian rhythm and the repeatability and credibility of the obtained results, which is presented in numerous scientific reports.

  15. Water in the human body: An anesthesiologist's perspective on the connection between physicochemical properties of water and physiologic relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraín Riveros-Perez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The unique structure and multifaceted physicochemical properties of the water molecule, in addition to its universal presence in body compartments, make water a key player in multiple biological processes in human physiology. Since anesthesiologists deal with physiologic processes where water molecules are critical at different levels, and administer medications whose pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics depend on interaction with water molecules, we consider that exploration of basic science aspects related to water and its role in physiology and pharmacology is relevant to the practice of anesthesiology. The purpose of this paper is to delineate the physicochemical basis of water that are critical in enabling it to support various homeostatic processes. The role of water in the formation of solutions, modulation of surface tension and in homeostasis of body temperature, acid-base status and osmolarity, is analyzed. Relevance of molecular water interactions to the anesthesiologist is not limited to the realm of physiology and pathophysiology. Deep knowledge of the importance of water in volatile anesthetic effects on neurons opens a window to a new comprehensive understanding of complex cellular mechanisms underlying the practice of anesthesiology. Keywords: Water, Anesthesia, Physicochemistry, Osmolarity, Surface tension

  16. Possible effects of regulating hydroponic water temperature on plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water temperature can affect many physiological processes during plant growth and development. Temperatures below or above optimum levels may influence plant metabolic activities positively or negatively. ... Keywords: Chlorophyll, nutrient uptake, phenolic compounds, photosynthesis rate, reactive oxygen species ...

  17. Validity of Devices That Assess Body Temperature During Outdoor Exercise in the Heat

    OpenAIRE

    Casa, Douglas J; Becker, Shannon M; Ganio, Matthew S; Brown, Christopher M; Yeargin, Susan W; Roti, Melissa W; Siegler, Jason; Blowers, Julie A; Glaviano, Neal R; Huggins, Robert A; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2007-01-01

    Context: Rectal temperature is recommended by the National Athletic Trainers' Association as the criterion standard for recognizing exertional heat stroke, but other body sites commonly are used to measure temperature. Few authors have assessed the validity of the thermometers that measure body temperature at these sites in athletic settings.

  18. Complex Interactions between Temperature and Relative Humidity on Water Balance of Adult Tsetse (Glossinidae, Diptera): Implications for Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Kleynhans, Elsje; Terblanche, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Insect water balance plays an important role in determining energy budgets, activity patterns, survival and population dynamics and, hence, geographic distribution. Tsetse (Glossina spp.) are important vectors of human and animal disease occupying a wide range of habitats in Africa and are notable for their desiccation resistance in xeric environments. Here, we measure water balance traits (water loss rate, body water content and body lipid content) in adult flies across a range of temperatur...

  19. Air- and stream-water-temperature trends in the Chesapeake Bay region, 1960-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastram, John D.; Rice, Karen C.

    2015-12-14

    Water temperature is a basic, but important, measure of the condition of all aquatic environments, including the flowing waters in the streams that drain our landscape and the receiving waters of those streams. Climatic conditions have a strong influence on water temperature, which is therefore naturally variable both in time and across the landscape. Changes to natural water-temperature regimes, however, can result in a myriad of effects on aquatic organisms, water quality, circulation patterns, recreation, industry, and utility operations. For example, most species of fish, insects, and other organisms, as well as aquatic vegetation, are highly dependent on water temperature. Warming waters can result in shifts in floral and faunal species distributions, including invasive species and pathogens previously unable to inhabit the once cooler streams. Many chemical processes are temperature dependent, with reactions occurring faster in warmer conditions, leading to degraded water quality as contaminants are released into waterways at greater rates. Circulation patterns in receiving waters, such as bays and estuaries, can change as a result of warmer inflows from streams, thereby affecting organisms in those receiving waters. Changes in abundance of some aquatic species and (or) degradation of water quality can reduce the recreational value of water bodies as waters are perceived as less desirable for water-related activities or as sportfish become less available for anglers. Finally, increasing water temperatures can affect industry and utilities as the thermal capacity is reduced, making the water less effective for cooling purposes.Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States. Eutrophication, the enrichment of a water body with excess nutrients, has plagued the bay for decades and has led to extensive restoration efforts throughout the bay watershed. The warming of stream water can exacerbate eutrophication through increased release of nutrients from

  20. Upgrade of the cooling water temperature measures system for HLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Weiqun; Liu Gongfa; Bao Xun; Jiang Siyuan; Li Weimin; He Duohui

    2007-01-01

    The cooling water temperature measures system for HLS (Hefei Light Source) adopts EPICS to the developing platform and takes the intelligence temperature cruise instrument for the front control instrument. Data of temperatures are required by IOCs through Serial Port Communication, archived and searched by Channel Archiver. The system can monitor the real-time temperatures of many channels cooling water and has the function of history data storage, and data network search. (authors)

  1. Lidar point density analysis: implications for identifying water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worstell, Bruce B.; Poppenga, Sandra K.; Evans, Gayla A.; Prince, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Most airborne topographic light detection and ranging (lidar) systems operate within the near-infrared spectrum. Laser pulses from these systems frequently are absorbed by water and therefore do not generate reflected returns on water bodies in the resulting void regions within the lidar point cloud. Thus, an analysis of lidar voids has implications for identifying water bodies. Data analysis techniques to detect reduced lidar return densities were evaluated for test sites in Blackhawk County, Iowa, and Beltrami County, Minnesota, to delineate contiguous areas that have few or no lidar returns. Results from this study indicated a 5-meter radius moving window with fewer than 23 returns (28 percent of the moving window) was sufficient for delineating void regions. Techniques to provide elevation values for void regions to flatten water features and to force channel flow in the downstream direction also are presented.

  2. Computer program to plot isotherms in bodies of water. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 1199

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeAngelis, D.L.

    1978-06-01

    For purposes of graphic display it is convenient to represent temperature versus depth data in bodies of water in the form of isotherms (lines of equal temperature). Because it can be tedious to draw such lines by hand from raw data, a computer code has been devised to plot these lines automatically. The procedure assumes that the temperature can be linearly interpolated between the points at which measurements are taken. Details of the code are explained by means of examples. With minor changes, the program can be used to plot isoclines of other environmental parameters

  3. Clinical review: Brain-body temperature differences in adults with severe traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Surrogate or 'proxy' measures of brain temperature are used in the routine management of patients with brain damage. The prevailing view is that the brain is 'hotter' than the body. The polarity and magnitude of temperature differences between brain and body, however, remains unclear after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The focus of this systematic review is on the adult patient admitted to intensive/neurocritical care with a diagnosis of severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 8). The review considered studies that measured brain temperature and core body temperature. Articles published in English from the years 1980 to 2012 were searched in databases, CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, Ovid SP, Mednar and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Database. For the review, publications of randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, before and after studies, cohort studies, case-control studies and descriptive studies were considered for inclusion. Of 2,391 records identified via the search strategies, 37 were retrieved for detailed examination (including two via hand searching). Fifteen were reviewed and assessed for methodological quality. Eleven studies were included in the systematic review providing 15 brain-core body temperature comparisons. The direction of mean brain-body temperature differences was positive (brain higher than body temperature) and negative (brain lower than body temperature). Hypothermia is associated with large brain-body temperature differences. Brain temperature cannot be predicted reliably from core body temperature. Concurrent monitoring of brain and body temperature is recommended in patients where risk of temperature-related neuronal damage is a cause for clinical concern and when deliberate induction of below-normal body temperature is instituted. PMID:23680353

  4. Body temperature changes of newborns under fluorescent versus LED phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Ozge; Soysaldı, Emel; Kale, Yusuf; Kavurt, Sumru; Bas, Ahmet Yagmur; Demirel, Nihal

    2014-08-01

    To determine changes in body temperature (BT) of hyperbilirubinemic newborns under conventional phototherapy with fluorescent lamps and light emitting diodes (LED) at different irradiances. Otherwise healthy newborn infants >34 wk gestational age (GA) hospitalized for indirect hyperbilirubinemia, requiring phototherapy in the first 10 d of life were enrolled. Infants who received conventional phototherapy with fluorescent lamps (10-15 μW/cm(2)/nm irradiance) were defined as group 1, LED phototherapy of 26-60 μW/cm(2)/nm irradiance as group 2, and LED phototherapy of 60-120 μW/cm(2)/nm irradiance as group 3. Primary outcome measure was mean BT which was defined as arithmetical mean of axillary BT measured at 2 h intervals during the first day of phototherapy. Thirty patients were enroled in each group. Mean birth weight and GA of the total cohort was 2800 ± 530 g and 36.6 ± 2 wk, respectively. Baseline demographic variables and serum total bilirubin levels were similar among groups. Mean BT was 36.7 ± 0.1 °C in group 1, 36.6 ± 0.2 °C in group 2, 37.7 ± 0.2 °C in group 3. Mean BT was higher in group 3 compared to group 1 (p phototherapy all the patients in group 3 had at least one BT measurement ≥ 37.5 °C and 77 % had BT ≥ 38 °C. Only one patient in group 2 had BT ≥ 37.5 °C which was also ≥ 38 °C. During phototherapy all BT measurements were LED phototherapy of ≥ 60 μW/cm(2)/nm intensity significantly increases BT in hyperbilirubinemic newborns.

  5. Elevated body temperature during sleep in orexin knockout mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Sakurai, Takeshi; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Core body temperature (Tb) is influenced by many physiological factors, including behavioral state, locomotor activity, and biological rhythms. To determine the relative roles of these factors, we examined Tb in orexin knockout (KO) mice, which have a narcolepsy-like phenotype with severe sleep-wake fragmentation. Because orexin is thought to promote heat production during wakefulness, we hypothesized that orexin KO mice would have lower Tb while awake. Surprisingly, the Tb of orexin KO mice was 0.4°C higher than wild-type (WT) littermates during the dark period. Orexin KO mice had normal diurnal variations in Tb, but the ultradian rhythms of Tb, locomotor activity, and wakefulness were markedly reduced. During sustained wakefulness, Tb was the same in both groups. During the first 15 min of spontaneous sleep, the Tb of WT mice decreased by 1.0°C, but Tb in orexin KO mice decreased only 0.4°C. Even during intense recovery sleep after 8 hr of sleep deprivation, the Tb of orexin KO mice remained 0.7°C higher than in WT mice. This blunted fall in Tb during sleep may be due to inadequate activation of heat loss mechanisms or sustained activity in heat-generating systems. These observations reveal an unexpected role for orexin in thermoregulation. In addition, because heat loss is an essential aspect of sleep, the blunted fall in Tb of orexin KO mice may provide an explanation for the fragmented sleep of narcolepsy. PMID:16556901

  6. Adaptive thermoregulation in golden spiny mice: the influence of season and food availability on body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Ofir; Dayan, Tamar; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effect of food supplementation during summer and winter in seminatural field conditions on thermoregulation of a desert rodent, the golden spiny mouse Acomys russatus. We hypothesized that (a) under natural food availability (control conditions), mice will use less precise thermoregulation (i.e., an increase in the variance of body temperature [T(b)]) during winter because of low ambient temperatures (T(a)'s) and low food availability and during summer because of low food and water availability; (b) food supplementation will result in more precise thermoregulation during winter, but the effect will be smaller during summer because variation in T(b) in summer is also driven by water availability during that period. We found that under natural food availability, spiny mice thermoregulated more precisely during summer than during winter. They spent more time torpid during summer than during winter even when food was supplemented (although summer nights are shorter), allowing them to conserve water. Supplementing food resulted in more precise thermoregulation in both seasons, and mice spent less time torpid. In summer, thermoregulation at high T(a)'s was less precise, resulting in higher maximum T(b)'s in summer than in winter and when food was supplemented, in accord with the expected effect of water shortage on thermoregulation. Our results suggest that as expected, precise thermoregulation is beneficial when possible and is abandoned only when the costs of homeothermy outweigh the benefits.

  7. Cooling-water amounts, temperature, and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koops, F.B.J.; Donze, M.; Hadderingh, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    The release of heat from power plants into a water can take place with relative small quantities of cooling water, highly warmed up accordingly, or with large quantities of cooling water slightly warmed up. The utilization of cooling water is bound to certain guidelines established by the authorities. With the intention to protect the environment, the admissable temperatures and warming-up have been strictly limited by the authorities. In the Netherlands, we have presently temporary cooling water guidelines which allow a max. temperature of the cooling water in the cooling cycle of 30 0 C and a maximum admissible temperature rise in the condenser between 7 0 C during summer and 15 0 C during winter. It has also been determined in these requirements how much cooling water at least has to be used to discharge a specified quantity of heat. Plankton, spawn and young fish are dragged with the cooling water. Harm to these organisms can be caused mechanically by pumps, sieves and the condenser or they can be harmed by the temperature rise in the condenser. Investigations showed that mechanical harm to spawn and young fish in the cooling water flow should not be ignored, and that detectable harm to plankton organisms takes place only at water temperatures above 32 0 C. The cooling water consumption can therefore be optimised as follows: The solution of a greater temperature increase and a slightly higher value for the temperature maximum can reduce the cooling water quantity. This reduction of the cooling water quantity reduces the destruction of the fish quantity, which gets into the cooling water system, especially during the summer. If the temperature rise and the temperature itself are not selected too high, the destruction of fish may be reduced without causing serious damage to the plankton. (orig.) [de

  8. Relations of Tualatin River water temperatures to natural and human-caused factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, John C.

    1997-01-01

    Aquatic research has long shown that the survival of cold-water fish, such as salmon and trout, decreases markedly as water temperatures increase above a critical threshold, particularly during sensitive life stages of the fish. In an effort to improve the overall health of aquatic ecosystems, the State of Oregon in 1996 adopted a maximum water-temperature standard of 17.8 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit), based on a 7-day moving average of daily maximum temperatures, for most water bodies in the State. Anthropogenic activities are not permitted to raise the temperature of a water body above this level. In the Tualatin River, a tributary of the Willamette River located in northwestern Oregon, water temperatures periodically surpass this threshold during the low-flow summer and fall months.An investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey quantified existing seasonal, diel, and spatial patterns of water temperatures in the main stem of the river, assessed the relation of water temperatures to natural climatic conditions and anthropogenic factors (such as wastewater-treatment-plant effluent and modification of riparian shading), and assessed the impact of various flow management practices on stream temperatures. Half-hourly temperature measurements were recorded at 13 monitoring sites from river mile (RM) 63.9 to RM 3.4 from May to November of 1994. Four synoptic water- temperature surveys also were conducted in the upstream and downstream vicinities of two wastewater-treatment-plant outfalls. Temperature and streamflow time-series data were used to calibrate two dynamic-flow heat-transfer models, DAFLOW-BLTM (RM 63.9-38.4) and CE-QUAL-W2 (RM 38.4-3.4). Simulations from the models provided a basis for approximating 'natural' historical temperature patterns, performing effluent and riparian-shading sensitivity analyses, and evaluating mitigation management scenarios under 1994 climatic conditions. Findings from the investigation included (1) under 'natural

  9. Article comprising a garment or other textile structure for use in controlling body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    There is disclosed an article for use in cooling body temperature which comprises a garment having a coat and pant, with each having a body section adapted to receive a portion of the torso of the wearer and extensions from the body section to receive the wearer's limbs. The garment includes a system for circulating temperature controlling fluid from a suitable source through patches removably received in pockets in each of body section and extensions.

  10. Water entry of cylindrical bodies with various aspect ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nayoung; Park, Hyungmin

    2017-11-01

    We experimentally investigate the water entry of cylindrical bodies with different aspect ratio (1.0-8.0), focusing on the deformation of free surface and resulting phenomena over and under the surface. The experiment is performed using a high-speed imaging (upto 10000 fps) and PIV. The head and tail of bodies are hemispherical and the nose part is additionally roughened with a sandpaper to see the effect of roughness as well. The release height is also adjusted to change the impact velocity at the free surface (Reynolds number is order of 105). For smooth surface (without cavity formation), a thin liquid film rises up the body after impacting, gathers at the pole and forms a jet over the free surfaces. The jet is created in the form of a thick and thin jet. The thin jet is produced by a water film riding up the surface of an object, and a thick jet is produced by rising water from underwater as the object sinks. However, as the aspect ratio increases, the liquid film does not fully ride up the body and cannot close, so there is an empty space below the free surface. With roughness (with cavity), the liquid film is detached from the body and splash/dome is formed above the free surface. The splash height and its collapsing time decrease with increasing the aspect ratio. Supported by Grants (MPSS-CG-2016-02, NRF-2017R1A4A1015523) of the Korea government.

  11. Effect of physical activity on body water in sedentary young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a walking exercise on body water among sedentary obese and thin women. Methods: Forty young untrained girls between the age of 20 and 25 years (obese, BMI>30: N=20 and thin, BMI <20: N=20) volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were ...

  12. Development of predictive equations for total body water using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The study aimed to derive predictive equations for total body water determinations with bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric measurements in a population of asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive Zulu women. Design: Cross-sectional data from within an ongoing prospective study ...

  13. Development of predictive equations for total body water using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-02

    Feb 2, 2012 ... Objectives: The study aimed to derive predictive equations for total body water determinations with bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric measurements in a population of asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive Zulu women. Design: Cross-sectional data from within an ongoing ...

  14. Body temperature variability (Part 1): a review of the history of body temperature and its variability due to site selection, biological rhythms, fitness, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Greg

    2006-12-01

    Body temperature is a complex, non-linear data point, subject to many sources of internal and external variation. While these sources of variation significantly complicate interpretation of temperature data, disregarding knowledge in favor of oversimplifying complex issues would represent a significant departure from practicing evidence-based medicine. Part 1 of this review outlines the historical work of Wunderlich on temperature and the origins of the concept that a healthy normal temperature is 98.6 degrees F (37.0 degrees C). Wunderlich's findings and methodology are reviewed and his results are contrasted with findings from modern clinical thermometry. Endogenous sources of temperature variability, including variations caused by site of measurement, circadian, menstrual, and annual biological rhythms, fitness, and aging are discussed. Part 2 will review the effects of exogenous masking agents - external factors in the environment, diet, or lifestyle that can influence body temperature, as well as temperature findings in disease states.

  15. Water Hyacinth in the Rift Valley Water Bodies of Ethiopia: Its Distribution, Socioeconomic Importance and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firehun, Y.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Taye, T.

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted in the Rift Valley water bodies of Ethiopia from 2009 to 2011 to (i) determine the prevalence, agro-ecological distribution and sources of infestation of water hyacinth, (ii) investigate the socio-economic impact of water hyacinth, and (iii) assess changes in its

  16. Water quality monitoring for high-priority water bodies in the Sonoran Desert network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry W. Sprouse; Robert M. Emanuel; Sara A. Strorrer

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a network monitoring program for “high priority” water bodies in the Sonoran Desert Network of the National Park Service. Protocols were developed for monitoring selected waters for ten of the eleven parks in the Network. Park and network staff assisted in identifying potential locations of testing sites, local priorities, and how water quality...

  17. Water-induced thermogenesis reconsidered: the effects of osmolality and water temperature on energy expenditure after drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clive M; Dulloo, Abdul G; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2006-09-01

    A recent study reported that drinking 500 ml of water causes a 30% increase in metabolic rate. If verified, this previously unrecognized thermogenic property of water would have important implications for weight-loss programs. However, the concept of a thermogenic effect of water is controversial because other studies have found that water drinking does not increase energy expenditure. The objective of the study was to test whether water drinking has a thermogenic effect in humans and, furthermore, determine whether the response is influenced by osmolality or by water temperature. This was a randomized, crossover design. The study was conducted at a university physiology laboratory. Participants included healthy young volunteer subjects. Intervention included drinking 7.5 ml/kg body weight (approximately 518 ml) of distilled water or 0.9% saline or 7% sucrose solution (positive control) on different days. In a subgroup of subjects, responses to cold water (3 C) were tested. Resting energy expenditure, assessed by indirect calorimetry for 30 min before and 90 min after the drinks, was measured. Energy expenditure did not increase after drinking either distilled water (P = 0.34) or 0.9% saline (P = 0.33). Drinking the 7% sucrose solution significantly increased energy expenditure (P water that had been cooled to 3 C caused a small increase in energy expenditure of 4.5% over 60 min (P water at room temperature did not increase energy expenditure. Cooling the water before drinking only stimulated a small thermogenic response, well below the theoretical energy cost of warming the water to body temperature. These results cast doubt on water as a thermogenic agent for the management of obesity.

  18. The impact of high temperatures on foraging behaviour and body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High temperatures can pose significant thermoregulation challenges for endotherms, and determining how individual species respond to high temperatures will be important for predicting the impact of global warming on wild populations. Animals can adjust their behaviour or physiology to cope with higher temperatures, ...

  19. Body temperature control in patients with refractory septic shock: too much may be harmful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Li; Liu, Da-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Ting; Long, Yun; Zhou, Xiang; Chai, Wen-Zao

    2013-01-01

    The lowering of body temperature is a common, almost reflexive step in the daily care of septic shock patient. However, the effect of different magnitudes of fever control on the outcome of refractory septic patients with a very poor outcome is controversial and has yet to be explored. This prospective trial examined sixty-five refractory septic shock patients with a core temperature higher than 38.5°C. Patients were randomly assigned to a group achieving a "low temperature" range (LT group: 36.0 - 37.5°C) or to a group achieving a "high temperature" range (HT group: 37.5 - 38.3°C) by physical methods including a water-flow cooling blanket and ice packs. A target core temperature was achieved in 1 - 2 hours post-treatment, and maintained for 72 hours. Averaged values of core temperature as well as hemodynamic, respiratory, and laboratory variables were analyzed at baseline and during the first 72 hours after fever control. Thirty-four (52.31%) patients were assigned to the LT group and thirty-one (47.69%) patients were assigned to the HT group. The mean core temperature was significantly lower in the LT group than in the HT group (36.61 vs. 37.85°C, respectively; P temperature during the 72 h period was an independent predictor of 28 days mortality (odds ratio (OR) = 0.42, 95%CI 0.25, 0.6; P = 0.001). Controlling fever to a lower range (36.0 - 37.5°C) may be harmful to patients with refractory septic shock by worsening tissue perfusion, compared to controlling it within a higher range (37.5 - 38.3°C). An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for these observations requires further investigation.

  20. The effect of lower body cooling on the changes in three core temperature indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basset, F A; Cahill, F; Handrigan, G; DuCharme, M B; Cheung, S S

    2011-01-01

    Rectal (T re ), ear canal (T ear ) and esophageal (T es ) temperatures have been used in the literature as core temperature indices in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate if localized lower body cooling would have a different effect on each of these measurements. We hypothesized that prolonged lower body surface cooling will result in a localized cooling effect for the rectal temperature not reflected in the other core measurement sites. Twelve participants (mean ± SD; 26.8 ± 6.0 years; 82.6 ± 13.9 kg; 179 ± 10 cm, BSA = 2.00 ± 0.21 m 2 ) attended one experimental session consisting of sitting on a rubberized raft floor surface suspended in 5 °C water in a thermoneutral air environment (∼21.5 ± 0.5 °C). Experimental conditions were (a) a baseline phase during which participants were seated for 15 min in an upright position on an insulated pad (1.408 K . m 2 . W −1 ); (b) a cooling phase during which participants were exposed to the cooling surface for 2 h, and (c) an insulation phase during which the baseline condition was repeated for 1 h. Temperature data were collected at 1 Hz, reduced to 1 min averages, and transformed from absolute values to a change in temperature from baseline (15 min average). Metabolic data were collected breath-by-breath and integrated over the same temperature epoch. Within the baseline phase no significant change was found between the three indices of core temperature. By the end of the cooling phase, T re was significantly lower (Δ = −1.0 ± 0.4 °C) from baseline values than from T ear (Δ = −0.3 ± 0.3 °C) and T es (Δ = −0.1 ± 0.3 °C). T re continued to decrease during the insulation phase from Δ −1.0 ± 0.4 °C to as low as Δ −1.4 ± 0.5 °C. By the end of the insulation phase T re had slightly risen back to Δ −1.3 ± 0.4 °C but remained significantly different from baseline values and from the other two core measures. Metabolic data showed no variation throughout the experiment. In

  1. Water Transport and the Evolution of CM Parent Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Rob; Cohen, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Meteorites have amino acids and hydrated minerals which constrain the peak temperature ranges they have experienced. CMs in particular have a narrow range (273-325K). Bulk fluid motion during hydration constrained to small scales (less than mm). Some asteroids are known to have hydrated minerals on their surfaces. It is presumed these two facts may be related. Problem: hydration only occurs (significantly) with liquid water; melting water only occurs early on in nebula (1-10 Myrs ANC); in nebula asteroid surface temperature very cold (approximately 150K). Can indigenous alteration produce CMs and/or surface hydration?

  2. Prediction of water temperature metrics using spatial modelling in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water temperature regime dynamics should be viewed regionally, where regional divisions have an inherent underpinning by an understanding of natural thermal variability. The aim of this research was to link key water temperature metrics to readily-mapped environmental surrogates, and to produce spatial images of ...

  3. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p high intrinsic capacity for aerobic exercise and better health have higher body temperature compared to rats born with low exercise capacity and disease risk. Voluntary running allowed HCRs to maintain high body temperature during aging, which suggests that high PA level was crucial in maintaining the high body temperature of HCRs.

  4. FDTD analysis of body-core temperature elevation in children and adults for whole-body exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2008-09-01

    The temperature elevations in anatomically based human phantoms of an adult and a 3-year-old child were calculated for radio-frequency whole-body exposure. Thermoregulation in children, however, has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we developed a computational thermal model of a child that is reasonable for simulating body-core temperature elevation. Comparison of measured and simulated temperatures revealed thermoregulation in children to be similar to that of adults. Based on this finding, we calculated the body-core temperature elevation in a 3-year-old child and an adult for plane-wave exposure at the basic restriction in the international guidelines. The body-core temperature elevation in the 3-year-old child phantom was 0.03 °C at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 0.08 W kg-1, which was 35% smaller than in the adult female. This difference is attributed to the child's higher body surface area-to-mass ratio.

  5. FDTD analysis of body-core temperature elevation in children and adults for whole-body exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    The temperature elevations in anatomically based human phantoms of an adult and a 3-year-old child were calculated for radio-frequency whole-body exposure. Thermoregulation in children, however, has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we developed a computational thermal model of a child that is reasonable for simulating body-core temperature elevation. Comparison of measured and simulated temperatures revealed thermoregulation in children to be similar to that of adults. Based on this finding, we calculated the body-core temperature elevation in a 3-year-old child and an adult for plane-wave exposure at the basic restriction in the international guidelines. The body-core temperature elevation in the 3-year-old child phantom was 0.03 deg. C at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 0.08 W kg -1 , which was 35% smaller than in the adult female. This difference is attributed to the child's higher body surface area-to-mass ratio

  6. FDTD analysis of body-core temperature elevation in children and adults for whole-body exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan)], E-mail: ahirata@nitech.ac.jp

    2008-09-21

    The temperature elevations in anatomically based human phantoms of an adult and a 3-year-old child were calculated for radio-frequency whole-body exposure. Thermoregulation in children, however, has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we developed a computational thermal model of a child that is reasonable for simulating body-core temperature elevation. Comparison of measured and simulated temperatures revealed thermoregulation in children to be similar to that of adults. Based on this finding, we calculated the body-core temperature elevation in a 3-year-old child and an adult for plane-wave exposure at the basic restriction in the international guidelines. The body-core temperature elevation in the 3-year-old child phantom was 0.03 deg. C at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 0.08 W kg{sup -1}, which was 35% smaller than in the adult female. This difference is attributed to the child's higher body surface area-to-mass ratio.

  7. Acute dim light at night increases body mass, alters metabolism, and shifts core body temperature circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Maurya, Santosh K; Periasamy, Muthu; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-10-01

    The circadian system is primarily entrained by the ambient light environment and is fundamentally linked to metabolism. Mounting evidence suggests a causal relationship among aberrant light exposure, shift work, and metabolic disease. Previous research has demonstrated deleterious metabolic phenotypes elicited by chronic (>4 weeks) exposure to dim light at night (DLAN) (∼ 5 lux). However, the metabolic effects of short-term (body mass, alter whole body metabolism, and display altered body temperature (Tb) and activity rhythms compared to mice maintained in dark nights. Our data largely support these predictions; DLAN mice gained significantly more mass, reduced whole body energy expenditure, increased carbohydrate over fat oxidation, and altered temperature circadian rhythms. Importantly, these alterations occurred despite similar activity locomotor levels (and rhythms) and total food intake between groups. Peripheral clocks are potently entrained by body temperature rhythms, and the deregulation of body temperature we observed may contribute to metabolic problems due to "internal desynchrony" between the central circadian oscillator and temperature sensitive peripheral clocks. We conclude that even relatively short-term exposure to low levels of nighttime light can influence metabolism to increase mass gain.

  8. Total body water and lean body mass estimated by ethanol dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Myhre, L. G.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.

    1977-01-01

    A method for estimating total body water (TBW) using breath analyses of blood ethanol content is described. Regression analysis of ethanol concentration curves permits determination of a theoretical concentration that would have existed if complete equilibration had taken place immediately upon ingestion of the ethanol; the water fraction of normal blood may then be used to calculate TBW. The ethanol dilution method is applied to 35 subjects, and comparison with a tritium dilution method of determining TBW indicates that the correlation between the two procedures is highly significant. Lean body mass and fat fraction were determined by hydrostatic weighing, and these data also prove compatible with results obtained from the ethanol dilution method. In contrast to the radioactive tritium dilution method, the ethanol dilution method can be repeated daily with its applicability ranging from diseased individuals to individuals subjected to thermal stress, strenuous exercise, water immersion, or the weightless conditions of space flights.

  9. Water level sensor and temperature profile detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature profile detector comprising a surrounding length of metal tubing and an interior electrical conductor both constructed of high temperature high electrical resistance materials. A plurality of gas-filled expandable bellows made of electrically conductive material is electrically connected to the interior electrical conductor and positioned within the length of metal tubing. The bellows are sealed and contain a predetermined volume of a gas designed to effect movement of the bellows from an open circuit condition to a closed circuit condition in response to monitored temperature changes sensed by each bellows

  10. Temperature noise characteristics of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, F.J.; Upadhyaya, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    The core exit temperature noise RMS is linearly related to the core ΔT at a commercial PWR and LOFT. Test loop observations indicate that this linear behavior becomes nonlinear with blockages, boiling, or power skews. The linear neutron flux to temperature noise phase behavior is indicative of a pure time delay process, which has been shown to be related to coolant flow velocity in the core. Therefore, temperature noise could provide a valuable diagnostic tool for the detection of coolant blockages, boiling, and sensor malfunction under both normal and accident conditions in a PWR

  11. Spectral measurements of underwater downwelling radiance of inland water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Potes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The apparatus exploited in this work is composed of an optical cable linked to a portable FieldSpec UV/VNIR that records the spectral downwelling radiance in underwater environment, allowing us to calculate the shortwave attenuation coefficient in water. Results for three inland water bodies are presented under different atmospheric conditions (sun zenith angle and wind speed and water composition (chlorophyll α concentration and turbidity. We show that the spectral downwelling zenith radiance profiles under high sun elevations present a positive slope in the upper layers due to relatively high scattering of direct sunlight compared to attenuation. For deeper layers, attenuation overcomes the scattering of sunlight leading to a constant negative logarithmic slope. For low sun elevations, a negative slope is observed in the entire water column since the scattering of direct sunlight is always lower than attenuation. Whenever a negative logarithmic constant slope is observed, the attenuation coefficient was computed. A relation was observed between attenuation coefficient in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR spectral region and water turbidity, for the three water bodies under study.

  12. THERMAL COMFORT FOR REQUIRED BODY TEMPERATURES AND AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    KAYNAKLI, Ömer; YAMANKARADENİZ, Recep

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACTIn industrialized countries about 90 % of the time is spent indoors. The environmental parameters affecting indoor thermal comfort are air temperature, humidity, air velocity and mean radiant temperature. In assessing thermal environment, besides these environmental parameters, we should also consider some personal parameters such as clothing and human activity. In this study, we tried to determine the thermal comfort factors with reference to required skin temperature (tsk,req) and s...

  13. Isotopic ordering in eggshells reflects body temperatures and suggests differing thermophysiology in two Cretaceous dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Robert A.; Enriquez, Marcus; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Hu, David; Tütken, Thomas; Montanari, Shaena; Loyd, Sean J.; Ramirez, Pedro; Tripati, Aradhna K.; Kohn, Matthew J.; Cerling, Thure E.; Chiappe, Luis M.; Eiler, John M.

    2015-10-01

    Our understanding of the evolutionary transitions leading to the modern endothermic state of birds and mammals is incomplete, partly because tools available to study the thermophysiology of extinct vertebrates are limited. Here we show that clumped isotope analysis of eggshells can be used to determine body temperatures of females during periods of ovulation. Late Cretaceous titanosaurid eggshells yield temperatures similar to large modern endotherms. In contrast, oviraptorid eggshells yield temperatures lower than most modern endotherms but ~6 °C higher than co-occurring abiogenic carbonates, implying that this taxon did not have thermoregulation comparable to modern birds, but was able to elevate its body temperature above environmental temperatures. Therefore, we observe no strong evidence for end-member ectothermy or endothermy in the species examined. Body temperatures for these two species indicate that variable thermoregulation likely existed among the non-avian dinosaurs and that not all dinosaurs had body temperatures in the range of that seen in modern birds.

  14. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S; Hazel, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1-3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r (2) = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38(o)C, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal

  15. Salinity and temperature variations around Peninsula Malaysia coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Ishak; Jeremy Andy Anak Dominic; Nazrul Hizam Yusof; Mohd Rafaei Murtadza

    2004-01-01

    Vertical profiles of salinity and temperature were measured at several offshore stations along east and west coast of Peninsula Malaysia coastal waters. The measurements which covered South China Sea and Straits of Malacca were made during sampling cruises for Marine Database Project for Peninsula Malaysia, and during an IAEA regional training course for Marine Pollution Project. The results show that the water temperature is highest at the surface and minimum at bottom, while the salinity is lowest at the surface and highest at the bottom. In Malacca Straits, the highest surface water temperature was 30.6 degree C and the lowest bottom water temperature was 20.4 degree C, recorded at a station located in Andaman Sea. The same station also recorded the highest surface and bottom salinity i.e. 31.3 ppt and 34.4 ppt, respectively. For South China Sea, the maximum surface water temperature was 30.4 degree C and the minimum bottom temperature was 25.9 degree C, while the highest surface salinity was 33.2 ppt and the highest bottom salinity was 34.1 ppt. The water in South China Sea also showed some degrees of stratifications with thermocline zones located between 10-40 m water depths. In Malacca Straits, stronger thermocline develops at higher latitude, while at lower latitude the water is more readily mixed. Beside the spatial variations, the seawater temperature and salinity around Peninsula Malaysia also subjected to temporal variation as seawater. (Author)

  16. Is there an association between body temperature and serum lactate levels in hip fracture patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtuza, F; Farrier, A J; Venkatesan, M; Smith, R; Khan, A; Uzoigwe, C E; Chami, G

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Hyperlactataemia is associated with adverse outcomes in trauma cases. It is thought to be the result of anaerobic respiration during hypoperfusion. This produces much less energy than complete aerobic glycolysis. Low body temperature in the injured patient carries an equally poor prognosis. Significant amounts of energy are expended in maintaining euthermia. Consequently, there may be a link between lactate levels and dysthermia. Hyperlactataemia may be indicative of inefficient energy production and therefore insufficient energy to maintain euthermia. Alternatively, significant amounts of available oxygen may be sequestered in thermoregulation, resulting in anaerobic respiration and lactate production. Our study investigated whether there is an association between lactate levels and admission body temperature in hip fracture patients. Furthermore, it looked at whether there is a difference in the mean lactate levels between hip fracture patients with low (37.5°C) body temperature on admission, and for patients who have low body temperature, whether there is a progressive rise in serum lactate levels as body temperature falls. Methods The admission temperature and serum lactate of 1,162 patients presenting with hip fracture were recorded. Patients were divided into the euthermic (body temperature 36.5-37.5°C), the pyrexial (>37.5°C) and those with low body temperature (body temperature were compared. Results There was a significant difference in age between the three body temperature groups (p=0.007). The pyrexial cohort was younger than the low body temperature group (mean: 78 vs 82 years). Those with low body temperature had a higher mean lactate level than the euthermic (2.2mmol/l vs 2.0mmol/l, p=0.03). However, there was no progressive rise in serum lactate level as admission temperature fell. Conclusions The findings suggest that in hip fracture patients, the body attempts initially to maintain euthermia, incurring an oxygen debt. This would

  17. Decreases in beetle body size linked to climate change and warming temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Michelle; Kaur, Katrina M; Soleimani Pari, Sina; Sarai, Karnjit; Chan, Denessa; Yao, Christine H; Porto, Paula; Toor, Anmol; Toor, Harpawantaj S; Fograscher, Katrina

    2018-01-30

    Body size is a fundamental ecological trait and is correlated with population dynamics, community structure and function, and ecosystem fluxes. Laboratory data from broad taxonomic groups suggest that a widespread response to a warming world may be an overall decrease in organism body size. However, given the myriad of biotic and abiotic factors that can also influence organism body size in the wild, it is unclear whether results from these laboratory assays hold in nature. Here we use datasets spanning 30 to 100 years to examine whether the body size of wild-caught beetles has changed over time, whether body size changes are correlated with increased temperatures, and we frame these results using predictions derived from a quantitative review of laboratory responses of 22 beetle species to temperature. We found that 95% of laboratory-reared beetles decreased in size with increased rearing temperature, with larger-bodied species shrinking disproportionately more than smaller-bodied beetles. In addition, the museum datasets revealed that larger-bodied beetle species have decreased in size over time, that mean beetle body size explains much of the interspecific variation in beetle responses to temperature, and that long-term beetle size changes are explained by increases in autumn temperature and decreases in spring temperature in this region. Our data demonstrate that the relationship between body size and temperature of wild-caught beetles matches relatively well with results from laboratory studies, and that variation in this relationship is largely explained by interspecific variation in mean beetle body size. This long-term beetle dataset is one of the most comprehensive arthropod body size datasets compiled to date, it improves predictions regarding the shrinking of organisms with global climate change, and together with the meta-analysis data, call for new hypotheses to explain why larger-bodied organisms may be more sensitive to temperature. © 2018 The

  18. The effects of a tranquilizer on body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-10-01

    Four young adult mongrel dogs were exposed twice untranquilized to each of three environmental temperatures: 4.4C, 23.9C, and 37.8C and exposed twice tranquilized with 2.2 mg/Kg propiopromazine hydrochloride. Rectal temperatures were monitored ...

  19. Temporal profile of body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: Relation to infarct size and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Geurts (Marjolein); Scheijmans, F.E.V. (Féline E.V.); T. van Seeters (Tom); G.J. Biessels; L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta K.); H.B. van der Worp (Bart); C.B. Majoie (Charles); Y.B.W.E.M. Roos (Yvo); L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); K. Keizer (Koos); A. van der Lugt (Aad); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); Greve, D. (Droogh-de); H.P. Bienfait (Henri); M.A.A. van Walderveen (Marianne); M.J.H. Wermer (Marieke); G.J. Lycklama à Nijeholt (Geert); J. Boiten (Jelis); A. Duyndam (Anita); V.I.H. Kwa; F.J. Meijer (F.); E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud); A.M. Kesselring (Anouk); J. Hofmeijer; J.A. Vos (Jan Albert); W.J. Schonewille (Wouter); W.J. van Rooij (W.); P.L.M. de Kort (Paul); C.C. Pleiter (C.); S.L.M. Bakker (Stef); Bot, J.; M.C. Visser (Marieke); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta); I.C. van der Schaaf (Irene); J.W. Dankbaar (Jan); W.P. Mali (Willem); van Seeters, T.; A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); J.M. Niesten (Joris); G.J. Biessels (Geert Jan); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); J.S.K. Luitse; Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: High body temperatures after ischemic stroke have been associated with larger infarct size, but the temporal profile of this relation is unknown. We assess the relation between temporal profile of body temperature and infarct size and functional outcome in patients with acute

  20. Admission body temperature predicts long-term mortality after acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Rungby, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature is considered crucial in the management of acute stroke patients. Recently hypothermia applied as a therapy for stroke has been demonstrated to be feasible and safe in acute stroke patients. In the present study, we investigated the predictive role of admission body temperature...

  1. Actions That Could Reduce Water Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appendix F from Being Prepared for Climate Change: A Workbook for Developing Risk-Based Adaptation Plans, lists actions that could lower water temperture, and notes their cobenefits for urban stormwater control or restoring watersheds.

  2. Parasitic amoebae found in water bodies of Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsyuk, Marina

    2017-12-01

    Two parasitic amoebian species are found in mollusks of the water bodies of Ukraine. Vahlkampfia sp. is found in hepatopankreas of Unio conus Spengler, 1793, and Acanthamoeba sp. is observed in mantle cavity of Viviparus viviparus Linnaeus, 1758. For these protist species, the mollusks are shown to be intermediate hosts where amoebae feed and reproduce. An experimental infection with Vahlkampfia sp. and Acanthamoeba sp. was not successful, no pathological changes in mollusks were observed. These amoebae are successfully cultured in fresh water and agar medium, hence we can safely consider them free-living. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Techniques for determining total body water using deuterium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Phillip A.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of total body water (TBW) is fundamental to the study of body fluid changes consequent to microgravity exposure or treatment with microgravity countermeasures. Often, the use of radioactive isotopes is prohibited for safety or other reasons. It was selected and implemented for use by some Johnson Space Center (JCS) laboratories, which permitted serial measurements over a 14 day period which was accurate enough to serve as a criterion method for validating new techniques. These requirements resulted in the selection of deuterium oxide dilution as the method of choice for TBW measurement. The development of this technique at JSC is reviewed. The recommended dosage, body fluid sampling techniques, and deuterium assay options are described.

  4. Using Landsat image time series to study a small water body in Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao Rodríguez, Y; el Anjoumi, A; Domínguez Gómez, J A; Rodríguez Pérez, D; Rico, E

    2014-06-01

    Ramsar Convention and EU Water Framework Directive are two international agreements focused on the conservation and achievement of good ecological and chemical status of wetlands. Wetlands are important ecosystems holding many plant and animal communities. Their environmental status can be characterised by the quality of their water bodies. Water quality can be assessed from biophysical parameters (such as Chlorophyll-a concentration ([Chla]), water surface temperature and transparency) in the deeper or lacustrine zone, or from bioindicators (as submerged aquatic vegetation) in the shallow or palustrine zone. This paper proves the use of Landsat time series to measure the evolution of water quality parameters and the environmental dynamics of a small water body (6.57 ha) in a Ramsar wetland (Arreo Lake in the North of Spain). Our results show that Landsat TM images can be used to describe periodic behaviours such as the water surface temperature or the phenologic state of the submerged vegetation (through normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI) and thus detect anomalous events. We also show how [Chla] and transparency can be measured in the lacustrine zone using Landsat TM images and an algorithm adjusted for mesotrophic Spanish lakes, and the resulting values vary in time in accordance with field measurements (although these were not synchronous with the images). The availability of this algorithm also highlights anomalies in the field data series that are found to be related with the concentration of suspended matter. All this potential of Landsat imagery to monitor small water bodies in wetlands can be used for hindcasting of past evolution of these wetlands (dating back to 1970s) and will be also useful in the future thanks to the Landsat continuity mission and the Operational Land Imager.

  5. Human body flotation and organic responses to water immersion

    OpenAIRE

    Llana Belloch, Salvador; Lucas Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Pérez Soriano, Pedro; Priego Quesada, José Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Swimming is a physical activity performed in an environment where human beings are not adapted from an evolutionary point of view. For this reason, swimming for humans is considered an ontogenetic movement and not a phylogenetic one such as walking or running on land. Locomotion into the water has some very specific characteristics for the human being, since the body experiences a situation of hydrostatic microgravity which in most cases enables flotation. Flotation capacity is affected by th...

  6. Illegal fishing of inland water bodies of Nigeria: Kainji experience

    OpenAIRE

    Raji, A.; Okaeme, A.N.; Omorinkoba, W.; Bwala, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    It is a common knowledge that illegal fishing which includes use of wrong gears, explosives, excessive exploitation of choice stocks, enhancement and stocking of water body and pollution has devastating effects on the critical biomass of fish biodiversity and livelihood activities associated with fishing. Efforts worldwide to arrest these menace are significant because it has been found that illegal fishing has made fishing non sustainable, resulted in poor fishermen catches, and exacerbated...

  7. Effect of hand cooling on body temperature, cardiovascular and perceptual responses during recumbent cycling in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddock, Alan D; Tew, Garry A; Purvis, Alison J

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify physiological and perceptual responses to hand immersion in water during recumbent cycling in a hot environment. Seven physically active males (body mass 79.8 ± 6.3 kg; stature 182 ± 5 cm; age 23 ± 3 years) immersed their hands in 8, 14 and 34°C water whilst cycling at an intensity (W) equivalent to 50% [Formula: see text]O 2peak for 60 min in an environmental chamber (35°C, 50% relative humidity). 8 and 14°C water attenuated an increase in body temperature, and lowered cardiorespiratory and skin blood flow demands. These effects were considered to be practically beneficial (standardised effect size > 0.20). There was a tendency for 8 and 14°C to extend exercise duration versus 34°C (>7%). Heart rate, intestinal, mean skin and mean body temperature were less in 8°C compared to 14°C; these differences were considered practically beneficial. Augmented heat loss at the palm-water surface might enable cooler blood to return to the body and limit physiological strain. These findings provide a mechanistic basis for continuous hand cooling and indicate that endurance exercise in hot environments could be improved using this method. Future research should investigate its effectiveness during cycling and running performance.

  8. Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment during periodical changes in air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Siyeon; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5 °C with an amplitude of 6 °C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature, and 12 skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that the forehead and chest were identified as the most valid sites to predict rectal temperature (R(2) = 0.826 and 0.824, respectively) in an environment with periodically fluctuated air temperatures. This study suggests that particular skin temperatures are valid as a non-invasive variable when predicting rectal temperature of an individual wearing PPE in changing ambient temperatures. Practitioner Summary: This study should offer assistance for developing a more reliable indirect indicating system of individual heat strain for firefighters in real time, which can be used practically as a precaution of firefighters' heat-related illness and utilised along with physiological monitoring.

  9. Extracellular hyperosmolality and body temperature during physical exercise in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, S.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Turlejska, E.; Nazar, K.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that thermoregulation during exercise can be affected by extracellular fluid hyperosmolality without changing the plasma Na(+) concentration. The effects of preexercise venous infusions of hypertonic mannitol and NaCl solutions on rectal temperature responses were compared in dogs running at moderate intensity for 60 min on a treadmill. Plasma Na(+) concentration was increased by 12 meq after NaCl infusion, and decreased by 9 meq after mannitol infusion. Both infusions increased plasma by 15 mosmol/kg. After both infusions, rectal temperature was essentially constant during 60 min rest. However, compared with the noninfusion exercise increase in osmolality of 1.3 C, rectal temperature increased by 1.9 C after both postinfusion exercise experiments. It was concluded that inducing extracellular hyperosmolality, without elevating plasma, can induce excessive increases in rectal temperature during exericse but not at rest.

  10. Reduced one-body density matrix of Tonks–Girardeau gas at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xiao-Chen; Hao Ya-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    With thermal Bose–Fermi mapping method, we investigate the Tonks–Girardeau gas at finite temperature. It is shown that at low temperature, the Tonks gas displays the Fermi-like density profiles, and with the increase in temperature, the Tonks gas distributes in wider region. The reduced one-body density matrix is diagonal dominant in the whole temperature region, and the off-diagonal elements shall vanish rapidly with the deviation from the diagonal part at high temperature. (paper)

  11. Effect of Chronic Hypercapnia on Body Temperature Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-01

    temperature in rats at ambient room temperatures of 24 - 28° C. Similar effects have been demon- strated in cats, mice, dogs and rabbits6»7󈨍... glycolysis was found to be reduced 55% during maximal extra- cellular acidosis and showed a partial recovery during the later phase of ex- posure to...as demonstrated by Nahas-and Poyart^T" They observed that adrenalin-induced lipolysis and calorigenesis is inhibited in dogs when breathing a

  12. Effects of meal size, meal type, and body temperature on the specific dynamic action of anurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Stephen M; Wooten, Jessica A; Cox, Christian L

    2007-02-01

    Specific dynamic action (SDA), the increase in metabolism stemming from meal digestion and assimilation, varies as a function of meal size, meal type, and body temperature. To test predictions of these three determinants of SDA, we quantified and compared the SDA responses of nine species of anurans, Bombina orientalis, Bufo cognatus, Ceratophrys ornata, Dyscophus antongilli, Hyla cinerea, Kassina maculata, Kassina senegalensis, Pyxicephalus adspersus, and Rana catesbeiana subjected to meal size, meal type, and body temperature treatments. Over a three to seven-fold increase in meal size, anurans experienced predicted increases in postprandial rates of oxygen consumption (VO(2)) the duration of elevated VO(2) and SDA. Meal type had a significant influence on the SDA response, as the digestion and assimilation of hard-bodied, chitinous crickets, mealworms, and superworms required 76% more energy than the digestion and assimilation of soft-bodied earthworms, waxworms, and neonate rodents. Body temperature largely effected the shape of the postprandial metabolic profile; peak VO(2) increased and the duration of the response decreased with an increase in body temperature. Variation in body temperature did not significantly alter SDA for four species, whereas both H. cinerea and R. catesbeiana experienced significant increases in SDA with body temperature. For 13 or 15 species of anurans ranging in mass from 2.4 to 270 g, SMR, postprandial peak VO(2) and SDA scaled with body mass (log-log) with mass exponents of 0.79, 0.93, and 1.05, respectively.

  13. Heated Discharge Control and Management Alternatives: Small Water Bodies and Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, James F.

    Basic concepts of waste heat management on shallow and deep small water bodies and rivers are reviewed and examples are given. This study defines a small water body as a body in which the far field hydrothermal effects of a heated discharge can be detected in a major portion or practically all of the water body. Environmental effects due to…

  14. Integration of body temperature into the analysis of energy expenditure in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Vieira, Gustavo; Xiao, Cuiying; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L

    2015-06-01

    We quantified the effect of environmental temperature on mouse energy homeostasis and body temperature. The effect of environmental temperature (4-33 °C) on body temperature, energy expenditure, physical activity, and food intake in various mice (chow diet, high-fat diet, Brs3 (-/y) , lipodystrophic) was measured using continuous monitoring. Body temperature depended most on circadian phase and physical activity, but also on environmental temperature. The amounts of energy expenditure due to basal metabolic rate (calculated via a novel method), thermic effect of food, physical activity, and cold-induced thermogenesis were determined as a function of environmental temperature. The measured resting defended body temperature matched that calculated from the energy expenditure using Fourier's law of heat conduction. Mice defended a higher body temperature during physical activity. The cost of the warmer body temperature during the active phase is 4-16% of total daily energy expenditure. Parameters measured in diet-induced obese and Brs3 (-/y) mice were similar to controls. The high post-mortem heat conductance demonstrates that most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms. At 22 °C, cold-induced thermogenesis is ∼120% of basal metabolic rate. The higher body temperature during physical activity is due to a higher set point, not simply increased heat generation during exercise. Most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms, with little from fur or fat. Our analysis suggests that the definition of the upper limit of the thermoneutral zone should be re-considered. Measuring body temperature informs interpretation of energy expenditure data and improves the predictiveness and utility of the mouse to model human energy homeostasis.

  15. Thermal equilibrium and temperature differences among body regions in European plethodontid salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, Enrico; Manenti, Raoul; Canciani, Giancarlo; Scarì, Giorgio; Pennati, Roberta; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Information on species thermal physiology is extremely important to understand species responses to environmental heterogeneity and changes. Thermography is an emerging technology that allows high resolution and accurate measurement of body temperature, but until now it has not been used to study thermal physiology of amphibians in the wild. Hydromantes terrestrial salamanders are strongly depending on ambient temperature for their activity and gas exchanges, but information on their body temperature is extremely limited. In this study we tested if Hydromantes salamanders are thermoconform, we assessed whether there are temperature differences among body regions, and evaluated the time required to reach the thermal equilibrium. During summers of 2014 and 2015 we analysed 56 salamanders (Hydromantes ambrosii and Hydromantes italicus) using infrared thermocamera. We photographed salamanders at the moment in which we found them and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 15min after having kept them in the hands. Body temperature was equal to air temperature; salamanders attained the equilibrium with air temperature in about 8min, the time required to reach equilibrium was longer in individuals with large body size. We detected small temperature differences between body parts, the head being slightly warmer than the body and the tail (mean difference: 0.05°C). These salamanders quickly reach the equilibrium with the environment, thus microhabitat measurement allows obtaining accurate information on their tolerance limits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of Water Bodies from AVHRR Data—A TIMELINE Thematic Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas J. Dietz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of water body dynamics is not only in itself a topic of strong demand, but the presence of water bodies is important information when it comes to the derivation of products such as land surface temperature, leaf area index, or snow/ice cover mapping from satellite data. For the TIMELINE project, which aims to derive such products for a long time series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR data for Europe, precise water masks are therefore not only an important stand-alone product themselves, they are also an essential interstage information layer, which has to be produced automatically after preprocessing of the raw satellite data. The respective orbit segments from AVHRR are usually more than 2000 km wide and several thousand km long, thus leading to fundamentally different observation geometries, including varying sea surface temperatures, wave patterns, and sediment and algae loads. The water detection algorithm has to be able to manage these conditions based on a limited amount of spectral channels and bandwidths. After reviewing and testing already available methods for water body detection, we concluded that they cannot fully overcome the existing challenges and limitations. Therefore an extended approach was implemented, which takes into account the variations of the reflectance properties of water surfaces on a local to regional scale; the dynamic local threshold determination will train itself automatically by extracting a coarse-scale classification threshold, which is refined successively while analyzing subsets of the orbit segment. The threshold is then interpolated by fitting a minimum curvature surface before additional steps also relying on the brightness temperature are included to reduce possible misclassifications. The classification results have been validated using Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data and proven an overall accuracy of 93.4%, with the majority of

  17. Studies on the physico-chemical parameters of Omi water body of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Omi water body, the physico-chemical parameters such as dissolved oxygen ranged from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/L; pH, 6.7 to 7.2; temperature, 26.5 to 31.5°C; alkalinity, 24.2 to 25.4 ppm; conductivity, 23.0 to 28.3 Ohms/cm; turbidity 0.11 to 0.15 m; and free carbon dioxide from 3.5 to 4.5 mg/L. Dissolved oxygen, pH and water ...

  18. A proposed methodology to control body temperature in patients at risk of hypothermia by means of active rewarming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Silvia; Cusumano, Alessia; Giaconia, Carlo; Mazzacane, Sante

    2014-01-01

    Hypothermia is a common complication in patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia. It has been noted that, during the first hour of surgery, the patient's internal temperature (Tcore) decreases by 0.5-1.5°C due to the vasodilatory effect of anesthetic gases, which affect the body's thermoregulatory system by inhibiting vasoconstriction. Thus a continuous check on patient temperature must be carried out. The currently most used methods to avoid hypothermia are based on passive systems (such as blankets reducing body heat loss) and on active ones (thermal blankets, electric or hot-water mattresses, forced hot air, warming lamps, etc.). Within a broader research upon the environmental conditions, pollution, heat stress, and hypothermia risk in operating theatres, the authors set up an experimental investigation by using a warming blanket chosen from several types on sale. Their aim was to identify times and ways the human body reacts to the heat flowing from the blanket and the blanket's effect on the average temperature Tskin and, as a consequence, on Tcore temperature of the patient. The here proposed methodology could allow surgeons to fix in advance the thermal power to supply through a warming blanket for reaching, in a prescribed time, the desired body temperature starting from a given state of hypothermia.

  19. Re-designating water bodies in Denmark bypasses the Water Framework Directive objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Despite the initially ambitious provisions of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) when it first entered into force, thousands of kilometres of Danish watercourses have now lost their legal protection through the application of the WFD’s provisions concerning the designation of water bodies....... This article describes the designation process and concludes that it does not conform to the obligation carefully to assign an environmental objective to discrete and significant water bodies as set out in the WFD. Neither does it ensure the same level of protection that existed prior to the implementation...

  20. Re-designating water bodies in Denmark bypasses the Water Framework Directive objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    Despite the initially ambitious provisions of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) when it first entered into force, thousands of kilometres of Danish watercourses have now lost their legal protection through the application of the WFD’s provisions concerning the designation of water bodies....... This article describes the designation process and concludes that it does not conform to the obligation carefully to assign an environmental objective to discrete and significant water bodies as set out in the WFD. Neither does it ensure the same level of protection that existed prior to the implementation...

  1. Evaluating biochemical response of filamentous algae integrated with different water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelekli, Abuzer; Kapı, Emine; Soysal, Çiğdem; Arslanargun, Hamdullah; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2017-08-01

    The present study prompted the second attempts to evaluate biochemical responses of filamentous algae under different physico-chemical variables in various water bodies in Turkey. These variables were investigated by use of multivariate approach in the years of 2013 (May and November) and 2014 (May and October). Studied ecoregions had the different geographic position, climate, land-use, and anthropogenic activities, could strongly affect physico-chemical variables of water bodies, which caused to change or regulate in algal biomass composition due to the different response of filamentous species. Besides, biochemical responses of species changed at different sampling times and stations. Multivariate analyses indicated that temperature, heavy metals, and nutrient contents of aquatic systems were found to be major variables driving the spatial and temporal occurrence and biochemical contents of filamentous species. Total protein and pigment production by filamentous algae were high in water bodies having high nutrients, whereas they were low in high heavy metal contents. Amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), H 2 O 2 , total thiol group, total phenolic compounds, proline, total carbohydrate, and bioaccumulation of metals by filamentous algae were closely related with heavy metal contents of water bodies, indicated by the multivariate approach. Significant increase in aforementioned biochemical compounds with a distinct range of habitats and sensitive-tolerance to environmental conditions could make them highly valuable indicators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mosquito breeding site water temperature observations and simulations towards improved vector-borne disease models for Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Ernest O; Tompkins, Adrian M; Amekudzi, Leonard K; Ermert, Volker; Redl, Robert

    2016-03-31

    An energy budget model is developed to predict water temperature of typical mosquito larval developmental habitats. It assumes a homogeneous mixed water column driven by empirically derived fluxes. The model shows good agreement at both hourly and daily time scales with 10-min temporal resolution observed water temperatures, monitored between June and November 2013 within a peri-urban area of Kumasi, Ghana. There was a close match between larvae development times calculated using either the model-derived or observed water temperatures. The water temperature scheme represents a significant improvement over assuming the water temperature to be equal to air temperature. The energy budget model requires observed minimum and maximum temperatures, information that is generally available from weather stations. Our results show that hourly variations in water temperature are important for the simulation of aquatic-stage development times. By contrast, we found that larval development is insensitive to sub-hourly variations. Modelling suggests that in addition to water temperature, accurate estimation of degree-day development time is very important to correctly predict the larvae development times. The results highlight the potential of the model to predict water temperature of temporary bodies of surface water. Our study represents an important contribution towards the improvement of weatherdriven dynamical disease models, including those designed for malaria early forecasting systems.

  3. Response of chironomid species (Diptera, Chironomidae to water temperature: effects on species distribution in specific habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marziali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The response of 443 chironomid species to water temperature was analyzed, with the aim of defining their thermal optimum, tolerance limits and thermal habitat. The database included 4442 samples mainly from Italian river catchments collected from the 1950s up to date. Thermal preferences were calculated separately for larval and pupal specimens and for different habitats: high altitude and lowland lakes in the Alpine ecoregion; lowland lakes in the Mediterranean ecoregion; heavily modified water bodies; kryal, krenal, rhithral and potamal in running waters. Optimum response was calculated as mean water temperature, weighted by species abundances; tolerance as weighted standard deviation; skewness and kurtosis as 3rd and 4th moment statistics. The responses were fitted to normal uni- or plurimodal Gaussian models. Cold stenothermal species showed: i unimodal response, ii tolerance for a narrow temperature range, iii optima closed to their minimum temperature values, iv leptokurtic response. Thermophilous species showed: i optima at different temperature values, ii wider tolerance, iii optima near their maximum temperature values, iv platikurtic response, often fitting a plurimodal model. As expected, lower optima values and narrower tolerance were obtained for kryal and krenal, than for rhithral, potamal and lakes. Thermal response curves were produced for each species and were discussed according to species distribution (i.e. altitudinal range in running water and water depth in lakes, voltinism and phylogeny. Thermal optimum and tolerance limits and the definition of the thermal habitat of species can help predicting the impact of global warming on freshwater ecosystems.

  4. Circadian body temperature variability is an indicator of poor prognosis in cardiomyopathic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Amany; Gondi, Sreedevi; Cox, Casey; Wang, Suwei; Stupin, Igor V; Shankar, K J; Munir, Shahzeb M; Sobash, Ed; Brewer, Alan; Ferguson, James J; Elayda, Macarthur A; Casscells, S Ward; Wilson, James M

    2010-03-01

    Low body temperature is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in patients with congestive heart failure. The cardiomyopathic hamster develops progressive biventricular dysfunction, resulting in heart failure death at 9 months to 1 year of life. Our goal was to use cardiomyopathic hamsters to examine the relationship between body temperature and heart failure decompensation and death. To this end, we implanted temperature and activity transducers with telemetry into the peritoneal space of 46 male Bio-TO-2 Syrian cardiomyopathic hamsters. Multiple techniques, including computing mean temperature, frequency domain analysis, and nonlinear analysis, were used to determine the most useful method for predicting poor prognosis. Data from 44 hamsters were included in our final analysis. We detected a decline in core body temperature in 98% of the hamsters 8+/-4 days before death (P temperature variation (ie, the circadian rhythm) by using cosinor analysis, which revealed a significant decrease in the amplitude of the body temperature circadian rhythm 8 weeks before death (0.28 degrees C; 95% CI, 0.26-0.31) compared to baseline (0.36 degrees C; 95% CI, 0.34-0.39; P=.005). The decline in the circadian temperature variation preceded all other evidence of decompensation. We conclude that a decrease in the amplitude of the body temperature circadian rhythm precedes fatal decompensation in cardiomyopathic hamsters. Continuous temperature monitoring may be useful in predicting preclinical decompensation in patients with heart failure and in identifying opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship of ultrasound signal intensity with SonoVue concentration at body temperature in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Li, Jing; He, Xiaoling; Wu, Kaizhi; Yuan, Yun; Ding, Mingyue

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the relationship between image intensity and ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) concentration is investigated. Experiments are conducted in water bath using a silicon tube filled with UCA (SonoVue) at different concentrations (100μl/l to 6000μl/l) at around 37 °C to simulate the temperature in human body. The mean gray-scale intensity within the region of interest (ROI) is calculated to obtain the plot of signal intensity to UCA concentration. The results show that the intensity firstly exhibits a linear increase to the peak at approximately 1500μl/l then appears a downward trend due to the multiple scattering (MS) effects.

  6. NOS CO-OPS Meteorological Data, Water Temperature, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has Water Temperature data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). WARNING: These preliminary data have not...

  7. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL, 1853-present, Water Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have water temperature data. *These services are for testing and evaluation...

  8. Investigating the effect of surface water - groundwater interactions on stream temperature using Distributed temperature sensing and instream temperature model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karthikeyan, Matheswaran; Blemmer, Morten; Mortensen, Julie Flor

    2011-01-01

    Surface water–groundwater interactions at the stream interface influences, and at times controls the stream temperature, a critical water property driving biogeochemical processes. This study investigates the effects of these interactions on temperature of Stream Elverdamsåen in Denmark using...... the Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) system and instream temperature modelling. Locations of surface water–groundwater interactions were identified from the temperature data collected over a 2-km stream reach using a DTS system with 1-m spatial and 5-min temporal resolution. The stream under consideration...... surface water–groundwater interactions on heterogeneous behaviour of stream temperature....

  9. The costs of keeping cool in a warming world: implications of high temperatures for foraging, thermoregulation and body condition of an arid-zone bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Katherine L; Martin, Rowan O; Hockey, Philip A R; Cunningham, Susan J; Ridley, Amanda R

    2012-10-01

    Recent mass mortalities of bats, birds and even humans highlight the substantial threats that rising global temperatures pose for endotherms. Although less dramatic, sublethal fitness costs of high temperatures may be considerable and result in changing population demographics. Endothermic animals exposed to high environmental temperatures can adjust their behaviour (e.g. reducing activity) or physiology (e.g. elevating rates of evaporative water loss) to maintain body temperatures within tolerable limits. The fitness consequences of these adjustments, in terms of the ability to balance water and energy budgets and therefore maintain body condition, are poorly known. We investigated the effects of daily maximum temperature on foraging and thermoregulatory behaviour as well as maintenance of body condition in a wild, habituated population of Southern Pied Babblers Turdoides bicolor. These birds inhabit a hot, arid area of southern Africa where they commonly experience environmental temperatures exceeding optimal body temperatures. Repeated measurements of individual behaviour and body mass were taken across days varying in maximum air temperature. Contrary to expectations, foraging effort was unaffected by daily maximum temperature. Foraging efficiency, however, was lower on hotter days and this was reflected in a drop in body mass on hotter days. When maximum air temperatures exceeded 35.5 °C, individuals no longer gained sufficient weight to counter typical overnight weight loss. This reduction in foraging efficiency is likely driven, in part, by a trade-off with the need to engage in heat-dissipation behaviours. When we controlled for temperature, individuals that actively dissipated heat while continuing to forage experienced a dramatic decrease in their foraging efficiency. This study demonstrates the value of investigations of temperature-dependent behaviour in the context of impacts on body condition, and suggests that increasingly high temperatures will

  10. PEM Water Electrolysis at Elevated Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Kalmar

    Global warming and the accelerating depletion of fossil based fuels have catalysed a tremendous surge in the development of alternative and sustainable energy sources e.g. wind-, solar- and hydropower. Common for most of these alternative energy sources is that they at times provide more power than...... needed and hence it has become acute to be able to store the energy. Hydrogen has been identified as a suitable energy carrier and water electrolysis is one way to produce it in a sustainable and environmentally friendly way. In this thesis an introduction to the subject (chapter 1) is given followed...... by a literature review of the field of water electrolysis (chapter 2), with a focus on proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis. In chapter 3 a short description of the experimental techniques used for synthesis of catalyst and characterisation of the components in the electrolysis cell is given...

  11. Sprectroradiometric characteristics of inland water bodies infestated by Oscillatoria rubescens algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo; Maltese, Antonino

    2010-10-01

    In December 2006 blooms of Oscillatoria rubescens were found in the reservoir Prizzi in Sicily. Oscillatoria is a genus of filamentous alga comprising approximately 6 species, between these the O. rubescens is sadly famous since this organism produces microcystins which are powerful hepatotoxins. Firstly found in Europe in 1825 on Geneva lake, recently (2006) those algae has been find out in Pozzillo, Nicoletti e Ancipa reservoirs (Enna Province), as well as in Prizzi (Palermo Province) and Garcia reservoirs (Trapani Province). Toxins produced by those bacteria (usually called microcystine LR-1 and LR-2) are highly toxic since they can activate oncogenes cells causing cancer pathologies on liver and gastrointestinal tract. Even if water treatment plants should ensure the provision of safe drinking water from surface waters contaminated with those toxic algae blooms, the contamination of reservoirs used for civil and agricultural supply highlights human health risks. International literature suggests a threshold value of 0.01 μgl-1 to avoid liver cancer using water coming from contaminated water bodies for a long period. Since O. rubescens activities is strongly related to phosphate and nitrogen compounds as well as to temperature and light transmission within water, the paper presents the comparison between optical properties of the water of an infested reservoir and those of a reservoir characterized by clear water. Field campaigns were carried out in February-March 2008 in order to quantify the spectral transparencies of two water bodies through the calculation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient, measuring underwater downwelling irradiance at different depths as well as water spectral reflectance. Results show that diffuse attenuation coefficient is reduced by approximately 15% reducing light penetration in the water column; coherently reflectance spectral signature generally decreases, exhibiting a characteristic peak around 703 nm not present in

  12. Changes in body temperature in king penguins at sea: the result of fine adjustments in peripheral heat loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander; Alard, Frank; Handrich, Yves

    2006-09-01

    To investigate thermoregulatory adjustments at sea, body temperatures (the pectoral muscle and the brood patch) and diving behavior were monitored during a foraging trip of several days at sea in six breeding king penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus. During inactive phases at sea (water temperature: 4-7 degrees C), all tissues measured were maintained at normothermic temperatures. The brood patch temperature was maintained at the same values as those measured when brooding on shore (38 degrees C). This high temperature difference causes a significant loss of heat. We hypothesize that high-energy expenditure associated with elevated peripheral temperature when resting at sea is the thermoregulatory cost that a postabsorptive penguin has to face for the restoration of its subcutaneous body fat. During diving, mean pectoral temperature was 37.6 +/- 1.6 degrees C. While being almost normothermic on average, the temperature of the pectoral muscle was still significantly lower than during inactivity in five out of the six birds and underwent temperature drops of up to 5.5 degrees C. Mean brood patch temperature was 29.6 +/- 2.5 degrees C during diving, and temperature decreases of up to 21.6 degrees C were recorded. Interestingly, we observed episodes of brood patch warming during the descent to depth, suggesting that, in some cases, king penguins may perform active thermolysis using the brood patch. It is hypothesized that functional pectoral temperature may be regulated through peripheral adjustments in blood perfusion. These two paradoxical features, i.e., lower temperature of deep tissues during activity and normothermic peripheral tissues while inactive, may highlight the key to the energetics of this diving endotherm while foraging at sea.

  13. Prediction of human core body temperature using non-invasive measurement methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermann, Reto; Wyss, Eva; Annaheim, Simon; Psikuta, Agnes; Davey, Sarah; Rossi, René Michel

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of core body temperature is an efficient method for monitoring heat stress amongst workers in hot conditions. However, invasive measurement of core body temperature (e.g. rectal, intestinal, oesophageal temperature) is impractical for such applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define relevant non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature under various conditions. We conducted two human subject studies with different experimental protocols, different environmental temperatures (10 °C, 30 °C) and different subjects. In both studies the same non-invasive measurement methods (skin temperature, skin heat flux, heart rate) were applied. A principle component analysis was conducted to extract independent factors, which were then used in a linear regression model. We identified six parameters (three skin temperatures, two skin heat fluxes and heart rate), which were included for the calculation of two factors. The predictive value of these factors for core body temperature was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The calculated root mean square deviation (rmsd) was in the range from 0.28 °C to 0.34 °C for all environmental conditions. These errors are similar to previous models using non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature. The results from this study illustrate that multiple physiological parameters (e.g. skin temperature and skin heat fluxes) are needed to predict core body temperature. In addition, the physiological measurements chosen in this study and the algorithm defined in this work are potentially applicable as real-time core body temperature monitoring to assess health risk in broad range of working conditions.

  14. Prediction of human core body temperature using non-invasive measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermann, Reto; Wyss, Eva; Annaheim, Simon; Psikuta, Agnes; Davey, Sarah; Rossi, René Michel

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of core body temperature is an efficient method for monitoring heat stress amongst workers in hot conditions. However, invasive measurement of core body temperature (e.g. rectal, intestinal, oesophageal temperature) is impractical for such applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define relevant non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature under various conditions. We conducted two human subject studies with different experimental protocols, different environmental temperatures (10 °C, 30 °C) and different subjects. In both studies the same non-invasive measurement methods (skin temperature, skin heat flux, heart rate) were applied. A principle component analysis was conducted to extract independent factors, which were then used in a linear regression model. We identified six parameters (three skin temperatures, two skin heat fluxes and heart rate), which were included for the calculation of two factors. The predictive value of these factors for core body temperature was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The calculated root mean square deviation (rmsd) was in the range from 0.28 °C to 0.34 °C for all environmental conditions. These errors are similar to previous models using non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature. The results from this study illustrate that multiple physiological parameters (e.g. skin temperature and skin heat fluxes) are needed to predict core body temperature. In addition, the physiological measurements chosen in this study and the algorithm defined in this work are potentially applicable as real-time core body temperature monitoring to assess health risk in broad range of working conditions.

  15. P2X(3) receptor gating near normal body temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kmyhz, V.; Maximyuk, O.; Teslenko, V.; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Krishtal, O.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 456, č. 12 (2008), s. 339-347 ISSN 0031-6768 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : P2X3 receptors * Temperature-sensitivity * Gating Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.526, year: 2008

  16. Monitoring the body temperature of cows and calves using video recordings from an infrared thermography camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Gundula; Schmidt, Mariana; Ammon, Christian; Rose-Meierhöfer, Sandra; Burfeind, Onno; Heuwieser, Wolfgang; Berg, Werner

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the variability of temperatures measured by a video-based infrared camera (IRC) in comparison to rectal and vaginal temperatures. The body surface temperatures of cows and calves were measured contactless at different body regions using videos from the IRC. Altogether, 22 cows and 9 calves were examined. The differences of the measured IRC temperatures among the body regions, i.e. eye (mean: 37.0 °C), back of the ear (35.6 °C), shoulder (34.9 °C) and vulva (37.2 °C), were significant (P infrared thermography videos has the advantage to analyze more than 1 picture per animal in a short period of time, and shows potential as a monitoring system for body temperatures in cattle.

  17. A study on the applicability of implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes

    2010-01-01

    Background The applicability of an electronic monitoring system using microchip transponders for measurement of body temperatures was tested in 6-week-old conventional Danish weaners infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Subcutaneous tissue temperatures obtained by the implantable...... transponders were compared with rectal temperatures, recorded by a conventional digital thermometer. Methods In a preliminary study, transponders were inserted subcutaneously at 6 different positions of the body of 5 pigs. The transponders positioned by the ear base provided the best correlation to rectal......C lower than the rectal temperature. However, a simple linear relationship between the measures of the two methods was found. Conclusions Our study showed that the tested body monitoring system may represent a promising tool to obtain an approximate correlate of body temperatures in groups of pigs...

  18. Increased benefit of alteplase in patients with ischemic stroke and a high body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, Inger; den Hertog, Heleen; van Gemert, Maarten; Dippel, Diederik; van der Worp, Bart

    2013-01-01

    In observational studies, a high body temperature has been associated with unfavorable outcome. In in vitro studies, the fibrinolytic activity of alteplase decreased 5% per degree Celsius reduction in temperature. The modifying effect of body temperature on treatment with alteplase in patients with acute ischemic stroke is unclear. We assessed the influence of baseline body temperature on the effect of alteplase on functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke, included in the Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) in Stroke (PAIS) trial. PAIS was a randomized, double-blind clinical trial to assess the effect of high-dose paracetamol on functional outcome in patients with acute stroke. For this study, we selected all patients with ischemic stroke and randomization within 6 h of symptom onset. We estimated the effect of treatment with alteplase on the modified Rankin Scale score at 3 months with ordinal logistic regression, stratified by baseline body temperature. We made adjustments for confounding factors and expressed associations as adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We also tested for interaction between treatment with alteplase and body temperature. We included 647 of the 1,400 patients in PAIS in our study. Treatment with alteplase was associated with improved functional outcome at 3 months (aOR 1.51, 95% CI 1.09-2.08). In the 286 patients (44%) with a baseline body temperature of 37.0°C or higher, alteplase was associated with a larger effect (aOR 2.13, 95% CI 1.28-3.45) than in patients with a temperature below 37.0°C (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 0.71-1.69). A test for interaction between body temperature and alteplase did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.18). Patients with ischemic stroke and a high body temperature may have a larger benefit of treatment with alteplase than patients with lower body temperatures. These findings are in line with those from in vitro studies, in which lowering temperature decreased the fibrinolytic

  19. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at “JHH” due to the limit of “COD” as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them. PMID:26516623

  20. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at "JHH" due to the limit of "COD" as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them.

  1. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarfraz Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU; Gankeng River (GKS; Xia Zhang River (XZY; Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR; Jiu Haogang River (JHH in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD, dissolved oxygen (DO, total phosphorus (TP, and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP. The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at “JHH” due to the limit of “COD” as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river’s water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them.

  2. Water temperature modeling in the Garonne River (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larnier K.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Stream water temperature is one of the most important parameters for water quality and ecosystem studies. Temperature can influence many chemical and biological processes and therefore impacts on the living conditions and distribution of aquatic ecosystems. Simplified models such as statistical models can be very useful for practitioners and water resource management. The present study assessed two statistical models – an equilibrium-based model and stochastic autoregressive model with exogenous inputs – in modeling daily mean water temperatures in the Garonne River from 1988 to 2005. The equilibrium temperature-based model is an approach where net heat flux at the water surface is expressed as a simpler form than in traditional deterministic models. The stochastic autoregressive model with exogenous inputs consists of decomposing the water temperature time series into a seasonal component and a short-term component (residual component. The seasonal component was modeled by Fourier series and residuals by a second-order autoregressive process (Markov chain with use of short-term air temperatures as exogenous input. The models were calibrated using data of the first half of the period 1988–2005 and validated on the second half. Calibration of the models was done using temperatures above 20 °C only to ensure better prediction of high temperatures that are currently at stake for the aquatic conditions of the Garonne River, and particularly for freshwater migrating fishes such as Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.. The results obtained for both approaches indicated that both models performed well with an average root mean square error for observed temperatures above 20 °C that varied on an annual basis from 0.55 °C to 1.72 °C on validation, and good predictions of temporal occurrences and durations of three temperature threshold crossings linked to the conditions of migration and survival of Atlantic Salmon.

  3. Body temperature and major neurological improvement in tPA-treated stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvistad, C E; Thomassen, L; Waje-Andreassen, U; Logallo, N; Naess, H

    2014-05-01

    Major neurological improvement (MNI) at 24 hours represents a marker of early recanalization in ischaemic stroke. Although low body temperature is considered neuroprotective in cerebral ischaemia, some studies have suggested that higher body temperature may promote clot lysis in the acute phase of ischaemic stroke. We hypothesized that higher body temperature was associated with MNI in severe stroke patients treated with tPA, suggesting a beneficial effect of higher body temperature on clot lysis and recanalization. Patients with ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) treated with tPA between February 2006 and August 2012 were prospectively included and retrospectively analysed. Body temperature was measured upon admission. MNI was defined by a ≥8 point improvement in NIHSS score at 24 hours as compared to NIHSS score on admission. No significant improvement (no-MNI) was defined by either an increase in NIHSS score or a decrease of ≤2 points at 24 hours in patients with an admission NIHSS score of ≥8. Of the 2351 patients admitted with ischaemic stroke or TIA, 347 patients (14.8%) were treated with tPA. A total of 32 patients (9.2%) had MNI and 56 patients (16.1%) had no-MNI. Patients with MNI had higher body temperatures compared with patients with no-MNI (36.7°C vs 36.3°C, P = 0.004). Higher body temperature was independently associated with MNI when adjusted for confounders (OR 5.16, P = 0.003). Higher body temperature was independently associated with MNI in severe ischaemic stroke patients treated with tPA. This may suggest a beneficial effect of higher body temperature on clot lysis and recanalization. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Plasticity of Performance Curves Can Buffer Reaction Rates from Body Temperature Variation in Active Endotherms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Seebacher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Endotherms regulate their core body temperature by adjusting metabolic heat production and insulation. Endothermic body temperatures are therefore relatively stable compared to external temperatures. The thermal sensitivity of biochemical reaction rates is thought to have co-evolved with body temperature regulation so that optimal reaction rates occur at the regulated body temperature. However, recent data show that core body temperatures even of non-torpid endotherms fluctuate considerably. Additionally, peripheral temperatures can be considerably lower and more variable than core body temperatures. Here we discuss whether published data support the hypothesis that thermal performance curves of physiological reaction rates are plastic so that performance is maintained despite variable body temperatures within active (non-torpid endotherms, and we explore mechanisms that confer plasticity. There is evidence that thermal performance curves in tissues that experience thermal fluctuations can be plastic, although this question remains relatively unexplored for endotherms. Mechanisms that alter thermal responses locally at the tissue level include transient potential receptor ion channels (TRPV and TRPM and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK both of which can influence metabolism and energy expenditure. Additionally, the thermal sensitivity of processes that cause post-transcriptional RNA degradation can promote the relative expression of cold-responsive genes. Endotherms can respond to environmental fluctuations similarly to ectotherms, and thermal plasticity complements core body temperature regulation to increase whole-organism performance. Thermal plasticity is ancestral to endothermic thermoregulation, but it has not lost its selective advantage so that modern endotherms are a physiological composite of ancestral ectothermic and derived endothermic traits.

  5. Plasticity of Performance Curves Can Buffer Reaction Rates from Body Temperature Variation in Active Endotherms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebacher, Frank; Little, Alexander G.

    2017-01-01

    Endotherms regulate their core body temperature by adjusting metabolic heat production and insulation. Endothermic body temperatures are therefore relatively stable compared to external temperatures. The thermal sensitivity of biochemical reaction rates is thought to have co-evolved with body temperature regulation so that optimal reaction rates occur at the regulated body temperature. However, recent data show that core body temperatures even of non-torpid endotherms fluctuate considerably. Additionally, peripheral temperatures can be considerably lower and more variable than core body temperatures. Here we discuss whether published data support the hypothesis that thermal performance curves of physiological reaction rates are plastic so that performance is maintained despite variable body temperatures within active (non-torpid) endotherms, and we explore mechanisms that confer plasticity. There is evidence that thermal performance curves in tissues that experience thermal fluctuations can be plastic, although this question remains relatively unexplored for endotherms. Mechanisms that alter thermal responses locally at the tissue level include transient potential receptor ion channels (TRPV and TRPM) and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) both of which can influence metabolism and energy expenditure. Additionally, the thermal sensitivity of processes that cause post-transcriptional RNA degradation can promote the relative expression of cold-responsive genes. Endotherms can respond to environmental fluctuations similarly to ectotherms, and thermal plasticity complements core body temperature regulation to increase whole-organism performance. Thermal plasticity is ancestral to endothermic thermoregulation, but it has not lost its selective advantage so that modern endotherms are a physiological composite of ancestral ectothermic and derived endothermic traits. PMID:28824463

  6. Plasticity of Performance Curves Can Buffer Reaction Rates from Body Temperature Variation in Active Endotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebacher, Frank; Little, Alexander G

    2017-01-01

    Endotherms regulate their core body temperature by adjusting metabolic heat production and insulation. Endothermic body temperatures are therefore relatively stable compared to external temperatures. The thermal sensitivity of biochemical reaction rates is thought to have co-evolved with body temperature regulation so that optimal reaction rates occur at the regulated body temperature. However, recent data show that core body temperatures even of non-torpid endotherms fluctuate considerably. Additionally, peripheral temperatures can be considerably lower and more variable than core body temperatures. Here we discuss whether published data support the hypothesis that thermal performance curves of physiological reaction rates are plastic so that performance is maintained despite variable body temperatures within active (non-torpid) endotherms, and we explore mechanisms that confer plasticity. There is evidence that thermal performance curves in tissues that experience thermal fluctuations can be plastic, although this question remains relatively unexplored for endotherms. Mechanisms that alter thermal responses locally at the tissue level include transient potential receptor ion channels (TRPV and TRPM) and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) both of which can influence metabolism and energy expenditure. Additionally, the thermal sensitivity of processes that cause post-transcriptional RNA degradation can promote the relative expression of cold-responsive genes. Endotherms can respond to environmental fluctuations similarly to ectotherms, and thermal plasticity complements core body temperature regulation to increase whole-organism performance. Thermal plasticity is ancestral to endothermic thermoregulation, but it has not lost its selective advantage so that modern endotherms are a physiological composite of ancestral ectothermic and derived endothermic traits.

  7. [The effect of body temperature control on organ function and prognosis in patients with refractory septic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoting; Liu, Dawei; Yang, Yanli; Zhou, Xiang; Chai, Wenzhao; Long, Yun; Zhang, Hongmin; Zhang, Qing; He, Huaiwu

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effect of body temperature control on organ function and prognosis in patients with refractory septic shock. A total of 67 eligible patients with the body temperature over 38.5 °C were enrolled in the study and all patients were treated with a water-flow cooling blanket to control the body temperature below 38.3 °C for 72 hours. The core and peripheral temperature was tested at 1 hour interval. All patients were devised into the following two groups according to their mean core temperature within the 72 hours: the HT group with a mean core temperature ≥ 37.5 °C and the LT group with a mean core temperature temperature increased above 38.5 °C. Thirty-four patients (50.7%) were classified into the HT group, while thirty-three patients (49.3%) were in the LT group. Compared with the HT group, higher mortality rate at Day 28 was observed in the LT group (69.7% vs 35.3%, P = 0.005). Significant difference in the increase of sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was found between of the HT and the LT groups (1.30 ± 0.90 vs 2.30 ± 2.10, P = 0.02). Statistical differences were observed between the two groups in mean core temperature [(37.90 ± 0.30) °C vs (36.80 ± 0.60) °C, P peripheral temperature [(37.20 ± 0.30) °C vs (36.30 ± 0.60) °C, P temperature [(36.90 ± 0.30)°C vs (35.80 ± 0.60) °C, P peripheral temperature [(36.20 ± 0.40) °C vs (35.50 ± 0.60) °C, P peripheral temperature.Statistical difference was also shown in troponin I, fibrinogen, partial thromboplastin and activated partial thromboplastin between the two groups. Cox regression analysis revealed that the mean core temperature was the only independent predictor for the mortality rate at Day 28. Body temperature control within the normal range may exert potentially detrimental effect on organ function and prognosis in patients with refractory septic shock with fever.

  8. Room temperature line lists for deuterated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyuberis, Aleksandra A.; Zobov, Nikolay F.; Naumenko, Olga V.; Voronin, Boris A.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Lodi, Lorenzo; Liu, Anwen; Hu, Shui-Ming; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    Line lists are presented for six deuterated isotopologues of water vapor namely HD16O, HD17O, HD18O, D216O, D217O and D218O. These line lists are prepared using empirically-determined energy levels, where available, to provide transition frequencies and high-quality ab initio dipole moment surfaces to provide transition intensities. The reliability of the predicted intensities is tested by computing multiple line lists and analyzing the stability of the results. The resulting intensities are expected to be accurate to a few percent for well-behaved, stable transitions. Complete T = 296 K line lists are provided for each species.

  9. Possible effects of regulating hydroponic water temperature on plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-12-29

    Dec 29, 2010 ... on the production of chlorophyll pigments in plants grown during the winter period. POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF REGULATING HYDROPONIC. WATER TEMPERATURE REGIMES ON THE. PHOTOSYNTHESIS RATE. Temperature is an important environmental factor to plants, which directly influences their ...

  10. Temperature stratification in a hot water tank with circulation pipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the project is to investigate the change in temperature stratification due to the operation of a circulation pipe. Further, putting forward rules for design of pipe inlet in order not to disturb the temperature stratification in the hot water tank. A validated computer model based...

  11. Complex interactions between temperature and relative humidity on water balance of adult tsetse (Glossinidae, Diptera: implications for climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsje eKleynhans

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Insect water balance plays an important role in determining energy budgets, activity patterns, survival and population dynamics and, hence, geographic distribution. Tsetse (Glossina spp. are important vectors of human and animal disease occupying a wide range of habitats in Africa and are notable for their desiccation resistance in xeric environments. Here, we measure water balance traits (water loss rate, body water content and body lipid content in adult flies across a range of temperature (20 – 30 °C and relative humidity (0 – 99 % combinations in four tsetse species from both xeric and mesic habitats. Water loss rates were significantly affected by measurement under different temperature and relative humidity combinations, while body water content, body lipid content and mass were less affected. Different effects of temperature and relative humidity within and among experimental conditions and species suggests cuticular permeability and saturation deficit are likely to be key factors in forecasting tsetse water balance responses to climate variability. These results provide support for mass–independent inter– and intra–specific variation in water loss rates and survival times. Therefore, water balance responses to variation in temperature and relative humidity are complex in Glossina, and this response varies within and among species, sub–groups and ecotypes in terms of both magnitude of effects and the direction of change. This complicates potential forecasting of tsetse distribution in the face of climate change.

  12. Microchip transponder thermometry for monitoring core body temperature of antelope during capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Fuller, Andrea; Hetem, Robyn S; Lease, Hilary M; Mitchell, Duncan; Meyer, Leith C R

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthermia is described as the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with capture, immobilization and restraint of wild animals. Therefore, accurately determining the core body temperature of wild animals during capture is crucial for monitoring hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. We investigated if microchip thermometry can accurately reflect core body temperature changes during capture and cooling interventions in the springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), a medium-sized antelope. Subcutaneous temperature measured with a temperature-sensitive microchip was a weak predictor of core body temperature measured by temperature-sensitive data loggers in the abdominal cavity (R(2)=0.32, bias >2 °C). Temperature-sensitive microchips in the gluteus muscle, however, provided an accurate estimate of core body temperature (R(2)=0.76, bias=0.012 °C). Microchips inserted into muscle therefore provide a convenient and accurate method to measure body temperature continuously in captured antelope, allowing detection of hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Circadian rhythms of body temperature and locomotor activity in the antelope ground squirrel, Ammospermophilus leucurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refinetti, Roberto; Kenagy, G J

    2018-02-01

    We studied circadian rhythms of body temperature and locomotor activity in antelope ground squirrels (Ammospermophilus leucurus) under laboratory conditions of a 12L:12D light-dark cycle and in constant darkness. Antelope ground squirrels are diurnally active and, exceptionally among ground squirrels and other closely related members of the squirrel family in general, they do not hibernate. Daily oscillations in body temperature consisted of a rise in temperature during the daytime activity phase of the circadian cycle and a decrease in temperature during the nighttime rest phase. The body temperature rhythms were robust (71% of maximal strength) with a daily range of oscillation of 4.6°C, a daytime mean of 38.7°C, and a nighttime mean of 34.1°C (24-h overall mean 36.4°C). The body temperature rhythm persisted in continuous darkness with a free-running period of 24.2h. This pattern is similar to that of hibernating species of ground squirrels but with a wave form more similar to that of non-hibernating rodents. Daily oscillations in body temperature were correlated with individual bouts of activity, but daytime temperatures were higher than nighttime temperatures even when comparing short episodes of nocturnal activity that were as intense as diurnal activity. This suggests that although muscular thermogenesis associated with locomotor activity can modify the level of body temperature, the circadian rhythm of body temperature is not simply a consequence of the circadian rhythm of activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Deeply torpid bats can change position without elevation of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonička, Tomáš; Bandouchova, Hana; Berková, Hana; Blažek, Ján; Lučan, Radek; Horáček, Ivan; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, Jiri; Řehák, Zdeněk; Zukal, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Because body temperature is tightly coupled to physiological function, hibernating animals entering deep torpor are typically immobile. We analysed thermal behaviour and locomotory activity of hibernating greater mouse-eared bats Myotis myotis and found two types of movement behaviour related to body temperature, i.e. movement at high fur temperature and at low fur temperatures (Tflow; body temperature. Distance travelled, flight duration and speed of locomotion during Tflow events was lower than in high fur temperature events. Such behaviour could allow bats to save energy long-term and prolong torpor bouts. Tflow movement in torpid bats significantly changes our understanding of basic hibernation principles and we strongly recommend further studies on the subject. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Development and validation of a drinking water temperature model in domestic drinking water supply systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatanovic, Ljiljana; Moerman, Andreas; Hoek, van der, Jan Peter; Vreeburg, Jan; Blokker, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    Domestic drinking water supply systems (DDWSs) are the final step in the delivery of drinking water to consumers. Temperature is one of the rate-controlling parameters for many chemical and microbiological processes and is, therefore, considered as a surrogate parameter for water quality processes. In this study, a mathematical model is presented that predicts temperature dynamics of the drinking water in DDWSs. A full-scale DDWS resembling a conventional system was built and run according to...

  16. Spatial Variability of Wet Troposphere Delays Over Inland Water Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Ali; Clark, Elizabeth A.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2017-11-01

    Satellite radar altimetry has enabled the study of water levels in large lakes and reservoirs at a global scale. The upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission (scheduled launch 2020) will simultaneously measure water surface extent and elevation at an unprecedented accuracy and resolution. However, SWOT retrieval accuracy will be affected by a number of factors, including wet tropospheric delay—the delay in the signal's passage through the atmosphere due to atmospheric water content. In past applications, the wet tropospheric delay over large inland water bodies has been corrected using atmospheric moisture profiles based on atmospheric reanalysis data at relatively coarse (tens to hundreds of kilometers) spatial resolution. These products cannot resolve subgrid variations in wet tropospheric delays at the spatial resolutions (of 1 km and finer) that SWOT is intended to resolve. We calculate zenith wet tropospheric delays (ZWDs) and their spatial variability from Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical weather prediction model simulations at 2.33 km spatial resolution over the southwestern U.S., with attention in particular to Sam Rayburn, Ray Hubbard, and Elephant Butte Reservoirs which have width and length dimensions that are of order or larger than the WRF spatial resolution. We find that spatiotemporal variability of ZWD over the inland reservoirs depends on climatic conditions at the reservoir location, as well as distance from ocean, elevation, and surface area of the reservoir, but that the magnitude of subgrid variability (relative to analysis and reanalysis products) is generally less than 10 mm.

  17. Global River Discharge and Water Temperature under Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Franssen, W.H.P.; Yearsley, J.R.; Ludwig, F.; Haddeland, I.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; Kabat, P.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change will affect hydrologic and thermal regimes of rivers, having a direct impact on freshwater ecosystems and human water use. Here we assess the impact of climate change on global river flows and river water temperatures, and identify regions that might become more critical for

  18. 21 CFR 1250.42 - Water systems; constant temperature bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and protected as to minimize the hazard of contamination of the water supply. (c) On all new or... at all times as to prevent contamination of the water. (e) Constant temperature bottles and other... subjected to effective bactericidal treatment as often as may be necessary to prevent the contamination of...

  19. Temperature-programmed desorption of water and ammonia on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of water and ammonia over. ZrO2 and sulphated ZrO2 prepared by different methods has been investigated for measuring strong acidity and acidity distribution on sulphated zirconia-type solid super-acid catalysts. The TPD of water provides a simple reliable method for ...

  20. Profound and rapid reduction in body temperature induced by the melanocortin receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Kim, Eun Ran; Fan, Shengjie; Xia, Yan; Xu, Yong; Huang, Cheng; Tong, Qingchun

    2014-08-22

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) plays a major role in body weight regulation and its agonist MTII has been widely used to study the role of MC4Rs in energy expenditure promotion and feeding reduction. Unexpectedly, we observed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of MTII induced a rapid reduction in both body temperature and energy expenditure, which was independent of its effect on feeding and followed by a prolonged increase in energy expenditure. The rapid reduction was at least partly mediated by brain neurons since intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone, an endogenous melanocortin receptor agonist, produced a similar response. In addition, the body temperature-lowering effect of MTII was independent of the presence of MC4Rs, but in a similar fashion to the previously shown effect on body temperature by 5'AMP. Moreover, β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) were required for the recovery from low body temperature induced by MTII and further pharmacological studies showed that the MTII's effect on body temperature may be partially mediated by the vasopressin V1a receptors. Collectively, our results reveal a previously unappreciated role for the melanocortin pathway in rapidly lowering body temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Temporal profile of body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: relation to infarct size and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Marjolein; Scheijmans, Féline E V; van Seeters, Tom; Biessels, Geert J; Kappelle, L Jaap; Velthuis, Birgitta K; van der Worp, H Bart

    2016-11-21

    High body temperatures after ischemic stroke have been associated with larger infarct size, but the temporal profile of this relation is unknown. We assess the relation between temporal profile of body temperature and infarct size and functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. In 419 patients with acute ischemic stroke we assessed the relation between body temperature on admission and during the first 3 days with both infarct size and functional outcome. Infarct size was measured in milliliters on CT or MRI after 3 days. Poor functional outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ≥3 at 3 months. Body temperature on admission was not associated with infarct size or poor outcome in adjusted analyses. By contrast, each additional 1.0 °C in body temperature on day 1 was associated with 0.31 ml larger infarct size (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.59), on day 2 with 1.13 ml larger infarct size(95% CI, 0.83-1.43), and on day 3 with 0.80 ml larger infarct size (95% CI, 0.48-1.12), in adjusted linear regression analyses. Higher peak body temperatures on days two and three were also associated with poor outcome (adjusted relative risks per additional 1.0 °C in body temperature, 1.52 (95% CI, 1.17-1.99) and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.22-1.77), respectively). Higher peak body temperatures during the first days after ischemic stroke, rather than on admission, are associated with larger infarct size and poor functional outcome. This suggests that prevention of high temperatures may improve outcome if continued for at least 3 days.

  2. Influence of fine water droplets to temperature and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidzal, M. H. M.; Hamzah, A.; Manaf, M. Z. A.; Saadun, M. N. A.; Zakaria, M. S.; Roslizar, A.; Jumaidin, R.

    2015-05-01

    Excessively dry air can cause dry skin, dry eyes and exacerbation of medical conditions. Therefore, many researches have been done in order to increase humidity in our environment. One of the ways is by using water droplets. Nowadays, it is well known in market stand fan equipped with water mister in order to increase the humidity of certain area. In this study, the same concept is applied to the ceiling fan. This study uses a model that combines a humidifier which functions as cooler, ceiling fan and scaled down model of house. The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of ceiling fan humidifier to the temperature and humidity in a house. The mechanism of this small model uses batteries as the power source, connected to the fan and the humidifier. The small water tank's function is to store and supply water to the humidifier. The humidifier is used to cool the room by changing water phase to fine water droplets. Fine water droplets are created from mechanism of the humidifier, which is by increasing the kinetic energy of water molecule using high frequency vibration that overcome the holding force between water molecules. Thus, the molecule of water will change to state of gas or mist. The fan is used to spread out the mist of water to surrounding of the room in order to enhance the humidity. Thermocouple and humidity meter are used to measure temperature and humidity in some period of times. The result shows that humidity increases and temperature decreases with time. This application of water droplet can be applied in the vehicles and engine in order to decrease the temperature.

  3. Relationships between brain and body temperature, clinical and imaging outcomes after ischemic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaszewski, Bartosz; Carpenter, Trevor K; Thomas, Ralph G R; Armitage, Paul A; Lymer, Georgina Katherine S; Marshall, Ian; Dennis, Martin S; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2013-01-01

    Pyrexia soon after stroke is associated with severe stroke and poor functional outcome. Few studies have assessed brain temperature after stroke in patients, so little is known of its associations with body temperature, stroke severity, or outcome. We measured temperatures in ischemic and normal-appearing brain using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and its correlations with body (tympanic) temperature measured four-hourly, infarct growth by 5 days, early neurologic (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, NIHSS) and late functional outcome (death or dependency). Among 40 patients (mean age 73 years, median NIHSS 7, imaged at median 17 hours), temperature in ischemic brain was higher than in normal-appearing brain on admission (38.6°C-core, 37.9°C-contralateral hemisphere, P=0.03) but both were equally elevated by 5 days; both were higher than tympanic temperature. Ischemic lesion temperature was not associated with NIHSS or 3-month functional outcome; in contrast, higher contralateral normal-appearing brain temperature was associated with worse NIHSS, infarct expansion and poor functional outcome, similar to associations for tympanic temperature. We conclude that brain temperature is higher than body temperature; that elevated temperature in ischemic brain reflects a local tissue response to ischemia, whereas pyrexia reflects the systemic response to stroke, occurs later, and is associated with adverse outcomes. PMID:23571281

  4. Effect of River Restoration on Ground Water Recharge: Investigation of Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions with Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, A.-M.; Schirmer, M.

    2012-04-01

    Following the EU Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (1) Switzerland passed the Water Protection Act 814.20 (2), obligating the cantons to restoring their surface water bodies to a near-natural state within the next 100 years. In case of rivers and streams this comprises the provision of extensive areas to allow for meandering, sufficient discharge to prevent drying-out of the river, as might be caused by hydropower production, and adequate water quality, e.g. by limiting waste water discharge. Hereby, the main aim lies in improving the ecological status of the surface water bodies, as well as flood protection and mitigation (2). However, apart from the enhancement of the water quality, river restoration has the potential to increase groundwater recharge due to improved connectivity between the surface water bodies and the underlying aquifers. A new method for the estimation of groundwater recharge in rivers is currently developed at Eawag in Switzerland, and will be employed to investigate if river restoration enhances groundwater recharge. This method comprises the use of distributed temperature sensing (DTS), as well as heatable glass-fibre optics cables. DTS is a fibre-optical method for temperature determination over long distances with high accuracy and precision (3), largely depending on the instrument settings and calibration, as well as the fibre-optics cables employed in the measurements (4). Temperature data will be used to distinguish between ground- and surface water, due to their different temperature signatures (5). By heating the glass-fibre optics cable the additional information on the cooling behaviour of the cable may be used to (i) distinguish between up- and downwelling water and to (ii) estimate the volume of water exchanged locally in the river bed. In order to separate the signal of horizontal flow from vertical flow over the cable, it will be buried 30-40 cm deep in the river bed; a control cable will be installed in 10-20 cm depth right

  5. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  6. Using Three-Body Recombination to Extract Electron Temperatures of Ultracold Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, R. S.; Zhang, X. L.; Rolston, S. L.

    2007-01-01

    Three-body recombination, an important collisional process in plasmas, increases dramatically at low electron temperatures, with an accepted scaling of T e -9/2 . We measure three-body recombination in an ultracold neutral xenon plasma by detecting recombination-created Rydberg atoms using a microwave-ionization technique. With the accepted theory (expected to be applicable for weakly coupled plasmas) and our measured rates, we extract the plasma temperatures, which are in reasonable agreement with previous measurements early in the plasma lifetime. The resulting electron temperatures indicate that the plasma continues to cool to temperatures below 1 K

  7. Water quenching of a filament heated to high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthoud, G.; Boulin, A.; Gros D'Aillon, L.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to precise the type of heat transfer which takes place when a filament heated to high temperature is plunged into water. The originality of this study resides in the high temperature and in the study of pressure effects. A scale analysis allows to distinguish between two extreme cases: the strong under-cooling where the main part of the heat lost by the filament is used to heat the water, and the weak under-cooling where the main part of the heat is used to vaporize water. A correlation is proposed for the first case. (J.S.)

  8. Water Recycling removal using temperature-sensitive hydronen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana B. Gupta

    2002-10-30

    The overall objective of this project was to study the proposed Water Recycling/Removal Using Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogels. The main element of this technology is the design of a suitable hydrogel that can perform needed water separation for pulp and paper industry. The specific topics studied are to answer following questions: (a) Can water be removed using hydrogel from large molecules such as lignin? (b) Can the rate of separation be made faster? (c) What are the molecular interactions with hydrogel surface? (d) Can a hydrogel be designed for a high ionic strength and high temperature? Summary of the specific results are given.

  9. Intraoperative body temperature control: esophageal thermometer versus infrared tympanic thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Vanessa de Brito; Nascimento, Ariane de Souza

    2016-01-01

    To verify the correlation between temperature measurements performed using an infrared tympanic thermometer and an esophageal thermometer during the intraoperative period. A longitudinal study of repeated measures was performed including subjects aged 18 years or older undergoing elective oncologic surgery of the digestive system, with anesthesia duration of at least 1 hour. Temperature measurements were performed simultaneously by a calibrated esophageal thermometer and by a calibrated infrared tympanic thermometer, with laboratory reading precision of ±0.2ºC. The operating room temperature remained between 19 and 21ºC. The study included 51 patients, mostly men (51%), white (80.4%). All patients were kept warm by a forced-air heating system, for an average of 264.14 minutes (SD = 87.7). The two temperature measurements showed no different behavior over time (p = 0.2205), however, tympanic measurements were consistently 1.24°C lower (pde temperatura realizadas por meio de um termômetro timpânico por infravermelho e por um termômetro esofágico, durante o período intraoperatório. Realizou-se um estudo longitudinal, de medidas repetidas, incluindo sujeitos com idade igual ou superior a 18 anos, submetidos à cirurgia oncológica eletiva do sistema digestório, com duração da anestesia de, no mínimo, 1 hora. As medidas de temperatura eram realizadas, ao mesmo tempo, por meio de um termômetro esofágico calibrado e por termômetro timpânico por infravermelho calibrado, com precisão de leitura em laboratório de ±0,2ºC. A temperatura da sala operatória permaneceu entre 19 e 21ºC. Foram incluídos 51 pacientes, em sua maioria homens (51%), brancos (80,4%). Todos os pacientes foram aquecidos com o sistema de ar forçado aquecido, em média por 264,14 minutos (DP = 87,7). As duas medidas de temperatura não tiveram comportamento diferente ao longo do tempo (p = 0,2205), mas a medida timpânica foi consistentemente menor em 1,24°C (p < 0,0001). O term

  10. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  11. Emperor penguin body surfaces cool below air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, D J; Gilbert, C; Thierry, A-M; Currie, J; Le Maho, Y; Ancel, A

    2013-06-23

    Emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri are able to survive the harsh Antarctic climate because of specialized anatomical, physiological and behavioural adaptations for minimizing heat loss. Heat transfer theory predicts that metabolic heat loss in this species will mostly depend on radiative and convective cooling. To examine this, thermal imaging of emperor penguins was undertaken at the breeding colony of Pointe Géologie in Terre Adélie (66°40' S 140° 01' E), Antarctica in June 2008. During clear sky conditions, most outer surfaces of the body were colder than surrounding sub-zero air owing to radiative cooling. In these conditions, the feather surface will paradoxically gain heat by convection from surrounding air. However, owing to the low thermal conductivity of plumage any heat transfer to the skin surface will be negligible. Future thermal imaging studies are likely to yield further insights into the adaptations of this species to the Antarctic climate.

  12. Bromide space, total body water, and sick cell syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, O.; Hundeshagen, H.; Lehr, L.

    1982-01-01

    Displacements of the bromide space (Br-82-C, as a marker for the extracellular fluid compartment) are caused by an enhanced anatomical space and/or increased permeability of cells to bromide. The ratio Br-82-C: total body water (TBW) was evaluated to be 0.83 +- 0.17 in critically ill patients (n = 38) compared with the normal value of 0.46 +- 0.04 (n = 10). Because of normal TBW in critically ill patients (TBW = 505 +- 68 ml/kg), an increased bromide penetration into cells seems to be responsible for the enlarged ratio Br-82-C: TBW. Taking into consideration measurements in patients with malabsorption (Br-82-C: TBW = 0.56 +- 0.13; n = 13) and carcinoma of the rectum and colon (Br-82-C: TBW = 0.66 +- 0.24; n = 18) we think that the bromide space is a good measurement of the effective extracellular water. (orig.)

  13. Quantifying body water kinetics and fecal and urinary water output from lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamy, J A D R N; Wagner-Riddle, C; Casper, D P; France, J; Kebreab, E

    2014-10-01

    Reliable estimates of fresh manure water output from dairy cows help to improve storage design, enhance efficiency of land application, quantify the water footprint, and predict nutrient transformations during manure storage. The objective of the study was to construct a mechanistic, dynamic, and deterministic mathematical model to quantify urinary and fecal water outputs (kg/d) from individual lactating dairy cows. The model contained 4 body water pools: reticulorumen (QRR), post-reticulorumen (QPR), extracellular (QEC), and intracellular (QIC). Dry matter (DM) intake, dietary forage, DM, crude protein, acid detergent fiber and ash contents, milk yield, and milk fat and protein contents, days in milk, and body weight were input variables to the model. A set of linear equations was constructed to determine drinking, feed, and saliva water inputs to QRR and fractional water passage from QRR to QPR. Water transfer via the rumen wall was subjected to changes in QEC and total water input to QRR. Post-reticulorumen water passage was adjusted for DM intake. Metabolic water production and respiratory cutaneous water losses were estimated with functions of heat production in the model. Water loss in urine was driven by absorbed N left after being removed via milk. Model parameters were estimated simultaneously using observed fecal and urinary water output data from lactating Holstein cows (n=670). The model was evaluated with data that were not used for model development and optimization (n=377). The observations in both data sets were related to thermoneutral conditions. The model predicted drinking water intake, fecal, urinary, and total fresh manure water output with root mean square prediction errors as a percentage of average values of 18.1, 15.6, 30.6, and 14.6%, respectively. In all cases, >97% of the prediction error was due to random variability of data. The model can also be used to determine saliva production, heat and metabolic water production, respiratory

  14. An Examination of Body Temperature for the Rocky Intertidal Mussel species, Mytilus californianus, Using Remotely Sensed Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J.; Liff, H.; Lakshmi, V.

    2012-12-01

    results suggest that temperatures (surface temperature and air temperature) are similar across larger spatial scales even when the type of data collection is different. Mussel logger temperatures were strongly correlated to SSTs and were not significantly different than SSTs. Sea surface temperature collected during the Aqua overpass explained 67.1% of the variation in mean monthly mussel logger temperature. When SST, LST, and IST were taken into consideration, nearly 73% of the variation in mussel logger temperature was explained. While in situ monthly air temperature and water temperature explained only 28-33% of the variation in mussel logger temperature. Our results suggests that remotely sensed surface temperatures are reliable and important measurements that can be used to better understand the effects temperature may have on intertidal mussel species in Strawberry Hill, Oregon. Remotely sensed surface temperature could act as a relative indicator of change and may be used to predict general habitat trends and drivers that could directly affect organism body temperature.

  15. Temperature of ground water at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1979- 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulachok, Gary N.

    1986-01-01

    Anthropogenic heat production has undoubtedly caused increased ground-water temperatures in many parts of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as shown by temperatures of 98 samples and logs of 40 wells measured during 1979-81. Most sample temperatures were higher than 12.6 degrees Celsius (the local mean annual air temperature), and many logs depict cooling trends with depth (anomalous gradients). Heating of surface and shallow-subsurface materials has likely caused the elevated temperatures and anomalous gradients. Solar radiation on widespread concrete and asphalt surfaces, fossil-fuel combustion, and radiant losses from buried pipelines containing steam and process chemicals are believed to be the chief sources of heat. Some heat from these and other sources is transferred to deeper zones, mainly by conduction. Temperatures in densely urbanized areas are commonly highest directly beneath the land surface and decrease progressively with depth. Temperatures in sparsely urbanized areas generally follow the natural geothermal gradient and increase downward at about that same rate.

  16. Hibernation in black bears: independence of metabolic suppression from body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøien, Øivind; Blake, John; Edgar, Dale M; Grahn, Dennis A; Heller, H Craig; Barnes, Brian M

    2011-02-18

    Black bears hibernate for 5 to 7 months a year and, during this time, do not eat, drink, urinate, or defecate. We measured metabolic rate and body temperature in hibernating black bears and found that they suppress metabolism to 25% of basal rates while regulating body temperature from 30° to 36°C, in multiday cycles. Heart rates were reduced from 55 to as few as 9 beats per minute, with profound sinus arrhythmia. After returning to normal body temperature and emerging from dens, bears maintained a reduced metabolic rate for up to 3 weeks. The pronounced reduction and delayed recovery of metabolic rate in hibernating bears suggest that the majority of metabolic suppression during hibernation is independent of lowered body temperature.

  17. Responses of invertebrates to temperature and water stress: A polar perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everatt, Matthew J; Convey, Pete; Bale, Jeffrey S; Worland, M Roger; Hayward, Scott A L

    2015-12-01

    As small bodied poikilothermic ectotherms, invertebrates, more so than any other animal group, are susceptible to extremes of temperature and low water availability. In few places is this more apparent than in the Arctic and Antarctic, where low temperatures predominate and water is unusable during winter and unavailable for parts of summer. Polar terrestrial invertebrates express a suite of physiological, biochemical and genomic features in response to these stressors. However, the situation is not as simple as responding to each stressor in isolation, as they are often faced in combination. We consider how polar terrestrial invertebrates manage this scenario in light of their physiology and ecology. Climate change is also leading to warmer summers in parts of the polar regions, concomitantly increasing the potential for drought. The interaction between high temperature and low water availability, and the invertebrates' response to them, are therefore also explored. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Proposed Methodology to Control Body Temperature in Patients at Risk of Hypothermia by means of Active Rewarming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Costanzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothermia is a common complication in patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia. It has been noted that, during the first hour of surgery, the patient’s internal temperature (Tcore decreases by 0.5–1.5°C due to the vasodilatory effect of anesthetic gases, which affect the body’s thermoregulatory system by inhibiting vasoconstriction. Thus a continuous check on patient temperature must be carried out. The currently most used methods to avoid hypothermia are based on passive systems (such as blankets reducing body heat loss and on active ones (thermal blankets, electric or hot-water mattresses, forced hot air, warming lamps, etc.. Within a broader research upon the environmental conditions, pollution, heat stress, and hypothermia risk in operating theatres, the authors set up an experimental investigation by using a warming blanket chosen from several types on sale. Their aim was to identify times and ways the human body reacts to the heat flowing from the blanket and the blanket’s effect on the average temperature Tskin and, as a consequence, on Tcore temperature of the patient. The here proposed methodology could allow surgeons to fix in advance the thermal power to supply through a warming blanket for reaching, in a prescribed time, the desired body temperature starting from a given state of hypothermia.

  19. Temperature impacts on the water year 2014 drought in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Safeeq, Mohammad; AghaKouchak, Amir; Guan, Kaiyu; Funk, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    California is experiencing one of the worst droughts on record. Here we use a hydrological model and risk assessment framework to understand the influence of temperature on the water year (WY) 2014 drought in California and examine the probability that this drought would have been less severe if temperatures resembled the historical climatology. Our results indicate that temperature played an important role in exacerbating the WY 2014 drought severity. We found that if WY 2014 temperatures resembled the 1916–2012 climatology, there would have been at least an 86% chance that winter snow water equivalent and spring-summer soil moisture and runoff deficits would have been less severe than the observed conditions. We also report that the temperature forecast skill in California for the important seasons of winter and spring is negligible, beyond a lead-time of one month, which we postulate might hinder skillful drought prediction in California.

  20. Wearable sensors in intelligent clothing for measuring human body temperature based on optical fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Yang, Haijing; Li, Enbang; Liu, Zhihui; Wei, Kejia

    2012-05-21

    Measuring body temperature is considerably important to physiological studies as well as clinical investigations. In recent years, numerous observations have been reported and various methods of measurement have been employed. The present paper introduces a novel wearable sensor in intelligent clothing for human body temperature measurement. The objective is the integration of optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensors into functional textiles to extend the capabilities of wearable solutions for body temperature monitoring. In addition, the temperature sensitivity is 150 pm/°C, which is almost 15 times higher than that of a bare FBG. This study combines large and small pipes during fabrication to implant FBG sensors into the fabric. The law of energy conservation of the human body is considered in determining heat transfer between the body and its clothing. The mathematical model of heat transmission between the body and clothed FBG sensors is studied, and the steady-state thermal analysis is presented. The simulation results show the capability of the material to correct the actual body temperature. Based on the skin temperature obtained by the weighted average method, this paper presents the five points weighted coefficients model using both sides of the chest, armpits, and the upper back for the intelligent clothing. The weighted coefficients of 0.0826 for the left chest, 0.3706 for the left armpit, 0.3706 for the right armpit, 0.0936 for the upper back, and 0.0826 for the right chest were obtained using Cramer's Rule. Using the weighting coefficient, the deviation of the experimental result was ± 0.18 °C, which favors the use for clinical armpit temperature monitoring. Moreover, in special cases when several FBG sensors are broken, the weighted coefficients of the other sensors could be changed to obtain accurate body temperature.

  1. Climate and basin drivers of seasonal river water temperature dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laizé, Cédric L. R.; Bruna Meredith, Cristian; Dunbar, Michael J.; Hannah, David M.

    2017-06-01

    Stream water temperature is a key control of many river processes (e.g. ecology, biogeochemistry, hydraulics) and services (e.g. power plant cooling, recreational use). Consequently, the effect of climate change and variability on stream temperature is a major scientific and practical concern. This paper aims (1) to improve the understanding of large-scale spatial and temporal variability in climate-water temperature associations, and (2) to assess explicitly the influence of basin properties as modifiers of these relationships. A dataset was assembled including six distinct modelled climatic variables (air temperature, downward short-wave and long-wave radiation, wind speed, specific humidity, and precipitation) and observed stream temperatures for the period 1984-2007 at 35 sites located on 21 rivers within 16 basins (Great Britain geographical extent); the study focuses on broad spatio-temporal patterns, and hence was based on 3-month-averaged data (i.e. seasonal). A wide range of basin properties was derived. Five models were fitted (all seasons, winter, spring, summer, and autumn). Both site and national spatial scales were investigated at once by using multi-level modelling with linear multiple regressions. Model selection used multi-model inference, which provides more robust models, based on sets of good models, rather than a single best model. Broad climate-water temperature associations common to all sites were obtained from the analysis of the fixed coefficients, while site-specific responses, i.e. random coefficients, were assessed against basin properties with analysis of variance (ANOVA). All six climate predictors investigated play a role as a control of water temperature. Air temperature and short-wave radiation are important for all models/seasons, while the other predictors are important for some models/seasons only. The form and strength of the climate-stream temperature association vary depending on season and on water temperature. The

  2. IMPACT OF WATER TEMPERATURE ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-08-07

    These tests conducted this past quarter have indicated that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels at water temperatures ranging from 7 to 23 C. Percent kill will likely be somewhat lower at very low temperatures, e.g., 7 C, but even at such low temperatures high mussel kill can still be achieved (>70% kill). This is significant because the development of a zebra mussel control method that is efficacious in such a wide range of temperatures broadens its usefulness as a potential commercial product.

  3. Spectral clustering for water body spectral types analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Leping; Li, Shijin; Wang, Lingli; Chen, Deqing

    2017-11-01

    In order to study the spectral types of water body in the whole country, the key issue of reservoir research is to obtain and to analyze the information of water body in the reservoir quantitatively and accurately. A new type of weight matrix is constructed by utilizing the spectral features and spatial features of the spectra from GF-1 remote sensing images comprehensively. Then an improved spectral clustering algorithm is proposed based on this weight matrix to cluster representative reservoirs in China. According to the internal clustering validity index which called Davies-Bouldin(DB) index, the best clustering number 7 is obtained. Compared with two clustering algorithms, the spectral clustering algorithm based only on spectral features and the K-means algorithm based on spectral features and spatial features, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed spectral clustering algorithm based on spectral features and spatial features has a higher clustering accuracy, which can better reflect the spatial clustering characteristics of representative reservoirs in various provinces in China - similar spectral properties and adjacent geographical locations.

  4. Rapid computer prediction of total body water in fluid overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloerb, P.R.; Palaskas, C.L.; Mintun, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Using computer analysis of the early plasma arterial disappearance curve of tritiated water (HTO), we sought the fewest points and earliest times needed to predict the final volume of dilution, total body water (TBW). In ten anesthetized adult female dogs weighing 19.1 +/- 0.5 kg, with bilateral ureteral ligation, 500 muC HTO were given IV. Arterial blood samples were taken until equilibrium (3 hours), when the approximate equivalent of extracellular fluid (ECF), 4,000 ml of lactated Ringer's solution, was given IV within 1 hour. The next day, in the second phase of the study, 1,000 muC of HTO were given IV and arterial blood samples were taken at intervals up to equilibrium (5 hours). TBW at 3 hours after the first HTO infusion was 63.3 +/- 1.2% body weight. Using a curve-fitting Fortran program (CFIT), the arterial plasma HTO concentrations were fitted to one or two exponentials. Although initial TBW could be predicted from arterial plasma concentrations of HTO during 20 minutes after injection in normally hydrated dogs, values during 60 minutes were required for accurate prediction of TBW after infusion of 4 L of fluid. TBW in normal and fluid-loaded animals was predicted within 2.3 +/- 0.6% of the final HTO equilibrium

  5. Water Reservoirs in Small Planetary Bodies: Meteorites, Asteroids, and Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Conel M. O'D.; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Altwegg, Kathrin

    2018-02-01

    Asteroids and comets are the remnants of the swarm of planetesimals from which the planets ultimately formed, and they retain records of processes that operated prior to and during planet formation. They are also likely the sources of most of the water and other volatiles accreted by Earth. In this review, we discuss the nature and probable origins of asteroids and comets based on data from remote observations, in situ measurements by spacecraft, and laboratory analyses of meteorites derived from asteroids. The asteroidal parent bodies of meteorites formed ≤ 4 Ma after Solar System formation while there was still a gas disk present. It seems increasingly likely that the parent bodies of meteorites spectroscopically linked with the E-, S-, M- and V-type asteroids formed sunward of Jupiter's orbit, while those associated with C- and, possibly, D-type asteroids formed further out, beyond Jupiter but probably not beyond Saturn's orbit. Comets formed further from the Sun than any of the meteorite parent bodies, and retain much higher abundances of interstellar material. CI and CM group meteorites are probably related to the most common C-type asteroids, and based on isotopic evidence they, rather than comets, are the most likely sources of the H and N accreted by the terrestrial planets. However, comets may have been major sources of the noble gases accreted by Earth and Venus. Possible constraints that these observations can place on models of giant planet formation and migration are explored.

  6. Increasing Water Temperature Triggers Dominance of Small Freshwater Plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasconi, Serena; Gall, Andrea; Winter, Katharina; Kainz, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Climate change scenarios predict that lake water temperatures will increase up to 4°C and rainfall events will become more intense and frequent by the end of this century. Concurrently, supply of humic substances from terrestrial runoff is expected to increase, resulting in darker watercolor ("brownification") of aquatic ecosystems. Using a multi-seasonal, low trophic state mesocosm experiment, we investigated how higher water temperature and brownification affect plankton community composition, phenology, and functioning. We tested the hypothesis that higher water temperature (+3°C) and brownification will, a) cause plankton community composition to shift toward small sized phytoplankton and cyanobacteria, and, b) extend the length of the growing season entailing higher phytoplankton production later in the season. We demonstrate that the 3°C increase of water temperature favored the growth of heterotrophic bacteria and small sized autotrophic picophytoplankton cells with significantly higher primary production during warmer fall periods. However, 3X darker water (effect of brownification) caused no significant changes in the plankton community composition or functioning relative to control conditions. Our findings reveal that increased temperature change plankton community structure by favoring smaller sized species proliferation (autotrophic phytoplankton and small size cladocerans), and increase primary productivity and community turnover. Finally, results of this multi-seasonal experiment suggest that warming by 3°C in aquatic ecosystems of low trophic state may cause planktonic food web functioning to become more dominated by fast growing, r-trait species (i.e., small sizes and rapid development).

  7. Use of extremity insulation during whole body hyperthermia to reduce temperature nonuniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, D.E.; Page, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The author previously documented during whole body hyperthermia in dogs using a radiant heating device that temperature at superficial sites, including tibial bone marrow, falls below systemic arterial temperature during the plateau phase of heating. This may be due to direct heat loss to the environment. Sites where temperature is lower than systemic arterial temperature during the plateau phase may become sanctuary sites where tumor deposits are spared because they do not receive the prescribed thermal dose. In an attempt to decrease temperature nonuniformity and increase thermal dose delivered to such superficial sites, extremity insulation has been employed during whole body hyperthermia in dogs. The author measured temperature at cutaneous and subcutaneous sites and within tibial bone marrow in insulated and noninsulated extremities of dogs undergoing whole body hyperthermia in the radiant heating device. The author found that extremity insulation is effective in reducing extremity temperature nonuniformity. Specific results are presented. Extremity insulation may be necessary during whole body hyperthermia to assure that extremity tumor deposits receive a thermal dose similar to that prescribed for the entire body

  8. Water body detection from TanDEM-X data: concept and first evaluation of an accurate water indication mask

    OpenAIRE

    Wendleder, Anna; Breunig, Markus; Klaus, Martin; Wessel, Birgit; Roth, Achim

    2011-01-01

    Additionally to the global DEM which is the main product of the TanDEM-X mission a global water body mask will be produced. The main goal of this water mask is to deliver an information layer for any subsequent DEM editing process. It is derived from the SAR amplitude and coherence. In this paper, the concept of the global water body detection is explained and a first evaluation of the single coverage water body detection is presented.

  9. Association between body water status and acute mountain sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Gatterer

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The present study determined the association between body fluid variation and the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS in adults. METHODS: Forty-three healthy participants (26 males and 17 females, age: 26 ± 6 yr, height: 174 ± 9 cm, weight: 68 ± 12 kg were passively exposed at a FiO2 of 12.6% (simulated altitude hypoxia of 4500 m, PiO2 = 83.9 mmHg for 12-h. AMS severity was assessed using the Lake Louise Score (LLS. Food and drink intakes were consumed ad libitum and measured; all urine was collected. Before and after the 12-h exposure, body weight and plasma osmolality were measured and whole-body bioimpedance analysis was performed. RESULTS: The overall AMS incidence was 43% (38% males, 50% females. Participants who developed AMS showed lower fluid losses (3.0 ± 0.9 vs. 4.5 ± 2.0 ml/kg/h, p = 0.002, a higher fluid retention (1.9 ± 1.5 vs. 0.6 ± 0.8 ml/kg/h, p = 0.022, greater plasma osmolality decreases (-7 ± 7 vs. -2 ± 5 mOsm/kg, p = 0.028 and a larger plasma volume expansion (11 ± 10 vs. 1 ± 15%, p = 0.041 compared to participants not developing AMS. Net water balance (fluid intake--fluid loss and the amount of fluid loss were strong predictors whether getting sick or not (Nagelkerkes r(2 = 0.532. The LLS score was related to net water balance (r = 0.358, p = 0.018, changes in plasma osmolality (r = -0.325, p = 0.033 and sodium concentration (r = -0.305, p = 0.047. Changes in the impedance vector length were related to weight changes (r = -0.550, p<0.001, fluid intake (r = -0.533, p<0.001 and net water balance (r = -0.590, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Participants developing AMS within 12 hours showed a positive net water balance due to low fluid loss. Thus measures to avoid excess fluid retention are likely to reduce AMS symptoms.

  10. Reconstructing bottom water temperatures from measurements of temperature and thermal diffusivity in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesner, F.; Lechleiter, A.; Müller, C.

    2015-07-01

    Continuous monitoring of oceanic bottom water temperatures is a complicated task, even in relatively easy-to-access basins like the North or Baltic seas. Here, a method to determine annual bottom water temperature variations from inverse modeling of instantaneous measurements of temperatures and sediment thermal properties is presented. This concept is similar to climate reconstructions over several thousand years from deep borehole data. However, in contrast, the presented method aims at reconstructing the recent temperature history of the last year from sediment thermal properties and temperatures from only a few meters depth. For solving the heat equation, a commonly used forward model is introduced and analyzed: knowing the bottom water temperature variations for the preceding years and the thermal properties of the sediments, the forward model determines the sediment temperature field. The bottom water temperature variation is modeled as an annual cosine defined by the mean temperature, the amplitude and a phase shift. As the forward model operator is non-linear but low-dimensional, common inversion schemes such as the Newton algorithm can be utilized. The algorithms are tested for artificial data with different noise levels and for two measured data sets: from the North Sea and from the Davis Strait. Both algorithms used show stable and satisfying results with reconstruction errors in the same magnitude as the initial data error. In particular, the artificial data sets are reproduced with accuracy within the bounds of the artificial noise level. Furthermore, the results for the measured North Sea data show small variances and resemble the bottom water temperature variations recorded from a nearby monitoring site with relative errors smaller than 1 % in all parameters.

  11. Production technology of an oxygen ion conductive ceramic for high temperature fuel cells and high temperature water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimke, G.; Mayer, H.; Reckziegel, A.

    1981-11-01

    The subject of this research work was the development of a technology to produce ceramic bodies of stabilized zirconia for the application in high temperature fuel cells and high temperature water electrolysis. Such bodies sintered from Yttria-Ytterbia- and Yttria-doped zirconia with high density (>= 95% theoretical) and electrical conductivity (>= 0.1Ω -1 x cm -1 ), small grain size (approx. equal to 20-30 μm) and wall thickness (0,5 mm minimum) could be produced by conventional production methods (sintering of pressed mixed and ground calcined raw materials in production furnaces) at temperatures above 1700 0 C. Ceramics of almost theoretical density and extremely fine grained structure ( 0 C by use of coprecipitated powders. These powders are very expensive. Therefore their use for a mass production is not yet efficient. In consideration of some other facts it should be possible to produce suitable ceramic bodies with small wall thickness as cheap mass products by useful methods. (orig.) [de

  12. Dietary fatty acid composition influences tissue lipid profiles and regulation of body temperature in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hamo, Miriam; McCue, Marshall D; McWilliams, Scott R; Pinshow, Berry

    2011-08-01

    Many avian species reduce their body temperature (T(b)) to conserve energy during periods of inactivity, and we recently characterized how ambient temperature (T(a)) and nutritional stress interact with one another to influence physiologically controlled hypothermic responses in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). In the present study, we examined how the fatty acid (FA) composition of the diet influences the FA composition of phospholipids in major organs and how these affect controlled hypothermic responses and metabolic rates in fasted birds. For 5 weeks prior to fasting, quail were fed a standard diet and gavaged each morning with 0.7 ml of water (control), or a vegetable oil comprising saturated fatty acids (SFA; coconut oil), or unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; canola oil). Birds were then fasted for 4 days at a T(a) of 15°C. We found that, while fasting, both photophase and scotophase T(b) decreased significantly more in the SFA treatment group than in the control group; apparently the former down-regulated their T(b) set point. This deeper hypothermic response was correlated with changes in the phospholipid composition of the skeletal muscle and liver, which contained significantly more oleic acid (18:1) and less arachidonic acid (20:4), respectively. Our data imply that these two FAs may be associated with thermoregulation.

  13. Investigating the effect of surface water - groundwater interactions on stream temperature using Distributed temperature sensing and instream temperature model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karthikeyan, Matheswaran; Blemmer, Morten; Mortensen, Julie Flor

    2011-01-01

    Surface water–groundwater interactions at the stream interface influences, and at times controls the stream temperature, a critical water property driving biogeochemical processes. This study investigates the effects of these interactions on temperature of Stream Elverdamsåen in Denmark using...... the Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) system and instream temperature modelling. Locations of surface water–groundwater interactions were identified from the temperature data collected over a 2-km stream reach using a DTS system with 1-m spatial and 5-min temporal resolution. The stream under consideration...... exhibits three distinct thermal regimes within a 2 km reach length due to two major interactions. An energy balance model is used to simulate the instream temperature and to quantify the effect of these interactions on the stream temperature. This research demonstrates the effect of reach level small scale...

  14. Variations of body temperature and metabolism during entrance into cold lethargy in the bat Myotis myotis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldmaier, Gerhard

    1970-01-01

    Bats of temperate zones which hibernate during winter become cold-lethargic during their diurnal rest time even in summer. At the end of their nocturnal activity period they show a drop in body temperature close to ambient temperature (M. myotis, cf. Pohl, 1961). This takes place periodically even

  15. No effects of huddling on core body temperature in rock hyrax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Huddling is a behavioural energy conservation mechanism that is widely used by many small endotherms at low ambient temperatures. Huddling has many benefits, including decreasing the metabolic cost of maintaining body temperature (Tb), reducing the amount of heat lost to the environment, and increasing the local ...

  16. Improvements in X-band transmitter phase stability through Klystron body temperature regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the techniques used and experimental results obtained in improving transmitter stability by control of the klystron body temperature. Related work in the measurement of klystron phase control parameters (pushing factors) is also discussed. The contribution of wave guide temperature excursions to uplink phase stability is presented. Suggestions are made as to the direction of future work in this area.

  17. Sea water desalination utilizing waste heat by low temperature evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raha, A.; Srivastava, A.; Rao, I.S.; Majumdar, M.; Srivastava, V.K.; Tewari, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    Economics of a process is controlled by management of energy and resources. Fresh water has become most valued resource in industries. Desalination is a process by which fresh water resource is generated from sea water or brackish water, but it is an energy intensive process. The energy cost contributes around 25-40% to the total cost of the desalted water. Utilization of waste heat from industrial streams is one of the ecofriendly ways to produce low cost desalted water. Keeping this in mind Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) desalination technology utilizing low quality waste heat in the form of hot water (as low as 50 deg C) or low pressure steam (0.13 bar) has been developed for offshore and land based applications to produce high purity water (conductivity < 2μS/cm) from sea water. The probability of the scale formation is practically eliminated by operating it at low temperature and controlling the brine concentration. It also does not require elaborate chemical pretreatment of sea water except chlorination, so it has no environmental impact. LTE technology has found major applications in nuclear reactors where large quantity of low quality waste heat is available to produce high quality desalted water for make up water requirement replacing conventional ion exchange process. Successful continuous operation of 30 Te/day LTE desalination plant utilizing waste heat from nuclear research reactor has demonstrated the safety, reliability, extreme plant availability and economics of nuclear desalination by LTE technology. It is also proposed to utilize waste heat from Main Heat Transport (MHT) purification circuit of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) to produce about 250 Te/ day high quality desalinated water by Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) process for the reactor make up and plant utilization. Recently we have commissioned a 50 Te/day 2-effect low temperature desalination plant with cooling tower where the specific energy and cooling water requirement are

  18. Genetic Programming and Standardization in Water Temperature Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Arganis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An application of Genetic Programming (an evolutionary computational tool without and with standardization data is presented with the aim of modeling the behavior of the water temperature in a river in terms of meteorological variables that are easily measured, to explore their explanatory power and to emphasize the utility of the standardization of variables in order to reduce the effect of those with large variance. Recorded data corresponding to the water temperature behavior at the Ebro River, Spain, are used as analysis case, showing a performance improvement on the developed model when data are standardized. This improvement is reflected in a reduction of the mean square error. Finally, the models obtained in this document were applied to estimate the water temperature in 2004, in order to provide evidence about their applicability to forecasting purposes.

  19. Hyperfine coupling of the hydrogen atom in high temperature water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzhdin, Kirill; Bartels, David M

    2013-03-28

    The hyperfine coupling constant of the hydrogen atom has been measured in pressurized liquid water up to 300 °C. The reduced constant A(water)∕A(vacuum) is 0.9939 at room temperature, and decreases to a minimum of 0.9918 at 240 °C. The reduced constant then increases at higher temperature. The g-factor is 2.002244(10) at room temperature and decreases to 2.00221(1) at 240 °C. The change in g-factor is proportional to the change in hyperfine coupling. The behavior below 110 °C is in excellent agreement with a previously proposed model in which the H atom is confined to a harmonic solvent cage, and vibrations within the cage mix "p-type" character into the wavefunction, resulting inA(water)∕A(vacuum) molar volume information can recover the observed minima near 240 °C.

  20. A Water Temperature Simulation Model for Rice Paddies With Variable Water Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Atsushi; Nemoto, Manabu; Hamasaki, Takahiro; Ishida, Sachinobu; Kuwagata, Tsuneo

    2017-12-01

    A water temperature simulation model was developed to estimate the effects of water management on the thermal environment in rice paddies. The model was based on two energy balance equations: for the ground and for the vegetation, and considered the water layer and changes in the aerodynamic properties of its surface with water depth. The model was examined with field experiments for water depths of 0 mm (drained conditions) and 100 mm (flooded condition) at two locations. Daily mean water temperatures in the flooded condition were mostly higher than in the drained condition in both locations, and the maximum difference reached 2.6°C. This difference was mainly caused by the difference in surface roughness of the ground. Heat exchange by free convection played an important role in determining water temperature. From the model simulation, the temperature difference between drained and flooded conditions was more apparent under low air temperature and small leaf area index conditions; the maximum difference reached 3°C. Most of this difference occurred when the range of water depth was lower than 50 mm. The season-long variation in modeled water temperature showed good agreement with an observation data set from rice paddies with various rice-growing seasons, for a diverse range of water depths (root mean square error of 0.8-1.0°C). The proposed model can estimate water temperature for a given water depth, irrigation, and drainage conditions, which will improve our understanding of the effect of water management on plant growth and greenhouse gas emissions through the thermal environment of rice paddies.

  1. Water temperature in irrigation return flow from the Upper Snake Rock watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water returning to a river from an irrigated watershed could increase the water temperature in the river. The objective of this study was to compare the temperature of irrigation return flow water with the temperature of the diverted irrigation water. Water temperature was measured weekly in the mai...

  2. Dedicated tool to assess the impact of a rhetorical task on human body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Robert; Wilczyński, Sławomir; Martowska, Katarzyna; Gołuch, Dominik; Wrocławska-Warchala, Emilia

    2017-10-01

    Functional infrared thermal imaging is a method widely used in medicine, including analysis of the mechanisms related to the effect of emotions on physiological processes. The article shows how the body temperature may change during stress associated with performing a rhetorical task and proposes new parameters useful for dynamic thermal imaging measurements MATERIALS AND METHODS: 29 healthy male subjects were examined. They were given a rhetorical task that induced stress. Analysis and processing of collected body temperature data in a spatial resolution of 256×512pixels and a temperature resolution of 0.1°C enabled to show the dynamics of temperature changes. This analysis was preceded by dedicated image analysis and processing methods RESULTS: The presented dedicated algorithm for image analysis and processing allows for fully automated, reproducible and quantitative assessment of temperature changes and time constants in a sequence of thermal images of the patient. When performing the rhetorical task, the temperature rose by 0.47±0.19°C in 72.41% of the subjects, including 20.69% in whom the temperature decreased by 0.49±0.14°C after 237±141s. For 20.69% of the subjects only a drop in temperature was registered. For the remaining 6.89% of the cases, no temperature changes were registered CONCLUSIONS: The performance of the rhetorical task by the subjects causes body temperature changes. The ambiguous temperature response to the given stress factor indicates the complex mechanisms responsible for regulating stressful situations. Stress associated with the examination itself induces body temperature changes. These changes should always be taken into account in the analysis of infrared data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and validation of a drinking water temperature model in domestic drinking water supply systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanovic, Ljiljana; Moerman, Andreas; Hoek, van der Jan Peter; Vreeburg, Jan; Blokker, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    Domestic drinking water supply systems (DDWSs) are the final step in the delivery of drinking water to consumers. Temperature is one of the rate-controlling parameters for many chemical and microbiological processes and is, therefore, considered as a surrogate parameter for water quality

  4. Development and validation of a drinking water temperature model in domestic drinking water supply systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanović, L.; Moerman, A.; van der Hoek, J.P.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Blokker, M

    2017-01-01

    Domestic drinking water supply systems (DDWSs) are the final step in the delivery of drinking water to consumers. Temperature is one of the rate-controlling parameters for many chemical and microbiological processes and is, therefore, considered as a surrogate parameter for water quality processes.

  5. Heat transfer coefficient: Medivance Arctic Sun Temperature Management System vs. water immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, M J; Hemmerling, T M

    2008-07-01

    To improve heat transfer, the Medivance Arctic Sun Temperature Management System (Medivance, Inc., Louisville, CO, USA) features an adhesive, water-conditioned, highly conductive hydrogel pad for intimate skin contact. This study measured and compared the heat transfer coefficient (h), i.e. heat transfer efficiency, of this pad (hPAD), in a heated model and in nine volunteers' thighs; and of 10 degrees C water (hWATER) in 33 head-out immersions by 11 volunteers. Volunteer studies had ethical approval and written informed consent. Calibrated heat flux transducers measured heat flux (W m-2). Temperature gradient (DeltaT) was measured between skin and pad or water temperatures. Temperature gradient was changed through the pad's water temperature controller or by skin cooling on immersion. The heat transfer coefficient is the slope of W m-2/DeltaT: its unit is W m-2 degrees C-1. Average with (95% CI) was: model, hPAD = 110.4 (107.8-113.1), R2 = 0.99, n = 45; volunteers, hPAD = 109.8 (95.5-124.1), R2 = 0.83, n = 51; and water immersion, hWATER = 107.1 (98.1-116), R2 = 0.86, n = 94. The heat transfer coefficient for the pad was the same in the model and volunteers, and equivalent to hWATER. Therefore, for the same DeltaT and heat transfer area, the Arctic Sun's heat transfer rate would equal water immersion. This has important implications for body cooling/rewarming rates.

  6. Dynamics and complexity of body temperature in preterm infants nursed in incubators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Jost

    Full Text Available Poor control of body temperature is associated with mortality and major morbidity in preterm infants. We aimed to quantify its dynamics and complexity to evaluate whether indices from fluctuation analyses of temperature time series obtained within the first five days of life are associated with gestational age (GA and body size at birth, and presence and severity of typical comorbidities of preterm birth.We recorded 3h-time series of body temperature using a skin electrode in incubator-nursed preterm infants. We calculated mean and coefficient of variation of body temperature, scaling exponent alpha (Talpha derived from detrended fluctuation analysis, and sample entropy (TSampEn of temperature fluctuations. Data were analysed by multilevel multivariable linear regression.Data of satisfactory technical quality were obtained from 285/357 measurements (80% in 73/90 infants (81% with a mean (range GA of 30.1 (24.0-34.0 weeks. We found a positive association of Talpha with increasing levels of respiratory support after adjusting for GA and birth weight z-score (p<0.001; R2 = 0.38.Dynamics and complexity of body temperature in incubator-nursed preterm infants show considerable associations with GA and respiratory morbidity. Talpha may be a useful marker of autonomic maturity and severity of disease in preterm infants.

  7. Novel energy-saving strategies to multiple stressors in birds: the ultradian regulation of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Glenn J; Roussel, Damien; Voituron, Yann; Teulier, Loïc

    2016-09-28

    This study aimed to examine thermoregulatory responses in birds facing two commonly experienced stressors, cold and fasting. Logging devices allowing long-term and precise access to internal body temperature were placed within the gizzards of ducklings acclimated to cold (CA) (5°C) or thermoneutrality (TN) (25°C). The animals were then examined under three equal 4-day periods: ad libitum feeding, fasting and re-feeding. Through the analysis of daily as well as short-term, or ultradian, variations of body temperature, we showed that while ducklings at TN show only a modest decline in daily thermoregulatory parameters when fasted, they exhibit reduced surface temperatures from key sites of vascular heat exchange during fasting. The CA birds, on the other hand, significantly reduced their short-term variations of body temperature while increasing long-term variability when fasting. This phenomenon would allow the CA birds to reduce the energetic cost of body temperature maintenance under fasting. By analysing ultradian regulation of body temperature, we describe a means by which an endotherm appears to lower thermoregulatory costs in response to the combined stressors of cold and fasting. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Body temperature changes induced by huddling in breeding male emperor penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Caroline; Maho, Yvon Le; Perret, Martine; Ancel, André

    2007-01-01

    Huddling is the key energy-saving mechanism for emperor penguins to endure their 4-mo incubation fast during the Antarctic winter, but the underlying physiological mechanisms of this energy saving have remained elusive. The question is whether their deep body (core) temperature may drop in association with energy sparing, taking into account that successful egg incubation requires a temperature of about 36 degrees C and that ambient temperatures of up to 37.5 degrees C may be reached within tight huddles. Using data loggers implanted into five unrestrained breeding males, we present here the first data on body temperature changes throughout the breeding cycle of emperor penguins, with particular emphasis on huddling bouts. During the pairing period, core temperature decreased progressively from 37.5 +/- 0.4 degrees C to 36.5 +/- 0.3 degrees C, associated with a significant temperature drop of 0.5 +/- 0.3 degrees C during huddling. In case of egg loss, body temperature continued to decrease to 35.5 +/- 0.4 degrees C, with a further 0.9 degrees C decrease during huddling. By contrast, a constant core temperature of 36.9 +/- 0.2 degrees C was maintained during successful incubation, even during huddling, suggesting a trade-off between the demands for successful egg incubation and energy saving. However, such a limited drop in body temperature cannot explain the observed energy savings of breeding emperor penguins. Furthermore, we never observed any signs of hyperthermia in huddling birds that were exposed to ambient temperatures as high as above 35 degrees C. We suggest that the energy savings of huddling birds is due to a metabolic depression, the extent of which depends on a reduction of body surface areas exposed to cold.

  9. In vitro study of the effects of cooling water temperature during the use of Er:YAG laser on dentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Ismael Lucas

    2004-01-01

    This study measured the pulp chamber and the target surface with 2 thermocouples, in order to determine whether cooling with water spray, with Er:YAG laser (Kavo Key 2), was overcooling the tooth, much beyond the necessary, during laser irradiation, within variation limits of 2.2 deg C of body temperature. The parameters used were: E p =250 mJ per pulse, with frequency ranging between 2 to 4 Hz, for a total DE of 80.20 J/cm 2 , at an angle of incidence of approximately 90 deg, during an exposure period of 1 minute, totaling 120 to 240 pulses. In the first 40 seconds, the spray cooled the tooth rapidly, from 36.5 deg C to below 30 deg C. It was impossible to control the spray output temperature with a simple increase in reservoir temperature, for when water at temperatures ranging between 90 and 100 deg C is placed in the reservoir, the heat dissipates completely during the trajectory. The water jet does not present the same characteristics as a spray, which makes it impossible to conduct a perfect comparative analysis between them. The increase and maintenance of the spray output temperature, by reducing the temperature differential between that of the body and that of the spray of the Er:YAG laser, proved to be extremely promising. The pulp chamber temperature followed that of the spray or water jet, so that when a temperature that is lower than body temperature is used, the temperature of the pulp chamber is decreases, and when body temperature is surpassed, the temperature of the pulp chamber increases. (author)

  10. An intertidal sea star adjusts thermal inertia to avoid extreme body temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincebourde, Sylvain; Sanford, Eric; Helmuth, Brian

    2009-12-01

    The body temperature of ectotherms is influenced by the interaction of abiotic conditions, morphology, and behavior. Although organisms living in different thermal habitats may exhibit morphological plasticity or move from unfavorable locations, there are few examples of animals adjusting their thermal properties in response to short-term changes in local conditions. Here, we show that the intertidal sea star Pisaster ochraceus modulates its thermal inertia in response to prior thermal exposure. After exposure to high body temperature at low tide, sea stars increase the amount of colder-than-air fluid in their coelomic cavity when submerged during high tide, resulting in a lower body temperature during the subsequent low tide. Moreover, this buffering capacity is more effective when seawater is cold during the previous high tide. This ability to modify the volume of coelomic fluid provides sea stars with a novel thermoregulatory "backup" when faced with prolonged exposure to elevated aerial temperatures.

  11. Impacts of exhalation flow on the microenvironment around the human body under different room temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Gharari, Noradin; Azari, Mansour Rezazade; Ashrafi, Khosro

    2018-04-01

    Exhalation flow and room temperature can have a considerable effect on the microenvironment in the vicinity of human body. In this study, impacts of exhalation flow and room temperature on the microenvironment around a human body were investigated using a numerical simulation. For this purpose, a computational fluid dynamic program was applied to study thermal plume around a sitting human body at different room temperatures of a calm indoor room by considering the exhalation flow. The simulation was supported by some experimental measurements. Six different room temperatures (18 to 28 °C) with two nose exhalation modes (exhalation and non-exhalation) were investigated. Overhead and breathing zone velocities and temperatures were simulated in different scenarios. This study finds out that the exhalation through the nose has a significant impact on both quantitative and qualitative features of the human microenvironment in different room temperatures. At a given temperature, the exhalation through the nose can change the location and size of maximum velocity at the top of the head. In the breathing zone, the effect of exhalation through the nose on velocity and temperature distribution was pronounced for the point close to mouth. Also, the exhalation through the nose strongly influences the thermal boundary layer on the breathing zone while it only minimally influences the convective boundary layer on the breathing zone. Overall results demonstrate that it is important to take the exhalation flow into consideration in all areas, especially at a quiescent flow condition with low temperature.

  12. Simulated body temperature rhythms reveal the phase-shifting behavior and plasticity of mammalian circadian oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Camille; Morf, Jörg; Stratmann, Markus; Gos, Pascal; Schibler, Ueli

    2012-01-01

    The circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus maintains phase coherence in peripheral cells through metabolic, neuronal, and humoral signaling pathways. Here, we investigated the role of daily body temperature fluctuations as possible systemic cues in the resetting of peripheral oscillators. Using precise temperature devices in conjunction with real-time monitoring of the bioluminescence produced by circadian luciferase reporter genes, we showed that simulated body temperature cycles of mice and even humans, with daily temperature differences of only 3°C and 1°C, respectively, could gradually synchronize circadian gene expression in cultured fibroblasts. The time required for establishing the new steady-state phase depended on the reporter gene, but after a few days, the expression of each gene oscillated with a precise phase relative to that of the temperature cycles. Smooth temperature oscillations with a very small amplitude could synchronize fibroblast clocks over a wide temperature range, and such temperature rhythms were also capable of entraining gene expression cycles to periods significantly longer or shorter than 24 h. As revealed by genetic loss-of-function experiments, heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1), but not HSF2, was required for the efficient synchronization of fibroblast oscillators to simulated body temperature cycles. PMID:22379191

  13. Simulated body temperature rhythms reveal the phase-shifting behavior and plasticity of mammalian circadian oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Camille; Morf, Jörg; Stratmann, Markus; Gos, Pascal; Schibler, Ueli

    2012-03-15

    The circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus maintains phase coherence in peripheral cells through metabolic, neuronal, and humoral signaling pathways. Here, we investigated the role of daily body temperature fluctuations as possible systemic cues in the resetting of peripheral oscillators. Using precise temperature devices in conjunction with real-time monitoring of the bioluminescence produced by circadian luciferase reporter genes, we showed that simulated body temperature cycles of mice and even humans, with daily temperature differences of only 3°C and 1°C, respectively, could gradually synchronize circadian gene expression in cultured fibroblasts. The time required for establishing the new steady-state phase depended on the reporter gene, but after a few days, the expression of each gene oscillated with a precise phase relative to that of the temperature cycles. Smooth temperature oscillations with a very small amplitude could synchronize fibroblast clocks over a wide temperature range, and such temperature rhythms were also capable of entraining gene expression cycles to periods significantly longer or shorter than 24 h. As revealed by genetic loss-of-function experiments, heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1), but not HSF2, was required for the efficient synchronization of fibroblast oscillators to simulated body temperature cycles.

  14. Radiant warmer power and body size as determinants of insensible water loss in the critically ill neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, S; Engle, W D; Fox, W W; Polin, R A

    1981-12-01

    Twelve critically ill neonates mechanically ventilated for respiratory failure (mean weight 1.33 kg, mean gestation 31 wk) were studied to quantitate the effects of radiant power from a radiant warming device, body weight, and body surface area on insensible water loss. Radiant power density (Mw/cm2) was measured using a wattmeter and thermopile transducer. Insensible water loss was measured using a Potter Baby Scale. Weight correlated inversely with insensible water loss, (r = -0.86, P less than 0.001). Radiant power density correlated inversely to weight, (r = -0.71, P less than 0.001). There was a significant increase in insensible water loss as radiant power density increased, (r = 0.54, P less than 0.05). Net radiant power received (W/kg) by infants over their exposed surface area, correlated directly to insensible water loss, (r = 0.67, P less than 0.01) irrespective of body weight. Critically ill neonates ventilated for respiratory failure and nursed under radiant warmers incurred greater insensible water losses than previously reported for well infants. The magnitude of this increased insensible water loss is inversely related to body size and is determined directly by the radiant power density required to maintain body temperature.

  15. Investigation of Factors Affecting Body Temperature Changes During Routine Clinical Head Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong Seong

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulsed radiofrequency (RF) magnetic fields, required to produce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals from tissue during the MRI procedure have been shown to heat tissues. Objectives To investigate the relationship between body temperature rise and the RF power deposited during routine clinical MRI procedures, and to determine the correlation between this effect and the body’s physiological response. Patients and Methods We investigated 69 patients from the Korean national cancer center to identify the main factors that contribute to an increase in body temperature (external factors and the body’s response) during a clinical brain MRI. A routine protocol sequence of MRI scans (1.5 T and 3.0 T) was performed. The patient’s tympanic temperature was recorded before and immediately after the MRI procedure and compared with changes in variables related to the body’s physiological response to heat. Results Our investigation of the physiological response to RF heating indicated a link between increasing age and body temperature. A higher increase in body temperature was observed in older patients after a 3.0-T MRI (r = 0.07, P = 0.29 for 1.5-T MRI; r = 0.45, P = 0.002 for 3.0-T MRI). The relationship between age and body heat was related to the heart rate (HR) and changes in HR during the MRI procedure; a higher RF power combined with a reduction in HR resulted in an increase in body temperature. Conclusion A higher magnetic field strength and a decrease in the HR resulted in an increase in body temperature during the MRI procedure. PMID:27895872

  16. Synthesis of Thermoresponsive Amphiphilic Polyurethane Gel as a New Cell Printing Material near Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Chun; Li, Suming; Hu, Shiaw-Guang; Chang, Wen-Chi; Jeng, U-Ser; Hsu, Shan-hui

    2015-12-23

    Waterborne polyurethane (PU) based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) diol and a second oligodiol containing amphiphilic blocks was synthesized in this study. The microstructure was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and rheological measurement of the PU dispersion. The surface hydrophilicity measurement, infrared spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, mechanical and thermal analyses were conducted in solid state. It was observed that the presence of a small amount of amphiphilic blocks in the soft segment resulted in significant changes in microstructure. When 90 mol % PCL diol and 10 mol % amphiphilic blocks of poly(l-lactide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PLLA-PEO) diol were used as the soft segment, the synthesized PU had a water contact angle of ∼24° and degree of crystallinity of ∼14%. The dispersion had a low viscosity below room temperature. As the temperature was raised to body temperature (37 °C), the dispersion rapidly (∼170 s) underwent sol-gel transition with excellent gel modulus (G' ≈ 6.5 kPa) in 20 min. PU dispersions with a solid content of 25-30% could be easily mixed with cells in sol state, extruded by a 3D printer, and deposited layer by layer as a gel. Cells remained alive and proliferating in the printed hydrogel scaffold. We expect that the development of novel thermoresponsive PU system can be used as smart injectable hydrogel and applied as a new type of bio-3D printing ink.

  17. Intelligent Temperature Controller for Water-Bath System

    OpenAIRE

    Om Prakash Verma; Rajesh Singla; Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Conventional controller’s usually required a prior knowledge of mathematical modelling of the process. The inaccuracy of mathematical modelling degrades the performance of the process, especially for non-linear and complex control problem. The process used is Water-Bath system, which is most widely used and nonlinear to some extent. For Water-Bath system, it is necessary to attain desired temperature within a specified period of time to avoid the overshoot and absolute error, with better temp...

  18. Worldwide Eutrophication of Water Bodies: Causes, Concerns, Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepas, E. E.; Charette, T.

    2003-12-01

    Eutrophication is the nutrient enrichment of waters that stimulates an array of symptomatic changes, that can include increased phytoplankton and rooted aquatic plant (macrophyte) production, fisheries and water quality deterioration, and other undesirable changes that interfere with water uses (Bartsch, 1972). The trophic state, or degree of fertility, of water bodies ranges from oligotrophic to mesotrophic to eutrophic with increasing supply of nutrients and organic matter ( Table 1). Eutrophication is most often the result of an elevated supply of nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, to surface waters that results in enhanced production of primary producers, particularly phytoplankton and aquatic plants. Table 1. Mean annual values for the trophic classification system Total phosphorus (μg L-1)Chlorophyll a (μg L-1)Secchi disk depth (m) Ultra-oligotrophic12 Oligotrophic6 Mesotrophic10-352.5-86-3 Eutrophic35-1008-253-1.5 Hypertrophic>100>25smell of clots or masses of decaying phytoplankton decreases the recreational value of most waters and usually generates concerns among the public. Furthermore, blooms of toxin-producing phytoplankton can cause widespread illness. A bloom is a conspicuous concentration of phytoplankton, often concentrated at or near the surface. It is difficult to quantify what constitutes a "bloom," but a rough estimate places it as a chlorophyll a concentration over 30 μg L-1. Toxins produced by dinoflagellates such as Pfiesteria in marine environments of the northeastern US and red tides in tropical waters have caused massive fish kills, millions of dollars in losses to seafood-related industries, human memory loss, paralysis, and even death (Van den Hoeck et al., 1995; Silbergeld et al., 2000). Bloom-forming species of cyanobacteria can produce potent hepato-(liver) toxins termed microcystins that have been implicated in poisonings of domestic livestock, pets, wildlife, and susceptible humans ( Codd, 1995; Dunn, 1996). In

  19. Isotopic ordering in eggshells reflects body temperatures and suggests differing thermophysiology in two Cretaceous dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Robert A; Enriquez, Marcus; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Hu, David; Tütken, Thomas; Montanari, Shaena; Loyd, Sean J; Ramirez, Pedro; Tripati, Aradhna K; Kohn, Matthew J; Cerling, Thure E; Chiappe, Luis M; Eiler, John M

    2015-10-13

    Our understanding of the evolutionary transitions leading to the modern endothermic state of birds and mammals is incomplete, partly because tools available to study the thermophysiology of extinct vertebrates are limited. Here we show that clumped isotope analysis of eggshells can be used to determine body temperatures of females during periods of ovulation. Late Cretaceous titanosaurid eggshells yield temperatures similar to large modern endotherms. In contrast, oviraptorid eggshells yield temperatures lower than most modern endotherms but ∼ 6 °C higher than co-occurring abiogenic carbonates, implying that this taxon did not have thermoregulation comparable to modern birds, but was able to elevate its body temperature above environmental temperatures. Therefore, we observe no strong evidence for end-member ectothermy or endothermy in the species examined. Body temperatures for these two species indicate that variable thermoregulation likely existed among the non-avian dinosaurs and that not all dinosaurs had body temperatures in the range of that seen in modern birds.

  20. Theoretical study on the inverse modeling of deep body temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the theoretical aspects of monitoring the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse modeling method. A two-dimensional model was built based on anatomical structure to simulate the human abdomen. By integrating biophysical and physiological information, the deep body temperature distribution was estimated from cutaneous surface temperature measurements using an inverse quasilinear method. Simulations were conducted with and without the heat effect of blood perfusion in the muscle and skin layers. The results of the simulations showed consistently that the noise characteristics and arrangement of the temperature sensors were the major factors affecting the accuracy of the inverse solution. With temperature sensors of 0.05 °C systematic error and an optimized 16-sensor arrangement, the inverse method could estimate the deep body temperature distribution with an average absolute error of less than 0.20 °C. The results of this theoretical study suggest that it is possible to reconstruct the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse method and that this approach merits further investigation. (paper)

  1. Body temperature responses to handling stress in wintering Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewden, Agnès; Nord, Andreas; Petit, Magali; Vézina, François

    2017-10-01

    Body temperature variation in response to acute stress is typically characterized by peripheral vasoconstriction and a concomitant increase in core body temperature (stress-induced hyperthermia). It is poorly understood how this response differs between species and within individuals of the same species, and how it is affected by the environment. We therefore investigated stress-induced body temperature changes in a non-model species, the Black-capped Chickadee, in two environmental conditions: outdoors in low ambient temperature (mean: -6.6°C), and indoors, in milder ambient temperature close to thermoneutrality (mean: 18.7°C). Our results show that the change in body temperature in response to the same handling stressor differs in these conditions. In cold environments, we noted a significant decrease in core body temperature (-2.9°C), whereas the response in mild indoor conditions was weak and non-significant (-0.6°C). Heat loss in outdoor birds was exacerbated when birds were handled for longer time. This may highlight the role of behavioral thermoregulation and heat substitution from activity to body temperature maintenance in harsh condition. Importantly, our work also indicates that changes in the physical properties of the bird during handling (conductive cooling from cold hands, decreased insulation from compression of plumage and prevention of ptiloerection) may have large consequences for thermoregulation. This might explain why females, the smaller sex, lost more heat than males in the experiment. Because physiological and physical changes during handling may carry over to affect predation risk and maintenance of energy balance during short winter days, we advice caution when designing experimental protocols entailing prolonged handling of small birds in cold conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sculpting of a dissolvable body by flowing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinzi Mac; Moore, M. Nicholas J.; Ristroph, Leif

    2014-11-01

    Fluid flows strongly influence the dissolution of materials in geological contexts and in chemical and pharmaceutical applications. We approach flow-driven dissolution as a moving boundary problem and conduct experiments on hard candy bodies immersed within fast flowing water. We discover that different initial shapes are sculpted into a similar final form before ultimately vanishing, suggesting convergence to a stable shape-flow state. A model linking the flow and solute concentration suggests an explanation for this state and offers scaling laws for quantities such as the volume decay rate in time. As a whimsical application, we also show how this model can be used to address the long-standing question, ``How many licks does it take to get to the center of lollipop?''

  3. Efficiency and temperature dependence of water removal by membrane dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckrone, K. J.; Hayes, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    The vapor pressure of water in equilibrium with sorption sites within a Nafion membrane is given by log P(WN) = -3580/T + 10.01, where P(WN) is expressed in Torr and T is the membrane temperature, in kelvin. The efficiency of dryers based on selective permeation of water through Nafion can thus be enhanced by cooling the membrane. Residual water in effluents exceeds equilibrium levels if insufficient time is allowed for water to diffuse to the membrane surface as gas passes through the dryer. For tubular configurations, this limitation can be avoided if L > or = Fc(10(3.8)/120 pi D), where L is the length of the tubular membrane, in centimeters, Fc is the gas flow rate, in mL/ min, and D is the diffusion coefficient for water in the carrier gas at the operating temperature of the dryer, in cm2/s. An efficient dryer that at room temperature dries gas to a dew point of -61 degrees C is described; the same dryer maintained at 0 degrees C yields a dew point of -80 degrees C and removes water as effectively as Mg(ClO4)2 or a dry ice/acetone slush. The use of Nafion membranes to construct devices capable of delivering gas streams with low but precisely controlled humidities is discussed.

  4. Turnover of body water in relation to the hydric diet studied with tritiated water in Locusta migratoria migratorioides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscarlet, L.A.; Proux, Jacques

    1975-01-01

    The elimination of triated water injected in a locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides is described by an exponential function of the cumulative water diet and fits a one-compartment model. This result shows that body water occupies a single pool the mass of which is kept constant by an equilibrium between the water diet and the water elimination rate [fr

  5. Nanostructural studies on monoelaidin-water systems at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chandrashekhar V

    2011-10-04

    In recent years, lipid based nanostructures have increasingly been used as model membranes to study various complex biological processes. For better understanding of such phenomena, it is essential to gain as much information as possible for model lipid structures under physiological conditions. In this paper, we focus on one of such lipids--monoelaidin (ME)--for its polymorphic nanostructures under varying conditions of temperature and water content. In the recent contribution (Soft Matter, 2010, 6, 3191), we have reported the phase diagram of ME above 30 °C and compared with the phase behavior of other lipids including monoolein (MO), monovaccenin (MV), and monolinolein (ML). Remarkable phase behavior of ME, stabilizing three bicontinuous cubic phases, motivates its study at low temperatures. Current studies concentrate on the low-temperature (ME and subsequent reconstruction of its phase diagram over the entire temperature-water composition space (temperature, 0-76 °C; and water content, 0-70%). The polymorphs found for the monoelaidin-water system include three bicontinuous cubic phases, i.e., Ia3d, Pn3m, and Im3m, and lamellar phases which exhibit two crystalline (L(c1) and L(c0)), two gel (L(β) and L(β*)), and a fluid lamellar (L(α)) states. The fluid isotropic phase (L(2)) was observed only for lower hydrations (<20%), whereas hexagonal phase (H(2)) was not found under studied conditions. Nanostructural parameters of these phases as a function of temperature and water content are presented together with some molecular level calculations. This study might be crucial for perception of the lyotropic phase behavior as well as for designing nanostructural assemblies for potential applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Is body temperature an independent predictor of mortality in hip fracture patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizi, Murtuza; Farrier, Adam J; Venkatesan, Murali; Thomas, Christopher; Uzoigwe, Chika Edward; Balasubramanian, Siva; Smith, Robert P

    2014-12-01

    Admission body temperature is a critical parameter in all trauma patients. Low admission temperature is strongly associated with adverse outcomes. We have previously shown, in a prospective study that low admission body temperature is common and associated with high mortality in hip fracture patients (Uzoigwe et al., 2014). However, no previous studies have evaluated whether admission temperature is an independent predictor of mortality in hip fracture patients after adjustment for the 7 recognised independent prognostic indicators (Maxwell et al., 2008). We retrospectively collated data on all patients presenting to our institution between June 2011 and February 2013 with a hip fracture. This included patients involved in the original prospective study (Uzoigwe et al., 2014). Admission tympanic temperature, measured on initial presentation at triage, was recorded. The prognosticators of age, gender, source of admission, abbreviated mental test score, haemoglobin, co-morbid disease and the presence or absence of malignancy were also recorded. Using multiple logistic regression, adjustment was made for these potentially confounding prognostic indicators of 30-day mortality, to determine if admission low body temperature were independently linked to mortality. 1066 patients were included. 781 patients, involved in the original prospective study (Uzoigwe et al., 2014), presented in the relevant time frame and were included in the retrospective study. The mean age was 81. There were 273 (26%) men and 793 (74%) women. 407 (38%) had low body temperature (temperature had an adjusted odds ratio of 30-day mortality that was 2.1 times that of the euthermic (36.5–37.5 °C). Low body temperature is strongly and independently associated with 30-day mortality in hip fracture patients.

  7. Complex Interactions between Temperature and Relative Humidity on Water Balance of Adult Tsetse (Glossinidae, Diptera): Implications for Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleynhans, Elsje; Terblanche, John S

    2011-01-01

    Insect water balance plays an important role in determining energy budgets, activity patterns, survival, and population dynamics and, hence, geographic distribution. Tsetse (Glossina spp.) are important vectors of human and animal disease occupying a wide range of habitats in Africa and are notable for their desiccation resistance in xeric environments. Here, we measure water balance and related traits [water loss rate (WLR), body water content (BWC), body lipid content (BLC) and body mass] in adult flies across a range of temperature (20-30°C) and relative humidity (0-99%) combinations in four tsetse species from both xeric and mesic habitats. WLRs were significantly affected by measurement under different temperature and relative humidity combinations, while BWC, BLC, and body mass were less affected. These results provide support for mass-independent inter- and intra-specific variation in WLRs and survival times. Furthermore, water balance responses to variation in temperature and relative humidity are complex in Glossina, and this response varies within and among species, subgroups, and ecotypes in terms of both magnitude of effects and the direction of change. Different effects of temperature and relative humidity within and among experimental conditions and species suggests cuticular permeability and saturation deficit are likely to be key factors in forecasting tsetse water balance responses to climate variability. This complicates potential forecasting of tsetse distribution in the face of climate change.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF TEMPERATURES IN SPARK GENERATED BUBBLES OSCILLATING IN WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Vokurka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The surface temperatures of the plasma core in the final stages of the first contraction phase of spark-generated bubbles oscillating under ordinary laboratory conditions in a large expanse of water are determined experimentally. The measurement method is based on an analysis of the optical radiation from the bubbles and on the assumption that the plasma core is radiating as a black-body. It is found that the maximum surface temperatures of the plasma core range 4300–8700 K.

  9. Water Stress Detection using Temperature, Emissivity, and Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhards, Max; Rock, Gilles; Schlerf, Martin; Udelhoven, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Water stress is one of the most critical abiotic stressors limiting crop development. The main imaging and non-imaging remote sensing based techniques for the detection of plant stress (water stress and other types of stress) are thermography, visible (VIS), near- and shortwave infrared (NIR/SWIR) reflectance, and fluorescence. Just very recently, in addition to broadband thermography, narrowband (hyperspectral) thermal imaging has become available, which even facilitates the retrieval of spectral emissivity as an additional measure of plant stress. It is, however, still unclear at what stage plant stress is detectable with the various techniques. During summer 2014 a water treatment experiment was run on 60 potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. Cilena) with one half of the plants watered and the other half stressed. Crop response was measured using broadband and hyperspectral thermal cameras and a VNIR/SWIR spectrometer. Stomatal conductance was measured using a leaf porometer. Various measures and indices were computed and analysed for their sensitivity towards water stress (Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI), Moisture Stress Index (MSI), Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), and spectral emissivity, amongst others). The results show that water stress as measured through stomatal conductance started on day 2 after watering was stopped. The fastest reacting, i.e., starting on day 7, indices were temperature based measures (e.g., CWSI) and NIR/SWIR reflectance based indices related to plant water content (e.g., MSI). Spectral emissivity reacted equally fast. Contrarily, visual indices (e.g., PRI) either did not respond at all or responded in an inconsistent manner. This experiment shows that pre-visual water stress detection is feasible using indices depicting leaf temperature, leaf water content and spectral emissivity.

  10. Trihalomethane hydrolysis in drinking water at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Lu; Yang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Karanfil, Tanju; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2015-07-01

    Hydrolysis could contribute to the loss of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the drinking water at elevated temperatures. This study was aimed at investigating THM hydrolysis pertaining to the storage of hot boiled water in enclosed containers. The water pH value was in the range of 6.1-8.2 and the water temperature was varied from 65 to 95 °C. The effects of halide ions, natural organic matter, and drinking water matrix were investigated. Results showed that the hydrolysis rates declined in the order following CHBrCl2 > CHBr2Cl > CHBr3 > CHCl3. THM hydrolysis was primarily through the alkaline pathway, except for CHCl3 in water at relatively low pH value. The activation energies for the alkaline hydrolysis of CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 were 109, 113, 115 and 116 kJ/mol, respectively. No hydrolysis intermediates could accumulate in the water. The natural organic matter, and probably other constituents, in drinking water could substantially decrease THM hydrolysis rates by more than 50%. When a drinking water was at 90 °C or above, the first order rate constants for THM hydrolysis were in the magnitude of 10(-2)‒10(-1) 1/h. When the boiled real tap water was stored in an enclosed container, THMs continued increasing during the first few hours and then kept decreasing later on due to the competition between hydrolysis and further formation. The removal of THMs, especially brominated THMs, by hydrolysis would greatly reduce one's exposure to disinfection by-products by consuming the boiled water stored in enclosed containers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Speed over efficiency: locusts select body temperatures that favour growth rate over efficient nutrient utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Gabriel A; Clissold, Fiona J; Mayntz, David

    2009-01-01

    Ectotherms have evolved preferences for particular body temperatures, but the nutritional and life-history consequences of such temperature preferences are not well understood. We measured thermal preferences in Locusta migratoria (migratory locusts) and used a multi-factorial experimental design...... to investigate relationships between growth/development and macronutrient utilization (conversion of ingesta to body mass) as a function of temperature. A range of macronutrient intake values for insects at 26, 32 and 38°C was achieved by offering individuals high-protein diets, high-carbohydrate diets...... or a choice between both. Locusts placed in a thermal gradient selected temperatures near 38°C, maximizing rates of weight gain; however, this enhanced growth rate came at the cost of poor protein and carbohydrate utilization. Protein and carbohydrate were equally digested across temperature treatments...

  12. Locatable-body temperature monitoring based on semi-active UHF RFID tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangwei; Mao, Luhong; Chen, Liying; Xie, Sheng

    2014-03-26

    This paper presents the use of radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology for the real-time remote monitoring of body temperature, while an associated program can determine the location of the body carrying the respective sensor. The RFID chip's internal integrated temperature sensor is used for both the human-body temperature detection and as a measurement device, while using radio-frequency communication to broadcast the temperature information. The adopted RFID location technology makes use of reference tags together with a nearest neighbor localization algorithm and a multiple-antenna time-division multiplexing location system. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed for collecting temperature and location data for the data fusion by using RFID protocols. With a puppy as test object, temperature detection and localization experiments were carried out. The measured results show that the applied method, when using a mercury thermometer for comparison in terms of measuring the temperature of the dog, has a good consistency, with an average temperature error of 0.283 °C. When using the associated program over the area of 12.25 m2, the average location error is of 0.461 m, which verifies the feasibility of the sensor-carrier location by using the proposed program.

  13. Locatable-Body Temperature Monitoring Based on Semi-Active UHF RFID Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of radio-frequency identification (RFID technology for the real-time remote monitoring of body temperature, while an associated program can determine the location of the body carrying the respective sensor. The RFID chip’s internal integrated temperature sensor is used for both the human-body temperature detection and as a measurement device, while using radio-frequency communication to broadcast the temperature information. The adopted RFID location technology makes use of reference tags together with a nearest neighbor localization algorithm and a multiple-antenna time-division multiplexing location system. A graphical user interface (GUI was developed for collecting temperature and location data for the data fusion by using RFID protocols. With a puppy as test object, temperature detection and localization experiments were carried out. The measured results show that the applied method, when using a mercury thermometer for comparison in terms of measuring the temperature of the dog, has a good consistency, with an average temperature error of 0.283 °C. When using the associated program over the area of 12.25 m2, the average location error is of 0.461 m, which verifies the feasibility of the sensor-carrier location by using the proposed program.

  14. What do foraging wasps optimize in a variable environment, energy investment or body temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Brodschneider, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Vespine wasps (Vespula sp.) are endowed with a pronounced ability of endothermic heat production. To show how they balance energetics and thermoregulation under variable environmental conditions, we measured the body temperature and respiration of sucrose foragers (1.5 M, unlimited flow) under variable ambient temperature (T a = 20-35 °C) and solar radiation (20-570 W m(-2)). Results revealed a graduated balancing of metabolic efforts with thermoregulatory needs. The thoracic temperature in the shade depended on ambient temperature, increasing from ~37 to 39 °C. However, wasps used solar heat gain to regulate their thorax temperature at a rather high level at low T a (mean T thorax ~ 39 °C). Only at high T a they used solar heat to reduce their metabolic rate remarkably. A high body temperature accelerated the suction speed and shortened foraging time. As the costs of foraging strongly depended on duration, the efficiency could be significantly increased with a high body temperature. Heat gain from solar radiation enabled the wasps to enhance foraging efficiency at high ambient temperature (T a = 30 °C) by up to 63 %. The well-balanced change of economic strategies in response to environmental conditions minimized costs of foraging and optimized energetic efficiency.

  15. Long-term calorie restriction, but not endurance exercise, lowers core body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, Andreea; Cangemi, Roberto; Omodei, Daniela; Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of body temperature has been proposed to contribute to the increased lifespan in calorie restricted animals and mice overexpressing the uncoupling protein-2 in hypocretin neurons. However, nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of calorie restriction (CR) with adequate nutrition on body temperature in humans. In this study, 24-hour core body temperature was measured every minute by using ingested telemetric capsules in 24 men and women (mean age 53.7±9.4 yrs) consuming a CR diet for an average of 6 years, 24 age- and sex-matched sedentary (WD) and 24 body fat-matched exercise-trained (EX) volunteers, who were eating Western diets. The CR and EX groups were significantly leaner than the WD group. Energy intake was lower in the CR group (1769±348 kcal/d) than in the WD (2302±668 kcal/d) and EX (2798±760 kcal/d) groups (Pbody temperatures were all significantly lower in the CR group than in the WD and EX groups (P≤0.01). Long-term CR with adequate nutrition in lean and weight-stable healthy humans is associated with a sustained reduction in core body temperature, similar to that found in CR rodents and monkeys. This adaptation is likely due to CR itself, rather than to leanness, and may be involved in slowing the rate of aging. PMID:21483032

  16. Water-temperature data acquisition activities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauszek, F.H.

    1972-01-01

    Along with the growing interest in water quality during the last decade, the need for data on all types of water-quality parameters has also increased. One parameter of particular interest, because of its many ramifications, is temperature. It influences many of the chemical and physical processes that take place in water. The solubility of gases--for example, oxygen and carbon dioxide--and the solution of mineral matter in water are functions of temperature. Such physical properties as density and viscosity vary with temperature. Oxidation of organic materials, as well as algal and bacterial growth, is promoted or retarded by favorable or unfavorable temperatures. Further, temperature bears on the utility of water: as a source of public water supplies; for industrial use, particularly if the water is used for cooling; and in the field of recreation involving contact sports, fishing, and fish culture. In recent years, temperature changes resulting from inflow of heated industrial waste, particularly effluent from power generating plants, have increased the need for temperature data to determine the degree of change, its effect on ecology, and the effect of any remedial action. Thus, because of the many extensive and intensive effects, a large amount of temperature data is collected on surface and ground waters by many agencies throughout the country. Moreover, because of its importance, there is a widespread interest in temperature even by those who are not active collectors of the data themselves. The industrialist, the manager, the public official, and others at one time or another may have need for temperature data and may well raise the questions: Who is collecting temperature data? What is the extent of the activity? Where are the data being collected? The purpose of this report is to answer these questions. The information in the report is confined to the activities of Federal and non-Federal agencies. It is based on information furnished to the Office of

  17. The environmental plasticity of diverse body color caused by extremely long photoperiods and high temperature in Saccharosydne procerus (Homoptera: Delphacidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichen Yin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanization reflects not only body color variation but also environmental plasticity. It is a strategy that helps insects adapt to environmental change. Different color morphs may have distinct life history traits, e.g., development time, growth rate, and body weight. The green slender planthopper Saccharosydne procerus (Matsumura is the main pest of water bamboo (Zizania latifolia. This insect has two color morphs. The present study explored the influence of photoperiod and its interaction with temperature in nymph stage on adult melanism. Additionally, the longevity, fecundity, mating rate, and hatching rate of S. procerus were examined to determine whether the fitness of the insect was influenced by melanism under different temperature and photoperiod. The results showed that a greater number of melanic morphs occurred if the photoperiod was extremely long. A two-factor ANOVA showed that temperature and photoperiod both have a significant influence on melanism. The percentages of variation explained by these factors were 45.53% and 48.71%, respectively. Moreover, melanic morphs had greater advantages than non-melanic morphs under an environmental regime of high temperatures and a long photoperiod, whereas non-melanic morphs were better adapted to cold temperatures and a short photoperiod. These results cannot be explained by the thermal melanism hypothesis. Thus, it may be unavailable to seek to explain melanism in terms of only one hypothesis.

  18. Numerical modeling of thermal regime in inland water bodies with field measurement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladskikh, D.; Sergeev, D.; Baydakov, G.; Soustova, I.; Troitskaya, Yu.

    2018-01-01

    Modification of the program complex LAKE, which is intended to compute the thermal regimes of inland water bodies, and the results of its validation in accordance with the parameters of lake part of Gorky water reservoir are reviewed in the research. The modification caused changing the procedure of input temperature profile assignment and parameterization of surface stress on air-water boundary in accordance with the consideration of wind influence on mixing process. Also the innovation consists in combined methods of gathering meteorological parameters from files of global meteorological reanalysis and data of hydrometeorological station. Temperature profiles carried out with CTD-probe during expeditions in the period 2014-2017 were used for validation of the model. The comparison between the real data and the numerical results and its assessment based on time and temperature dependences in control points, correspondence of the forms of the profiles and standard deviation for all performed realizations are provided. It is demonstrated that the model reproduces the results of field measurement data for all observed conditions and seasons. The numerical results for the regimes with strong mixing are in the best quantitative and qualitative agreement with the real profiles. The accuracy of the forecast for the ones with strong stratification near the surface is lower but all specificities of the forms are correctly reproduced.

  19. Anthropogenic water bodies as drought refuge for aquatic macroinvertebrates and macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodemaide, David T; Matthews, Ty G; Iervasi, Dion; Lester, Rebecca E

    2018-03-01

    Ecological research associated with the importance of refuges has tended to focus on natural rather than anthropogenic water bodies. The frequency of disturbances, including drought events, is predicted to increase in many regions worldwide due to human-induced climate change. More frequent disturbance will affect freshwater ecosystems by altering hydrologic regimes, water chemistry, available habitat and assemblage structure. Under this scenario, many aquatic biota are likely to rely on permanent water bodies as refuge, including anthropogenic water bodies. Here, macroinvertebrate and macrophyte assemblages from waste-water treatment and raw-water storages (i.e. untreated potable water) were compared with nearby natural water bodies during autumn and winter 2013. We expected macroinvertebrate and macrophyte assemblages in raw-water storages to be representative of natural water bodies, while waste-water treatment storages would not, due to degraded water quality. However, water quality in natural water bodies differed from raw-water storages but was similar to waste-water treatment storages. Macroinvertebrate patterns matched those of water quality, with no differences occurring between natural water bodies and waste-water treatment storages, but assemblages in raw-water storages differed from the other two water bodies. Unexpectedly, differences associated with raw-water storages were attributable to low abundances of several taxa. Macrophyte assemblages in raw-water storages were representative of natural water bodies, but were less diverse and abundant in, or absent from, waste-water treatment storages. No clear correlations existed between any habitat variables and macroinvertebrate assemblages but a significant correlation between macrophyte assemblages and habitat characteristics existed. Thus, there were similarities in both water quality and macroinvertebrate assemblages between natural water bodies and waste-water treatment storages, and similarities in

  20. Infrared thermoimages display of body surface temperature reaction in experimental cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Zhu, Yuan-Gen; Wang, Shu-You; Ma, Hui-Min; Ye, Yan-Yan; Fu, Wei-Xing; Hu, Wei-Guo

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To display the thermoimages of the body surface in experimental cholecystitis, to observe the body surface temperature reaction in visceral disorders, and to study if the theory of body surface-viscera correlation is true and the mechanism of temperature changes along the meridians. METHODS: By injecting bacteria suspension into the stricture bile duct and gallbladder, 21 rabbits were prepared as acute pyogenic cholangiocholecystitis models, with another 8 rabbits prepared by the same process except without injection of bacteria suspension as control. The body surface infrared thermoimages were continuously observed on the hair shaven rabbit skin with AGA-782 thermovision 24 h before, 1-11 d after and (2, 3 wk) 4 wk after the operation with a total of over 10 records of thermoimages. RESULTS: Twelve cases out of 21 rabbits with cholecystitis revealed bi-lateral longitudinal high temperature lines in its trunk; with negative findings in the control group. The high-temperature line appeared on d1-d2, first in the right trunk, after the preparation of the model, about 7 d after the model preparation, the lines appeared at the left side too, persisting for 4 wk. The hyper-temperature line revealed 1.1-2.7 °C higher than before the model preparation, 0.7-2.5 °C higher than the surrounding skin. The length of the high temperature line might reach a half length of the body trunk, or as long as the whole body itself. CONCLUSION: The appearance of the longitudinal high temperature lines at the lateral aspects of the trunk in the experimental group is directly bound up with the experimental animals pyogenic cholecystitis, with its running course quite similar to that of the Gallbladder Channel of Foot Shaoyang, but different to the zones of hyperalgesia and site of referred pain in cholecystitis. PMID:11925617

  1. Body temperature and mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell-Chaple, Hildy M; Puntillo, Kathleen A; Matthay, Michael A; Liu, Kathleen D

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between body temperature and outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A better understanding of this relationship may provide evidence for fever suppression or warming interventions, which are commonly applied in practice. To examine the relationship between body temperature and mortality in patients with ARDS. Secondary analysis of body temperature and mortality using data from the ARDS Network Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial (n = 969). Body temperature at baseline and on study day 2, primary cause of ARDS, severity of illness, and 90-day mortality were analyzed by using multiple logistic regression. Mean baseline temperature was 37.5°C (SD, 1.1°C; range, 27.2°C-40.7°C). At baseline, fever (≥ 38.3°C) was present in 23% and hypothermia (temperature was a significant predictor of 90-day mortality after primary cause of ARDS and score on the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III were adjusted for. Higher temperature was associated with decreased mortality: for every 1°C increase in baseline temperature, the odds of death decreased by 15% (odds ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73-0.98, P = .03). When patients were divided into 5 temperature groups, mortality was lower with higher temperature (P for trend = .02). Early in ARDS, fever is associated with improved survival rates. Fever in the acute phase response to lung injury and its relationship to recovery may be an important factor in determining patients' outcome and warrants further study. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  2. Spatio-temporal attributes of water temperature and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatio-temporal attributes of water temperature and macroinvertebrate assemblages in the headwaters of the Bushmans River, southern Drakensberg. S Grab. Abstract. Currently, there is little understanding of the controls that instream thermal limits and hydraulic biotype diversity have on macroinvertebrate assemblages, ...

  3. Variability in estuarine water temperature gradients and influence on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structure and variability of water temperature gradients and potential influence on distribution of two tropical zooplankters (the mysid Mesopodopsis africana and the copepod Acartia natalensis) and their temperate congenerics (M. wooldridgei and A. longipatella) was investigated over a 10-year period in the Mgazi Estuary, ...

  4. MANAGING WATER TEMPERATURE TMDLS UNDER ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL UNCERTAINTY

    OpenAIRE

    Howitt, Richard E.; Kaplan, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Michael L.; Viers, Joshua H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical model for analyzing the economics of information acquisition and adaptive watershed management. An empirical application drawn from the Total Maximum Daily Load standard implemented to control in-stream water temperature pollution for the Navarro River watershed, located in northern California provides the basis for this inquiry.

  5. Effects of Hot Water Treatment and Temperature on Seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, to study the effect of hot water treatment and temperature on the morphological characteristics of Arabic gum. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design in a factorial arrangement. The treatments included a ...

  6. Geothermal data-base study: mine-water temperatures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, D.C.; Sonderegger, J.L.

    1978-07-01

    Investigation of about 1,600 mines and prospects for perennial discharge resulted in the measurement of temperature, pH, specific conductance, and discharge at 80 sites to provide information for a geothermal data base. Measurements were made in the fall, winter, and late spring or early summer to provide information about seasonal variability. None of the temperatures measured exceeded the mean annual air temperature by 15/sup 0/F, but three areas were noted where discharges were anomalously warm, based upon high temperatures, slight temperature variation, and quantity of discharge. The most promising area, at the Gold Bug mine in the Little Rockies, discharges water averaging 7.3/sup 0/C (12.1/sup 0/F) above the mean annual air temperature. The discharge may represent water heated during circulation within the syenite intrusive body. If the syenite is enriched in uranium and thorium, an abnormal amount of heat would be produced by radioactive decay. Alternatively, the water may move through deep permeable sedimentary strata, such as the Madison Group, and be discharged to the surface through fractures in the pluton.

  7. Dynamics and complexity of body temperature in preterm infants nursed in incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Kerstin; Pramana, Isabelle; Delgado-Eckert, Edgar; Kumar, Nitin; Datta, Alexandre N; Frey, Urs; Schulzke, Sven M

    2017-01-01

    Poor control of body temperature is associated with mortality and major morbidity in preterm infants. We aimed to quantify its dynamics and complexity to evaluate whether indices from fluctuation analyses of temperature time series obtained within the first five days of life are associated with gestational age (GA) and body size at birth, and presence and severity of typical comorbidities of preterm birth. We recorded 3h-time series of body temperature using a skin electrode in incubator-nursed preterm infants. We calculated mean and coefficient of variation of body temperature, scaling exponent alpha (Talpha) derived from detrended fluctuation analysis, and sample entropy (TSampEn) of temperature fluctuations. Data were analysed by multilevel multivariable linear regression. Data of satisfactory technical quality were obtained from 285/357 measurements (80%) in 73/90 infants (81%) with a mean (range) GA of 30.1 (24.0-34.0) weeks. We found a positive association of Talpha with increasing levels of respiratory support after adjusting for GA and birth weight z-score (pbody temperature in incubator-nursed preterm infants show considerable associations with GA and respiratory morbidity. Talpha may be a useful marker of autonomic maturity and severity of disease in preterm infants.

  8. Validity of Devices That Assess Body Temperature During Outdoor Exercise in the Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa, Douglas J; Becker, Shannon M; Ganio, Matthew S; Brown, Christopher M; Yeargin, Susan W; Roti, Melissa W; Siegler, Jason; Blowers, Julie A; Glaviano, Neal R; Huggins, Robert A; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2007-01-01

    Context: Rectal temperature is recommended by the National Athletic Trainers' Association as the criterion standard for recognizing exertional heat stroke, but other body sites commonly are used to measure temperature. Few authors have assessed the validity of the thermometers that measure body temperature at these sites in athletic settings. Objective: To assess the validity of commonly used temperature devices at various body sites during outdoor exercise in the heat. Design: Observational field study. Setting: Outdoor athletic facilities. Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen men and 10 women (age = 26.5 ± 5.3 years, height = 174.3 ± 11.1 cm, mass = 72.73 ± 15.95 kg, body fat = 16.2 ± 5.5%). Intervention(s): We simultaneously tested inexpensive and expensive devices orally and in the axillary region, along with measures of aural, gastrointestinal, forehead, temporal, and rectal temperatures. Temporal temperature was measured according to the instruction manual and a modified method observed in medical tents at local road races. We also measured forehead temperatures directly on the athletic field (other measures occurred in a covered pavilion) where solar radiation was greater. Rectal temperature was the criterion standard used to assess the validity of all other devices. Subjects' temperatures were measured before exercise, every 60 minutes during 180 minutes of exercise, and every 20 minutes for 60 minutes of postexercise recovery. Temperature devices were considered invalid if the mean bias (average difference between rectal temperature and device temperature) was greater than ±0.27°C (±0.5°F). Main Outcome Measure(s): Temperature from each device at each site and time point. Results: Mean bias for the following temperatures was greater than the allowed limit of ±0.27°C (±0.5°F): temperature obtained via expensive oral device (−1.20°C [−2.17°F]), inexpensive oral device (−1.67°C [−3.00°F]), expensive axillary device (−2.58°C [−4

  9. Headset Bluetooth and cell phone based continuous central body temperature measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, J Miguel; Pereira, Bruno; Paiva, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The accurate measure of the central temperature is a very important physiologic indicator in several clinical applications, namely, in the characterization and diagnosis of sleep disorders. In this paper a simple system is described to continuously measure the body temperature at the ear. An electronic temperature sensor is coupled to the microphone of a common commercial auricular Bluetooth device that sends the temperature measurements to a mobile phone to which is paired. The measurements are stored at the mobile phone and periodically sent to a medical facility by email or SMS (short messaging service).

  10. Technologies for Upgrading Light Water Reactor Outlet Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel S. Wendt; Piyush Sabharwall; Vivek Utgikar

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear energy could potentially be utilized in hybrid energy systems to produce synthetic fuels and feedstocks from indigenous carbon sources such as coal and biomass. First generation nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) technology will most likely be based on conventional light water reactors (LWRs). However, these LWRs provide thermal energy at temperatures of approximately 300°C, while the desired temperatures for many chemical processes are much higher. In order to realize the benefits of nuclear hybrid energy systems with the current LWR reactor fleets, selection and development of a complimentary temperature upgrading technology is necessary. This paper provides an initial assessment of technologies that may be well suited toward LWR outlet temperature upgrading for powering elevated temperature industrial and chemical processes during periods of off-peak power demand. Chemical heat transformers (CHTs) are a technology with the potential to meet LWR temperature upgrading requirements for NHESs. CHTs utilize chemical heat of reaction to change the temperature at which selected heat sources supply or consume thermal energy. CHTs could directly utilize LWR heat output without intermediate mechanical or electrical power conversion operations and the associated thermodynamic losses. CHT thermal characteristics are determined by selection of the chemical working pair and operating conditions. This paper discusses the chemical working pairs applicable to LWR outlet temperature upgrading and the CHT operating conditions required for providing process heat in NHES applications.

  11. Evaluation of the correlations for predicting evaporative loss from water body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, T.P.; Aybar, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Water evaporation (evaporation from here on) is a natural phenomenon that is important for system design and system safety in many engineering branches. Indeed, evaporative heat and mass loss are observed and calculated in very diverse situations, such as irrigation plants, water purification plants, cooling ponds, lakes, dams, swimming pools, health spas, management of liquid wastes as in evaporation pools, and spent fuel pools in nuclear power plants. There are a number of correlations obtained from experimental studies that predict the evaporative heat and mass loss from a water body. This study aims to summarize and to compare the existing evaporation correlations to determine the upper and lower bounding correlations for use in various thermal-hydraulic analyses of systems. Currently and widely used, six correlations found in the literature have been selected and tested using the major parameters of evaporation such as water temperature, air relative humidity, air velocity, and temperature. The comparison test cases show that ASHRAE (1991) and Ryan et al. (1974) equations result in the highest evaporative loss, while the Brady et al. (1969) equation provides the lowest evaporative loss in most conditions. Engineering designers may sometimes need the upper bound value of evaporative loss or sometimes the lower bound value for a conservative calculation. The authors conclude that using a single equation does not provide the conservative calculation for every situation and show which correlation gives the lower or upper bound for different conditions

  12. Increasing Water Temperature Triggers Dominance of Small Freshwater Plankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Rasconi

    Full Text Available Climate change scenarios predict that lake water temperatures will increase up to 4°C and rainfall events will become more intense and frequent by the end of this century. Concurrently, supply of humic substances from terrestrial runoff is expected to increase, resulting in darker watercolor ("brownification" of aquatic ecosystems. Using a multi-seasonal, low trophic state mesocosm experiment, we investigated how higher water temperature and brownification affect plankton community composition, phenology, and functioning. We tested the hypothesis that higher water temperature (+3°C and brownification will, a cause plankton community composition to shift toward small sized phytoplankton and cyanobacteria, and, b extend the length of the growing season entailing higher phytoplankton production later in the season. We demonstrate that the 3°C increase of water temperature favored the growth of heterotrophic bacteria and small sized autotrophic picophytoplankton cells with significantly higher primary production during warmer fall periods. However, 3X darker water (effect of brownification caused no significant changes in the plankton community composition or functioning relative to control conditions. Our findings reveal that increased temperature change plankton community structure by favoring smaller sized species proliferation (autotrophic phytoplankton and small size cladocerans, and increase primary productivity and community turnover. Finally, results of this multi-seasonal experiment suggest that warming by 3°C in aquatic ecosystems of low trophic state may cause planktonic food web functioning to become more dominated by fast growing, r-trait species (i.e., small sizes and rapid development.

  13. Individual differences in normal body temperature: longitudinal big data analysis of patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Ziad; Samra, Jasmeet K; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2017-12-13

    To estimate individual level body temperature and to correlate it with other measures of physiology and health. Observational cohort study. Outpatient clinics of a large academic hospital, 2009-14. 35 488 patients who neither received a diagnosis for infections nor were prescribed antibiotics, in whom temperature was expected to be within normal limits. Baseline temperatures at individual level, estimated using random effects regression and controlling for ambient conditions at the time of measurement, body site, and time factors. Baseline temperatures were correlated with demographics, medical comorbidities, vital signs, and subsequent one year mortality. In a diverse cohort of 35 488 patients (mean age 52.9 years, 64% women, 41% non-white race) with 243 506 temperature measurements, mean temperature was 36.6°C (95% range 35.7-37.3°C, 99% range 35.3-37.7°C). Several demographic factors were linked to individual level temperature, with older people the coolest (-0.021°C for every decade, Ptemperature (eg, hypothyroidism: -0.013°C, P=0.01) or higher temperature (eg, cancer: 0.020, Ptemperature variation. Despite this, unexplained temperature variation was a significant predictor of subsequent mortality: controlling for all measured factors, an increase of 0.149°C (1 SD of individual temperature in the data) was linked to 8.4% higher one year mortality (P=0.014). Individuals' baseline temperatures showed meaningful variation that was not due solely to measurement error or environmental factors. Baseline temperatures correlated with demographics, comorbid conditions, and physiology, but these factors explained only a small part of individual temperature variation. Unexplained variation in baseline temperature, however, strongly predicted mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Individual differences in normal body temperature: longitudinal big data analysis of patient records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Jasmeet K; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate individual level body temperature and to correlate it with other measures of physiology and health. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Outpatient clinics of a large academic hospital, 2009-14. Participants 35 488 patients who neither received a diagnosis for infections nor were prescribed antibiotics, in whom temperature was expected to be within normal limits. Main outcome measures Baseline temperatures at individual level, estimated using random effects regression and controlling for ambient conditions at the time of measurement, body site, and time factors. Baseline temperatures were correlated with demographics, medical comorbidities, vital signs, and subsequent one year mortality. Results In a diverse cohort of 35 488 patients (mean age 52.9 years, 64% women, 41% non-white race) with 243 506 temperature measurements, mean temperature was 36.6°C (95% range 35.7-37.3°C, 99% range 35.3-37.7°C). Several demographic factors were linked to individual level temperature, with older people the coolest (–0.021°C for every decade, Ptemperature (eg, hypothyroidism: –0.013°C, P=0.01) or higher temperature (eg, cancer: 0.020, Pbody mass index: 0.002 per m/kg2, Ptemperature variation. Despite this, unexplained temperature variation was a significant predictor of subsequent mortality: controlling for all measured factors, an increase of 0.149°C (1 SD of individual temperature in the data) was linked to 8.4% higher one year mortality (P=0.014). Conclusions Individuals’ baseline temperatures showed meaningful variation that was not due solely to measurement error or environmental factors. Baseline temperatures correlated with demographics, comorbid conditions, and physiology, but these factors explained only a small part of individual temperature variation. Unexplained variation in baseline temperature, however, strongly predicted mortality. PMID:29237616

  15. Water and the Interior Structure of Terrestrial Planets and Icy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteux, J.; Golabek, G. J.; Rubie, D. C.; Tobie, G.; Young, E. D.

    2018-02-01

    Water content and the internal evolution of terrestrial planets and icy bodies are closely linked. The distribution of water in planetary systems is controlled by the temperature structure in the protoplanetary disk and dynamics and migration of planetesimals and planetary embryos. This results in the formation of planetesimals and planetary embryos with a great variety of compositions, water contents and degrees of oxidation. The internal evolution and especially the formation time of planetesimals relative to the timescale of radiogenic heating by short-lived 26Al decay may govern the amount of hydrous silicates and leftover rock-ice mixtures available in the late stages of their evolution. In turn, water content may affect the early internal evolution of the planetesimals and in particular metal-silicate separation processes. Moreover, water content may contribute to an increase of oxygen fugacity and thus affect the concentrations of siderophile elements within the silicate reservoirs of Solar System objects. Finally, the water content strongly influences the differentiation rate of the icy moons, controls their internal evolution and governs the alteration processes occurring in their deep interiors.

  16. The influence of increased temperature of waters from Cernavoda NPP on underground water sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isbasoiu, Eugen Constantin; Marinov, Anca Mariana; Moraru, Carina Nicoleta; Rizescu, Gheorghe

    1997-01-01

    The operation of Cernavoda NPP implies the change of thermal regime of waters in the Danube-Black Sea channel zone. The Danube water is used to cool the NPP systems before being delivered into channel and used in irrigations. The temperature increase of water in Cernavoda NPP installations is between 7 and 12 deg. C. The negative effects of this warming are: 1. limitation of water use for irrigations; 2. occurrence and persistence of fog in channel area; 3. thermal pollution of underground waters and limitation of underground potable water supply. The paper presents a general approach of thermal pollution problems of an aquifer and a mathematical model of forecasting the underground water temperature variation in Danube-Black Sea channel area. (authors)

  17. Novel Zero-Heat-Flux Deep Body Temperature Measurement in Lower Extremity Vascular and Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Marja-Tellervo; Pesonen, Anne; Jousela, Irma; Päivärinta, Janne; Poikajärvi, Satu; Albäck, Anders; Salminen, Ulla-Stina; Pesonen, Eero

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare deep body temperature obtained using a novel noninvasive continuous zero-heat-flux temperature measurement system with core temperatures obtained using conventional methods. A prospective, observational study. Operating room of a university hospital. The study comprised 15 patients undergoing vascular surgery of the lower extremities and 15 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Zero-heat-flux thermometry on the forehead and standard core temperature measurements. Body temperature was measured using a new thermometry system (SpotOn; 3M, St. Paul, MN) on the forehead and with conventional methods in the esophagus during vascular surgery (n = 15), and in the nasopharynx and pulmonary artery during cardiac surgery (n = 15). The agreement between SpotOn and the conventional methods was assessed using the Bland-Altman random-effects approach for repeated measures. The mean difference between SpotOn and the esophageal temperature during vascular surgery was+0.08°C (95% limit of agreement -0.25 to+0.40°C). During cardiac surgery, during off CPB, the mean difference between SpotOn and the pulmonary arterial temperature was -0.05°C (95% limits of agreement -0.56 to+0.47°C). Throughout cardiac surgery (on and off CPB), the mean difference between SpotOn and the nasopharyngeal temperature was -0.12°C (95% limits of agreement -0.94 to+0.71°C). Poor agreement between the SpotOn and nasopharyngeal temperatures was detected in hypothermia below approximately 32°C. According to this preliminary study, the deep body temperature measured using the zero-heat-flux system was in good agreement with standard core temperatures during lower extremity vascular and cardiac surgery. However, agreement was questionable during hypothermia below 32°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Deep-body temperature changes in rats exposed to chronic centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, J.; Platt, W. T.; Holland, V. B.

    1971-01-01

    Deep-body temperature was monitored continuously by implant biotelemetry in unrestrained rats before, during, and after exposure to prolonged and almost continuous centrifugation. Rats subjected to centrifugation for the first time at various G loads ranging up to 2.5 G show a rapid and significant fall in temperature which is sustained below normal levels for periods as long as 3 days. The magnitude of the temperature fall and the recovery time were generally proportional to the G load imposed. The initial fall and recovery of body temperature closely parallels the decrease in food consumption and to a lesser degree the decrease in body mass experienced by centrifuged rats. After exposure to 2 weeks of centrifugation, rats show either no change or only a small transient increase in temperature when decelerated to a lower G level or when returned to normal gravity. Rats repeatedly exposed to centrifugation consistently showed a smaller temperature response compared to the initial exposure. Implant temperature biotelemetry has been found to be a sensitive, reliable, and extremely useful technique for assessing the initial stress of centrifugation and in monitoring the time course of recovery and acclimation of rats to increase as well as*decrease G.

  19. Tritium water as a marker for the measurement of body water turnover rates in desert livestock, rodent and bird species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Ghosh, P.K.; Bohra, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Tritiated water has been used for estimating body water turnover rates (BWTRs) in desert livestock, rodent and birds. BWTRs in relation to adaption of these animal species to desert environment have been discussed. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Disruption of the circadian period of body temperature by the anesthetic propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, Yvan; Mauvieux, Benoit; Reinberg, Alain; Dispersyn, Garance

    2016-01-01

    The circadian time structure of an organism can be desynchronized in a large number of instances, including the intake of specific drugs. We have previously found that propofol, which is a general anesthetic, induces a desynchronization of the circadian time structure in rats, with a 60-80 min significant phase advance of body temperature circadian rhythm. We thus deemed it worthwhile to examine whether this phase shift of body temperature was related to a modification of the circadian period Tau. Propofol was administered at three different Zeitgeber Times (ZTs): ZT6 (middle of the rest period), ZT10 (2 h prior to the beginning of activity period), ZT16 (4 h after the beginning of the activity period), with ZT0 being the beginning of the rest period (light onset) and ZT12 being the beginning of the activity period (light offset). Control rats (n = 20) were injected at the same ZTs with 10% intralipid, which is a control lipidic solution. Whereas no modification of the circadian period of body temperature was observed in the control rats, propofol administration resulted in a significant shortening of the period by 96 and 180 min at ZT6 and ZT10, respectively. By contrast, the period was significantly lengthened by 90 min at ZT16. We also found differences in the time it took for the rats to readjust their body temperature to the original 24-h rhythm. At ZT16, the speed of readjustment was more rapid than at the two other ZTs that we investigated. This study hence shows (i) the disruptive effects of the anesthetic propofol on the body temperature circadian rhythm, and it points out that (ii) the period Tau for body temperature responds to this anesthetic drug according to a Tau-response curve. By sustaining postoperative sleep-wake disorders, the disruptive effects of propofol on circadian time structure might have important implications for the use of this drug in humans.

  1. Simulating future water temperatures in the North Santiam River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman; Risley, John C.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2016-01-01

    A previously calibrated two-dimensional hydrodynamic and water-quality model (CE-QUAL-W2) of Detroit Lake in western Oregon was used in conjunction with inflows derived from Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) hydrologic models to examine in-lake and downstream water temperature effects under future climate conditions. Current and hypothetical operations and structures at Detroit Dam were imposed on boundary conditions derived from downscaled General Circulation Models in base (1990–1999) and future (2059–2068) periods. Compared with the base period, future air temperatures were about 2 °C warmer year-round. Higher air temperature and lower precipitation under the future period resulted in a 23% reduction in mean annual PRMS-simulated discharge and a 1 °C increase in mean annual estimated stream temperatures flowing into the lake compared to the base period. Simulations incorporating current operational rules and minimum release rates at Detroit Dam to support downstream habitat, irrigation, and water supply during key times of year resulted in lower future lake levels. That scenario results in a lake level that is above the dam’s spillway crest only about half as many days in the future compared to historical frequencies. Managing temperature downstream of Detroit Dam depends on the ability to blend warmer water from the lake’s surface with cooler water from deep in the lake, and the spillway is an important release point near the lake’s surface. Annual average in-lake and release temperatures from Detroit Lake warmed 1.1 °C and 1.5 °C from base to future periods under present-day dam operational rules and fill schedules. Simulated dam operations such as beginning refill of the lake 30 days earlier or reducing minimum release rates (to keep more water in the lake to retain the use of the spillway) mitigated future warming to 0.4 and 0.9 °C below existing operational scenarios during the critical autumn spawning period for endangered

  2. Simulating future water temperatures in the North Santiam River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Risley, John C.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2016-04-01

    A previously calibrated two-dimensional hydrodynamic and water-quality model (CE-QUAL-W2) of Detroit Lake in western Oregon was used in conjunction with inflows derived from Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) hydrologic models to examine in-lake and downstream water temperature effects under future climate conditions. Current and hypothetical operations and structures at Detroit Dam were imposed on boundary conditions derived from downscaled General Circulation Models in base (1990-1999) and future (2059-2068) periods. Compared with the base period, future air temperatures were about 2 °C warmer year-round. Higher air temperature and lower precipitation under the future period resulted in a 23% reduction in mean annual PRMS-simulated discharge and a 1 °C increase in mean annual estimated stream temperatures flowing into the lake compared to the base period. Simulations incorporating current operational rules and minimum release rates at Detroit Dam to support downstream habitat, irrigation, and water supply during key times of year resulted in lower future lake levels. That scenario results in a lake level that is above the dam's spillway crest only about half as many days in the future compared to historical frequencies. Managing temperature downstream of Detroit Dam depends on the ability to blend warmer water from the lake's surface with cooler water from deep in the lake, and the spillway is an important release point near the lake's surface. Annual average in-lake and release temperatures from Detroit Lake warmed 1.1 °C and 1.5 °C from base to future periods under present-day dam operational rules and fill schedules. Simulated dam operations such as beginning refill of the lake 30 days earlier or reducing minimum release rates (to keep more water in the lake to retain the use of the spillway) mitigated future warming to 0.4 and 0.9 °C below existing operational scenarios during the critical autumn spawning period for endangered salmonids. A

  3. Pregnant women maintain body temperatures within safe limits during moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic classes conducted in pools heated up to 33 degrees Celsius: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Brearley

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Question: What is the body temperature response of healthy pregnant women exercising at moderate intensity in an aqua-aerobics class where the water temperature is in the range of 28 to 33 degrees Celsius, as typically found in community swimming pools? Design: An observational study. Participants: One hundred and nine women in the second and third trimester of pregnancy who were enrolled in a standardised aqua-aerobics class. Outcome measures: Tympanic temperature was measured at rest pre-immersion (T1, after 35 minutes of moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic exercise (T2, after a further 10 minutes of light exercise while still in the water (T3 and finally on departure from the facility (T4. The range of water temperatures in seven indoor community pools was 28.8 to 33.4 degrees Celsius. Results: Body temperature increased by a mean of 0.16 degrees Celsius (SD 0.35, p < 0.001 at T2, was maintained at this level at T3 and had returned to pre-immersion resting values at T4. Regression analysis demonstrated that the temperature response was not related to the water temperature (T2 r = –0.01, p = 0.9; T3 r = –0.02, p = 0.9; T4 r = 0.03, p = 0.8. Analysis of variance demonstrated no difference in body temperature response between participants when grouped in the cooler, medium and warmer water temperatures (T2 F = 0.94, p = 0.40; T3 F = 0.93, p = 0.40; T4 F = 0.70, p = 0.50. Conclusions: Healthy pregnant women maintain body temperatures within safe limits during moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic exercise conducted in pools heated up to 33 degrees Celsius. The study provides evidence to inform guidelines for safe water temperatures for aqua-aerobic exercise during pregnancy. [Brearley AL, Sherburn M, Galea MP, Clarke SJ, (2015 Pregnant women maintain body temperatures within safe limits during moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic classes conducted in pools heated up to 33 degrees Celsius: an observational study. Journal of

  4. Effect of the temperature-humidity index on body temperature and conception rate of lactating dairy cows in southwestern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabenishi, Hisashi; Ohta, Hiroshi; Nishimoto, Toshihumi; Morita, Tetsuo; Ashizawa, Koji; Tsuzuki, Yasuhiro

    2011-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the temperature-humidity index (THI) and the conception rate of lactating dairy cows in southwestern Japan, one of the hottest areas of the country. We also investigated the relationship between measurement of the vaginal temperature of lactating dairy cows as their core body temperature at one-hour intervals for 25 consecutive days in hot (August-September, n=6) and cool (January-February, n=5) periods and their THI. Furthermore, we discussed the above relationship using these vaginal temperatures, the conception rates and the THI. As a result, when the conception rates from day 2 to 0 before AI were classified into day 2, 1 and 0 groups by the six maximum THI values in each group (mTHI; 80), only the conception rate for the mTHI over 80 at 1 day before AI group was significantly lower (Pconception rate for days 15 to 17, but not days 19 to 22 and 30 to 35, after AI in the cows that experienced average mTHI over 80 (amTHI>80) was significantly lower (P80. There was a significant positive correlation (Pconception rates and vaginal temperatures for all mTHI classes, in the mTHI>80 at 1 day before AI group, the vaginal temperature increased by 0.6 C from 38.7 C, resulting in a reduction of 11.6% in the conception rate from 40.5%. In conclusion, these results suggest that one of the causes of the fall in conception rate of lactating dairy cows during the summer season in southwestern Japan may be an increase in their core body temperature with a higher mTHI than the critical mTHI of 69 at 1 day before AI.

  5. Temperature regulation of young coypus (Myocastor coypus) in air and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doncaster, C P; Dumonteil, E; Barré, H; Jouventin, P

    1990-12-01

    Coypus (Myocastor coypus Molina) have recently colonized temperate regions of Europe in large numbers, originating from populations indigenous to subtropical regions of South America. Observations of coypu behavior in the wild and in enclosures under a temperate climate showed a preference for close proximity to water and frequent swimming bouts. Little change was observed in the semiaquatic habit in winter, despite high mortality during this period, particularly among young and adult male coypus. Evidence for constraints on thermal adaptation was sought from measurements in a thermostatic chamber of the resting metabolic rate (RMR) of young coypus caught from wild populations in France and of the body (Tb) and skin (Tsk) temperatures as a function of ambient temperature (Ta). A light heterothermic response with deep Tb falling by 0.8 degree C and stabilizing at a new level of 36.7 degrees C was observed in water and air at Ta below the lower critical temperatures. In common with other semiaquatic mammals, RMR (2.94 W/kg) was high relative to terrestrial mammals of equivalent body mass. Minimal thermal conductance was 0.10 W.kg-1.degree C-1 in air for Ta between -10 and +20 degrees C, and conductance varied in water from 0.24 to 1.18 W.kg-1.degrees C-1 for Ta between 5 and 35 degrees C. The physiological adaptations to cold and particularly the high insulative value of the fur (80-90% of the insulation) help to explain the successful extension of the coypu's range to temperate regions. Energetic costs were nevertheless high in cold water, suggesting that social factors may be implicated in severe winter mortality, particularly dominance hierarchy regulating the persistent use of water bodies even under freezing conditions.

  6. Integration of body temperature into the analysis of energy expenditure in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Abreu-Vieira

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: At 22 °C, cold-induced thermogenesis is ∼120% of basal metabolic rate. The higher body temperature during physical activity is due to a higher set point, not simply increased heat generation during exercise. Most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms, with little from fur or fat. Our analysis suggests that the definition of the upper limit of the thermoneutral zone should be re-considered. Measuring body temperature informs interpretation of energy expenditure data and improves the predictiveness and utility of the mouse to model human energy homeostasis.

  7. Temperature/pressure and water vapor sounding with microwave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhleman, D. O.; Janssen, M. A.; Clancy, R. T.; Gulkis, S.; Mccleese, D. J.; Zurek, R.; Haberle, R. M.; Frerking, M.

    1992-01-01

    Two intense microwave spectra lines exist in the martian atmosphere that allow unique sounding capabilities: water vapor at 183 GHz and the (2-1) rotational line of CO at 230 GHz. Microwave spectra line sounding is a well-developed technique for the Earth's atmosphere for sounding from above from spacecraft and airplanes, and from below from fixed surface sites. Two simple instruments for temperature sounding on Mars (the CO line) and water vapor measurements are described. The surface sounder proposed for the MESUR sites is designed to study the boundary layer water vapor distribution and the temperature/pressure profiles with vertical resolution of 0.25 km up to 1 km with reduced resolution above approaching a scale height. The water channel will be sensitive to a few tenths of a micrometer of water and the temperature profile will be retrieved to an accuracy between 1 and 2 K. The latter is routinely done on the Earth using oxygen lines near 60 GHz. The measurements are done with a single-channel heterodyne receiver looking into a 10-cm mirror that is canned through a range of elevation angles plus a target load. The frequency of the receiver is sweep across the water and CO lines generating the two spectra at about 1-hr intervals throughout the mission. The mass and power for the proposed instrument are 2 kg and 5-8 W continuously. The measurements are completely immune to the atmospheric dust and ice particle loads. It was felt that these measurements are the ultimate ones to properly study the martian boundary layer from the surface to a few kilometers. Sounding from above requires an orbiting spacecraft with multichannel microwave spectrometers such as the instrument proposed for MO by a subset of the authors, a putative MESUR orbiter, and a proposed Discovery mission called MOES. Such an instrument can be built with less than 10 kg and use less than 15 W. The obvious advantage of this approach is that the entire atmosphere can be sounded for temperature and

  8. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J; Bergman, Harold L; Cherrington, Brian D

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters (Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  9. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J.; Bergman, Harold L.; Cherrington, Brian D.

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows ( Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters ( Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  10. Surgical implantation of temperature-sensitive transmitters and data-loggers to record body temperature in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, D; Johnston, S D; Beard, L; Nicholson, V; Lisle, A; Gaughan, J; Larkin, R; Theilemann, P; Mckinnon, A; Ellis, W

    2016-01-01

    Under predicted climate change scenarios, koala distribution in Australia is expected to be adversely affected. Recent studies have attempted to identify suitable habitat, based on models of bioclimatic regions, but to more accurately reflect the thermal tolerance and behavioural adaptations of the various regional populations, the koala's response to periods of heat stress will need to be investigated at the individual animal level. To explore the safety and suitability of temperature-sensitive intra-abdominal implants for monitoring core body temperature in the koala. A temperature-sensitive radio transmitter and thermal iButton data-logger, waxed together as a package, were surgically implanted into the abdominal cavity of four captive koalas. In one animal the implant was tethered and in the other three, it was left free-floating. After 3 months, the implants were removed and all four koalas recovered without complications. The tethering of the package in the one koala resulted in minor inflammation and adhesion, so this practice was subsequently abandoned. The free-floating deployments were complication-free and revealed a diurnal body temperature rhythm, with daily ranges of 0.4-2.8°C. The minimum recorded body temperature was 34.2°C and the maximum was 37.7°C. The difference in the readings obtained from the transmitters and iButtons never exceeded 0.3°C. The suitability of the surgical approach was confirmed, from both the animal welfare and data collection points of view. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  11. Comparison of estimated core body temperature measured with the BioHarness and rectal temperature under several heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; DiLeo, Travis; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and measuring core body temperature is important to prevent or minimize physiological strain and cognitive dysfunction for workers such as first responders (e.g., firefighters) and military personnel. The purpose of this study is to compare estimated core body temperature (Tco-est), determined by heart rate (HR) data from a wearable chest strap physiology monitor, to standard rectal thermometry (Tre) under different conditions.  Tco-est and Tre measurements were obtained in thermoneutral and heat stress conditions (high temperature and relative humidity) during four different experiments including treadmill exercise, cycling exercise, passive heat stress, and treadmill exercise while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).  Overall, the mean Tco-est did not differ significantly from Tre across the four conditions. During exercise at low-moderate work rates under heat stress conditions, Tco-est was consistently higher than Tre at all-time points. Tco-est underestimated temperature compared to Tre at rest in heat stress conditions and at a low work rate under heat stress while wearing PPE. The mean differences between the two measurements ranged from -0.1 ± 0.4 to 0.3 ± 0.4°C and Tco-est correlated well with HR (r = 0.795 - 0.849) and mean body temperature (r = 0.637 - 0.861).  These results indicate that, the comparison of Tco-est to Tre may result in over- or underestimation which could possibly lead to heat-related illness during monitoring in certain conditions. Modifications to the current algorithm should be considered to address such issues.

  12. A Framework to Simulate Small Shallow Inland Water Bodies in Semi-arid Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, A.; Annor, F.O.; van de Giesen, N.C.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a framework for simulating the flow field and heat transfer processes in small shallow inland water bodies has been developed. As the dynamics and thermal structure of these water bodies are crucial in studying the quality of stored water , and in assessing the heat fluxes from their

  13. Contribution of some water bodies and the role of soils in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of enrichment of water bodies could be of serious crises to the mangrove ecosystem. Changes in physicochemical properties of some water bodies in the Douala-Edea mangrove ecosystem was investigated alongside the potential role of soils in controlling these parameters. Water and soil samples within the ...

  14. Contribution of some water bodies and the role of soils in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A S TENING

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... The effect of enrichment of water bodies could be of serious crises to the mangrove ecosystem. Changes in physicochemical properties of some water bodies in the Douala-Edea mangrove ecosystem was investigated alongside the potential role of soils in controlling these parameters. Water and soil.

  15. A pilot study to examine maturation of body temperature control in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobel, Robin B; Levy, Janet; Katz, Laurence; Guenther, Bob; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2013-01-01

    To test instrumentation and develop analytic models to use in a larger study to examine developmental trajectories of body temperature and peripheral perfusion from birth in extremely low-birth-weight (EBLW) infants. A case study design. The study took place in a Level 4 neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in North Carolina. Four ELBW infants, fewer than 29 weeks gestational age at birth. Physiologic data were measured every minute for the first 5 days of life: peripheral perfusion using perfusion index by Masimo and body temperature using thermistors. Body temperature was also measured using infrared thermal imaging. Stimulation and care events were recorded over the first 5 days using video which was coded with Noldus Observer software. Novel analytical models using the state space approach to time-series analysis were developed to explore maturation of neural control over central and peripheral body temperature. Results from this pilot study confirmed the feasibility of using multiple instruments to measure temperature and perfusion in ELBW infants. This approach added rich data to our case study design and set a clinical context with which to interpret longitudinal physiological data. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  16. Study on the method of maintaining bathtub water temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan

    2017-05-01

    In order to make the water temperature constant and the spillage to its minimum, we use finite element method and grid transformation and have established an optimized model for people in the bathtub both in time and space, which is based on theories of heat convection and heat conduction and three-dimensional second-order equation. For the first question, we have worked out partial differential equations for three-dimensional heat convection. In the meantime, we also create an optimized temperature model in time and space by using initial conditions and boundary conditions. For the second question we have simulated the shape and volume of the tub and the human gestures in the tub based on the first question. As for the shape and volume of the tub, we draw conclusion that the tub whose surface area is little contains water with higher temperature. Thus, when we are designing bathtubs we can decrease the area so that we'll have less loss heat. For different gestures when people are bathing, we have found that gestures have no obvious influence on variations of water temperature. Finally, we did some simulating calculations, and did some analysis on precision and sensitivity

  17. High temperature water adsorption on The Geysers rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruszkiewicz, M.S.; Horita, J.; Simonson, J.M.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1997-08-01

    In order to measure water retention by geothermal reservoir rocks at the actual reservoir temperature, the ORNL high temperature isopiestic apparatus was adapted for adsorption measurements. The quality of water retained by rock samples taken from three different wells of The Geysers geothermal reservoir was measured at 150{sup degree}C, 200{sup degree}C, and 250{sup degree}C as a function of pressure in the range 0.00 {<=}p/p{sub degree} {<=} 0.98, where p{sub degree} is the saturated water vapor pressure. Both adsorption (increasing pressure) and desorption (decreasing pressure) runs were made in order to investigate the nature and the extent of the hysteresis. Additionally, low temperature gas adsorption analyses were performed on the same rock samples. Nitrogen or krypton adsorption and desorption isotherms at 77 K were used to obtain BET specific surface areas, pore volumes and their distributions with respect to pore sizes. Mercury intrusion porosimetry was also used to obtain similar information extending to very large pores (macropores). A correlation is sought between water adsorption, the surface properties, and the mineralogical and petrological characteristics of the solids.

  18. Human thermoregulation and measurement of body temperature in exercise and clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chin Leong; Byrne, Chris; Lee, Jason Kw

    2008-04-01

    This review discusses human thermoregulation during exercise and the measurement of body temperature in clinical and exercise settings. The thermoregulatory mechanisms play important roles in maintaining physiological homeostasis during rest and physical exercise. Physical exertion poses a challenge to thermoregulation by causing a substantial increase in metabolic heat production. However, within a non-thermolytic range, the thermoregulatory mechanisms are capable of adapting to sustain physiological functions under these conditions. The central nervous system may also rely on hyperthermia to protect the body from "overheating." Hyperthermia may serve as a self-limiting signal that triggers central inhibition of exercise performance when a temperature threshold is achieved. Exposure to sub-lethal heat stress may also confer tolerance against higher doses of heat stress by inducing the production of heat shock proteins, which protect cells against the thermolytic effects of heat. Advances in body temperature measurement also contribute to research in thermoregulation. Current evidence supports the use of oral temperature measurement in the clinical setting, although it may not be as convenient as tympanic temperature measurement using the infrared temperature scanner. Rectal and oesophagus temperatures are widely accepted surrogate measurements of core temperature (Tc), but they cause discomfort and are less likely to be accepted by users. Gastrointestinal temperature measurement using the ingestible temperature sensor provides an acceptable level of accuracy as a surrogate measure of Tc without causing discomfort to the user. This form of Tc measurement also allows Tc to be measured continuously in the field and has gained wider acceptance in the last decade.

  19. Effects of body temperature on post-anoxic oxidative stress from the perspective of postnatal physiological adaptive processes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletkiewicz, H; Rogalska, J; Nowakowska, A; Wozniak, A; Mila-Kierzenkowska, C; Caputa, M

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that decrease in body temperature provides protection to newborns subjected to anoxia/ischemia. We hypothesized that the normal body temperature of 33°C in neonatal rats (4°C below normal body temperature in adults) is in fact a preadaptation to protect CNS from anoxia and further reductions as well as elevations in temperature may be counterproductive. Our experiments aimed to examine the effect of changes in body temperature on oxidative stress development in newborn rats exposed to anoxia. Two-day-old Wistar rats were divided into 4 temperature groups: i. hypothermic at body temperature of 31°C, ii. maintaining physiological neonatal body temperature of 33°C, iii. forced to maintain hyperthermic temperature of 37°C, and i.v. forced to maintain hyperthermic temperature of 39°C. The temperature was controlled starting 15 minutes before and afterword during 10 minutes of anoxia as well as for 2 hours post-anoxia. Cerebral concentrations of lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes had been determined post mortem: immediately after anoxia was finished and 3, 7, and 14 days later. There were no post-anoxic changes in the concentration of MDA, CD and in antioxidant enzymes activity in newborn rats kept at their physiological body temperature of 33°C. In contrast, perinatal anoxia at body temperature elevated to 37°C or 39°C as well as under hypothermic conditions (31°C) intensified post-anoxic oxidative stress and depleted the antioxidant pool. Overall, these findings suggest that elevated body temperature (hyperthermia or fever), as well as exceeding cooling beyond the physiological level of body temperature of newborn rats, may extend perinatal anoxia-induced brain lesions. Our findings provide new insights into the role of body temperature in anoxic insult in vivo.

  20. Does Water Temperature Affect the Timing and Duration of Remigial Moult in Sea Ducks? An Experimental Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouck Viain

    Full Text Available Aquatic birds have high cost of thermoregulation, especially during the moulting period, yet the effect of water temperature on the moulting strategy of aquatic birds has rarely been studied. Our general hypothesis is that energy savings associated with lower thermoregulation costs would be allocated to moulting processes. We predicted that aquatic birds moulting in warm water would have a higher level of body reserves, a faster growth rate of feathers, and an earlier remigial moult onset compared with birds moulting in cold water. We used the common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri, a large sea duck, as the model species. Captive individuals were experimentally exposed to warm (18°C and cold (8°C water treatments during a three year period with individuals swapped between treatments. We found a similar feather growth rate for the two water temperature treatments and in contrast to our predictions, eiders exposed to warm water had a lower body mass and showed a delayed onset of remigial moult of approximately 7 days compared with those exposed to cold water. Our data indicate that body mass variations influence the timing of moult in unexpected ways and we suggest that it likely controls the occurrence of wing moult through a hormonal cascade. This study emphasizes the importance of improving our knowledge of the effects of water temperature on remigial moult of aquatic birds, to better assert the potential effects of global warming on their survival.

  1. Core Temperature and Surface Heat Flux During Exercise in Heat While Wearing Body Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    other was used as a suppository (Tc2). Other data included height, weight, HF and Ts from 6 locations (forehead, sternum, pectoral muscle , scapula...from the changes in clothed weights. Instrumentation for Chamber Testing Heart rate (including ECG waveform), skin temperature, respiration ...rate (including respiration effort waveform), activity level using accelerometry data, and body core temperature were measured every 15 s by a chest

  2. Method for solving the problem of nonlinear heating a cylindrical body with unknown initial temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaparova, N.

    2017-10-01

    We consider the problem of heating a cylindrical body with an internal thermal source when the main characteristics of the material such as specific heat, thermal conductivity and material density depend on the temperature at each point of the body. We can control the surface temperature and the heat flow from the surface inside the cylinder, but it is impossible to measure the temperature on axis and the initial temperature in the entire body. This problem is associated with the temperature measurement challenge and appears in non-destructive testing, in thermal monitoring of heat treatment and technical diagnostics of operating equipment. The mathematical model of heating is represented as nonlinear parabolic PDE with the unknown initial condition. In this problem, both the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions are given and it is required to calculate the temperature values at the internal points of the body. To solve this problem, we propose the numerical method based on using of finite-difference equations and a regularization technique. The computational scheme involves solving the problem at each spatial step. As a result, we obtain the temperature function at each internal point of the cylinder beginning from the surface down to the axis. The application of the regularization technique ensures the stability of the scheme and allows us to significantly simplify the computational procedure. We investigate the stability of the computational scheme and prove the dependence of the stability on the discretization steps and error level of the measurement results. To obtain the experimental temperature error estimates, computational experiments were carried out. The computational results are consistent with the theoretical error estimates and confirm the efficiency and reliability of the proposed computational scheme.

  3. Abiotic Typology of Surface Water Bodies in the Hydrographic Basin of the Arieş River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE ŞERBAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring according to the Water Frame Directive (2000/60/E.C. guidelines demands the identification of river water bodies, typology, and investigation of reference conditions within each river basin. The identification of “water bodies” based on geographical and hydromorphological determinants is to enable the status to be accurately described and compared to environmental objectives of the Directive. A surface water body has to be a discrete element of surface water, which is not to overlap with each other or to be composed of elements of surface water that are not contiguous. Heavily modified water bodies may be identified and designated where good ecological status is not achieved because of impacts on the hydromorphological characteristics of surface water resulting from physical alterations. By applying the methodology described in the guidance document related to the WFD – Water Framework Directive, identification and designation of abiotic typology water bodies has led to a number of 32 types of water bodies related to streams and 18 types of water bodies related to natural lakes. Due to its position and its morphometric features, the Arieş Basin includes around 12 water body types (eight related to streams and four related to lakes. A detailed overview regarding the spatial distribution of these types is also exposed for inside analysis.

  4. Thermal conditions influence changes in body temperature induced by intragastric administration of capsaicin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Noriyuki; Urata, Tomomi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    Capsaicin has been reported to have unique thermoregulatory actions. However, changes in core temperature after the administration of capsaicin are a controversial point. Therefore, we investigated the effects of environmental thermal conditions on changes in body temperature caused by capsaicin in mice. We showed that intragastric administration of 10 and 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperatures in the core temperature (CT)-constant and CT-decreasing conditions. In the CT-increasing condition, 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperature. However, 10 mg/kg capsaicin increased colonic temperature. Furthermore, the amount of increase in tail temperature was greater in the CT-decreasing condition and lower in the CT-increasing condition, compared with that of the CT-constant condition. These findings suggest that the changes in core temperature were affected by the environmental thermal conditions and that preliminary thermoregulation state might be more important than the constancy of temperature to evaluate the effects of heat diffusion and thermogensis.

  5. Feasibility of active solar water heating systems with evacuated tube collector at different operational water temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarrón, Fernando R.; Porras-Prieto, Carlos Javier; García, José Luis; Benavente, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of the feasibility of an active solar water-heating system. • Profitability decreases as the required water temperature increases. • The number of collectors that maximizes profitability depends on the required temperature. • Investment in a properly sized system generates savings between 23% and 15%. • Fuel consumption can be reduced by 70%. - Abstract: With rapid advancements in society, higher water temperatures are needed in a number of applications. The demand for hot water presents a great variability with water required at different temperatures. In this study, the design, installation, and evaluation of a solar water heating system with evacuated tube collector and active circulation has been carried out. The main objective is to analyze how the required tank water temperature affects the useful energy that the system is capable of delivering, and consequently its profitability. The results show how the energy that is collected and delivered to the tank decreases with increasing the required temperature due to a lower performance of the collector and losses in the pipes. The annual system efficiency reaches average values of 66%, 64%, 61%, 56%, and 55% for required temperatures of 40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C, 70 °C, and 80 °C. As a result, profitability decreases as temperature increases. The useful energy, and therefore the profitability, will decrease if the demand is not distributed throughout the day or focused on the end of the day. The system’s profitability was determined in two cases: considering maximum profitability of the system, assuming 100% utilization of useful energy (scenario 1); assuming a particular demand, considering that on many days all the useful energy the system can supply is not used (scenario 2). The analysis shows that through proper sizing of the system, optimizing the number of solar collectors, the investment in the solar system can be profitable with similar profitability values in the two

  6. Body water compartments during bed rest: Evaluation of analytical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H. L.; Juhos, L.; Castle, B. L.; Yusken, J.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Nine healthy young men were studied to determine the reproducibility and interchangeability of the use of radio-iodinated human serum albumin and Evans Blue dye for estimating plasma volume, sodium bromide for extracellular fluid volume, and deuterium oxide for total body water volume. All subjects were tested in a semibasal condition and allowed to rest for at least 30 min. after arriving at the laboratory. The results indicate that there was uniform distribution of I131 and Evans Blue dye 10 min. after injection and of NaBr and D2O 3 hours after oral ingestion; the buildup of residual tracer did not interfere appreciably with the measurement of either or Evans Blue spaces when they are administered at equal intervals, and the buildup of background tracer after ingestion of NaBr and D2O once per week for three consecutive weeks did not affect the accuracy of the measurement. It was found that I131 and Evans Blue may be used interchangeably for estimating plasma volume; for estimating bromide and D2O spaces, one 3-hour equilibrium blood sample gives results similar to the extrapolation of multiple samples.

  7. Estimation of total body water by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, R.F.; Schoeller, D.A.

    1986-09-01

    Total body water (TBW) measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was directly compared with deuterium-isotope dilution in a total of 58 subjects. First, sex-specific and group equations were developed by multiple regression analysis in (10 each) obese and nonobese men and women. Height/resistive impedance was the most significant variable used to predict deuterium-dilution space (D2O-TBW) and, combined with weight, yielded R = 0.99 and SE of estimate = 1.75 L. Equations predicted D2O-TBW equally well for obese and nonobese subjects. Second, the equations were prospectively tested in a heterogeneous group of 6 males and 12 females. Sex-specific equations predicted D2O-TBW with good correlation coefficients (0.96 and 0.93), total error (2.34 and 2.89 L), and a small difference between mean predicted and measured D2O-TBW (-1.4 +/- 2.05 and -0.48 +/- 2.83 L). BIA predicts D2O-TBW more accurately than weight, height, and/or age. A larger population is required to validate the applicability of our equations.

  8. Effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on body temperature in acute stroke: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Junjie; Chen, Chensong; Cheng, Hongsen; Wang, Ren; Ma, Linhao

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on body temperature in acute stroke. Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched electronically. Relevant journals and references of studies included were hand-searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT) and controlled clinical trials (CCT) regarding the efficacy of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on body temperature in acute stroke. Two reviewers independently performed data extraction and quality assessment. Data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software by the Cochrane Collaboration. Five studies were included. To compare the efficacy of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in acute stroke, the pooled RR (Risk Ratio) and its 95% CI of body temperature reduction at 24h from the start of treatment were -0.3 (95% CI: -0.52 to -0.08), with statistical significance (P=0.007). Consistently, the pooled RR (Risk Ratio) and its 95% CI of body temperature at 24h from the start of treatment were -0.22 (-0.29, -0.15), with statistical significance (Pbody temperature reduction after 5days from the start of treatment, the pooled RR (Risk Ratio) and its 95% CI were 0.04 (95% CI: -0.20 to 0.29), with no statistical significance (P=0.73). For functional outcome (mRS≤2) analysis, the pooled RR and its 95% CI were 1.08 (0.88, 1.32), with no statistical significance (P=0.45). In addition, the difference of serious adverse events between acetaminophen and placebo was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.62 to 1.2), with no statistical significance (P=0.27). Acetaminophen was revealed to have some favorable influence in body temperature reduction in acute stroke, but showed no important effect on improving functional outcome and reducing adverse events of patients. What is already known on this subject? Paracetamol

  9. Improving image quality by accounting for changes in water temperature during a photoacoustic tomography scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Sompel, Dominique; Sasportas, Laura Sarah; Dragulescu-Andrasi, Anca; Bohndiek, Sarah; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of photoacoustic tomography is rapidly evolving with many new system designs and reconstruction algorithms being published. Many systems use water as a coupling medium between the scanned object and the ultrasound transducers. Prior to a scan, the water is heated to body temperature to enable small animal imaging. During the scan, the water heating system of some systems is switched off to minimize the risk of bubble formation, which leads to a gradual decrease in water temperature and hence the speed of sound. In this work, we use a commercially available scanner that follows this procedure, and show that a failure to model intra-scan temperature decreases as small as 1.5°C leads to image artifacts that may be difficult to distinguish from true structures, particularly in complex scenes. We then improve image quality by continuously monitoring the water temperature during the scan and applying variable speed of sound corrections in the image reconstruction algorithm. While upgrading to an air bubble-free heating pump and keeping it running during the scan could also solve the changing temperature problem, we show that a software correction for the temperature changes provides a cost-effective alternative to a hardware upgrade. The efficacy of the software corrections was shown to be consistent across objects of widely varying appearances, namely physical phantoms, ex vivo tissue, and in vivo mouse imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the efficacy of modeling temporal variations in the speed of sound during photoacoustic scans, as opposed to spatial variations as focused on by previous studies. Since air bubbles pose a common problem in ultrasonic and photoacoustic imaging systems, our results will be useful to future small animal imaging studies that use scanners with similarly limited heating units.

  10. Grey water treatment in UASB reactor at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmitwalli, T A; Shalabi, M; Wendland, C; Otterpohl, R

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of grey water treatment in a UASB reactor was investigated. The batch recirculation experiments showed that a maximum total-COD removal of 79% can be obtained in grey-water treatment in the UASB reactor. The continuous operational results of a UASB reactor treating grey water at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20, 12 and 8 hours at ambient temperature (14-24 degrees C) showed that 31-41% of total COD was removed. These results were significantly higher than that achieved by a septic tank (11-14%), the most common system for grey water pre-treatment, at HRT of 2-3 days. The relatively lower removal of total COD in the UASB reactor was mainly due to a higher amount of colloidal COD in the grey water, as compared to that reported in domestic wastewater. The grey water had a limited amount of nitrogen, which was mainly in particulate form (80-90%). The UASB reactor removed 24-36% and 10-24% of total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively, in the grey water, due to particulate nutrients removal by physical entrapment and sedimentation. The sludge characteristics of the UASB reactor showed that the system had stable performance and the recommended HRT for the reactor is 12 hours.

  11. The relationship of normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and BAC/BrAC ratio in 98 physically fit human test subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, J Mack; Burris, James M; Hughes, James R; Cunningham, Margaret P

    2010-06-01

    The relationship between normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC)/breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) ratio was studied in 98 subjects (84 men, 14 women). Subjects consumed alcohol sufficient to produce a BrAC of at least 0.06 g/210 L 45-75 min after drinking. Breath samples were analyzed using an Intoxilyzer 8000 specially equipped to measure breath temperature. Venous blood samples and body temperatures were then taken. The mean body temperature of the men (36.6 degrees C) was lower than the women (37.0 degrees C); however, their mean breath temperatures were virtually identical (men: 34.5 degrees C; women: 34.6 degrees C). The BAC exceeded the BrAC for every subject. BAC/BrAC ratios were calculated from the BAC and BrAC analytical results. There was no difference in the BAC/BrAC ratios for men (1:2379) and women (1:2385). The correlation between BAC and BrAC was high (r = 0.938, p body temperature and end-expired breath temperature, body temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio, and breath temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio were much lower. Neither normal body temperature nor end-expired breath temperature was strongly associated with BAC/BrAC ratio.

  12. Temperature Effect on the Nanostructure of SDS Micelles in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Boualem

    2013-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants form micelles when dissolved in water. These are formed of a hydrocarbon core and hydrophilic ionic surface. The small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique was used with deuterated water (D2O) in order to characterize the micelle structure. Micelles were found to be slightly compressed (oblate ellipsoids) and their sizes shrink with increasing temperature. Fits of SANS data to the Mean Spherical Approximation (MSA) model yielded a calculated micelle volume fraction which was lower than the SDS surfactant (sample mixing) volume fraction; this suggests that part of the SDS molecules do not participate in micelle formation and remain homogeneously mixed in the solvent. A set of material balance equations allowed the estimation of the SDS fraction in the micelles. This fraction was found to be high (close to one) except for samples around 1 % SDS fraction. The micelle aggregation number was found to decrease with increasing temperature and/or decreasing SDS fraction.

  13. The effect of water temperature and water hardness on reproductive indicators Hemichromis lifalili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Kopecký

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the effect of temperature and water hardness on reproductive indicators Hemichromis lifalili in aquarium conditions. From bred individuals we have compiled three breeding pairs, which we placed in aquariums with different temperature and water hardness. In experimental pairs, we evaluated these reproductive variables: number of spawning eggs, the number of hatched, dead and bred individuals. Experiments showed that 28 °C, and 8 °N water hardness increased the reproductive activity of fish and the quantity of fish hatched. Decreasing temperature in the tanks was proportionally increased the number of unhatched individuals, and the mortality. The mortality was 88 pieces per swab at 25 °C. Water at 28 °C and 8 °N hardness was reached swab to 1200 eggs pieces.

  14. Effect of shade on body temperature and performance of feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, J B; Bonner, S; Loxton, I; Mader, T L; Lisle, A; Lawrence, R

    2010-12-01

    A 120-d feedlot study using 164 Angus steers (BW = 396.7 ± 7.0 kg) was undertaken in Queensland Australia (24°84' S, 149°78' N) to determine the effect of shade on body temperature (T(B)) and performance. Cattle were allocated to 20 pens: 16 with an area of 144 m(2) (8 steers/pen) and 4 with an area of 168 m(2) (9 steers/pen). Treatments (10 pens/treatment) were unshaded (NS) vs. shaded (SH). Shade (3.3 m(2)/steer) was provided by 80% solar block shade cloth. Before the study (d -31), 63 steers were implanted (between the internal abdominal muscle and the peritoneum at the right side flank) with a T(B) transmitter. Within each pen, 3 steers had a T(B) transmitter. Individual T(B) was obtained every 30 min. The cattle were fed a feedlot diet and had ad libitum access to water. Water usage and DMI were recorded daily on a pen basis. Average daily gain and G:F were calculated on a pen basis. Climatic variables were obtained from an on-site weather station every 30 min. Individual panting scores (PS) were obtained daily at 0600, 1200, and 1600 h. From these, mean PS (MPS) were calculated for each pen. At slaughter (d 121), individual HCW, loin muscle area (LMA), rump fat depth (P8), 12th-rib fat depth, and marbling score were obtained. Mean T(B) was not affected (P > 0.05) by treatment (SH = 39.58°C; NS = 39.60°C). However, during a 21-d heat wave when cattle were exposed to a mean ambient temperature (T(AM)) > 30°C for 8 h each d (T(AM) between 0800 and 1800 h = 29.7°C, and 23.4°C between 1830 and 0730 h), the T(B) of SH steers (40.41 ± 0.10°C) was less (P 0.05) were found for LMA, P8, or marbling score. Access to shade improved (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F, increased HCW, and decreased MPS; however, shade did not completely eliminate the impact of high heat load.

  15. Effects of pregnancy on body temperature and locomotor performance of velvet geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayananda, Buddhi; Ibargüengoytía, Nora; Whiting, Martin J; Webb, Jonathan K

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy is a challenging period for egg laying squamates. Carrying eggs can encumber females and decrease their locomotor performance, potentially increasing their risk of predation. Pregnant females can potentially reduce this handicap by selecting higher temperatures to increase their sprint speed and ability to escape from predators, or to speed up embryonic development and reduce the period during which they are burdened with eggs ('selfish mother' hypothesis). Alternatively, females might select more stable body temperatures during pregnancy to enhance offspring fitness ('maternal manipulation hypothesis'), even if the maintenance of such temperatures compromises a female's locomotor performance. We investigated whether pregnancy affects the preferred body temperatures and locomotor performance of female velvet geckos Amalosia lesueurii. We measured running speed of females during late pregnancy, and one week after they laid eggs at four temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C). Preferred body temperatures of females were measured in a cost-free thermal gradient during late pregnancy and one week after egg-laying. Females selected higher and more stable set-point temperatures when they were pregnant (mean =29.0°C, T set =27.8-30.5°C) than when they were non-pregnant (mean =26.2°C, T set =23.7-28.7°C). Pregnancy was also associated with impaired performance; females sprinted more slowly at all four test temperatures when burdened with eggs. Although females selected higher body temperatures during late pregnancy, this increase in temperature did not compensate for their impaired running performance. Hence, our results suggest that females select higher temperatures during pregnancy to speed up embryogenesis and reduce the period during which they have reduced performance. This strategy may decrease a female's probability of encountering predatory snakes that use the same microhabitats for thermoregulation. Selection of stable temperatures by pregnant

  16. Increased core body temperature in astronauts during long-duration space missions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stahn, A. C.; Werner, A.; Opatz, O.; Maggioni, M. A.; Steinach, M.; von Ahlefeld, V. W.; Moore, A.; Crucian, B. E.; Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Schlabs, T.; Mendt, S.; Trippel, T.; Koralewski, E.; Koch, J.; Chouker, A.; Reitz, Guenther; Shang, P.; Rocker, L.; Kirsch, K. A.; Gunga, H-C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2017), č. článku 16180. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : core body temperature * astonauts' CBT * spaceflights Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  17. A Quantitative Risk Evaluation Model for Network Security Based on Body Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available These days, in allusion to the traditional network security risk evaluation model, which have certain limitations for real-time, accuracy, characterization. This paper proposed a quantitative risk evaluation model for network security based on body temperature (QREM-BT, which refers to the mechanism of biological immune system and the imbalance of immune system which can result in body temperature changes, firstly, through the r-contiguous bits nonconstant matching rate algorithm to improve the detection quality of detector and reduce missing rate or false detection rate. Then the dynamic evolution process of the detector was described in detail. And the mechanism of increased antibody concentration, which is made up of activating mature detector and cloning memory detector, is mainly used to assess network risk caused by various species of attacks. Based on these reasons, this paper not only established the equation of antibody concentration increase factor but also put forward the antibody concentration quantitative calculation model. Finally, because the mechanism of antibody concentration change is reasonable and effective, which can effectively reflect the network risk, thus body temperature evaluation model was established in this paper. The simulation results showed that, according to body temperature value, the proposed model has more effective, real time to assess network security risk.

  18. Software tools for data modelling and processing of human body temperature circadian dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elena S; Afanasova, Anastasia I

    2015-01-01

    This paper is presenting a software development for simulating and processing thermometry data. The motivation of this research is the miniaturization of actuators attached to human body which allow frequent temperature measurements and improve the medical diagnosis procedures related to circadian dynamics.

  19. Deeply torpid bats can change position without elevation of body temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartonička, T.; Banďouchová, H.; Berková, Hana; Blažek, J.; Lučan, R.; Horáček, I.; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, J.; Řehák, Z.; Zukal, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 63, January (2017), s. 119-123 ISSN 0306-4565 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Body temperature * Hibernation * Locomotor performance * Chiroptera * Flight Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.157, year: 2016

  20. The correlation between the amplitude of Osborn wave and core body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Hesham R; Camporesi, Enrico M

    2015-08-01

    Several reports illustrate an inverse correlation between the Osborn wave (J wave) amplitude and core body temperature. We attempted to study the strength of this correlation. We reviewed all articles reporting hypothermic J waves from 1950-2014 for patient demographics, core body temperature in Celsius (°C), amplitude of the J wave in millimeters (mm), lead with the highest amplitude of J wave, presence of acidosis, PO2, electrolytes and outcome. In cases with more than one electrocardiogram (ECG), the respective core body temperature and J wave amplitude of each ECG were recorded. The main study outcome is to evaluate the correlation between the J wave amplitude and core body temperature in the admission ECG. We have also examined the strength of this relationship in cases with more than one ECG. We attempted to find the most frequent lead that recorded the highest amplitude of the J wave in addition to the correlation between the amplitude of J wave and pH. We found 64 articles comprising a total of 68 cases. When analyzing only cases with more than one reported ECG, there was a strong inverse correlation (r = - 0.682, ptemperature: however, when analyzing admission ECG of all cases, the correlation was only moderate (r = - 0.410, ptemperature. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  1. A body temperature model for lizards as estimated from the thermal environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fei, T.; Skidmore, A.K.; Venus, V.; Wang, T.; Schlerf, M.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Overjijk, van S.; Bian, B.M.; Liu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    A physically based model was built to predict the transient body temperature of lizards in a thermally heterogeneous environment. Six heat transfer terms were taken into account in this model: solar radiation, convective heat flow, longwave radiation, conductive heat flow, metabolic heat gain and

  2. Endogenous and exogenous components in the circadian variation of core body temperature in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddinga, AE; Beersma, DGM; VandenHoofdakker, RH

    Core body temperature is predominantly modulated by endogenous and exogenous components. In the present study we tested whether these two components can be reliably assessed in a protocol which lasts for only 120 h. In this so-called forced desynchrony protocol, 12 healthy male subjects (age 23.7

  3. Selective SWS suppression does not affect the time course of core body temperature in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, Domien G.M.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    1992-01-01

    In eight healthy middle-aged men, sleep and core body temperature were recorded under baseline conditions, during all-night SWS suppression by acoustic stimulation, and during undisturbed recovery sleep. SWS suppression resulted in a marked reduction of sleep stages 3 and 4 but did not affect the

  4. Environmental light and suprachiasmatic nucleus interact in the regulation of body temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheer, F.A.J.L.; Pirovano, C.; Someren, E.J.W. van; Buijs, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian biological clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is crucial for circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior. However, equivocal findings have been reported on its role in the circadian regulation of body temperature. The goal of the present studies was to investigate

  5. An IR Sensor Based Smart System to Approximate Core Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Partha Pratim

    2017-08-01

    Herein demonstrated experiment studies two methods, namely convection and body resistance, to approximate human core body temperature. The proposed system is highly energy efficient that consumes only 165 mW power and runs on 5 VDC source. The implemented solution employs an IR thermographic sensor of industry grade along with AT Mega 328 breakout board. Ordinarily, the IR sensor is placed 1.5-30 cm away from human forehead (i.e., non-invasive) and measured the raw data in terms of skin and ambient temperature which is then converted using appropriate approximation formula to find out core body temperature. The raw data is plotted, visualized, and stored instantaneously in a local machine by means of two tools such as Makerplot, and JAVA-JAR. The test is performed when human object is in complete rest and after 10 min of walk. Achieved results are compared with the CoreTemp CM-210 sensor (by Terumo, Japan) which is calculated to be 0.7 °F different from the average value of BCT, obtained by the proposed IR sensor system. Upon a slight modification, the presented model can be connected with a remotely placed Internet of Things cloud service, which may be useful to inform and predict the user's core body temperature through a probabilistic view. It is also comprehended that such system can be useful as wearable device to be worn on at the hat attachable way.

  6. Differences in oral temperature and body shape in two populations with different propensities for obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, B; Weyer, C; Bogardus, C

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature is a function of heat production and heat dissipation. Substantial interindividual variability has been reported in healthy humans. We hypothesized that Pima Indians, a population with a high prevalence of abdominal obesity, may have a lower surface area relative to volume, that ...

  7. Temperature effect on water absorption in an improved periwinkle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have been carried out on the water absorption of the improved periwinkle reinforced cement stabilized lateritic bricks. These bricks were produced at different cement to laterite to periwinkle ratio of 1:3:1, 2:3:1, 3:3:1, 3:2:1, 3:1:1, and fired at an elevated temperature of 10000C and 11500C, respectively. From the ...

  8. Solubility of corrosion products in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.P.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    1995-01-01

    A short review of solubility of corrosion products at high temperature in either neutral or alkaline water as encountered in BWR, PHWR and PWR primary coolant reactor circuits is presented in this report. Based on the available literature, various experimental techniques involved in the study of the solubility, theory for fitting the solubility data to the thermodynamic model and discussion of the published results with a scope for future work have been brought out. (author). 17 refs., 7 figs

  9. A survey on temperature-aware routing protocols in wireless body sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oey, Christian Henry Wijaya; Moh, Sangman

    2013-08-02

    The rapid growth of the elderly population in the world and the rising cost of healthcare impose big issues for healthcare and medical monitoring. A Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) is comprised of small sensor nodes attached inside, on or around a human body, the main purpose of which is to monitor the functions and surroundings of the human body. However, the heat generated by the node's circuitry and antenna could cause damage to the human tissue. Therefore, in designing a routing protocol for WBSNs, it is important to reduce the heat by incorporating temperature into the routing metric. The main contribution of this paper is to survey existing temperature-aware routing protocols that have been proposed for WBSNs. In this paper, we present a brief overview of WBSNs, review the existing routing protocols comparatively and discuss challenging open issues in the design of routing protocols.

  10. A Survey on Temperature-Aware Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangman Moh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the elderly population in the world and the rising cost of healthcare impose big issues for healthcare and medical monitoring. A Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN is comprised of small sensor nodes attached inside, on or around a human body, the main purpose of which is to monitor the functions and surroundings of the human body. However, the heat generated by the node’s circuitry and antenna could cause damage to the human tissue. Therefore, in designing a routing protocol for WBSNs, it is important to reduce the heat by incorporating temperature into the routing metric. The main contribution of this paper is to survey existing temperature-aware routing protocols that have been proposed for WBSNs. In this paper, we present a brief overview of WBSNs, review the existing routing protocols comparatively and discuss challenging open issues in the design of routing protocols.

  11. Performance, Body Temperature and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Vitamins D and C Under Three Environmental Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria DE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted in a climatic chamber to determine the effects of vitamins D3 and C supplementation on performance, body temperature, and egg quality under thermoneutral temperature (24.8º to 27.0º C, a cyclic heat stress (26.2º C for 16 h and 32.1º C for 8 h and a constant heat stress (30.0º to 32.0º C for three weeks in each temperature. One hundred forty-four White Leghorn hens aged 31 weeks were used in a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of 3 x 3: vitamin D3 (2,500, 3,000, and 3,500 IU/kg and vitamin C (0, 200, and 400 ppm, with a total of nine treatments with four replicates of four hens each. Parameters measured included feed intake (FI, feed:gain (FG, egg production (EP, egg weight (EW, egg mass (EM, rectal (RT and dorsal temperatures (DT, percentages of albumen (AP and yolk (YP, Haugh units (HU, yolk index (YI, shell percent (SP, shell thickness (ST and egg specific gravity (ESG. Vitamin D3 influenced the parameters SP, ST, ESG and DT; vitamin C influenced YI, SP and ESG. There was no influence of environmental temperature only on HU. It was concluded that higher levels of vitamin D3 and 200 or 400 ppm of vitamin C can be improve eggshell quality and that heat stress impaired the main characteristics evaluated.

  12. Eutrophication and cyanobacteria in South Africa’s standing water bodies: A view from space

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matthews, MW

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing can make a significant contribution to monitoring water quality in South African standing water bodies. Eutrophication, defined as enrichment by nutrients, and toxin-producing cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) blooms pose a...

  13. Assessing the reliability of thermography to infer internal body temperatures of lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Frederico M; Carretero, Miguel A; Silva, Francisco; Sannolo, Marco

    2016-12-01

    For many years lizard thermal ecology studies have relied on the use of contact thermometry to obtain internal body temperature (T b ) of the animals. However, with progressing technology, an interest grew in using new, less invasive methods, such as InfraRed (IR) pyrometry and thermography, to infer T b of reptiles. Nonetheless few studies have tested the reliability of these new tools. The present study tested the use of IR cameras as a non-invasive tool to infer T b of lizards, using three differently body-sized lacertid species (Podarcis virescens, Lacerta schreiberi and Timon lepidus). Given the occurrence of regional heterothermy, we pairwise compared thermography readings of six body parts (snout, eye, head, dorsal, hind limb, tail base) to cloacal temperature (measured by a thermometer-associated thermocouple probe) commonly employed to measure T b in field and lab studies. The results showed moderate to strong correlations (R 2 =0.84-0.99) between all body parts and cloacal temperature. However, despite the readings on the tail base showed the strongest correlation in all three species, it was the eye where the absolute values and pattern of temperature change most consistently followed the cloacal measurements. Hence, we concluded that the eye would be the body location whose IR camera readings more closely approximate that of the animal's internal environment. Alternatively, other body parts can be used, provided that a careful calibration is carried out. We provide guidelines for future research using thermography to infer Tb of lizards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. HEAT PUMP USING SUBSOIL WATERS AS LOW TEMPERATURE HEAT SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova Alla

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic directions of perfection of heat supply systems is the tendency of transition to the low-temperature heating systems based on application of heat pump installations. We consider heat supply system with heat pump installations using subsoil waters. Numerical simulation of thermal processes in the elements of a single-stage and double-stage heat pump systems has been worked out. Values of depths of wells and their quantity, necessary for effective operation of the offered installations, and values of capacity of electric water pumps for subsoil waters unit are calculated. Capacity of compressor electric drive and coefficient of performance of heat pump for the conditions of the city of Odessa are presented.

  15. IMPACT OF THE LOCATION OF THE DAIRY COWS IN THE BARN ON THEIR BODY SURFACE TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Slachta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine skin surface temperature of dairy cows housed in tie stalls, according to their location in the barn. A total of 52 healthy cows were investigated, 31 of which were kept in cold stalls by the entrance to the barn and 21 in warm stalls located in the centre of the barn. Skin surface temperature was measured in 8 different body parts using a non-contact thermometer Fluke 572 pyrometer. The results showed that skin temperature of the cows varied according to their location. It was significantly lower in the cows housed in cold stalls compared to those kept in warm stalls P lt; 0.05. The difference was particularly evident for the udder, reaching 1.1C P lt, 0.01. Skin temperature of the cows varied between different measurement points. In both cold and warm stalls, skin temperature was highest on the udder and lowest at the hock joint P lt, 0.01. Time of day and air temperature outside the barn had a highly significant effect on the skin temperature of the cows. The lower the air temperature was, the lower was the skin temperature at all points of measurement P lt, 0.01. It was found that the skin surface of housed cows subjected to increased air movement is at a greater risk of becoming hypothermic.

  16. From Space to the Rocky Intertidal: Using NASA MODIS Sea Surface Temperature and NOAA Water Temperature to Predict Intertidal Logger Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. P. Sutton

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of satellite-derived datasets has greatly facilitated large-scale ecological studies, as in situ observations are spatially sparse and expensive undertakings. We tested the efficacy of using satellite sea surface temperature (SST collected by NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and local water temperature collected from NOAA buoys and onshore stations to estimate submerged intertidal mussel logger temperatures. Daily SST and local water temperatures were compared to mussel logger temperatures at five study sites located along the Oregon coastline. We found that satellite-derived SSTs and local water temperatures were similarly correlated to the submerged mussel logger temperatures. This finding suggests that satellite-derived SSTs may be used in conjunction with local water temperatures to understand the temporal and spatial variation of mussel logger temperatures. While there are limitations to using satellite-derived temperature for ecological studies, including issues with temporal and spatial resolution, our results are promising.

  17. A new approach to inventorying bodies of water, from local to global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartout, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Having reliable estimates of the number of water bodies on different geographical scales is of great importance to better understand biogeochemical cycles and to tackle the social issues related to the economic and cultural use of water bodies. However, limnological research suffers from a lack of reliable inventories; the available scientific references are predominately based on water bodies of natural origin, large in size and preferentially located in previously glaciated areas. Artificial, small and randomly distributed water bodies, especially ponds, are usually not inventoried. Following Wetzel’s theory (1990, some authors included them in global inventories by using remote sensing or mathematical extrapolation, but fieldwork on the ground has been done on a very limited amount of territory. These studies have resulted in an explosive increase in the estimated number of water bodies, going from 8.44 million lakes (Meybeck 1995 to 3.5 billion water bodies (Downing 2010. These numbers raise several questions, especially about the methodology used for counting small-sized water bodies and the methodological treatment of spatial variables. In this study, we use inventories of water bodies for Sweden, Finland, Estonia and France to show incoherencies generated by the “global to local” approach. We demonstrate that one universal relationship does not suffice for generating the regional or global inventories of water bodies because local conditions vary greatly from one region to another and cannot be offset adequately by each other. The current paradigm for global estimates of water bodies in limnology, which is based on one representative model applied to different territories, does not produce sufficiently exact global inventories. The step-wise progression from the local to the global scale requires the development of many regional equations based on fieldwork; a specific equation that adequately reflects the actual relationship

  18. Telemetric Evaluation of Body Temperature and Physical Activity as Predictors of Mortality in a Murine Model of Staphylococcal Enterotoxic Shock

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vlach, Kim

    2000-01-01

    .... This study determined whether body temperature and physical activity, monitored telemetrically, could predict impending death and provide an earlier, more humane experimental endpoint. Methods...

  19. The Impact Analysis of Water Body Landscape Pattern on Urban Heat Island: A Case Study of Wuhan City

    OpenAIRE

    Bohan Yang; Fen Meng; Xinli Ke; Caixue Ma

    2015-01-01

    Based on the LST and the landscape metrics of water body with remote sensing technique and spatial analysis, the relationship between the mean LST and the attributes of water body was revealed via Pearson’s correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. Result showed that, in 32 class-based metrics we selected, the proportion of water body, average water body size, the isolation and fragmentation of water body, and other eight metrics have high correlation with the LST. As a ...

  20. No Relation between Body Temperature and Arterial Recanalization at Three Days in Patients with Acute Ischaemic Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Marjolein; van der Worp, HB; Horsch, Alexander D.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Biessels, Geert J.; Velthuis, BK

    2015-01-01

    Background Recanalization of an occluded intracranial artery is influenced by temperature-dependent enzymes, including alteplase. We assessed the relation between body temperature on admission and recanalization. Methods We included 278 patients with acute ischaemic stroke within nine hours after

  1. No relation between body temperature and arterial recanalization at three days in patients with acute ischaemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Geurts (Marjolein); H.B. Van Der Worp (H. Bart); A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); G.J. Biessels (Geert Jan); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta); C.B. Majoie (Charles); Y.B.W.E.M. Roos; L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); K. Keizer (Koos); A. van der Lugt (Aad); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); K.E. Droogh-De Greve; H.P. Bienfait (Henri); M.A.A. van Walderveen (Marianne); M.J.H. Wermer (Marieke); G.J. Lycklama à Nijeholt (Geert); J. Boiten (Jelis); A. Duyndam (Anita); V.I.H. Kwa; F.J. Meijer (F.); E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud); A.M. Kesselring (Anouk); J. Hofmeijer; J.A. Vos (Jan Albert); W.J. Schonewille (Wouter); W.J. van Rooij (W.); P.L.M. de Kort (Paul); C.C. Pleiter (C.); S.L.M. Bakker (Stef); J. Bot (Joseph); M.C. Visser (Marieke); I.C. van der Schaaf (Irene); J.W. Dankbaar (Jan); W.P. Mali (Willem); T. van Seeters (Tom); A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); J.M. Niesten (Joris); G.J. Biessels; L.J. Kappelle; J.S.K. Luitse; Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recanalization of an occluded intracranial artery is influenced by temperature-dependent enzymes, including alteplase. We assessed the relation between body temperature on admission and recanalization. Methods: We included 278 patients with acute ischaemic stroke within nine

  2. [Calculating method for crop water requirement based on air temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Guo-Tong; Wang, Jing-Lei; Nan, Ji-Qin; Gao, Yang; Chen, Zhi-Fang; Song, Ni

    2014-07-01

    The importance of accurately estimating crop water requirement for irrigation forecast and agricultural water management has been widely recognized. Although it has been broadly adopted to determine crop evapotranspiration (ETc) via meteorological data and crop coefficient, most of the data in whether forecast are qualitative rather than quantitative except air temperature. Therefore, in this study, how to estimate ETc precisely only using air temperature data in forecast was explored, the accuracy of estimation based on different time scales was also investigated, which was believed to be beneficial to local irrigation forecast as well as optimal management of water and soil resources. Three parameters of Hargreaves equation and two parameters of McClound equation were corrected by using meteorological data of Xinxiang from 1970 to 2010, and Hargreaves equation was selected to calculate reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growth period of winter wheat. A model of calculating crop water requirement was developed to predict ETc at time scales of 1, 3, and 7 d intervals through combining Hargreaves equation and crop coefficient model based on air temperature. Results showed that the correlation coefficients between measured and predicted values of ETc reached 0.883 (1 d), 0.933 (3 d), and 0.959 (7 d), respectively. The consistency indexes were 0.94, 0.95 and 0.97, respectively, which showed that forecast error decreased with the increasing time scales. Forecasted accuracy with an error less than 1 mm x d(-1) was more than 80%, and that less than 2 mm x d(-1) was greater than 90%. This study provided sound basis for irrigation forecast and agricultural management in irrigated areas since the forecasted accuracy at each time scale was relatively high.

  3. Exoskeleton may influence the internal body temperatures of Neotropical dung beetles (Col. Scarabaeinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Amore

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The insect exoskeleton is a multifunctional coat with a continuum of mechanical and structural properties constituting the barrier between electromagnetic waves and the internal body parts. This paper examines the ability of beetle exoskeleton to regulate internal body temperature considering its thermal permeability or isolation to simulated solar irradiance and infrared radiation. Seven Neotropical species of dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae differing in colour, surface sculptures, size, sexual dimorphism, period of activity, guild category and altitudinal distribution were studied. Specimens were repeatedly subjected to heating trials under simulated solar irradiance and infrared radiation using a halogen neodymium bulb light with a balanced daylight spectrum and a ceramic infrared heat emitter. The volume of exoskeleton and its weight per volume unit were significantly more important for the heating rate at the beginning of the heating process than for the asymptotic maximum temperature reached at the end of the trials: larger beetles with relatively thicker exoskeletons heated more slowly. The source of radiation greatly influences the asymptotic temperature reached, but has a negligible effect in determining the rate of heat gain by beetles: they reached higher temperatures under artificial sunlight than under infrared radiation. Interspecific differences were negligible in the heating rate but had a large magnitude effect on the asymptotic temperature, only detectable under simulated sun irradiance. The fact that sun irradiance is differentially absorbed dorsally and transformed into heat among species opens the possibility that differences in dorsal exoskeleton would facilitate the heat gain under restrictive environmental temperatures below the preferred ones. The findings provided by this study support the important role played by the exoskeleton in the heating process of beetles, a cuticle able to act passively in the thermal

  4. Mitigation of Temperature Induced Single Event Crosstalk Noise by Applying Adaptive Forward Body Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Pankaj

    Soft Errors due to Single Event (SE) Transients is one of the important reliability issues, which is becoming very prominent in advanced technology and in space applications. Increasing coupling effects among interconnects, on the other hand, can cause SE Transients to contaminate electronically unrelated circuit paths, which in turn can increase circuit sensitivity to radiation. Coupling capacitance increases due to reducing distances between interconnect lines making crosstalk noise more important. On the other hand, chips now experience higher temperatures due to environmental factors and high performance of chips. High-performance VLSI circuits consume more power and hence experience higher temperature due to high utilization factor. The increased temperature affects both interconnect resistance and driving strength of interconnect buffers. This work shows that thermal effects increase the amount of crosstalk noise observed on the victim line at nominal supply voltages. With thermally induced crosstalk contribution, total crosstalk noise may exceed the noise margin of the subsequent gate causing a wrong value to be propagated. The crosstalk prevention measures taken such as victim driver sizing may not be sufficient if thermal effects are not properly considered. This work aims to provide a mitigation method for thermally induced crosstalk noise using adaptive forward body bias. At high temperature, drain current reduces, and adaptive body biasing makes the CMOS recover the lost the drain current. A temperature sensor is proposed here to generate a necessary voltage at the CMOS body. A good temperature sensitivity is achieved with the tiny sensors that keep constant driving strength. Interconnect is modeled in using 10-pi modeling and 45nm technology was use for this simulation. Our proposed method mitigates 90% of temperature induced crosstalk contribution.

  5. Exoskeleton may influence the internal body temperatures of Neotropical dung beetles (Col. Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amore, Valentina; Hernández, Malva I M; Carrascal, Luis M; Lobo, Jorge M

    2017-01-01

    The insect exoskeleton is a multifunctional coat with a continuum of mechanical and structural properties constituting the barrier between electromagnetic waves and the internal body parts. This paper examines the ability of beetle exoskeleton to regulate internal body temperature considering its thermal permeability or isolation to simulated solar irradiance and infrared radiation. Seven Neotropical species of dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) differing in colour, surface sculptures, size, sexual dimorphism, period of activity, guild category and altitudinal distribution were studied. Specimens were repeatedly subjected to heating trials under simulated solar irradiance and infrared radiation using a halogen neodymium bulb light with a balanced daylight spectrum and a ceramic infrared heat emitter. The volume of exoskeleton and its weight per volume unit were significantly more important for the heating rate at the beginning of the heating process than for the asymptotic maximum temperature reached at the end of the trials: larger beetles with relatively thicker exoskeletons heated more slowly. The source of radiation greatly influences the asymptotic temperature reached, but has a negligible effect in determining the rate of heat gain by beetles: they reached higher temperatures under artificial sunlight than under infrared radiation. Interspecific differences were negligible in the heating rate but had a large magnitude effect on the asymptotic temperature, only detectable under simulated sun irradiance. The fact that sun irradiance is differentially absorbed dorsally and transformed into heat among species opens the possibility that differences in dorsal exoskeleton would facilitate the heat gain under restrictive environmental temperatures below the preferred ones. The findings provided by this study support the important role played by the exoskeleton in the heating process of beetles, a cuticle able to act passively in the thermal control of body

  6. Phytoplankton diversity and their succession in water bodies of the Lednice park during 2002 season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Ramezanpoor

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton communities of three water bodies in the Lednice park were studied from 22nd April till 1st October 2002. These water bodies are the Zámecký pond, Růžový pond and the Dyje River, which is water source of both ponds.Phytoplankton samples were taken every two weeks between 8 - 9 am. Collected phytoplankton samples were preserved with 4% formalin solution and Lugol solution (JJK and transported to the laboratory. They were determined and counted using inverted microscope. Water temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were measured in the field using digital portable instruments. Total of 317 phytoplankton species were determined in this study.Heavy algal bloom was observed in the Zámecký pond in mid-summer coinciding with increase in water temperature. Fish diseases and partial mortality occurred during the period of algal bloom and unpleasant smell was dominant feature. A light algal bloom was also observed in the Růžový pond and the Dyje River nearly by the end of summer.The main algae species responsible for blue-green algae bloom were Anabaena flos-aquae, Microcystis aeruginosa, M. ichtyoblabe, M. flos-aquae and M. wesenbergii. Dissolved oxygen values varied between 3.4 - 19.5 mg l-1, pH ranged from 7.6 - 9.7. Secchi depth varied from 0- 65 cm in the Zámecký pond, 15-45 cm in the Růžový pond and 35-65 cm in the Dyje River. Concentration of total phosphate, nitrate and chlorophyll-a in the Dyje River before drainage into the Zámecký and Růžový pond verified heavy nutrient load (Total-P = 0.3, NO3- = 12 mg.l-1 of the river. Although the Dyje River is main water source for both ponds, presence of relatively different phytoplankton communities in these two ponds suggest that probably different nutrient sources might be responsible for differences in phytoplankton communities and eutrophication patterns in the Zámecký pond as compared to the Růžový pond.

  7. Effects of temperature on SCC propagation in high temperature water injected with hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Junichi; Sato, Tomonori; Kato, Chiaki; Yoshiyuki, Kaji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tsukada, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    To understand the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour of austenitic stainless steels (SSs) in the boiling water reactor (BWR) coolant environment, it is significant to investigate the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) produced by the radiolysis of water on SCC under the various water chemistry and operational conditions. At the start-up or shut-down periods, for example, the conditions of radiation and temperature on the structural materials are different from those during the plant normal operation, and may be influencing on SCC behaviour. Therefore, the effect of temperature on SCC in high temperature water injected with H 2 O 2 was evaluated by SCC propagation test at the present study. Oxide films on the metal surface in crack were examined and the thermal equilibrium diagram was calculated to estimate the environmental situation in the crack. On the thermally sensitized type 304 SS, crack growth tests were conducted in high temperature water injected with H 2 O 2 to simulate water radiolysis in the core. Small CT type specimens with a width of 15.5 mm and thickness of 6.2 mm were machined from the sensitized SS. SCC growth tests were conducted in high temperature water injected with 100 ppb H 2 O 2 at 453 and 561 K. To minimize H 2 O 2 decomposition by a contact with metal surface of autoclave, the CT specimen was isolated from inner surface of the autoclave by the inner modules made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and PTFE lining was also used for the inner surface of inlet and sampling tubes. Base on the measurement of sampled water, it was confirmed that 80-90 % of injected H 2 O 2 remained around the CT specimen in autoclave. Constant load at initial K levels of 11-20 MPam 1/2 was applied to the CT specimens during crack growth tests. After crack growth tests, CT specimens were split into two pieces on the plane of crack propagation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination and laser Raman spectroscopy for outer oxide layer of oxide

  8. Effect of programmed diurnal temperature cycles on plasma thyroxine level, body temperature, and feed intake of holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, I. M.; Johnson, H. D.; Hahn, G. L.

    1983-03-01

    Holstein cows exposed to simulated summer diurnal ambient temperature cycles of Phoenix, Arizona and Atlanta, Georgia and diurnal modifications of these climates displayed daily cycles fluctuations in plasma thyroxine (T4) and rectal temperatures (Tre). There were daily diurnal changes in T4 and Tre under all simulated climate conditions. Maximal values generally occurred in the evening hours and minimum values in the morning. Although the diurnal rhythm was influenced by the various simulated climates (diurnal modifications) a diurnal rhythm was very evident even under constant conditions at thermoneutral (Tnc) and at cyclic thermoneutral conditions (TN). The major significance of the study is that the initiation of night cooling of the animals at a time when their Tre was highest was most beneficial to maintenance of a TN plasma T4 level. There was a highly significant negative relationship of average T4 and average Tre. There was also a significant negative relationship of feed consumption and average temperature-humidity index (THI). These data suggest that night cooling may be a most effective method to alleviate thermoregulatory limitations of a hot climate on optimal animal performance. Decreasing the night time air temperature (Ta) or THI or increasing the diurnal range allows the cows to more easily dissipate excess body heat accumulated during the day and minimize the thermal inhibition on feed intake, and alterations in plasma T4 and Tre.

  9. Protein restriction does not affect body temperature pattern in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Goro A; Shichijo, Hiroki; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Shinohara, Akio; Morita, Tetsuo; Koshimoto, Chihiro

    2017-10-30

    Daily torpor is a physiological adaptation in mammals and birds characterized by a controlled reduction of metabolic rate and body temperature during the resting phase of circadian rhythms. In laboratory mice, daily torpor is induced by dietary caloric restriction. However, it is not known which nutrients are related to daily torpor expression. To determine whether dietary protein is a key factor in inducing daily torpor in mice, we fed mice a protein-restricted (PR) diet that included only one-quarter of the amount of protein but the same caloric level as a control (C) diet. We assigned six non-pregnant female ICR mice to each group and recorded their body weights and core body temperatures for 4 weeks. Body weights in the C group increased, but those in the PR group remained steady or decreased. Mice in both groups did not show daily torpor, but most mice in a food-restricted group (n=6) supplied with 80% of the calories given to the C group exhibited decreased body weights and frequently displayed daily torpor. This suggests that protein restriction is not a trigger of daily torpor; torpid animals can conserve their internal energy, but torpor may not play a significant role in conserving internal protein. Thus, opportunistic daily torpor in mice may function in energy conservation rather than protein saving.

  10. Heat balance model for a human body in the form of wet bulb globe temperature indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Mochida, Tohru; Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kuwabara, Kohei; Horiba, Yosuke; Sawada, Shin-Ichi

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand the empirically derived wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index to a rational thermal index based on the heat balance for a human body. We derive the heat balance model in the same form as the WBGT for a human engaged in moderate intensity work with a metabolic heat production of 174W/m 2 while wearing typical vapor-permeable clothing under shady and sunny conditions. Two important relationships are revealed based on this derivation: (1) the natural wet bulb and black globe temperature coefficients in the WBGT coincide with the heat balance equation for a human body with a fixed skin wettedness of approximately 0.45 at a fixed skin temperature; and (2) the WBGT can be interpreted as the environmental potential to increase skin temperature rather than the heat storage rate of a human body. We propose an adjustment factor calculation method that supports the application of WBGT for humans dressed in various clothing types and working under various air velocity conditions. Concurrently, we note difficulties in adjusting the WBGT by using a single factor for humans wearing vapor-impermeable protective clothing. The WBGT for shady conditions does not need adjustment depending on the positive radiant field (i.e., when a radiant heat source exists), whereas that for the sunny condition requires adjustments because it underestimates heat stress, which may result in insufficient human protection measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stable isotope composition of land snail body water and its relation to environmental waters and shell carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodfriend, G.A.; Magaritz, M.; Gat, J.R. (Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel))

    1989-12-01

    Day-to-day and within-day (diel) variations in {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O of the body water of the land snail, Theba pisana, were studied at a site in the southern coastal plain of Israel. Three phases of variation, which relate to isotopic changes in atmospheric water vapor, were distinguished. The isotopic variations can be explained by isotopic equilibration with atmospheric water vapor and/or uptake of dew derived therefrom. During the winter, when the snails are active, there is only very minor enrichment in {sup 18}O relative to equilibrium with water vapor or dew, apparently as a result of metabolic activity. But this enrichment becomes pronounced after long periods of inactivity. Within-day variation in body water isotopic composition is minor on non-rain days. Shell carbonate is enriched in {sup 18}O by ca. 1-2% relative to equilibrium with body water. In most regions, the isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapor (or dew) is a direct function of that of rain. Because the isotopic composition of snail body water is related to that of atmospheric water vapor and the isotopic composition of shell carbonate in turn is related to that of body water, land snail shell carbonate {sup 18}O should provide a reliable indication of rainfall {sup 18}O. However, local environmental conditions and the ecological properties of the snail species must be taken into account.

  12. Teaching in Uncharted Waters: Seeking Critical Body Literacy Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lorayne; Thomson, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Schools are places of learning, but they are also sites of struggle when fitness, obesity, and body image issues converge for students and teachers. Responding to teachers' concerns about their students on diets, a Canadian teachers' organization produced a body image program which included a training day for schools undertaking whole-school…

  13. General corrosion of carbon steels in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    This short paper seeks to provide a summary of the main knowledge about the general corrosion of carbon steels in high temperature water. In pure water or slightly alkaline deaerated water, steels develop a protective coating of magnetite in a double layer (Potter and Mann oxide) or a single layer (Bloom oxide). The morphology of the oxide layer and the kinetics of corrosion depend on the test parameters controlling the solubility of iron. The parameters exercising the greatest influence are partial hydrogen pressure and mass transfer: hydrogen favours the solubilization of the magnetite; the entrainment of the dissolved iron prevents a redeposition of magnetite on the surface of the steel. Cubic or parabolic in static conditions, the kinetics of corrosion tends to be linear in dynamic conditions. In dynamic operation, corrosion is at least one order of magnitude lower in water with a pH of 10 than in pure water with a pH of 7. The activation energy of corrosion is 130 kJ/mol (31 kcal/mol). This results in the doubling of corrosion at around 300 deg C for a temperature increase of 15 deg C. Present in small quantities (100-200 ppb), oxygen decreases general corrosion but increases the risk of pitting corrosion - even for a low chloride content - and stress corrosion cracking or corrosion-fatigue. The steel composition has probably an influence on the kinetics of corrosion in dynamic conditions; further work would be required to clarify the effect of some residual elements. (author). 31 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Disturbances in melatonin, cortisol and core body temperature rhythms after major surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gögenur, Ismail; Ocak, Ubbat; Altunpinar, Omer; Middleton, Benita; Skene, Debra J; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2007-02-01

    It has been suggested that circadian rhythm disturbances are present after major surgery and that this may play a role in the development of postoperative sleep disturbances, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular morbidity. The objective of this study was to examine the profile of melatonin, cortisol and core body temperature rhythms before and after major surgery. Blood samples (melatonin and cortisol) and core body temperature readings were collected every hour in the 24-h period prior to surgery and the 48 h after surgery from 11 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. All patients had private rooms. Light exposure was controlled and monitored. Phase markers [50% dim light melatonin onset (DLMO 50%) and offset (DLMOff 50%), cortisol and core body temperature acrophase] for the three circadian rhythm profiles were calculated before and after surgery. The correlation between the melatonin rhythm and time of surgery, duration of surgery and opioid use was examined. A median delay in the onset of melatonin was seen on the first postoperative day [median DLMO 50% 22:46 hours (range: 21:15-01:08 hours) on the preoperative day compared with 23:54 hours (range: 19:09-02:46 hours) on the first postoperative day; P melatonin onset (r = 0.67, P melatonin immediately after surgery, with a subsequent significant increase in maximum melatonin values on the second postoperative night. A median delay of up to 4 h was seen in the timing of the peak of the temperature rhythm on the second postoperative day. Both cortisol secretion and core body temperature were increased after surgery and did not return to preoperative values in the 48 h of the postoperative study period. No significant correlation between opioid dose and the basal or maximum melatonin levels or the time of melatonin onset was found. We found disturbances in three circadian markers after major surgery. The clinical consequences of postoperative circadian disturbances should be investigated

  15. The Effects of Increased Body Temperature on Motor Control during Golf Putting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, John F; Grealy, Madeleine A

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of increased core temperature on the performance outcome and movement kinematics of elite golfers during a golf putting task. The study aimed to examine individual differences in the extent to which increased temperature influenced the rate of putting success, whether increased temperature speeded up the timing of the putting downswing and whether elite golfers changed their movement kinematics during times of thermal stress. Six participants performed 20 putts to each of four putt distances (1, 2, 3, and 4 m) under normal temperature conditions and when core body temperature was increased. There was no significant difference in the number of successful putts between the two temperature conditions, but there was an increase in putterhead velocity at ball impact on successful putts to distances of 1 and 4 m when temperature was elevated. This reflected an increase in swing amplitude rather than a reduction in swing duration as hypothesized. There were individual differences in the motor control response to thermal stress as three of the golfers changed the kinematic parameters used to scale their putting movements to achieve putts of different distances at elevated temperatures. Theoretical implications for these findings and the practical implications for elite golfers and future research are discussed.

  16. A simple lumped model to convert air temperature into surface water temperature in lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Piccolroaz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Water temperature in lakes is governed by a complex heat budget, where the estimation of the single fluxes requires the use of several hydro-meteorological variables that are not generally available. In order to address this issue, we developed Air2Water, a simple physically based model to relate the temperature of the lake superficial layer (epilimnion to air temperature only. The model has the form of an ordinary differential equation that accounts for the overall heat exchanges with the atmosphere and the deeper layer of the lake (hypolimnion by means of simplified relationships, which contain a few parameters (from four to eight in the different proposed formulations to be calibrated with the combined use of air and water temperature measurements. The calibration of the parameters in a given case study allows for one to estimate, in a synthetic way, the influence of the main processes controlling the lake thermal dynamics, and to recognize the atmospheric temperature as the main factor driving the evolution of the system. In fact, under certain hypotheses the air temperature variation implicitly contains proper information about the other major processes involved, and hence in our approach is considered as the only input variable of the model. In particular, the model is suitable to be applied over long timescales (from monthly to interannual, and can be easily used to predict the response of a lake to climate change, since projected air temperatures are usually available by large-scale global circulation models. In this paper, the model is applied to Lake Superior (USA–Canada considering a 27 yr record of measurements, among which 18 yr are used for calibration and the remaining 9 yr for model validation. The calibration of the model is obtained by using the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE methodology, which also allows for a sensitivity analysis of the parameters. The results show remarkable agreement with

  17. CARACTERISTICS OF THE LOWER DANUBE WATER BODIES BETWEEN PORTILE DE FIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ŢUCHIU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC Directive is the achievement of the “good status” of the water bodies, environmental objective which can be reached through elaboration and implementation of the River Basin Management Plan. According to the legal requirements, at the 22nd of December 2009, Romania has elaborated the first National Management Plan – synthesis of the River Basin Management Plans. This process assumes the types identification and water bodies delineation on the basis of some abiotic and biotic parameters, such: water category, abiotic and biotic typology, physical features, water status, pressures and their impacts, as well as protected areas. Therefore, for the lower Danube sector between Bazias and Isaccea 4 water bodies have been delineated: 2 reservoirs (Portile de Fier/Iron Gates and Ostrov and 2 river sectors (Ostrov – Chiciu, Chiciu – Isaccea. The procedure for assessment of the environmental objectives risk failing (on the basis of pressures and impacts has shown that all 4 water bodies have been identified at risk from the point of view of organic substances, nutrients, hazardous substances and hydro-morphological alterations. The Water Framework Directive defines the surface water status through: the ecological status - 5 classes (based on biological, hydro-morphological and physic-chemical elements and chemical status – 2 classes (based on priority substances. In present, the 4 water bodies identified on the lower Danube sector do not reach the good status, being designated as heavily modified water bodies.

  18. Seasonal and inter-annual temperature variability in the bottom waters over the Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, G. I.; Wobus, F.; Aleynik, D. L.

    2011-02-01

    Long-term changes in the state of the Bottom Shelf Water (BSW) on the Western shelf of the Black Sea are assessed using analysis of intra- and inter-annual variations of temperature as well as their relations to physical parameters of both shelf and deep-sea waters. First, large data sets of in-situ observations over the 20th century are compiled into high-resolution monthly climatology at different depth levels. Then, the temperature anomalies from the climatic mean are calculated and aggregated into spatial compartments and seasonal bins to reveal temporal evolution of the BSW. For the purpose of this study the BSW is defined as such shelf water body between the seabed and the upper mixed layer (bounded by the σθ = 14.2 isopycnal) which has limited ability to mix vertically with oxygen-rich surface waters during the warm season (May-November) due to the formation of a seasonal pycnocline. The effects of atmospheric processes at the surface on the BSW are hence suppressed as well as the action of the "biological pump". The vertical extent of the near- bottom waters is determined based on energy considerations and the structure of the seasonal pycnocline, whilst the horizontal extent is controlled by the shelf break, where strong along-slope currents hinder exchanges with the deep sea. The BSW is shown to occupy nearly half of the area of the shelf during the summer stratification period. The potential of the BSW to ventilate horizontally during the warm season with the deep-sea waters is assessed using isopycnic analysis of temperature variations. A long-term time series of temperature anomalies in the BSW is constructed from observations during the May-November period for the 2nd half of the 20th century. The results reveal a warm phase in the 1960s/70s, followed by cooling of the BSW during 1980-2001. The transition between the warm and cold periods coincides with a regime shift in the Black Sea ecosystem. While it was confirmed that the memory of winter

  19. Short communication: Changes in body temperature of calves up to 2 months of age as affected by time of day, age, and ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Suarez-Mena, F X; Dennis, T S; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2016-11-01

    Extensive measurements of calf body temperature are limited in the literature. In this study, body temperatures were collected by taping a data logger to the skin over the tail vein opposing the rectum of Holstein calves between 4 and 60d of age during 3 different periods of the summer and fall. The summer period was separated into moderate (21-33°C average low to high) and hot (25-37°C) periods, whereas the fall exhibited cool (11-19°C) ambient temperatures. Tail temperatures were compared in a mixed model ANOVA using ambient temperature, age of calf, and time of day (10-min increments) as fixed effects and calf as a random effect. Measures within calf were modeled as repeated effects of type autoregressive 1. Calf temperature increased 0.0325°C (±0.00035) per 1°C increase in ambient temperature. Body temperature varied in a distinct, diurnal pattern with time of day, with body temperatures being lowest around 0800h and highest between 1700 and 2200h. During periods of hot weather, the highest calf temperature was later in the day (~2200h). Calf minimum, maximum, and average body temperatures were all higher in hot than in moderate periods and higher in moderate than in cool periods. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Inability to Screen Exhibition Swine for Influenza A Virus Using Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, A S; Nolting, J M; Workman, J D; Cooper, M; Fisher, A E; Marsh, B; Forshey, T

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural fairs create an unconventional animal-human interface that has been associated with swine-to-human transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in recent years. Early detection of IAV-infected pigs at agricultural fairs would allow veterinarians to better protect swine and human health during these swine exhibitions. This study assessed the use of swine body temperature measurement, recorded by infrared and rectal thermometers, as a practical method to detect IAV-infected swine at agricultural fairs. In our first objective, infrared thermometers were used to record the body surface temperature of 1,092 pigs at the time of IAV nasal swab collection at the end of the exhibition period of 55 agricultural fairs. IAV was recovered from 212 (19.4%) pigs, and the difference in mean infrared body temperature measurement of IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs was 0.83°C. In a second objective, snout wipes were collected from 1,948 pigs immediately prior to the unloading of the animals at a single large swine exhibition. Concurrent to the snout wipe collection, owners took the rectal temperatures of his/her pigs. In this case, 47 (2.4%) pigs tested positive for IAV before they entered the swine barn. The mean rectal temperatures differed by only 0.19°C between IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs. The low prevalence of IAV among the pigs upon entry to the fair in the second objective provides evidence that limiting intraspecies spread of IAV during the fairs will likely have significant impacts on the zoonotic transmission. However, in both objectives, the high degree of similarity in the body temperature measurements between the IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs made it impossible to set a diagnostically meaningful cut point to differentiate IAV status of the individual animals. Unfortunately, body temperature measurement cannot be used to accurately screen exhibition swine for IAV. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Temporal and spatial dispersion of human body temperature during deep hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opatz, O; Trippel, T; Lochner, A; Werner, A; Stahn, A; Steinach, M; Lenk, J; Kuppe, H; Gunga, H C

    2013-11-01

    Clinical temperature management remains challenging. Choosing the right sensor location to determine the core body temperature is a particular matter of academic and clinical debate. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of measured temperatures at different sites during surgery in deep hypothermic patients. In this prospective single-centre study, we studied 24 patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery: 12 in normothermia, 3 in mild, and 9 in deep hypothermia. Temperature recordings of a non-invasive heat flux sensor at the forehead were compared with the arterial outlet temperature of a heart-lung machine, with the temperature on a conventional vesical bladder thermistor and, for patients undergoing deep hypothermia, with oesophageal temperature. Using a linear model for sensor comparison, the arterial outlet sensor showed a difference among the other sensor positions between -0.54 and -1.12°C. The 95% confidence interval ranged between 7.06 and 8.82°C for the upper limit and -8.14 and -10.62°C for the lower limit. Because of the hysteretic shape, the curves were divided into phases and fitted into a non-linear model according to time and placement of the sensors. During cooling and warming phases, a quadratic relationship could be observed among arterial, oesophageal, vesical, and cranial temperature recordings, with coefficients of determination ranging between 0.95 and 0.98 (standard errors of the estimate 0.69-1.12°C). We suggest that measured surrogate temperatures as indices of the cerebral temperature (e.g. vesical bladder temperature) should be interpreted with respect to the temporal and spatial dispersion during cooling and rewarming phases.

  2. Computational model for calculating body-core temperature elevation in rabbits due to whole-body exposure at 2.45 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Sugiyama, Hironori; Kojima, Masami; Kawai, Hiroki; Yamashiro, Yoko; Fujiwara, Osamu; Watanabe, Soichi; Sasaki, Kazuyuki

    2008-06-01

    In the current international guidelines and standards with regard to human exposure to electromagnetic waves, the basic restriction is defined in terms of the whole-body average-specific absorption rate. The rationale for the guidelines is that the characteristic pattern of thermoregulatory response is observed for the whole-body average SAR above a certain level. However, the relationship between energy absorption and temperature elevation was not well quantified. In this study, we improved our thermal computation model for rabbits, which was developed for localized exposure on eye, in order to investigate the body-core temperature elevation due to whole-body exposure at 2.45 GHz. The effect of anesthesia on the body-core temperature elevation was also discussed in comparison with measured results. For the whole-body average SAR of 3.0 W kg-1, the body-core temperature in rabbits elevates with time, without becoming saturated. The administration of anesthesia suppressed body-core temperature elevation, which is attributed to the reduced basal metabolic rate.

  3. Temporal profile of body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: relation to stroke severity and outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Pyrexia after stroke (temperature ≥37.5°C) is associated with poor prognosis, but information on timing of body temperature changes and relationship to stroke severity and subtypes varies. Methods We recruited patients with acute ischemic stroke, measured stroke severity, stroke subtype and recorded four-hourly tympanic (body) temperature readings from admission to 120 hours after stroke. We sought causes of pyrexia and measured functional outcome at 90 days. We systematically summarised all relevant previous studies. Results Amongst 44 patients (21 males, mean age 72 years SD 11) with median National Institute of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS) 7 (range 0–28), 14 had total anterior circulation strokes (TACS). On admission all patients, both TACS and non-TACS, were normothermic (median 36.3°C vs 36.5°C, p=0.382 respectively) at median 4 hours (interquartile range, IQR, 2–8) after stroke; admission temperature and NIHSS were not associated (r2=0.0, p=0.353). Peak temperature, occurring at 35.5 (IQR 19.0 to 53.8) hours after stroke, was higher in TACS (37.7°C) than non-TACS (37.1°C, ptemperatures. Sixteen (36%) patients became pyrexial, in seven (44%) of whom we found no cause other than the stroke. Conclusions Normothermia is usual within the first 4 hours of stroke. Peak temperature occurs at 1.5 to 2 days after stroke, and is related to stroke severi