WorldWideScience

Sample records for body temperature regulation

  1. Body temperature regulation in diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Glen P.; Sigal, Ronald J.; McGinn, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effects of type 1 and type 2 diabetes on the body's physiological response to thermal stress is a relatively new topic in research. Diabetes tends to place individuals at greater risk for heat-related illness during heat waves and physical activity due to an impaired capacity to dissipate heat. Specifically, individuals with diabetes have been reported to have lower skin blood flow and sweating responses during heat exposure and this can have important consequences on cardiovascu...

  2. Novel energy-saving strategies to multiple stressors in birds: the ultradian regulation of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Glenn J; Roussel, Damien; Voituron, Yann; Teulier, Loïc

    2016-09-28

    This study aimed to examine thermoregulatory responses in birds facing two commonly experienced stressors, cold and fasting. Logging devices allowing long-term and precise access to internal body temperature were placed within the gizzards of ducklings acclimated to cold (CA) (5°C) or thermoneutrality (TN) (25°C). The animals were then examined under three equal 4-day periods: ad libitum feeding, fasting and re-feeding. Through the analysis of daily as well as short-term, or ultradian, variations of body temperature, we showed that while ducklings at TN show only a modest decline in daily thermoregulatory parameters when fasted, they exhibit reduced surface temperatures from key sites of vascular heat exchange during fasting. The CA birds, on the other hand, significantly reduced their short-term variations of body temperature while increasing long-term variability when fasting. This phenomenon would allow the CA birds to reduce the energetic cost of body temperature maintenance under fasting. By analysing ultradian regulation of body temperature, we describe a means by which an endotherm appears to lower thermoregulatory costs in response to the combined stressors of cold and fasting.

  3. Contribution of a Membrane Estrogen Receptor to the Estrogenic Regulation of Body Temperature and Energy Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Roepke, Troy A.; Bosch, Martha A.; Rick, Elizabeth A.; Lee, Benjamin; Wagner, Edward J.; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Scanlan, Thomas S.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Martin J Kelly

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamus is a key region of the central nervous system involved in the control of homeostasis, including energy and core body temperature (Tc). 17β-Estradiol (E2) regulates Tc, in part, via actions in the basal hypothalamus and preoptic area. E2 primarily controls hypothalamic functions via the nuclear steroid receptors, estrogen receptor α/β. However, we have previously described an E2-responsive, Gq-coupled membrane receptor that reduces the postsynaptic inhibitory γ-aminobutyric ac...

  4. Orexin-a regulates body temperature in coordination with control of arousal state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Orexins, hypothalamic neuropeptieds, are involved in modulation of food intake and arousal state. To examine further physiological roles of orexin in brain function, the effects of centrally administered orexin- A on body temperature was investigated in rats. Assessed by a telemetry-sensor system implanted into the abdominal cavity, infusion of orexin-A into the third cerebroventricle increased body temperature in a dose-responsive manner. Cumulative ambulatory activity was concomitantly increased during 6 h but not 12 h after administration of orexin-A. Expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mRNA in brown adipose tissue, as a marker for peripheal thermogenesis which affects body temperature, failed to increase after orexin-A administration. Expression of UCP3 mRNA in skeletal muscle but not UCP 2 in white adipose tissue was upregulated by infusion of orexin-A. The resulting information indicates that orexin neuron regulates body temperature in coordination with control of arousal system independently of peripheral thermogenesis through the BAT UCP1.

  5. Central control of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis. PMID:27239289

  6. Dopamine Signalling in Mushroom Bodies Regulates Temperature-Preference Behaviour in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Sunhoe Bang; Seogang Hyun; Sung-Tae Hong; Jongkyun Kang; Kyunghwa Jeong; Joong-Jean Park; Joonho Choe; Jongkyeong Chung

    2011-01-01

    The ability to respond to environmental temperature variation is essential for survival in animals. Flies show robust temperature-preference behaviour (TPB) to find optimal temperatures. Recently, we have shown that Drosophila mushroom body (MB) functions as a center controlling TPB. However, neuromodulators that control the TPB in MB remain unknown. To identify the functions of dopamine in TPB, we have conducted various genetic studies in Drosophila. Inhibition of dopamine biosynthesis by ge...

  7. The effect of direct heating and cooling of heat regulation centers on body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were done on 28 rabbits in which puncture instruments were left in the brain for 1-2 days until the calori-puncture hyperthermia had passed and the body temperature was again normal. The instrument remaining in the brain was then used as a galvanic electrode and a second fever was produced, this time due to the electrical stimulus. It was concluded that heat is a centrally acting antipyretic and that cold is a centrally acting stimulus which produces hyperpyrexia cold-induced fever.

  8. The effects of sodium oxybate on core body and skin temperature regulation in narcolepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, A. van der; Donjacour, C.E.; Pijl, H.; Reijntjes, R.H.; Overeem, S.; Lammers, G.J.; Someren, E.J.W. van; Fronczek, R.

    2015-01-01

    Patients suffering from narcolepsy type 1 show altered skin temperatures, resembling the profile that is related to sleep onset in healthy controls. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of sodium oxybate, a widely used drug to treat narcolepsy, on the 24-h profiles of temperatu

  9. Central control of body temperature [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun F. Morrison

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis.

  10. Dopamine regulates body size in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Takashi; Oami, Eitaro; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Ishiura, Shoichi; Suo, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The nervous system plays a critical role in the regulation of animal body sizes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, an amine neurotransmitter, dopamine, is required for the tactile perception of food and food-dependent behavioral changes, while its role in development is unknown. In this study, we show that dopamine negatively regulates body size through a D2-like dopamine receptor, DOP-3, in C. elegans. Dopamine alters body size without affecting food intake or developmental rate. We also found that dopamine promotes egg-laying, although the regulation of body size by dopamine was not solely caused by this effect. Furthermore, dopamine negatively regulates body size through the suppression of signaling by octopamine and Gq-coupled octopamine receptors, SER-3 and SER-6. Our results demonstrate that dopamine and octopamine regulate the body size of C. elegans and suggest a potential role for perception in addition to ingestion of food for growth.

  11. Lower body temperature in sleeping supine infants.

    OpenAIRE

    R. G. North; Petersen, S A; Wailoo, M P

    1995-01-01

    Night time rectal temperature recordings were made from 103 infants sleeping in their own home in different sleeping positions. In most cases sleeping position was verified by video monitoring throughout the night. In the period before an adult-like night time body temperature pattern appeared there was no significant effect of sleeping position upon night time body temperature, in line with previous reports. Once an adult-like night time temperature pattern appeared, infants sleeping supine ...

  12. The relationship between body and ambient temperature and corneal temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Johnson, Leif; Arvidsson, Henrik Sven;

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature.......Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature....

  13. Temperature: Human Regulating, Ants Conforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopton, Joe R.

    2007-01-01

    Biological processes speed up as temperature rises. Procedures for demonstrating this with ants traveling on trails, and data gathered by students on the Argentine ant ("Linepithema humile") are presented. The concepts of temperature regulation and conformity are detailed with a focus on the processes rather than on terms that label the organisms.

  14. Regulation of Body Fat in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Supriya

    2016-01-01

    Studies conducted in C. elegans over the last decade highlight the ancient and complex origins of body fat regulation. In this critical review, I introduce the major functional approaches used to study energy balance and body fat, the lipid composition of C. elegans, the regulation of cellular fat metabolism and its transcriptional control. Next I describe the influence of the sensory nervous system on body fat and the major regulatory mechanisms that couple food perception in the nervous system with the production of energy via fat metabolism. The final section describes the opportunities for the discovery of neuroendocrine factors that control communication between the nervous system and the metabolic tissues. The coming years are expected to reveal a wealth of information on the neuroendocrine control of body fat in C. elegans. PMID:25340962

  15. Histamine and the regulation of body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Emilie A; Knigge, Ulrich; Warberg, Jørgen;

    2007-01-01

    lipolysis. Based on the current evidence of the involvement of histamine in the regulation of body weight, the histaminergic system is an obvious target for the development of pharmacological agents to control obesity. At present, H(3) receptor antagonists that stimulate the histaminergic system may...

  16. Body temperature influence on time perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, P A

    1993-07-01

    The chemical clock hypothesis implies a causal link between body temperature and the perception of duration. A strict interpretation of this construct requires a common slope value in an Arrhenius plot that relates time to temperature for every individual tested. Previous studies testing this proposition have confirmed a general relationship for data summed across multiple subjects. However, the same studies raise doubts as to whether this relationship holds for each and every individual tested. Unfortunately, these investigations have been limited by methodological constraints, thus, one could argue that the strong isomorphism intrinsic to the chemical clock hypothesis has yet to be fairly tested. In the present experiment, I sought to distinguish the effects of selective head temperature changes on the estimation of duration. Nonlinear decreases in estimated duration were observed with ascending deep auditory canal temperature. These findings support the contention of a thermally stable region of temporal perception bounded by conditions in which temporal estimates directly depend on body temperature. In contradicting physiological adequacy as an explanatory construct, the present results suggest a direct relationship between time perception and the homeothermic platform. I compare these results with earlier findings concerning the chemical clock concept and examine respective discrepancies as a basis for a fuller understanding of a temporal phenomenon that is frequently referred to as the internal clock.

  17. A thermosensory pathway that controls body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Morrison, Shaun F

    2008-01-01

    Defending body temperature against environmental thermal challenges is one of the most fundamental homeostatic functions that are governed by the nervous system. Here we describe a somatosensory pathway that essentially constitutes the afferent arm of the thermoregulatory reflex that is triggered by cutaneous sensation of environmental temperature changes. Using in vivo electrophysiological and anatomical approaches in the rat, we found that lateral parabrachial neurons are pivotal in this pathway by glutamatergically transmitting cutaneous thermosensory signals received from spinal somatosensory neurons directly to the thermoregulatory command center, the preoptic area. This feedforward pathway mediates not only sympathetic and shivering thermogenic responses but also metabolic and cardiac responses to skin cooling challenges. Notably, this 'thermoregulatory afferent' pathway exists in parallel with the spinothalamocortical somatosensory pathway that mediates temperature perception. These findings make an important contribution to our understanding of both the somatosensory system and thermal homeostasis -- two mechanisms that are fundamental to the nervous system and to our survival.

  18. Determinants of body weight regulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehlecke, Milene; Canani, Luis Henrique; Silva, Lucas Oliveira Junqueira E; Trindade, Manoel Roberto Maciel; Friedman, Rogerio; Leitão, Cristiane Bauermann

    2016-04-01

    Body weight is regulated by the ability of hypothalamic neurons to orchestrate behavioral, endocrine and autonomic responses via afferent and efferent pathways to the brainstem and the periphery. Weight maintenance requires a balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Although several components that participate in energy homeostasis have been identified, there is a need to know in more detail their actions as well as their interactions with environmental and psychosocial factors in the development of human obesity. In this review, we examine the role of systemic mediators such as leptin, ghrelin and insulin, which act in the central nervous system by activating or inhibiting neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide protein, melanocortin, transcript related to cocaine and amphetamine, and others. As a result, modifications in energy homeostasis occur through regulation of appetite and energy expenditure. We also examine compensatory changes in the circulating levels of several peripheral hormones after diet-induced weight loss. PMID:26910628

  19. Energy Balance and Body Weight Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris Melby; Matt Hickey

    2006-01-01

    @@ KEY POINTS · Thermodynamic laws dictate that an excess of food energy intake relative to energy expenditure will lead to energy storage-an accumulation of fat. Conversely, a deficit of energy intake relative to expenditure will lead to a loss of body energy stores and a reduced body weight.

  20. Microchip-based body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Lohse, Louise

    In the present study, we tested whether an electronic identification and body temperature monitorring technology presently applied in small experimental animals could be transferred for use in pigs....

  1. Effect of temperature on body temperature and resting metabolic rate in pups of Eothenomys miletus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Wan-long; Mu, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Zheng-Kun

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the ability of ambient temperature and thermoregulation in Eothenomys miletus, body temperature and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured during postnatal development (1-49 day) when E. miletus exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in E. miletus increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in low tem...

  2. Body Characteristics, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Zøllner; Ängquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Physiological evidence indicates that high-protein diets reduce caloric intake and increase thermogenic response, which may prevent weight gain and regain after weight loss. Clinical trials have shown such effects, whereas observational cohort studies suggest an association...... between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals......, and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein) of the matched trial participants. RESULTS: Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger...

  3. TECHNOLOGICAL POSSIBILITIES OF CONTACTLESS MEASURING THE BODY SURFACE TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Švejdová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The regular measuring of the body surface temperature can help to evaluate health condition of animals and react immediately on the first symptoms of illness. There are many of technological possibilities of contactless measuring the body surface temperature. It is important to find the right part of the body which the temperature will show the first possible symptoms of illness. This experiment with dairy cows and heifers was realized at the farm in Petrovice. The body surface temperature and rectal temperature of animals were observed in dairy cows and heifers. It was rated 3 different groups of dairy cows and heifers in 2 stables. The body temperature was obtained by the thermocamera. The temperatures were shot from the 3 different parts of body of animals (the body core, the eyes and the udder. The relative humidity, temperature, cooling value environment and flow rate in stable were measured as further independent variables. The aim of this study was finding how body temperature correlate together with health of animals, reproduction, milk quality, vital signs and productivity of dairy cows and heifers.

  4. Assessment of the use of temperature-sensitive microchips to determine core body temperature in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrao, N A; Hetem, R S; Meyer, L C R; Fick, L G

    2011-03-26

    Body temperature was measured at five different body sites (retroperitoneum, groin, semimembranosus muscle, flank and shoulder) using temperature-sensitive microchips implanted in five female goats, and compared with the core body and rectal temperatures. Body temperature was measured while the goats were kept in different ambient temperatures, with and without radiant heat, as well as during a fever induced experimentally by injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Bland-Altman limit of agreement analysis was used to compare the temperature measurements at the different body sites during the different interventions. Temperatures measured by the microchip implanted in the retroperitoneum showed the closest agreement (mean 0.2 °C lower) with core and rectal temperatures during all interventions, whereas temperatures measured by the microchips implanted in the groin, muscle, flank and shoulder differed from core body temperature by up to 3.5 °C during the various interventions.

  5. Air temperature investigation in microenvironment around a human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sekhar, Chandra;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the temperature boundary layer around a human body in a quiescent indoor environment. The air temperature, mean in time and standard deviation of the temperature fluctuations around a breathing thermal manikin are examined in relation to the room temperatur...... accurate measurements of occupant's thermal microenvironment....

  6. Leptin actions on food intake and body temperature are mediated by IL-1

    OpenAIRE

    Luheshi, Giamal N; Gardner, Jason D.; Rushforth, David A.; Loudon, Andrew S.; Rothwell, Nancy J

    1999-01-01

    Leptin regulates energy balance through its actions in the brain on appetite and energy expenditure and also shares properties with cytokines such as IL-1. We report here that leptin, injected into rats intracerebroventricularly or peripherally, induces significant dose-dependent increases in core body temperature as well as suppression of appetite. Leptin failed to affect food intake or body temperature in obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, which posses a defective leptin receptor. Furthermore, inje...

  7. Body temperature stability achieved by the large body mass of sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsufumi

    2014-10-15

    To investigate the thermal characteristics of large reptiles living in water, temperature data were continuously recorded from 16 free-ranging loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, during internesting periods using data loggers. Core body temperatures were 0.7-1.7°C higher than ambient water temperatures and were kept relatively constant. Unsteady numerical simulations using a spherical thermodynamic model provided mechanistic explanations for these phenomena, and the body temperature responses to fluctuating water temperature can be simply explained by a large body mass with a constant thermal diffusivity and a heat production rate rather than physiological thermoregulation. By contrast, body temperatures increased 2.6-5.1°C in 107-152 min during their emergences to nest on land. The estimated heat production rates on land were 7.4-10.5 times the calculated values in the sea. The theoretical prediction that temperature difference between body and water temperatures would increase according to the body size was confirmed by empirical data recorded from several species of sea turtles. Comparing previously reported data, the internesting intervals of leatherback, green and loggerhead turtles were shorter when the body temperatures were higher. Sea turtles seem to benefit from a passive thermoregulatory strategy, which depends primarily on the physical attributes of their large body masses.

  8. Being cool: how body temperature influences ageing and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Gerald; Cummings, Elizabeth; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Temperature is a basic and essential property of any physical system, including living systems. Even modest variations in temperature can have profound effects on organisms, and it has long been thought that as metabolism increases at higher temperatures so should rates of ageing. Here, we review the literature on how temperature affects longevity, ageing and life history traits. From poikilotherms to homeotherms, there is a clear trend for lower temperature being associated with longer lifespans both in wild populations and in laboratory conditions. Many life-extending manipulations in rodents, such as caloric restriction, also decrease core body temperature. Nonetheless, an inverse relationship between temperature and lifespan can be obscured or reversed, especially when the range of body temperatures is small as in homeotherms. An example is observed in humans: women appear to have a slightly higher body temperature and yet live longer than men. The mechanisms involved in the relationship between temperature and longevity also appear to be less direct than once thought with neuroendocrine processes possibly mediating complex physiological responses to temperature changes. Lastly, we discuss species differences in longevity in mammals and how this relates to body temperature and argue that the low temperature of the long-lived naked mole-rat possibly contributes to its exceptional longevity. PMID:25832892

  9. Assessment of body composition by air-displacement plethysmography: influence of body temperature and moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, David A; Higgins, Paul B; Hunter, Gary R

    2004-04-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of body temperature and moisture on body fat (%fat), volume and density by air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD). METHODS: %fat, body volume and density by the BOD POD before (BOD PODBH) and immediately following hydrostatic weighing (BOD PODFH) were performed in 32 healthy females (age (yr) 33 +/- 11, weight (kg) 64 +/- 14, height (cm) 167 +/- 7). Body temperature and moisture were measured prior to BOD PODBH and prior to BOD PODFH with body moisture defined as the difference in body weight (kg) between the BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH measurements. RESULTS: BOD PODFH %fat (27.1%) and body volume (61.5 L) were significantly lower (P BOD PODBH %fat (28.9%), body volume (61.7 L), and body density (1.0341 g/cm3). A significant increase in body temperature (~0.6 degrees C; P BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH. Body surface area was positively associated with the difference in %fat independent of changes in body temperature and moisture, r = 0.30, P BOD POD, however, the precise mechanism remains unidentified.

  10. Universal temperature and body-mass scaling of feeding rates

    OpenAIRE

    Rall, Björn C.; Brose, Ulrich; Hartvig, Martin; Kalinkat, Gregor; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Petchey, Owen L

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of feeding rates is the basis to understand interaction strength and subsequently the stability of ecosystems and biodiversity. Feeding rates, as all biological rates, depend on consumer and resource body masses and environmental temperature. Despite five decades of research on functional responses as quantitative models of feeding rates, a unifying framework of how they scale with body masses and temperature is still lacking. This is perplexing, considering that the strength of fun...

  11. Hypercoagulability in response to elevated body temperature and central hypovolemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Martin; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Overgaard, Flemming Anders;

    2013-01-01

    Coagulation abnormalities contribute to poor outcomes in critically ill patients. In trauma patients exposed to a hot environment, a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, elevated body temperature, and reduced central blood volume occur in parallel with changes in hemostasis and endothelial...... damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether experimentally elevated body temperature and reduced central blood volume (CBV) per se affects hemostasis and endothelial activation....

  12. Hypothalamic digoxin and regulation of body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar A

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus produces digoxin, an endogenous membrane Na+-K+ ATPase inhibitor and regulator of neurotransmission. Digoxin being a steroidal glycoside, is synthesised by the isoprenoid pathway. In view of the reports of elevated digoxin levels in metabolic syndrome X with high body mass index, the isoprenoid pathway mediated biochemical cascade was assessed in individuals with high and low body mass index. It was also assessed in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance to find out the relationship between digoxin status, body mass index and hemispheric dominance. The isoprenoid pathway metabolites, tryptophan / tyrosine catabolic patterns and membrane composition were assessed. In individuals with high body mass index an upregulated isoprenoid pathway with increased HMG CoA reductase activity, serum digoxin and dolichol levels and low ubiquinone levels were observed. The RBC membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity and serum magnesium levels were decreased. The tyrosine catabolites (dopamine, morphine, epinephrine and norepinephrine were reduced and the tryptophan catabolites (serotonin, quinolinic acid, strychnine and nicotine were increased. There was an increase in membrane cholesterol : phospholipid ratio and a reduction in membrane glycoconjugates in individuals with high body mass index. The reverse patterns were seen in individuals with low body mass index. The patterns in individuals with high body mass index and low body mass index correlated with right hemispheric dominance and left hemispheric dominance respectively. Hemispheric dominance and digoxin status regulates the differential metabolic pattern observed in individuals with high and low body mass index.

  13. Effects of MDMA on body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a severe complication associated with the recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy). In this review, the clinical laboratory studies that tested the effects of MDMA on body temperature are summarized. The mechanisms that underlie the hyperthermic effects of MDMA in humans and treatment of severe hyperthermia are presented. The data show that MDMA produces an acute and dose-dependent rise in core body temperature in healthy subjects. The increase in body temperature is in the range of 0.2-0.8°C and does not result in hyperpyrexia (>40°C) in a controlled laboratory setting. However, moderately hyperthermic body temperatures >38.0°C occur frequently at higher doses, even in the absence of physical activity and at room temperature. MDMA primarily releases serotonin and norepinephrine. Mechanistic clinical studies indicate that the MDMA-induced elevations in body temperature in humans partially depend on the MDMA-induced release of norepinephrine and involve enhanced metabolic heat generation and cutaneous vasoconstriction, resulting in impaired heat dissipation. The mediating role of serotonin is unclear. The management of sympathomimetic toxicity and associated hyperthermia mainly includes sedation with benzodiazepines and intravenous fluid replacement. Severe hyperthermia should primarily be treated with additional cooling and mechanical ventilation.

  14. cAMP signalling in mushroom bodies modulates temperature preference behaviour in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Tae; Bang, Sunhoe; Hyun, Seogang; Kang, Jongkyun; Jeong, Kyunghwa; Paik, Donggi; Chung, Jongkyeong; Kim, Jaeseob

    2008-08-01

    Homoiotherms, for example mammals, regulate their body temperature with physiological responses such as a change of metabolic rate and sweating. In contrast, the body temperature of poikilotherms, for example Drosophila, is the result of heat exchange with the surrounding environment as a result of the large ratio of surface area to volume of their bodies. Accordingly, these animals must instinctively move to places with an environmental temperature as close as possible to their genetically determined desired temperature. The temperature that Drosophila instinctively prefers has a function equivalent to the 'set point' temperature in mammals. Although various temperature-gated TRP channels have been discovered, molecular and cellular components in Drosophila brain responsible for determining the desired temperature remain unknown. We identified these components by performing a large-scale genetic screen of temperature preference behaviour (TPB) in Drosophila. In parallel, we mapped areas of the Drosophila brain controlling TPB by targeted inactivation of neurons with tetanus toxin and a potassium channel (Kir2.1) driven with various brain-specific GAL4s. Here we show that mushroom bodies (MBs) and the cyclic AMP-cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) pathway are essential for controlling TPB. Furthermore, targeted expression of cAMP-PKA pathway components in only the MB was sufficient to rescue abnormal TPB of the corresponding mutants. Preferred temperatures were affected by the level of cAMP and PKA activity in the MBs in various PKA pathway mutants. PMID:18594510

  15. Critical body temperature profile as indicator of heat stress vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, P K; Dutta, Priya; Nag, Anjali

    2013-01-01

    Extreme climatic heat is a major health concern among workers in different occupational pursuits. People in the regions of western India confront frequent heat emergencies, with great risk of mortality and morbidity. Taking account of informal occupational groups (foundry and sheet metal, FSM, N=587; ceramic and pottery, CP, N=426; stone quarry, SQ, N=934) in different seasons, the study examined the body temperature profiling as indicator of vulnerability to environmental warmth. About 3/4th of 1947 workers had habitual exposure at 30.1-35.5°C WBGT and ~10% of them were exposed to 38.2-41.6°C WBGT. The responses of FSM, CP and SQ workers indicated prevailing high heat load during summer and post-monsoon months. Local skin temperatures (T(sk)) varied significantly in different seasons, with consistently high level in summer, followed by post-monsoon and winter months. The mean difference of T(cr) and T(sk) was ~5.2°C up to 26.7°C WBGT, and ~2.5°C beyond 30°C WBGT. Nearly 90% of the workers had T(cr) within 38°C, suggesting their self-adjustment strategy in pacing work and regulating T(cr). In extreme heat, the limit of peripheral adjustability (35-36°C T(sk)) and the narrowing down of the difference between T(cr) and T(sk) might indicate the limit of one's ability to withstand heat exposure. PMID:23411761

  16. Body temperature set-point and the conscious perception of skin temperature in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorska-Markiewicz, B; Staszkiewicz, M

    1987-01-01

    Obese and control women were immersed in a bath of water kept at 37 degrees C. Oral temperature was measured. The subjects left hand was placed outside the bath for the local application of thermal stimuli between 20 degrees and 45 degrees C, subjects reporting the most pleasant temperature. The lower oral temperatures and lower levels of skin temperature rated as pleasant by obese women as compared with women of normal body weight or less suggests that in obesity the set-point of body temperature is lowered.

  17. A Novel Intra-body Sensor for Vaginal Temperature Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Binod Vaidya; João Caldeira; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.

    2009-01-01

    Over the years some medical studies have tried to better understand the internal behavior of human beings. Many researchers in this domain have been striving to find relationships between intra-vaginal temperature and certain female health conditions, such as ovulation and fertile period since woman’s intra-vaginal temperature is one of the body parameters most preferred in such studies. However, due to lack of a appropriate technology, medical research devoted to studying correlations of suc...

  18. Renal renin secretion as regulator of body fluid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Isaksson, Gustaf L; Stubbe, Jane;

    2013-01-01

    , (2) macula densa mediated mechanisms play a substantial role as co-mediator although the controlled variables are not well defined so far, and (3) regulation via arterial blood pressure is the exception rather than the rule. Improved quantitative analyses based on in vivo and in silico models......The renin-angiotensin system is essential for body fluid homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. This review focuses on the homeostatic regulation of the secretion of active renin in the kidney, primarily in humans. Under physiological conditions, renin secretion is determined mainly by sodium...... by about 1.5 mL/mmol increase in daily sodium intake. Several lines of evidence indicate that central blood volume may vary substantially without measurable changes in arterial blood pressure. At least five intertwining feedback loops of renin regulation are identifiable based on controlled variables...

  19. Metabolism of polychaete Neanthes japonica Izuka: relations to temperature, salinity and body weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; XIAN Weiwei; SUN Shichun

    2009-01-01

    Polychaete Neanthesjaponica is a species geographically specific in China and Japan with important scientific implication and commercial value. In this study, the relations of body weight, salinity and temperature to oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of N. japonica were determined. Threedifferent groups in body weight (large: 2.34±0.36 g, middle: 1.50±0.21 g and small: 0.62±0.12 g) were set for all experiments. Results show that the body weight is negatively related to the rates of oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion; and the relationship is significant. The oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion at 24℃ decreased at salinity from 5 to 30 and increased above 30, indicating that both lower and higher salinity are adverse and certain degree of salinity stress is necessary for enhancing the energy demand. At salinity 30, rising temperature from 18℃ to 30℃, the oxygen consumption increased before 27℃ and then decreased. However, the relation of ammonia excretion and temperature seems more complex. Two-way ANOVA shows that salinity, temperature and body weight all have a significant effect on the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of the worm. Moreover, interaction between salinity/temperature and body weight is also significant. O:N (oxygen/nitrogen) ratio varies greatly in this case from 5.97 to 463.22, indicating that N. japonica can regulate the type of metabolic substrate against environment changes.

  20. 21 CFR 880.5560 - Temperature regulated water mattress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temperature regulated water mattress. 880.5560... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5560 Temperature regulated water mattress. (a) Identification. A temperature... heating and water circulating components, and an optional cooling component. The temperature control...

  1. Warm body temperature facilitates energy efficient cortical action potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Yu

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na(+ channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na(+, and outward K(+, currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na(+ entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37-42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code.

  2. A simple method to predict body temperature of small reptiles from environmental temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Mathew; Schwarzkopf, Lin

    2016-05-01

    To study behavioral thermoregulation, it is useful to use thermal sensors and physical models to collect environmental temperatures that are used to predict organism body temperature. Many techniques involve expensive or numerous types of sensors (cast copper models, or temperature, humidity, radiation, and wind speed sensors) to collect the microhabitat data necessary to predict body temperatures. Expense and diversity of requisite sensors can limit sampling resolution and accessibility of these methods. We compare body temperature predictions of small lizards from iButtons, DS18B20 sensors, and simple copper models, in both laboratory and natural conditions. Our aim was to develop an inexpensive yet accurate method for body temperature prediction. Either method was applicable given appropriate parameterization of the heat transfer equation used. The simplest and cheapest method was DS18B20 sensors attached to a small recording computer. There was little if any deficit in precision or accuracy compared to other published methods. We show how the heat transfer equation can be parameterized, and it can also be used to predict body temperature from historically collected data, allowing strong comparisons between current and previous environmental temperatures using the most modern techniques. Our simple method uses very cheap sensors and loggers to extensively sample habitat temperature, improving our understanding of microhabitat structure and thermal variability with respect to small ectotherms. While our method was quite precise, we feel any potential loss in accuracy is offset by the increase in sample resolution, important as it is increasingly apparent that, particularly for small ectotherms, habitat thermal heterogeneity is the strongest influence on transient body temperature. PMID:27252829

  3. Perioperative core body temperatures effect on outcome after colorectal resections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Timothy M; Horst, Sara; Muldoon, Roberta; Wise, Paul E; Enrenfeld, Jesse; Poulose, Ben; Herline, Alan J

    2012-05-01

    The World Health Organization has set a standard of maintaining a core body temperature above 36°C in the perioperative period. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between both intraoperative temperature (IOT) and immediate postop core body temperature as it relates to postop complications. A retrospective analysis of a prospective database of patients who underwent an elective segmental colectomy without a stoma, for 3 diagnoses was performed. Six postoperative outcomes were examined: length of stay (LOS), placement of a nasogastric tube, return to the operating room, placement of an interventional drain, diagnosed leak, and surgical site infection (SSI). Statistics were calculated using a two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test. Seventy-nine patients met the inclusion criteria and there were no preoperative differences between the groups (those with a postop complication vs without). LOS > 9 days (36.64°C vs 35.98°C; P = 0.011) and clinical leak (37.06°C vs 35.99°C; P = 0.005) both had a statistically higher average IOT than those who did not. Patients with SSI trended to a higher IOT (36.44°C vs 35.99°C; P = 0.062). When the last IOT recorded was compared with the six outcomes, again length of stay and leak both were statistically significant (P = 0.018, P = 0.012) showing a higher temperature related to a higher complication rate. No other complications were related to IOT, nor did postop temperature relate to complication. In our data, relatively lower IOTs were protective for LOS and clinical leaks, with a trend of lower SSI rates. Further research is needed to fully endorse or refute the absolute recommendations for core body temperature.

  4. Validation of temperature-sensitive radio transmitters for measurement of body temperature in small animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Joseph B.; Tieleman, B. I.; Shobrak, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study on the core body temperature (T(b)) of desert birds, we purposed to use temperature-sensitive implantable radio transmitters. Because of the difficulty in recapturing these birds, we needed to know if these electronic devices held their calibration over the duration of normal batt

  5. A comparison of technologies used for estimation of body temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body temperature measurement is an important clinical parameter. The performance of a number of non-invasive thermometers was measured by comparing intra- and inter-operator variability (n = 100) and clinical accuracy (n = 61). Variability was elevated in febrile compared to normothermic subjects for axillary and oral electronic contact thermometer measures and a temporal artery thermometer (p < 0.001 for both). Temporal artery thermometry and one mode of an infrared tympanic thermometer demonstrated significant clinical inaccuracy (p < 0.001 for both). Electronic contact thermometer repeatability and reproducibility are highly variable in febrile adults both in the axilla and oral cavity. Infrared thermometry of the skin over the superficial temporal artery is unreliable for measuring core body temperature, particularly in febrile subjects and patients in theatre. The infrared tympanic thermometers tested are acceptable for clinical practice; however, care should be exercised with the different modes of operation offered

  6. Effect of temperature on body temperature and resting metabolic rate in pups of Eothenomys miletus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu, Wan-Long

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the ability of ambient temperature and thermoregulation in Eothenomys miletus, body temperature and resting metabolic rate (RMR were measured during postnatal development (1-49 day when E. miletus exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in E. miletus increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in low temperature (5 oC, 10 oC, relatively and RMR increased significantly when day age is 14 day, it indicated that the pups showed a certain degree of thermoregulation in this phase. Its thermoregulation ability developed quickly during 7 day to 14 day. RMR of pups was extreme significantly higher in low temperature than that in other temperature when day age was 21 day, it showed that the pups had some thermoregulation to low temperature stimulation. The RMR of pups was showed increasing trend in high temperature (35 oC when 28 day; on 35 day and 42 day, the thermal neutral zone were 22.5 to 30 oC and approaching its adult level. All of these results indicated that pups of E. miletus in the different growing period had different thermogenesis and energy allocation to maintain stable to body temperature, thermogenesis was weaker in the early phase of postnatal development, most of energy is used to its growth. After pups were weaned, the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation developed quickly to adjust variations of environment during postnatal development.

  7. Primate body temperature and sleep responses to lower body positive pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, D. M.; Fuller, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Cephalic fluid shifts, induced by lower body positive pressure (LBPP) are known to influence various physiological systems (i.e., cardiovascular and renal). In earlier experiments, an apparent change in the arousal state of primates in such LBPP conditions was observed. This study was designed to examine the effects of LBPP on arousal state and body temperature level which is normally correlated with sleep. Chair-restrained male squirrel monkeys were exposed to 40 mmHg LBPP for 90-100 minutes between the daytime hours of 13:00-15:00. Each monkey was placed in a specially modified restraint chair to which they were highly trained. Deep body temperature (DBT) was collected from 10 animals. Sleep parameters were obtained from six animals chronically implanted for sleep recording. A video camera was used to observe each animal's apparent state of arousal. LBPP resulted in an approximate 0.9 C decrease in DBT. During video observation, some animals appeared drowsy during LBPP; however, sleep recording revealed no significant changes in the state of arousal. Thus, LBPP is capable of inducing a mild hyperthermia. Further, the mechanisms underlying the observed lowering of body temperature appear to be independent of arousal state.

  8. Biphasic Effect of Melanocortin Agonists on Metabolic Rate and Body Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Lute, Beth; Jou, William; Lateef, Dalya M.; Goldgof, Margalit; Xiao, Cuiying; Piñol, Ramón A.; Kravitz, Alexxai V.; Miller, Nicole R.; Huang, Yuning George; Girardet, Clemence; Butler, Andrew A.; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L.

    2014-01-01

    The melanocortin system regulates metabolic homeostasis and inflammation. Melanocortin agonists have contradictorily been reported to both increase and decrease metabolic rate and body temperature. We find two distinct physiologic responses occurring at similar doses. Intraperitoneal administration of the nonselective melanocortin agonist MTII causes a melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r) mediated hypermetabolism/hyperthermia. This is preceded by a profound, transient hypometabolism/hypothermia tha...

  9. Effect of irrigation fluid temperature on body temperature during arthroscopic elbow surgery in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Thompson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This prospective randomised clinical trial evaluated the effect of warmed irrigation fluid on body temperature in anaesthetised dogs undergoing arthroscopic elbow surgery. Nineteen dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy were included in the study and were randomly allocated to one of two groups. Group RT received irrigation fluid at room temperature (RT while dogs in group W received warmed (W irrigation fluid (36oC. A standardised patient management and anaesthetic protocol was used and body temperature was measured at four time points; (T1 pre-anaesthetic examination, (T2 arrival into theatre, (T3 end of surgery and (T4 arrival into recovery. There was no significant difference in body temperature at any time point between the groups. The mean overall decrease in body temperature between pre-anaesthetic examination (T1 and return to the recovery suite (T4 was significant in both groups, with a fall of 1.06±0.58oC (p<0.001 in group RT and 1.53±0.76oC (p<0.001 group W. There was no significant difference between the groups. At the end of surgery (T3 4/19 (21.1% of dogs were hypothermic (<37oC. The addition of warmed irrigation fluids to a temperature management protocol in dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy during general anaesthesia did not lead to decreased temperature losses.

  10. EFFECT OF AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ON BODY TEMPERATURE AND REST METABOLIC RATE IN APODEMUS CHEVRIERI DURING POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Wan-long; Sun Shu-ran; Ge Fang; Sun Cong-nan; Zhang Lin; Wang Zheng-kun

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation in Apodemus chevrieri, body temperature and rest metabolic rate (RMR) were measured during postnatal development (1~42 day) when the A. chevrieri exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in A. chevrieri increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in lo...

  11. Prediction of Core Body Temperature from Multiple Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Victoria L; Davey, Sarah; Griggs, Katy; Havenith, George

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to improve the prediction of rectal temperature (T re) from insulated skin temperature (T is) and micro-climate temperature (T mc) previously reported (Richmond et al., Insulated skin temperature as a measure of core body temperature for individuals wearing CBRN protective clothing. Physiol Meas 2013; 34:1531-43.) using additional physiological and/or environmental variables, under several clothing and climatic conditions. Twelve male (25.8±5.1 years; 73.6±11.5kg; 178±6cm) and nine female (24.2±5.1 years; 62.4±11.5kg; 169±3cm) volunteers completed six trials, each consisting of two 40-min periods of treadmill walking separated by a 20-min rest, wearing permeable or impermeable clothing, under neutral (25°C, 50%), moderate (35°C, 35%), and hot (40°C, 25%) conditions, with and without solar radiation (600W m(-2)). Participants were measured for heart rate (HR) (Polar, Finland), skin temperature (T s) at 11 sites, T is (Grant, Cambridge, UK), and breathing rate (f) (Hidalgo, Cambridge, UK). T mc and relative humidity were measured within the clothing. T re was monitored as the 'gold standard' measure of T c for industrial or military applications using a 10cm flexible probe (Grant, Cambridge, UK). A stepwise multiple regression analysis was run to determine which of 30 variables (T is, T s at 11 sites, HR, f, T mc, temperature, and humidity inside the clothing front and back, body mass, age, body fat, sex, clothing, Thermal comfort, sensation and perception, and sweat rate) were the strongest on which to base the model. Using a bootstrap methodology to develop the equation, the best model in terms of practicality and validity included T is, T mc, HR, and 'work' (0 = rest; 1 = exercise), predicting T re with a standard error of the estimate of 0.27°C and adjusted r (2) of 0.86. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting individuals who reached 39°C was 97 and 85%, respectively. Insulated skin temperature was the most important individual

  12. Dinosaur body temperatures determined from isotopic (¹³C-¹⁸O) ordering in fossil biominerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Robert A; Tütken, Thomas; Martin, Taylor S; Tripati, Aradhna K; Fricke, Henry C; Connely, Melissa; Cifelli, Richard L; Eiler, John M

    2011-07-22

    The nature of the physiology and thermal regulation of the nonavian dinosaurs is the subject of debate. Previously, arguments have been made for both endothermic and ectothermic metabolisms on the basis of differing methodologies. We used clumped isotope thermometry to determine body temperatures from the fossilized teeth of large Jurassic sauropods. Our data indicate body temperatures of 36° to 38°C, which are similar to those of most modern mammals. This temperature range is 4° to 7°C lower than predicted by a model that showed scaling of dinosaur body temperature with mass, which could indicate that sauropods had mechanisms to prevent excessively high body temperatures being reached because of their gigantic size.

  13. Implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes;

    thermometer. This work, however, can be quite time consuming and laborious, and further compromising the immediate well-fare of the pig, when restraining of the individual animal is necessary. Therefore, an electronic body monitoring system using implantable microchip transponders for measuring peripheral...... body temperature was tested, in order to evaluate the utility and reliability of this tool, in domestic pigs. The system is presently used and well optimized in small laboratory animals [1, 2]. We tested the microchip transponders during experimental infection of pigs with classical swine fever virus...... microchip transponder was injected deep subcutaneously by the left ear base of each individual. The transponder was before insertion programmed with ID identical to the individual pig’s ear tag number. The pigs were randomly divided into 3 groups: one group placebo-infected and two groups virus...

  14. Temperature Evaluation of Heat Transferring Body while Preparing Temperature Chart of Heating Technologies and Metal Thermal Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    A. P. Nesenchuk; T. V. Ryzhova; O. F. Kraetskaya; S. S. Коvaliov; A. V. Begliak

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers problems pertaining to temperature evaluation of a heat transferring body in the operational space of high temperature installations. A formula for evaluation of this temperature has been written down in the paper. Calculation of a heating transferring body (furnace) makes it possible to realize temperature chart parameters in the plant heating technologies and steel thermal treatment.

  15. Temperature Evaluation of Heat Transferring Body while Preparing Temperature Chart of Heating Technologies and Metal Thermal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to temperature evaluation of a heat transferring body in the operational space of high temperature installations. A formula for evaluation of this temperature has been written down in the paper. Calculation of a heating transferring body (furnace makes it possible to realize temperature chart parameters in the plant heating technologies and steel thermal treatment.

  16. Effects of whole body heating on dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, C. G.; Zhang, R.; Levine, B. D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify whether dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate (HR) is altered during whole body heating. In 14 subjects, dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR was assessed using transfer function analysis. In normothermic and heat-stressed conditions, each subject breathed at a fixed rate (0. 25 Hz) while beat-by-beat HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were obtained. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature, HR, and forearm skin blood flow. Spectral analysis of HR and SBP revealed that the heat stress significantly reduced HR and SBP variability within the high-frequency range (0.2-0.3 Hz), reduced SBP variability within the low-frequency range (0.03-0.15 Hz), and increased the ratio of low- to high-frequency HR variability (all P body heating reduced high-frequency dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR associated with spontaneous changes in blood pressure. Reduced vagal baroreflex regulation of HR may contribute to reduced orthostatic tolerance known to occur in humans during heat stress.

  17. Dust Ejection from Planetary Bodies by Temperature Gradients: Laboratory Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kelling, Thorben; Kocifaj, Miroslav; Klacka, Jozef; Reiss, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory experiments show that dusty bodies in a gaseous environment eject dust particles if they are illuminated. We find that even more intense dust eruptions occur when the light source is turned off. We attribute this to a compression of gas by thermal creep in response to the changing temperature gradients in the top dust layers. The effect is studied at a light flux of 13 kW/(m*m) and 1 mbar ambient pressure. The effect is applicable to protoplanetary disks and Mars. In the inner part of protoplanetary disks, planetesimals can be eroded especially at the terminator of a rotating body. This leads to the production of dust which can then be transported towards the disk edges or the outer disk regions. The generated dust might constitute a significant fraction of the warm dust observed in extrasolar protoplanetary disks. We estimate erosion rates of about 1 kg/s for 100 m parent bodies. The dust might also contribute to subsequent planetary growth in different locations or on existing protoplanets which ...

  18. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011

  19. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed.

  20. Low body temperature governs the decline of circulating lymphocytes during hibernation through sphingosine-1-phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Kok, Jan Willem; Talaei, Fatimeh; Boerema, Ate S.; Herwig, Annika; Draghiciu, Oana; van Buiten, Azuwerus; Epema, Anne H.; van Dam, Annie; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Henning, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Hibernation is an energy-conserving behavior consisting of periods of inhibited metabolism ('torpor') with lowered body temperature. Torpor bouts are interspersed by arousal periods, in which metabolism increases and body temperature returns to euthermia. In deep torpor, the body temperature typical

  1. The effect of stress on core and peripheral body temperature in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, Christiaan H.; Penning, Renske; Hellhammer, Juliane; Verster, Joris C.; Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Olivier, Berend; Kalkman, Cor J.

    2013-01-01

    Even though there are indications that stress influences body temperature in humans, no study has systematically investigated the effects of stress on core and peripheral body temperature. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of acute psychosocial stress on body temperature u

  2. Placement of temperature probe in bovine vagina for continuous measurement of core-body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. N.; Gebremedhin, K. G.; Parkhurst, A.; Hillman, P. E.

    2015-09-01

    There has been increasing interest to measure core-body temperature in cattle using internal probes. This study examined the placement of HOBO water temperature probe with an anchor, referred to as the "sensor pack" (Hillman et al. Appl Eng Agric ASAE 25(2):291-296, 2009) in the vagina of multiparous Holstein cows under grazing conditions. Two types of anchors were used: (a) long "fingers" (4.5-6 cm), and (b) short "fingers" (3.5 cm). The long-finger anchors stayed in one position while the short-finger anchors were not stable in one position (rotate) within the vagina canal and in some cases came out. Vaginal temperatures were recorded every minute and the data collected were then analyzed using exponential mixed model regression for non-linear data. The results showed that the core-body temperatures for the short-finger anchors were lower than the long-finger anchors. This implied that the placement of the temperature sensor within the vagina cavity may affect the data collected.

  3. Evolution and plasticity of body size of Drosophila in response to temperature.

    OpenAIRE

    Calboli, F. C. F.

    2004-01-01

    Ectotherm body size is positively correlated with latitude, giving rise to body size clines, found in different continents. Ectotherm body size also shows a developmental response to temperature, increasing at lower developmental temperatures. To investigate the effects of temperature in the evolution and plasticity of body size dines, I used two species of the genus Drosophila as model organisms. To investigate the cellular mechanism underlying the evolution of wing size clines the two newly...

  4. A simple and inexpensive system for controlling body temperature in small animal experiments using MRI and the effect of body temperature on the hepatic kinetics of Gd-EOB-DTPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kenya; Assanai, Purapan; Takata, Hiroshige; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Nishiura, Motoko

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and inexpensive system for controlling body temperature in small animal experiments using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to investigate the effect of body temperature on the kinetic behavior of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) in the liver. In our temperature-control system, body temperature was controlled using a feedback-regulated heated or cooled air flow generated by two Futon dryers. The switches of the two Futon dryers were controlled using a digital temperature controller, in which the rectal temperature of a mouse measured by an optical fiber thermometer was used as the input. In experimental studies, male ICR mice aged 8weeks old were used and allocated into 5 groups (39-, 36-, 33-, 30-, and 27-degree groups, n=10), in which the body temperature was maintained at 39 °C, 36 °C, 33 °C, 30 °C, and 27 °C, respectively, using our system. The dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data were acquired with an MRI system for animal experiments equipped with a 1.5-Tesla permanent magnet, for approximately 43min, after the injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA into the tail vein. After correction of the image shift due to the temperature-dependent drift of the Larmor frequency using the gradient-based image registration method with robust estimation of displacement parameters, the kinetic behavior of Gd-EOB-DTPA was analyzed using an empirical mathematical model. With the use of this approach, the upper limit of the relative enhancement (A), the rates of contrast uptake (α) and washout (β), the parameter related to the slope of early uptake (q), the area under the curve (AUC), the maximum relative enhancement (REmax), the time to REmax (Tmax), and the elimination half-life of the contrast agent (T1/2) were calculated. The body temperature of mice could be controlled well by use of our system. Although there were no significant differences in α, AUC, and q among groups, there

  5. Forced-Air Warming Provides Better Control of Body Temperature in Porcine Surgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T. Dent

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maintaining normothermia during porcine surgery is critical in ensuring subject welfare and recovery, reducing the risk of immune system compromise and surgical-site infection that can result from hypothermia. In humans, various methods of patient heating have been demonstrated to be useful, but less evaluation has been performed in techniques to prevent hypothermia perioperatively in pigs. Methods: We compared body temperature regulation during surgery before and after modification of the ambient temperature of the operating laboratories. Three different methods of heating were then compared; a standard circulating water mattress, a resistive fabric blanket, and a forced hot air system. The primary measure was percentage of temperature readings outside a specification range of 36.7–40.0 °C. Results: Tighter control of the ambient temperature while using a circulating water mattress reduced the occurrence of out-of-specification body temperature readings from 20.8% to 5.0%, with most of these the result of hypothermia. Use of a resistive fabric blanket further reduced out-of-specification readings to 1.5%, with a slight increase in the occurrence of hyperthermia. Use of a forced air system reduced out-of-specification readings to less 0.1%. Conclusions: Maintenance of normothermia perioperatively in pig can be improved by tightly controlling ambient temperatures. Use of a resistive blanket or a forced air system can lead to better control than a circulating water mattress, with the forced air system providing a faster response to temperature variations and less chance of hyperthermia.

  6. Effects of Resveratrol on Daily Rhythms of Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature in Young and Aged Grey Mouse Lemurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Pifferi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In several species, resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, activates sirtuin proteins implicated in the regulation of energy balance and biological clock processes. To demonstrate the effect of resveratrol on clock function in an aged primate, young and aged mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus were studied over a 4-week dietary supplementation with resveratrol. Spontaneous locomotor activity and daily variations in body temperature were continuously recorded. Reduction in locomotor activity onset and changes in body temperature rhythm in resveratrol-supplemented aged animals suggest an improved synchronisation on the light-dark cycle. Resveratrol could be a good candidate to restore the circadian rhythms in the elderly.

  7. Supraphysiological cyclic dosing of sustained release T3 in order to reset low basal body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Michael; Miranda-Massari, Jorge R; Gonzalez, Michael J

    2006-03-01

    The use of sustained release tri-iodothyronine (SR-T3) in clinical practice, has gained popularity in the complementary and alternative medical community in the treatment of chronic fatigue with a protocol (WT3) pioneered by Dr. Denis Wilson. The WT3 protocol involves the use of SR-T3 taken orally by the patient every 12 hours according to a cyclic dose schedule determined by patient response. The patient is then weaned once a body temperature of 98.6 degrees F has been maintained for 3 consecutive weeks. The symptoms associated with this protocol have been given the name Wilson's Temperature Syndrome (WTS). There have been clinical studies using T3 in patients who are euthyroid based on normal TSH values. However, this treatment has created a controversy in the conventional medical community, especially with the American Thyroid Association, because it is not based on a measured deficiency of thyroid hormone. However, just as estrogen and progesterone are prescribed to regulate menstrual cycles in patients who have normal serum hormone levels, the WT3 therapy can be used to regulate metabolism despite normal serum thyroid hormone levels. SR-T3 prescription is based exclusively on low body temperature and presentation of symptoms. Decreased T3 function exerts widespread effects throughout the body. It can decrease serotonin and growth hormone levels and increase the number of adrenal hormone receptor sites. These effects may explain some of the symptoms observed in WTS. The dysregulation of neuroendocrine function may begin to explain such symptoms as alpha intrusion into slow wave sleep, decrease in blood flow to the brain, alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, fatigue, myalgia and arthralgia, depression and cognitive dysfunction. Despite all thermoregulatory control mechanisms of the body and the complex metabolic processes involved, WT3 therapy seems a valuable tool to re-establish normal body functions. We report the results of 11 patients who underwent the

  8. Application of Wireless Sensor Networks for Indoor Temperature Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojkoska, Biljana Risteska; Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Chatzimisios, Periklis

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks take a major part in our everyday lives by enhancing systems for home automation, healthcare, temperature control, energy consumption monitoring, and so forth. In this paper we focus on a system used for temperature regulation for residential, educational, industrial...

  9. Wireless Sensor Networks Framework for Indoor Temperature Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojkoska, Biljana; Popovska Avramova, Andrijana

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks take a major part in our everyday lives by enhancing systems for home automation, health-care, temperature control, energy consumption monitoring etc. In this paper we focus on a system used for temperature regulation for homes, educational, industrial, commercial premises...

  10. Mathematical modelling of steam generator and design of temperature regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanovic, S.S. [EE Institute Nikola Tesla, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1999-07-01

    The paper considers mathematical modelling of once-through power station boiler and numerical algorithm for simulation of the model. Fast and numerically stable algorithm based on the linearisation of model equations and on the simultaneous solving of differential and algebraic equations is proposed. The paper also presents the design of steam temperature regulator by using the method of projective controls. Dynamic behaviour of the system closed with optimal linear quadratic regulator is taken as the reference system. The desired proprieties of the reference system are retained and solutions for superheated steam temperature regulator are determined. (author)

  11. Temperature regulates transcription in the zebrafish circadian clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been well-documented that temperature influences key aspects of the circadian clock. Temperature cycles entrain the clock, while the period length of the circadian cycle is adjusted so that it remains relatively constant over a wide range of temperatures (temperature compensation. In vertebrates, the molecular basis of these properties is poorly understood. Here, using the zebrafish as an ectothermic model, we demonstrate first that in the absence of light, exposure of embryos and primary cell lines to temperature cycles entrains circadian rhythms of clock gene expression. Temperature steps drive changes in the basal expression of certain clock genes in a gene-specific manner, a mechanism potentially contributing to entrainment. In the case of the per4 gene, while E-box promoter elements mediate circadian clock regulation, they do not direct the temperature-driven changes in transcription. Second, by studying E-box-regulated transcription as a reporter of the core clock mechanism, we reveal that the zebrafish clock is temperature-compensated. In addition, temperature strongly influences the amplitude of circadian transcriptional rhythms during and following entrainment by light-dark cycles, a property that could confer temperature compensation. Finally, we show temperature-dependent changes in the expression levels, phosphorylation, and function of the clock protein, CLK. This suggests a mechanism that could account for changes in the amplitude of the E-box-directed rhythm. Together, our results imply that several key transcriptional regulatory elements at the core of the zebrafish clock respond to temperature.

  12. The circadian rhythm of core body temperature (Part I: The use of modern telemetry systems to monitor core body temperature variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słomko Joanna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The best known daily rhythms in humans include: the sleep-wake rhythm, the circadian core body temperature variability, daily fluctuations in arterial blood pressure and heartbeat frequency, and daily changes in hormone secretion: e.g. melatonin, cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin. The core body temperature in humans has a characteristic sinusoidal course, with the maximum value occurring between 3:00-5:00 pm and the minimum between 3:00-5:00 am. Analysis of literature indicates that the obtained results concerning core body temperature are to a large extent influenced by the type of method applied in the measurement. Depending on test protocols, we may apply various methodologies to measuring core body temperature. One of the newest methods of measuring internal and external body temperature consists in the utilisation of remote temperature sensors transmitting the obtained value via a radio signal. The advantages of this method includes the ability to perform: continuous core temperature measurement, observe dynamic changes in core body temperature occurring in circadian rhythm and the repeatability and credibility of the obtained results, which is presented in numerous scientific reports.

  13. Considering an Affect Regulation Framework for Examining the Association Between Body Dissatisfaction and Positive Body Image in Black Older Adolescent Females: Does Body Mass Index Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Jennifer B.; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessm...

  14. Estimation of the temperature of a radiating body by measuring the stationary temperatures of a thermometer placed at different distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán, V. M.; Villaluenga, J. P. G.; Izquierdo-Gil, M. A.; Pérez-Cordón, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a novel method for determining the temperature of a radiating body. The experimental method requires only very common instrumentation. It is based on the measurement of the stationary temperature of an object placed at different distances from the body and on the application of the energy balance equation in a stationary state. The method allows one to obtain the temperature of an inaccessible radiating body when radiation measurements are not available. The method has been applied to the determination of the filament temperature of incandescent lamps of different powers.

  15. Regulation of glycogenolysis in the locust fat body during flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrewijk, W.J.A. van; Broek, A.Th.M. van den; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    Glycogen reserves in the fat body of Locusta migratoria decrease dramatically during the first two hours of flight. In fat body of rested locusts only 10% of glycogen phosphorylase occurs in the active form. The enzyme is activated significantly during flight, when up to one-third of the total phosp

  16. Being cool: how body temperature influences ageing and longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Gerald; Cummings, Elizabeth; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Temperature is a basic and essential property of any physical system, including living systems. Even modest variations in temperature can have profound effects on organisms, and it has long been thought that as metabolism increases at higher temperatures so should rates of ageing. Here, we review the literature on how temperature affects longevity, ageing and life history traits. From poikilotherms to homeotherms, there is a clear trend for lower temperature being associated with longer lifes...

  17. Temperature distribution in the human body under various conditions of induced hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobko, O. V.; Perelman, T. L.; Fradkin, S. Z.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model based on heat balance equations was developed for studying temperature distribution in the human body under deep hyperthermia which is often induced in the treatment of malignant tumors. The model yields results which are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The distribution of temperature under various conditions of induced hyperthermia, i.e. as a function of water temperature and supply rate, is examined on the basis of temperature distribution curves in various body zones.

  18. Gasotransmitter regulation of ion channels: a key step in O2 sensing by the carotid body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R; Peers, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Carotid bodies detect hypoxia in arterial blood, translating this stimulus into physiological responses via the CNS. It is long established that ion channels are critical to this process. More recent evidence indicates that gasotransmitters exert powerful influences on O2 sensing by the carotid body. Here, we review current understanding of hypoxia-dependent production of gasotransmitters, how they regulate ion channels in the carotid body, and how this impacts carotid body function.

  19. "Body Work--Regulation of a Swimmer Body": An Autoethnography from an Australian Elite Swimmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Jenny; DinanThompson, Maree

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to studies on sociology and the body by exploring my bodily experiences as an Australian elite swimmer in an autoethnographic framework. More specifically, it focuses on the relationship between the regulatory practices of others on my body and my development of self-regulatory practices. The stories in this paper reveal…

  20. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  1. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p temperature compared to rats born with low exercise capacity and disease risk. Voluntary running allowed HCRs to maintain high body temperature during aging, which suggests that high PA level was crucial in maintaining the high body temperature of HCRs.

  2. Design of a Temperature Sensitive Voltage Regulator for AC Load using RTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasnuva Chowdhury,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Voltage regulation of an electrical load has always been a necessity with the variation of atmospheric temperature. Human body undergoes troubles and sufferings when there is a certain change arises in the surrounding temperature and he or she might not be able to cope up with the sudden environmental change. To make life easier and better adjusted to the natural temperature change, a temperature sensitive voltage regulator have been designed and implemented in this work. Here a temperature sensor called Resistor Temperature Detector (RTD is used for temperature sensing purpose which delivers its output to the input of a voltage controller circuit and can subsequently control the speed of any light AC electrical load according to the variable temperature. In our project , the RTD was able to take the reading from 26oC to 38oC accurately. Moreover, the room temperature is also made visible by two 7-segment display. The circuit is synchronized and tested with the cheapest AC load (bulb availablein the market.

  3. Spectral-based inferential measurement of grey-body's temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Feng; Liu, Liying; Zhu, Lingxi; Huan, Kewei; Li, Ye; Shi, Xiaoguang

    2015-11-01

    Aiming at the problems of temperature measurement and the defects of radiance thermometry theory, one method of spectral-based inferential measurement is proposed, which adopts the Empirical Risk Minimization (ERM) functional model as the temperature measurement model. Then, the radiance thermometry theory and inferential measurement technology are discussed comparatively. Temperatures of some targets, such and tungsten lamp and solar surface, are measured by spectral-based inferential measurement.

  4. Optimization of a pain model: effects of body temperature and anesthesia on bladder nociception in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Katelyn E; Stratton, Jarred M; DeBerry, Jennifer J; Kolber, Benedict J

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a debilitating urological condition that is resistant to treatment and poorly understood. To determine novel molecular treatment targets and to elucidate the contribution of the nervous system to IC/BPS, many rodent bladder pain models have been developed. In this study we evaluated the effects of anesthesia induction and temperature variation in a mouse model of bladder pain known as urinary bladder distension (UBD). In this model compressed air is used to distend the bladder to distinct pressures while electrodes record the reflexive visceromotor response (VMR) from the overlying abdominal muscle. Two isoflurane induction models are commonly used before UBD: a short method lasting approximately 30 minutes and a long method lasting approximately 90 minutes. Animals were anesthetized with one of the methods then put through three sets of graded bladder distensions. Distensions performed following the short anesthesia protocol were significantly different from one another despite identical testing parameters; this same effect was not observed when the long anesthesia protocol was used. In order to determine the effect of temperature on VMRs, animals were put through three graded distension sets at 37.5 (normal mouse body temperature), 35.5, and 33.5°C. Distensions performed at 33.5 and 35.5°C were significantly lower than those performed at 37.5°C. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed significantly smaller increases in spinal levels of phosphorylated extracellular-signal regulated kinase 2 (pERK2) following bladder distension in animals whose body temperature was maintained at 33.5°C as opposed to 37.5°C. These results highlight the significance of the dynamic effects of anesthesia on pain-like changes and the importance of close monitoring of temperature while performing UBD. For successful interpretation of VMRs and translation to human disease, body temperature should be maintained at 37.5

  5. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S.; Hazel, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1–3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r2 = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38oC, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal temperatures

  6. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S; Hazel, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1-3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r (2) = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38(o)C, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal

  7. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S; Hazel, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1-3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r (2) = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38(o)C, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal

  8. Regulation of behavioral plasticity by systemic temperature signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugi, Takuma; Nishida, Yukuo; Mori, Ikue

    2011-08-01

    Animals cope with environmental changes by altering behavioral strategy. Environmental information is generally received by sensory neurons in the neural circuit that generates behavior. However, although environmental temperature inevitably influences an animal's entire body, the mechanism of systemic temperature perception remains largely unknown. We show here that systemic temperature signaling induces a change in a memory-based behavior in C. elegans. During behavioral conditioning, non-neuronal cells as well as neuronal cells respond to cultivation temperature through a heat-shock transcription factor that drives newly identified gene expression dynamics. This systemic temperature signaling regulates thermosensory neurons non-cell-autonomously through the estrogen signaling pathway, producing thermotactic behavior. We provide a link between systemic environmental recognition and behavioral plasticity in the nervous system.

  9. Body temperature measurements in pigs during general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musk, G C; Costa, R S; Tuke, J

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to compare rectal, pharyngeal and oesophageal temperature measurements in anaesthetized pigs. Data were compared using the Bland-Altman method, and correlation coefficients and error measures were calculated. Sixty-six sets of data were collected from 16 pigs weighing 16.2 ± 4.2 kg. The bias (and 95% limit of agreement) for rectal and pharyngeal compared with oesophageal temperature were 0.69 (-1.18 to 2.57) ℃ and 0.22 (-0.84 to 1.28) ℃, respectively. The correlation coefficients for rectal and pharyngeal compared with oesophageal temperature were 0.47 and 0.87, respectively. The absolute error for rectal and pharyngeal compared with oesophageal temperature was 0.7 ± 0.9℃ and 0.2 ± 0.5℃, respectively. Pharyngeal temperature measurement may be more suitable than rectal temperature measurement for estimation of oesophageal temperature during general anaesthesia of pigs.

  10. Sleeping body temperatures in 3-4 month old infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Wailoo, M P; Petersen, S A; Whittaker, H.; Goodenough, P

    1989-01-01

    Rectal, skin, and ambient temperatures were continuously recorded overnight from 3-4 month old normal infants in their home cots under conditions of room temperature and wrapping chosen freely by parents. It was found that rectal temperature was above 37 degrees C when infants were put down, but fell rapidly to 36.4 degrees C within one and a half hours, then stabilised for a few hours before rising steadily. This pattern was tied more closely to the time of putting down than time of day. The...

  11. The human kidney as a regulator of body cytokine homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanni, A.; A. Sofia; S. Saffioti; I. Mannucci; D. Verzola; P. Gramegna; L. Cappuccino; Garibotto, G.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that the human kidney is a major site for the removal of several cytokines and growth factors, which can accumulate in body pools in patients with acute and chronic kidney disease (CKD). In addition, progressive renal failure and the increase in circulating proinflammatory cytokines are associated with mortality, suggesting that altered cytokines handling by the kidney is associated with worse outcome. Also, the kidney itself may be damaged by signals arising by endot...

  12. Regulation of body fat mass by the gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schéle, Erik; Grahnemo, Louise; Anesten, Fredrik;

    2016-01-01

    New insight suggests gut microbiota as a component in energy balance. However, the underlying mechanisms by which gut microbiota can impact metabolic regulation is unclear. A recent study from our lab shows, for the first time, a link between gut microbiota and energy balance circuitries...

  13. New insulating material in maintenance of body temperature.

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, B M; Bates, A R; Gray, O. P.; Pearson, J F; Wardrop, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Flectalon, web of aluminised polyvinylchloride fibres, has been formulated to minimise radiant heat losses and to provide conventional insulation. Critical temperature determinations were used to assess the insulating efficacy of this and other swaddling materials in infants. The critical temperature for a baby 2 to 10 days old was 31 degrees C when naked and 23 degrees C when wrapped in a Silver Swaddler or a sheet and two blankets. The use of a quilt made with Thinsulate or Hollofil with a ...

  14. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p < 0.001). Aging decreased the body temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p < 0.001) allowing them to maintain body temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p < 0.050). These results suggest that higher PA level together with greater relative muscle mass and higher mitochondrial content/function contribute to the accumulation of heat in the HCRs. Interestingly, neither aging nor voluntary training had a significant impact on core body temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p < 0

  15. The influence of fatigue-induced increase in relative work rate on temperature regulation during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacin, Alan; Golja, Petra; Tipton, Michael J; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2008-05-01

    Heat-loss responses during steady-load exercise are affected by an increase in relative work rate induced by muscle ischaemia or hypoxaemia. The present study investigated whether progressive increases in perception of exertion and relative oxygen uptake %VO2peak which occur during prolonged steady-load exercise as a result of progressively increased peripheral fatigue, might also affect the regulation of heat loss responses and hence the exercise-induced increase in mean body temperature. Ten male subjects first performed a ramp-test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer to evaluate their initial peak oxygen uptake (Control VO2peak). On a separate day, 120 min of cycling at constant power output corresponding to 60% of Control VO2peak was performed in thermoneutral environment (Ta = 23 degrees C, RH = 50%, wind speed = 5 m s(-1)). This was immediately followed by another maximal performance test (Fatigue VO2peak). During prolonged exercise, median (range) rating of perceived exertion for whole-body (RPEwb) increased (P temperature increased towards asymptotic values, thereafter remained constant throughout the 120 min exercise, despite the concomitant progressive increase in relative work rate, as reflected in increased RPEwb and relative oxygen uptake. It is thus concluded that the increase in relative work rate induced predominantly by peripheral muscle fatigue affects neither the level of increase in mean body temperature nor the regulation of heat loss responses during prolonged steady-load exercise.

  16. Effect of Ambient Temperature on Body Temperature and Rest Metabolic Rate in Apodemus chevrieri During Postnatal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wan-long

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation in Apodemus chevrieri, body temperature and rest metabolic rate (RMR were measured during postnatal development (1~42 day when the A. chevrieri exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in A. chevrieri increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in low temperature(5oC and 10oC, relatively and RMR significant increased when day age is 14 day, it indicated that the pups showed a certain degree of thermoregulation in this phase. Its thermoregulation ability developed quickly during 7 day to 14 day. RMR of pups was extreme significantly higher in low temperature than that in other temperature when day age was 21 day, it showed that the pups had some thermoregulation to low temperature stimulation. The RMR of pups was showed increasing trend in high temperature(35oC when 28 day; when day age was 35 day and 42 day, the thermal neutral zone were 22.5 to 30oC and approaching its adult level. All of these results indicated that pups of A. chevrieri in the different growing period had different thermogenesis and energy allocation to maintain stable to body temperature, thermogenesis was weaker in the early phase of postnatal development, most of energy is used to its growth. After pups were weaned, the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation developed quickly to adjust variations of environment during postnatal development.

  17. Neuropeptides and anticipatory changes in behaviour and physiology: seasonal body weight regulation in the Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Julian G; Tups, Alexander

    2003-11-01

    The Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus, is a powerful model of physiological body weight regulation. This seasonal model offers the potential to distinguish between the compensatory neuroendocrine systems that defend body weight against imposed negative energy balance, and those that are involved in the programming of the level of body weight that will be defended-a seasonally appropriate body weight. Of the known, studied, components of the hypothalamic energy balance system, the anorexogenic peptide, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), is the only candidate where gene expression changes in a manner consistent with a role in initiating or sustaining photoperiod-induced differences in body weight trajectory. Siberian hamsters effect a reversible biannual switch in leptin sensitivity in which only short day (SD)-acclimated hamsters that have undergone a reduction in body weight, adiposity and plasma leptin are sensitive to peripheral exogenous leptin. The suppressor of cytokine signalling protein, SOCS3, appears to be the molecular correlate of this seasonal sensitivity.

  18. The role of auxin in temperature regulated hypocotyl elongation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estelle, Mark [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-10-02

    The major goal of this project was to determine how auxin mediates the response of Arabidopsis seedlings to increased ambient temperature. Previous studies have shown that the response is due, in part, to increased auxin biosynthesis via the IPA auxin biosynthetic pathway. This effect is related to increased transcription of genes that encode enzymes in this pathway. However, during the last year we have shown that transcription of key auxin regulated genes increases within minutes of a shift to elevated temperature. This response is probably to rapid to be explained by changes in the levels of auxin biosynthetic enzymes. Interestingly, we have recently discovered that temperature shift is associated with a rapid increase in the level of the auxin co-receptor TIR1. This change appears is the result of increased stability of the protein. At the same time, we have discovered that stability of TIR1 is dependent on the chaperone HSP9o and its co-chaperone SGT1. By using the specific HSP90 inhibitor GDA, we show that HSP90 is required for the temperature dependent change in TIR1 levels. We have also shown that HSP90 and SGT1 interact directly with TIR1. Our results also lead us to propose a new model in which the plant responds rapidly to changes in ambient temperature by directly regulating the TIR1/AFB receptor system, thus modulating the auxin signaling pathway.

  19. Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Willer (Cristen); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); S. Li (Shengxu); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); I.M. Heid (Iris); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); A.L. Elliott (Amanda); A.U. Jackson (Anne); C. Lamina (Claudia); G. Lettre (Guillaume); N. Lim (Noha); H.N. Lyon (Helen); S.A. McCarroll (Steven); K. Papadakis (Konstantinos); L. Qi (Lu); J.C. Randall (Joshua); R.M. Roccasecca; S. Sanna (Serena); P. Scheet (Paul); M.N. Weedon (Michael); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); J.H. Zhao; L.C. Jacobs (Leonie); I. Prokopenko (Inga); N. Soranzo (Nicole); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); N. Timpson (Nicholas); P. Almgren (Peter); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S. Bingham (Sheila); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); M.J. Brown (Morris); N.P. Burtt (Noël); P.S. Chines (Peter); L. Coin (Lachlan); F.S. Collins (Francis); J. Connell (John); C. Cooper (Charles); G.D. Smith; E.M. Dennison (Elaine); P. Deodhar (Parimal); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); D.M. Evans (David); L. Gianniny (Lauren); C. Gieger (Christian); C.J. Gillson (Christopher); C. Guiducci (Candace); R. Hackett (Rachel); D. Hadley (David); A.S. Hall (Alistair); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); J. Hebebrand (Johannes); A. Hofman (Albert); B. Isomaa (Bo); T. Johnson (Toby); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); Z. Jovanovic (Zorica); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); P. Kraft (Peter); M. Kuokkanen (Mikko); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); J. Laitinen (Jaana); E. Lakatta (Edward); J. Luan; R.N. Luben (Robert); M. Mangino (Massimo); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); T. Meitinger (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); P. Munroe (Patricia); N. Narisu (Narisu); A.R. Ness (Andrew); K. Northstone (Kate); S. O'Rahilly (Stephen); C. Purmann (Carolin); M.G. Rees (Matthew); M. Ridderstråle (Martin); S.M. Ring (Susan); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A. Ruokonen (Aimo); M.S. Sandhu (Manjinder); J. Saramies (Jouko); L.J. Scott (Laura); A. Scuteri (Angelo); K. Silander (Kaisa); M.A. Sims (Matthew); K. Song (Kijoung); J. Stephens (Jonathan); S. Stevens (Suzanne); H.M. Stringham (Heather); Y.C.L. Tung (Loraine); T.T. Valle (Timo); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); K.S. Vimaleswaran (Karani); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); C. Wallace (Chris); R.M. Watanabe (Richard); D. Waterworth (Dawn); N. Watkins (Nicholas); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); G. Zhai (Guangju); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); D. Altshuler (David); M. Caulfield (Mark); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); I.S. Farooqi (Sadaf); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); J.M. Guralnik (Jack); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); F.B. Hu (Frank); M.R. Jarvelin; M. Laakso (Markku); V. Mooser (Vincent); K.K. Ong (Ken); W.H. Ouwehand (Willem); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); T.D. Spector (Timothy); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); M. Uda (Manuela); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); N.J. Wareham (Nick); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); R.B. Hayes (Richard); D. Hunter (David); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); D. Schlessinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); M. Boehnke (Michael); I. Barroso (Inês); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCommon variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts

  20. Body image change and improved eating self-regulation in a weight management intervention in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardinha Luís B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful weight management involves the regulation of eating behavior. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its successful regulation remain unclear. This study examined one potential mechanism by testing a model in which improved body image mediated the effects of obesity treatment on eating self-regulation. Further, this study explored the role of different body image components. Methods Participants were 239 overweight women (age: 37.6 ± 7.1 yr; BMI: 31.5 ± 4.1 kg/m2 engaged in a 12-month behavioral weight management program, which included a body image module. Self-reported measures were used to assess evaluative and investment body image, and eating behavior. Measurements occurred at baseline and at 12 months. Baseline-residualized scores were calculated to report change in the dependent variables. The model was tested using partial least squares analysis. Results The model explained 18-44% of the variance in the dependent variables. Treatment significantly improved both body image components, particularly by decreasing its investment component (f2 = .32 vs. f2 = .22. Eating behavior was positively predicted by investment body image change (p Conclusions Results suggest that improving body image, particularly by reducing its salience in one's personal life, might play a role in enhancing eating self-regulation during weight control. Accordingly, future weight loss interventions could benefit from proactively addressing body image-related issues as part of their protocols.

  1. The Contribution of Emotion Regulation to Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating in Early Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Leslie; Zeman, Janice

    2006-01-01

    To understand whether difficulties in emotional functioning distinguish between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, a set of emotion regulation (i.e., negative emotion, emotional awareness, coping), demographic (i.e., age), and physical (i.e., BMI (Body Mass Index)) factors were assessed in 234 early adolescent girls, grades six to eight.…

  2. Effect of heat stress on body temperature in healthy early postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Heuwieser, W

    2012-12-01

    Measurement of body temperature is the most common method for an early diagnosis of sick cows in fresh cow protocols currently used on dairy farms. Thresholds for fever range from 39.4 °C to 39.7 °C. Several studies attempted to describe normal temperature ranges for healthy dairy cows in the early puerperium. However, the definition of a healthy cow is variable within these studies. It is challenging to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows because body temperature is usually included in the definition. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify factors that influence body temperature in healthy dairy cows early postpartum and to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows that calved in a moderate (temperature humidity index: 59.8 ± 3.8) and a hot period (temperature humidity index: 74.1 ± 4.4), respectively, excluding body temperature from the definition of the health status. Furthermore, the prevalence of fever was calculated for both periods separately. A subset of 17 (moderate period) and 15 cows (hot period) were used for analysis. To ensure their uterine health only cows with a serum haptoglobin concentration ≤ 1.1 g/L were included in the analysis. Therefore, body temperature could be excluded from the definition. A vaginal temperature logger that measured vaginal temperature every 10 min was inserted from Day 2 to 10 after parturition. Additionally rectal temperature was measured twice daily. Day in milk (2 to 10), period (moderate and hot), and time of day had an effect on rectal and vaginal temperature. The prevalence of fever (≥ 39.5 °C) was 7.4% and 28.1% for rectal temperature in the moderate and hot period, respectively. For vaginal temperature (07.00 to 11.00 h) it was 10% and 33%, respectively, considering the same threshold and period. This study demonstrates that body temperature in the early puerperium is influenced by several factors (day in milk, climate, time of day). Therefore, these factors

  3. Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment during periodical changes in air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Siyeon; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5 °C with an amplitude of 6 °C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature, and 12 skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that the forehead and chest were identified as the most valid sites to predict rectal temperature (R(2) = 0.826 and 0.824, respectively) in an environment with periodically fluctuated air temperatures. This study suggests that particular skin temperatures are valid as a non-invasive variable when predicting rectal temperature of an individual wearing PPE in changing ambient temperatures. Practitioner Summary: This study should offer assistance for developing a more reliable indirect indicating system of individual heat strain for firefighters in real time, which can be used practically as a precaution of firefighters' heat-related illness and utilised along with physiological monitoring.

  4. DLK1 Regulates Whole-Body Glucose Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Ditzel, Nicholas; Laborda, Jorge;

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine role of the skeleton in regulating energy metabolism is supported by a feed-forward loop between circulating osteoblast (OB)-derived undercarboxylated osteocalcin (Glu-OCN) and pancreatic β-cell insulin; in turn, insulin favors osteocalcin (OCN) bioactivity. These data suggest...... metabolism. We show that Glu-OCN specifically stimulates Dlk1 expression by the pancreas. Conversely, Dlk1-deficient (Dlk1(-/-) ) mice exhibited increased circulating Glu-OCN levels and increased insulin sensitivity, whereas mice overexpressing Dlk1 in OB displayed reduced insulin secretion and sensitivity...

  5. The human kidney as a regulator of body cytokine homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bonanni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accumulating that the human kidney is a major site for the removal of several cytokines and growth factors, which can accumulate in body pools in patients with acute and chronic kidney disease (CKD. In addition, progressive renal failure and the increase in circulating proinflammatory cytokines are associated with mortality, suggesting that altered cytokines handling by the kidney is associated with worse outcome. Also, the kidney itself may be damaged by signals arising by endothelia and peripheral tissues during the course of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and obesity. In this paper we provide a review of kidney handling of several adipokines and myokines, with special emphasis to interleukin-6 (IL-6, leptin, resistin and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta.

  6. Phenotypic plasticity in Drosophila pigmentation caused by temperature sensitivity of a chromatin regulator network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Gibert

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a genotype to produce contrasting phenotypes in different environments. Although many examples have been described, the responsible mechanisms are poorly understood. In particular, it is not clear how phenotypic plasticity is related to buffering, the maintenance of a constant phenotype against genetic or environmental variation. We investigate here the genetic basis of a particularly well described plastic phenotype: the abdominal pigmentation in female Drosophila melanogaster. Cold temperature induces a dark pigmentation, in particular in posterior segments, while higher temperature has the opposite effect. We show that the homeotic gene Abdominal-B (Abd-B has a major role in the plasticity of pigmentation in the abdomen. Abd-B plays opposite roles on melanin production through the regulation of several pigmentation enzymes. This makes the control of pigmentation very unstable in the posterior abdomen, and we show that the relative spatio-temporal expression of limiting pigmentation enzymes in this region of the body is thermosensitive. Temperature acts on melanin production by modulating a chromatin regulator network, interacting genetically with the transcription factor bric-à-brac (bab, a target of Abd-B and Hsp83, encoding the chaperone Hsp90. Genetic disruption of this chromatin regulator network increases the effect of temperature and the instability of the pigmentation pattern in the posterior abdomen. Colocalizations on polytene chromosomes suggest that BAB and these chromatin regulators cooperate in the regulation of many targets, including several pigmentation enzymes. We show that they are also involved in sex comb development in males and that genetic destabilization of this network is also strongly modulated by temperature for this phenotype. Thus, we propose that phenotypic plasticity of pigmentation is a side effect reflecting a global impact of temperature on epigenetic mechanisms

  7. Microchip transponder thermometry for monitoring core body temperature of antelope during capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Fuller, Andrea; Hetem, Robyn S; Lease, Hilary M; Mitchell, Duncan; Meyer, Leith C R

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthermia is described as the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with capture, immobilization and restraint of wild animals. Therefore, accurately determining the core body temperature of wild animals during capture is crucial for monitoring hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. We investigated if microchip thermometry can accurately reflect core body temperature changes during capture and cooling interventions in the springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), a medium-sized antelope. Subcutaneous temperature measured with a temperature-sensitive microchip was a weak predictor of core body temperature measured by temperature-sensitive data loggers in the abdominal cavity (R(2)=0.32, bias >2 °C). Temperature-sensitive microchips in the gluteus muscle, however, provided an accurate estimate of core body temperature (R(2)=0.76, bias=0.012 °C). Microchips inserted into muscle therefore provide a convenient and accurate method to measure body temperature continuously in captured antelope, allowing detection of hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. PMID:26724197

  8. Microchip transponder thermometry for monitoring core body temperature of antelope during capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Fuller, Andrea; Hetem, Robyn S; Lease, Hilary M; Mitchell, Duncan; Meyer, Leith C R

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthermia is described as the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with capture, immobilization and restraint of wild animals. Therefore, accurately determining the core body temperature of wild animals during capture is crucial for monitoring hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. We investigated if microchip thermometry can accurately reflect core body temperature changes during capture and cooling interventions in the springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), a medium-sized antelope. Subcutaneous temperature measured with a temperature-sensitive microchip was a weak predictor of core body temperature measured by temperature-sensitive data loggers in the abdominal cavity (R(2)=0.32, bias >2 °C). Temperature-sensitive microchips in the gluteus muscle, however, provided an accurate estimate of core body temperature (R(2)=0.76, bias=0.012 °C). Microchips inserted into muscle therefore provide a convenient and accurate method to measure body temperature continuously in captured antelope, allowing detection of hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures.

  9. Effects of Body Weight and Water Temperature on Maximum Food Consumption of Juvenile Sebastodes fuscescens (Houttuyn)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢松光; 杨红生; 周毅; 张福绥

    2004-01-01

    Maximum rate of food consumption (Cmax) was determined for juvenile Sebastodes fuscescens (Houttuyn) at water temperature of 10, 15, 20 and 25℃. The relationships of Cmax to the body weight (W) at each temperature were described by a power equation: lnCmax = a + b lnW. Covariance analysis revealed significant interaction of the temperature and body weight. The relationship of adjusted Cmax to water temperature (T) was described by a quadratic equation: Cmax =-0.369 + 0.456T - 0.0117T2. The optimal feeding temperature calculated from this equation was 19.5℃. The coefficients of the multiple regression estimation relating Cmax to body weight (W) and water temperature (T) were given in the Table 2.

  10. Biphasic effect of melanocortin agonists on metabolic rate and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lute, Beth; Jou, William; Lateef, Dalya M; Goldgof, Margalit; Xiao, Cuiying; Piñol, Ramón A; Kravitz, Alexxai V; Miller, Nicole R; Huang, Yuning George; Girardet, Clemence; Butler, Andrew A; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L

    2014-08-01

    The melanocortin system regulates metabolic homeostasis and inflammation. Melanocortin agonists have contradictorily been reported to both increase and decrease metabolic rate and body temperature. We find two distinct physiologic responses occurring at similar doses. Intraperitoneal administration of the nonselective melanocortin agonist MTII causes a melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)-mediated hypermetabolism/hyperthermia. This is preceded by a profound, transient hypometabolism/hypothermia that is preserved in mice lacking any one of Mc1r, Mc3r, Mc4r, or Mc5r. Three other melanocortin agonists also caused hypothermia, which is actively achieved via seeking a cool environment, vasodilation, and inhibition of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. These results suggest that the hypometabolic/hypothermic effect of MTII is not due to a failure of thermoregulation. The hypometabolism/hypothermia was prevented by dopamine antagonists, and MTII selectively activated arcuate nucleus dopaminergic neurons, suggesting that these neurons may contribute to the hypometabolism/hypothermia. We propose that the hypometabolism/hypothermia is a regulated response, potentially beneficial during extreme physiologic stress.

  11. Influence of body temperatures and hypercapnia on pulmonary ventilation during hyperthermia

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Jesse Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Static and dynamic body temperatures, hypercapnia, and exercise state were assessed for their influence on human pulmonary ventilation. METHODS: In study 1, each participant exercised with normothermic and hyperthermic core temperatures, in ambient temperatures of 25, 30 and 35°C, and were subjected to hypercapnic challenges of +4 and +8 mmHg in each condition. In study 2 before and after sub-maximal exercise, radiant heating was employed to assess the influence of dynamic skin temperature on...

  12. A study on the applicability of implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enøe Claes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The applicability of an electronic monitoring system using microchip transponders for measurement of body temperatures was tested in 6-week-old conventional Danish weaners infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV. Subcutaneous tissue temperatures obtained by the implantable transponders were compared with rectal temperatures, recorded by a conventional digital thermometer. Methods In a preliminary study, transponders were inserted subcutaneously at 6 different positions of the body of 5 pigs. The transponders positioned by the ear base provided the best correlation to rectal temperature. To test the stability of the monitoring system in a larger group of pigs, transponders were therefore inserted by the left ear base in a subsequent infection experiment with 30 pigs. Results Generally, the microchip transponders measured a subcutaneous tissue temperature, which was about 1°C lower than the rectal temperature. However, a simple linear relationship between the measures of the two methods was found. Conclusions Our study showed that the tested body monitoring system may represent a promising tool to obtain an approximate correlate of body temperatures in groups of pigs. In contrast, however, the tested system did not constitute a suitable tool to measure body temperatures of individual animals in the present pig infection experiment.

  13. Effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: a double-blind, randomized phase II clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); E.J. van Breda (Eric); H.M.A. van Gemert (Maarten); H.B. van der Worp (Bart); R.J. Meijer (Ron); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Body temperature is a strong predictor of outcome in acute stroke. However, it is unknown whether antipyretic treatment leads to early and clinically worthwhile reduction of body temperature in patients with acute stroke, especially w

  14. Circadian rhythm of body temperature during prolonged undersea voyages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquhoun, W P; Paine, M W; Fort, A

    1978-05-01

    Circadian rhythms of oral temperature were assessed in 12 watchkeepers during a prolonged submarine voyage and compared with a "standard" rhythm obtained from nonwatchkeepers ashore. Initially, the parameters of the rhythms were similar to those of the standard; however, among eight ratings working 4-h watches in a rapidly rotating cycle, considerable changes in the rhythms occurred as the voyage progressed, and concurrent alterations in sleep patterning were observed. The most characteristic change in the rhythm was a marked decline in its amplitude. In most subjects, the rhythm also tended to depart from its original circadian pattern; in at least one case, it effectively disintegrated. One subject's rhythm appeared to "free-run" with a period greater than 24 h. A strong circadian rhythm was maintained in only one of these eight subjects. In four officers whose watch times were at fixed hours, adaptation of the rhythm to unusual times of sleep occurred in 2 of 3 cases where the schedule demanded it. The results are discussed in relation to the design of optimal watchkeeping systems for submariners. PMID:655989

  15. [Hyperthermia. Modification of body temperature as clinical therapeutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuña Urtasun, Berta; Villalgordo Ortin, Paola; Montes García, Yolanda; Marín, Fernández Blanca

    2011-04-01

    The application of heat or cold therapy is called thermotherapy Thermotherapy has been used since ancient times, Egyptians, Greeks and Romans used solar radiation or submersion in springs to apply heat and ice and snow for cold application. The first scientific references related to thermotherapy appear in late eighteenth century but the twentieth century when the introduction of new forms of deep heat therapy have expanded their capabilities and their operation with media surface more comfortable and effective. Thermotherapy although they require more experimentation to obtain a solid scientific proof that their use is raising great expectations in various fields such as oncology treatment, surgery neurology etc. In the surgical field thermal ablation has been used successfully in the treatment of various diseases, benign prostatic hyperplasia, liver and gynecological tumors, among others. In the field of oncology has been shown to improve outcomes diathermy applied in conjunction with chemo and radiation therapy Based on the literature review describing the main uses of the change in temperature as a therapeutic, the main indications for these techniques, as applicable, evidence of its benefits and complications arising from their use.

  16. A study on the measurement of the core body temperature change after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) through MR temperature mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Bok; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Yu, Young; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Joo, Kyu-Ji

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the change in the heat generated during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using a self-manufactured phantom and used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to analyze the change in the temperature of the core body and the tissues surrounding the phantom. In this experiment, the image and the phase image were obtained simultaneously from a gradient echo-based sequence using 1.5-Tesla MRI equipment and a 12-channel head coil. The temperature mapping technique was used to calculate the change in temperature. The regions of interest (ROIs) (ROI 1 - ROI 6) were set with a focus on the area where the RFA was performed, according to the temperature distribution, before monitoring the temperature change for one hour in time intervals of five minutes. The results showed that the temperature change in the ROI with time was largest in the ROI 1 and smallest in the ROI 5. In addition, after the RFA procedure, the temperature decreased from the initial value to 0 °C in one hour. The temperature changes in the core body and the surrounding tissues were confirmed by MRI temperature mapping, which is a noninvasive method.

  17. Elevation in body temperature to fever range enhances and prolongs subsequent responsiveness of macrophages to endotoxin challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Ting Lee

    Full Text Available Macrophages are often considered the sentries in innate immunity, sounding early immunological alarms, a function which speeds the response to infection. Compared to the large volume of studies on regulation of macrophage function by pathogens or cytokines, relatively little attention has been devoted to the role of physical parameters such as temperature. Given that temperature is elevated during fever, a long-recognized cardinal feature of inflammation, it is possible that macrophage function is responsive to thermal signals. To explore this idea, we used LPS to model an aseptic endotoxin-induced inflammatory response in BALB/c mice and found that raising mouse body temperature by mild external heat treatment significantly enhances subsequent LPS-induced release of TNF-α into the peritoneal fluid. It also reprograms macrophages, resulting in sustained subsequent responsiveness to LPS, i.e., this treatment reduces "endotoxin tolerance" in vitro and in vivo. At the molecular level, elevating body temperature of mice results in a increase in LPS-induced downstream signaling including enhanced phosphorylation of IKK and IκB, NF-κB nuclear translocation and binding to the TNF-α promoter in macrophages upon secondary stimulation. Mild heat treatment also induces expression of HSP70 and use of HSP70 inhibitors (KNK437 or Pifithrin-µ largely abrogates the ability of the thermal treatment to enhance TNF-α, suggesting that the induction of HSP70 is important for mediation of thermal effects on macrophage function. Collectively, these results support the idea that there has been integration between the evolution of body temperature regulation and macrophage function that could help to explain the known survival benefits of fever in organisms following infection.

  18. Speed over efficiency: locusts select body temperatures that favour growth rate over efficient nutrient utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Gabriel A; Clissold, Fiona J; Mayntz, David;

    2009-01-01

    Ectotherms have evolved preferences for particular body temperatures, but the nutritional and life-history consequences of such temperature preferences are not well understood. We measured thermal preferences in Locusta migratoria (migratory locusts) and used a multi-factorial experimental design...

  19. Variations of body temperature and metabolism during entrance into cold lethargy in the bat Myotis myotis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldmaier, Gerhard

    1970-01-01

    Bats of temperate zones which hibernate during winter become cold-lethargic during their diurnal rest time even in summer. At the end of their nocturnal activity period they show a drop in body temperature close to ambient temperature (M. myotis, cf. Pohl, 1961). This takes place periodically even i

  20. Growth-Blocking Peptides As Nutrition-Sensitive Signals for Insulin Secretion and Body Size Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Takashi; Mirth, Christen K

    2016-02-01

    In Drosophila, the fat body, functionally equivalent to the mammalian liver and adipocytes, plays a central role in regulating systemic growth in response to nutrition. The fat body senses intracellular amino acids through Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling, and produces an unidentified humoral factor(s) to regulate insulin-like peptide (ILP) synthesis and/or secretion in the insulin-producing cells. Here, we find that two peptides, Growth-Blocking Peptide (GBP1) and CG11395 (GBP2), are produced in the fat body in response to amino acids and TOR signaling. Reducing the expression of GBP1 and GBP2 (GBPs) specifically in the fat body results in smaller body size due to reduced growth rate. In addition, we found that GBPs stimulate ILP secretion from the insulin-producing cells, either directly or indirectly, thereby increasing insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling activity throughout the body. Our findings fill an important gap in our understanding of how the fat body transmits nutritional information to the insulin producing cells to control body size. PMID:26928023

  1. Thermal insulation and body temperature wearing a thermal swimsuit during water immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Hanai, Atsuko; Yokoyama, Shintaro; Nomura, Takeo

    2006-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a thermal swimsuit on body temperatures, thermoregulatory responses and thermal insulation during 60 min water immersion at rest. Ten healthy male subjects wearing either thermal swimsuits or normal swimsuits were immersed in water (26 degrees C or 29 degrees C). Esophageal temperature, skin temperatures and oxygen consumption were measured during the experiments. Metabolic heat production was calculated from oxygen consumption. Heat loss from skin to the water was calculated from the metabolic heat production and the change in mean body temperature during water immersion. Total insulation and tissue insulation were estimated by dividing the temperature difference between the esophagus and the water or the esophagus and the skin with heat loss from the skin. Esophageal temperature with a thermal swimsuit was higher than that with a normal swimsuit at the end of immersion in both water temperature conditions (pinsulation with the thermal swimsuit was higher than that with a normal swimsuit due to insulation of the suit at both water temperatures (pinsulation was similar in all four conditions, but significantly higher with the thermal swimsuit in both water temperature conditions (pinsulation and reduce heat loss from the skin. Therefore, subjects with thermal swimsuits can maintain higher body temperatures than with a normal swimsuit and reduce shivering thermo-genesis.

  2. Agreement between auricular and rectal measurements of body temperature in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Marlos G; Carareto, Roberta; Pereira-Junior, Valdo A; Aquino, Monally C C

    2013-04-01

    Measurement of body temperature is a routine part of the clinical assessment of a patient. However, this procedure may be time-consuming and stressful to most animals because the standard site of temperature acquisition remains the rectal mucosa. Although an increasing number of clinicians have been using auricular temperature to estimate core body temperature, evidence is still lacking regarding agreement between these two methods in cats. In this investigation, we evaluated the agreement between temperatures measured in the rectum and ear in 29 healthy cats over a 2-week period. Temperatures were measured in the rectum (using digital and mercury-in-glass thermometers) and ear once a day for 14 consecutive days, producing 406 temperature readings for each thermometer. Mean temperature and confidence intervals were similar between methods, and Bland-Altman plots showed small biases and narrow limits of agreement acceptable for clinical purposes. The interobserver variability was also checked, which indicated a strong correlation between two near-simultaneous temperature readings. Results are consistent with auricular thermometry being a reliable alternative to rectal thermometry for assessing core body temperature in healthy cats.

  3. Estrogen: a master regulator of bioenergetic systems in the brain and body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettberg, Jamaica R; Yao, Jia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen is a fundamental regulator of the metabolic system of the female brain and body. Within the brain, estrogen regulates glucose transport, aerobic glycolysis, and mitochondrial function to generate ATP. In the body, estrogen protects against adiposity, insulin resistance, and type II diabetes, and regulates energy intake and expenditure. During menopause, decline in circulating estrogen is coincident with decline in brain bioenergetics and shift towards a metabolically compromised phenotype. Compensatory bioenergetic adaptations, or lack thereof, to estrogen loss could determine risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Estrogen coordinates brain and body metabolism, such that peripheral metabolic state can indicate bioenergetic status of the brain. By generating biomarker profiles that encompass peripheral metabolic changes occurring with menopause, individual risk profiles for decreased brain bioenergetics and cognitive decline can be created. Biomarker profiles could identify women at risk while also serving as indicators of efficacy of hormone therapy or other preventative interventions. PMID:23994581

  4. Perceived intensity of peripheral thermal stimuli is independent of internal body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, G D

    1976-12-01

    Four adult male human subjects were tested under three conditions of internal body temperature: hypothermia, normal, and hyperthermia. Under each of these conditions, they judged the intensity (degree of warmness or coolness) and the hedonic quality (degree of pleasantness or unpleasantness) of a series of stimuli ranging from hot to cold. The results showed that whereas hedonic quality is greatly influenced by the value of internal body temperature, the perception of warmness or coolness is independent of internal temperature and dependent only on peripheral stimulation.

  5. Influence of body temperature on the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Tino Hoffmann

    1999-01-01

    the influence of rate of heat storage (0.10 vs. 0.05°C/min induced by a water-perfused jacket), four cyclists performed two additional exercise bouts, starting with Tes of 37.0°C. Despite different initial temperatures, all subjects fatigued at an identical level of hyperthermia (Tes = 40.1-40.2°C, muscle...... (all P muscle temperature (40.1-40.3 and 40.7-40.9°C, respectively), but with significantly different skin temperature (38.4 ± 0.4 vs. 35.6 ± 0.2°C during high vs. low rate of heat storage......We investigated whether fatigue during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments occurred at the same critical level of hyperthermia when the initial value and the rate of increase in body temperature are altered. To examine the effect of initial body temperature [esophageal temperature...

  6. Theoretical study on the inverse modeling of deep body temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the theoretical aspects of monitoring the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse modeling method. A two-dimensional model was built based on anatomical structure to simulate the human abdomen. By integrating biophysical and physiological information, the deep body temperature distribution was estimated from cutaneous surface temperature measurements using an inverse quasilinear method. Simulations were conducted with and without the heat effect of blood perfusion in the muscle and skin layers. The results of the simulations showed consistently that the noise characteristics and arrangement of the temperature sensors were the major factors affecting the accuracy of the inverse solution. With temperature sensors of 0.05 °C systematic error and an optimized 16-sensor arrangement, the inverse method could estimate the deep body temperature distribution with an average absolute error of less than 0.20 °C. The results of this theoretical study suggest that it is possible to reconstruct the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse method and that this approach merits further investigation. (paper)

  7. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on the ventilatory response to rising body temperature during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Keiji; Kawashima, Takayo; Suzuki, Yuichi

    2012-07-01

    To examine the effect of menstrual cycle on the ventilatory sensitivity to rising body temperature, ten healthy women exercised for ~60 min on a cycle ergometer at 50% of peak oxygen uptake during the follicular and luteal phases of their cycle. Esophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, mean body temperature, minute ventilation, and tidal volume were all significantly higher at baseline and during exercise in the luteal phase than the follicular phase. On the other hand, end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide was significantly lower during exercise in the luteal phase than the follicular phase. Plotting ventilatory parameters against esophageal temperature revealed there to be no significant menstrual cycle-related differences in the slopes or intercepts of the regression lines, although minute ventilation and tidal volume did significantly differ during exercise with mild hyperthermia. To evaluate the cutaneous vasodilatory response, relative laser-Doppler flowmetry values were plotted against mean body temperature, which revealed that the mean body temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was significantly higher in the luteal phase than the follicular phase, but there were no significant differences in the sensitivity or peak values. These results suggest that the menstrual cycle phase influences the cutaneous vasodilatory response during exercise and the ventilatory response at rest and during exercise with mild hyperthermia, but it does not influence ventilatory responses during exercise with moderate hyperthermia. PMID:22604882

  8. Theoretical study on the inverse modeling of deep body temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated the theoretical aspects of monitoring the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse modeling method. A two-dimensional model was built based on anatomical structure to simulate the human abdomen. By integrating biophysical and physiological information, the deep body temperature distribution was estimated from cutaneous surface temperature measurements using an inverse quasilinear method. Simulations were conducted with and without the heat effect of blood perfusion in the muscle and skin layers. The results of the simulations showed consistently that the noise characteristics and arrangement of the temperature sensors were the major factors affecting the accuracy of the inverse solution. With temperature sensors of 0.05 °C systematic error and an optimized 16-sensor arrangement, the inverse method could estimate the deep body temperature distribution with an average absolute error of less than 0.20 °C. The results of this theoretical study suggest that it is possible to reconstruct the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse method and that this approach merits further investigation.

  9. The effect of water temperature on the human body and the swimming effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERAFEIM ALEXIOU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although many research papers have dealt with the influence of environmental temperature on the various Human body functions during exercise in land, a few only informations exist for the equivalent alterations in water temperatures during immersion and swimming. The present preview research paper is referred on this subject. During swimming in the normal water temperature 26° ± 1° C (63, the functions of the human body respond regularly and the performance of swimmers tends to be improved. However, during swimming in cold water critical differences appear in human functions, such as bradycardia, angiospasm, hyperventilation and adaptations of thermoregulatory mechanism which influence the swimming performance and the life itself. Especially in very cold water temperature the disturbances of the cardiovascular system may lead in critical arrhythmia or sudden death. The cold water temperature, however, influences the kinetic and energy behavior related to the reduction of swimmers performance because of its possible influence on the neuromuscular function. In the increased water temperature up to 28° C appears tachycardia, vasodilation and other alternations which aim to better thermoregulation. The swimmers records are possibly equivalent with a tendency to be improved, to the records in normal temperature of championships 26° C and the increased temperature mainly in the speed events (3. Therefore, there is a differentiation on swimmers performances due to water temperature declination from normal. Also, body functions change during water immersion.

  10. Body temperature of the parasitic wasp Pimpla turionellae (Hymenoptera) during host location by vibrational sounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroder, Stefan; Samietz, Jörg; Stabentheiner, Anton; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-03-01

    The pupal parasitoid Pimpla turionellae (L.) uses self-produced vibrations transmitted on the plant substrate, so-called vibrational sounding, to locate immobile concealed pupal hosts. The wasps are able to use vibrational sounding reliably over a broad range of ambient temperatures and even show an increased signal frequency and intensity at low temperatures. The present study investigates how control of body temperature in the wasps by endothermic mechanisms may facilitate host location under changing thermal environments. Insect body temperature is measured with real-time IR thermography on plant-stem models at temperature treatments of 10, 18, 26 and 30 °C, whereas behaviour is recorded with respect to vibrational host location. The results reveal a low-level endothermy that likely interferes with vibrational sound production because it occurs only in nonsearching females. At the lowest temperature of 10 °C, the thoracic temperature is 1.15 °C warmer than the ambient surface temperature whereas, at the high temperatures of 26 and 30 ° C, the wasps cool down their thorax by 0.29 and 0.47 °C, respectively, and their head by 0.45 and 0.61 °C below ambient surface temperature. By contrast, regardless of ambient temperature, searching females always have a slightly elevated body temperature of at most 0.30 °C above the ambient surface temperature. Behavioural observations indicate that searching females interrupt host location more frequently at suboptimal temperatures, presumably due to the requirements of thermoregulation. It is assumed that both mechanisms, producing vibrations for host location and low-level endothermy, are located in the thorax. Endothermy by thoracic muscle work probably disturbs signal structure of vibrational sounding, so the processes cannot be used at the same time. PMID:22140295

  11. Influence of winter temperature and simulated climate change on body mass and fat body depletion during diapause in adults of the solitary bee, Osmia rufa (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliszkiewicz, Monika; Giejdasz, Karol; Wasielewski, Oskar; Krishnan, Natraj

    2012-12-01

    The influence of simulated climate change on body weight and depletion of fat body reserves was studied during diapause in the European solitary bee Osmia rufa L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Insects (females) were reared and collected from outdoor nests from September to March. One cohort of females was weighed and dissected immediately for analyses, whereas another cohort was subjected to simulated warmer temperature (15°C for 7 d) before analyses. A gradual decline in body mass and fat body content was recorded with declining temperatures from September to January in female bees from natural conditions. Temperature increased gradually from January to March with a further decline in body mass and fat body content. The fat body development index dropped from five in September-October (≈ 89% individuals) to four for the period from November to February (≈ 84% individuals) and further to three in March (95% individuals) before emergence. Simulated warmer winter temperature also resulted in a similar decline in body weight and fat body content; however, body weight and fat body content declined faster. The fat body development index dropped to three in December in the majority of individuals and continued at this level until March just before emergence. Taken together, our data indicate an earlier depletion of fat body reserves under simulated climate change conditions that may impact ovarian development and reproductive fitness in O. rufa. PMID:23321111

  12. Core and body surface temperatures of nesting leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Thomas J; McCafferty, Dominic J; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2015-07-01

    Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are the largest species of marine turtle and the fourth most massive extant reptile. In temperate waters they maintain body temperatures higher than surrounding seawater through a combination of insulation, physiological, and behavioural adaptations. Nesting involves physical activity in addition to contact with warm sand and air, potentially presenting thermal challenges in the absence of the cooling effect of water, and data are lacking with which to understand their nesting thermal biology. Using non-contact methods (thermal imaging and infrared thermometry) to avoid any stress-related effects, we investigated core and surface temperature during nesting. The mean±SE core temperature was 31.4±0.05°C (newly emerged eggs) and was not correlated with environmental conditions on the nesting beach. Core temperature of leatherbacks was greater than that of hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) nesting at a nearby colony, 30.0±0.13°C. Body surface temperatures of leatherbacks showed regional variation, the lateral and dorsal regions of the head were warmest while the carapace was the coolest surface. Surface temperature increased during the early nesting phases, then levelled off or decreased during later phases with the rates of change varying between body regions. Body region, behavioural phase of nesting and air temperature were found to be the best predictors of surface temperature. Regional variation in surface temperature were likely due to alterations in blood supply, and temporal changes in local muscular activity of flippers during the different phases of nesting. Heat exchange from the upper surface of the turtle was dominated by radiative heat loss from all body regions and small convective heat gains to the carapace and front flippers. PMID:25965013

  13. Locatable-body temperature monitoring based on semi-active UHF RFID tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangwei; Mao, Luhong; Chen, Liying; Xie, Sheng

    2014-03-26

    This paper presents the use of radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology for the real-time remote monitoring of body temperature, while an associated program can determine the location of the body carrying the respective sensor. The RFID chip's internal integrated temperature sensor is used for both the human-body temperature detection and as a measurement device, while using radio-frequency communication to broadcast the temperature information. The adopted RFID location technology makes use of reference tags together with a nearest neighbor localization algorithm and a multiple-antenna time-division multiplexing location system. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed for collecting temperature and location data for the data fusion by using RFID protocols. With a puppy as test object, temperature detection and localization experiments were carried out. The measured results show that the applied method, when using a mercury thermometer for comparison in terms of measuring the temperature of the dog, has a good consistency, with an average temperature error of 0.283 °C. When using the associated program over the area of 12.25 m2, the average location error is of 0.461 m, which verifies the feasibility of the sensor-carrier location by using the proposed program.

  14. Carbon Budget of Bastard Halibut Paralichthys Oliva-eus in Relation to Body Weight and Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    线薇薇; 刘瑞玉; 朱鑫华

    2003-01-01

    The effects of body weight and temperature on the carbon budget of the juvenile bastard halibut, Paralichthys olivaceus , were studied at temperature 13.5, 18, 21.5 and 24 ℃, respectively. The carbon intake, faecal and growth carbon were measured, and the carbon respiration was calculated using the carbon budget equation(CC=GC+FC+RC). The combined relationship between different components of the carbon budget, body weight and temperature could be described by regression equations: CC =1.0206 W 0.8126 e 0.1483 T; G=0.0042 W 1.4096 (-5.11 T 3+285.90 T2-5173.72 T +30314.03); FC =0.0485 W0.7711e 0.1624 T ; UC = 1.4333 W 0.6715e 0.1487 T. Body weight had no significant ffect on the carbon absorption efficiency and the conversion efficiency.

  15. Estrogen receptor-a in medial amygdala neurons regulates body weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrogen receptor–a (ERa) activity in the brain prevents obesity in both males and females. However, the ERa-expressing neural populations that regulate body weight remain to be fully elucidated. Here we showed that single-minded–1 (SIM1) neurons in the medial amygdala (MeA) express abundant levels ...

  16. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Elizabeth J; Narsaiya, Marcus S; Grewal, Savraj S

    2015-12-01

    Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra) in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expression in males increases body size. Although we find that Tra exerts autonomous effects on cell size, we also discovered that Tra expression in the fat body augments female body size in a non cell-autonomous manner. These effects of Tra do not require its only known targets doublesex and fruitless. Instead, Tra expression in the female fat body promotes growth by stimulating the secretion of insulin-like peptides from insulin producing cells in the brain. Our data suggest a model of sex-specific growth in which body size is regulated by a previously unrecognized branch of the sex determination pathway, and identify Tra as a novel link between sex and the conserved insulin signaling pathway. PMID:26710087

  17. A study on the applicability of implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes;

    2010-01-01

    Background The applicability of an electronic monitoring system using microchip transponders for measurement of body temperatures was tested in 6-week-old conventional Danish weaners infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Subcutaneous tissue temperatures obtained by the implantable...... temperature. To test the stability of the monitoring system in a larger group of pigs, transponders were therefore inserted by the left ear base in a subsequent infection experiment with 30 pigs. Results Generally, the microchip transponders measured a subcutaneous tissue temperature, which was about 1º...

  18. Integration of body temperature into the analysis of energy expenditure in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Abreu-Vieira

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: At 22 °C, cold-induced thermogenesis is ∼120% of basal metabolic rate. The higher body temperature during physical activity is due to a higher set point, not simply increased heat generation during exercise. Most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms, with little from fur or fat. Our analysis suggests that the definition of the upper limit of the thermoneutral zone should be re-considered. Measuring body temperature informs interpretation of energy expenditure data and improves the predictiveness and utility of the mouse to model human energy homeostasis.

  19. The Inability to Screen Exhibition Swine for Influenza A Virus Using Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, A S; Nolting, J M; Workman, J D; Cooper, M; Fisher, A E; Marsh, B; Forshey, T

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural fairs create an unconventional animal-human interface that has been associated with swine-to-human transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in recent years. Early detection of IAV-infected pigs at agricultural fairs would allow veterinarians to better protect swine and human health during these swine exhibitions. This study assessed the use of swine body temperature measurement, recorded by infrared and rectal thermometers, as a practical method to detect IAV-infected swine at agricultural fairs. In our first objective, infrared thermometers were used to record the body surface temperature of 1,092 pigs at the time of IAV nasal swab collection at the end of the exhibition period of 55 agricultural fairs. IAV was recovered from 212 (19.4%) pigs, and the difference in mean infrared body temperature measurement of IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs was 0.83°C. In a second objective, snout wipes were collected from 1,948 pigs immediately prior to the unloading of the animals at a single large swine exhibition. Concurrent to the snout wipe collection, owners took the rectal temperatures of his/her pigs. In this case, 47 (2.4%) pigs tested positive for IAV before they entered the swine barn. The mean rectal temperatures differed by only 0.19°C between IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs. The low prevalence of IAV among the pigs upon entry to the fair in the second objective provides evidence that limiting intraspecies spread of IAV during the fairs will likely have significant impacts on the zoonotic transmission. However, in both objectives, the high degree of similarity in the body temperature measurements between the IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs made it impossible to set a diagnostically meaningful cut point to differentiate IAV status of the individual animals. Unfortunately, body temperature measurement cannot be used to accurately screen exhibition swine for IAV.

  20. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD) cycle. The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypetide (VIP) and its receptor (VPAC2) are highly expressed in the SCN. Recent studies indicate that VIPergic signaling plays an essential role in the maintenance of ongoing circadian rhythmicity by synchronizing SCN cells and by maintaining rhythmicity within individual neurons. To further increase the understanding of the role of VPAC2 signaling in circadian regulation, we implanted telemetric devices and simultaneously measured core body temperature, spontaneous activity, and heart rate in a strain of VPAC2-deficient mice and compared these observations with observations made from mice examined by wheel-running activity. The study demonstrates that VPAC2 signaling is necessary for a functional circadian clock driving locomotor activity, core body temperature, and heart rate rhythmicity, since VPAC2-deficient mice lose the rhythms in all three parameters when placed under constant conditions (of either light or darkness). Furthermore, although 24-h rhythms for three parameters are retained in VPAC2-deficient mice during the LD cycle, the temperature rhythm displays markedly altered time course and profile, rising earlier and peaking ∼4-6 h prior to that of wild-type mice. The use of telemetric devices to measure circadian locomotor activity, temperature, and heart rate, together with the classical determination of circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity, raises questions about how representative wheel-running activity may be of other behavioral parameters, especially when animals have altered circadian phenotype.

  1. The Role of Adaptation in Body Load-Regulating Mechanisms During Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttley, Tara; Holt, Christopher; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Body loading is a fundamental parameter that modulates motor output during locomotion, and is especially important for controlling the generation of stepping patterns, dynamic balance, and termination of locomotion. Load receptors that regulate and control posture and stance in locomotion include the Golgi tendon organs and muscle spindles at the hip, knee, and ankle joints, and the Ruffini endings and the Pacinian corpuscles in the soles of the feet. Increased body weight support (BWS) during locomotion results in an immediate reorganization of locomotor control, such as a reduction in stance and double support duration and decreased hip, ankle, and knee angles during the gait cycle. Previous studies on the effect during exposure to increased BWS while walking showed a reduction in lower limb joint angles and gait cycle timing that represents a reorganization of locomotor control. Until now, no studies have investigated how locomotor control responds after a period of exposure to adaptive modification in the body load sensing system. The goal of this research was to determine the adaptive properties of body load-regulating mechanisms in locomotor control during locomotion. We hypothesized that body load-regulating mechanisms contribute to locomotor control, and adaptive changes in these load-regulating mechanisms require reorganization to maintain forward locomotion. Head-torso coordination, lower limb movement patterns, and gait cycle timing were evaluated before and after a 30-minute adaptation session during which subjects walked on a treadmill at 5.4 km/hr with 40% body weight support (BWS). Before and after the adaptation period, head-torso and lower limb 3D kinematic data were obtained while performing a goal directed task during locomotion with 0% BWS using a video-based motion analysis system, and gait cycle timing parameters were collected by foot switches positioned under the heel and toe of the subjects shoes. Subjects showed adaptive modification in

  2. Change in the body temperature of healthy term infant over the first 72 hours of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萌霞; 孙革; NEUBAUERHenning

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To determine the range of body temperature in a group of healthy Chinese term neonates over the first 72 hours of life and to assess the influence of body weight, gestational age and route of delivery.Method: All 200 consecutive cases of neonates delivered at our hospital from March to August 2001 were included in this retrospective study.Temperatures were measured immediately after delivery, after 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 8 hours and 15 hours and on the 2nd and 3rd day. Axillary temperatures ranging from 36.5℃ to 37℃ were regarded as normal. No cases of maternal fever or systemic infection of the newborns were discovered. All infants were discharged in good general condition. Results:The mean rectal temperature at birth was 37.19℃. The lowest average temperature was reached at 1 hour after delivery (36.54℃) with a significant difference between natural delivery (36.48℃) and section (36.59℃) (P<0.05).Temperature subsequently rose to 36.70℃ at 8 hours and 36.78℃ at 15 hours (P<0.05).Hypothermia was seen in 51.8% and hypothermia in 42.5% of the patients.On the 3rd day after delivery, 96% of all temperatures were in the normal range. A significant relation was found between hypothermia and both low birth weight (P<0.001) and low gestational age (P<0.05).Conclusion: The reference range presently used did not include all physiological temperatures in the first 72 hours of life. Considering other factors,such as birth weight, route of delivery,gestational age and body temperature on the 2nd and 3rd day of life, may help to correctly assess the significance of temperatures beyond the reference range.

  3. Change in the body temperature of healthy term infant over the first 72 hours of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng-xia (李萌霞); SUN Ge (孙革); NEUBAUER Henning

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the range of body temperature in a group of healthy Chinese term neonates over the first 72 hours of life and to assess the influence of body weight, gestational age and route of delivery. Method: All 200 consecutive cases of neonates delivered at our hospital from March to August 2001 were included in this retrospective study. Temperatures were measured immediately after delivery, after 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 8 hours and 15 hours and on the 2nd and 3rd day. Axillary temperatures ranging from 36.5 oC to 37 oC were regarded as normal. No cases of maternal fever or systemic infection of the newborns were discovered. All infants were discharged in good general condition. Results: The mean rectal temperature at birth was 37.19 ℃. The lowest average temperature was reached at 1 hour after delivery (36.54 ℃) with a significant difference between natural delivery (36.48 ℃) and section (36.59 ℃) (P<0.05). Temperature subsequently rose to 36.70 ℃ at 8 hours and 36.78 ℃ at 15 hours (P<0.05). Hypothermia was seen in 51.8% and hypothermia in 42.5% of the patients. On the 3rd day after delivery, 96% of all temperatures were in the normal range. A significant relation was found between hypothermia and both low birth weight (P<0.001) and low gestational age (P<0.05). Conclusion: The reference range presently used did not include all physiological temperatures in the first 72 hours of life. Considering other factors, such as birth weight, route of delivery, gestational age and body temperature on the 2nd and 3rd day of life, may help to correctly assess the significance of temperatures beyond the reference range.

  4. Human thermoregulation and measurement of body temperature in exercise and clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chin Leong; Byrne, Chris; Lee, Jason Kw

    2008-04-01

    This review discusses human thermoregulation during exercise and the measurement of body temperature in clinical and exercise settings. The thermoregulatory mechanisms play important roles in maintaining physiological homeostasis during rest and physical exercise. Physical exertion poses a challenge to thermoregulation by causing a substantial increase in metabolic heat production. However, within a non-thermolytic range, the thermoregulatory mechanisms are capable of adapting to sustain physiological functions under these conditions. The central nervous system may also rely on hyperthermia to protect the body from "overheating." Hyperthermia may serve as a self-limiting signal that triggers central inhibition of exercise performance when a temperature threshold is achieved. Exposure to sub-lethal heat stress may also confer tolerance against higher doses of heat stress by inducing the production of heat shock proteins, which protect cells against the thermolytic effects of heat. Advances in body temperature measurement also contribute to research in thermoregulation. Current evidence supports the use of oral temperature measurement in the clinical setting, although it may not be as convenient as tympanic temperature measurement using the infrared temperature scanner. Rectal and oesophagus temperatures are widely accepted surrogate measurements of core temperature (Tc), but they cause discomfort and are less likely to be accepted by users. Gastrointestinal temperature measurement using the ingestible temperature sensor provides an acceptable level of accuracy as a surrogate measure of Tc without causing discomfort to the user. This form of Tc measurement also allows Tc to be measured continuously in the field and has gained wider acceptance in the last decade.

  5. Behavior and survival of Mytilus congeners following episodes of elevated body temperature in air and seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, W Wesley; Somero, George N

    2013-02-01

    Coping with environmental stress may involve combinations of behavioral and physiological responses. We examined potential interactions between adult mussels' simple behavioral repertoire - opening/closing of the shell valves - and thermal stress physiology in common-gardened individuals of three Mytilus congeners found on the West Coast of North America: two native species (M. californianus and M. trossulus) and one invasive species from the Mediterranean (M. galloprovincialis). We first continuously monitored valve behavior over three consecutive days on which body temperatures were gradually increased, either in air or in seawater. A temperature threshold effect was evident between 25 and 33°C in several behavioral measures. Mussels tended to spend much less time with the valves in a sealed position following exposure to 33°C body temperature, especially when exposed in air. This behavior could not be explained by decreases in adductor muscle glycogen (stores of this metabolic fuel actually increased in some scenarios), impacts of forced valve sealing on long-term survival (none observed in a second experiment), or loss of contractile function in the adductor muscles (individuals exhibited as many or more valve adduction movements following elevated body temperature compared with controls). We hypothesize that this reduced propensity to seal the valves following thermal extremes represents avoidance of hypoxia-reoxygenation cycles and concomitant oxidative stress. We further conjecture that prolonged valve gaping following episodes of elevated body temperature may have important ecological consequences by affecting species interactions. We then examined survival over a 90 day period following exposure to elevated body temperature and/or emersion, observing ongoing mortality throughout this monitoring period. Survival varied significantly among species (M. trossulus had the lowest survival) and among experimental contexts (survival was lowest after experiencing

  6. Regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression in the rat carotid body by hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyzyk-Krzeska, M F; Bayliss, D A; Lawson, E E; Millhorn, D E

    1992-04-01

    The activity (Vmax) of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; EC 1.14.16.2), the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines, is increased in carotid body, superior cervical ganglion, and the adrenal medulla during hypoxia (i.e., reduced PaO2). The present study was undertaken to determine if the increase in TH activity in these tissues during hypoxia is regulated at the level of TH mRNA. Adult rats were exposed to hypoxia (10% O2) or room air for periods lasting from 1 to 48 h. The carotid bodies, superior cervical ganglia, and adrenals were removed and processed for in situ hybridization using 35S-labeled oligonucleotide probes. The concentration of TH mRNA was increased by hypoxia at all time points in carotid body type I cells, but not in cells of either superior cervical ganglion or adrenal medulla. The increase in TH mRNA in carotid body during hypoxia did not require innervation of the carotid body or intact adrenal glands. In addition, hypercapnia, another physiological stimulus of carotid body activity, failed to induce an increase in TH mRNA in type I cells. Our findings suggest that hypoxia stimulates TH gene expression in the carotid body by a mechanism that is intrinsic to type I cells. PMID:1347783

  7. Mechanically Enhanced Liquid Interfaces at Human Body Temperature Using Thermosensitive Methylated Nanocrystalline Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuble, N; Geue, T; Kuster, S; Adamcik, J; Mezzenga, R; Windhab, E J; Fischer, P

    2016-02-01

    The mechanical performance of materials at oil/water interfaces after consumption is a key factor affecting hydrophobic drug release. In this study, we methylated the surface of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) by mercerization and dimethyl sulfate exposure to produce thermosensitive biopolymers. These methylated NCC (metNCC) were used to investigate interfacial thermogelation at air/water and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)/water interfaces at body temperature. In contrast to bulk fluid dynamics, elastic layers were formed at room temperature, and elasticity increased significantly at body temperature, which was measured by interfacial shear and dilatational rheology in situ. This unique phenomenon depends on solvent quality, temperature, and polymer concentration at interfaces. Thus, by adjusting the degree of hydrophobicity of metNCC, the interfacial elasticity and thermogelation of the interfaces could be varied. In general, these new materials (metNCC) formed more brittle interfacial layers compared to commercial methylcellulose (MC A15). Thermogelation of methylcellulose promotes attractive intermolecular forces, which were reflected in a change in self-assembly of metNCC at the interface. As a consequence, layer thickness and density increased as a function of temperature. These effects were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the displaced interface and confirmed by neutron reflection. The substantial structural and mechanical change of methylcellulose interfaces at body temperature represents a controllable encapsulation parameter allowing optimization of lipid-based drug formulations. PMID:26779953

  8. Mechanically Enhanced Liquid Interfaces at Human Body Temperature Using Thermosensitive Methylated Nanocrystalline Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuble, N; Geue, T; Kuster, S; Adamcik, J; Mezzenga, R; Windhab, E J; Fischer, P

    2016-02-01

    The mechanical performance of materials at oil/water interfaces after consumption is a key factor affecting hydrophobic drug release. In this study, we methylated the surface of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) by mercerization and dimethyl sulfate exposure to produce thermosensitive biopolymers. These methylated NCC (metNCC) were used to investigate interfacial thermogelation at air/water and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)/water interfaces at body temperature. In contrast to bulk fluid dynamics, elastic layers were formed at room temperature, and elasticity increased significantly at body temperature, which was measured by interfacial shear and dilatational rheology in situ. This unique phenomenon depends on solvent quality, temperature, and polymer concentration at interfaces. Thus, by adjusting the degree of hydrophobicity of metNCC, the interfacial elasticity and thermogelation of the interfaces could be varied. In general, these new materials (metNCC) formed more brittle interfacial layers compared to commercial methylcellulose (MC A15). Thermogelation of methylcellulose promotes attractive intermolecular forces, which were reflected in a change in self-assembly of metNCC at the interface. As a consequence, layer thickness and density increased as a function of temperature. These effects were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the displaced interface and confirmed by neutron reflection. The substantial structural and mechanical change of methylcellulose interfaces at body temperature represents a controllable encapsulation parameter allowing optimization of lipid-based drug formulations.

  9. Comparison of estimated core body temperature measured with the BioHarness and rectal temperature under several heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; DiLeo, Travis; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and measuring core body temperature is important to prevent or minimize physiological strain and cognitive dysfunction for workers such as first responders (e.g., firefighters) and military personnel. The purpose of this study is to compare estimated core body temperature (Tco-est), determined by heart rate (HR) data from a wearable chest strap physiology monitor, to standard rectal thermometry (Tre) under different conditions.  Tco-est and Tre measurements were obtained in thermoneutral and heat stress conditions (high temperature and relative humidity) during four different experiments including treadmill exercise, cycling exercise, passive heat stress, and treadmill exercise while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).  Overall, the mean Tco-est did not differ significantly from Tre across the four conditions. During exercise at low-moderate work rates under heat stress conditions, Tco-est was consistently higher than Tre at all-time points. Tco-est underestimated temperature compared to Tre at rest in heat stress conditions and at a low work rate under heat stress while wearing PPE. The mean differences between the two measurements ranged from -0.1 ± 0.4 to 0.3 ± 0.4°C and Tco-est correlated well with HR (r = 0.795 - 0.849) and mean body temperature (r = 0.637 - 0.861).  These results indicate that, the comparison of Tco-est to Tre may result in over- or underestimation which could possibly lead to heat-related illness during monitoring in certain conditions. Modifications to the current algorithm should be considered to address such issues. PMID:26954265

  10. Comparison of estimated core body temperature measured with the BioHarness and rectal temperature under several heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; DiLeo, Travis; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and measuring core body temperature is important to prevent or minimize physiological strain and cognitive dysfunction for workers such as first responders (e.g., firefighters) and military personnel. The purpose of this study is to compare estimated core body temperature (Tco-est), determined by heart rate (HR) data from a wearable chest strap physiology monitor, to standard rectal thermometry (Tre) under different conditions.  Tco-est and Tre measurements were obtained in thermoneutral and heat stress conditions (high temperature and relative humidity) during four different experiments including treadmill exercise, cycling exercise, passive heat stress, and treadmill exercise while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).  Overall, the mean Tco-est did not differ significantly from Tre across the four conditions. During exercise at low-moderate work rates under heat stress conditions, Tco-est was consistently higher than Tre at all-time points. Tco-est underestimated temperature compared to Tre at rest in heat stress conditions and at a low work rate under heat stress while wearing PPE. The mean differences between the two measurements ranged from -0.1 ± 0.4 to 0.3 ± 0.4°C and Tco-est correlated well with HR (r = 0.795 - 0.849) and mean body temperature (r = 0.637 - 0.861).  These results indicate that, the comparison of Tco-est to Tre may result in over- or underestimation which could possibly lead to heat-related illness during monitoring in certain conditions. Modifications to the current algorithm should be considered to address such issues.

  11. Regulation of Caenorhabditis elegans body size and male tail development by the novel gene lon-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korswagen Hendrik C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In C. elegans and other nematode species, body size is determined by the composition of the extracellular cuticle as well as by the nuclear DNA content of the underlying hypodermis. Mutants that are defective in these processes can exhibit either a short or a long body size phenotype. Several mutations that give a long body size (Lon phenotype have been characterized and found to be regulated by the DBL-1/TGF-β pathway, that controls post-embryonic growth and male tail development. Results Here we characterize a novel gene affecting body size. lon-8 encodes a secreted product of the hypodermis that is highly conserved in Rhabditid nematodes. lon-8 regulates larval elongation as well as male tail development. In both processes, lon-8 appears to function independently of the Sma/Mab pathway. Rather, lon-8 genetically interacts with dpy-11 and dpy-18, which encode cuticle collagen modifying enzymes. Conclusion The novel gene lon-8 encodes a secreted product of the hypodermis that controls body size and male ray morphology in C. elegans. lon-8 genetically interacts with enzymes that affect the composition of the cuticle.

  12. Reduction of body temperature governs neutrophil retention in hibernating and nonhibernating animals by margination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Dugbartey, George J.; Boerema, Ate S.; Talaei, Fatemeh; Herwig, Annika; Goris, Maaike; van Buiten, Azuwerus; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Carey, Hannah V.; Henning, Robert H.; Kroese, Frans G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Low body temperature leads to decrease of circulating neutrophils due to margination in hibernating and nonhibernating animals. Hibernation consists of periods of low metabolism, called torpor, interspersed by euthermic arousal periods. During deep and daily (shallow) torpor, the number of circulati

  13. Development of an Anti-Theft Device using Motion Detection and Body Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhowel Dellosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available –The researcher aimed to design, assemble and determine the performance of the anti-theft device using motion detection and body temperature. The study utilized developmental design to observe the functionality of the device. Study showed that the anti-theft device can detect motion from a moving object for those with body temperature like human being, animals. A signal from the sensor circuits will trigger the receiver circuit to produce an audible sound that served as alarm. It was also found out that the output of the study is accurate in terms of detecting moving objects with body temperature during day and night times. The researchers formulated an evaluation instrument to determine its performance. Results showed that the device had a good performance and acceptable in terms of functionality. It is strongly recommended that further studies be conducted to enrich the anti-theft device using motion detection and body temperature in a controlled environment like museum and banks to determine the effectiveness of the integration of the anti-theft device.

  14. Selective SWS suppression does not affect the time course of core body temperature in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, Domien G.M.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    1992-01-01

    In eight healthy middle-aged men, sleep and core body temperature were recorded under baseline conditions, during all-night SWS suppression by acoustic stimulation, and during undisturbed recovery sleep. SWS suppression resulted in a marked reduction of sleep stages 3 and 4 but did not affect the ti

  15. A body temperature model for lizards as estimated from the thermal environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fei, T.; Skidmore, A.K.; Venus, V.; Wang, T.; Schlerf, M.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Overjijk, van S.; Bian, B.M.; Liu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    A physically based model was built to predict the transient body temperature of lizards in a thermally heterogeneous environment. Six heat transfer terms were taken into account in this model: solar radiation, convective heat flow, longwave radiation, conductive heat flow, metabolic heat gain and re

  16. Intracerebral implantation of carbachol in the rat: Its effect on water intake and body temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, S.G.Th.

    1972-01-01

    Intracerebral carbachol produces a fall in body temperature as well as drinking in the rat when implanted in various subcortical structures, related to the emotion-motivation limbic circuit. These effects are due to a central cholinergic stimulation since they can be prevented by the systemic admini

  17. Endogenous and exogenous components in the circadian variation of core body temperature in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddinga, AE; Beersma, DGM; VandenHoofdakker, RH

    1997-01-01

    Core body temperature is predominantly modulated by endogenous and exogenous components. In the present study we tested whether these two components can be reliably assessed in a protocol which lasts for only 120 h. In this so-called forced desynchrony protocol, 12 healthy male subjects (age 23.7 +/

  18. Differences in oral temperature and body shape in two populations with different propensities for obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, B; Weyer, C; Bogardus, C;

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature is a function of heat production and heat dissipation. Substantial interindividual variability has been reported in healthy humans. We hypothesized that Pima Indians, a population with a high prevalence of abdominal obesity, may have a lower surface area relative to volume, that is...

  19. Simultaneous collection of body temperature and activity data in burrowing mammals : a new technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, Ryan A.; Hut, Roelof A.; Barnes, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    Integrating physiological and behavioral observations into ecological field studies of animals can provide novel insights into relationships among animal behavior, physiology, and ecology. We describe and evaluate a new technique for simultaneously collecting body temperature (T-b) and burrow use da

  20. A Survey on Temperature-Aware Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangman Moh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the elderly population in the world and the rising cost of healthcare impose big issues for healthcare and medical monitoring. A Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN is comprised of small sensor nodes attached inside, on or around a human body, the main purpose of which is to monitor the functions and surroundings of the human body. However, the heat generated by the node’s circuitry and antenna could cause damage to the human tissue. Therefore, in designing a routing protocol for WBSNs, it is important to reduce the heat by incorporating temperature into the routing metric. The main contribution of this paper is to survey existing temperature-aware routing protocols that have been proposed for WBSNs. In this paper, we present a brief overview of WBSNs, review the existing routing protocols comparatively and discuss challenging open issues in the design of routing protocols.

  1. Grain-scale thermoelastic stresses and spatiotemporal temperature gradients on airless bodies, implications for rock breakdown

    CERN Document Server

    Molaro, Jamie L; Langer, Steve A

    2015-01-01

    Thermomechanical processes such as fatigue and shock have been suggested to cause and contribute to rock breakdown on Earth, and on other planetary bodies, particularly airless bodies in the inner solar system. In this study, we modeled grain-scale stresses induced by diurnal temperature variations on simple microstructures made of pyroxene and plagioclase on various solar system bodies. We found that a heterogeneous microstructure on the Moon experiences peak tensile stresses on the order of 100 MPa. The stresses induced are controlled by the coefficient of thermal expansion and Young's modulus of the mineral constituents, and the average stress within the microstructure is determined by relative volume of each mineral. Amplification of stresses occurs at surface-parallel boundaries between adjacent mineral grains and at the tips of pore spaces. We also found that microscopic spatial and temporal surface temperature gradients do not correlate with high stresses, making them inappropriate proxies for investig...

  2. Body core temperature of rats subjected to daily exercise limited to a fixed time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shido, O.; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Sakurada, Sotaro; Kaneko, Yoshiko; Nagasaka, Tetsuo

    Several timed daily environmental cues alter the pattern of nycthemeral variations in body core temperature in rodents. The present study investigated the effect of timed exercise on variations of daily body core temperature. Male rats were housed in cages with a running wheel at an ambient temperature of 24° C with a 12:12 h light/dark cycle. Timed daily exercise rats (TEX) were allowed access to the wheel for 6 h in the last half of the dark phase, freely exercising rats (FEX) could run at any time, and sedentary rats (NEX) were not allowed to run. After a 3-week exercise period, all animals were denied access to the wheel. The intraabdominal temperatures (Tab) and spontaneous activities of rats were measured for 6 days after the exercise period. The Tab values of the TEX rats were significantly higher than those of the other two groups only in the last half of the dark phase, while Tab in the FEX and NEX rats showed no significant difference. The specific Tab changes in the TEX rats lasted for 2 days after the exercise period. Spontaneous activity levels were higher in the TEX rats than the FEX and NEX rats in the last half of the dark phase for 1 day after the exercise period. The results suggest that daily exercise limited to a fixed time per day modifies nycthemeral variations of body core temperature in rats so that the temperature increases during the period when the animals had previously exercised. Such a rise in body core temperature is partly attributed to an increase in the spontaneous activity level.

  3. Mechanisms of temperature-dependent swimming: the importance of physics, physiology and body size in determining protist swimming speed

    OpenAIRE

    Beveridge, Oliver S; Petchey, Owen L; Humphries, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Body temperatures and thus physiological rates of poikilothermic organisms are determined by environmental temperature. The power an organism has available for swimming is largely dependent on physiological rates and thus body temperature. However, retarding forces such as drag are contingent on the temperature-dependent physical properties of water and on an organism’s size. Consequently, the swimming ability of poikilotherms is highly temperature dependent. The importance of the te...

  4. Infrared thermoimages display of body surface temperature reaction in experimental cholecystitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Zhang; Yuan-Gen Zhu; Shu-You Wang; Hui-Min Ma; Yan-Yan Ye; Wei-Xing Fu; Wei-Guo Hu

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To display the thermoirnages of the body surface inexperimental cholecystitis, to observe the body surfacetemperature reaction in visceral disorders, and to study if the theory of body surface-viscera correlation is true and the mechanism of temperature changes along the meridians. METHODS: By injecting bacteria ssuspension into the stricturebile duct and gallbladder, 21 rabbits were prepared as acutepyogenic cholangiocholecystitis models, with another 8rabbits prepared by the same process except withoutinjection of bacteria suspension as control. The body surfaceinfrared thermoimages were continuously observed on thehair shaven rabbit skin with AGA-782 thermovision 24 hbefore, 1-11 d after and (2,3 wk) 4 wk after the operation witha total of over 10 records of thermoimages.RESULTS: Twelve cases out of 21 rabbits with cholecystitisrevealed bi-lsteral longitudinal high temperature lines in itstrunk; with negative findings in the control group. The high-temperature line appeared on d l-d2, first in the right trunk,after the preparation of the model, about 7 d after the modelpreparation, the lines appeared at the left side too,persisting for 4 wk. The hyper-temperature line revealed 1.1-2.7 ℃ higher than before the model preparation, 0.7-2.5 ℃higher than the surrounding skin. The length of the hightemperature line might reach a half length of the body trunk,or as long as the whole body itself.CONCLUSION: The appearance of the longitudinal hightemperature lines st the lateral aspects of the trunk in theexperimental group is directly bound up with theexperimental animals pyogenic cholecystitis, with itsrunning course quite similar to that of the GallbladderChannel of Foot Shaoyang, but different to the zones ofhyperalgesia and site of referred pain in cholecystitis.

  5. The Analysis of Fiber Sensor of Temperature Field Disturbance by Human Body Part Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Dvorak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of this sensor function is based on polarization maintaining fiber (PMF sensitivity during excitation of both two polarization modes. This excitation is caused by temperature change, when absorbing thermal radiation. This mechanism is used for detection of temperature field disturbance as an indicator. In the case described below, attention was devoted to temperature field disturbance on a part of the human body. Thus this sensor system could be used for protection of some entity. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of PMF to radiating heat, the space configuration and time response.

  6. Influence of body temperature on the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, J; Teller, C; Andersen, S L; Jensen, F B; Hyldig, T; Nielsen, B

    1999-03-01

    We investigated whether fatigue during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments occurred at the same critical level of hyperthermia when the initial value and the rate of increase in body temperature are altered. To examine the effect of initial body temperature [esophageal temperature (Tes) = 35.9 +/- 0.2, 37.4 +/- 0. 1, or 38.2 +/- 0.1 (SE) degrees C induced by 30 min of water immersion], seven cyclists (maximal O2 uptake = 5.1 +/- 0.1 l/min) performed three randomly assigned bouts of cycle ergometer exercise (60% maximal O2 uptake) in the heat (40 degrees C) until volitional exhaustion. To determine the influence of rate of heat storage (0.10 vs. 0.05 degrees C/min induced by a water-perfused jacket), four cyclists performed two additional exercise bouts, starting with Tes of 37.0 degrees C. Despite different initial temperatures, all subjects fatigued at an identical level of hyperthermia (Tes = 40. 1-40.2 degrees C, muscle temperature = 40.7-40.9 degrees C, skin temperature = 37.0-37.2 degrees C) and cardiovascular strain (heart rate = 196-198 beats/min, cardiac output = 19.9-20.8 l/min). Time to exhaustion was inversely related to the initial body temperature: 63 +/- 3, 46 +/- 3, and 28 +/- 2 min with initial Tes of approximately 36, 37, and 38 degrees C, respectively (all P heat storage, all subjects reached exhaustion at similar Tes and muscle temperature (40.1-40.3 and 40. 7-40.9 degrees C, respectively), but with significantly different skin temperature (38.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 35.6 +/- 0.2 degrees C during high vs. low rate of heat storage, respectively, P heat storage (31 +/- 4 vs. 56 +/- 11 min, respectively, P stroke volume paralleled the rise in core temperature (36-40 degrees C), with skin blood flow plateauing at Tes of approximately 38 degrees C. These results demonstrate that high internal body temperature per se causes fatigue in trained subjects during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments. Furthermore, time to exhaustion in

  7. Influence of ambient temperature on whole body and segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, G.; Bausch, R.; Ismail, A. H.; Cordes, A.; Pikkemaat, R.; Leonhardt, S.

    2010-04-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurements are easy to implement and could be used for continuous monitoring. However, several factors (e.g. environment temperature) influence the measurements limiting the accuracy of the technology. Changes in skin temperature produced by changes in ambient temperature are related with changes in skin blood flow and skin impedance. It is assumed that skin impedance change is responsible for the error observed in whole body and segmental measurements. Measurements including body parts more distant from the torso seem to be more affected. In the present article skin and segment impedance have been performed on healthy subjects under extreme changes in environment temperature (13-39 °C). A commercial BIS device with a range between 5 kHz and 1 MHz has been used for the measurements. The results indicate that not only skin impedance, but also impedance of deeper tissue (e.g. muscle) may be responsible for the influence of environment temperature on BIS measurements. Segmental (knee-to-knee) BIS measurements show a relative change of only 2 %, while forearm and whole body impedance changed 14 % and 8 % respectively.

  8. Do fentanyl and morphine influence body temperature after severe burn injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Steven Alexander; Beers, Ryan J; Lentz, Christopher W

    2011-01-01

    Fentanyl lacks the antiinflammatory properties of morphine. Morphine attenuates the inflammatory response through differential stimulation of μ-receptor subtypes. Patients who receive morphine during coronary artery bypass graft have been shown to experience less postoperative fever than those who receive fentanyl. Patients who receive continuous fentanyl infusions in increased room temperatures after thermal injury may be at increased risk to experience higher body temperature than those who receive morphine. The records of 28 patients with >20%TBSA burn in 30 intensive care unit rooms (13 received fentanyl and 15 received morphine or hydromorphone) and 12 trauma patients who received fentanyl in 22°C intensive care unit rooms were reviewed. Mean maximum core temperature and percentage of temperature recordings > 39°C in the first 48 hours of admission were compared between burn patients who received fentanyl, those who did not, and with trauma patients. Burn patients exposed to fentanyl experienced significantly higher temperatures (40.1 ± 0.9°C) compared with those given morphine (38.7 ± 0.8°C) and compared with trauma patients (37.5 ± 2.4°C), P Burn patients on fentanyl had temperatures > 39°C for a higher percentage of time (33 ± 27%) than those without fentanyl (7.2 ± 13%) and trauma patients (1 ± 2.8%), P Burn patients who receive fentanyl in 30°C rooms experience higher body temperatures and are febrile for a higher percentage of time than those receiving morphine only. Morphine has well-established antiinflammatory properties and likely attenuates the postburn inflammatory response more than fentanyl, resulting in lower body temperatures. This phenomenon needs to be further investigated in additional studies.

  9. Deferoxamine prevents cerebral glutathione and vitamin E depletions in asphyxiated neonatal rats: role of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletkiewicz, Hanna; Nowakowska, Anna; Siejka, Agnieszka; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Woźniak, Alina; Caputa, Michał; Rogalska, Justyna

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury involves increased oxidative stress. In asphyxiated newborns iron deposited in the brain catalyses formation of reactive oxygen species. Glutathione (GSH) and vitamin E are key factors protecting cells against such agents. Our previous investigation has demonstrated that newborn rats, showing physiological low body temperature as well as their hyperthermic counterparts injected with deferoxamine (DF) are protected against iron-mediated, delayed neurotoxicity of perinatal asphyxia. Therefore, we decided to study the effects of body temperature and DF on the antioxidant status of the brain in rats exposed neonatally to critical anoxia. Two-day-old newborn rats were exposed to anoxia in 100% nitrogen atmosphere for 10 min. Rectal temperature was kept at 33 °C (physiological to rat neonates), or elevated to the level typical of healthy adult rats (37 °C), or of febrile adult rats (39 °C). Half of the rats exposed to anoxia under extremely hyperthermic conditions (39 °C) were injected with DF. Cerebral concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA, lipid peroxidation marker) and the levels of GSH and vitamin E were determined post-mortem, (1) immediately after anoxia, (2) 3 days, (3) 7 days, and (4) 2 weeks after anoxia. There were no post-anoxic changes in MDA, GSH and vitamin E concentrations in newborn rats kept at body temperature of 33 °C. In contrast, perinatal anoxia at elevated body temperatures intensified oxidative stress and depleted the antioxidant pool in a temperature-dependent manner. Both the depletion of antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were prevented by post-anoxic DF injection. The data support the idea that hyperthermia may extend perinatal anoxia-induced brain lesions.

  10. [Body thermal status under low-temperature conditions in brewing production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva-Todorova, L; Dimitrova-Toneva, I

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to trace the thermal state of workers exposed to low temperatures in brewery production, establishing the heat loss and the stress of thermoregulation. The investigations are performed in the departments for fermentation, deposit, cask washing and filling of 3 brewery plants. In order to characterize the microclimate methods of thermometry, psychometry and catathermometry are used. The heat state is controlled by methods of subjective heat perception, skin temperature, average skin temperature, temperature gradients, oral, rectal and average body temperature and the thermal content. The results of the physiological examinations point out to significant loss, which affects not only the periphery but also the deep tissues. There is an expressed risk of supercooling of the organism. The data of the heat deficit impose a correction of the working clothes and limitation of the exposure.

  11. Alkaline ceramidase 1 is essential for mammalian skin homeostasis and regulating whole body energy expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Liakath-Ali, Kifayathullah; Vancollie, Valerie E.; Christopher J Lelliott; Speak, Anneliese O; Lafont, David; Protheroe, Hayley J; Ingvorsen, Camilla; Galli, Antonella; Green, Angela; Gleeson, Diane; Ryder, Ed; Glover, Leanne; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Karp, Natasha A.; Arends, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The epidermis is the outermost layer of skin that acts as a barrier to protect the body from the external environment and to control water and heat loss. This barrier function is established through the multistage differentiation of keratinocytes and the presence of bioactive sphingolipids such as ceramides, the levels of which are tightly regulated by a balance of ceramide synthase and ceramidase activities. Here we reveal the essential role of alkaline ceramidase 1 (Acer1) in the s...

  12. Get fit, feel great, look amazing! Regulation of exercise behaviour and body image in women

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Exercising to improve one’s appearance has been consistently associated with negative body image (e.g., Tiggemann & Williamson, 2000). However, little is known about either the processes underlying this association, or the causal direction of the effects. This thesis draws upon both self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000) and objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) in order to investigate the role of regulations for exercise and self-objectification in the link between...

  13. Methodological approaches to assess body-weight regulation and aetiology of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Marti, A.; Miguel, C.; Jebb, S. A.; Lafontan, M; Laville, M; PALOU, A.; REMESAR, X.; Trayhurn, P; J. A. Martinez

    2000-01-01

    Obesity, which is becoming one of the major health hazards in developed and developing societies, results from a long-term positive energy balance. Body-weight regulation and stability depend on an axis with three interrelated components: food intake, energy expenditure and adipogenesis, although there are still many unknown features concerning fuel homeostasis and energy balance. Biochemical processes are interconnected, and a separate consideration of each component is often useful for meth...

  14. Impact of resistant starch on body fat patterning and central appetite regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Wah So

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue patterning has a major influence on the risk of developing chronic disease. Environmental influences on both body fat patterning and appetite regulation are not fully understood. This study was performed to investigate the impact of resistant starch (RS on adipose tissue deposition and central regulation of appetite in mice. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Forty mice were randomised to a diet supplemented with either the high resistant starch (HRS, or the readily digestible starch (LRS. Using (1H magnetic resonance (MR methods, whole body adiposity, intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL were measured. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI was used to investigate neuronal activity in hypothalamic regions involved in appetite control when fed ad libitum. At the end of the interventional period, adipocytes were isolated from epididymal adipose tissue and fasting plasma collected for hormonal and adipokine measurement. Mice on the HRS and LRS diet had similar body weights although total body adiposity, subcutaneous and visceral fat, IHCL, plasma leptin, plasma adiponectin plasma insulin/glucose ratios was significantly greater in the latter group. Adipocytes isolated from the LRS group were significantly larger and had lower insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. MEMRI data obtained from the ventromedial and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei suggests a satiating effect of the HRS diet despite a lower energy intake. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Dietary RS significantly impacts on adipose tissue patterning, adipocyte morphology and metabolism, glucose and insulin metabolism, as well as affecting appetite regulation, supported by changes in neuronal activity in hypothalamic appetite regulation centres which are suggestive of satiation.

  15. Pancreatic polypeptide is involved in the regulation of body weight in pima Indian male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koska, Juraj; DelParigi, Angelo; de Courten, Barbora;

    2004-01-01

    negatively associated with body size and adiposity. Prospectively, the change in PP response to the meal was negatively associated with the change in body weight (r = -0.53, P = 0.002). In contrast, a high fasting PP level was positively associated with change in body weight (r = 0.45, P = 0...... circulating PP is associated with weight gain in Pima Indians. Plasma PP concentrations were measured after an overnight fast and 30 min after a standardized mixed meal in 33 nondiabetic male subjects who had a follow-up visit 4.9 +/- 2.5 years later. Cross-sectionally, fasting and postprandial PP levels were.......009). In conclusion, our results provide evidence that, even within the physiological range, PP contributes to the regulation of energy balance in humans. However this contribution appears to be more complex than anticipated because of the opposite effect of fasting and postprandial PP on the risk of future weight...

  16. Cross-talk between the fat body and brain regulates insect developmental arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Hua; Lu, Yu-Xuan; Denlinger, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Developmental arrest, a critical component of the life cycle in animals as diverse as nematodes (dauer state), insects (diapause), and vertebrates (hibernation), results in dramatic depression of the metabolic rate and a profound extension in longevity. Although many details of the hormonal systems controlling developmental arrest are well-known, we know little about the interactions between metabolic events and the hormones controlling the arrested state. Here, we show that diapause is regulated by an interplay between blood-borne metabolites and regulatory centers within the brain. Gene expression in the fat body, the insect equivalent of the liver, is strongly suppressed during diapause, resulting in low levels of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates circulating within the blood, and at diapause termination, the fat body becomes activated, releasing an abundance of TCA intermediates that act on the brain to stimulate synthesis of regulatory peptides that prompt production of the insect growth hormone ecdysone. This model is supported by our success in breaking diapause by injecting a mixture of TCA intermediates and upstream metabolites. The results underscore the importance of cross-talk between the brain and fat body as a regulator of diapause and suggest that the TCA cycle may be a checkpoint for regulating different forms of animal dormancy. PMID:22912402

  17. Differential effects of two fermentable carbohydrates on central appetite regulation and body composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Arora

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w inulin or 10% (w/w β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR, colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI, respectively, PYY (peptide YY concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β-Glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-Glucan appears to suppress

  18. Level of activation, body temperature, and interpersonal conflict in family relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, C N

    1979-01-01

    The 24-hour variation in physiological and psychological functioning within the individual and interpersonal differences were investigated in relation to the nature of social interaction between individuals. Level of activation, body temperature, and interpersonal conflict were studied in a sample of 16 married couples for a period of six weekdays of routine activity. Homogeneity was a major factor in sample selection. Body temperature was measured every hour during the waking time by electronic thermometer, and level of activation was measured four times a day on alternate forms of a self-report adjective checklist. Interpersonal conflict, defined as perceived fulfillment of emotional and interaction needs, was measured in the morning and late day. The interpersonal Conflict Scale with established validity was constructed for the study and had two alternate forms of equal reliability. An index of desynchrony between partners for both temperature and activation was calculated for each day of data collection by the following method: The deviation score from the overall six-day mean was determined for each measurement time for each spouse and for each variable. Absolute values of the differences between deviation scores were added to obtain an index of desynchrony in that variable for the day. A daily mean of interpersonal conflict scores for both partners was also calculated. The hypotheses that a desynchrony between partners in body temperature rhythm and in level of activation rhythm would be positively related to conflict were tested by the Pearson product moment correlation. Obtained coefficient; were not significant at the .05 level. PMID:254897

  19. No relation between body temperature and arterial recanalization at three days in patients with acute ischaemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Geurts (Marjolein); H.B. Van Der Worp (H. Bart); A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); G.J. Biessels (Geert Jan); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta); C.B. Majoie (Charles); Y.B.W.E.M. Roos; L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); K. Keizer (Koos); A. van der Lugt (Aad); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); K.E. Droogh-De Greve; H.P. Bienfait; M.A. van Walderveen (M.); M.J.H. Wermer (Marieke); G.J. Lycklama à Nijeholt (Geert); J. Boiten (Jelis); A. Duyndam (Anita); V.I.H. Kwa; F.J. Meijer (F.); E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud); A.M. Kesselring (Anouk); J. Hofmeijer; J.A. Vos (Jan Albert); W.J. Schonewille (W.); W.J. van Rooij (W.); P.L.M. de Kort (Paul); C.C. Pleiter (C.); S.L.M. Bakker (Stef); J. Bot (Joseph); M.C. Visser (Marieke); I.C. van der Schaaf (Irene); J.W. Dankbaar (Jan); W.P. Mali (Willem); T. van Seeters (Tom); A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); J.M. Niesten (Joris); G.J. Biessels; L.J. Kappelle; J.S.K. Luitse; Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recanalization of an occluded intracranial artery is influenced by temperature-dependent enzymes, including alteplase. We assessed the relation between body temperature on admission and recanalization. Methods: We included 278 patients with acute ischaemic stroke within nine

  20. Ambient temperature influences core body temperature response in rat lines bred for differences in sensitivity to 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Andrea C; Seiden, Lewis S

    2003-04-01

    Agonist-induced decrease in core body temperature has commonly been used as a measure of serotonin1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor sensitivity in mood disorder. The thermoregulatory basis for 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist-induced temperature responses in humans and rats remains unclear. Therefore, the influence of ambient temperature on 5-HT(1A) receptor-mediated decreases in core body temperature were measured in rat lines bred for high (HDS) or low (LDS) sensitivity to the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT). HDS and LDS rats were injected with either saline, 0.25 or 0.50 mg/kg 8-OH-DPAT at ambient temperatures of 10.5, 24, 30, or 37.5 degrees C, and core temperature was measured by radiotelemetry. For both lines, the thermic response to acute 8-OH-DPAT was greatest at 10.5 degrees C and decreased in magnitude as ambient temperature increased to 30 degrees C, consistent with hypothermia. HDS rats displayed a greater hypothermic response than LDS rats at 10.5, 24, and 30 degrees C. At 37.5 degrees C, LDS rats showed a lethal elevation of temperature in response to 0.50 mg/kg 8-OH-DPAT. All thermic responses to 8-OH-DPAT, including the lethality, were effectively blocked by pretreatment with the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY100635, suggesting line differences in thermoregulatory circuits that are influenced by 5-HT(1A) receptor activation. Following repeated injection of 8-OH-DPAT, the magnitude of the hypothermic response decreased in both lines at 10.5 degrees C, but increased in HDS rats treated with 0.50 mg/kg 8-OH-DPAT at 30 and 37.5 degrees C. This pattern was reversed in HDS rats following 8-OH-DPAT challenge at 24 degrees C, suggesting that a compensatory thermoregulatory response accounts for changes in the hypothermic response to chronic 8-OH-DPAT. PMID:12649391

  1. Short and long-term energy intake patterns and their implications for human body weight regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D

    2014-07-01

    Adults consume millions of kilocalories over the course of a few years, but the typical weight gain amounts to only a few thousand kilocalories of stored energy. Furthermore, food intake is highly variable from day to day and yet body weight is remarkably stable. These facts have been used as evidence to support the hypothesis that human body weight is regulated by active control of food intake operating on both short and long time scales. Here, we demonstrate that active control of human food intake on short time scales is not required for body weight stability and that the current evidence for long term control of food intake is equivocal. To provide more data on this issue, we emphasize the urgent need for developing new methods for accurately measuring energy intake changes over long time scales. We propose that repeated body weight measurements can be used along with mathematical modeling to calculate long-term changes in energy intake and thereby quantify adherence to a diet intervention and provide dynamic feedback to individuals that seek to control their body weight.

  2. Does Body Mass Index Influence Behavioral Regulations, Dispositional Flow and Social Physique Anxiety in Exercise Setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Ersöz, Ersin Altiparmak, F. Hülya Aşçı

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow, social physique anxiety of exercisers in terms of body mass index (BMI. 782 university students participated in this study. Dispositional Flow State Scale-2, Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, Social Physique Anxiety Scale and Physical Activity Stages of Change Questionnaire were administered to participants. After controlling for gender, analysis indicated significant differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow and social physique anxiety of exercise participants with regards to BMI. In summary, the findings demonstrate that normal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons while underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation. Additionally, participants who are underweight had higher dispositional flow and lower social physique anxiety scores than other BMI classification.

  3. Vacuolar ATPase regulates surfactant secretion in rat alveolar type II cells by modulating lamellar body calcium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendranath Reddy Chintagari

    Full Text Available Lung surfactant reduces surface tension and maintains the stability of alveoli. How surfactant is released from alveolar epithelial type II cells is not fully understood. Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase is the enzyme responsible for pumping H(+ into lamellar bodies and is required for the processing of surfactant proteins and the packaging of surfactant lipids. However, its role in lung surfactant secretion is unknown. Proteomic analysis revealed that vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase dominated the alveolar type II cell lipid raft proteome. Western blotting confirmed the association of V-ATPase a1 and B1/2 subunits with lipid rafts and their enrichment in lamellar bodies. The dissipation of lamellar body pH gradient by Bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1, an inhibitor of V-ATPase, increased surfactant secretion. Baf A1-stimulated secretion was blocked by the intracellular Ca(2+ chelator, BAPTA-AM, the protein kinase C (PKC inhibitor, staurosporine, and the Ca(2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII, KN-62. Baf A1 induced Ca(2+ release from isolated lamellar bodies. Thapsigargin reduced the Baf A1-induced secretion, indicating cross-talk between lamellar body and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+ pools. Stimulation of type II cells with surfactant secretagogues dissipated the pH gradient across lamellar bodies and disassembled the V-ATPase complex, indicating the physiological relevance of the V-ATPase-mediated surfactant secretion. Finally, silencing of V-ATPase a1 and B2 subunits decreased stimulated surfactant secretion, indicating that these subunits were crucial for surfactant secretion. We conclude that V-ATPase regulates surfactant secretion via an increased Ca(2+ mobilization from lamellar bodies and endoplasmic reticulum, and the activation of PKC and CaMKII. Our finding revealed a previously unrealized role of V-ATPase in surfactant secretion.

  4. Vacuolar ATPase regulates surfactant secretion in rat alveolar type II cells by modulating lamellar body calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintagari, Narendranath Reddy; Mishra, Amarjit; Su, Lijing; Wang, Yang; Ayalew, Sahlu; Hartson, Steven D; Liu, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Lung surfactant reduces surface tension and maintains the stability of alveoli. How surfactant is released from alveolar epithelial type II cells is not fully understood. Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is the enzyme responsible for pumping H(+) into lamellar bodies and is required for the processing of surfactant proteins and the packaging of surfactant lipids. However, its role in lung surfactant secretion is unknown. Proteomic analysis revealed that vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) dominated the alveolar type II cell lipid raft proteome. Western blotting confirmed the association of V-ATPase a1 and B1/2 subunits with lipid rafts and their enrichment in lamellar bodies. The dissipation of lamellar body pH gradient by Bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1), an inhibitor of V-ATPase, increased surfactant secretion. Baf A1-stimulated secretion was blocked by the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, BAPTA-AM, the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, staurosporine, and the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), KN-62. Baf A1 induced Ca(2+) release from isolated lamellar bodies. Thapsigargin reduced the Baf A1-induced secretion, indicating cross-talk between lamellar body and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pools. Stimulation of type II cells with surfactant secretagogues dissipated the pH gradient across lamellar bodies and disassembled the V-ATPase complex, indicating the physiological relevance of the V-ATPase-mediated surfactant secretion. Finally, silencing of V-ATPase a1 and B2 subunits decreased stimulated surfactant secretion, indicating that these subunits were crucial for surfactant secretion. We conclude that V-ATPase regulates surfactant secretion via an increased Ca(2+) mobilization from lamellar bodies and endoplasmic reticulum, and the activation of PKC and CaMKII. Our finding revealed a previously unrealized role of V-ATPase in surfactant secretion. PMID:20169059

  5. Intraspecific scaling in frog calls: the interplay of temperature, body size and metabolic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Lucia; Arim, Matías; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Understanding physiological and environmental determinants of strategies of reproductive allocation is a pivotal aim in biology. Because of their high metabolic cost, properties of sexual acoustic signals may correlate with body size, temperature, and an individual's energetic state. A quantitative theory of acoustic communication, based on the metabolic scaling with temperature and mass, was recently proposed, adding to the well-reported empirical patterns. It provides quantitative predictions for frequencies, call rate, and durations. Here, we analysed the mass, temperature, and body condition scaling of spectral and temporal attributes of the advertisement call of the treefrog Hypsiboas pulchellus. Mass dependence of call frequency followed metabolic expectations (f~M (-0.25), where f is frequency and M is mass) although non-metabolic allometry could also account for the observed pattern. Temporal variables scaled inversely with mass contradicting metabolic expectations (d~M (0.25), where d is duration), supporting instead empirical patterns reported to date. Temperature was positively associated with call rate and negatively with temporal variables, which is congruent with metabolic predictions. We found no significant association between temperature and frequencies, adding to the bulk of empirical evidence. Finally, a result of particular relevance was that body condition consistently determined call characteristics, in interaction with temperature or mass. Our intraspecific study highlights that even if proximate determinants of call variability are rather well understood, the mechanisms through which they operate are proving to be more complex than previously thought. The determinants of call characteristics emerge as a key topic of research in behavioural and physiological biology, with several clear points under debate which need to be analysed on theoretical and empirical grounds. PMID:26552381

  6. The Effects of Increased Body Temperature on Motor Control during Golf Putting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, John F.; Grealy, Madeleine A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of increased core temperature on the performance outcome and movement kinematics of elite golfers during a golf putting task. The study aimed to examine individual differences in the extent to which increased temperature influenced the rate of putting success, whether increased temperature speeded up the timing of the putting downswing and whether elite golfers changed their movement kinematics during times of thermal stress. Six participants performed 20 putts to each of four putt distances (1, 2, 3, and 4 m) under normal temperature conditions and when core body temperature was increased. There was no significant difference in the number of successful putts between the two temperature conditions, but there was an increase in putterhead velocity at ball impact on successful putts to distances of 1 and 4 m when temperature was elevated. This reflected an increase in swing amplitude rather than a reduction in swing duration as hypothesized. There were individual differences in the motor control response to thermal stress as three of the golfers changed the kinematic parameters used to scale their putting movements to achieve putts of different distances at elevated temperatures. Theoretical implications for these findings and the practical implications for elite golfers and future research are discussed.

  7. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, J.P.; Harlow, H.J.; Durner, George M.; Anderson-Sprecher, R.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Regehr, Eric V.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ben-David, M.

    2015-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of “ice” bears in summer is unknown, “shore” bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation.

  8. Animal physiology. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, J P; Harlow, H J; Durner, G M; Anderson-Sprecher, R; Albeke, S E; Regehr, E V; Amstrup, S C; Ben-David, M

    2015-07-17

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of "ice" bears in summer is unknown, "shore" bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation. PMID:26185248

  9. Low body temperature affects associative processes in long-trace conditioned flavor aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misanin, J R; Wilson, H A; Schwarz, P R; Tuschak, J B; Hinderliter, C F

    1998-12-01

    A series of experiments examined the effect of low body temperature on the associative process in long-trace conditioned flavor aversion. Experiment 1 demonstrated that maintaining a low body temperature between conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) administration facilitates the associative process and allows a flavor aversion to be conditioned in young rats over an interval that would normally not support conditioning. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated that this was due neither to lingering systemic saccharin serving as a CS nor to a cold induced enhancement of US intensity. Experiment 4 demonstrated that inducing hypothermia at various times during a 3-h CS-US interval results in an apparent delay of reinforcement gradient. We propose that a cold induced decrease in metabolic rate slows the internal clock that governs the perception of time and that the CS-US association depends upon perceived contiguity rather than upon an external clock-referenced contiguity.

  10. Finite-temperature second-order many-body perturbation theory revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Santra, Robin

    2016-01-01

    We present an algebraic, nondiagrammatic derivation of finite-temperature second-order many-body perturbation theory [FT-MBPT(2)], using techniques and concepts accessible to theoretical chemical physicists. We give explicit expressions not just for the grand potential but particularly for the mean energy of an interacting many-electron system. The framework presented is suitable for computing the energy of a finite or infinite system in contact with a heat and particle bath at finite temperature and chemical potential. FT-MBPT(2) may be applied if the system, at zero temperature, may be described using standard (i.e., zero-temperature) second-order many-body perturbation theory [ZT-MBPT(2)] for the energy. We point out that in such a situation, FT-MBPT(2) reproduces, in the zero-temperature limit, the energy computed within ZT-MBPT(2). In other words, the difficulty that has been referred to as the Kohn--Luttinger conundrum, does not occur. We comment, in this context, on a "renormalization" scheme recently ...

  11. Oil body mobilization in sunflower seedlings is potentially regulated by thioredoxin h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazadeh, Nahid; Poursaadat, Maral; Sadeghipour, Hamid Reza; Colagar, Abasalt Hossein Zadeh

    2012-08-01

    Thioredoxins are believed to mediate starch and protein mobilization in germinating cereals and dicotyledons. Nothing is known about redox regulation of lipid mobilization in plants. The possible redox regulation by thioredoxin h (Trx h) of a thiol-protease which degrades the oleosin coat of the oil body and its impacts on lipid mobilization was investigated in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. An alkaline proteolytic activity stimulated by light was detected in seedlings. In vitro, the activity of this alkaline protease increased after reduction by NADPH-thiordoxin reductase system (NTS). The expression pattern of an alkaline 65 kDa thiol protease detected by gelatin SDS-PAGE technique, corresponded to the activity profile of the NTS-activated protease. The thiol-specific fuorochrome monobromobimane (mBBr) showed that a 65 kDa protein was also in a reduced state in vivo and becomes reduced in vitro by NTS. Except for 17-20 kDa oleosins, other oil body associated mBBr-labeled proteins were disappeared within three days following germination. Treatments of sunflower oil bodies by the NTS-activated alkaline protease made them more susceptible to maize lipase action. Ascorbate application enhanced lipid mobilization of seedlings. A model for seedling oil body mobilization was proposed according to which Trx h or other Trx isoforms, reductively activates an oleosin degrading thiol-protease and some oil body proteins, thus renders the organelle more susceptible to subsequent lipolytic actions. For the first time the potential role of Trx in the mobilization of lipid reserves in plants has been shown.

  12. Cytoskeletal regulation dominates temperature-sensitive proteomic changes of hibernation in forebrain of 13-lined ground squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson G Hindle

    Full Text Available 13-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, are obligate hibernators that transition annually between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy - wherein they exploit episodic torpor bouts. Despite cerebral ischemia during torpor and rapid reperfusion during arousal, hibernator brains resist damage and the animals emerge neurologically intact each spring. We hypothesized that protein changes in the brain underlie winter neuroprotection. To identify candidate proteins, we applied a sensitive 2D gel electrophoresis method to quantify protein differences among forebrain extracts prepared from ground squirrels in two summer, four winter and fall transition states. Proteins that differed among groups were identified using LC-MS/MS. Only 84 protein spots varied significantly among the defined states of hibernation. Protein changes in the forebrain proteome fell largely into two reciprocal patterns with a strong body temperature dependence. The importance of body temperature was tested in animals from the fall; these fall animals use torpor sporadically with body temperatures mirroring ambient temperatures between 4 and 21°C as they navigate the transition between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy. Unlike cold-torpid fall ground squirrels, warm-torpid individuals strongly resembled the homeotherms, indicating that the changes observed in torpid hibernators are defined by body temperature, not torpor per se. Metabolic enzymes were largely unchanged despite varied metabolic activity across annual and torpor-arousal cycles. Instead, the majority of the observed changes were cytoskeletal proteins and their regulators. While cytoskeletal structural proteins tended to differ seasonally, i.e., between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy, their regulatory proteins were more strongly affected by body temperature. Changes in the abundance of various isoforms of the microtubule assembly and disassembly regulatory proteins

  13. Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Manzano-Szalai

    Full Text Available In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i milk allergy, ii peanut allergy and iii egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour.

  14. Conservatism of lizard thermal tolerances and body temperatures across evolutionary history and geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Joseph W; Buckley, Lauren B

    2013-04-23

    Species may exhibit similar thermal tolerances via either common ancestry or environmental filtering and local adaptation, if the species inhabit similar environments. We ask whether upper and lower thermal limits (critical thermal maxima and minima) and body temperatures are more strongly conserved across evolutionary history or geography for lizard populations distributed globally. We find that critical thermal maxima are highly conserved with location accounting for a higher proportion of the variation than phylogeny. Notably, thermal tolerance breadth is conserved across the phylogeny despite critical thermal minima showing little niche conservatism. Body temperatures observed during activity in the field show the greatest degree of conservatism, with phylogeny accounting for most of the variation. This suggests that propensities for thermoregulatory behaviour, which can buffer body temperatures from environmental variation, are similar within lineages. Phylogeny and geography constrain thermal tolerances similarly within continents, but variably within clades. Conservatism of thermal tolerances across lineages suggests that the potential for local adaptation to alleviate the impacts of climate change on lizards may be limited.

  15. Effect of body size and temperature on respiration of Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, D.; Vigliano, P.H.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Body mass and temperature are primary determinants of metabolic rate in ectothermic animals. Oxygen consumption of post-larval Galaxias maculatus was measured in respirometry trials under different temperatures (5–21°C) and varying body masses (0.1–>1.5 g) spanning a relevant range of thermal conditions and sizes. Specific respiration rates (R in g O2 g−1 d−1) declined as a power function of body mass and increased exponentially with temperature and was expressed as: R = 0.0007 * W −0.31 * e 0.13 * T. The ability of this model to predict specific respiration rate was evaluated by comparing observed values with those predicted by the model. Our findings suggest that the respiration rate of G. maculatus is the result of multiple interactive processes (intrinsic and extrinsic factors) that modulate each other in ‘meta-mechanistic’ ways; this would help to explain the species’ ability to undergo the complex ontogenetic habitat shifts observed in the lakes of the Andean Patagonic range.

  16. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing--Multiple Analysis of Skin Surface Temperature Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 吴海燕; 张渭源

    2003-01-01

    A new researching method on clothing comfort perception is developed.By it the skin surface temperature changes and subjective psychological perception of human body sections stimulated by the same cold stimulation are studied.With the multiple comparison analysis method the changing laws of skin temperature of main human body sections is obtained.

  17. Association between regulator of G protein signaling 9-2 and body weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L Waugh

    Full Text Available Regulator of G protein signaling 9-2 (RGS9-2 is a protein that is highly enriched in the striatum, a brain region that mediates motivation, movement and reward responses. We identified a naturally occurring 5 nucleotide deletion polymorphism in the human RGS9 gene and found that the mean body mass index (BMI of individuals with the deletion was significantly higher than those without. A splicing reporter minigene assay demonstrated that the deletion had the potential to significantly decrease the levels of correctly spliced RGS9 gene product. We measured the weights of rats after virally transduced overexpression of RGS9-2 or the structurally related RGS proteins, RGS7, or RGS11, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc and observed a reduction in body weight after overexpression of RGS9-2 but not RGS7 or 11. Conversely, we found that the RGS9 knockout mice were heavier than their wild-type littermates and had significantly higher percentages of abdominal fat. The constituent adipocytes were found to have a mean cross-sectional area that was more than double that of corresponding cells from wild-type mice. However, food intake and locomotion were not significantly different between the two strains. These studies with humans, rats and mice implicate RGS9-2 as a factor in regulating body weight.

  18. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing-Smirnov Test of Skin Surface Temperatures' Dynamic Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WU Hai-yan; WANG Yun-yi

    2004-01-01

    Skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing is the theoretic foundation of thermal insulation clothing design.By a new method of researching on clothing comfort perception,the skin temperature live changing procedure of human body sections affected by the same cold stimulation is inspected.Furthermore with the Smirnov test the skin temperatures dynamic changing patterns of main human body sections are obtained.

  19. The acute and subchronic effect of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on body temperature in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The consumption of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy is known to cause severe hyperthermia in humans. This is of extreme importance since ecstasy is often consumed at 'rave' parties, where dancing takes place in a warm environment, which may exacerbate the effect of MDMA on thermoregulation. The present study was performed in order to evaluate the effects of single and repeated administration of MDMA on body temperature in Wistar rats. Material and methods. The study included 72 male Wistar rats, housed in groups of four in cages at a room temperature of 222oC. They were divided in two groups. The rats in the first group were treated with oral solution of MDMA (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg and their temperature was measured hourly until 8th hour. The rats in the second group were treated with oral solution of MDMA (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg every day during 15 days and their temperature was measured daily at 0th, 1st, 3rd, 5th and 8th hour. Temperature was measured by inserting a thermocouple probe 2,5 cm into the rectum. Results. Both groups showed dose dependent increase of body temperature, determined by rectal temperature measurements. The magnitude of hyperthemic response caused by subchronic administration of MDMA was markedly diminished during the experiment. Conclusion. The hyperthermic effect of MDMA was dose-dependent. The magnitude of the hyperthermic response was markedly diminished in subchronic administration.

  20. Human ketone body production and utilization studied using tracer techniques: Regulation by free fatty acids, insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketone body concentrations fluctuate markedly during physiological and pathological conditions. Tracer techniques have been developed in recent years to study production, utilization, and the metabolic clearance rate of ketone bodies. This review describes data on the roles of insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones in the regulation of ketone body kinetics. The data indicate that insulin lowers ketone body concentrations by three independent mechanisms: first, it inhibits lipolysis, and thus lowers free fatty acid availability for ketogenesis; second, it restrains ketone body production within the liver; third, it enhances peripheral ketone body utilization. To assess these effects in humans in vivo, experimental models were developed to study insulin effects with controlled concentrations of free fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and ketone bodies. Presently available data also support an important role of catecholamines in increasing ketone body concentrations. Evidence was presented that norepinephrine increases ketogenesis not only by stimulating lipolysis, and thus releasing free fatty acids, but also by increasing intrahepatic ketogenesis. Thyroid hormone availability was associated with lipolysis and ketogenesis. Ketone body concentrations after an overnight fast were only modestly elevated in hyperthyroidism resulting from increased peripheral ketone body clearance. There was a significant correlation between serum triiodothyronine levels and the ketone body metabolic clearance rate. Thus, ketone body homeostasis in human subjects resulted from the interaction of hormones such as insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones regulating lipolysis, intrahepatic ketogenesis, and peripheral ketone body utilization. 58 references

  1. Bose–Einstein Condensates with Two- and Three-Body Interactions in an Anharmonic Trap at Finite Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transition temperature, the depletion of the condensate atoms and the collective excitations of a Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC) with two- and three-body interactions in an anharmonic trap at finite temperature are studied in detail. By using the Popov version of the Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov (HFB) approximation, an extended self-consistent model describing BEC with both two- and three-body interactions in a distorted harmonic potential at finite temperature is obtained and solved numerically. The results show that the transition temperature, the condensed atom number and the collective excitations are modified dramatically by the atomic three-body interactions and the distortion of the harmonic trap. (general)

  2. A MEMS-based passive hydrocephalus shunt for body position controlled intracranial pressure regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Staffan B; Eklund, Anders; Malm, Jan; Stemme, Göran; Roxhed, Niclas

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports a novel micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) valve with posture controlled flow characteristics for improved treatment of hydrocephalus, a disease that is characterized by elevated pressure in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. In contrast to conventional differential pressure CSF valves, the CSF valve presented here features a third port which utilizes hydrostatic pressure from a pressure compensating catheter to adapt CSF drainage to optimized levels irrespective of body position. Prototypes have been fabricated using standard MEMS manufacturing processes and the experimental evaluation successfully showed that the flow rate was adjustable with a varying hydrostatic pressure on the third port. Measured data showed that flow rate was at near ideal values at laying body position and that the flow rate can be adjusted to optimal values at standing body position by selecting an appropriate length of the pressure compensating catheter. This is the first pressure balanced CSF valve intended for body position controlled CSF pressure regulation.

  3. COMMUNICATION: The effects of elevated body temperature on the complexity of the diaphragm EMG signals during maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkurt, David; Akay, Yasemin M.; Akay, Metin

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we examine the effect of elevated body temperature on the complexity of the diaphragm electromyography (EMGdia), the output of the respiratory neural network--using the approximate entropy method. The diaphragm EMG, EEG, EOG as well as other physiological signals (tracheal pressure, blood pressure and respiratory volume) in chronically instrumented rats were recorded at two postnatal ages: 25-35 days age (juvenile, n = 5) and 36-44 days age (early adult, n = 6) groups during control (36-37 °C), mild elevated body temperature (38 °C) and severe elevated body temperature (39-40 °C). Three to five trials of the recordings were performed at normal body temperature before raising the animal's core temperature by 1-4 °C with an electric heating pad. At the elevated temperature, another 3-5 trials were performed. Finally, the animal was cooled to the original temperature, and trials were again repeated. Complexity values of the diaphragm EMG signal were estimated and evaluated using the approximate entropy method (ApEn) over the ten consecutive breaths. Our results suggested that the mean approximate entropy values for the juvenile age group were 1.01 ± 0.01 (standard error) during control, 0.91 ± 0.02 during mild elevated body temperature and 0.81 ± 0.02 during severe elevated body temperature. For the early adult age group, these values were 0.94 ± 0.01 during control, 0.93 ± 0.01 during mild elevated body temperature and 0.92 ± 0.01 during severe elevated body temperature. Our results show that the complexity values and the durations of the diaphragm EMG (EMGdia) were significantly decreased when the elevated body temperature was shifted from control or mild to severe body temperature (p < 0.05) for the juvenile age group. However, for the early adult age group, an increase in body temperature slightly reduced the complexity measures and the duration of the EMGdia. But, these changes were not statistically significant. These results furthermore

  4. An Investigation of Summertime Inland Water Body Temperatures in California and Nevada (USA): Recent Trends and Future Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Nathan; Hook, Simon; Piccolroaz, Sebastiano; Toffolon, Marco; Radocinski, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Inland water body temperature has been identified as an ideal indicator of potential climate change. Understanding inland water body temperature trends is important for forecasting impacts to limnological, biological, and hydrological resources. Many inland water bodies are situated in remote locations with incomplete data records of in-situ monitoring or lack in-situ observations altogether. Thus, the utilization of satellite data is essential for understanding the behavior of global inland water body temperatures. Part of this research provides an analysis of summertime (July-September) temperature trends in the largest California/Nevada (USA) inland water bodies between 1991 and 2015. We examine satellite temperature retrievals from ATSR (ATSR-1, ATSR-2, AATSR), MODIS (Terra and Aqua), and VIIRS sensors. Our findings indicate that inland water body temperatures in the western United States were rapidly warming between 1991 and 2009, but since then trends have been decreasing. This research also includes implementation of a model called air2water to predict future inland water body surface temperature through the sole input of air temperature. Using projections from CMIP5-CCSM4 output, our model indicates that Lake Tahoe (USA) is expected to experience an increase of roughly 3 °C by 2100.

  5. STAT3 Regulates ABCA3 Expression and Influences Lamellar Body Formation in Alveolar Type II Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuzaki, Yohei; Besnard, Valérie; Clark, Jean C.; Xu, Yan; Wert, Susan E.; Ikegami, Machiko; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    ATP-Binding Cassette A3 (ABCA3) is a lamellar body associated lipid transport protein required for normal synthesis and storage of pulmonary surfactant in type II cells in the alveoli. In this study, we demonstrate that STAT3, activated by IL-6, regulates ABCA3 expression in vivo and in vitro. ABCA3 mRNA and immunostaining were decreased in adult mouse lungs in which STAT3 was deleted from the respiratory epithelium (Stat3Δ/Δ mice). Consistent with the role of STAT3, intratracheal IL-6 induce...

  6. The effect of lower body cooling on the changes in three core temperature indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rectal (Tre), ear canal (Tear) and esophageal (Tes) temperatures have been used in the literature as core temperature indices in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate if localized lower body cooling would have a different effect on each of these measurements. We hypothesized that prolonged lower body surface cooling will result in a localized cooling effect for the rectal temperature not reflected in the other core measurement sites. Twelve participants (mean ± SD; 26.8 ± 6.0 years; 82.6 ± 13.9 kg; 179 ± 10 cm, BSA = 2.00 ± 0.21 m2) attended one experimental session consisting of sitting on a rubberized raft floor surface suspended in 5 °C water in a thermoneutral air environment (∼21.5 ± 0.5 °C). Experimental conditions were (a) a baseline phase during which participants were seated for 15 min in an upright position on an insulated pad (1.408 K . m2 . W−1); (b) a cooling phase during which participants were exposed to the cooling surface for 2 h, and (c) an insulation phase during which the baseline condition was repeated for 1 h. Temperature data were collected at 1 Hz, reduced to 1 min averages, and transformed from absolute values to a change in temperature from baseline (15 min average). Metabolic data were collected breath-by-breath and integrated over the same temperature epoch. Within the baseline phase no significant change was found between the three indices of core temperature. By the end of the cooling phase, Tre was significantly lower (Δ = −1.0 ± 0.4 °C) from baseline values than from Tear (Δ = −0.3 ± 0.3 °C) and Tes (Δ = −0.1 ± 0.3 °C). Tre continued to decrease during the insulation phase from Δ −1.0 ± 0.4 °C to as low as Δ −1.4 ± 0.5 °C. By the end of the insulation phase Tre had slightly risen back to Δ −1.3 ± 0.4 °C but remained significantly different from baseline values and from the other two core measures. Metabolic data showed no variation throughout the experiment. In conclusion, the local

  7. Neuronal expression of glucosylceramide synthase in central nervous system regulates body weight and energy homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Nordström

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic neurons are main regulators of energy homeostasis. Neuronal function essentially depends on plasma membrane-located gangliosides. The present work demonstrates that hypothalamic integration of metabolic signals requires neuronal expression of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS; UDP-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferase. As a major mechanism of central nervous system (CNS metabolic control, we demonstrate that GCS-derived gangliosides interacting with leptin receptors (ObR in the neuronal membrane modulate leptin-stimulated formation of signaling metabolites in hypothalamic neurons. Furthermore, ganglioside-depleted hypothalamic neurons fail to adapt their activity (c-Fos in response to alterations in peripheral energy signals. Consequently, mice with inducible forebrain neuron-specific deletion of the UDP-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferase gene (Ugcg display obesity, hypothermia, and lower sympathetic activity. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV-mediated Ugcg delivery to the arcuate nucleus (Arc significantly ameliorated obesity, specifying gangliosides as seminal components for hypothalamic regulation of body energy homeostasis.

  8. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Acts in the Drosophila Mushroom Body to Negatively Regulate Sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Bai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Though evidence is mounting that a major function of sleep is to maintain brain plasticity and consolidate memory, little is known about the molecular pathways by which learning and sleep processes intercept. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (Alk, the gene encoding a tyrosine receptor kinase whose inadvertent activation is the cause of many cancers, is implicated in synapse formation and cognitive functions. In particular, Alk genetically interacts with Neurofibromatosis 1 (Nf1 to regulate growth and associative learning in flies. We show that Alk mutants have increased sleep. Using a targeted RNAi screen we localized the negative effects of Alk on sleep to the mushroom body, a structure important for both sleep and memory. We also report that mutations in Nf1 produce a sexually dimorphic short sleep phenotype, and suppress the long sleep phenotype of Alk. Thus Alk and Nf1 interact in both learning and sleep regulation, highlighting a common pathway in these two processes.

  9. Aptamer and PNIPAAm co-conjugated nanoparticles regulate activity of enzyme with different temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiemiao; Yang, Liangrong; Liang, Xiangfeng; Dong, Tingting; Qu, Hongnan; Rong, Meng; Liu, Huizhou

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we described a temperature responsive nano-system that can regulate activity of enzyme with different temperature. Temperature responsive polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), with low critical solution temperature of 32°C, was synthesized with thiol modification. PNIPAAm and thrombin aptamer were co-functionalized on the surface of gold nanoparticles for effective regulation of thrombin activity with different temperature. On the one hand, we studied the thermal responsive properties of this inhibitor via UV-visible spectroscopy. On the other hand, we investigated the regulation of thrombin activity by this platform with different temperature. The PNIPAAm chains could extend and shrink with different temperature, which suggested that PNIPAAm on the surface of gold nanoparticles could regulate interaction between thrombin and aptamer according to temperature changing. At 25°C, PNIPAAm was hydrophilic extended state, which blocked the interaction between thrombin and aptamer on the surface of gold nanoparticles, therefore thrombin activity had no change. On the contrary, at 37°C, PNIPAAm transformed from hydrophilic extended state to hydrophobic shrank state, allowing the aptamer to capture thrombin, inhibiting the activity of thrombin. More interestingly, this regulation was reverse to normal condition, where 37°C was always the optimum reaction temperature for most of human enzymes. This system we prepared was opposite, which was capable of inhibiting the thrombin activity at 37°C. Furthermore, this was the first report of regulation of thrombin activity using this temperature responsive platform. PMID:27474278

  10. Climate change effects on macrofaunal litter decomposition: the interplay of temperature, body masses and stoichiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, David; Rall, Björn C; Brose, Ulrich

    2012-11-01

    Macrofauna invertebrates of forest floors provide important functions in the decomposition process of soil organic matter, which is affected by the nutrient stoichiometry of the leaf litter. Climate change effects on forest ecosystems include warming and decreasing litter quality (e.g. higher C : nutrient ratios) induced by higher atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. While litter-bag experiments unravelled separate effects, a mechanistic understanding of how interactions between temperature and litter stoichiometry are driving decomposition rates is lacking. In a laboratory experiment, we filled this void by quantifying decomposer consumption rates analogous to predator-prey functional responses that include the mechanistic parameters handling time and attack rate. Systematically, we varied the body masses of isopods, the environmental temperature and the resource between poor (hornbeam) and good quality (ash). We found that attack rates increased and handling times decreased (i) with body masses and (ii) temperature. Interestingly, these relationships interacted with litter quality: small isopods possibly avoided the poorer resource, whereas large isopods exhibited increased, compensatory feeding of the poorer resource, which may be explained by their higher metabolic demands. The combination of metabolic theory and ecological stoichiometry provided critically important mechanistic insights into how warming and varying litter quality may modify macrofaunal decomposition rates. PMID:23007091

  11. Ultrasonic vocalization and body temperature maintenance in infant voles of three species (Rodentia: Arvicolidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, B H

    1992-12-01

    Infant voles thermoregulate poorly and produce ultrasonic vocalizations when cooled. Vocalizing and the ability to maintain body temperature in isolated pups cold-challenged at 5 degrees C or 22 degrees C were studied in nestling Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus agrestis, and Arvicola terrestris. The tendency to vocalize varied with age, since pups vocalized more in their 2nd week than in their 1st or 3rd weeks. Rate of vocalizing was correlated with sound pressure level of vocalizations. Their was no apparent relation between vocalizing rate and deep body temperature. M. agrestis pups vocalized most and A. terrestris pups least, and all three species vocalized more at the lower temperature. Maximal vocalizing occurred in mid aged M. agrestis (at 5 degrees C) with mean of 1291 vocalizations/20 min and mean SPL of 80 dB (decibels re: 20 microN/m2). It is suggested that the vocalizing response is an adaptation related to risk from hypothermia in infant voles. PMID:1487083

  12. Quantum three-body calculation of the nonresonant triple-\\alpha reaction rate at low temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Ogata, Kazuyuki; Kamimura, Masayasu

    2009-01-01

    The triple-\\alpha reaction rate is re-evaluated by directly solving the three-body Schroedinger equation. The resonant and nonresonant processes are treated on the same footing using the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method for three-body scattering. Accurate description of the \\alpha-\\alpha nonresonant states significantly quenches the Coulomb barrier between the two-\\alpha's and the third \\alpha particle. Consequently, the \\alpha-\\alpha nonresonant continuum states below the resonance at 92.04 keV, i.e., the ground state of 8Be, give markedly larger contribution at low temperatures than in foregoing studies. We find about 20 orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the triple-\\alpha reaction rate around 10^7 K compared to the rate of the NACRE compilation.

  13. Physical exercise-induced changes in the core body temperature of mice depend more on ambient temperature than on exercise protocol or intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Costa, Kátia Anunciação; Soares, Anne Danieli Nascimento; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2014-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying physical exercise-induced hyperthermia may be species specific. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise intensity and ambient temperature on the core body temperature ( T core) of running mice, which provide an important experimental model for advancing the understanding of thermal physiology. We evaluated the influence of different protocols (constant- or incremental-speed exercises), treadmill speeds and ambient temperatures ( T a) on the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. To measure T core, a telemetric sensor was implanted in the abdominal cavity of male adult Swiss mice under anesthesia. After recovering from the surgery, the animals were familiarized to running on a treadmill and then subjected to the different running protocols and speeds at two T a: 24 °C or 34 °C. All of the experimental trials resulted in marked increases in T core. As expected, the higher-temperature environment increased the magnitude of running-induced hyperthermia. For example, during incremental exercise at 34 °C, the maximal T core achieved was increased by 1.2 °C relative to the value reached at 24 °C. However, at the same T a, neither treadmill speed nor exercise protocol altered the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. We conclude that T core of running mice is influenced greatly by T a, but not by the exercise protocols or intensities examined in the present report. These findings suggest that the magnitude of hyperthermia in running mice may be regulated centrally, independently of exercise intensity.

  14. Effects of Exogenous Melatonin on Body Mass Regulation and Hormone Concentrations in Eothenomys miletus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu, Wan-Long

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available By regulating the pineal hormone, photoperiods affect many physiological characteristics in small mammals. Thus, melatonin might take part in the thermoregulation of seasonal variations in small mammals. This study determined the influence of melatonin treatment on thermogenic pattern, we measured body mass, thermogenic activities and hormone concentrations of Eothenomys miletus were given exogenous melatonin (MLT for 28 days. The results shown that body mass was reduced significantly, whereas resting metabolic rate (RMR and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST increased at 28 days in MLT group compared to control group as well as the oxidative capacities of mitochondria in liver and brown adipose tissue (BAT were enhanced; the contents of total and mitochodrial protein increased markedly. Melatonin treatment significantly increased the State 3, State 4 respiration of liver mitochondria, and the activity of cytochrome C oxidase (COX in liver; but the α-glerocephasphate oxidase (α-PGO capacity showed no differences during the acclimation in liver. Furthermore, the State 4 respiration, the activities of COX and α-PGO in BAT increased, respectively. The activity of thyroxin 5’-deiodinase ( T45’-DII in BAT increased remarkably. The serum content of thyroxine (T 4 decreased, and that of tri-iodothyronine (T 3 increased. Moreover, serum leptin levels showed no significant differences in MLT group compared to control group. Together, these data indicate that melatonin enhances thermogenic capacity in E. miletus. Our results suggested that melatonin is potentially involved in the regulation of body mass, adaptive thermogenic capacity and hormone concentrations in E. miletus.

  15. Prediction of thermal environment via revision of PMV index with body temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Yan; Liu Jiaping; Kubota Hideki

    2007-01-01

    PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) is a widely used index for evaluating the thermal environment. However, few studies have been conducted to take physiological values directly as evaluating indices. This paper assumes a linear relation between body temperature and both sweating rate and heat produced by shivering, and introduces the linear relation into the human heat balance equation to revise the classic PMV. And the assumption of linear relation is subsequently proved. The revised PMV possesses the same characteristic of dependent heat load as that of the classic one, and moreover it is convenient to be calculated.

  16. Rictor/TORC2 regulates Caenorhabditis elegans fat storage, body size, and development through sgk-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin T Jones

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The target of rapamycin (TOR kinase coordinately regulates fundamental metabolic and cellular processes to support growth, proliferation, survival, and differentiation, and consequently it has been proposed as a therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer, metabolic disease, and aging. The TOR kinase is found in two biochemically and functionally distinct complexes, termed TORC1 and TORC2. Aided by the compound rapamycin, which specifically inhibits TORC1, the role of TORC1 in regulating translation and cellular growth has been extensively studied. The physiological roles of TORC2 have remained largely elusive due to the lack of pharmacological inhibitors and its genetic lethality in mammals. Among potential targets of TORC2, the pro-survival kinase AKT has garnered much attention. Within the context of intact animals, however, the physiological consequences of phosphorylation of AKT by TORC2 remain poorly understood. Here we describe viable loss-of-function mutants in the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of the TORC2-specific component, Rictor (CeRictor. These mutants display a mild developmental delay and decreased body size, but have increased lipid storage. These functions of CeRictor are not mediated through the regulation of AKT kinases or their major downstream target, the insulin-regulated FOXO transcription factor DAF-16. We found that loss of sgk-1, a homolog of the serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase, mimics the developmental, growth, and metabolic phenotypes of CeRictor mutants, while a novel, gain-of-function mutation in sgk-1 suppresses these phenotypes, indicating that SGK-1 is a mediator of CeRictor activity. These findings identify new physiological roles for TORC2, mediated by SGK, in regulation of C. elegans lipid accumulation and growth, and they challenge the notion that AKT is the primary effector of TORC2 function.

  17. Effects of body mass and water temperature on routine metabolism of American paddlefish Polyodon spathula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, J T; Mims, S D; Wright, R A

    2013-04-01

    This study quantified the effects of temperature and fish mass on routine metabolism of the American paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Thermal sensitivity, as measured by Q(10) value, was low in P. spathula. Mean Q(10) was 1·78 while poikilotherms are generally expected to have Q(10) values in the 2·00-2·50 range. Mass-specific metabolism did not decrease with increased fish size to the extent that this phenomenon is observed in teleosts, as evidenced by a mass exponent (β) value of 0·92 for P. spathula compared with 0·79 in a review of teleost species. Other Acipenseriformes have exhibited relatively high β values for mass-specific respiration. Overall P. spathula metabolism appears to be more dependent on body mass and less dependent on temperature than for many other fishes. An equation utilizing temperature and fish mass to estimate gross respiration for P. spathula was derived and this equation was applied to respiratory data from other Acipenseriformes to assess inter-species variation. Polyodon spathula respiration rates across water temperature and fish mass appear most similar to those of Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. PMID:23557305

  18. Too hot to sleep? Sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of Wahlberg's Epauletted Fruit Bat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen T Downs

    Full Text Available The significance of sleep and factors that affect it have been well documented, however, in light of global climate change the effect of temperature on sleep patterns has only recently gained attention. Unlike many mammals, bats (order: Chiroptera are nocturnal and little is known about their sleep and the effects of ambient temperature (Ta on their sleep. Consequently we investigated seasonal temperature effects on sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of free-ranging Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi, at a tree roost. Sleep behaviours of E. wahlbergi were recorded, including: sleep duration and sleep incidences (i.e. one eye open and both eyes closed. Sleep differed significantly across all the individuals in terms of sleep duration and sleep incidences. Individuals generally spent more time awake than sleeping. The percentage of each day bats spent asleep was significantly higher during winter (27.6%, compared with summer (15.6%. In summer, 20.7% of the sleeping bats used one eye open sleep, and this is possibly the first evidence of one-eye-sleep in non-marine mammals. Sleep duration decreased with extreme heat as bats spent significantly more time trying to cool by licking their fur, spreading their wings and panting. Skin temperatures of E. wahlbergi were significantly higher when Ta was ≥35°C and no bats slept at these high temperatures. Consequently extremely hot days negatively impact roosting fruit bats, as they were forced to be awake to cool themselves. This has implications for these bats given predicted climate change scenarios.

  19. Effects of airflow on body temperatures and sleep stages in a warm humid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Kazuyo; Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Mizuno, Koh; Iwaki, Tatsuya

    2008-03-01

    Airflow is an effective way to increase heat loss—an ongoing process during sleep and wakefulness in daily life. However, it is unclear whether airflow stimulates cutaneous sensation and disturbs sleep or reduces the heat load and facilitates sleep. In this study, 17 male subjects wearing short pyjamas slept on a bed with a cotton blanket under two of the following conditions: (1) air temperature (Ta) 26°C, relative humidity (RH) 50%, and air velocity (V) 0.2 m s-1; (2) Ta 32°C, RH 80%, V 1.7 m s-1; (3) Ta 32°C; RH 80%, V 0.2 m s-1 (hereafter referred to as 26/50, 32/80 with airflow, and 32/80 with still air, respectively). Electroencephalograms, electrooculograms, and mental electromyograms were obtained for all subjects. Rectal (Tre) and skin (Ts) temperatures were recorded continuously during the sleep session, and body-mass was measured before and after the sleep session. No significant differences were observed in the duration of sleep stages between subjects under the 26/50 and 32/80 with airflow conditions; however, the total duration of wakefulness decreased significantly in subjects under the 32/80 with airflow condition compared to that in subjects under the 32/80 with still air condition ( P < 0.05). Tre, Tsk, Ts, and body-mass loss under the 32/80 with airflow condition were significantly higher compared to those under the 26/50 condition, and significantly lower than those under the 32/80 with still air condition ( P < 0.05). An alleviated heat load due to increased airflow was considered to exist between the 32/80 with still air and the 26/50 conditions. Airflow reduces the duration of wakefulness by decreasing Tre, Tsk, Ts, and body-mass loss in a warm humid condition.

  20. The Importance of cGMP Signaling in Sensory Cilia for Body Size Regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Manabi; Hino, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Ryuta; Inada, Hitoshi; Mori, Ikue; Koga, Makoto; Miyahara, Koji; Ohshima, Yasumi; Ishihara, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    The body size of Caenorhabditis elegans is thought to be controlled by sensory inputs because many mutants with sensory cilium structure defects exhibit small body size. The EGL-4 cGMP-dependent protein kinase acts in sensory neurons to reduce body size when animals fail to perceive sensory signals. In addition to body size control, EGL-4 regulates various other behavioral and developmental pathways, including those involved in the regulation of egg laying and chemotaxis behavior. Here we have identified gcy-12, which encodes a receptor-type guanylyl cyclase, as a gene involved in the sensory regulation of body size. Analyses with GFP fusion constructs showed that gcy-12 is expressed in several sensory neurons and localizes to sensory cilia. Genetic analyses indicated that GCY-12 acts upstream of EGL-4 in body size control but does not affect other EGL-4 functions. Our studies indicate that the function of the GCY-12 guanylyl cyclase is to provide cGMP to the EGL-4 cGMP-dependent kinase only for limited tasks including body size regulation. We also found that the PDE-2 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase negatively regulates EGL-4 in controlling body size. Thus, the cGMP level is precisely controlled by GCY-12 and PDE-2 to determine body size through EGL-4, and the defects in the sensory cilium structure may disturb the balanced control of the cGMP level. The large number of guanylyl cyclases encoded in the C. elegans genome suggests that EGL-4 exerts pleiotropic effects by partnering with different guanylyl cyclases for different downstream functions.

  1. The roles of the amygdala in the affective regulation of body, brain, and behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirolli, Marco; Mannella, Francesco; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2010-09-01

    Despite the great amount of knowledge produced by the neuroscientific literature on affective phenomena, current models tackling non-cognitive aspects of behaviour are often bio-inspired but rarely bio-constrained. This paper presents a theoretical account of affective systems centred on the amygdala (Amg). This account aims to furnish a general framework and specific pathways to implement models that are more closely related to biological evidence. The Amg, which receives input from brain areas encoding internal states, innately relevant stimuli, and innately neutral stimuli, plays a fundamental role in the motivational and emotional processes of organisms. This role is based on the fact that Amg implements the two associative processes at the core of Pavlovian learning (conditioned stimulus (CS)-unconditioned stimulus (US) and CS-unconditioned response (UR) associations), and that it has the capacity of modulating these associations on the basis of internal states. These functionalities allow the Amg to play an important role in the regulation of the three fundamental classes of affective responses (namely, the regulation of body states, the regulation of brain states via neuromodulators, and the triggering of a number of basic behaviours fundamental for adaptation) and in the regulation of three high-level cognitive processes (namely, the affective labelling of memories, the production of goal-directed behaviours, and the performance of planning and complex decision-making). Our analysis is conducted within a methodological approach that stresses the importance of understanding the brain within an evolutionary/adaptive framework and with the aim of isolating general principles that can potentially account for the wider possible empirical evidence in a coherent fashion.

  2. Modification of reference temperature program in reactor regulating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sung Sik; Lee, Byung Jin; Kim, Se Chang; Cheong, Jong Sik [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji In; Doo, Jin Yong [Korea Electric Power Cooperation, Yonggwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    In Yonggwang nuclear units 3 and 4 currently under commercial operation, the cold temperature was very close to the technical specification limit of 298 deg C during initial startup testing, which was caused by the higher-than-expected reactor coolant system flow. Accordingly, the reference temperature (Tref) program needed to be revised to allow more flexibility for plant operations. In this study, the method of a specific test performed at Yonggwang nuclear unit 4 to revise the Tref program was described and the test results were discussed. In addition, the modified Tref program was evaluated on its potential impacts on system performance and safety. The methods of changing the Tref program and the associated pressurizer level setpoint program were also explained. Finally, for Ulchin nuclear unit 3 and 4 currently under initial startup testing, the effects of reactor coolant system flow rate on the coolant temperature were evaluated from the thermal hydraulic standpoint and an optimum Tref program was recommended. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  3. The evolutionary conserved oil body associated protein OBAP1 participates in the regulation of oil body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ribera, Ignacio; La Paz, José Luis; Repiso, Carlos; García, Nora; Miquel, Mercè; Hernández, María Luisa; Martínez-Rivas, José Manuel; Vicient, Carlos M

    2014-03-01

    A transcriptomic approach has been used to identify genes predominantly expressed in maize (Zea mays) scutellum during maturation. One of the identified genes is oil body associated protein1 (obap1), which is transcribed during seed maturation predominantly in the scutellum, and its expression decreases rapidly after germination. Proteins similar to OBAP1 are present in all plants, including primitive plants and mosses, and in some fungi and bacteria. In plants, obap genes are divided in two subfamilies. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome contains five genes coding for OBAP proteins. Arabidopsis OBAP1a protein is accumulated during seed maturation and disappears after germination. Agroinfiltration of tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) epidermal leaf cells with fusions of OBAP1 to yellow fluorescent protein and immunogold labeling of embryo transmission electron microscopy sections showed that OBAP1 protein is mainly localized in the surface of the oil bodies. OBAP1 protein was detected in the oil body cellular fraction of Arabidopsis embryos. Deletion analyses demonstrate that the most hydrophilic part of the protein is responsible for the oil body localization, which suggests an indirect interaction of OBAP1 with other proteins in the oil body surface. An Arabidopsis mutant with a transfer DNA inserted in the second exon of the obap1a gene and an RNA interference line against the same gene showed a decrease in the germination rate, a decrease in seed oil content, and changes in fatty acid composition, and their embryos have few, big, and irregular oil bodies compared with the wild type. Taken together, our findings suggest that OBAP1 protein is involved in the stability of oil bodies. PMID:24406791

  4. Diet-independent remodeling of cellular membranes precedes seasonally changing body temperature in a hibernator.

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    Walter Arnold

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have a multitude of health effects. Their incorporation into membrane phospholipids (PL is generally believed to depend directly on dietary influx. PL influence transmembrane protein activity and thus can compensate temperature effects; e.g. PL n-6 PUFA are thought to stabilize heart function at low body temperature (T(b, whereas long chain (>C18 n-3 PUFA may boost oxidative capacity. We found substantial remodeling of membranes in free-living alpine marmots which was largely independent of direct dietary supply. Organ PL n-6 PUFA and n-6 to n-3 ratios were highest at onset and end of hibernation after rapid increases during a brief transitional period prior to hibernation. In contrast, longer chain PL n-3 PUFA content was low at end of summer but maximal at end of hibernation. After termination of hibernation in spring, these changes in PL composition were rapidly reversed. Our results demonstrate selective trafficking of PUFA within the body, probably governed by a circannual endogenous rhythm, as hibernating marmots were in winter burrows isolated for seven months from food and external cues signaling the approaching spring. High concentrations of PL n-6 PUFA throughout hibernation are in line with their hypothesized function of boosting SERCA 2a activity at low T(b. Furthermore, we found increasing rate of rewarming from torpor during winter indicating increasing oxidative capacity that could be explained by the accumulation of long-chain PL n-3 PUFA. It may serve to minimize the time necessary for rewarming despite the increasing temperature range to be covered, because rewarming is a period of highest metabolic rate and hence production of reactive oxygen species. Considering the importance of PUFA for health our results may have important biomedical implications, as seasonal changes of T(b and associated remodeling of membranes are not restricted to hibernators but presumably common among endothermic

  5. Body Temperature Monitoring Using Subcutaneously Implanted Thermo-loggers from Holstein Steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y; Bok, J D; Lee, H J; Lee, H G; Kim, D; Lee, I; Kang, S K; Choi, Y J

    2016-02-01

    Body temperature (BT) monitoring in cattle could be used to early detect fever from infectious disease or physiological events. Various ways to measure BT have been applied at different locations on cattle including rectum, reticulum, milk, subcutis and ear canal. In other to evaluate the temperature stability and reliability of subcutaneous temperature (ST) in highly fluctuating field conditions for continuous BT monitoring, long term ST profiles were collected and analyzed from cattle in autumn/winter and summer season by surgically implanted thermo-logger devices. Purposes of this study were to assess ST in the field condition as a reference BT and to determine any location effect of implantation on ST profile. In results, ST profile in cattle showed a clear circadian rhythm with daily lowest at 05:00 to 07:00 AM and highest around midnight and rather stable temperature readings (mean±standard deviation [SD], 37.1°C to 37.36°C±0.91°C to 1.02°C). STs are 1.39°C to 1.65°C lower than the rectal temperature and sometimes showed an irregular temperature drop below the normal physiologic one: 19.4% or 36.4% of 54,192 readings were below 36.5°C or 37°C, respectively. Thus, for BT monitoring purposes in a fever-alarming-system, a correction algorithm is necessary to remove the influences of ambient temperature and animal resting behavior especially in winter time. One way to do this is simply discard outlier readings below 36.5°C or 37°C resulting in a much improved mean±SD of 37.6°C±0.64°C or 37.8°C±0.55°C, respectively. For location the upper scapula region seems the most reliable and convenient site for implantation of a thermo-sensor tag in terms of relatively low influence by ambient temperature and easy insertion compared to lower scapula or lateral neck.

  6. iCub Whole-body Control through Force Regulation on Rigid Noncoplanar Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eNori

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the implementation on the humanoid robot iCub of state-of-the-art algorithms for whole-body control. We regulate the forces between the robot and its surrounding environment to stabilize a desired robot posture. We assume that the forces and torques are exerted on rigid contacts. The validity of this assumption is guaranteed by constraining the contact forces and torques, e.g. the contact forces must belong to the associated friction cones. The implementation of this control strategy requires to estimate the external forces acting on the robot, and the internal joint torques. We then detail algorithms to obtain these estimations when using a robot with an iCub-like sensor set, i.e. distributed six-axis force-torque sensors and whole-body tactile sensors. A general theory for identifying the robot inertial parameters is also presented. From an actuation standpoint, we show how to implement a joint torque control in the case of DC brushless motors. In addition, the coupling mechanism of the iCub torso is investigated. The soundness of the entire control architecture is validated in a real scenario involving the robot iCub balancing and making contacts at both arms.

  7. Body weight and ADHD: examining the role of self-regulation.

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    Zia Choudhry

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a complex and heterogeneous childhood disorder that often coexists with other psychiatric and somatic disorders. Recently, a link between ADHD and body weight dysregulation has been reported and often interpreted as impaired self-regulation that is shared between the two conditions. The objective of this study is to investigate the relation between body weight/BMI and cognitive, emotional and motor characteristics in children with ADHD. METHODS: 284 ADHD children were stratified by weight status/BMI according to WHO classification and compared with regard to their neurocognitive characteristics, motivational style, and motor profile as assessed by a comprehensive battery of tests. All comparisons were adjusted for demographic characteristics of relevance including, socioeconomic status (SES. RESULTS: Both Obese and overweight ADHD children exhibited significantly lower SES compared to normal weight ADHD children. No significant differences were observed between the three groups with regards to their neurocognitive, emotional and motor profile. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that differences in weight/BMI are not accounted for by cognitive, motivational and motor profiles. Socio-economic characteristics are strongly associated with overweight and obesity in ADHD children and may inform strategies aimed at promoting healthier weight.

  8. Alkaline ceramidase 1 is essential for mammalian skin homeostasis and regulating whole-body energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakath-Ali, Kifayathullah; Vancollie, Valerie E; Lelliott, Christopher J; Speak, Anneliese O; Lafont, David; Protheroe, Hayley J; Ingvorsen, Camilla; Galli, Antonella; Green, Angela; Gleeson, Diane; Ryder, Ed; Glover, Leanne; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Karp, Natasha A; Arends, Mark J; Brenn, Thomas; Spiegel, Sarah; Adams, David J; Watt, Fiona M; van der Weyden, Louise

    2016-07-01

    The epidermis is the outermost layer of skin that acts as a barrier to protect the body from the external environment and to control water and heat loss. This barrier function is established through the multistage differentiation of keratinocytes and the presence of bioactive sphingolipids such as ceramides, the levels of which are tightly regulated by a balance of ceramide synthase and ceramidase activities. Here we reveal the essential role of alkaline ceramidase 1 (Acer1) in the skin. Acer1-deficient (Acer1(-/-) ) mice showed elevated levels of ceramide in the skin, aberrant hair shaft cuticle formation and cyclic alopecia. We demonstrate that Acer1 is specifically expressed in differentiated interfollicular epidermis, infundibulum and sebaceous glands and consequently Acer1(-/-) mice have significant alterations in infundibulum and sebaceous gland architecture. Acer1(-/-) skin also shows perturbed hair follicle stem cell compartments. These alterations result in Acer1(-/-) mice showing increased transepidermal water loss and a hypermetabolism phenotype with associated reduction of fat content with age. We conclude that Acer1 is indispensable for mammalian skin homeostasis and whole-body energy homeostasis. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:27126290

  9. Why does it matter how we regulate the use of human body parts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Imogen

    2014-01-01

    Human tissue and body parts have been used in one way or another for millennia. They have been preserved and displayed, both in museums and public shows. Real human hair is used for wigs, while some artists even use human tissue in their works. Blood, bone marrow, whole organs and a host of other structures and human substances are all transplanted into living persons to treat illness. New life can be created from gametes through in vitro fertilisation (IVF), while the creation of cell lines keeps tissue alive indefinitely. These uses create significant challenges for the legal system in the UK. The major challenge for the law is to balance the competing demands of those groups who have vested interests in human tissue-researchers, medical practitioners, patients, families, the community and the police, among many others. It must provide sufficient control to users of tissue, but also take account of the fact that our bodies hold psychological importance for us while we live and, after we die, for those we leave behind. To some degree the law has been successful, but we still lack a comprehensive, coherent approach to the regulation of human tissue. Partially as a reaction to this lack of a comprehensive approach, some commentators have turned to applying the concept of property to human tissue means to achieve regulatory outcomes they support.

  10. Alkaline ceramidase 1 is essential for mammalian skin homeostasis and regulating whole-body energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakath-Ali, Kifayathullah; Vancollie, Valerie E; Lelliott, Christopher J; Speak, Anneliese O; Lafont, David; Protheroe, Hayley J; Ingvorsen, Camilla; Galli, Antonella; Green, Angela; Gleeson, Diane; Ryder, Ed; Glover, Leanne; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Karp, Natasha A; Arends, Mark J; Brenn, Thomas; Spiegel, Sarah; Adams, David J; Watt, Fiona M; van der Weyden, Louise

    2016-07-01

    The epidermis is the outermost layer of skin that acts as a barrier to protect the body from the external environment and to control water and heat loss. This barrier function is established through the multistage differentiation of keratinocytes and the presence of bioactive sphingolipids such as ceramides, the levels of which are tightly regulated by a balance of ceramide synthase and ceramidase activities. Here we reveal the essential role of alkaline ceramidase 1 (Acer1) in the skin. Acer1-deficient (Acer1(-/-) ) mice showed elevated levels of ceramide in the skin, aberrant hair shaft cuticle formation and cyclic alopecia. We demonstrate that Acer1 is specifically expressed in differentiated interfollicular epidermis, infundibulum and sebaceous glands and consequently Acer1(-/-) mice have significant alterations in infundibulum and sebaceous gland architecture. Acer1(-/-) skin also shows perturbed hair follicle stem cell compartments. These alterations result in Acer1(-/-) mice showing increased transepidermal water loss and a hypermetabolism phenotype with associated reduction of fat content with age. We conclude that Acer1 is indispensable for mammalian skin homeostasis and whole-body energy homeostasis. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. A conserved role for syndecan family members in the regulation of whole-body energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria De Luca

    syndecan family members play a key role in the regulation of body metabolism.

  12. Rac1 regulates the release of Weibel-Palade Bodies in human aortic endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shui-xiang 杨水祥; YAN Juan 闫娟; Shailesh S. Deshpande; Kaikobad Irani; Charles J. Lowenstein

    2004-01-01

    Background The release of Weibel-Palade Bodies (WPB) is a form of endothelial cell activation. But the signal transduction pathway leading to WPB release is not yet defined. We hypothesized that small G-protein rac1 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate the ligand induced release of Weibel-Palade Bodies. Methods We tested this hypothesis by using wild-type and mutant adenoviral rac1 expression vectors, and by manipulating the production and destruction of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). Results Thrombin (1.0 Unit, 30 min) induced the increase of WPB release by 3.7-fold in HAEC, and that H2O2 (0.1 mmol/L, 30 min) induced by 4.5-fold. These results correlated with thrombin-stimulated activation of rac-GTP binding activity by 3.5-fold, and increase of ROS production by 3.4-fold. The dominant negative adenoviral rac-N17 gene transfer dramatically inhibited the release of WPB by 64.2% (control) and 77.3% (thrombin-stimulation), and decreased ROS production by 65.5% (control) and 83.6% (thrombin-stimulation) compared with non-infected cells, respectively. Anti-oxidants, catalase and N-acetyl-cysteine significantly decreased the release of WPB by 34% and 79% in control cells, and further decreased by 63.6% and 46.7% in rac-N17 transferred cells compared with non-infected cells. We also confirmed that rac1 was located upstream of ROS in the WPB release pathway. Conclusions Small G-protein rac1 medicates ligand-induced release of Weibel-Palade Bodies in human aortic endothelial cells, and the signal pathway of WPB release is a rac1-dependent ROS regulating mechanism.

  13. Touch-free measurement of body temperature using close-up thermography of the ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Benjamin; Wagner, Heike; Gmoser, Johanna; Wörner, Anja; Löschberger, Anna; Peters, Laura; Frey, Anna; Hofmann, Ulrich; Frantz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In experimental animal research body temperature (BT) is measured for the objective determination of an animals' physiological condition. Invasive, probe-based measurements are stressful and can influence experimental outcome. Alternatively BT can be determined touch-free from the emitted heat of the organism at a single spot using infrared thermometers [1]. To get visual confirmation and find more appropriate surfaces for measurement a hand-held thermal imager was equipped with a self-made, cheap, 3D-printable close-up lens system that reproducibly creates eight-time magnified thermal images and improves sensitivity. This setup was used to establish ocular surface temperature (OST), representing the temperature of the brain-heart axis, as a touch-free alternative for measurement of BT in mice, rats, rabbits and humans.OST measurement after isoflurane exposure and myocardial infarction (MI) experiments in mice revealed high physiological relevance and sensitivity, the possibility to discriminate between MI and sham operations in one hour and even long-term outcome-predictive capabilities of OST after MI. Summarized here we present: •Self-made close-up lens for thermal imaging cameras for eight-time magnification•Establishment of OST for touch-free determination of BT in rodents and humans•Short- and long-term predictive capabilities of OST in experimental MI in mice. PMID:27284532

  14. Research: Testing of a Novel Portable Body Temperature Conditioner Using a Thermal Manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Daniel; Heller, Alex; Moujaes, Samir; Williams, Shelley J; Hoffmann, Ryan; Sarkisian, Paul; Khalili, Kaveh; Rockenfeller, Uwe; Browder, Timothy D; Kuhls, Deborah A; Fildes, John J

    2016-01-01

    A battery-operated active cooling/heating device was developed to maintain thermoregulation of trauma victims in austere environments while awaiting evacuation to a hospital for further treatment. The use of a thermal manikin was adopted for this study in order to simulate load testing and evaluate the performance of this novel portable active cooling/heating device for both continuous (external power source) and battery power. The performance of the portable body temperature conditioner (PBTC) was evaluated through cooling/heating fraction tests to analyze the heat transfer between a thermal manikin and circulating water blanket to show consistent performance while operating under battery power. For the cooling/heating fraction tests, the ambient temperature was set to 15°C ± 1°C (heating) and 30°C ± 1°C (cooling). The PBTC water temperature was set to 37°C for the heating mode tests and 15°C for the cooling mode tests. The results showed consistent performance of the PBTC in terms of cooling/heating capacity while operating under both continuous and battery power. The PBTC functioned as intended and shows promise as a portable warming/cooling device for operation in the field. PMID:27632039

  15. FPGA-BASED CONTROL OF THERMOELECTRIC COOLERS FOR LASER DIODE TEMPERATURE REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHTESHAM ALI

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller is the most used controller in the industry. Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs allow efficient implementation of PID controllers. This paper presents the temperature regulation of a 48W laser diode through thermoelectric coolers (TECs. The temperature regulation system is designed and tested. The results demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of PID control through FPGA.

  16. The role of hepatic transferrin receptor 2 in the regulation of iron homeostasis in the body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christal A Worthen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine tuning of body iron is required to prevent diseases such as iron-overload and anemia. The putative iron-sensor, transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2, is expressed in the liver and mutations in this protein result in the iron-overload disease Type III hereditary hemochromatosis (HH. With the loss of functional TfR2, the liver produces about two-fold less of the peptide hormone hepcidin, which is responsible for negatively regulating iron uptake from the diet. This reduction in hepcidin expression leads to the slow accumulation of iron in the liver, heart, joints, and pancreas and subsequent cirrhosis, heart disease, arthritis, and diabetes. TfR2 can bind iron-loaded transferrin in the bloodstream, and hepatocytes treated with transferrin respond with a two-fold increase in hepcidin expression through stimulation of the BMP-signaling pathway. Loss of functional TfR2 or its binding partner, the original HH protein (HFE, results in a loss of this transferrin-sensitivity. While much is known about the trafficking and regulation of TfR2, the mechanism of its transferrin-sensitivity through the BMP-signaling pathway is still not known.

  17. Hypertensive stretch regulates endothelial exocytosis of Weibel-Palade bodies through VEGF receptor 2 signaling pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xiong; Zhenqian Hu; Xiaofan Han; Beibei Jiang; Rongli Zhang; Xiaoyu Zhang; Yao Lu

    2013-01-01

    Regulated endothelial exocytosis of Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs),the first stage in leukocyte trafficking,plays a pivotal role in inflammation and injury.Acute mechanical stretch has been closely associated with vascular inflammation,although the precise mechanism is unknown.Here,we show that hypertensive stretch regulates the exocytosis of WPBs of endothelial ceils (ECs) through VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling pathways.Stretch triggers a rapid release (within minutes) of von Willebrand factor and interleukin-8 from WPBs in cultured human ECs,promoting the interaction between leukocytes and ECs through the translocation of P-selectin to the cell membrane.We further show that hypertensive stretch significantly induces P-selectin translocation of intact ECs and enhances leukocyte adhesion both ex vivo and in vivo.Stretch-induced endothelial exocytosis is mediated via a VEGFR2/PLCy1/calcium pathway.Interestingly,stretch also induces a negative feedback via a VEGFR2/Akt/nitric oxide pathway.Such dual effects are confirmed using pharmacological and genetic approaches in carotid artery segments,as well as in acute hypertensive mouse models.These studies reveal mechanical stretch as a potent agonist for endothelial exocytosis,which is modulated by VEGFR2 signaling.Thus,VEGFR2 signaling pathways may represent novel therapeutic targets in limiting hypertensive stretch-related inflammation.

  18. Behavioural consequences of an 8 Gy total body irradiation in mice: Regulation by interleukin-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meeren, A.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection de la sante de l' Homme et de Dosimetrie, Section Autonome de Radiobiologie Appliquee a la Medecine, IPSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2001-02-01

    The effects of an 8 Gy {gamma} total body irradiation (TBI) on exploration and locomotion activities as well as temperature were studied in C57BL6/J mice. Survival, body weight, and blood cell counts were also assessed in irradiated mice treated with placebo or interleukin (IL)-4. The efficacy of IL-4 treatment on improvement in exploration activity was evaluated. The study was carried out from 3 h to 30 days following exposure. Our results showed a biphasic response to irradiation concerning the exploration activity of mice. Irradiated mice had reduced activity as early as 3 h after exposure, with recovery of activity within 24 h. The exploration activity again decreased 4 days after irradiation and the recovery occurred slowly after day 17. IL-4 ameliorated the exploration status in mice in both phases. The locomotion activity was studied using a telemetry apparatus. A similar pattern to that of the exploration data was observed, with a minimal activity observed between days 13 and 17. A radiation-induced hypothermia was also noticed over the same time period. (author)

  19. The effect of body temperature on the dynamic respiratory system compliance-breathing frequency relationship in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Alessandro; Bosco, Gerardo

    2013-06-01

    The mechanical inhomogeneity of the respiratory system is frequently investigated by measuring the frequency dependence of dynamic compliance, but no data are currently available describing the effects of body temperature variations. The aim of the present report was to study those effects in vivo. Peak airway pressure was measured during positive pressure ventilation in eight anesthetized rats while breathing frequency (but not tidal volume) was altered. Dynamic compliance was calculated as the tidal volume/peak airway pressure, and measurements were taken in basal conditions (mean rectal temperature 37.3 °C) as well as after total body warming (mean rectal temperature 39.7 °C). Due to parenchymal mechanical inhomogeneity and stress relaxation-linked effects, the normal rat respiratory system exhibited frequency dependence of dynamic lung compliance. Even moderate body temperature increments significantly reduced the decrements in dynamic compliance linked to breathing rate increments. The results were analyzed using Student's and Wilcoxon's tests, which yielded the same results (p temperature variations are known to influence respiratory mechanics. The frequency dependence of dynamic compliance was found, in the experiments described, to be temperature-dependent as temperature variations affected parenchymal mechanical inhomogeneity and stress relaxation. These results suggest that body temperature variations should be taken into consideration when the dynamic compliance-breathing frequency relationship is being examined during clinical assessment of inhomogeneity of lung parenchyma in patients.

  20. Tourette syndrome associated with body temperature dysregulation: possible involvement of an idiopathic hypothalamic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Abraham R

    2002-10-01

    Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder that holds the potential to afflict the emotional, familial, social, or scholastic performances of patients with Tourette syndrome in day-to-day life functioning. The disorder is today characterized mainly and diagnosed by clinical observations, yet false-negative results obtained in the diagnosis of Tourette syndrome are numerous and well documented. There is still no laboratory or imaging technique available for the diagnosis of Tourette syndrome. This article reports on changes of the ambient thermal perception (38%) and a circadian dysregulation of the body-temperature profile present in Tourette syndrome probands, irrespective of their chronologic age, sex, or comorbid symptoms. An involvement of idiopathic hypothalamic dysfunctions associated with Tourette syndrome is proposed. Such a phenomenon, if substantiated, could lead to a better understanding of Tourette syndrome and the development of unbiased physical diagnostic criteria of Tourette syndrome and potentiate possible production of novel therapeutic possibilities.

  1. Comparison of different measuring methods for body temperature in lactating cows under different climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammer, Stefanie; Lambertz, Christian; Gauly, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the research described here was to compare different methods of body temperature (BT) measurements in dairy cows. It was hypothesised that reticular temperature (RET) values reflect the physiological status of the animals in an equivalent way to rectal (RT) and vaginal (VT) measurements. RT, VT and RET temperatures of twelve lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were measured over five consecutive days in June and October 2013. While RT and VT were manually measured three times a day, RET was automatically recorded at 10 min intervals using a bolus in the reticulum. For comparison with RT and VT, different RET values were used: single values at the respective recording times (RET-SIN), and mean (RET-MEAN) and median (RET-MED) values of 2 h prior to RT and VT measurements. Overall, body temperatures averaged 38·1 ± 0·6, 38·2 ± 0·4, 38·7 ± 0·9, 38·5 ± 0·7 and 38·7 ± 0·5 °C for RT, VT, RET-SIN, RET-MEAN and RET-MED, respectively. RT and VT were lower than all RET measurements, while RET-SIN and RET-MED were higher than RET-MEAN (P < 0·001). RET-MEAN and RET-MED values were higher in the morning, whereas RT and VT were greatest in the evening (P < 0·001). Overall, records of RT and VT were strongly correlated (r = 0·75; P < 0·001). In contrast to RET-SIN and RET-MEAN, RET-MED was higher correlated to RT and VT. In June, coefficients were higher between all methods than in October. Relation of barn T to RT and VT was stronger when compared to RET measurements. RET-SIN was higher correlated to barn T than RET-MEAN or RET-MED. Correlation between VT and barn T was strongest (r = 0·48; P < 0·001). In summary, RET-MED showed highest correlation with VT and RT. However, single RET measurements (influenced by water or feed intake) can lead to extreme variations and differences to single VT and RT values.

  2. Cohort Removal Induces Changes in Body Temperature, Pain Sensitivity, and Anxiety-Like Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Keizo; Shoji, Hirotaka; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal). Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests. PMID:27375443

  3. Cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keizo eTakao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal. Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests.

  4. Cohort Removal Induces Changes in Body Temperature, Pain Sensitivity, and Anxiety-Like Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Keizo; Shoji, Hirotaka; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal). Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests.

  5. To use or not to use torpor? Activity and body temperature as predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Nereda; Geiser, Fritz

    2007-06-01

    When food is limited and/or environmental conditions are unfavourable, many mammals reduce activity and use torpor to save energy. Nevertheless, reliable predictors for torpor occurrence, especially in the wild, are currently not available. Interrelations between torpor use and other energy conserving strategies are also poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that reductions in normothermic body temperature ( T b) and the period of activity before torpor events could be used as predictors for torpor occurrence in sugar gliders, Petaurus breviceps (body mass, ˜125 g), known to display daily torpor in the wild. Occurrence of torpor was preceded by significant (˜10-25%) reductions of the duration of the activity phase. Moreover, the normothermic resting T b fell by an average of 1.2°C over 3 days before a torpor event, relative to individuals that did not display torpor. Our new findings suggest that before entering torpor, sugar gliders, which appear to use torpor as an emergency measure rather than a routine energy saving strategy, systematically reduce activity times and normothermic resting T bs to lower energy expenditure and perhaps to avoid employing torpor. Thus, reduced activity and normothermic T b may provide a predictive tool for the occurrence of daily torpor in the wild.

  6. Methylphenidate alters flash-evoked potentials, body temperature, and behavior in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzler, Bruce E; Meckel, Katherine R; Stickle, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    This experiment examined the effects of methylphenidate hydrochloride on flash-evoked potentials (FEPs) recorded from the visual cortex (VC) and superior colliculus (SC) of chronically implanted male Long-Evans rats, as well as on body temperature and open field behavior. FEPs were recorded at 10, 20 and 40 min following intraperitoneal injections of saline, and of doses of 0.7, 2.9, and 11.6 mg/kg methylphenidate on separate days. The 0.7 mg/kg dose did not produce significant effects. In the VC, following administration of the 11.6 mg/kg dose of methylphenidate the amplitude of components P83, N146, and P232 decreased, the amplitude of component N64 briefly increased and components P23, N30, N40, and P48 were unchanged in amplitude. In the SC, component P29 was unaffected, while components P38 and N51 were reduced in amplitude by the 11.6 mg/kg dose of methylphenidate. Peak latencies of components N40, P48, P83, and N146 in the VC and component P38 in the SC were increased by the 11.6 mg/kg dose of methylphenidate. When body temperature was recorded 45 min after drug administration, a mild dose-dependent hypothermia was found with the 2.9 and 11.6 mg/kg methylphenidate doses, suggesting that this may have contributed to the increased latencies. In subsequent open field observations, both line crossings and rearings were significantly increased by the 11.6 mg/kg dose. Increased movement into the center of the testing area was also observed, which could be a sign of increased exploration and reduced anxiety following methylphenidate.

  7. Regulación del peso corporal y del apetito Body Weight and Appetite Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Vásquez-Machado

    2010-06-01

    capacidad reguladora del sistema de balance energético. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar avances recientes en la comprensión de los mecanismos reguladores del peso corporal y el apetito, los cuales han ampliado la visión de la fisiopatología de la obesidad, al tiempo que ofrecen diversas perspectivas para su tratamiento.Due to the fact that the obesity epidemic shows no signs of diminishing, a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying energy homeostasis has become necessary. During this process energy intake is matched to energy expenditure over time, in such a way that body fuel stored in the form of adipose tissue is held constant despite daily fluctuations in caloric intake. The system that controls energy balance possesses 2 components: a short and a long-term. The short-term system is in charge of appetite regulation or the initiation and termination of individual meals. It responds basically to gut hormones or satiety signals that accumulate during eating and ultimately contribute to meal termination. Adiposity factors are circulating signals generated in proportion to the body energy storages, such as insulin and leptin, levels of which are involved in the regulation of energy balance over long intervals thereby promoting body weight stability. The central melanocortin pathway represents a crucial integration point for these signals. Melanocortin receptor ligands are synthesized by discrete neuronal populations within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and exert actions in both components of the energy balance equation. In addition to hormones, the brain also responds directly to the nutrient circulating levels. Two fuel-sensing protein kinases functioning as main regulators of body weight and food intake in the hypothalamus have been identified: mTOR and AMPK. Besides these basic homeostatic circuits, the hedonic mechanisms of feeding are important in the regulation of energy intake since they can override the energy balance

  8. Development of a novel scheme for long-term body temperature monitoring: a review of benefits and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Frau, David; Varela-Entrecanales, Manuel; Valor-Perez, Raul; Vargas, Borja

    2015-04-01

    Body temperature is a health or disease marker that has been in clinical use for centuries. The threshold currently applied to define fever, with small variations, is 38 °C. However, current approaches do not provide a full picture of the thermoregulation process and its correlation with disease. This paper describes a new non-invasive body temperature device that improves the understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases by integrating a variety of temperature data from different body locations. This device enables to gain a deeper insight into fever, endogenous rhythms, subject activity and ambient temperature to provide anticipatory and more efficient treatments. Its clinical use would be a big step in the overcoming of the anachronistic febrile/afebrile dichotomy and walking towards a system medicine approach to certain diseases. This device has already been used in some clinical applications successfully. Other possible applications based on the device features and clinical requirements are also described in this paper.

  9. Arabidopsis thaliana G2-LIKE FLAVONOID REGULATOR and BRASSINOSTEROID ENHANCED EXPRESSION1 are low-temperature regulators of flavonoid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Antonios; Döll, Stefanie; Nichelmann, Lars; Bilger, Wolfgang; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoid synthesis is predominantly regulated at the transcriptional level through the MYB-basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-WD40 (MBW) (MYB: transcription factor of the myeloblastosis protein family, WD40: tanscription factor with a short structural motif of 40 amino acids which terminates in an aspartic acid-tryptophan dipeptide) complex, and responds to both environmental and developmental stimuli. Although the developmental regulation of flavonoid accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana has been examined in great detail, the response of the flavonoid synthesis pathway to abiotic stress (particularly low temperature) remains unclear. A screen of a Dissociation element (Ds) transposon-induced mutation collection identified two lines which exhibited an altered profile of phenylpropanoid accumulation following exposure to low-temperature stress. One of the mutated genes (BRASSINOSTEROID ENHANCED EXPRESSION1 (BEE1)) encoded a brassinosteroid enhanced expression transcription factor, while the other (G2-LIKE FLAVONOID REGULATOR (GFR)) encoded a G2-like flavonoid regulator. Phenylpropanoid-targeted analysis was performed using high-performance LC-MS, and gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. In both mutants, the accumulation of quercetins and scopolin was reduced under low-temperature growing conditions, whereas that of anthocyanin was increased. BEE1 and GFR were both shown to negatively regulate anthocyanin accumulation by inhibiting anthocyanin synthesis genes via the suppression of the bHLH (TRANSPARENT TESTA8 (TT8) and GLABROUS3 (GL3)) and/or the MYB (PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENTS2 (PAP2)) components of the MBW complex. Our results provide new insight into the regulatory control of phenylpropanoid metabolism at low temperatures, and reveal that BEE1 and GFR act as important components of the signal transduction chain. PMID:27125220

  10. Exploiting the igloo principle and greenhouse effect to regulate humidity and temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu Karthick; Srinivas C; Nair Shashidharan; Sundaram Shanmuga; Thirumurthy M

    2006-01-01

    Background: Toxic epidermal necrolysis can be fatal and nursing care with careful monitoring of temperature and humidity can improve survival rate. We adapted the greenhouse and igloo principle using a common hood to monitor the temperature and humidity. Methods: A small heater with a regulator was placed in a mini hood and temperature was recorded inside the uncovered hood and hood covered with green cloth and aluminium foil separately. The regular hood was placed over a volunteer and the...

  11. Evolution of microstructure in flyash-containing porcelain body on heating at different temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kausik Dana; Swapan Kumar Das

    2004-04-01

    15 wt% flyash (a calcined byproduct of thermal power plant) was incorporated in a normal triaxial kaolin–quartz–feldspar system by replacing equivalent amount of quartz. The differences in microstructural evolution on heating the compact mass of both normal and flyash-containing porcelain at different temperatures (1150–1300°C) were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) operating in secondary electron image (SEI) mode. Microstructure of normal porcelain did not show the presence of mullite and quartz grains at 1200°C and the viscosity of silica-rich glass restricted the growth of mullite crystals at 1250°C. Flyash porcelain, on the other hand, shows the presence of primary mullite aggregates in the clay relict and a significant growth of mullite crystals in a low viscosity glassy matrix at 1200°C itself. At 1300°C, both the bodies show a larger region of more elongated (> 1 m) secondary mullite along with clusters of smaller sized primary mullite (< 1 m). Small primary mullite crystals in the clay relict can be distinguished from elongated secondary mullite crystals in the feldspar relict in their size. Primary mullite aggregates remain stable also at higher temperatures. XRD studies were carried out for quantitative estimation of quartz, mullite and glass, which supported the SEM observations. An attempt was also made to correlate their mechanical strength with the constituent phases.

  12. The time of day differently influences fatigue and locomotor activity: is body temperature a key factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Frederico Sander Mansur; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the possible interactions between exercise capacity and spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) during the oscillation of core body temperature (Tb) that occurs during the light/dark cycle. Wistar rats (n=11) were kept at an animal facility under a light/dark cycle of 14/10h at an ambient temperature of 23°C and water and food ad libitum. Initially, in order to characterize the daily oscillation in SLA and Tb of the rats, these parameters were continuously recorded for 24h using an implantable telemetric sensor (G2 E-Mitter). The animals were randomly assigned to two progressive exercise test protocols until fatigue during the beginning of light and dark-phases. Fatigue was defined as the moment rats could not keep pace with the treadmill. We assessed the time to fatigue, workload and Tb changes induced by exercise. Each test was separated by 3days. Our results showed that exercise capacity and heat storage were higher during the light-phase (pexercise performance and spontaneous locomotor activity are not directly associated, both are strongly influenced by daily cycles of light and dark. PMID:25479573

  13. SOME INSIGHTS REGARDING CREATIVE ACCOUNTING IN ROMANIAN ACCOUNTING ENVIRONMENT - REGULATORS, FINANCIAL AUDITORS AND PROFESSIONAL BODIES OPINION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosanu Adrian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study reports the results of a survey designed to explore the existence and magnitude of creative accounting practices in the Romanian accounting environment using as a reference point the opinion of some of the top representative accounting professionals like: financial auditors, regulators and professional bodies representatives of the Chamber of Financial Auditors of Romania and also representative of the Body of Expert and Licensed Accountants of Romania. Since the existence of creative accounting practices are connected in accounting with issues of vulnerability and in some cases panic getting to know its magnitude can be regarded of higher importance. In this respect we were interested to see if our respondents can document its existence and magnitude based on their experience. In order to achieve this goal our methodology employed neutral and direct interviews based on closed questions questionnaire. The results of our empirical study documented that the credibility of accounting profession in the Romanian accounting environment is not affected by items like creative accounting since all our respondents asserted that is not facile to employ creative accounting schemes in the practice of accounting. One particular question was concerned about the ease of detection of creative accounting practices. In this respect we interrogated our respondents and all had similar opinions that in order to detect those practice skilled professionals are needed and more than that the desire to engage in this demarche since it is not specified particularly in the law.When it comes to creative accounting schemes that our respondents could identify in their day to day work they shared similar views: items like profit overstatement and profit undervaluation, income tax and leasing can be included frequently in those schemes. On the other hand practices of creative accounting that include goodwill, provisions and developments costs are not found

  14. Mechanisms of temperature-dependent swimming: the importance of physics, physiology and body size in determining protist swimming speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Oliver S; Petchey, Owen L; Humphries, Stuart

    2010-12-15

    Body temperatures and thus physiological rates of poikilothermic organisms are determined by environmental temperature. The power an organism has available for swimming is largely dependent on physiological rates and thus body temperature. However, retarding forces such as drag are contingent on the temperature-dependent physical properties of water and on an organism's size. Consequently, the swimming ability of poikilotherms is highly temperature dependent. The importance of the temperature-dependent physical properties of water (e.g. viscosity) in determining swimming speed is poorly understood. Here we propose a semi-mechanistic model to describe how biological rates, size and the physics of the environment contribute to the temperature dependency of microbial swimming speed. Data on the swimming speed and size of a predatory protist and its protist prey were collected and used to test our model. Data were collected by manipulating both the temperature and the viscosity (independently of temperature) of the organism's environment. Protists were either cultured in their test environment (for several generations) or rapidly exposed to their test environment to assess their ability to adapt or acclimate to treatments. Both biological rates and the physics of the environment were predicted to and observed to contribute to the swimming speed of protists. Body size was not temperature dependent, and protists expressed some ability to acclimate to changes in either temperature or viscosity. Overall, using our parameter estimates and novel model, we are able to suggest that 30 to 40% (depending on species) of the response in swimming speed associated with a reduction in temperature from 20 to 5°C is due to viscosity. Because encounter rates between protist predators and their prey are determined by swimming speed, temperature- and viscosity-dependent swimming speeds are likely to result in temperature- and viscosity-dependent trophic interactions. PMID:21113003

  15. Synthesis of Thermoresponsive Amphiphilic Polyurethane Gel as a New Cell Printing Material near Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Chun; Li, Suming; Hu, Shiaw-Guang; Chang, Wen-Chi; Jeng, U-Ser; Hsu, Shan-hui

    2015-12-23

    Waterborne polyurethane (PU) based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) diol and a second oligodiol containing amphiphilic blocks was synthesized in this study. The microstructure was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and rheological measurement of the PU dispersion. The surface hydrophilicity measurement, infrared spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, mechanical and thermal analyses were conducted in solid state. It was observed that the presence of a small amount of amphiphilic blocks in the soft segment resulted in significant changes in microstructure. When 90 mol % PCL diol and 10 mol % amphiphilic blocks of poly(l-lactide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PLLA-PEO) diol were used as the soft segment, the synthesized PU had a water contact angle of ∼24° and degree of crystallinity of ∼14%. The dispersion had a low viscosity below room temperature. As the temperature was raised to body temperature (37 °C), the dispersion rapidly (∼170 s) underwent sol-gel transition with excellent gel modulus (G' ≈ 6.5 kPa) in 20 min. PU dispersions with a solid content of 25-30% could be easily mixed with cells in sol state, extruded by a 3D printer, and deposited layer by layer as a gel. Cells remained alive and proliferating in the printed hydrogel scaffold. We expect that the development of novel thermoresponsive PU system can be used as smart injectable hydrogel and applied as a new type of bio-3D printing ink.

  16. Nonlinear mixed effects modelling for the analysis of longitudinal body core temperature data in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Kok-Yong; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ting; Ming Chai, Adam Kian; Yuen Fun, David Chiok; Teo, Ya Shi; Sze Tan, Pearl Min; Ang, Wee Hon; Wei Lee, Jason Kai

    2016-04-01

    Many longitudinal studies have collected serial body core temperature (T c) data to understand thermal work strain of workers under various environmental and operational heat stress environments. This provides the opportunity for the development of mathematical models to analyse and forecast temporal T c changes across populations of subjects. Such models can reduce the need for invasive methods that continuously measure T c. This current work sought to develop a nonlinear mixed effects modelling framework to delineate the dynamic changes of T c and its association with a set of covariates of interest (e.g. heart rate, chest skin temperature), and the structure of the variability of T c in various longitudinal studies. Data to train and evaluate the model were derived from two laboratory investigations involving male soldiers who participated in either a 12 (N  =  18) or 15 km (N  =  16) foot march with varied clothing, load and heat acclimatisation status. Model qualification was conducted using nonparametric bootstrap and cross validation procedures. For cross validation, the trajectory of a new subject's T c was simulated via Bayesian maximum a posteriori estimation when using only the baseline T c or using the baseline T c as well as measured T c at the end of every work (march) phase. The final model described T c versus time profiles using a parametric function with its main parameters modelled as a sigmoid hyperbolic function of the load and/or chest skin temperature. Overall, T c predictions corresponded well with the measured data (root mean square deviation: 0.16 °C), and compared favourably with those provided by two recently published Kalman filter models. PMID:26963194

  17. Accuracy of parents in measuring body temperature with a tympanic thermometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spady Donald W

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is now common for parents to measure tympanic temperatures in children. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of these measurements. Methods Parents and then nurses measured the temperature of 60 children with a tympanic thermometer designed for home use (home thermometer. The reference standard was a temperature measured by a nurse with a model of tympanic thermometer commonly used in hospitals (hospital thermometer. A difference of ≥ 0.5 °C was considered clinically significant. A fever was defined as a temperature ≥ 38.5 °C. Results The mean absolute difference between the readings done by the parent and the nurse with the home thermometer was 0.44 ± 0.61 °C, and 33% of the readings differed by ≥ 0.5 °C. The mean absolute difference between the readings done by the parent with the home thermometer and the nurse with the hospital thermometer was 0.51 ± 0.63 °C, and 72 % of the readings differed by ≥ 0.5 °C. Using the home thermometer, parents detected fever with a sensitivity of 76% (95% CI 50–93%, a specificity of 95% (95% CI 84–99%, a positive predictive value of 87% (95% CI 60–98%, and a negative predictive value of 91% (95% CI 79–98 %. In comparing the readings the nurse obtained from the two different tympanic thermometers, the mean absolute difference was 0.24 ± 0.22 °C. Nurses detected fever with a sensitivity of 94% (95 % CI 71–100 %, a specificity of 88% (95% CI 75–96 %, a positive predictive value of 76% (95% CI 53–92%, and a negative predictive value of 97% (95%CI 87–100 % using the home thermometer. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the three sets of readings was 0.80, and the consistency of readings was not affected by the body temperature. Conclusions The readings done by parents with a tympanic thermometer designed for home use differed a clinically significant amount from the reference standard (readings done by nurses with a model of

  18. Sexual dimorphic regulation of body weight dynamics and adipose tissue lipolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Benz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful reduction of body weight (BW is often followed by recidivism to obesity. BW-changes including BW-loss and -regain is associated with marked alterations in energy expenditure (EE and adipose tissue (AT metabolism. Since these processes are sex-specifically controlled, we investigated sexual dimorphisms in metabolic processes during BW-dynamics (gain-loss-regain. RESEARCH DESIGN: Obesity was induced in C57BL/6J male (m and female (f mice by 15 weeks high-fat diet (HFD feeding. Subsequently BW was reduced (-20% by caloric restriction (CR followed by adaptive feeding, and a regain-phase. Measurement of EE, body composition, blood/organ sampling were performed after each feeding period. Lipolysis was analyzed ex-vivo in gonadal AT. RESULTS: Male mice exhibited accelerated BW-gain compared to females (relative BW-gain m:140.5±3.2%; f:103.7±6.5%; p<0.001. In consonance, lean mass-specific EE was significantly higher in females compared to males during BW-gain. Under CR female mice reached their target-BW significantly faster than male mice (m:12.2 days; f:7.6 days; p<0.001 accompanied by a sustained sex-difference in EE. In addition, female mice predominantly downsized gonadal AT whereas the relation between gonadal and total body fat was not altered in males. Accordingly, only females exhibited an increased rate of forskolin-stimulated lipolysis in AT associated with significantly higher glycerol concentrations, lower RER-values, and increased AT expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL. Analysis of AT lipolysis in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα-deficient mice revealed a reduced lipolytic rate in the absence of ERα exclusively in females. Finally, re-feeding caused BW-regain faster in males than in females. CONCLUSION: The present study shows sex-specific dynamics during BW-gain-loss-regain. Female mice responded to CR with an increase in lipolytic activity, and augmented lipid

  19. Body temperature control in patients with refractory septic shock:too much may be harmful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan-li; LIU Da-wei; WANG Xiao-ting; LONG Yun; ZHOU Xiang; CHAI Wen-zao

    2013-01-01

    Background The lowering of body temperature is a common,almost reflexive step in the daily care of septic shock patient.However,the effect of different magnitudes of fever control on the outcome of refractory septic patients with a very poor outcome is controversial and has yet to be explored.Methods This prospective trial examined sixty-five refractory septic shock patients with a core temperature higher than 38.5℃.Patients were randomly assigned to a group achieving a "low temperature" range (LT group:36.0-37.5 ℃) or to a group achieving a "high temperature" range (HT group:37.5-38.3 ℃C) by physical methods including a water-flow cooling blanket and ice packs.A target core temperature was achieved in 1-2 hours post-treatment,and maintained for 72 hours.Averaged values of core temperature as well as hemodynamic,respiratory,and laboratory variables were analyzed at baseline and during the first 72 hours after fever control.Results Thirty-four (52.31%) patients were assigned to the LT group and thirty-one (47.69%) patients were assigned to the HT group.The mean core temperature was significantly lower in the LT group than in the HT group (36.61 vs.37.85 ℃,respectively; P < 0.0001).The average heart rate (HR) (75.5 vs.91.9 beats/min,respectively; P < 0.0001) and the mean cardiac output (CO) (5.35 vs.6.45 L/min,respectively; P =0.002) were also statistically significant lower in the LT group than in the HT group.The averaged serum lactate level was significantly higher in the LT group compared to the HT group (5.59 vs.2.82 mmol/L,respectively; P=-0.008).Fibrinogen and activated partial thromboplatin time were also different between the two groups.The 28 days mortality was significantly higher in the LT group than in the HT group (61.8vs.25.8%,respectively; P=0.003).A Cox-regression model analysis showed that mean core temperature during the 72 h period was an independent predictor of 28 days mortality (odds ratio (OR) =0.42,95%Cl 0

  20. Measuring the mechanical efficiency of a working cardiac muscle sample at body temperature using a flow-through calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberner, Andrew J; Johnston, Callum M; Pham, Toan; June-Chiew Han; Ruddy, Bryan P; Loiselle, Denis S; Nielsen, Poul M F

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a new `work-loop calorimeter' that is capable of measuring, simultaneously, the work-done and heat production of isolated cardiac muscle samples at body temperature. Through the innovative use of thermoelectric modules as temperature sensors, the development of a low-noise fluid-flow system, and implementation of precise temperature control, the heat resolution of this device is 10 nW, an improvement by a factor of ten over previous designs. These advances have allowed us to conduct the first flow-through measurements of work output and heat dissipation from cardiac tissue at body temperature. The mechanical efficiency is found to vary with peak stress, and reaches a peak value of approximately 15 %, a figure similar to that observed in cardiac muscle at lower temperatures.

  1. Temperature and trapping characterization of an acoustic trap with miniaturized integrated transducers--towards in-trap temperature regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Linda; Evander, Mikael; Lilliehorn, Tobias; Almqvist, Monica; Nilsson, Johan; Laurell, Thomas; Johansson, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    An acoustic trap with miniaturized integrated transducers (MITs) for applications in non-contact trapping of cells or particles in a microfluidic channel was characterized by measuring the temperature increase and trapping strength. The fluid temperature was measured by the fluorescent response of Rhodamine B in the microchannel. The trapping strength was measured by the area of a trapped particle cluster counter-balanced by the hydrodynamic force. One of the main objectives was to obtain quantitative values of the temperature in the fluidic channel to ensure safe handling of cells and proteins. Another objective was to evaluate the trapping-to-temperature efficiency for the trap as a function of drive frequency. Thirdly, trapping-to-temperature efficiency data enables identifying frequencies and voltage values to use for in-trap temperature regulation. It is envisioned that operation with only in-trap temperature regulation enables the realization of small, simple and fast temperature-controlled trap systems. The significance of potential gradients at the trap edges due to the finite size of the miniaturized transducers for the operation was emphasized and expressed analytically. The influence of the acoustic near field was evaluated in FEM-simulation and compared with a more ideal 1D standing wave. The working principle of the trap was examined by comparing measurements of impedance, temperature increase and trapping strength with impedance transfer calculations of fluid-reflector resonances and frequencies of high reflectance at the fluid-reflector boundary. The temperature increase was found to be moderate, 7°C for a high trapping strength, at a fluid flow of 0.5mms(-1) for the optimal driving frequency. A fast temperature response with a fall time of 8s and a rise time of 11s was observed. The results emphasize the importance of selecting the proper drive frequency for long term handling of cells, as opposed to the more pragmatic way of selecting the

  2. The regulation of body fat distribution and the modulation of insulin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cases, J A; Barzilai, N

    2000-11-01

    Body fat distribution may determine insulin resistance and its metabolic syndrome in humans, independent of obesity. Surgical removal of visceral fat (VF) in obese rats was associated with decreased leptin plasma levels and its gene expression in subcutaneous fat (SC). Chronic leptin treatment to rats decreased VF specifically supporting the role of leptin in determining fat distribution. Surgical removal of selected VF provided direct evidence of improved in vivo insulin action on hepatic glucose production (HGP) by over 2-fold vs sham-operated control. The impact of decreased VF on improved in vivo insulin action was further supported by obtaining similar decreases in VF by treating rats with leptin (Lep), beta3-aderenoreceptor agonist, or by severe caloric restriction (CR). All these three interventions improved insulin action on the modulation of HGP and were mostly attributed to preservation of hepatic glycogen stores. Because free fatty acids (FFA) plasma levels were unchanged, this effect may not be mediated portally by substrates. Improved peripheral insulin sensitivity and glycogen synthesis was demonstrated only in Lep. These data suggest that VF is a major determinant of hepatic insulin action. In obese rats, the ability of leptin to prevent visceral adiposity and its own expression is attenuated. Thus, the failure of leptin to regulate fat distribution and its own secretion suggest that 'leptin resistance' may be a pathologic feature in obesity. PMID:11126245

  3. Microbiota prevents cholesterol loss from the body by regulating host gene expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chun-Yan; Sun, Wei-Wei; Ma, Yinyan; Zhu, Hongling; Yang, Pan; Wei, Hong; Zeng, Ben-Hua; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Yu; Li, Wen-Xia; Chen, Yixin; Yu, Liqing; Song, Zhi-Yuan

    2015-05-27

    We have previously observed that knockout of Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1), a cholesterol transporter essential for intestinal cholesterol absorption, reduces the output of dry stool in mice. As the food intake remains unaltered in NPC1L1-knockout (L1-KO) mice, we hypothesized that NPC1L1 deficiency may alter the gut microbiome to reduce stool output. Consistently, here we demonstrate that the phyla of fecal microbiota differ substantially between L1-KO mice and their wild-type controls. Germ-free (GF) mice have reduced stool output. Inhibition of NPC1L1 by its inhibitor ezetimibe reduces stool output in specific pathogen-free (SPF), but not GF mice. In addition, we show that GF versus SPF mice have reduced intestinal absorption and increased fecal excretion of cholesterol, particularly after treatment with ezetimibe. This negative balance of cholesterol in GF mice is associated with reduced plasma and hepatic cholesterol, and likely caused by reduced expression of NPC1L1 and increased expression of ABCG5 and ABCG8 in small intestine. Expression levels of other genes in intestine and liver largely reflect a state of cholesterol depletion and a decrease in intestinal sensing of bile acids. Altogether, our findings reveal a broad role of microbiota in regulating whole-body cholesterol homeostasis and its response to a cholesterol-lowering drug, ezetimibe.

  4. Self temperature regulation of photothermal therapy by laser-shared photoacoustic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaohua; Gao, Fei; Xu, Chenyu; Gaoming, Li; Zheng, Yuanjin

    2015-10-01

    This article describes a laser-shared photothermal system that achieves tight temperature regulation by frequency-domain photoacoustic (FD-PA) feedback. To this end, a continuous-wave laser system was designed with arbitrarily modulatable laser intensity. And, by fast alternating in the time domain between a constant laser intensity for photothermal heating and a modulated laser intensity for FD-PA temperature measurement, photothermal temperature variations are captured by FD-PA in real time. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller monitors the feedback from FD-PA measurements and controls photothermal heating dose accordingly, thus stabilizing the temperature at preset values. The proposed system is demonstrated to achieve ultrafast temperature measurement at a 4 kHz rate, and with proper averaging, the measurement and regulation accuracy are 0.75 deg and 0.9 deg respectively.

  5. BLOOD PRESSURE REGULATION III: WHAT HAPPENS WHEN ONE SYSTEM MUST SERVE TWO MASTERS: TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE REGULATION?

    OpenAIRE

    Kenney, W. Larry; Stanhewicz, Anna E.; Bruning, Rebecca S.; Alexander, Lacy M.

    2013-01-01

    When prolonged intense exercise is performed at high ambient temperatures, cardiac output must meet dual demands for increased blood flow to contracting muscle and to the skin. The literature has commonly painted this scenario as a fierce competition, wherein one circulation preserves perfusion at the expense of the other, with the regulated maintenance of blood pressure as the ultimate goal. This review redefines this scenario as commensalism, an integrated balance of regulatory control wher...

  6. Psychoneuroendocrine immunology: perception of stress can alter body temperature and natural killer cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, R N; Solvason, H B; Hsueh, C M; Rogers, C F; Demissie, S; Hiramoto, N S; Gauthier, D K; Lorden, J F; Ghanta, V K

    1999-01-01

    Psychoimmunology has been credited with using the mind as a way to alter immunity. The problem with this concept is that many of the current psychoimmunology techniques in use are aimed at alleviating stress effects on the immune system rather than at direct augmentation of immunity by the brain. Studies in animals provide a model that permits us to approach the difficulties associated with gaining an understanding of the CNS-immune system connection. A particular advantage of using animals over humans is that psychological and social contributions play a less prominent role for animals than for human subjects, since the animals are all inbred and reared under identical controlled conditions. If the insightful information provided by animal studies is correct, then psychotherapy for the treatment of diseases might be made more effective if some aspect of this knowledge is included in the design of the treatment. We emphasize conditioning as a regimen and an acceptable way to train the brain to remember an output pathway to raise immunity. We propose that a specific drug or perception (mild stress, represented by rotation, total body heating or handling) could substitute and kindle the same output pathway without the need for conditioning. If this view is correct, then instead of using conditioning, it may be possible to use an antigen to activate desired immune cells, and substitute a drug or an external environmental sensory stimulus (perception) to energize the output pathway to these cells. Alternatively, monitoring alterations of body temperature in response to a drug or perception might allow us to follow how effectively the brain is performing in altering immunity. Studies with animals suggest that there are alternative ways to use the mind to raise natural or acquired immunity in man.

  7. Microenvironment temperature prediction between body and seat interface using autoregressive data-driven model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuofu; Wang, Lin; Luo, Zhongming; Heusch, Andrew I; Cascioli, Vincenzo; McCarthy, Peter W

    2015-11-01

    There is a need to develop a greater understanding of temperature at the skin-seat interface during prolonged seating from the perspectives of both industrial design (comfort/discomfort) and medical care (skin ulcer formation). Here we test the concept of predicting temperature at the seat surface and skin interface during prolonged sitting (such as required from wheelchair users). As caregivers are usually busy, such a method would give them warning ahead of a problem. This paper describes a data-driven model capable of predicting thermal changes and thus having the potential to provide an early warning (15- to 25-min ahead prediction) of an impending temperature that may increase the risk for potential skin damages for those subject to enforced sitting and who have little or no sensory feedback from this area. Initially, the oscillations of the original signal are suppressed using the reconstruction strategy of empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Consequentially, the autoregressive data-driven model can be used to predict future thermal trends based on a shorter period of acquisition, which reduces the possibility of introducing human errors and artefacts associated with longer duration "enforced" sitting by volunteers. In this study, the method had a maximum predictive error of <0.4 °C when used to predict the temperature at the seat and skin interface 15 min ahead, but required 45 min data prior to give this accuracy. Although the 45 min front loading of data appears large (in proportion to the 15 min prediction), a relative strength derives from the fact that the same algorithm could be used on the other 4 sitting datasets created by the same individual, suggesting that the period of 45 min required to train the algorithm is transferable to other data from the same individual. This approach might be developed (along with incorporation of other measures such as movement and humidity) into a system that can give caregivers prior warning to help avoid

  8. Nurse migration in an increasingly interconnected world: the case for internationalization of regulation of nurses and nursing regulatory bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcliffe, John R; Bajkay, Renay; Forster, Stu; Small, Rudy; Travale, Rodger

    2011-10-01

    Psychiatric/Mental Health nursing has a long history of professional self-regulation; nevertheless, interest in how governments protect consumers of health care from poor or dangerous practice(s) is on the increase. Correspondingly, there have been calls, in several parts of the world, for greater watchfulness and due diligence from regulatory bodies. Mindful of the concept of "globalization" and the unequivocal data regarding the significant increase in the migration of nurses, it is difficult to ignore/deny the reality of an increasingly mobile and connected international nursing workforce. However, the extant literature also indicates the existence of significant disparities between countries and even states/provinces within countries as to the enforcement of professional regulation. What this means is that decisions made by one regulatory body can have a direct impact on the standard(s) of nursing quality and practice in a country on the opposite side of the world. As a result, the authors attempt to advance the debate that there is a clear need to reconcile these positions, and they introduce the argument for the creation of an international oversight body. Using case study material, the relevant theoretical and policy literature in this area (such as it is), and by drawing on examples of analogous oversight bodies from other areas, we draw attention to the need to create a genuinely international body for the oversight of nurse regulation.

  9. Effect of Aggression Regulation on Eating Disorder Pathology : RCT of a Brief Body and Movement Oriented Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerhout, Cees; Swart, Marte; Van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveThe objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of a brief body and movement oriented intervention on aggression regulation and eating disorder pathology for individuals with eating disorders. MethodIn a first randomized controlled trial, 40 women were allocated to either the aggressio

  10. Effect of Aggression Regulation on Eating Disorder Pathology : RCT of a Brief Body and Movement Oriented Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerhout, Cees; Swart, Marte; Van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveThe objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of a brief body and movement oriented intervention on aggression regulation and eating disorder pathology for individuals with eating disorders. MethodIn a first randomized controlled trial, 40 women were allocated to either the aggressio

  11. Multiband fiber optic radiometry for measuring the temperature and emissivity of gray bodies of low or high emissivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Sharon; Katzir, Abraham

    2004-03-20

    Infrared fiber optic radiometry was used for noncontact thermometry of gray bodies whose temperature was close to room temperature (40-70 degrees C). We selected three gray bodies, one with high emissivity (epsilon = 0.97), one with medium emissivity (epsilon = 0.71), and one with low emissivity (epsilon = 0.025). We carried out optimization calculations and measurements for a multiband fiber optic radiometer that consisted of a silver halide (AgClBr) infrared-transmitting fiber, a dual-band cooled infrared detector, and a set of 18 narrowband infrared filters that covered the 2-14-microm spectral range. We determined the optimal spectral range, the optimal number of filters to be used, and the optimal chopping scheme. Using these optimal conditions, we performed measurements of the three gray bodies and obtained an accuracy of better than 1 degrees C for body temperature and for room temperature. An accuracy of 0.03 was obtained for body emissivity.

  12. Allometry and size control: what can studies of body size regulation teach us about the evolution of morphological scaling relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirth, Christen K; Anthony Frankino, W; Shingleton, Alexander W

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between organ and body size, known as morphological allometry, has fascinated biologists for over a century because changes in allometry generate the vast diversity of organism shapes. Nevertheless, progress has been limited in understanding the genetic mechanisms that regulate allometries and how these mechanisms evolve. This is perhaps because allometry is measured at the population level, however adult organ and body size depends on genetic background and the developmental environment of individuals. Recent findings have enhanced our understanding of how insects regulate their organ and body sizes in response to environmental conditions, particularly nutritional availability. We argue that merging these developmental insights with a population genetics approach will provide a powerful system for understanding the evolution of allometry. PMID:27436558

  13. Cajal bodies are developmentally regulated during pollen development abd pollen tube growth in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajal bodies aree structures in the nucleus of cells: they are involved in several aspects of gene expression, such as in processing transcipts. The presence of Cajal bodies can be measured with a flourescent protien of a protien called Colin which is abundant in Cajal bodies. This paper shows that ...

  14. Effect of muscle length on cross-bridge kinetics in intact cardiac trabeculae at body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Xu, Ying; Davis, Jonathan P; Campbell, Kenneth S; Janssen, Paul M L

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic force generation in cardiac muscle, which determines cardiac pumping activity, depends on both the number of sarcomeric cross-bridges and on their cycling kinetics. The Frank-Starling mechanism dictates that cardiac force development increases with increasing cardiac muscle length (corresponding to increased ventricular volume). It is, however, unclear to what extent this increase in cardiac muscle length affects the rate of cross-bridge cycling. Previous studies using permeabilized cardiac preparations, sub-physiological temperatures, or both have obtained conflicting results. Here, we developed a protocol that allowed us to reliably and reproducibly measure the rate of tension redevelopment (k(tr); which depends on the rate of cross-bridge cycling) in intact trabeculae at body temperature. Using K(+) contractures to induce a tonic level of force, we showed the k(tr) was slower in rabbit muscle (which contains predominantly β myosin) than in rat muscle (which contains predominantly α myosin). Analyses of k(tr) in rat muscle at optimal length (L(opt)) and 90% of optimal length (L(90)) revealed that k(tr) was significantly slower at L(opt) (27.7 ± 3.3 and 27.8 ± 3.0 s(-1) in duplicate analyses) than at L(90) (45.1 ± 7.6 and 47.5 ± 9.2 s(-1)). We therefore show that k(tr) can be measured in intact rat and rabbit cardiac trabeculae, and that the k(tr) decreases when muscles are stretched to their optimal length under near-physiological conditions, indicating that the Frank-Starling mechanism not only increases force but also affects cross-bridge cycling kinetics.

  15. Population-specific effects of developmental temperature on body condition and jumping performance of a widespread European frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakulić, Sanja; Feldhaar, Heike; Lisičić, Duje; Mioč, Mia; Cizelj, Ivan; Seiler, Michael; Spatz, Theresa; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-05-01

    All physiological processes of ectotherms depend on environmental temperature. Thus, adaptation of physiological mechanisms to the thermal environments is important for achieving optimal performance and fitness. The European Common Frog, Rana temporaria, is widely distributed across different thermal habitats. This makes it an exceptional model for studying the adaptations to different thermal conditions. We raised tadpoles from Germany and Croatia at two constant temperature treatments (15°C, 20°C), and under natural temperature fluctuations (in outdoor treatments), and tested how different developmental temperatures affected developmental traits, that is, length of larval development, morphometrics, and body condition, as well as jumping performance of metamorphs. Our results revealed population-specific differences in developmental time, body condition, and jumping performance. Croatian frogs developed faster in all treatments, were heavier, in better body condition, and had longer hind limbs and better jumping abilities than German metamorphs. The populations further differed in thermal sensitivity of jumping performance. While metamorphs from Croatia increased their jumping performance with higher temperatures, German metamorphs reached their performance maximum at lower temperatures. These population-specific differences in common environments indicate local genetic adaptation, with southern populations being better adapted to higher temperatures than those from north of the Alps. PMID:27092238

  16. Psychogenic fever: how psychological stress affects body temperature in the clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takakazu

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic fever is a stress-related, psychosomatic disease especially seen in young women. Some patients develop extremely high core body temperature (Tc) (up to 41°C) when they are exposed to emotional events, whereas others show persistent low-grade high Tc (37-38°C) during situations of chronic stress. The mechanism for psychogenic fever is not yet fully understood. However, clinical case reports demonstrate that psychogenic fever is not attenuated by antipyretic drugs, but by psychotropic drugs that display anxiolytic and sedative properties, or by resolving patients' difficulties via natural means or psychotherapy. Animal studies have demonstrated that psychological stress increases Tc via mechanisms distinct from infectious fever (which requires proinflammatory mediators) and that the sympathetic nervous system, particularly β3-adrenoceptor-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, plays an important role in the development of psychological stress-induced hyperthermia. Acute psychological stress induces a transient, monophasic increase in Tc. In contrast, repeated stress induces anticipatory hyperthermia, reduces diurnal changes in Tc, or slightly increases Tc throughout the day. Chronically stressed animals also display an enhanced hyperthermic response to a novel stress, while past fearful experiences induce conditioned hyperthermia to the fear context. The high Tc that psychogenic fever patients develop may be a complex of these diverse kinds of hyperthermic responses. PMID:27227051

  17. Inhaled vasopressin increases sociability and reduces body temperature and heart rate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Linnet; Hicks, Callum; Caminer, Alex; McGregor, Iain S

    2014-08-01

    The neuropeptides vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) have therapeutic potential across a range of psychiatric disorders. However, there is uncertainty about the effectiveness of the intranasal route of administration that is often used to deliver these neuropeptides. Recent preclinical studies, typically involving anesthetized or restrained animals, have assessed intranasal AVP or OT effects, and have obtained somewhat inconsistent results. Here we obtained intranasal administration of AVP in rats by nebulizing the peptide (1ml of 5 or 10mg/ml solution) into a small enclosed chamber over a 2min period in which well-habituated, unanesthetized, unrestrained, rats were placed. Rats were immediately removed from the chamber and tested in the social interaction test, or assessed for changes in heart rate and body temperature using biotelemetry. Results showed that rats exposed to nebulized AVP (5 or 10mg/ml) showed increased social proximity (adjacent lying) and decreased anogenital sniffing in the social interaction test. Biotelemetry showed substantial and long lasting (>1h) hypothermic and bradycardic effects of nebulized AVP. These behavioral and physiological effects of nebulized AVP mimic those observed in recent studies with peripherally injected AVP. Plasma AVP concentrations were substantially increased 10min after nebulized AVP, producing levels above those seen with a behaviorally effective injected dose of AVP (0.005mg/kg intraperitoneal). This study thus provides a novel and effective method for neuropeptide administration to rodents.

  18. Post-warmup strategies to maintain body temperature and physical performance in professional rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel J; Russell, Mark; Bracken, Richard M; Cook, Christian J; Giroud, Tibault; Kilduff, Liam P

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effects of using passive-heat maintenance, explosive activity or a combination of both strategies during the post-warmup recovery time on physical performance. After a standardised warmup, 16 professional rugby union players, in a randomised design, completed a counter-movement jump (peak power output) before resting for 20 min and wearing normal-training attire (CON), wearing a passive heat maintenance (PHM) jacket, wearing normal attire and performing 3 × 5 CMJ (with a 20% body mass load) after 12 min of recovery (neuromuscular function, NMF), or combining PHM and NMF (COMB). After 20 min, participants completed further counter-movement jump and a repeated sprint protocol. Core temperature (Tcore) was measured at baseline, post-warmup and post-20 min. After 20 min of recovery, Tcore was significantly lower under CON and NMF, when compared with both PHM and COMB (P drop was less in COMB versus all other conditions (P < 0.05). Repeated sprint performance was significantly better under COMB when compared to all other conditions. Combining PHM with NMF priming attenuates the post-warmup decline in Tcore and can positively influence physical performance in professional rugby union players. PMID:25925751

  19. Microenvironment temperature prediction between body and seat interface using autoregressive data-driven model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuofu; Wang, Lin; Luo, Zhongming; Heusch, Andrew I; Cascioli, Vincenzo; McCarthy, Peter W

    2015-11-01

    There is a need to develop a greater understanding of temperature at the skin-seat interface during prolonged seating from the perspectives of both industrial design (comfort/discomfort) and medical care (skin ulcer formation). Here we test the concept of predicting temperature at the seat surface and skin interface during prolonged sitting (such as required from wheelchair users). As caregivers are usually busy, such a method would give them warning ahead of a problem. This paper describes a data-driven model capable of predicting thermal changes and thus having the potential to provide an early warning (15- to 25-min ahead prediction) of an impending temperature that may increase the risk for potential skin damages for those subject to enforced sitting and who have little or no sensory feedback from this area. Initially, the oscillations of the original signal are suppressed using the reconstruction strategy of empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Consequentially, the autoregressive data-driven model can be used to predict future thermal trends based on a shorter period of acquisition, which reduces the possibility of introducing human errors and artefacts associated with longer duration "enforced" sitting by volunteers. In this study, the method had a maximum predictive error of seat and skin interface 15 min ahead, but required 45 min data prior to give this accuracy. Although the 45 min front loading of data appears large (in proportion to the 15 min prediction), a relative strength derives from the fact that the same algorithm could be used on the other 4 sitting datasets created by the same individual, suggesting that the period of 45 min required to train the algorithm is transferable to other data from the same individual. This approach might be developed (along with incorporation of other measures such as movement and humidity) into a system that can give caregivers prior warning to help avoid exacerbating the skin disorders of patients who suffer

  20. The effects of temperature and body mass on jump performance of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward P Snelling

    Full Text Available Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump distance (D; m scales with body mass (M; g according to the power equation D = 0.35M (0.17±0.08 (95% CI, jump take-off angle (A; degrees scales as A = 52.5M (0.00±0.06, and jump energy (E; mJ per jump scales as E = 1.91M (1.14±0.09. Temperature has no significant effect on the exponent of these relationships, and only a modest effect on the elevation, with an overall Q10 of 1.08 for jump distance and 1.09 for jump energy. On average, adults jump 87% farther and with 74% more energy than predicted based on juvenile scaling data. The positive allometric scaling of jump distance and jump energy across the juvenile life stages is likely facilitated by the concomitant relative increase in the total length (L f+t; mm of the femur and tibia of the hind leg, L f+t = 34.9M (0.37±0.02. The weak temperature-dependence of jump performance can be traced to the maximum tension of the hind femur muscle and the energy storage capacity of the femur's cuticular springs. The disproportionately greater jump energy and jump distance of adults is associated with relatively longer (12% legs and a relatively larger (11% femur muscle cross-sectional area, which could allow more strain loading into the femur's cuticular springs. Augmented jump performance in volant adult locusts achieves the take-off velocity required to initiate flight.

  1. The effects of temperature and body mass on jump performance of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Edward P; Becker, Christie L; Seymour, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump distance (D; m) scales with body mass (M; g) according to the power equation D = 0.35M (0.17±0.08 (95% CI)), jump take-off angle (A; degrees) scales as A = 52.5M (0.00±0.06), and jump energy (E; mJ per jump) scales as E = 1.91M (1.14±0.09). Temperature has no significant effect on the exponent of these relationships, and only a modest effect on the elevation, with an overall Q10 of 1.08 for jump distance and 1.09 for jump energy. On average, adults jump 87% farther and with 74% more energy than predicted based on juvenile scaling data. The positive allometric scaling of jump distance and jump energy across the juvenile life stages is likely facilitated by the concomitant relative increase in the total length (L f+t; mm) of the femur and tibia of the hind leg, L f+t = 34.9M (0.37±0.02). The weak temperature-dependence of jump performance can be traced to the maximum tension of the hind femur muscle and the energy storage capacity of the femur's cuticular springs. The disproportionately greater jump energy and jump distance of adults is associated with relatively longer (12%) legs and a relatively larger (11%) femur muscle cross-sectional area, which could allow more strain loading into the femur's cuticular springs. Augmented jump performance in volant adult locusts achieves the take-off velocity required to initiate flight. PMID:23967304

  2. PPAR-γ activation by Tityus serrulatus venom regulates lipid body formation and lipid mediator production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccal, Karina Furlani; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderley Garcia; Bitencourt, Claudia da Silva; Sorgi, Carlos Artério; Bordon, Karla de Castro Figueiredo; Arantes, Eliane Candiani; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena

    2015-01-01

    Tityus serrulatus venom (TsV) consists of numerous peptides with different physiological and pharmacological activities. Studies have shown that scorpion venom increases pro-inflammatory cytokine production, contributing to immunological imbalance, multiple organ dysfunction, and patient death. We have previously demonstrated that TsV is a venom-associated molecular pattern (VAMP) recognized by TLRs inducing intense inflammatory reaction through the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and arachidonic acid-derived lipid mediators prostaglandin (PG)E2 and leukotriene (LT)B4. Lipid bodies (LBs) are potential sites for eicosanoid production by inflammatory cells. Moreover, recent studies have shown that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) is implicated in LB formation and acts as an important modulator of lipid metabolism during inflammation. In this study, we used murine macrophages to evaluate whether the LB formation induced by TsV after TLR recognition correlates with lipid mediator generation by macrophages and if it occurs through PPAR-γ activation. We demonstrate that TsV acts through TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation and PPAR-γ activation to induce LB formation and generation of PGE2 and LTB4. Our data also show that PPAR-γ negatively regulates the pro-inflammatory NF-κB transcription factor. Based on these results, we suggest that during envenomation, LBs constitute functional organelles for lipid mediator production through signaling pathways that depend on cell surface and nuclear receptors. These findings point to the inflammatory mechanisms that might also be triggered during human envenomation by TsV. PMID:25450800

  3. The Relation of Standard Metabolic Rate to Water Temperature and Body Weight of Schlegels Black Rockfish (Sebastodes Fuscescens)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志敏; 孙耀; 张波; 唐启升

    2004-01-01

    Standard metabolic rates of Schlegels black rockfish with different body weights are determined in laboratory by using the flow-through respirometer at 11.2 ℃, 14.7 ℃, 18.0℃ and 23.6 ℃. The results indicate that the standard metabolic rates increase with the increase of body weight at different temperatures. Relationship between them could be described as Rs = a InW b. The mean of standard metabolic rate is significantly different among groups, but the b values are not. The standard metabolic rates of amended standard body weights decrease with the increase of temperature, and the mean of standard metabolic rate is also significantly different among groups when the standard body weights are 48.6 g, 147.9 g, and 243.1 g.Relationship between them could be described as Rsw = me-bT . The relations of standard metabolic rate ( Rs ) or relative metabolic rate ( Rs ) to body weight and temperature yield the following equations: Rs = 1.160 W0.752 e-9.494/7 and Rs1= 1.160 W0.254e-9.494/7.

  4. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size.

    OpenAIRE

    Rideout, Elizabeth J; Narsaiya, Marcus S.; Grewal, Savraj S.

    2015-01-01

    Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra) in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expre...

  5. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD...

  6. STUDY AND APPLICATION ABOUT COMPUTED SYSTEM FOR EXTERNAL CARDIAC MASSAGE,MONITOR OF HEART AND BODY TEMPERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To make and study computed system for external cardiac massage, monitor of heart and body temperature and observe its clinical effect. Method: The system was made and applied. Result: The effect of system was obvious. Conclusion: The system was an effective clinical equipment in treatment of patient with cardiac arrest.

  7. Impact of temperature and humidity on acceptability of indoor air quality during immediate and longer whole-body exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Clausen, Geo; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1997-01-01

    Acceptability of clean air and air polluted by building materials was studied in climate chambers with different levels of air temperature and humidity in the ranges 18-28°C and 30-70%. The immediate acceptability after entering a chamber and the acceptability during a 20-minute whole-body exposure...

  8. Comparison of physical characteristics, body temperature and resting metabolic rate at 30‡C between subtropical and temperate natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, S.; Ihzuka, H.

    1986-06-01

    Anthropometric measurements, measurements of skin temperatures, rectal temperature, heart rate and metabolic rate at 30‡C were made on 25 young male residents of Okinawa who were born and raised in Okinawa (group O) and 25 young male residents of Okinawa who were born and raised on the Japan mainland but moved to Okinawa less than 2 years before the test (group M) in summer. Group O showed significantly shorter height, lighter body weight, and slender body shape than group M. Group O showed thinner skinfold thickness and smaller percentage of body fat content than group M. Skin temperatures for group O were higher than those for group M, and rectal temperature for group O was slightly lower than that for group M. Group O showed, less metabolic rate per body surface area and slower heart rate than group M. It is concluded that physical characteristics of subtropical natives is favorable for heat dissipation, and subtropical natives have superior capacity for non-evaporative heat dissipation than migrants of temperate natives to a subtropical zone.

  9. [A new method for the transcutaneous measurement of deep body temperature during anaesthesia and intensive care (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, U; Hanf, K; Köhler, C O; Just, O H

    1978-04-01

    A new method for monitoring deep body temperature is described. It is based on the establishment, by means of electronic appliances, of a zone without heatflow from the deep tissues. The method is simple and the results compare favourably with those obtained by other procedures for measuring core temperature. The uses of this transcutaneous mehtod are discussed and its advantages and reliability in the operating theatre and intensive care unit are emphasized. It becomes less reliable if it is employed during and after extracorporeal circulation in hypothermia on account of the temperature gradient.

  10. Effect of a phase I Coxiella burnetii inactivated vaccine on body temperature and milk yield in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, L S-Ch; Borchardt, S; Ouellet, V; Heuwieser, W

    2016-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. The pathogen is prevalent in ruminants (goats, sheep, cows), which are the main sources of human infection. In the cattle industry around the world, animal (15 to 20%) and herd (38 to 72%) level prevalences of C. burnetii are high. Vaccination of ruminants against Q fever is considered important to prevent spreading of the disease and risk of infection in humans. However, published information on side effects of the Q fever vaccination under field conditions is limited for cows. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the phase I C. burnetii inactivated vaccine Coxevac on body temperature and milk yield in dairy cows. In 2 experiments, a total of 508 cows were randomly divided into 2 groups to determine the effect of first vaccination on body temperature and milk yield. The C. burnetii serostatus of all cows was tested before vaccination with an indirect ELISA. The first experiment took place in the teaching and research barn of the Clinic of Animal Reproduction at the Freie Universität Berlin. Temperature was measured vaginally in 10 cows in a crossover design. The second experiment was conducted on a commercial dairy farm. Milk yield of 498 cows was measured 1 wk before and 1 wk after vaccination. In a subset of 41 cows, temperature was measured rectally. In both experiments, body temperature increased significantly after vaccination (1.0 ± 0.9°C and 0.7 ± 0.8°C). A significant difference was also found in body temperature between vaccinated and control cows. Thirty percent of the vaccinated animals in experiment 1 showed reversible swelling at the injection site as a reaction to the vaccination. The results indicate that vaccination against Q fever causes a transient increase of body temperature that peaks in the first 12 to 24h and declines after that. In experiment 2, vaccinated cows (26.8 ± 0.39 kg/d) produced significantly less milk than did control cows (28.2 ± 0.44 kg

  11. Regulation of genes affecting body size and innate immunity by the DBL-1/BMP-like pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleason Ryan J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are members of the conserved transforming growth factor β (TGFβ superfamily, and play many developmental and homeostatic roles. In C. elegans, a BMP-like pathway, the DBL-1 pathway, controls body size and is involved in innate immunity. How these functions are carried out, though, and what most of the downstream targets of this pathway are, remain unknown. Results We performed a microarray analysis and compared expression profiles of animals lacking the SMA-6 DBL-1 receptor, which decreases pathway signaling, with animals that overexpress DBL-1 ligand, which increases pathway signaling. Consistent with a role for DBL-1 in control of body size, we find positive regulation by DBL-1 of genes involved in physical structure, protein synthesis and degradation, and metabolism. However, cell cycle genes were mostly absent from our results. We also identified genes in a hedgehog-related pathway, which may comprise a secondary signaling pathway downstream of DBL-1 that controls body size. In addition, DBL-1 signaling up-regulates pro-innate immunity genes. We identified a reporter for DBL-1 signaling, which is normally repressed but is up-regulated when DBL-1 signaling is reduced. Conclusions Our results indicate that body size in C. elegans is controlled in part by regulation of metabolic processes as well as protein synthesis and degradation. This supports the growing body of evidence that suggests cell size is linked to metabolism. Furthermore, this study discovered a possible role for hedgehog-related pathways in transmitting the BMP-like signal from the hypodermis, where the core DBL-1 pathway components are required, to other tissues in the animal. We also identified the up-regulation of genes involved in innate immunity, clarifying the role of DBL-1 in innate immunity. One of the highly regulated genes is expressed at very low levels in wild-type animals, but is strongly up-regulated in Sma

  12. The Pituitary Gland and Age-Dependent Regulation of Body Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Andre P.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Runge, Evelien; Trainer, Peter J.; Jonsson, Peter J.; Koltowska-Haggstrom, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of obesity is increased in hypopituitarism. In the general population, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference increase with advancing age. It remains uncertain whether age-related changes in pituitary function contribute to the changes in body composition associated wi

  13. Temperature regulates methane production through the function centralization of microbial community in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiang; De Vrieze, Jo; He, Guihua; Li, Xiangzhen; Li, Jiabao

    2016-09-01

    Temperature is crucial for the performance of anaerobic digestion process. In this study of anaerobic digestion of swine manure, the relationship between the microbial gene expression and methane production at different temperatures (25-55°C) was revealed through metatranscriptomic analysis. Daily methane production and total biogas production increased with temperature up to 50°C, but decreased at 55°C. The functional gene expression showed great variation at different temperatures. The function centralization (opposite to alpha-diversity), assessed by the least proportions of functional pathways contributing for at least 50% of total reads positively correlated to methane production. Temperature regulated methane production probably through reducing the diversity of functional pathways, but enhancing central functional pathways, so that most of cellular activities and resource were invested in methanogenesis and related pathways, enhancing the efficiency of conversion of substrates to methane. This research demonstrated the importance of function centralization for efficient system functioning.

  14. Temperature regulates methane production through the function centralization of microbial community in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiang; De Vrieze, Jo; He, Guihua; Li, Xiangzhen; Li, Jiabao

    2016-09-01

    Temperature is crucial for the performance of anaerobic digestion process. In this study of anaerobic digestion of swine manure, the relationship between the microbial gene expression and methane production at different temperatures (25-55°C) was revealed through metatranscriptomic analysis. Daily methane production and total biogas production increased with temperature up to 50°C, but decreased at 55°C. The functional gene expression showed great variation at different temperatures. The function centralization (opposite to alpha-diversity), assessed by the least proportions of functional pathways contributing for at least 50% of total reads positively correlated to methane production. Temperature regulated methane production probably through reducing the diversity of functional pathways, but enhancing central functional pathways, so that most of cellular activities and resource were invested in methanogenesis and related pathways, enhancing the efficiency of conversion of substrates to methane. This research demonstrated the importance of function centralization for efficient system functioning. PMID:27236402

  15. Research on temperature control with numerical regulators in electric resistance furnaces with indirect heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniş, C. M.; Popa, G. N.; Iagăr, A.

    2016-02-01

    The paper is an analysis of two-positions (hysteresis) regulators, self-tuned PID controller and PID controller for temperature control used for indirect heat resistance furnaces. For PID controller was used three methods of tuning: Ziegler-Nichols step response model, Cohen-Coon tuning rules and Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules. In experiments it used an electric furnace with indirect heating with active power of resistance of 1 kW/230V AC and a numerical temperature regulator AT-503 type (ANLY). It got a much better temperature control when using the Cohen-Coon tuning rules method than those of Ziegler-Nichols step response method and Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules method.

  16. Circadian variation of EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep in humans: dissociation from body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    In humans, EEG power spectra in REM and NREM sleep, as well as characteristics of sleep spindles such as their duration, amplitude, frequency and incidence, vary with circadian phase. Recently it has been hypothesized that circadian variations in EEG spectra in humans are caused by variations in brain or body temperature and may not represent phenomena relevant to sleep regulatory processes. To test this directly, a further analysis of EEG power spectra - collected in a forced desynchrony protocol in which sleep episodes were scheduled to a 28-h period while the rhythms of body temperature and plasma melatonin were oscillating at their near 24-h period - was carried out. EEG power spectra were computed for NREM and REM sleep occurring between 90-120 and 270-300 degrees of the circadian melatonin rhythm, i.e. just after the clearance of melatonin from plasma in the 'morning' and just after the 'evening' increase in melatonin secretion. Average body temperatures during scheduled sleep at these two circadian phases were identical (36.72 degrees C). Despite identical body temperatures, the power spectra in NREM sleep were very different at these two circadian phases. EEG activity in the low frequency spindle range was significantly and markedly enhanced after the evening increase in plasma melatonin as compared to the morning phase. For REM sleep, significant differences in power spectra during these two circadian phases, in particular in the alpha range, were also observed. The results confirm that EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep vary with circadian phase, suggesting that the direct contribution of temperature to the circadian variation in EEG power spectra is absent or only minor, and are at variance with the hypothesis that circadian variations in EEG power spectra are caused by variations in temperature.

  17. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  18. TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 is a physiological appetite and body weight regulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai

    Full Text Available The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in all humans and when overproduced in cancer leads to anorexia/cachexia, by direct action on brain feeding centres. In these studies we have examined the role of physiologically relevant levels of MIC-1/GDF15 in the regulation of appetite, body weight and basal metabolic rate. MIC-1/GDF15 gene knockout mice (MIC-1(-/- weighed more and had increased adiposity, which was associated with increased spontaneous food intake. Female MIC-1(-/- mice exhibited some additional alterations in reduced basal energy expenditure and physical activity, possibly owing to the associated decrease in total lean mass. Further, infusion of human recombinant MIC-1/GDF15 sufficient to raise serum levels in MIC-1(-/- mice to within the normal human range reduced body weight and food intake. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 is involved in the physiological regulation of appetite and energy storage.

  19. Signal-dependent Regulation of Transcription by Histone Deacetylase 7 Involves Recruitment to Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein Nuclear Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Chengzhuo; Cheng, Xiwen; Lam, Minh; Yu LIU; Liu, Qing; Chang, Kun-Sang; Kao, Hung-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) are dynamic subnuclear compartments that play roles in several cellular processes, including apoptosis, transcriptional regulation, and DNA repair. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) 7 is a potent corepressor that inhibits transcription by myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factors. We show here that endogenous HDAC7 and PML interact and partially colocalize in PML NBs. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α treatment recruits HDAC7 to PML ...

  20. Mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation does not exacerbate central fatigue during subsequent whole-body endurance exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin ePageaux; Samuele Maria Marcora; Vianney eRozand; Romuald eLepers

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that the mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation increases perception of effort and reduces performance during subsequent endurance exercise. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying these negative effects of mental fatigue are unclear. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental fatigue exacerbates central fatigue induced by whole-body endurance exercise. Twelve subjects performed 30 min of either an incongruent Stroop task to in...

  1. Integration of light and temperature in the regulation of circadian gene expression in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharine E Boothroyd

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks are aligned to the environment via synchronizing signals, or Zeitgebers, such as daily light and temperature cycles, food availability, and social behavior. In this study, we found that genome-wide expression profiles from temperature-entrained flies show a dramatic difference in the presence or absence of a thermocycle. Whereas transcript levels appear to be modified broadly by changes in temperature, there is a specific set of temperature-entrained circadian mRNA profiles that continue to oscillate in constant conditions. There are marked differences in the biological functions represented by temperature-driven or circadian regulation. The set of temperature-entrained circadian transcripts overlaps significantly with a previously defined set of transcripts oscillating in response to a photocycle. In follow-up studies, all thermocycle-entrained circadian transcript rhythms also responded to light/dark entrainment, whereas some photocycle-entrained rhythms did not respond to temperature entrainment. Transcripts encoding the clock components Period, Timeless, Clock, Vrille, PAR-domain protein 1, and Cryptochrome were all confirmed to be rhythmic after entrainment to a daily thermocycle, although the presence of a thermocycle resulted in an unexpected phase difference between period and timeless expression rhythms at the transcript but not the protein level. Generally, transcripts that exhibit circadian rhythms both in response to thermocycles and photocycles maintained the same mutual phase relationships after entrainment by temperature or light. Comparison of the collective temperature- and light-entrained circadian phases of these transcripts indicates that natural environmental light and temperature cycles cooperatively entrain the circadian clock. This interpretation is further supported by comparative analysis of the circadian phases observed for temperature-entrained and light-entrained circadian locomotor behavior. Taken

  2. OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness alters murine heart rate variability and body temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Jasmin Domnik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Altered autonomic (ANS tone in chronic respiratory disease is implicated as a factor in cardiovascular co-morbidities, yet no studies address its impact on cardiovascular function in the presence of murine allergic airway (AW hyperresponsiveness (AHR. Since antigen (Ag-induced AHR is used to model allergic asthma (in which ANS alterations have been reported, we performed a pilot study to assess measurement feasibility of, as well as the impact of allergic sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA on, heart rate variability (HRV in a murine model. Heart rate (HR, body temperature (TB and time- and frequency-domain HRV analyses, a reflection of ANS control, were obtained in chronically instrumented mice (telemetry before, during and for 22 h after OVA or saline aerosolization in sensitized (OVA or Alum adjuvant control exposed animals. OVA mice diverged significantly from Alum mice with respect to change in HR during aerosol challenge (P < 0.001, two-way ANOVA; HR max change Ctrl = +80 ± 10 bpm vs. OVA = +1 ± 23 bpm, mean ± SEM, and displayed elevated HR during the subsequent dark cycle (P = 0.006. Sensitization decreased the TB during aerosol challenge (P < 0.001. Sensitized mice had decreased HRV prior to challenge (SDNN: P = 0.038; Low frequency (LF power: P = 0.021; Low/high Frequency (HF power: P = 0.042, and increased HRV during Ag challenge (RMSSD: P = 0.047; pNN6: P = 0.039. Sensitized mice displayed decreased HRV subsequent to OVA challenge, primarily in the dark cycle (RMSSD: P = 0.018; pNN6: P < 0.001; LF: P < 0.001; HF: P = 0.040; LF/HF: P < 0.001. We conclude that implanted telemetry technology is an effective method to assess the ANS impact of allergic sensitization. Preliminary results show mild sensitization is associated with reduced HRV and a suppression of the acute TB response to OVA challenge. This approach to assess altered ANS control in the acute OVA model may also be beneficial in chronic AHR models.

  3. The dependence of body weight in copepodite stages of Pseudocalanus spp. on variations of ambient temperature and food concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Dzierzbicka-Głowacka

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative expressions are presented describing the effects of temperature and food concentration on the mean body weight of copepodite stages of Pseudocalanus spp. The calculations were made on the basis of experimental data from the literature for three geographically separate populations of Pseudocalanus from Puget Sound (Washington, USA, from the southern North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Relationships were obtained between the coefficient of daily exponential growth of body weight of Pseudocalanus sp. from Puget Sound and temperature in the 8-15.5oC range and food concentrations from 10 mgC m-3 to excess, as well as for Pseudocalanus elongatus from the southern North Sea at high food concentrations and in the 4-15oC temperature range. Also computed was the mean body weight for stages CII to CV of P. elongatus from the southern Baltic Sea at 5oC. The empirical models presented here can be used with good precision in mathematical models of pelagic communities. The results presented here indicate that Pseudocalanus sp. from Puget Sound (a species resembling Pseudocalanus minutus is similar to P. elongatus from the southern North Sea and the English Channel with respect to growth parameters in the studied range of temperatures for excess food. P. elongatus collected in the Baltic Sea (Gulf of Gdańsk differs from P. elongatus from the southern North Sea.

  4. The predicting value of postoperative body temperature on long-term survival in patients with rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huichuan; Luo, Yanxin; Peng, Hui; Kang, Liang; Huang, Meijin; Luo, Shuangling; Chen, Wenhao; Yang, Zihuan; Wang, Jianping

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between postoperative body temperature and prognosis in patients with rectal cancer. Five hundred and seven patients with stage I to III rectal cancers were enrolled in the current study. Basal body temperature (BBT, measured at 6 am) and maximal body temperature (MBT) on each day after surgery were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two equal groups according to the median of BBT and MBT at each day. The primary end points were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The univariate and multivariate analyses showed that patients with low D0-MBT (37.4 °C). In the subset of 318 patients with T3 stage tumor and the subgroup of 458 patients without blood transfusion as well, low D0-MBT continues to be an independent predictor of DFS/OS with an adjusted HR equal to 1.48 (95 % CI 1.02-2.24, P = 0.046)/1.68 (95 % CI 1.04-2.99, P = 0.048) and 1.45 (95 % CI 1.02-2.13, P = 0.048)/1.59 (95 % CI 1.01-2.74, P = 0.049), respectively. In addition, we found that patients have higher risk of 1-year recurrence if those were exhibiting low preoperative BBT (temperature (D0-MBT rectal cancer.

  5. Transcriptome comparison reveals a genetic network regulating the lower temperature limit in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Liu, Mingli; Liu, Yimeng; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Dong; Niu, Hongbo; Jiang, Shouwen; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Dongsheng; Han, Bingshe; Xu, Qianghua; Chen, Liangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional plasticity is a major driver of phenotypic differences between species. The lower temperature limit (LTL), namely the lower end of survival temperature, is an important trait delimiting the geographical distribution of a species, however, the genetic mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated the inter-species transcriptional diversification in cold responses between zebrafish Danio rerio and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, which were reared at a common temperature (28 °C) but have distinct LTLs. We identified significant expressional divergence between the two species in the orthologous genes from gills when the temperature cooled to the LTL of tilapia (8 °C). Five KEGG pathways were found sequentially over-represented in the zebrafish/tilapia divergently expressed genes in the duration (12 hour) of 8 °C exposure, forming a signaling cascade from metabolic regulation to apoptosis via FoxO signaling. Consistently, we found differential progression of apoptosis in the gills of the two species in which zebrafish manifested a delayed and milder apoptotic phenotype than tilapia, corresponding with a lower LTL of zebrafish. We identified diverged expression in 25 apoptosis-related transcription factors between the two species which forms an interacting network with diverged factors involving the FoxO signaling and metabolic regulation. We propose a genetic network which regulates LTL in fishes. PMID:27356472

  6. Transcriptome comparison reveals a genetic network regulating the lower temperature limit in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Liu, Mingli; Liu, Yimeng; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Dong; Niu, Hongbo; Jiang, Shouwen; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Dongsheng; Han, Bingshe; Xu, Qianghua; Chen, Liangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional plasticity is a major driver of phenotypic differences between species. The lower temperature limit (LTL), namely the lower end of survival temperature, is an important trait delimiting the geographical distribution of a species, however, the genetic mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated the inter-species transcriptional diversification in cold responses between zebrafish Danio rerio and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, which were reared at a common temperature (28 °C) but have distinct LTLs. We identified significant expressional divergence between the two species in the orthologous genes from gills when the temperature cooled to the LTL of tilapia (8 °C). Five KEGG pathways were found sequentially over-represented in the zebrafish/tilapia divergently expressed genes in the duration (12 hour) of 8 °C exposure, forming a signaling cascade from metabolic regulation to apoptosis via FoxO signaling. Consistently, we found differential progression of apoptosis in the gills of the two species in which zebrafish manifested a delayed and milder apoptotic phenotype than tilapia, corresponding with a lower LTL of zebrafish. We identified diverged expression in 25 apoptosis-related transcription factors between the two species which forms an interacting network with diverged factors involving the FoxO signaling and metabolic regulation. We propose a genetic network which regulates LTL in fishes. PMID:27356472

  7. Structure-dependent water transport across nanopores of carbon nanotubes: toward selective gating upon temperature regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kuiwen; Wu, Huiying

    2015-04-28

    Determining water structure in nanopores and its influence on water transport behaviour is of great importance for understanding and regulating the transport across nanopores. Here we report an ultrafast-slow flow transition phenomenon for water transport across nanopores of carbon nanotubes owing to the change in water structure in nanopores induced by temperature. By performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we show the dependence of water transport behaviours on water structures. Our results indicate that owing to the change in water structure in nanopores, water flux across nanopores with certain pore sizes decreases sharply (nearly 3 orders of magnitude) with the decreasing temperature. This phenomenon is very sensitive to the pore size. The threshold temperatures for the occurrence of the ultrafast-slow flow transition for water transport are also determined for various pore sizes. These findings suggest a novel protocol for selective gating of water and proton conduction across nanopores and temperature-controlled drug release.

  8. Some like it hot... : the evolution and genetics of temperature dependent body size in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Bochdanovits, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Body size is one of the most obvious and most important characteristic of any organism. A thorough understanding of how and why a certain individual obtains a specific body size, given its evolutionary history and ecological context, is a fundamental question in biology. One special case of variation in size is clinal variation: individuals of the same species indigenous to higher latitudes are on average larger than their conspecifics inhabiting regions at lower latitudes (closer to the equa...

  9. SUMOylation regulates the nuclear mobility of CREB binding protein and its association with nuclear bodies in live cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Colm M.; Kindle, Karin B.; Collins, Hilary M. [Gene Regulation Group, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Heery, David M., E-mail: david.heery@nottingham.ac.uk [Gene Regulation Group, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-01

    The lysine acetyltransferase CREB binding protein (CBP) is required for chromatin modification and transcription at many gene promoters. In fixed cells, a large proportion of CBP colocalises to PML or nuclear bodies. Using live cell imaging, we show here that YFP-tagged CBP expressed in HEK293 cells undergoes gradual accumulation in nuclear bodies, some of which are mobile and migrate towards the nuclear envelope. Deletion of a short lysine-rich domain that contains the major SUMO acceptor sites of CBP abrogated its ability to be SUMO modified, and prevented its association with endogenous SUMO-1/PML speckles in vivo. This SUMO-defective CBP showed enhanced ability to co-activate AML1-mediated transcription. Deletion mapping revealed that the SUMO-modified region was not sufficient for targeting CBP to PML bodies, as C-terminally truncated mutants containing this domain showed a strong reduction in accumulation at PML bodies. Fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP) experiments revealed that YFP-CBP{Delta}998-1087 had a retarded recovery time in the nucleus, as compared to YFP-CBP. These results indicate that SUMOylation regulates CBP function by influencing its shuttling between nuclear bodies and chromatin microenvironments.

  10. Changes in body surface temperature during speed endurance work-out in highly-trained male sprinters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Paweł; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna; Kusy, Krzysztof; Kantanista, Adam; Zieliński, Jacek

    2016-09-01

    The mechanism of thermoregulatory adaptation to exercise cannot yet be fully explained, however, infrared thermography (IRT) seems to have potential for monitoring physiological changes during exercise and training. It is a non-contact and easy to use technology to measure heat radiation from the body surface. The objective of the study was to examine the temperature changes over time on lower limbs in sprinters during speed endurance training session. Eight sprinters, specialized in distances 100 m and 200 m, aged 21-29 years, members of the Polish national team, were evaluated during an outdoor speed endurance work-out. Their track session comprised of warm-up, specific drills for sprinting technique, and speed endurance exercise. The surface temperature of lower limbs was measured and thermal images were taken using infrared camera after each part of the session. The speed endurance training session brought about specific time course of body surface (legs) temperature. The warm-up induced a significant decline in surface temperature by ∼2.5 °C, measured both on the front and back of lower limbs (p < 0.001), followed by a temperature stabilization until the end of the session. No significant asymmetry between the front and back sides of legs was observed. Body surface temperature may help identify an individual optimal time to terminate warm up and start the main part of the training session. It may also be useful for the assessment of muscle activity symmetry in cyclical activities, such as sprint running. This is of particular relevance when a training session is performed outdoors in changeable weather conditions.

  11. Comparison of Apical Sealing Ability of Lateral Condensation Technique in Room and Body- Simulated Temperatures (An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhnamayan F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Studies reported that nearly 60% of endodontic failures have been attributed to inadequate obturation of the root canal system. Thus, complete obturation of the root canal system and proper apical seal are essential elements in the long-term success of root canal treatment.Purpose: This study aimed to compare the apical seal of lateral condensation tech-nique in the room and in body- simulated temperature.Materials and Method: In this experimental study, 70 extracted, single- rooted, human premolar teeth were instrumented and divided up into four groups. All tooth’s canals were obturated by lateral condensation technique except the teeth in the positive control group. Group 1and 2, each with 30 teeth, were obturated in the room and intracanal temperature respectively. The other two groups were positive and negative control group each with 5 teeth. All groups except negative control were covered by two layers of nail polish. Then linear dye penetration was evaluated with a stereomicroscope. Data was analyzed with student-t test and also Kolmogorov- Smirnov Goodness- of- Fit test to make sure of data. Results: Results showed that dye penetration in group one (obturation in room temperature was 0.6mm more than group 2 (obturation in simulated-body temperature although this was not statistically significant (p> 0.05.Conclusion: Under the condition of this invitro study, apical sealing ability was better in the body-simulated temperature than the room temperature, although it was not statistically significant.

  12. Importance of temperature effect on the electrophoretic behavior of charge-regulated particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jyh-Ping; Tai, Yi-Hsuan; Yeh, Li-Hsien; Tseng, Shiojenn

    2012-01-10

    The Joule heating effect is inevitable in electrophoresis operations. To assess its influence on the performance of electrophoresis, we consider the case of a charge-regulated particle in a solution containing multiple ionic species at temperatures ranging from 298 to 308 K. Using an aqueous SiO(2) dispersion as an example, we show that an increase in the temperature leads to a decrease in both the dielectric constant and the viscosity of the liquid phase, and an increase in both the diffusivity of ions and the particle surface potential. For a particle having a constant surface potential, its electrophoretic mobility is most influenced by the variation in the liquid viscosity as the temperature varies, but for a charged-regulated particle both the liquid viscosity and the surface potential can play an important role. Depending upon the level of pH, the degree of increase in the mobility can be on the order of 40% for a 5 K increase in the temperature. The presence of double-layer polarization, which is significant when the surface potential is sufficiently high, has the effect of inhibiting that increase in the mobility. This implies that the influence of the temperature on the mobility of the particle is most significant when the pH is close to the point of zero charge. PMID:22126364

  13. Simulating Non-Specific Influences of Body Posture and Temperature on Thigh-Bioimpedance Spectroscopy during Continuous Monitoring Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) for continuous monitoring of body fluid volumes is gaining considerable importance in personal health care. Unless laboratory conditions are applied, both whole-body or segmental BIS configurations are subject to nonspecific influences (e.g. temperature and change in body position) reducing the method's accuracy and reproducibility. In this work, a two-compartment mathematical model, which describes the thigh segment, has been adapted to simulate fluid and solute kinetics during change in body position or variation in skin temperature. The model is an improved version of our previous one offering a good tradeoff between accuracy and simplicity. It represents the kinetics of fluid redistribution, sodium-, potassium-, and protein-concentrations based on simple equations to predict the time course of BIS variations. Validity of the model was verified in five subjects (following a sequence of 7 min supine, 20 min standing, and 40 min supine). The output of the model may reduce possible influences on BIS by up to 80%.

  14. Simulating Non-Specific Influences of Body Posture and Temperature on Thigh-Bioimpedance Spectroscopy during Continuous Monitoring Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A. H.; Leonhardt, S.

    2013-04-01

    Application of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) for continuous monitoring of body fluid volumes is gaining considerable importance in personal health care. Unless laboratory conditions are applied, both whole-body or segmental BIS configurations are subject to nonspecific influences (e.g. temperature and change in body position) reducing the method's accuracy and reproducibility. In this work, a two-compartment mathematical model, which describes the thigh segment, has been adapted to simulate fluid and solute kinetics during change in body position or variation in skin temperature. The model is an improved version of our previous one offering a good tradeoff between accuracy and simplicity. It represents the kinetics of fluid redistribution, sodium-, potassium-, and protein-concentrations based on simple equations to predict the time course of BIS variations. Validity of the model was verified in five subjects (following a sequence of 7 min supine, 20 min standing, and 40 min supine). The output of the model may reduce possible influences on BIS by up to 80%.

  15. Heat increases MDMA-enhanced NAcc 5-HT and body temperature, but not MDMA self-administration

    OpenAIRE

    Feduccia, Allison A.; Kongovi, Nundhun; Duvauchelle, Christine L.

    2010-01-01

    There is concern that hot environments enhance adverse effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “Ecstasy”). In this study, long-term (4-wks) daily MDMA self-administration sessions and an MDMA challenge test were conducted with rats under normal and high thermal conditions (23° or 32° C). During MDMA self-administration sessions, activity and body temperature were increased by heat or MDMA experience, while MDMA self-administration rates increased with experience, but were compar...

  16. The forecasting of menstruation based on a state-space modeling of basal body temperature time series

    OpenAIRE

    Fukaya, Keiichi; Kawamori, Ai; Osada, Yutaka; Kitazawa, Masumi; Ishiguro, Makio

    2016-01-01

    Women's basal body temperature (BBT) follows a periodic pattern that is associated with the events in their menstrual cycle. Although daily BBT time series contain potentially useful information for estimating the underlying menstrual phase and for predicting the length of current menstrual cycle, few models have been constructed for BBT time series. Here, we propose a state-space model that includes menstrual phase as a latent state variable to explain fluctuations in BBT and menstrual cycle...

  17. The effect of body temperature on the dynamic respiratory system compliance–breathing frequency relationship in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Rubini, Alessandro; Bosco, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical inhomogeneity of the respiratory system is frequently investigated by measuring the frequency dependence of dynamic compliance, but no data are currently available describing the effects of body temperature variations. The aim of the present report was to study those effects in vivo. Peak airway pressure was measured during positive pressure ventilation in eight anesthetized rats while breathing frequency (but not tidal volume) was altered. Dynamic compliance was calculated as ...

  18. Design, Development and Implementation of the IR Signalling Techniques for Monitoring Ambient and Body Temperature in WBANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attiya Baqai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare systems such as hospitals, homecare, telemedicine, and physical rehabilitation are expected to be revolutionized by WBAN (Wireless Body Area Networks. This research work aims to investigate, design, optimize, and demonstrate the applications of IR (Infra-Red communication systems in WBAN. It is aimed to establish a prototype WBAN system capable of measuring Ambient and Body Temperature using LM35 as temperature sensor and transmitting and receiving the data using optical signals. The corresponding technical challenges that have to be faced are also discussed in this paper. Investigations are carried out to efficiently design the hardware using low-cost and low power optical transceivers. The experimental results reveal the successful transmission and reception of Ambient and Body Temperatures over short ranges i.e. up to 3-4 meters. A simple IR transceiver with an LED (Light Emitting Diodes, TV remote control IC and Arduino microcontroller is designed to perform the transmission with sufficient accuracy and ease. Experiments are also performed to avoid interference from other sources like AC and TV remote control signals by implementing IR tags

  19. Interaction of temperature and an environmental stressor: Moina macrocopa responds with increased body size, increased lifespan, and increased offspring numbers slightly above its temperature optimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engert, Antonia; Chakrabarti, Shumon; Saul, Nadine; Bittner, Michal; Menzel, Ralph; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2013-02-01

    For organisms, temperature is one of the most important environmental factors and gains increasing importance due to global warming, since increasing temperatures may pose organisms close to their environmental tolerance limits and, thus, they may become more vulnerable to environmental stressors. We analyzed the temperature-dependence of the water-soluble antioxidant capacity of the cladoceran Moina macrocopa and evaluated its life trait variables with temperature (15, 20, 25, 30°C) and humic substance (HS) concentrations (0, 0.18, 0.36, 0.90, 1.79 mM DOC) as stressors. Temperatures below and above the apparent optimum (20°C) reduced the antioxidative capacity. Additions of HSs increased body length, but decreased mean lifespan at 15 and 20°C. There was no clear HS-effect on offspring numbers at 15, 20, and 30°C. At 25°C with increasing HS-concentration, lifespan was extended and offspring numbers increased tremendously, reaching 250% of the control. Although the applied HS preparation possesses estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities, a xenohormone mechanism does not seem plausible for the reproductive increase, because comparable effects did not occur at other temperatures. A more convincing explanation appears to be the mitohormesis hypothesis which states that a certain increase of reactive oxygen production leads to improved health and longevity and, with Moina, also to increased offspring numbers. Our results suggest that at least with the eurythermic M. macrocopa, a temperature above the optimum can be beneficial for several life trait variables, even when combined with a chemical stressor. Temperatures approximately 10°C above its optimum appear to adversely affect the lifespan and reproduction of M. macrocopa. This indicates that this cladoceran species seems to be able to utilize temperature as an ecological resource in a range slightly above its thermal optimum. PMID:23211326

  20. Moderately lower temperatures greatly extend the lifespan of Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera): Thermodynamics or gene regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rachel K; Snell, Terry W

    2016-06-01

    Environmental temperature greatly affects lifespan in a wide variety of animals, but the exact mechanisms underlying this effect are still largely unknown. A moderate temperature decrease from 22°C to 16°C extends the lifespan of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas by up to 163%. Thermodynamic effects on metabolism contribute to this increase in longevity, but are not the only cause. When rotifers are exposed to 16°C for four days and then transfered to 22°C, they survive until day 13 at nearly identical rates as rotifers maintained at 16°C continuously. This persistence of the higher survival for nine days after transfer to 22°C suggests that low temperature exposure alters the expression of genes that affect the rate of aging. The relative persistence of the gene regulation effect suggests that it may play an even larger role in slowing aging than the thermodynamic effects. The life extending effects of these short-term low temperature treatments are largest when the exposure happens early in the life cycle, demonstrating the importance of early development. There is no advantage to lowering the temperature below 16°C to 11° or 5°C. Rotifers exposed to 16°C also displayed increased resistance to heat, starvation, oxidative and osmotic stress. Reproductive rates at 16°C were lower than those at 22°C, but because they reproduce longer, there is no significant change in the lifetime fecundity of females. To investigate which genes contribute to these effects, the expression of specific temperature sensing genes was knocked down using RNAi. Of 12 genes tested, RNAi knockdown of four eliminated the survival enhancing effects of the four-day cold treatment: TRP7, forkhead box C, Y-box factor, and ribosomal protein S6. This demonstrates that active gene regulation is an important factor in temperature mediated life extension, and that these particular genes play an integral role in these pathways. As a thermoresponsive sensor, TRP7 may be

  1. Moderately lower temperatures greatly extend the lifespan of Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera): Thermodynamics or gene regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rachel K; Snell, Terry W

    2016-06-01

    Environmental temperature greatly affects lifespan in a wide variety of animals, but the exact mechanisms underlying this effect are still largely unknown. A moderate temperature decrease from 22°C to 16°C extends the lifespan of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas by up to 163%. Thermodynamic effects on metabolism contribute to this increase in longevity, but are not the only cause. When rotifers are exposed to 16°C for four days and then transfered to 22°C, they survive until day 13 at nearly identical rates as rotifers maintained at 16°C continuously. This persistence of the higher survival for nine days after transfer to 22°C suggests that low temperature exposure alters the expression of genes that affect the rate of aging. The relative persistence of the gene regulation effect suggests that it may play an even larger role in slowing aging than the thermodynamic effects. The life extending effects of these short-term low temperature treatments are largest when the exposure happens early in the life cycle, demonstrating the importance of early development. There is no advantage to lowering the temperature below 16°C to 11° or 5°C. Rotifers exposed to 16°C also displayed increased resistance to heat, starvation, oxidative and osmotic stress. Reproductive rates at 16°C were lower than those at 22°C, but because they reproduce longer, there is no significant change in the lifetime fecundity of females. To investigate which genes contribute to these effects, the expression of specific temperature sensing genes was knocked down using RNAi. Of 12 genes tested, RNAi knockdown of four eliminated the survival enhancing effects of the four-day cold treatment: TRP7, forkhead box C, Y-box factor, and ribosomal protein S6. This demonstrates that active gene regulation is an important factor in temperature mediated life extension, and that these particular genes play an integral role in these pathways. As a thermoresponsive sensor, TRP7 may be

  2. Physiological and behavioral temperature regulation of men in simulated nonuniform thermal environments between 18 and 30 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwosdow, A R; Berglund, L G

    1989-06-01

    Human thermoregulatory responses to nonuniform thermal environments was studied by simulating the situation with altered clothing distribution. Clothing was symmetrically or asymmetrically distributed over the body surface. Esophageal and local skin temperatures, metabolism, skin heat flux, evaporative heat loss and subjective responses of six sedentary men were measured at air temperatures between 18 and 30 degrees C. Clothing distribution significantly (p less than 0.05) influenced thermoregulatory responses only at 18 degrees C. At 18 degrees C, the bilaterally asymmetric clothing resulted in a higher (p less than 0.05) esophageal temperature compared to the symmetric condition. Mean skin temperatures did not differ with clothing distribution over the range of air temperatures studied, but at 18 degrees C whole body thermal sensation was warmer (p less than 0.05) for the asymmetric compared to the symmetric group. This increased perception of warm thermal sensation was significantly correlated to the difference in skin temperature across the body.

  3. Maternal status regulates cortical responses to the body odor of newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan N Lundström

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies in non-human mammals have identified olfactory signals as prime mediators of mother-infant bonding and they have been linked with maternal attitudes and behavior in our own species as well. However, although the neuronal network processing infant cues has been studied for visual and auditory signals; to date, no such information exists for chemosensory signals. We contrasted the cerebral activity underlying the processing of infant odor properties in 15 women newly given birth for the first time and 15 women not given birth while smelling the body odor of unfamiliar 2 day-old newborn infants. Maternal status-dependent activity was demonstrated in the thalamus when exposed to the body odor of a newly born infant. Subsequent regions of interest analyses indicated that dopaminergic neostriatal areas are active in maternal-dependent responses. Taken together, these data suggests that body odors from 2 day-old newborns elicit activation in reward-related cerebral areas in women, regardless of their maternal status. These tentative data suggests that certain body odors might act as a catalyst for bonding mechanisms and highlights the need for future research on odor-dependent mother-infant bonding using parametric designs controlling for biological saliency and general odor perception effects.

  4. Glutamate mediates the function of melanocortin receptor 4 on sim1 neurons in body weight regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a well-established mediator of body weight homeostasis. However, the neurotransmitter(s) that mediate MC4R function remain largely unknown; as a result, little is known about the second-order neurons of the MC4R neural pathway. Single-minded 1 (Sim1)-expressing ...

  5. TEQSA and Risk-Based Regulation: Considerations for University Governing Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    The advent of a new national regulatory and quality assurance regime in Australia, through the Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency (TEQSA), presents additional requirements to university governing bodies, for compliance with standards and for risk management. This paper discusses TEQSA's approach and potential vulnerabilities for…

  6. Surface wetting and its effect on body and surface temperatures of domestic laying hens at different thermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutaf, S; Kahraman, N Seber; Firat, M Z

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of surface wetting at different thermal conditions on core body, head, and dorsal surface temperatures in laying hens. Hens were sprinkled on the head and dorsal surface by releasing a sprinkling dosage of 10 mL.bird(-1). The first measurement was taken presprinkling, and the second was taken immediately postsprinkling and then repeated every 5 min for 20 min. The cooling water needs for intermittent partial surface wetting to relieve acute heat stress in the laying hens were quantified for 48 domestic laying hens under 4 experimental thermal conditions. The hens were kept at 4 thermal conditions at average dry-bulb temperatures of 31.30 +/- 0.03, 33.20 +/- 0.08, 36.01 +/- 0.12, and 40.24 +/- 0.08 degrees C; RH of 67.68 +/- 0.37, 51.78 +/- 1.98, 24.59 +/- 0.90, and 16.12 +/- 1.55%; and air velocities of 0.09 +/- 0.00, 0.07 +/- 0.00, 0.08 +/- 0.00, and 0.09 +/- 0.00 m.s(-1), respectively. The differences in core body, head, and dorsal surface temperatures among the 4 thermal groups were 0.15, 0.18, 0.23, and 0.22 degrees C for core body temperature; 1.63, 1.44, 2.51, and 0.97 degrees C for core head temperature; and 1.23, 1.37, 1.41, and 0.64 degrees C for core dorsal temperature at thermal conditions 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. There were significant differences in core body, head, and dorsal surface temperatures among the 4 thermal condition groups. It was concluded that the spraying interval was directly proportional to the product of the vapor pressure deficit and the thermal resistance of convective mass transfer of the wetted hens, because there were no significant differences in the air velocity among the 4 thermal condition groups and the air velocity was very low. PMID:19038798

  7. Wireless Low-Power Integrated Basal-Body-Temperature Detection Systems Using Teeth Antennas in the MedRadio Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chin-Lung; Zheng, Gou-Tsun

    2015-11-20

    This study proposes using wireless low power thermal sensors for basal-body-temperature detection using frequency modulated telemetry devices. A long-term monitoring sensor requires low-power circuits including a sampling circuit and oscillator. Moreover, temperature compensated technologies are necessary because the modulated frequency might have additional frequency deviations caused by the varying temperature. The temperature compensated oscillator is composed of a ring oscillator and a controlled-steering current source with temperature compensation, so the output frequency of the oscillator does not drift with temperature variations. The chip is fabricated in a standard Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and the chip area is 0.9 mm². The power consumption of the sampling amplifier is 128 µW. The power consumption of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) core is less than 40 µW, and the output is -3.04 dBm with a buffer stage. The output voltage of the bandgap reference circuit is 1 V. For temperature measurements, the maximum error is 0.18 °C with a standard deviation of ±0.061 °C, which is superior to the required specification of 0.1 °C.

  8. Wireless Low-Power Integrated Basal-Body-Temperature Detection Systems Using Teeth Antennas in the MedRadio Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Lung Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes using wireless low power thermal sensors for basal-body-temperature detection using frequency modulated telemetry devices. A long-term monitoring sensor requires low-power circuits including a sampling circuit and oscillator. Moreover, temperature compensated technologies are necessary because the modulated frequency might have additional frequency deviations caused by the varying temperature. The temperature compensated oscillator is composed of a ring oscillator and a controlled-steering current source with temperature compensation, so the output frequency of the oscillator does not drift with temperature variations. The chip is fabricated in a standard Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process, and the chip area is 0.9 mm2. The power consumption of the sampling amplifier is 128 µW. The power consumption of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO core is less than 40 µW, and the output is −3.04 dBm with a buffer stage. The output voltage of the bandgap reference circuit is 1 V. For temperature measurements, the maximum error is 0.18 °C with a standard deviation of ±0.061 °C, which is superior to the required specification of 0.1 °C.

  9. Wireless Low-Power Integrated Basal-Body-Temperature Detection Systems Using Teeth Antennas in the MedRadio Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chin-Lung; Zheng, Gou-Tsun

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes using wireless low power thermal sensors for basal-body-temperature detection using frequency modulated telemetry devices. A long-term monitoring sensor requires low-power circuits including a sampling circuit and oscillator. Moreover, temperature compensated technologies are necessary because the modulated frequency might have additional frequency deviations caused by the varying temperature. The temperature compensated oscillator is composed of a ring oscillator and a controlled-steering current source with temperature compensation, so the output frequency of the oscillator does not drift with temperature variations. The chip is fabricated in a standard Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and the chip area is 0.9 mm². The power consumption of the sampling amplifier is 128 µW. The power consumption of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) core is less than 40 µW, and the output is -3.04 dBm with a buffer stage. The output voltage of the bandgap reference circuit is 1 V. For temperature measurements, the maximum error is 0.18 °C with a standard deviation of ±0.061 °C, which is superior to the required specification of 0.1 °C. PMID:26610508

  10. Methods and Efficacy of Acupuncture for Regulating Body Weight in Different Populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Bin; LIU Zhi-cheng; YUAN Jin-hong; MAO Zhen; SHAO Qing-hua; WANG Xin-jun; WANG Si-you

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the proper methods of acupuncture and moxibustion for controlling body weight and their objects. Methods: 274 outpatients were allocated to 3observation groups: obesity, overweight and normal, using standard weight as an index. The obesity group was divided, at a ratio of 1: 1: 3, into 3 groups: fixed prescription, local treatment and treatment based on syndrome differentiation. The syndromes were classified into five types in the syndrome differentiation group. Different protocols of acupuncture and moxibustion plus auricular-plaster therapy were drawn up for treatment. Body mass index (BMI), body fat (F%),body circumferences and subcutaneous fat were evaluated in the patients before and after treatments. Results: There was a difference in the controlling effect of acupuncture on body weight among different populations. The curative effect was better in the obesity and overweight groups than in the normal group; the effective rate was 72.2%, 72.5% and 44.0%, respectively.There was also a difference in curative effect among obesity patients with different types of syndromes. The curative effects on retention of damp-heat in the stomach, stagnation of liver qi and dampness retention due to splenic hypofunction were equal but all better than those on deficiency of splenonephric yang and intemal heat due to yin deficiency. There was also a difference in curative effect among different protocols. The curative effects in the syndrome differentiation-based treatment and fixed prescription groups were equal (77.8%) but all better than that in the local treatment group (53.3%). Conclusion: Acupuncture and moxibustion is an effective way to treat obesity and overweight. Treatment based on syndrome differentiation and fixed prescription on the basis of syndrome differentiation are effective methods.

  11. A whole-body model for glycogen regulation reveals a critical role for substrate cycling in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely, and sometimes rapid, metabolic adaptation to changes in food supply is critical for survival as an organism moves from the fasted to the fed state, and vice versa. These transitions necessitate major metabolic changes to maintain energy homeostasis as the source of blood glucose moves away from ingested carbohydrates, through hepatic glycogen stores, towards gluconeogenesis. The integration of hepatic glycogen regulation with extra-hepatic energetics is a key aspect of these adaptive mechanisms. Here we use computational modeling to explore hepatic glycogen regulation under fed and fasting conditions in the context of a whole-body model. The model was validated against previous experimental results concerning glycogen phosphorylase a (active and glycogen synthase a dynamics. The model qualitatively reproduced physiological changes that occur during transition from the fed to the fasted state. Analysis of the model reveals a critical role for the inhibition of glycogen synthase phosphatase by glycogen phosphorylase a. This negative regulation leads to high levels of glycogen synthase activity during fasting conditions, which in turn increases substrate (futile cycling, priming the system for a rapid response once an external source of glucose is restored. This work demonstrates that a mechanistic understanding of the design principles used by metabolic control circuits to maintain homeostasis can benefit from the incorporation of mathematical descriptions of these networks into "whole-body" contextual models that mimic in vivo conditions.

  12. The Essence of Chinese Medicine"Tonic"Means Regulation of Body Mechanism%中药"补"的本质在于调整人体机能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱孝轩; 朱琳

    2005-01-01

    @@ The pharmacological function of the so-called"Tonic Drugs"in Chinese medicine is ,in essence ,the regulation of body mechanism,not the function of supplementing basic tonic substances or basic physiological active substances to the body.This is quite different from the so-called"supplementing tonic substances"and other substances needed by physiology in western medicine.Although some nourishments or phyusiological substances needed by the human body are contained in some Chinese medicine,the main pharmacological function,or its essence,is still the regulation of body mechanism due to their very small content.

  13. Integrated approach of regulate global temperature rises and climate changes for sustainable planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study emphasis the requirement of integrated approach for regulate the global temperature rises to protect the planet form climate changes and other system changes. It is clear that effect of global temperature increases, have already affected many physical and biological and human systems, This unbalances of global systems is more rapid after 1950' s increases of using environmental polluting energy sources with releasing the pollutants to global systems together with extra solar energy accumulation. How ever as a solution it is require to reduce pollutants and balance the energy level to optimum within the caring capacity. To protect the planet as a sustainable system with controlling temperature rises and other unbalances it is important to keep and protect the interrelationship of each and every system with protecting mechanisms. Therefore it is require integrated approach to establish protective mechanisms for each and every sectors of badly effecting with considering regional, national. international and global level.

  14. Exploiting the igloo principle and greenhouse effect to regulate humidity and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu Karthick

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic epidermal necrolysis can be fatal and nursing care with careful monitoring of temperature and humidity can improve survival rate. We adapted the greenhouse and igloo principle using a common hood to monitor the temperature and humidity. Methods: A small heater with a regulator was placed in a mini hood and temperature was recorded inside the uncovered hood and hood covered with green cloth and aluminium foil separately. The regular hood was placed over a volunteer and the temperature was measured inside the open hood and hood covered with green cloth and aluminium foil separately. The relative humidity was also monitored using Zeal mercury dry - wet bulb hygrometer. Results: Temperature increase was most marked in the foil-covered hood followed by cloth-covered hood, both with the heater and the volunteer. Similarly, in the volunteer study, the humidity was best maintained inside the aluminium foil-covered hood. Conclusion: We recommend the use of regular hood with suitable cover to monitor the humidity and temperature of patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis.

  15. Effects of humid heat exposure in later sleep segments on sleep stages and body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo; Mizuno, Koh

    2005-03-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of humid heat exposure in later sleep segments on sleep stages and body temperature in humans. The subjects were eight healthy males, from whom informed consent had been obtained. The experiments were carried out under three different sets of conditions: a control climate [air temperature (Ta)=26°C, relative humidity (RH)=50%] (C); a humid heat climate (Ta=32°C, RH=80%) (H); and a humid heat exposure in later sleep segments (C for the first 3 h 45 min, followed by a 30-min transition to H, which was then maintained for the last 3 h 45 min) (C H). Electroencephalogram, EOG, and mental electromyogram, rectal temperature (Tre), and skin temperature (Tsk) were continuously measured. The total amount of wakefulness was significantly increased in H compared to C H or C. Compared to C, wakefulness in C H and H was significantly increased during later sleep segments. Tre and mean Tsk were significantly higher in H than in C H or C. In C H, Tsk and Tre increased to levels equal to those observed in H after Ta and RH increase. Whole body sweat loss was significantly lower in C H and C than in H. These results suggest that humid heat exposure in the later sleep segment reduces thermal load as compared to full-night humid heat exposure. In daily life, the use of air conditioning in the initial sleep hours can protect sleep and thermoregulation.

  16. Human perception of short and long time intervals: its correlation with body temperature and the duration of wake time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschoff, J

    1998-10-01

    Time estimation was studied in seven human subjects during prolonged sojourn is isolation from time cues. They wore rectal temperature probes throughout the experiments, and during wakefulness recorded each time they thought one hour had passed. At the end of each of these subjective hours they produced a subjective 5 or 10 sec interval. The produced intervals on the 1-h task were not related to body temperature but were correlated with and proportional to the duration of waketime in all subjects. The produced 5 and 10 sec intervals were in all subjects negatively correlated with rectal temperature, but were not associated with wake time. Brief and long time intervals are subjectively experienced via different mechanisms.

  17. Usb Spectrometers and the Temperature of the Sun: Measuring Black Body Radiation in the Palm of your Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Horrocks, Benjamin R.; Walker, Nick

    2015-06-01

    A new experiment appropriate for both general chemistry and physical chemistry students will be described. The experiment utilizes "pocket size" USB spectrometers (operating in the UV/vis region) coupled with fiber optic cables to record a solar spectrum. A further extension of the experiment involves recording spectra of a light bulb at several voltages (and thus resistances). Using provided software, students can fit black body distributions to their obtained spectra. The software will display the acquired spectrum, a simulation based on their guess temperature, a simulation based on their fit, and OMC2 for both. Students can then compare their results to the known temperature of the sun and the known temperature vs resistance curve of tungsten.

  18. Vacuolar ATPase Regulates Surfactant Secretion in Rat Alveolar Type II Cells by Modulating Lamellar Body Calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Chintagari, Narendranath Reddy; Mishra, Amarjit; Su, Lijing; Wang, Yang; Ayalew, Sahlu; Hartson, Steven D; Liu, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Lung surfactant reduces surface tension and maintains the stability of alveoli. How surfactant is released from alveolar epithelial type II cells is not fully understood. Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is the enzyme responsible for pumping H+ into lamellar bodies and is required for the processing of surfactant proteins and the packaging of surfactant lipids. However, its role in lung surfactant secretion is unknown. Proteomic analysis revealed that vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) dominated the alveol...

  19. Paradoxes of body fluid volume regulation in health and disease. A unifying hypothesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Schrier, R W; Niederberger, M

    1994-01-01

    The body's normal homeostasis is maintained by the integrity of the excretory capacity of the kidneys. In advanced cardiac failure, however, the avidity of the renal sodium and water retention contributes to the occurrence of pulmonary congestion and peripheral edema. In patients with advanced cirrhosis, the kidneys again fail to excrete the amounts of sodium and water ingested, thus leading to ascites and peripheral edema. The signals for this renal retention of sodium and water in a patient...

  20. Acute changes in oxygen consumption and body temperature after burn injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Childs, C.; Little, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    This study describes the pattern of oxygen consumption (VO2), rectal temperature (Tr), and acral skin temperature (Tac) in sleeping and resting (awake) burned children nursed in a thermoneutral environment. Measurements of respiratory gas exchange (VO2 and carbon dioxide production (VCO2)) were made using an open circuit, flow through system of indirect calorimetry. Tr and Tac were monitored continuously. Sixteen patients were studied during the first 18 hours after being burned. Three phases...

  1. Relations between the development of patterns of sleeping heart rate and body temperature in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, S.; Pratt, C; Wailoo, M

    2001-01-01

    Overnight patterns of rectal temperature and heart rate were recorded from 119 normal infants at weekly intervals from 7 to about 16 weeks of age. All data were collected in the infants' own homes. As previously reported, different infants developed an adult-like night time rectal temperature pattern abruptly at different ages. When heart rate data were collated by age, there was an apparently gradual fall in sleeping heart rate from 7 to about 14 weeks of age. This was, howeve...

  2. Passive estimation of internal temperatures making use of broadband ultrasound radiated by the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anosov, Andrey A; Kazansky, Alexandr S; Subochev, Pavel V; Mansfel'd, Anatoly D; Klinshov, Vladimir V

    2015-04-01

    The internal temperatures of plasticine models and the human forearm in vivo were determined, based on remote measurements of their intrinsic ultrasonic radiation. For passive detection of the thermal ultrasonic radiation an acoustic radiometer was developed, based on a broadband 0.8-3.3 MHz disk-shaped ultrasonic detector with an 8 mm aperture. To reconstruct temperature profiles using the experimentally measured spectra of thermal acoustic radiation a priori information was used regarding the temperature distribution within the objects being investigated. The temperature distribution for heated plasticine was considered to be a monotonic function. The distribution for the human forearm was considered to fit a heat equation incorporating blood flow parameters. Using sampling durations of 45 s the accuracy of temperature measurement inside a plasticine model was 0.5 K. The measured internal temperature of the forearm in vivo, at 36.3 °C, corresponded to existing physiological data. The results obtained verify the applicability of this passive method of wideband ultrasonic thermometry to medical applications that involve local internal heating of biological tissue. PMID:25920819

  3. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Joon [College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Gyu [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Inkyu [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 680 Gukchaebosang-ro, Jung-gu, Daegu 700-842 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Ok [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Duhak, E-mail: dhyoon@knu.ac.kr [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Zae Young, E-mail: jaewoong64@hanmail.net [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes.

  4. Regulation of the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol in water bodies in Europe, the United States, and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Danieli Lima; da Silva, Samuel Muylaert Camargo; Bila, Daniele Maia; Oliveira, Jaime Lopes da Mota; Sarcinelli, Paula de Novaes; Larentis, Ariane Leites

    2016-03-01

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol, the principal component of oral contraceptives, has been identified as one of the main compounds accounting for adverse effects on the endocrine system in various species. This study aimed to analyze the state-of-the-art in legislation and guidelines for the control of this synthetic estrogen in water bodies in Europe and the United States and to draw a parallel with the Brazilian reality. Countries have generally attempted to expand the regulation and monitoring of certain emerging micropollutants not previously covered by legislation. Europe is more advanced in terms of water quality, while in the United States this estrogen is only regulated in water for human consumption. Brazil still lacks legal provisions or standards for this estrogen, which can be explained by the relatively limited maturity of the country's system for controlling water pollutants. PMID:27027456

  5. Regulation of the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol in water bodies in Europe, the United States, and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Danieli Lima; da Silva, Samuel Muylaert Camargo; Bila, Daniele Maia; Oliveira, Jaime Lopes da Mota; Sarcinelli, Paula de Novaes; Larentis, Ariane Leites

    2016-03-01

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol, the principal component of oral contraceptives, has been identified as one of the main compounds accounting for adverse effects on the endocrine system in various species. This study aimed to analyze the state-of-the-art in legislation and guidelines for the control of this synthetic estrogen in water bodies in Europe and the United States and to draw a parallel with the Brazilian reality. Countries have generally attempted to expand the regulation and monitoring of certain emerging micropollutants not previously covered by legislation. Europe is more advanced in terms of water quality, while in the United States this estrogen is only regulated in water for human consumption. Brazil still lacks legal provisions or standards for this estrogen, which can be explained by the relatively limited maturity of the country's system for controlling water pollutants.

  6. Dispersion forces II. Many-body effects, excited atoms, finite temperature and quantum friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi [Imperial College London (United Kingdom). Quantum Optics and Laser Science

    2012-07-01

    Presents the unified theory of dispersion forces. Gives a thorough overview over recent results of dispersion forces. Deals with applied macroscopic quantum electrodynamics. Gives guidance to simulation of realistic material properties. In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contexts.

  7. Distinct Skeletal Muscle Gene Regulation from Active Contraction, Passive Vibration, and Whole Body Heat Stress in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Michael A.; Kimball, Amy L.; McHenry, Colleen L.; Suneja, Manish; Yen, Chu-Ling; Sharma, Arpit; Shields, Richard K.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle exercise regulates several important metabolic genes in humans. We know little about the effects of environmental stress (heat) and mechanical stress (vibration) on skeletal muscle. Passive mechanical stress or systemic heat stress are often used in combination with many active exercise programs. We designed a method to deliver a vibration stress and systemic heat stress to compare the effects with active skeletal muscle contraction. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine whether active mechanical stress (muscle contraction), passive mechanical stress (vibration), or systemic whole body heat stress regulates key gene signatures associated with muscle metabolism, hypertrophy/atrophy, and inflammation/repair. Methods: Eleven subjects, six able-bodied and five with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) participated in the study. The six able-bodied subjects sat in a heat stress chamber for 30 minutes. Five subjects with SCI received a single dose of limb-segment vibration or a dose of repetitive electrically induced muscle contractions. Three hours after the completion of each stress, we performed a muscle biopsy (vastus lateralis or soleus) to analyze mRNA gene expression. Results: We discovered repetitive active muscle contractions up regulated metabolic transcription factors NR4A3 (12.45 fold), PGC-1α (5.46 fold), and ABRA (5.98 fold); and repressed MSTN (0.56 fold). Heat stress repressed PGC-1α (0.74 fold change; p < 0.05); while vibration induced FOXK2 (2.36 fold change; p < 0.05). Vibration similarly caused a down regulation of MSTN (0.74 fold change; p < 0.05), but to a lesser extent than active muscle contraction. Vibration induced FOXK2 (p < 0.05) while heat stress repressed PGC-1α (0.74 fold) and ANKRD1 genes (0.51 fold; p < 0.05). Conclusion: These findings support a distinct gene regulation in response to heat stress, vibration, and muscle contractions. Understanding these responses may assist in developing regenerative

  8. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a "promotion focus" (to show an attractive body), or a "prevention focus" (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were "Not at all" concerned about weight gain, and girls' percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics. PMID:26284248

  9. Weight self-regulation process in adolescence: the relationship between control weight attitudes, behaviors and body weight status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi ePich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (n= 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008 in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT, we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed would be motivated either by a promotion focus (to show an attractive body, a prevention focus (to avoid social rejection of fatness, or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13% and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were Not at all concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13% and 11% respectively. By contrast 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious emotional (self-defense and cognitive (dissonance mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  10. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a "promotion focus" (to show an attractive body), or a "prevention focus" (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were "Not at all" concerned about weight gain, and girls' percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  11. Design of a self-tuning regulator for temperature control of a polymerization reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthi, D; Pranavamoorthy, B; Pappa, N

    2012-01-01

    The temperature control of a polymerization reactor described by Chylla and Haase, a control engineering benchmark problem, is used to illustrate the potential of adaptive control design by employing a self-tuning regulator concept. In the benchmark scenario, the operation of the reactor must be guaranteed under various disturbing influences, e.g., changing ambient temperatures or impurity of the monomer. The conventional cascade control provides a robust operation, but often lacks in control performance concerning the required strict temperature tolerances. The self-tuning control concept presented in this contribution solves the problem. This design calculates a trajectory for the cooling jacket temperature in order to follow a predefined trajectory of the reactor temperature. The reaction heat and the heat transfer coefficient in the energy balance are estimated online by using an unscented Kalman filter (UKF). Two simple physically motivated relations are employed, which allow the non-delayed estimation of both quantities. Simulation results under model uncertainties show the effectiveness of the self-tuning control concept.

  12. Experiments on the ectoparasitic deer ked that often attacks humans; preferences for body parts, colour and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortet, R; Härkönen, L; Hokkanen, P; Härkönen, S; Kaitala, A; Kaunisto, S; Laaksonen, S; Kekäläinen, J; Ylönen, H

    2010-06-01

    The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) can fail in its host search. Host search fails when an individual deer ked irreversibly accepts a host unsuitable for its reproduction (e.g. a human) and drops its wings. In northern Europe, the main host of the deer ked is the moose (Alces alces). The deer ked is increasingly causing serious problems for humans (for example, causing deer ked dermatitis) and is considered a threat for the recreational use of forests. The adult deer ked flies in early and mid-autumn to search for a host. Our aims were: (i) to study whether there are ways to avoid deer ked attacks by wearing particular clothing, and (ii) to evaluate deer ked host choice. Using human targets, we explored the cues the deer ked uses for host selection. We studied which part of the host body deer keds target and if body colour and temperature affect their choice. In our experiments, deer keds landed more on dark and red clothing than on white clothing. Moreover, deer keds mostly attacked the upper body parts and preferred the back side of the body over the front side. Finally, deer keds preferred the warmest areas of the host.

  13. Daily changes in temperature, not the circadian clock, regulate growth rate in Brachypodium distachyon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick A Matos

    Full Text Available Plant growth is commonly regulated by external cues such as light, temperature, water availability, and internal cues generated by the circadian clock. Changes in the rate of growth within the course of a day have been observed in the leaves, stems, and roots of numerous species. However, the relative impact of the circadian clock on the growth of grasses has not been thoroughly characterized. We examined the influence of diurnal temperature and light changes, and that of the circadian clock on leaf length growth patterns in Brachypodium distachyon using high-resolution time-lapse imaging. Pronounced changes in growth rate were observed under combined photocyles and thermocycles or with thermocycles alone. A considerably more rapid growth rate was observed at 28°C than 12°C, irrespective of the presence or absence of light. In spite of clear circadian clock regulated gene expression, plants exhibited no change in growth rate under conditions of constant light and temperature, and little or no effect under photocycles alone. Therefore, temperature appears to be the primary cue influencing observed oscillations in growth rate and not the circadian clock or photoreceptor activity. Furthermore, the size of the leaf meristem and final cell length did not change in response to changes in temperature. Therefore, the nearly five-fold difference in growth rate observed across thermocycles can be attributed to proportionate changes in the rate of cell division and expansion. A better understanding of the growth cues in B. distachyon will further our ability to model metabolism and biomass accumulation in grasses.

  14. Daily changes in temperature, not the circadian clock, regulate growth rate in Brachypodium distachyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Dominick A; Cole, Benjamin J; Whitney, Ian P; MacKinnon, Kirk J-M; Kay, Steve A; Hazen, Samuel P

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth is commonly regulated by external cues such as light, temperature, water availability, and internal cues generated by the circadian clock. Changes in the rate of growth within the course of a day have been observed in the leaves, stems, and roots of numerous species. However, the relative impact of the circadian clock on the growth of grasses has not been thoroughly characterized. We examined the influence of diurnal temperature and light changes, and that of the circadian clock on leaf length growth patterns in Brachypodium distachyon using high-resolution time-lapse imaging. Pronounced changes in growth rate were observed under combined photocyles and thermocycles or with thermocycles alone. A considerably more rapid growth rate was observed at 28°C than 12°C, irrespective of the presence or absence of light. In spite of clear circadian clock regulated gene expression, plants exhibited no change in growth rate under conditions of constant light and temperature, and little or no effect under photocycles alone. Therefore, temperature appears to be the primary cue influencing observed oscillations in growth rate and not the circadian clock or photoreceptor activity. Furthermore, the size of the leaf meristem and final cell length did not change in response to changes in temperature. Therefore, the nearly five-fold difference in growth rate observed across thermocycles can be attributed to proportionate changes in the rate of cell division and expansion. A better understanding of the growth cues in B. distachyon will further our ability to model metabolism and biomass accumulation in grasses.

  15. Cytological, molecular mechanisms and temperature stress regulating production of diploid male gametes in Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuhong; Mo, Xijun; Gui, Min; Wu, Xuewei; Jiang, Yalian; Ma, Lulin; Shi, Ziming; Luo, Ying; Tang, Wenru

    2015-12-01

    In plant evolution, because of its key role in sexual polyploidization or whole genome duplication events, diploid gamete formation is considered as an important component in diversification and speciation. Environmental stress often triggers unreduced gamete production. However, the molecular, cellular mechanisms and adverse temperature regulating diplogamete production in carnation remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the cytological basis for 2n male gamete formation and describe the isolation and characterization of the first gene, DcPS1 (Dianthus Caryophyllus Parallel Spindle 1). In addition, we analyze influence of temperature stress on diploid gamete formation and transcript levels of DcPS1. Cytological evidence indicated that 2n male gamete formation is attributable to abnormal spindle orientation at male meiosis II. DcPS1 protein is conserved throughout the plant kingdom and carries domains suggestive of a regulatory function. DcPS1 expression analysis show DcPS1 gene probably have a role in 2n pollen formation. Unreduced pollen formation in various cultivation was sensitive to high or low temperature which was probably regulated by the level of DcPS1 transcripts. In a broader perspective, these findings can have potential applications in fundamental polyploidization research and plant breeding programs.

  16. Decreased Postnatal Survival and Altered Body Weight Regulation in Procolipase-deficient Mice*

    OpenAIRE

    D’Agostino, Dymphna; Cordle, Richard A.; Kullman, John; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte; Muglia, Louis J.; Lowe, Mark E.

    2001-01-01

    In vitro, pancreatic triglyceride lipase requires co-lipase to restore activity in the presence of inhibitors, like bile acids. Presumably, colipase performs the same function in vivo, but little data supports that notion. Other studies suggest that colipase or its proform, procolipase, may have additional functions in appetite regulation or in fat digestion during the newborn period when pancreatic triglyceride lipase is not expressed. To identify the physiological role of procolipase, we cr...

  17. Comparison of Appetite-regulating Hormones and Body Composition in Pediatric Patients in Predialysis Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease and Healthy Control Group

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari; Maryam Ranjbar-Zahedani; Mitra Basiratnia; Abbas Rezaianzadeh; Shiva Faghih

    2015-01-01

    Background: Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common complication in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Components incorporated in the regulation of appetite and body composition appear to be of the focus in renal insufficiency and may influence the CKD-associated PEM. The purpose of this study was to investigate plasma levels of appetite-regulating hormones and their correlation with the body composition variables in a pediatric in predialysis stage of CKD. Methods...

  18. Interleukin-7, a new cytokine targeting the mouse hypothalamic arcuate nucleus: role in body weight and food intake regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Macia

    Full Text Available Body weight is controlled through peripheral (white adipose tissue and central (mainly hypothalamus mechanisms. We have recently obtained evidence that overexpression of interleukin (IL-7, a critical cytokine involved in lymphopoiesis, can protect against the development of diet-induced obesity in mice. Here we assessed whether IL-7 mediated its effects by modulating hypothalamic function. Acute subcutaneous injection of IL-7 prevented monosodium glutamate-induced obesity, this being correlated with partial protection against cell death in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC. Moreover, we showed that IL-7 activated hypothalamic areas involved in regulation of feeding behavior, as indicated by induction of the activation marker c-Fos in neural cells located in the ventromedial part of the ARC and by inhibition of food intake after fasting. Both chains of the IL-7 receptor (IL-7Ralpha and gamma(c were expressed in the ARC and IL-7 injection induced STAT-3 phosphorylation in this area. Finally, we established that IL-7 modulated the expression of neuropeptides that tune food intake, with a stimulatory effect on the expression of pro-opiomelanocortin and an inhibitory effect on agouti-related peptide expression in accordance with IL-7 promoting anorectic effects. These results suggest that the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-7 plays an important and unappreciated role in hypothalamic body weight regulation.

  19. Beneficial autoimmunity at body surfaces– immune surveillance and rapid type 2 immunity regulate tissue homeostasis and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eDalessandri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial cells line body surface tissues and provide a physicochemical barrier to the external environment. Frequent microbial and non-microbial challenges such as those imposed by mechanical disruption, injury or exposure to noxious environmental substances including chemicals, carcinogens, ultraviolet-irradiation or toxins cause activation of epithelial cells with release of cytokines and chemokines as well as alterations in the expression of cell surface ligands. Such display of epithelial stress is rapidly sensed by tissue resident immunocytes, which can directly interact with self-moieties on epithelial cells and initiate both local and systemic immune responses. Epithelial cells are thus key drivers of immune surveillance at body surface tissues. However, epithelial cells have a propensity to drive type 2 immunity (rather than type 1 upon non-invasive challenge or stress – a type of immunity whose regulation and function still remain enigmatic. Here we review the induction and possible role of type 2 immunity in epithelial tissues and propose that rapid immune surveillance and type 2 immunity are key regulators of tissue homeostasis and carcinogenesis.

  20. Body temperature responses in spinal cord injured individuals during exercise in the cold and heat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, C.R.L.; Binkhorst, R.A.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of arm exercise on the heat balance in spinal cord-injured (SCI) individuals with complete lesions at ambient temperatures of 10 and 35 degrees C. Four SCI with a high lesion (> or = T6) (SCI-H), seven with a low lesion (< T6) (SCI-L), and ten abl

  1. First investigations to refine video-based IR thermography as a non-invasive tool to monitor the body temperature of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, G; Schmidt, M; Ammon, C

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a video-based infrared camera (IRC) was investigated as a tool to monitor the body temperature of calves. Body surface temperatures were measured contactless using videos from an IRC fixed at a certain location in the calf feeder. The body surface temperatures were analysed retrospectively at three larger areas: the head area (in front of the forehead), the body area (behind forehead) and the area of the entire animal. The rectal temperature served as a reference temperature and was measured with a digital thermometer at the corresponding time point. A total of nine calves (Holstein-Friesians, 8 to 35 weeks old) were examined. The average maximum temperatures of the area of the entire animal (mean±SD: 37.66±0.90°C) and the head area (37.64±0.86°C) were always higher than that of the body area (36.75±1.06°C). The temperatures of the head area and of the entire animal were very similar. However, the maximum temperatures as measured using IRC increased with an increase in calf rectal temperature. The maximum temperatures of each video picture for the entire visible body area of the calves appeared to be sufficient to measure the superficial body temperature. The advantage of the video-based IRC over conventional IR single-picture cameras is that more than one picture per animal can be analysed in a short period of time. This technique provides more data for analysis. Thus, this system shows potential as an indicator for continuous temperature measurements in calves.

  2. Sexually dimorphic body color is regulated by sex-specific expression of yellow gene in ponerine ant, Diacamma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Miyazaki

    Full Text Available Most hymenopteran species exhibit conspicuous sexual dimorphism due to ecological differences between the sexes. As hymenopteran genomes, under the haplodiploid genetic system, exhibit quantitative differences between sexes while remaining qualitatively identical, sexual phenotypes are assumed to be expressed through sex-specific gene usage. In the present study, the molecular basis for expression of sexual dimorphism in a queenless ant, Diacamma sp., which exhibits a distinct color dimorphism, was examined. Worker females of the species appear bluish-black, while winged males exhibit a yellowish-brown body color. Initially, observations of the pigmentation processes during pupal development revealed that black pigmentation was present in female pupae but not in males, suggesting that sex-specific melanin synthesis was responsible for the observed color dimorphism. Therefore, five orthologs of the genes involved in the insect melanin synthesis (yellow, ebony, tan, pale and dopa decarboxylase were subcloned and their spatiotemporal expression patterns were examined using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Of the genes examined, yellow, which plays a role in black melanin synthesis in insects, was expressed at higher levels in females than in males throughout the entire body during the pupal stage. RNA interference of yellow was then carried out in order to determine the gene function, and produced females with a more yellowish, brighter body color similar to that of males. It was concluded that transcriptional regulation of yellow was responsible for the sexual color dimorphism observed in this species.

  3. The effects of floor heating on body temperature, water consumption, stress response and immune competence around parturition in loose-housed sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, B M; Malmkvist, J; Pedersen, L J;

    2009-01-01

    ). In conclusion, the present results indicate that floor heating for a limited period around parturition did not compromise physiological and immunological parameters, water intake and body temperature in loose-housed sows. The water intake peaked the day before parturition and the body temperature peaked......The aim of the present study was to study whether floor heating from 12 h after onset of nest building until 48 h after birth of the first piglet had any effect on measures related to body temperature, water consumption, stress response and immune competence in loose-housed sows (n = 23...

  4. Salinity, temperature, and growth regulator effects on seed germination of Salicornia europaea L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungar, I.A.

    1977-12-01

    Temperature optima for Salicornia europaea L. seed germination at different salinities were investigated. Maximum germination occurred in distilled water at 25/sup 0/C. Lowest germination percentages for all salinities were at 10/sup 0/C. Even though S. europaea is the most salt tolerant of the species growing on the salt pan in which it occurs, an increase in salinity stress proved to be inhibitory to seed germination for all temperature regimes investigated. Treatments with 1 x 10/sup -3/ M gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) stimulated germination in salinities with up to 5.0% NaCl concentrations; germination increased from 5.0% in the control to 42.0% in the growth regulator treatment. Kinetin did not stimulate germination of S. europaea seeds.

  5. Role of many-body effects in the coherent dynamics of excitons in low-temperature-grown GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, D.; Hacquebard, L.; Hall, K. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Liu, X.; Dobrowolska, M.; Furdyna, J. K. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Femtosecond four-wave mixing experiments on low-temperature-grown (LT-) GaAs indicate a polarization-dependent nonlinear optical response at the exciton, which we attribute to Coulomb-mediated coupling between excitons and electron-hole pairs simultaneously excited by the broad-bandwidth laser pulses. Strong suppression of the exciton response through screening by carriers injected by a third pump pulse was observed, an effect that is transient due to rapid carrier trapping. Our findings highlight the need to account for the complex interplay of disorder and many-body effects in the design of ultrafast optoelectronic devices using this material.

  6. Role of GABA Release From Leptin Receptor-Expressing Neurons in Body Weight Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yuanzhong; O'Brien, William G.; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Myers, Martin G.; Tong, Qingchun

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that leptin regulates energy balance largely through isoform B leptin receptor-expressing neurons (LepR neurons) in the brain and that leptin activates one subset of LepR neurons (leptin-excited neurons) while inhibiting the other (leptin-inhibited neurons). However, the neurotransmitters released from LepR neurons that mediate leptin action in the brain are not well understood. Previous results demonstrate that leptin mainly acts on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neur...

  7. Behavioral temperature regulation in humans during mild narcosis induced by inhalation of 30% nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev, Daniel; Mekjavi, Igor B

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of mild narcosis on temperature perception, thermal comfort, and behavioral temperature regulation in humans. Twelve subjects (six males and six females) participated in two trials, during which they wore a water-perfused suit (WPS). The temperature of the WPS (TWPS) fluctuated sinusoidally from 27 degrees to 42 degrees C, at a heating and cooling rate of 1.2 degrees C x min(-1). In the first trial, the subjects had no control over TWPS: They determined their thermal comfort zone (TCZ) by providing a subjective response whenever they perceived the temperature changing from a comfortable to an uncomfortable level and vice versa; in addition, they provided subjective ratings of temperature perception and thermal comfort on a 7-point and 4-point scale, respectively, at each 3 degrees C change in TWPS. In the second trial, subjects could change the direction of TWPS whenever it became uncomfortable by depressing a button on a manual control. The protocols were conducted with subjects breathing either room air (AIR), or a normoxic breathing mixture containing 30% N2O. Subjects perceived increasing TWPS as equally warm and the decreasing TWPS as equally cold with AIR or N2O. However, equal changes in TWPS were perceived as significantly less discomforting (Pperception of comfort. These changes were not reflected in the behavioral response. Subjects produced similar TWPS damped-oscillation patterns in the AIR and N2O trials. We conclude that the narcosis-induced alteration in the perception of thermal comfort does not change the preferred temperature, or the ability to behaviorally maintain thermal comfort.

  8. Regulation of Calcium on Peanut Photosynthesis Under Low Night Temperature Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-fei; HAN Xiao-ri; ZHAN Xiu-mei; YANG Jin-feng; WANG Yu-zhi; SONG Qiao-bo; CHEN Xin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different levels of CaCl2 on photosynthesis under low night temperature (8°C) stress in peanuts were studied in order to ifnd out the appropriate concentration of Ca2+ through the artiifcial climate chamber potted culture test. The results indicated that Ca2+, by means of improving the stomatal conductivity of peanut leaves under low night temperature stress, may mitigate the decline of photosynthetic rate in the peanut leaves. The regulation with 15 mmol L-1 CaCl2 (Ca15) was the most effective, compared with other treatments. Subsequently, the improvement of Ca2+ on peanut photosynthesis under low night temperature stress was validated further through spraying withCa15, Ca2+ chelator (ethylene glycol bis(2-aminoethyl) tetraacetic acid; EGTA) and calmodulin antagonists (trilfuonerazine; TFP).And CaM (Ca2+-modulin) played an important role in the nutritional signal transduction for Ca2+ mitigating photosynthesis limitations in peanuts under low night temperature stress.

  9. Fatigue is a brain-derived emotion that regulates the exercise behavior to ensure the protection of whole body homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy David Noakes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An influential book written by A. Mosso in the late 19th century proposed that fatigue that at first sight might appear an imperfection of our body, is on the contrary one of its most marvellous perfections. The fatigue increasing more rapidly than the amount of work done saves us from the injury which lesser sensibility would involve for the organism so that muscular fatigue also is at bottom an exhaustion of the nervous system.It has taken more than a century to confirm Mosso’s idea that both the brain and the muscles alter their function during exercise and that fatigue is predominantly an emotion, part of a complex regulation, the goal of which is to protect the body from harm. Mosso’s ideas were supplanted in the English literature by those of A.V. Hill who believed that fatigue was the result of biochemical changes in the exercising limb muscles - peripheral fatigue - to which the central nervous system makes no contribution. The past decade has witnessed the growing realization that this brainless model cannot explain exercise performance. This article traces the evolution of our modern understanding of how the CNS regulates exercise specifically to insure that each exercise bout terminates whilst homeostasis is retained in all bodily systems. The brain uses the symptoms of fatigue as key regulators to insure that the exercise is completed before harm develops. These sensations of fatigue are unique to each individual and are illusionary since their generation is largely independent of the real biological state of the athlete at the time they develop. The model predicts that attempts to understand fatigue and to explain superior human athletic performance purely on the basis of the body’s known physiological and metabolic responses to exercise must fail since subconscious and conscious mental decisions made by winners and losers, in both training and competition, are the ultimate determinants of both fatigue and athletic performance.

  10. Temperature control apparatus including air return bulkhead for mounting in a transportable body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajic, A.H.

    1988-02-23

    An air return bulkhead assembly for removable installation adjacent an inside surface of a front wall of a trailer also having two side walls extending from opposite ends of the front wall, through which front wall is disposed an air treatment apparatus for receiving air through an inlet, for temperature treating the air and for providing the temperature-treated air through an outlet is described comprising: a first vertical support member having a first web through which a first hole is defined; first attachment means for attaching the first vertical support member to the front wall of the trailer between one of the side walls of the trailer and the air treatment apparatus.

  11. An All-Elastomeric Transparent and Stretchable Temperature Sensor for Body-Attachable Wearable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trung, Tran Quang; Ramasundaram, Subramaniyan; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2016-01-20

    A transparent stretchable (TS) gated sensor array with high optical transparency, conformality, and high stretchability of up to 70% is demonstrated. The TS-gated sensor array has high responsivity to temperature changes in objects and human skin. This unprecedented TS-gated sensor array, as well as the integrated platform of the TS-gated sensor with a transparent and stretchable strain sensor, show great potential for application to wearable skin electronics for recognition of human activity.

  12. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Dollins, A B; Zhdanova, I.V.; Wurtman, R J; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M H

    1994-01-01

    We examined effects of very low doses of melatonin (0.1-10 mg, orally) or placebo, administered at 1145 h, on sleep latency and duration, mood, performance, oral temperature, and changes in serum melatonin levels in 20 healthy male volunteers. A repeated-measure double-blind Latin square design was used. Subjects completed a battery of tests designed to assess mood and performance between 0930 and 1730 h. The sedative-like effects of melatonin were assessed by a simple sleep...

  13. Three-dimensional cryoEM reconstruction of native LDL particles to 16A resolution at physiological body temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhor Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL particles, the major carriers of cholesterol in the human circulation, have a key role in cholesterol physiology and in the development of atherosclerosis. The most prominent structural components in LDL are the core-forming cholesteryl esters (CE and the particle-encircling single copy of a huge, non-exchangeable protein, the apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100. The shape of native LDL particles and the conformation of native apoB-100 on the particles remain incompletely characterized at the physiological human body temperature (37 °C. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study native LDL particles, we applied cryo-electron microscopy to calculate 3D reconstructions of LDL particles in their hydrated state. Images of the particles vitrified at 6 °C and 37 °C resulted in reconstructions at ~16 Å resolution at both temperatures. 3D variance map analysis revealed rigid and flexible domains of lipids and apoB-100 at both temperatures. The reconstructions showed less variability at 6 °C than at 37 °C, which reflected increased order of the core CE molecules, rather than decreased mobility of the apoB-100. Compact molecular packing of the core and order in a lipid-binding domain of apoB-100 were observed at 6 °C, but not at 37 °C. At 37 °C we were able to highlight features in the LDL particles that are not clearly separable in 3D maps at 6 °C. Segmentation of apoB-100 density, fitting of lipovitellin X-ray structure, and antibody mapping, jointly revealed the approximate locations of the individual domains of apoB-100 on the surface of native LDL particles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides molecular background for further understanding of the link between structure and function of native LDL particles at physiological body temperature.

  14. Mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation does not exacerbate central fatigue during subsequent whole-body endurance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin ePageaux

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation increases perception of effort and reduces performance during subsequent endurance exercise. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying these negative effects of mental fatigue are unclear. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental fatigue exacerbates central fatigue induced by whole-body endurance exercise. Twelve subjects performed 30 min of either an incongruent Stroop task to induce a condition of mental fatigue or a congruent Stroop task (control condition in a random and counterbalanced order. Both cognitive tasks (CT were followed by a whole-body endurance task (ET consisting of six minutes of cycling exercise at 80% of peak power output measured during a preliminary incremental test. Neuromuscular function of the knee extensors was assessed before and after CT, and after ET. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE was measured during ET. Both CT did not induce any decrease in maximal voluntary contraction (MVC torque (p=0.194. During ET, mentally fatigued subjects reported higher RPE (self-regulation 13.9 ± 3.0, control 13.3 ± 3.2, p=0.044. ET induced a similar decrease in MVC torque (self-regulation -17 ± 15 %, control -15 ± 11 %, p=0.001, maximal voluntary activation level (self-regulation -6 ± 9%, control -6 ± 7%, p=0.013 and resting twitch (self-regulation -30 ± 14%, control -32 ± 10%, P<0.001 in both conditions. These findings reject our hypothesis and confirm previous findings that mental fatigue does not reduce the capacity of the central nervous system to recruit the working muscles. The negative effect of mental fatigue on perception of effort does not reflect a greater development of either central or peripheral fatigue. Consequently, mentally fatigued subjects are still able to perform maximal exercise, but they are experiencing an altered performance during submaximal exercise due to higher-than-normal perception

  15. Wdr18 is required for Kupffer's vesicle formation and regulation of body asymmetry in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    Full Text Available Correct specification of the left-right (L-R axis is important for organ morphogenesis. Conserved mechanisms involving cilia rotation inside node-like structures and asymmetric Nodal signaling in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM, which are important symmetry-breaking events, have been intensively studied. In zebrafish, the clustering and migration of dorsal forerunner cells (DFCs is critical for the formation of the Kuppfer's vesicle (KV. However, molecular events underlying DFC clustering and migration are less understood. The WD-repeat proteins function in a variety of biological processes, including cytoskeleton assembly, intracellular trafficking, mRNA splicing, transcriptional regulation and cell migration. However, little is known about the function of WD-repeat proteins in L-R asymmetry determination. Here, we report the identification and functional analyses of zebrafish wdr18, a novel gene that encodes a WD-repeat protein that is highly conserved among vertebrate species. wdr18 was identified from a Tol2 transposon-mediated enhancer trap screen. Follow-up analysis of wdr18 mRNA expression showed that it was detected in DFCs or the KV progenitor cells and later in the KV at early somitogenesis stages. Morpholino knockdown of wdr18 resulted in laterality defects in the visceral organs, which were preceded by the mis-expression of Nodal-related genes, including spaw and pitx2. Examination of morphants at earlier stages revealed that the KV had fewer and shorter cilia which are immotile and a smaller cavity. We further investigated the organization of DFCs in wdr18 morphant embryos using ntl and sox17 as specific markers and found that the clustering and migration of DFC was altered, leading to a disorganized KV. Finally, through a combination of wdr18 and itgb1b morpholino injections, we provided evidence that wdr18 and itgb1b genetically interact in the laterality determination process. Thus, we reveal a new and essential role for WD

  16. Experience of regulatory body functioning in energy industry of Ukraine: Prospects for future development of state regulation of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials collected (presented) in the paper introduce to (familiarise) the audience with the main forms, methods and phases of the state regulation of energy industry in Ukraine in the period of transition to market economy. Special attention was paid to the following aspects: 1. Necessity and history of establishment of special regulatory body in Ukraine - The National Electricity Regulatory Commission (NERC); 2. The main tasks and authorities of NERC according to the Ukraine Law on Energy Sector; 3. Regulation mechanisms of the main processes in the energy industry used by the Commission on the current level of energy sector development and economic results of its introduction; 4. Problems with functioning of the wholesale energy market specifically as the main component of the Ukraine energy industry and trends of future development (improvement of energy industry's financial situation, intensification of competition between energy producers and suppliers, improvement of tariff and investment policies, etc.); 5. Necessity and ways of future improvement of the standards and legal basis for regulation in Ukraine. (author)

  17. Digesta kinetics, energy intake, grazing behavior, and body temperature of grazing beef cattle differing in adaptation to heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Ellist, W C; Stuth, J W; Forbes, T D; Greene, L W

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether digesta kinetics, energy intake (EI, kcal ME intake x kg(-.75) x d(-1)), grazing behavior, or body temperature differed by breed, lactational state, or season of the year among cattle presumed to vary in adaptability to the subtropics. Two-year-old lactating and nonlactating Brahman x Angus (BA; n = 5, n = 5), Tuli x Angus (TA; n = 5, n = 4), and Angus (A; n = 4, n = 4) cows were used. During both early (ES) and late summer (LS), lactating cattle vs nonlactating cattle had greater gastrointestinal tract load (CM2) and EI (P .48). During LS, lactating cattle had decreased early morning rectal temperatures (P .26) late afternoon rectal temperatures compared with BA and TA. With data pooled over both grazing trials, BA cattle had the smallest CM2 (P .28) early morning rectal temperatures compared with BA during ES and LS. During LS, TA spent more time in the sun and less time in the shade than did either A or BA (P .50). During LS, EI for lactating A was greater than for BA and TA (P x Angus cattle appear to be comparable to BA with respect to heat adaptation. It appears that EI demands are greater in a hot environment. PMID:10875645

  18. Counterregulation of insulin by leptin as key component of autonomic regulation of body weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katarina; T; Borer

    2014-01-01

    A re-examination of the mechanism controlling eating, locomotion, and metabolism prompts formulation of a new explanatory model containing five features: a coordinating joint role of the(1) autonomic nervous system(ANS);(2) the suprachiasmatic(SCN) master clock in counterbalancing parasympathetic digestive and absorptive functions and feeding with sympathetic locomotor and thermogenic energy expenditure within a circadian framework;(3) interaction of the ANS/SCN command with brain substrates of reward encompassing dopaminergic projections to ventral striatum and limbic and cortical forebrain. These drive the nonhomeostatic feeding and locomotor motivated behaviors in interaction with circulating ghrelin and lateral hypothalamic neurons signaling through melanin concentrating hormone and orexin-hypocretin peptides;(4) counterregulation of insulin by leptin of both gastric and adipose tissue origin through: potentiation by leptin of cholecystokinin-mediated satiation, inhibition of insulin secretion, suppression of insulin lipogenesis by leptin lipolysis, and modulation of peripheral tissue and brain sensitivity to insulin action. Thus weight-loss induced hypoleptimia raises insulin sensitivity and promotes its parasympathetic anabolic actions while obesity-induced hyperleptinemia supresses insulin lipogenic action; and(5) inhibition by leptin of bone mineral accrual suggesting that leptin may contribute to the maintenance of stability of skeletal, lean-body, as well as adipose tissue masses.

  19. The Effects of Temperature and Body Mass on Jump Performance of the Locust Locusta migratoria

    OpenAIRE

    Snelling, Edward P.; Christie L Becker; Seymour, Roger S.

    2013-01-01

    Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump...

  20. Cathinone increases body temperature, enhances locomotor activity, and induces striatal c-fos expression in the Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S; Fileccia, E L; Murphy, M; Fowler, M J; King, M V; Shortall, S E; Wigmore, P M; Green, A R; Fone, K C F; Ebling, F J P

    2014-01-24

    Cathinone is a β-keto alkaloid that is the major active constituent of khat, the leaf of the Catha edulis plant that is chewed recreationally in East Africa and the Middle East. Related compounds, such as methcathinone and mephedrone have been increasing in popularity as recreational drugs, resulting in the recent proposal to classify khat as a Class C drug in the UK. There is still limited knowledge of the pharmacological effects of cathinone. This study examined the acute effects of cathinone on core body temperature, locomotor and other behaviors, and neuronal activity in Siberian hamsters. Adult male hamsters, previously implanted with radio telemetry devices, were treated with cathinone (2 or 5mg/kg i.p.), the behavioral profile scored and core body temperature and locomotor activity recorded by radio telemetry. At the end of the study, hamsters received vehicle or cathinone (5mg/kg) and neuronal activation in the brain was determined using immunohistochemical evaluation of c-fos expression. Cathinone dose-dependently induced significant (phamster.

  1. Free-running circadian rhythms of muscle strength, reaction time, and body temperature in totally blind people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squarcini, Camila Fabiana Rossi; Pires, Maria Laura Nogueira; Lopes, Cleide; Benedito-Silva, Ana Amélia; Esteves, Andrea Maculano; Cornelissen-Guillaume, Germaine; Matarazzo, Carolina; Garcia, Danilo; da Silva, Maria Stella Peccin; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2013-01-01

    Light is the major synchronizer of circadian rhythms. In the absence of light, as for totally blind people, some variables, such as body temperature, have an endogenous period that is longer than 24 h and tend to be free running. However, the circadian rhythm of muscle strength and reaction time in totally blind people has not been defined in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine the period of the endogenous circadian rhythm of the isometric and isokinetic contraction strength and simple reaction time of totally blind people. The study included six totally blind people with free-running circadian rhythms and four sighted people (control group). Although the control group required only a single session to determine the circadian rhythm, the blind people required three sessions to determine the endogenous period. In each session, isometric strength, isokinetic strength, reaction time, and body temperature were collected six different times a day with an interval of at least 8 h. The control group had better performance for strength and reaction time in the afternoon. For the blind, this performance became delayed throughout the day. Therefore, we conclude that the circadian rhythms of strength and simple reaction time of totally blind people are within their free-running periods. For some professionals, like the blind paralympic athletes, activities that require large physiological capacities in which the maximum stimulus should match the ideal time of competition may result in the blind athletes falling short of their expected performance under this free-running condition.

  2. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollins, A. B.; Zhdanova, I. V.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    We examined effects of very low doses of melatonin (0.1-10 mg, orally) or placebo, administered at 1145 h, on sleep latency and duration, mood, performance, oral temperature, and changes in serum melatonin levels in 20 healthy male volunteers. A repeated-measure double-blind Latin square design was used. Subjects completed a battery of tests designed to assess mood and performance between 0930 and 1730 h. The sedative-like effects of melatonin were assessed by a simple sleep test: at 1330 h subjects were asked to hold a positive pressure switch in each hand and to relax with eyes closed while reclining in a quiet darkened room. Latency and duration of switch release, indicators of sleep, were measured. Areas under the time-melatonin concentration curve varied in proportion to the different melatonin doses ingested, and the 0.1- and 0.3-mg doses generated peak serum melatonin levels that were within the normal range of nocturnal melatonin levels in untreated people. All melatonin doses tested significantly increased sleep duration, as well as self-reported sleepiness and fatigue, relative to placebo. Moreover, all of the doses significantly decreased sleep-onset latency, oral temperature, and the number of correct responses on the Wilkinson auditory vigilance task. These data indicate that orally administered melatonin can be a highly potent hypnotic agent; they also suggest that the physiological increase in serum melatonin levels, which occurs around 2100 h daily, may constitute a signal initiating normal sleep onset.

  3. The Relationship Between Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Worry About Body Image, Attachment Styles, and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies Among Students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davodi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background There are different assumptions about the factors responsible for the genesis and maintenance of eating disorders. Each of the two main types of eating disorders results from a complex interaction of emotional and psychological factors. Objectives The purpose of the current research was to study the relationship between symptoms of eating disorders and worry about body image, attachment styles, and cognitive emotion regulation strategies, among a sample of students at Ahvaz Jundishapur University. Materials and Methods The study sample consisted of students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, 2011 - 2012. The research participants were selected with use of multistage random sample from various colleges. Our research tools were the eating attitudes questionnaire (EAT-26, the Worry about body image questionnaire, the attachment styles questionnaire, and a questionnaire on cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Pearson correlation and stepwise regression methods, with inter and stepwise methods, were used during data analysis. Results The results of this research indicated that worry about body image, an avoidant attachment style, negative cognitive emotion regulation strategies, and secure attachment style in regression equation remained significant (P < 0.0001. Results also showed that worry about body image, an anxious attachment style, an avoidant attachment style, and negative cognitive emotion regulation strategies were significant in the regression equation, predicting 19% of the variance in the eating disorder symptoms. Conclusions Concerns about body image, an avoidant attachment style, and cognitive strategies to regulate negative emotions were the strongest predictors for eating disorder symptoms. Based on current research findings, an avoidance attachment style, concerns about body image, and negative emotion regulation cognitive strategies increase eating disorder symptoms in students. Because attachment

  4. The effects of "thin ideal" media on women's body image concerns and eating-related intentions: the beneficial role of an autonomous regulation of eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mask, Lisa; Blanchard, Céline M

    2011-09-01

    The present study examines the protective role of an autonomous regulation of eating behaviors (AREB) on the relationship between trait body dissatisfaction and women's body image concerns and eating-related intentions in response to "thin ideal" media. Undergraduate women (n=138) were randomly assigned to view a "thin ideal" video or a neutral video. As hypothesized, trait body dissatisfaction predicted more negative affect and size dissatisfaction following exposure to the "thin ideal" video among women who displayed less AREB. Conversely, trait body dissatisfaction predicted greater intentions to monitor food intake and limit unhealthy foods following exposure to the "thin ideal" video among women who displayed more AREB.

  5. Regulated and nonregulated diesel and gasoline cold start emissions at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilenmann, Martin; Soltic, Patrik; Saxer, Christian; Forss, Anna-Maria; Heeb, Norbert

    The emissions of modern cars are usually reduced in warm engine conditions by catalysts. Consequently emissions are significantly higher during the cold start, i.e. the warm-up phase of the car. The duration of this period and the emissions produced during it depend on the ambient temperature as well as on the initial temperature of the car's systems. The cold start emissions of Euro-3 gasoline cars, Euro-2 diesel cars and old pre-Euro-1 gasoline cars were investigated at cold ambient temperatures. Since the goal was to get real-world emissions, the measurements were done with cars belonging to private owners taken straight from the road with no maintenance. The chassis dynamometer tests were carried out at +23, -7 and -20 °C. The test cycle employed is a representative urban ride from a real-world driving behaviour study. Besides the regulated pollutants, methane, benzene and toluene were also measured online by chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

  6. POPCORN functions in the auxin pathway to regulate embryonic body plan and meristem organization in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Daoquan; Yang, Hui; Venglat, Prakash; Cao, Yongguo; Wen, Rui; Ren, Maozhi; Stone, Sandra; Wang, Edwin; Wang, Hong; Xiao, Wei; Weijers, Dolf; Berleth, Thomas; Laux, Thomas; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Datla, Raju

    2011-12-01

    The shoot and root apical meristems (SAM and RAM) formed during embryogenesis are crucial for postembryonic plant development. We report the identification of POPCORN (PCN), a gene required for embryo development and meristem organization in Arabidopsis thaliana. Map-based cloning revealed that PCN encodes a WD-40 protein expressed both during embryo development and postembryonically in the SAM and RAM. The two pcn alleles identified in this study are temperature sensitive, showing defective embryo development when grown at 22°C that is rescued when grown at 29°C. In pcn mutants, meristem-specific expression of WUSCHEL (WUS), CLAVATA3, and WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX5 is not maintained; SHOOTMERISTEMLESS, BODENLOS (BDL) and MONOPTEROS (MP) are misexpressed. Several findings link PCN to auxin signaling and meristem function: ectopic expression of DR5(rev):green fluorescent protein (GFP), pBDL:BDL-GFP, and pMP:MP-β-glucuronidase in the meristem; altered polarity and expression of pPIN1:PIN1-GFP in the apical domain of the developing embryo; and resistance to auxin in the pcn mutants. The bdl mutation rescued embryo lethality of pcn, suggesting that improper auxin response is involved in pcn defects. Furthermore, WUS, PINFORMED1, PINOID, and TOPLESS are dosage sensitive in pcn, suggesting functional interaction. Together, our results suggest that PCN functions in the auxin pathway, integrating auxin signaling in the organization and maintenance of the SAM and RAM.

  7. Temperature-flow regulation rule in indirect connection heating system and its energy-saving contrast analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Primary and secondary networks are treated as a whole in indirect heating systems, and an advanced new temperature-flow regulation method is presented whose flow ratio is greater than 60% in a secondary network and 30% in a primary network when under a partial load. Through deducing and optimizing an exponential function flow regulation rule, the formulae of flow regulation and the supply and return water temperatures are obtained, and their relevant curves are plotted. After comparison, it is found that this control method has a huge energy conservation space, and it should therefore be generalized soon.

  8. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid mixtures and different edible oils on body composition and lipid regulation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Scalerandi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evidences suggest that commercial and natural conjugated linoleic acids (CLA differentially affect nutritional status and lipid metabolism. Objective: To investigate the differential effect of two types of CLA preparations supplemented to dietary fats containing different proportions of n-9, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids (FA on body composition, triacylglycerol (TG levels and lipid metabolism in mice. Methods: Growing mice were fed diets containing olive, maize and rapeseed oils supplemented with an equimolecular mixture of CLA (mix-CLA or a rumenic acid (RA-rich oil for 30 days. Body weight gain, carcass composition, tissue weights, plasma and tissue TG levels, and lipid regulation parameters were evaluated. Results: Independently of the dietary fats, mix-CLA decreased body weight gain and fat depots related to lower energy efficiency, hepatomegaly, increase of serum TG and decrease of muscle TG. Rapeseed oil prevented the hepatic steatosis observed with mix-CLA supplementation to olive and maize oils by increasing TG secretion. RA-rich oil supplementation decreased fat depots without hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia. Olive oil, by an equilibrium between FA uptake/oxidation, prevented the increase of muscle TG induced by the RA-rich oil supplementation to maize and rapeseed oils. Discussion and conclusion: The proportions of dietary unsaturated FA modulated the different mix-CLA and RA-rich oil response to lipid metabolism in mice. Finally, rapeseed oil prevented the hepatic steatosis induced by mix-CLA, and the most beneficial effects of RA-rich oil were observed when supplemented to olive oil, due to the reduced lipid accretion without changes in TG levels.

  9. Regulation of body mass and adiposity in the field vole, Microtus agrestis: a model of leptin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Elzbieta; Speakman, John R

    2007-02-01

    Adult mammals are typically highly resistant to perturbations in their energy balance. In obese humans, however, this control appears to be lost. Apart from a few exceptional cases, this loss of control occurs despite appropriate levels of circulating leptin -- suggesting that elevated adiposity may be a consequence of failure to respond to the leptin signal: leptin resistance. When cold-acclimated male field voles (Microtus agrestis) are transferred from short (SD, 8 h light) to long (LD, 16 h light) photoperiods, they increase dramatically in body mass and fatness for about 4 weeks. After this period, their mass stabilizes at a new plateau about 25% higher than animals maintained in SD. The increase in adiposity is not caused by significant increases in food intake, but reflects an increase in digestive efficiency. Measures of circulating leptin reveal that the increased adiposity is matched by increased circulating leptin. By infusing voles with exogenous leptin, we have demonstrated that SD voles are leptin sensitive (reducing both body mass and food intake), whereas LD animals are leptin resistant. Voles may therefore be a useful model for understanding the process of leptin resistance. The change in leptin sensitivity in voles was not associated with changes in the levels of gene expression of the orexogenic or anorexogenic neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide, POMC and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, measured in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). During the phase that body mass was increasing, however, there was a transient increase in the ARC expression of suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 (SOCS3). These data suggest that the changes in the expression of SOCS3 in the ARC may be involved in leptin resistance. However, the mechanism by which these changes may be linked to alterations in digestive efficiency that underpin the changes in adiposity, or how the differences are signalled by changes in photoperiod

  10. Time Trends and Predictors of Abnormal Postoperative Body Temperature in Infants Transported to the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig Schroeck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite increasing adoption of active warming methods over the recent years, little is known about the effectiveness of these interventions on the occurrence of abnormal postoperative temperatures in sick infants. Methods. Preoperative and postoperative temperature readings, patient characteristics, and procedural factors of critically ill infants at a single institution were retrieved retrospectively from June 2006 until May 2014. The primary endpoints were the incidence and trend of postoperative hypothermia and hyperthermia on arrival at the intensive care units. Univariate and adjusted analyses were performed to identify factors independently associated with abnormal postoperative temperatures. Results. 2,350 cases were included. 82% were normothermic postoperatively, while hypothermia and hyperthermia each occurred in 9% of cases. During the study period, hypothermia decreased from 24% to 2% (p<0.0001 while hyperthermia remained unchanged (13% in 2006, 8% in 2014, p=0.357. Factors independently associated with hypothermia were higher ASA status (p=0.02, lack of intraoperative convective warming (p<0.001 and procedure date before 2010 (p<0.001. Independent associations for postoperative hyperthermia included lower body weight (p=0.01 and procedure date before 2010 (p<0.001. Conclusions. We report an increase in postoperative normothermia rates in critically ill infants from 2006 until 2014. Careful monitoring to avoid overcorrection and hyperthermia is recommended.

  11. Gibberellins negatively regulate low temperature-induced anthocyanin accumulation in a HY5/HYH-dependent manner

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Liu, Zhongjuan; Liu, Rongzhi; Hao, Hualing; Bi, Yurong

    2011-01-01

    Low temperature could significantly induce anthocyanin accumulation in the presence of light. Recently, two bZIP transcription factors LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) and HOMOLOG OF HY5 (HYH) were identified to play an important role in the process of low temperature-induced anthocyanin accumulation. However, the mechanism by which HY5/HYH regulates anthocyanin accumulation under low temperature still remains unclear. Here, we found that the gibberellins (GAs) could decrease but PAC (endogenous GAs bi...

  12. Legal obstacles to the construction of high temperature reactors for heat generation on the example of Polish regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczurek, Jan; Koszuk, Lukasz; Klisinska, Malgorzata; Andrzejewski, Krzysztof [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Otwock (Poland). Nuclear Energy Div.

    2016-07-15

    High temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTR) can produce high temperature process heat. This extends their potential range of application. In recent decades, the practice of licensing reactors of HTR technology, caused by the need of streamlining of this process, has placed the main emphasis on the adaptation of existing regulations by formulating appropriate guidelines. Currently, in-depth analyses of usefulness and shortcomings of the existing regulations are required. The article analyzes the possibility of licensing of high-temperature reactors with cogeneration based on the Polish Atomic Law and the three resolutions of the Council of Ministers.

  13. Signal-dependent Regulation of Transcription by Histone Deacetylase 7 Involves Recruitment to Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein Nuclear Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chengzhuo; Cheng, Xiwen; Lam, Minh; Liu, Yu; Liu, Qing; Chang, Kun-Sang

    2008-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) are dynamic subnuclear compartments that play roles in several cellular processes, including apoptosis, transcriptional regulation, and DNA repair. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) 7 is a potent corepressor that inhibits transcription by myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factors. We show here that endogenous HDAC7 and PML interact and partially colocalize in PML NBs. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α treatment recruits HDAC7 to PML NBs and enhances association of HDAC7 with PML in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Consequently, TNF-α promotes dissociation of HDAC7 from MEF2 transcription factors and the promoters of MEF2 target genes such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-10, leading to accumulation of MMP-10 mRNA. Conversely, knockdown of PML enhances the association between HDAC7 and MEF2 and decreases MMP-10 mRNA accumulation. Accordingly, ectopic expression of PML recruits HDAC7 to PML NBs and leads to activation of MEF2 reporter activity. Notably, small interfering RNA knockdown of PML decreases basal and TNF-α-induced MMP-10 mRNA accumulation. Our results reveal a novel mechanism by which PML sequesters HDAC7 to relieve repression and up-regulate gene expression. PMID:18463162

  14. 环境温度和体内储备物共同影响煤山雀夜间体重的下降%Nocturnal body ass loss in coal tits Periparus ater:the combined effects of ambient temperature and body reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vicente POLO; Luis M·Crrascal

    2008-01-01

    环境温度和体内储备物水平被认为是鸟类在静止状态下能量利用的重要调节因子(夜间体重降低).然而,以往的研究没有把环境温度和体内储备物对夜间能量维持加以明确的区分.为了研究环境温度是否是为煤山雀(Periparus ater)夜间体重调节的直接因子,在自由取食条件下,实验室控制日-日和日-夜环境温度.温度变化模拟西班牙中部地中海山区秋季日-夜温度的变化.夜间体重取决于黄昏时的体重以及前一天体重的增加值.当前一日白天煤山雀体重增加最大时,记录夜间体重最大降低的比率.然而,环境温度的不可预见性没有影响煤山雀夜间体重降低,可以解释煤山雀内在的生理能量平衡.这些结果提示,当一些环境因子如温度变得不可预见时,鸟类在狭小范围内保持体内储备物%The environmental temperature and the l evel of body reserves have been described as important regulating factors of the amount of energy used at resting (I.e. Nocturnal body mass loss). However, because these variables are associ ated in natural conditions, previous studies have not made a clear distinction between the separate effect of ambient temperature and body reserves on nightly energy management. To investigate whether ambient temperature acts as a proximate factor on nocturnal body mass regulation in captive coal tits Periparus ater, the day-to-day and day-to-night changes in environmental temperatures were experimentally manipulated, under unrestricted food availability. The experiment was conducted within the normal autumn range of temperature variation in a mountain area of continental Mediterranean climate in Central Spain. Nocturnal body mass loss depended on the level of body mass at dusk and daily body-mass gain in the previous day. The largest rates of body mass loss at night were recorded when birds ended the previous day-time period with the highest levels of body reserves obtained

  15. Temperature and Carbon Assimilation Regulate the Chlorosome Biogenesis in Green Sulfur Bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Joseph Kuo-Hsiang; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Enriquez, Miriam M; Huh, Joonsuk; Frank, Harry A; Urban, Volker S; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Green photosynthetic bacteria adjust the structure and functionality of the chlorosome - the light absorbing antenna complex - in response to environmental stress factors. The chlorosome is a natural self-assembled aggregate of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules. In this study we report the regulation of the biogenesis of the Chlorobaculum tepidum chlorosome by carbon assimilation in conjunction with temperature changes. Our studies indicate that the carbon source and thermal stress culture of Cba. tepidum grows slower and incorporates less BChl c in the chlorosome. Compared with the chlorosome from other cultural conditions we investigated, the chlorosome from the carbon source and thermal stress culture displays: (a) smaller cross-sectional radius and overall size; (b) simplified BChl c homologues with smaller side chains; (c) blue-shifted Qy absorption maxima and (d) a sigmoid-shaped circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Using a theoretical model we analyze how the observed spectral modifications can be assoc...

  16. Regulation of electron temperature gradient turbulence by zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahi, Y., E-mail: y.asahi@nr.titech.ac.jp; Tsutsui, H.; Tsuji-Iio, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    Turbulent transport caused by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes was investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations. It was found that the ETG turbulence can be regulated by meso-scale zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes (TEMs), which are excited with much smaller growth rates than those of ETG modes. The zonal flows of which radial wavelengths are in between the ion and the electron banana widths are not shielded by trapped ions nor electrons, and hence they are effectively driven by the TEMs. It was also shown that an E × B shearing rate of the TEM-driven zonal flows is larger than or comparable to the growth rates of long-wavelength ETG modes and TEMs, which make a main contribution to the turbulent transport before excitation of the zonal flows.

  17. Impact of water temperature and stressor controllability on swim stress-induced changes in body temperature, serum corticosterone, and immobility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugan, Robert C; Eren, Senem; Hazi, Agnes; Silva, Jennifer; Christianson, John P; Kent, Stephen

    2005-10-01

    The present study compared the effects of three different water temperatures (20, 25, and 30 degrees C) and stressor controllability on several physiological and behavioral endpoints in an intermittent swim stress paradigm. The escape latency of rats in the 20 and 25 degrees C water was less than that observed for the 30 degrees C group. Both escape and yoked groups at 20 and 25 degrees C exhibited moderate to severe hypothermia following the swim stress session that returned to prestress levels 30-40 min post-stress. At 30 degrees C core body temperature (Tb) only decreased by 1 degree C for either swim group. Following swim, serum corticosterone (CORT) levels were significantly elevated in both escape and yoked groups in comparison to confined and home cage controls. The confined control group showed a significant elevation that was approximately halfway between the home cage control and the swim stress groups. At 30 degrees C, there was still a significant elevation of serum CORT in both swim groups in comparison to confined and home cage controls. Therefore, 30 degrees C appears to be the optimal water temperature to evaluate stress controllability effects in the current paradigm. In a final experiment, swim stressor controllability effects were examined in a 5 min forced swim test (FST) 24 h following the initial stress exposure. Rats exposed to yoked-inescapable swim stress at 30 degrees C exhibited more immobility than their escapable swim stress and confined counterparts, while the escape and confined controls did not differ. These results demonstrate that the behavioral deficits observed in the FST are attributable to the stress of inescapable swim and not swim stress per se.

  18. Interplay between evaporation radiation, and ocean mixing in the regulation of equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) regulation in the tropical oceans is an important aspect of global climate change. It has been observed that SST in the equatorial zone has not exceeded 304K over, at least, the past 10,000 years, and probably longer. Furthermore, recent satellite observations from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) suggest that the greenhouse effect associated with mesoscale organized convection increases with increasing SST at a rate faster than this energy can be re-radiated to space. This suggests that a runaway greenhouse effect is possible in those parts of the tropical oceans where mesoscale convective systems (MCS) are prevalent. However, this is not observed. A search for mechanism(s) which can account for SST regulation is underway. Observational and theoretical evidence exists to suggest the importance of other feedback mechanisms as opposed to the cirrus shading and `super greenhouse effect` supported by the thermostat hypothesis. At least some of the time warm SSTs are associated with low wind speeds and low SSTs follow periods of high wind speed. 2 figs.

  19. Changes in body temperature pattern in vertebrates do not influence the codon usages of alpha-globin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Kazuo; Horiike, Tokumasa; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Ota, Hidetoshi; Yatogo, Takayuki; Okada, Kazuhisa; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Shinozawa, Takao

    2002-06-01

    Codon usages are known to vary among vertebrates chiefly due to variations in isochore structure. Under the assumption that marked differences exist in isochore structure between warm-blooded and cold-blooded animals, the variations among vertebrates were previously attributed to an adaptation to homeothermy. However, based on data from a turtle species and a crocodile (Archosauromorpha), it was recently proposed that the common ancestors of mammals, birds and extent reptiles already had the "warm-blooded" isochore structure. We determined the nucleotide sequences of alpha-globin genes from two species of heterotherms, cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) and bat (Pipistrellus abramus), and three species of snakes (Lepidosauromorpha), Naja kaouthia from a tropical terrestrial habitat, Elaphe climacophora from a temperate terrestrial habitat, and Hydrophis melanocephalus from a tropical marine habitat. Our purposes were to assess the influence of differential body temperature patterns on codon usage and GC content at the third position of a codon (GC3), and to test the hypothesis concerning the phylogenetic position at which GC contents had increased in vertebrates. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) using the present data and data for other taxa from GenBank indicate that the primary difference in codon usage in globin genes among amniotes and other vertebrates lies in GC3. The codon usages (and GC3) in alpha-globin genes from two heterotherms and three snakes are similar to those in alpha-globin genes from warm-blooded vertebrates. These results refute the influence of body temperature pattern upon codon usages (and GC3) in alpha-globin genes, and support the hypothesis that the increase in GC content in the genome occurred in the common ancestor of amniotes. PMID:12207041

  20. Effects of salinity, temperature, light and dormancy regulating chemicals on seed germination of salsola drummondii ulbr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salsola drummondii Ulbr. is a perennial halophyte found in salt deserts of southern Balochistan, Pakistan. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of salinity (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mM NaCl), thermoperiod (10/20, 15/25, 20/30 and 25/35 degree C), light (12-h photoperiod and dark) and dormancy regulating chemicals (DRCs) on germination, recovery and viability of the seeds of S. drummondii. Seeds of S. drummondii germinated quickly in distilled water at different temperature regimes and increases in salinity decreased seed germination. Interestingly, few seeds could even germinate in 1000 mM NaCl treatment, which is about twice as high as seawater salinity. Seeds were partially photoblastic and showed relatively higher germination under 12-h photoperiod than in dark. Seeds showed poor recovery of germination from salinity and particularly when germinated in dark. Germination inhibition at high salinity (800 mM NaCl) under 12-h photoperiod was partially alleviated by the exogenous application of different DRCs, particularly fusicoccin. Moreover, all the DRCs, except GA4+7, ameliorated germination of salt stressed seeds under complete darkness and GA4 and fusicoccin were most effective. Our study shows that seeds of S. drummondii are highly tolerant to salinity and variation in temperature but partially photoblastic nature indicate that seeds will not germinate if buried under the soil. Seed germination under saline conditions can be improved by the use of DRCs particularly by application of fusicoccin. (author)

  1. A low body temperature on arrival at hospital following out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest is associated with increased mortality in the TTM-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovdenes, Jan; Røysland, Kjetil; Nielsen, Niklas;

    2016-01-01

    categorized according to their recorded body temperature on arrival and also categorized to groups of patients being actively cooled or passively rewarmed. RESULTS: OHCA patients having a temperature ≤34.0°C on arrival at hospital had a significantly higher mortality compared to the OHCA patients......AIM: To investigate the association of temperature on arrival to hospital after out-of-hospital-cardiac arrest (OHCA) with the primary outcome of mortality, in the targeted temperature management (TTM) trial. METHODS: The TTM trial randomized 939 patients to TTM at 33 or 36°C for 24h. Patients were...... with a higher temperature on arrival. A low body temperature on arrival was associated with a longer time to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and duration of transport time to hospital. Patients who were actively cooled or passively rewarmed during the first 4h had similar mortality. In a multivariate...

  2. A complementary role for ELF3 and TFL1 in the regulation of flowering time by ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Bárbara; Alvarez, Mariano J; Califano, Andrea; Cerdán, Pablo D

    2009-05-01

    Plants regulate their time to flowering by gathering information from the environment. Photoperiod and temperature are among the most important environmental variables. Sub-optimal, but not near-freezing, temperatures regulate flowering through the thermosensory pathway, which overlaps with the autonomous pathway. Here we show that ambient temperature regulates flowering by two genetically distinguishable pathways, one requiring TFL1 and another requiring ELF3. The delay in flowering time observed at lower temperatures was partially suppressed in single elf3 and tfl1 mutants, whereas double elf3 tfl1 mutants were insensitive to temperature. tfl1 mutations abolished the temperature response in cryptochrome mutants that are deficient in photoperiod perception, but not in phyB mutants, which have a constitutive photoperiodic response. In contrast to tfl1, elf3 mutations were able to suppress the temperature response in phyB mutants, but not in cryptochrome mutants. Gene expression profiles revealed that the tfl1 and elf3 effects are due to the activation of different sets of genes, and identified CCA1 and SOC1/AGL20 as being important cross-talk points. Finally, genome-wide gene expression analysis strongly suggests a general and complementary role for ELF3 and TFL1 in temperature signalling.

  3. Daily scheduled high fat meals moderately entrain behavioral anticipatory activity, body temperature, and hypothalamic c-Fos activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M Gallardo

    Full Text Available When fed in restricted amounts, rodents show robust activity in the hours preceding expected meal delivery. This process, termed food anticipatory activity (FAA, is independent of the light-entrained clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, yet beyond this basic observation there is little agreement on the neuronal underpinnings of FAA. One complication in studying FAA using a calorie restriction model is that much of the brain is activated in response to this strong hunger signal. Thus, daily timed access to palatable meals in the presence of continuous access to standard chow has been employed as a model to study FAA in rats. In order to exploit the extensive genetic resources available in the murine system we extended this model to mice, which will anticipate rodent high fat diet but not chocolate or other sweet daily meals (Hsu, Patton, Mistlberger, and Steele; 2010, PLoS ONE e12903. In this study we test additional fatty meals, including peanut butter and cheese, both of which induced modest FAA. Measurement of core body temperature revealed a moderate preprandial increase in temperature in mice fed high fat diet but entrainment due to handling complicated interpretation of these results. Finally, we examined activation patterns of neurons by immunostaining for the immediate early gene c-Fos and observed a modest amount of entrainment of gene expression in the hypothalamus of mice fed a daily fatty palatable meal.

  4. Temperature- and parasite-induced changes in toxicity and lethal body burdens of pentachlorophenol in the freshwater clam Pisidium amnicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, J; Kukkonen, J V; Holopainen, I J

    2001-12-01

    Seasonal variation in abiotic and biotic environments may modify the toxicity of organic chemicals for aquatic organisms. In present study, survival of the freshwater clam Pisidium amnicum was studied in laboratory exposures to pentachlorophenol (PCP) in April (at 5 degress C) and July (at 19 degress C). Behavioral responses, mean survival times (MSTs), and the lethal body burdens (LBBs) of PCP for uninfected clams and for clams infected by digenean trematodes were determined separately in two PCP concentrations, 100 and 300 microgram/L. Analysis of data revealed reduced behavioral activity of the clams in the PCP exposure compared to that in the control. The time needed for toxic responses was greatly affected by temperature; MSTs were 5 to 15 times longer in winter than at summer temperatures. Unexpectedly, the infected clams in summer were more tolerant to PCP than the uninfected clams. Despite the differences in survival times, the LBBs between the seasons were constant. However, in summer, the infected clams had significantly higher LBBs than the uninfected clams. The differences in survival and LBBs between the infected and uninfected clams are suggested to be caused by the high lipid contents found in parasites, which may change the internal distribution of PCP. PMID:11764161

  5. Tomographic measurement of temperature change in phantoms of the human body by chirp radar-type microwave computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, M

    1993-07-01

    The chirp radar-type microwave computed tomograph (CT) measures the temperature change in a human body noninvasively. The paper examines its feasibility. A chirp pulse signal between 1 and 2 GHz is radiated from the transmitting antenna to the phantom. The transmitted waves are detected by the receiving antenna, which is placed on the opposite side of the object, and the beat signal between the incident wave and the transmitted wave is produced by the mixer. By spectral analysis of the beat signal, only those signals transmitted on the straight line between the transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna are discriminated from multipath signals. The microwave tomogram can therefore be reconstructed easily using the conventional algorithms for an X-ray CT image. The microwave CT can use the chirp signal to remove the influence of multipath signals caused by diffraction and reflection. The imaging of dielectric materials with complicated structures is thus possible. The experimental results using phantoms show that the spatial resolution of this microwave CT is about 10 mm and that a two-dimensional distribution of temperature change can be measured.

  6. Effects of body mass and temperature on routine metabolic rate of juvenile largemouth bronze gudgeon Coreius guichenoti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y P; Wang, Q Q

    2012-04-01

    The effects of body mass (M) and temperature (T) on routine metabolic rate (m(R) ) were assessed in the largemouth bronze gudgeon Coreius guichenoti, from Three Gorges Reservoir, Yangtze River, China. The m(R) increased with increasing M by factors (b-value in the equation m(R) = aM(b) ) of 0·843, 0·800, 0·767, 0·788 and 0·822 at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30° C, respectively. A significant interaction between M and T on m(R) was observed. The variation in the b-value at different T suggests that the b-values were not consistent with the universal allometric exponent 0·75. After controlling for M, the relationship between the normalized standard metabolic rate (m(S), mg O(2) kg(-1) h(-1)) and T was described by an exponential equation: m(S) = 9·89e((0·093T)) . The results indicate that the effects of M on m(R) depend on T. The increased water temperature induced by dam construction on the Yangtze River may cause a marked increase in energy demand by this species, with potential ecological consequences. PMID:22471803

  7. Circadian rhythms of body temperature and locomotor activity in aging BALB/c mice: early and late life span predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Andrea; Del Bello, Giovanna; Piacenza, Francesco; Giacconi, Robertina; Costarelli, Laura; Malavolta, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Impairment of one or more parameters of circadian rhythms (CR) of body temperature (BT) and locomotor activity (LMA) are considered among the hallmarks of mammalian aging. These alterations are frequently used as markers for imminent death in laboratory mice. However, there are still contradictory data for particular strains and it is also uncertain which changes might predict senescence changes later in life, including the force of mortality. In the present paper we use telemetry to study LMA and CR of BT during aging of BALB/c mice. At our knowledge this is the first time that CR of BT and LMA are investigated in this strain in a range of age covering the whole lifespan, from young adult up to very old age. CR of BT was analyzed with a cosine model using a cross sectional approach and follow-up measurements. The results show that BT, LMA, amplitude, goodness-of-fit (GoF) to circadian cycle of temperature decrease with different shapes during chronological age. Moreover, we found that the % change of amplitude and BT in early life (5-19 months) can predict the remaining lifespan of the mice. Later in life (22-32 months), best predictors are single measurements of LMA and GoF. The results of this study also offer potential measures to rapidly identifying freely unrestrained mice with the worst longitudinal outcome and against which existing or novel biomarkers and treatments may be assessed. PMID:26820297

  8. Mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation does not exacerbate central fatigue during subsequent whole-body endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M; Rozand, Vianney; Lepers, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that the mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation increases perception of effort and reduces performance during subsequent endurance exercise. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying these negative effects of mental fatigue are unclear. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental fatigue exacerbates central fatigue induced by whole-body endurance exercise. Twelve subjects performed 30 min of either an incongruent Stroop task to induce a condition of mental fatigue or a congruent Stroop task (control condition) in a random and counterbalanced order. Both cognitive tasks (CTs) were followed by a whole-body endurance task (ET) consisting of 6 min of cycling exercise at 80% of peak power output measured during a preliminary incremental test. Neuromuscular function of the knee extensors was assessed before and after CT, and after ET. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured during ET. Both CTs did not induce any decrease in maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque (p = 0.194). During ET, mentally fatigued subjects reported higher RPE (mental fatigue 13.9 ± 3.0, control 13.3 ± 3.2, p = 0.044). ET induced a similar decrease in MVC torque (mental fatigue -17 ± 15%, control -15 ± 11%, p = 0.001), maximal voluntary activation level (mental fatigue -6 ± 9%, control -6 ± 7%, p = 0.013) and resting twitch (mental fatigue -30 ± 14%, control -32 ± 10%, p effect of mental fatigue on perception of effort does not reflect a greater development of either central or peripheral fatigue. Consequently, mentally fatigued subjects are still able to perform maximal exercise, but they are experiencing an altered performance during submaximal exercise due to higher-than-normal perception of effort. PMID:25762914

  9. FDTD analysis of human body-core temperature elevation due to RF far-field energy prescribed in the ICNIRP guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2007-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in an anatomically-based model named NORMAN for exposure to radio-frequency far fields in the ICNIRP guidelines (1998 Health Phys. 74 494-522). The finite-difference time-domain method is used for analyzing the electromagnetic absorption and temperature elevation in NORMAN. In order to consider the variability of human thermoregulation, parameters for sweating are derived and incorporated into a conventional sweating formula. First, we investigated the effect of blood temperature variation modeling on body-core temperature. The computational results show that the modeling of blood temperature variation was the dominant factor influencing the body-core temperature. This is because the temperature in the inner tissues is elevated via the circulation of blood whose temperature was elevated due to EM absorption. Even at different frequencies, the body-core temperature elevation at an identical whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) was almost the same, suggesting the effectiveness of the whole-body average SAR as a measure in the ICNIRP guidelines. Next, we discussed the effect of sweating on the temperature elevation and thermal time constant of blood. The variability of temperature elevation caused by the sweating rate was found to be 30%. The blood temperature elevation at the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0.4 W kg-1 is 0.25 °C even for a low sweating rate. The thermal time constant of blood temperature elevation was 23 min and 52 min for a man with a lower and a higher sweating rate, respectively, which is longer than the average time of the SAR in the ICNIRP guidelines. Thus, the whole-body average SAR required for blood temperature elevation of 1 °C was 4.5 W kg-1 in the model of a human with the lower sweating coefficients for 60 min exposure. From a comparison of this value with the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0

  10. Response diversity of free-floating plants to nutrient stoichiometry and temperature: growth and resting body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Free-floating plants, like most groups of aquatic primary producers, can become nuisance vegetation under certain conditions. On the other hand, there is substantial optimism for the applied uses of free-floating plants, such as wastewater treatment, biofuel production, and aquaculture. Therefore, understanding the species-specific responses of floating plants to abiotic conditions will inform both management decisions and the beneficial applications of these plants. I measured the responses of three floating plant species common in the northeast United States (Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza, and Wolffia brasiliensis) to nutrient stoichiometry (nitrogen and phosphorus) and temperature in the laboratory. I also used survey data to determine the pattern of species richness of floating plants in the field and its relationship with the dominance of this group. Floating plant species exhibited unique responses to nutrient stoichiometry and temperature in the laboratory, especially under low temperatures (18 °C) and low nutrient conditions (0.5 mg N L(-1), 0.083 mg P L(-1)). The three species displayed an apparent tradeoff with different strategies of growth or dormancy. In the field, water bodies with three or more species of floating plants were not more frequently dominated by this group. The response diversity observed in the lab may not be associated with the dominance of this group in the field because it is masked by environmental variability, has a weak effect, or is only important during transient circumstances. Future research to develop applied uses of floating plants should examine response diversity across a greater range of species or clones and environmental conditions. PMID:26989619

  11. Response diversity of free-floating plants to nutrient stoichiometry and temperature: growth and resting body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Free-floating plants, like most groups of aquatic primary producers, can become nuisance vegetation under certain conditions. On the other hand, there is substantial optimism for the applied uses of free-floating plants, such as wastewater treatment, biofuel production, and aquaculture. Therefore, understanding the species-specific responses of floating plants to abiotic conditions will inform both management decisions and the beneficial applications of these plants. I measured the responses of three floating plant species common in the northeast United States (Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza, and Wolffia brasiliensis) to nutrient stoichiometry (nitrogen and phosphorus) and temperature in the laboratory. I also used survey data to determine the pattern of species richness of floating plants in the field and its relationship with the dominance of this group. Floating plant species exhibited unique responses to nutrient stoichiometry and temperature in the laboratory, especially under low temperatures (18 °C) and low nutrient conditions (0.5 mg N L(-1), 0.083 mg P L(-1)). The three species displayed an apparent tradeoff with different strategies of growth or dormancy. In the field, water bodies with three or more species of floating plants were not more frequently dominated by this group. The response diversity observed in the lab may not be associated with the dominance of this group in the field because it is masked by environmental variability, has a weak effect, or is only important during transient circumstances. Future research to develop applied uses of floating plants should examine response diversity across a greater range of species or clones and environmental conditions.

  12. Allosteric regulation of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase activity of fat body and flight muscle from the bloodsucking bug Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutemberg G. Alves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (phosphofructokinase; PFK activity from Rhodnius prolixus, a haematophagous insect which is usually a poor flyer, was measured and compared in two metabolically active tissues - flight muscle and fat body. The activity of this important regulatory glycolytic enzyme was much more pronounced in muscle (15.1 ± 1.4 U/mg than in fat body extracts (3.6±0.4 U/mg, although the latter presented higher levels of enzyme per protein content, as measured by western-blotting. Muscle extracts are more responsible than fat body to ATP and fructose 6-phosphate, both substrates of PFK. Allosteric regulation exerted by different effectors such as ADP, AMP and fructose 2,6-phosphate presented a singular pattern for each tissue. Optimal pH (8.0-8.5 and sensitivity to pH variation was very similar, and citrate was unable to inhibit PFK activity in both extracts. Our results suggest the existence of a particular PFK activity for each tissue, with regulatory patterns that are consistent with their physiological roles.A atividade da fosfofrutocinase (PFK de Rodnius prolixus, um inseto hematófago, o qual vôa somente pequenas distâncias, foi medida e comparada em dois tecidos metabolicamente ativos - músculo de asa e corpo gorduroso. A atividade desta importante enzima glicolítica regulatória foi muito mais pronunciada em músculo de asa (15,1 ±1,4 U/mg do que em extrato de corpo gorduroso (3,6 ±0,4 U/mg embora este último tenha apresentado níveis mais altos da enzima por quantidade de proteína, como medido por western-blotting. Extratos de músculo foram mais responsivos do que corpo gorduroso para ATP e frutose-6-fosfato, ambos substratos da PFK. A regulação alostérica exercida por diferentes efetores tais como ADP, AMP, frutose-2,6-bisfosfato apresentou um padrão singular para cada tecido. O pH ótimo (8,0-8,5 e a sensibilidade a variações de pH, foram muito similares e o citrato foi incapaz de inibir a atividade da PFK em

  13. Temperature-sensitive splicing is an important molecular regulation mechanism of thermosensitive genie male sterility in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN RongZhi; PAN YuFang; WANG Yang; ZHU LiLi; HE GuangCun

    2009-01-01

    Photoperiod and temperature-sensitive genetic male sterility (PGMS and TGMS) plants have a number of desirable characteristics for hybrid production. Two-line hybrids developed using the PGMS/TGMS system now account for a large proportion of rice production in China. In this paper, we summarize recent advances on molecular regulation mechanisms and genetics of PGMS/TGMS in rice. We suggest that temperature-sensitive splicing, an important posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in modulating gene expression and eventually development and differentiation, is also an important molecular regulation mechanism of TGMS in rice. We review those factors involved in temperature-sensitive splicing like cis splice site, snRNA, trans pre-mRNA splicing protein and SR proteins, and delineate that splicing could be regulated by a complex cell signaling pathway. These might shed light on other unknown molecular PGMS/TGMS mechanisms.

  14. 细胞质处理小体(P-小体)与基因表达的调控%Cytoplasmic processing bodies (P-bodies) and the regulation of gene expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫蓓莘; 符晓婕; 莫小为; 刘丽; 徐晓峰; 岳路明

    2015-01-01

    mRNA processing bodies ( P-bodies ) are cytosolic aggregates containing a variety of functional proteins and RNAs. We briefly review the features of P-bodies formation and movement, the interaction of P-bodies with small RNAs and exosomes in the regulation of gene expression. We also summarize the latest P-bodies related research progress in our lab. P-bodies where mRNA degradation and storage take place play an important role in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. They undergo dynamic changes inside the cell. A variety of functional proteins located in P-bodies are involved in the cytoplasmic assembly and biological functioning of P-bodies. The regulatory mechanism of P-bodies still needs to be investigated futher. P-bodies also participate in mi-croRNA( miRNA)-mediated gene silencing.%mRNA处理小体,又称P-小体( processing bodies, P-bodies),是细胞质中含有多种功能蛋白和RNA的聚集体。评述P-小体的形成和运动特点,以及其与小RNA、外切体相互作用,参与基因表达的调控。介绍了本实验室在P-小体植物细胞中的最新研究进展。指出P-小体是mRNA降解和储存的场所,在转录后水平参与基因表达的调控,P-小体在细胞中是动态变化的,P-小体中多样化的功能蛋白在P-小体的组装、功能行使中发挥重要作用。 P-小体作为细胞质内mRNA的储存和降解结构在基因表达的转录后调控中起重要作用,其调控机制尚待进一步研究补充, P-小体与小RNA分子( microRNA, miRNA)调控的基因沉默之间也存在关联性。

  15. PIF4-mediated activation of YUCCA8 expression integrates temperature into the auxin pathway in regulating arabidopsis hypocotyl growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqiang Sun

    Full Text Available Higher plants adapt their growth to high temperature by a dramatic change in plant architecture. It has been shown that the transcriptional regulator phytochrome-interacting factor 4 (PIF4 and the phytohormone auxin are involved in the regulation of high temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis. Here we report that PIF4 regulates high temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation through direct activation of the auxin biosynthetic gene YUCCA8 (YUC8. We show that high temperature co-upregulates the transcript abundance of PIF4 and YUC8. PIF4-dependency of high temperature-mediated induction of YUC8 expression as well as auxin biosynthesis, together with the finding that overexpression of PIF4 leads to increased expression of YUC8 and elevated free IAA levels in planta, suggests a possibility that PIF4 directly activates YUC8 expression. Indeed, gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that PIF4 associates with the G-box-containing promoter region of YUC8. Transient expression assay in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves support that PIF4 directly activates YUC8 expression in vivo. Significantly, we show that the yuc8 mutation can largely suppress the long-hypocotyl phenotype of PIF4-overexpression plants and also can reduce high temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation. Genetic analyses reveal that the shy2-2 mutation, which harbors a stabilized mutant form of the IAA3 protein and therefore is defective in high temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation, largely suppresses the long-hypocotyl phenotype of PIF4-overexpression plants. Taken together, our results illuminate a molecular framework by which the PIF4 transcriptional regulator integrates its action into the auxin pathway through activating the expression of specific auxin biosynthetic gene. These studies advance our understanding on the molecular mechanism underlying high temperature-induced adaptation in plant architecture.

  16. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Lin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that copepod community growth rates can be described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE, linking spatio-temporal variation of copepod growth rate with temperature and their body size. Our results generally agree with predictions made by the MTE and demonstrate that weight-specific growth rates of copepod communities in our study area are positively related with temperature and negatively related to body size. However, the regression coefficients of body size do not approach the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we find that the deviation from the MTE predictions may be partly attributed to the effect of food availability (which is not explicitly accounted for by the MTE. In addition, significant difference in the coefficients of temperature and body size exists among taxonomic groups. Our results suggest that considering the effects of food limitation and taxonomy is necessary to better understand copepod growth rates under in situ conditions, and such effects on the MTE-based prediction needs further investigation.

  17. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, K. Y.; Sastri, A. R.; Gong, G. C.; Hsieh, C. H.

    2013-03-01

    Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs, and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food) on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that copepod community growth rates can be described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE), linking spatio-temporal variation of copepod growth rate with temperature and their body size. Our results generally agree with predictions made by the MTE and demonstrate that weight-specific growth rates of copepod communities in our study area are positively related with temperature and negatively related to body size. However, the regression coefficients of body size do not approach the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we find that the deviation from the MTE predictions may be partly attributed to the effect of food availability (which is not explicitly accounted for by the MTE). In addition, significant difference in the coefficients of temperature and body size exists among taxonomic groups. Our results suggest that considering the effects of food limitation and taxonomy is necessary to better understand copepod growth rates under in situ conditions, and such effects on the MTE-based predictions need further investigation.

  18. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Lin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs, and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that copepod community growth rates can be described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE, linking spatio-temporal variation of copepod growth rate with temperature and their body size. Our results generally agree with predictions made by the MTE and demonstrate that weight-specific growth rates of copepod communities in our study area are positively related with temperature and negatively related to body size. However, the regression coefficients of body size do not approach the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we find that the deviation from the MTE predictions may be partly attributed to the effect of food availability (which is not explicitly accounted for by the MTE. In addition, significant difference in the coefficients of temperature and body size exists among taxonomic groups. Our results suggest that considering the effects of food limitation and taxonomy is necessary to better understand copepod growth rates under in situ conditions, and such effects on the MTE-based predictions need further investigation.

  19. Data logging of body temperatures provides precise information on phenology of reproductive events in a free-living arctic hibernator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.T.; Sheriff, M.J.; Schmutz, J.A.; Kohl, F.; Toien, O.; Buck, C.L.; Barnes, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Precise measures of phenology are critical to understanding how animals organize their annual cycles and how individuals and populations respond to climate-induced changes in physical and ecological stressors. We show that patterns of core body temperature (T b) can be used to precisely determine the timing of key seasonal events including hibernation, mating and parturition, and immergence and emergence from the hibernacula in free-living arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). Using temperature loggers that recorded T b every 20 min for up to 18 months, we monitored core T b from three females that subsequently gave birth in captivity and from 66 female and 57 male ground squirrels free-living in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range Alaska. In addition, dates of emergence from hibernation were visually confirmed for four free-living male squirrels. Average T b in captive females decreased by 0.5–1.0°C during gestation and abruptly increased by 1–1.5°C on the day of parturition. In free-living females, similar shifts in T b were observed in 78% (n = 9) of yearlings and 94% (n = 31) of adults; females without the shift are assumed not to have given birth. Three of four ground squirrels for which dates of emergence from hibernation were visually confirmed did not exhibit obvious diurnal rhythms in T b until they first emerged onto the surface when T b patterns became diurnal. In free-living males undergoing reproductive maturation, this pre-emergence euthermic interval averaged 20.4 days (n = 56). T b-loggers represent a cost-effective and logistically feasible method to precisely investigate the phenology of reproduction and hibernation in ground squirrels.

  20. 玻璃体温计测量体温的研究进展%Research progress on body temperature measurement with glass thermometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程建英; 王云娟; 李志伟

    2013-01-01

    介绍玻璃体温计的质量标准及检测,综述了玻璃体温计测量体温的研究现状,提出应规范玻璃体温计检测及测量体温方法.%It introduced the quality standards and testing of glass thermometer and reviewed the research status quo of body temperature measurement with glass thermometer. It put forward that one should make the glass thermometer check and body temperature measurement standard.

  1. Influence of repeated daily menthol exposure on human temperature regulation and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, D Jason; Weston, Neil; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    A single exposure to menthol can, depending on concentration, enhance both cool sensations and encourage body heat storage. This study tested whether there is an habituation in either response after repeated-daily exposures. Twenty-two participants were assigned to one of three spray groups: Control (CON; n=6), 0.05% L-menthol (M(0.05%); n=8), and 0.2% L-menthol (M(0.2%); n=8). On Monday (20°C, 50% rh) participants were sprayed with 100 mL of solution and undertook 40 min of cycling at 45% of their peak power (Ex1), from Tuesday to Thursday (30°C, 50% rh) they were sprayed twice daily whilst resting (R1 to R6), Friday was a repeat of Monday (Ex2). Thermal sensation (TS), thermal comfort, perceived exertion, irritation, rectal and skin temperature (Tsk), skin blood flow (SkBF) and sweat rate were monitored. A two-way ANOVA (alpha=0.05) compared responses from the beginning (Ex1, R1) and end (Ex2, R5) of the testing week. M(0.2%) induced significantly (P<0.05) cooler TS at the beginning of the week (Ex1, R1) compared to the end (Ex2, R5), indicating habituation of TS; this was not observed in M(0.05%). No other perceptual or physiological responses habituated. 0.2% Menthol caused a heat storage response, mediated by vasoconstriction, at the beginning and end of the week, suggesting the habituation of TS occurred in a pathway specific to sensation. In summary, the cooling influence of 0.2% menthol habituates after repeated-daily exposures, but with no habituation in heat storage.

  2. Intermittent exposure to social defeat and open-field test in rats: acute and long-term effects on ECG, body temperature and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgoifo, Andrea; Pozzato, Chiara; Meerlo, Peter; Costoli, Tania; Manghi, Massimo; Stilli, Donatella; Olivetti, Giorgio; Musso, Ezio

    2002-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to an intermittent homotypic stressor on: (i) habituation of acute autonomic responsivity (i.e. cardiac sympathovagal balance and susceptibility to arrhythmias), and (ii) circadian rhythmicity of heart rate, body temperature, and physical activity. After implantation of a transmitter for the radiotelemetric recording of electrocardiogram (ECG), body temperature and physical activity, adult male rats (Rattus norvegicus, Wild Type Groningen strain) were repeatedly exposed (10 consecutive times, on alternate days) to either a social stressor (defeat by a con-specific, n = 15) or an open-field, control challenge (transfer to a new cage; n = 8). ECGs, body temperature and physical activity were continuously recorded in baseline, test and recovery periods (each lasting 15 min), at the 1st and 10th episodes of both defeat and open-field challenge. The circadian rhythms of heart rate, body temperature and physical activity were monitored before (5 days), during (16 days) and after (21 days) the intermittent stress protocol. This study indicates that there is no clear habituation of either acute cardiac autonomic responsivity (as estimated by means of time-domain indexes of heart rate variability) or arrhythmia occurrence to a brief, intermittent, homotypic challenge, regardless of the nature of the stressor (social or non-social). On the other hand, rats exposed to social challenge also failed to show adaptation of acute temperature and activity stress responsiveness, whereas rats facing open-field challenge developed habituation of activity and sensitization of temperature responses. Repeated social challenge produced remarkable reductions of the heart rate circadian rhythm amplitude (this effect being significantly greater than that produced by intermittent open-field), but only minor changes in the daily rhythms of body temperature and physical activity. PMID:12171764

  3. Comparison of Appetite-regulating Hormones and Body Composition in Pediatric Patients in Predialysis Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease and Healthy Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM is a common complication in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Components incorporated in the regulation of appetite and body composition appear to be of the focus in renal insufficiency and may influence the CKD-associated PEM. The purpose of this study was to investigate plasma levels of appetite-regulating hormones and their correlation with the body composition variables in a pediatric in predialysis stage of CKD. Methods: Thirty children with CKD in predialysis stage were selected and compared with 30 healthy sex- and age-matched controls. Blood samples were collected in fasting. Serum total ghrelin, leptin, and obestatin levels were measured using enzyme immunometric assay methods. Anthropometric parameters measurement and body composition analysis were done using the bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA method. Results: Patients showed insignificant elevated total ghrelin (105.40±30.83 ng/l, leptin (5.32±1.17 ng/ml and obestatin (5.07±1.09 ng/ml levels in comparison with healthy participants. By using BIA, patients had significantly different Dry Lean Weight (P=0.048, Extra Cellular Water (P=0.045, Body Cell Mass (BCM (P=0.021, Basal Metabolic Rate (P=0.033 and Body Mass Index (P=0.029 compared with controls. Furthermore, the total body water was slightly and the ECW was significantly higher in CKD participants. There were significant negative correlation between obestatin and BCM (r=-0.40, P=0.03 and fat free mass index (FFMI (r=-0.40, P=0.029 in patients. Conclusion: It seems that our results are insufficient to clarify the role of appetite-regulating hormones in PEM in CKD patients. It is apparent that there are still many unknown parameters related to both appetite regulating and CKD-associated PEM.

  4. Pregnant women maintain body temperatures within safe limits during moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic classes conducted in pools heated up to 33 degrees Celsius: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Brearley

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Question: What is the body temperature response of healthy pregnant women exercising at moderate intensity in an aqua-aerobics class where the water temperature is in the range of 28 to 33 degrees Celsius, as typically found in community swimming pools? Design: An observational study. Participants: One hundred and nine women in the second and third trimester of pregnancy who were enrolled in a standardised aqua-aerobics class. Outcome measures: Tympanic temperature was measured at rest pre-immersion (T1, after 35 minutes of moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic exercise (T2, after a further 10 minutes of light exercise while still in the water (T3 and finally on departure from the facility (T4. The range of water temperatures in seven indoor community pools was 28.8 to 33.4 degrees Celsius. Results: Body temperature increased by a mean of 0.16 degrees Celsius (SD 0.35, p < 0.001 at T2, was maintained at this level at T3 and had returned to pre-immersion resting values at T4. Regression analysis demonstrated that the temperature response was not related to the water temperature (T2 r = –0.01, p = 0.9; T3 r = –0.02, p = 0.9; T4 r = 0.03, p = 0.8. Analysis of variance demonstrated no difference in body temperature response between participants when grouped in the cooler, medium and warmer water temperatures (T2 F = 0.94, p = 0.40; T3 F = 0.93, p = 0.40; T4 F = 0.70, p = 0.50. Conclusions: Healthy pregnant women maintain body temperatures within safe limits during moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic exercise conducted in pools heated up to 33 degrees Celsius. The study provides evidence to inform guidelines for safe water temperatures for aqua-aerobic exercise during pregnancy. [Brearley AL, Sherburn M, Galea MP, Clarke SJ, (2015 Pregnant women maintain body temperatures within safe limits during moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic classes conducted in pools heated up to 33 degrees Celsius: an observational study. Journal of

  5. Effects of Intragastric Balloon on Body Mass Index, Lipid Profile and Blood Glucose Regulation: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Erdem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Obesity remains an increasing public health and socioeconomic problem. Life style changes including healthy diet and physical activity are the first-line therapy for successful weight loss. The intragastric balloon has been considered as an effective and reversible, non-sur­gical method for weight loss. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Intragastric balloon on weight loss, lipid profiles and blood glucose regulation in obese patients Methods: 75 consecutive Intragastric balloon patients (55 Female, 20 Male with a mean age of 35.2±9.6 years were included in this study. The study was conducted prospectively and an air-filled intragastric balloon was introduced in ambulatory settings. In this study, patients’ pre-intervention body mass index, peripheral blood pa­rameters such as HbA1c, lipid profiles were recorded and compared with post-intervention values. Results: The median intervention time for intragastric balloon application was 13 min (8-19. After follow-up period of median 186 days (180-211, BMI was reduced significantly, 41.6±6.7 vs. 34.9±6.4 kg/m2 (p0.05. On the other hand, only pre and post-intervention HbA1c level was to be statistically significant (p=0.001 Conclusion: There was significant change in BMI and HbA1c level with the intervention of intragastric balloon after follow-up period. For long-term benefit of balloon, further studies are needed.

  6. Development of a temperature control system; Mise en oeuvre d'une chaine de regulation de temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolabdjian, Ch.; Robbes, D. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS-UPRES A-6072), 14 - Caen (France); Pigeon, E.; Gehan, O. [Caen Univ., Lab. de Commande des Procedes, ISMRA, 14 (France)

    1999-07-01

    The ability of superconducting devices in the field of bolometer applications is well known. However, the over-all system performances in the low frequency domain may be limited by the temperature fluctuations of the sample holder. We present a temperature control system of such sample holder cooled by a liquid nitrogen bath at ambient pressure. It allows a noise rejection of more than 35 dB at 0.001 Hz. A 24 bit analog to digital converter was a generalized predictive control law. The control design is based on sensitivity functions shaping procedure that has shown to provide a satisfying performance/robustness compromise provided that the underlying system identification has been made appropriately. (authors)

  7. Effects of niacin supplementation and dietary concentrate proportion on body temperature, ruminal pH and milk performance of primiparous dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohölter, Malte; Meyer, Ulrich; Rauls, Caroline; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of niacin and dietary concentrate proportion on body temperature, ruminal pH and milk production of dairy cows. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, 20 primiparous Holstein cows (179 ± 12 days in milk) were assigned to four dietary treatments aimed to receive either 0 or 24 g niacin and 30% (low) or 60% (high) concentrate with the rest being a partial mixed ration (PMR) composed of 60% corn and 40% grass silage (on dry matter basis). Ambient temperature and relative humidity were determined and combined by the calculation of temperature humidity index. Respiration rates, rectal, skin and subcutaneous temperatures were measured. Milk production and composition were determined. Ruminal pH and temperature were recorded at a frequency of 5 min using wireless devices for continuous intra-ruminal measurement (boluses). pH values were corrected for pH sensor drift. The climatic conditions varied considerably but temporarily indicated mild heat stress. Niacin did not affect skin, rectal and subcutaneous temperatures but tended to increase respiration rates. High concentrate reduced skin temperatures at rump, thigh and neck by 0.1-0.3°C. Due to the technical disturbances, not all bolus data could be subjected to statistical evaluation. However, both niacin and high concentrate influenced mean ruminal pH. High concentrate increased the time spent with a pH below 5.6 and ruminal temperatures (0.2-0.3°C). Niacin and high concentrate enhanced milk, protein and lactose yield but reduced milk fat and protein content. Milk fat yield was slightly reduced by high concentrate but increased due to niacin supplementation. In conclusion, niacin did not affect body temperature but stimulated milk performance. High concentrate partially influenced body temperatures and had beneficial effects on milk production.

  8. Drought responses of two gymnosperm species with contrasting stomatal regulation strategies under elevated [CO2] and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Honglang; O'Grady, Anthony P; Duursma, Remko A; Choat, Brendan; Huang, Guomin; Smith, Renee A; Jiang, Yanan; Tissue, David T

    2015-07-01

    Future climate regimes characterized by rising [CO2], rising temperatures and associated droughts may differentially affect tree growth and physiology. However, the interactive effects of these three factors are complex because elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature may generate differential physiological responses during drought. To date, the interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature on drought-induced tree mortality remain poorly understood in gymnosperm species that differ in stomatal regulation strategies. Water relations and carbon dynamics were examined in two species with contrasting stomatal regulation strategies: Pinus radiata D. Don (relatively isohydric gymnosperm; regulating stomata to maintain leaf water potential above critical thresholds) and Callitris rhomboidea R. Br (relatively anisohydric gymnosperm; allowing leaf water potential to decline as the soil dries), to assess response to drought as a function of [CO2] and temperature. Both species were grown in two [CO2] (C(a) (ambient, 400 μl l(-1)) and C(e) (elevated, 640 μl l(-1))) and two temperature (T(a) (ambient) and T(e) (ambient +4 °C)) treatments in a sun-lit glasshouse under well-watered conditions. Drought plants were then exposed to a progressive drought until mortality. Prior to mortality, extensive xylem cavitation occurred in both species, but significant depletion of non-structural carbohydrates was not observed in either species. Te resulted in faster mortality in P. radiata, but it did not modify the time-to-mortality in C. rhomboidea. C(e) did not delay the time-to-mortality in either species under drought or T(e) treatments. In summary, elevated temperature (+4 °C) had greater influence than elevated [CO2] (+240 μl l(-1)) on drought responses of the two studied gymnosperm species, while stomatal regulation strategies did not generally affect the relative contributions of hydraulic failure and carbohydrate depletion to mortality under severe drought. PMID

  9. Generalizing the self-healing diffusion Monte Carlo approach to finite temperature: a path for the optimization of low-energy many-body basis expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeongnim [ORNL; Reboredo, Fernando A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The self-healing diffusion Monte Carlo method for complex functions [F. A. Reboredo J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 136}, 204101 (2012)] and some ideas of the correlation function Monte Carlo approach [D. M. Ceperley and B. Bernu, J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 89}, 6316 (1988)] are blended to obtain a method for the calculation of thermodynamic properties of many-body systems at low temperatures. In order to allow the evolution in imaginary time to describe the density matrix, we remove the fixed-node restriction using complex antisymmetric trial wave functions. A statistical method is derived for the calculation of finite temperature properties of many-body systems near the ground state. In the process we also obtain a parallel algorithm that optimizes the many-body basis of a small subspace of the many-body Hilbert space. This small subspace is optimized to have maximum overlap with the one expanded by the lower energy eigenstates of a many-body Hamiltonian. We show in a model system that the Helmholtz free energy is minimized within this subspace as the iteration number increases. We show that the subspace expanded by the small basis systematically converges towards the subspace expanded by the lowest energy eigenstates. Possible applications of this method to calculate the thermodynamic properties of many-body systems near the ground state are discussed. The resulting basis can be also used to accelerate the calculation of the ground or excited states with Quantum Monte Carlo.

  10. Influence of Superheated Steam Temperature Regulation Quality on Service Life of Boiler Steam Super-Heater Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kulakov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates influence of change in quality of superheated steam temperature regulations on service life of super-heater metal. А dependence between metal service life and dispersion value for different steel grades has been determined in the paper. Numerical values pertaining to increase of super-heater metal service life in case of transferring from manual regulation to standard system of automatic regulation (SAR have been determined and in case of transferring from standard SAR to improved SAR. The analysis of tabular data and plotted dependencies makes it possible to conclude that any change in conditions of convection super-heater metal work due to better quality of the regulation leads to essential increase of time period which is left till the completion of the service life of a super-heater heating surface.

  11. Intermittent Exposure to Social Defeat and Open-field Test in Rats : Acute and Long-term Effects on ECG, Body Temperature and Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sgoifo, Andrea; Pozzato, Chiara; Meerlo, Peter; Costoli, Tania; Manghi, Massimo; Stilli, Donatella; Olivetti, Giorgio; Musso, Ezio

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to an intermittent homotypic stressor on: (i) habituation of acute autonomic responsivity (i.e. cardiac sympathovagal balance and susceptibility to arrhythmias), and (ii) circadian rhythmicity of heart rate, body temperature, and physical activity. Aft

  12. Segmental equivalent temperature determined by means of a thermal manikin: A method for correcting errors due to incomplete contact of the body with a surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Janieas, N.R.D.J.; Silva, M.C.G.

    2004-01-01

    The segmental equivalent temperature determined by means of a thermal manikin is often correlated with the local thermal sensation of people and is used for indoor environment assessment. It is also used to assess performance of heated/cooled/ventilated car seats, etc. However, the body...

  13. Set points, settling points and some alternative models: theoretical options to understand how genes and environments combine to regulate body adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Speakman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The close correspondence between energy intake and expenditure over prolonged time periods, coupled with an apparent protection of the level of body adiposity in the face of perturbations of energy balance, has led to the idea that body fatness is regulated via mechanisms that control intake and energy expenditure. Two models have dominated the discussion of how this regulation might take place. The set point model is rooted in physiology, genetics and molecular biology, and suggests that there is an active feedback mechanism linking adipose tissue (stored energy to intake and expenditure via a set point, presumably encoded in the brain. This model is consistent with many of the biological aspects of energy balance, but struggles to explain the many significant environmental and social influences on obesity, food intake and physical activity. More importantly, the set point model does not effectively explain the ‘obesity epidemic’ – the large increase in body weight and adiposity of a large proportion of individuals in many countries since the 1980s. An alternative model, called the settling point model, is based on the idea that there is passive feedback between the size of the body stores and aspects of expenditure. This model accommodates many of the social and environmental characteristics of energy balance, but struggles to explain some of the biological and genetic aspects. The shortcomings of these two models reflect their failure to address the gene-by-environment interactions that dominate the regulation of body weight. We discuss two additional models – the general intake model and the dual intervention point model – that address this issue and might offer better ways to understand how body fatness is controlled.

  14. Rectal temperature time of death nomogram: dependence of corrective factors on the body weight under stronger thermic insulation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henssge, C

    1992-04-01

    Ninety-eight test coolings were made under various cooling conditions (moving air, two types of both clothing and covering) on dummies of real masses of 1, 3.3, 9.9, 24.5 and 33.4 kg, respectively, which cool under standard conditions (unclothed, uncovered, still air) like human bodies of 14, 33, 41, 83 and 104 kg, respectively. The results provide evidence of a non-linear dependence of corrective factors of body weight upon the body weight. The dynamics of the dependence increases with the thickness of thermic insulation. Transferred to the use of the nomogram method on bodies, cooling conditions requiring corrective factors between 0.75 (moving air) and 1.3 (rather thin clothing/covering), known from experience on bodies of an average weight, can be used as in the past, independent of the body weight. According to experience the dependence of corrective factors on the body weight must be taken into account in bodies of a very high or low body weight. For that purpose both a simplified table and a formula for computing is given.

  15. Factors affecting date of implantation, parturition, and den entry estimated from activity and body temperature in free-ranging brown bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Friebe

    Full Text Available Knowledge of factors influencing the timing of reproduction is important for animal conservation and management. Brown bears (Ursus arctos are able to vary the birth date of their cubs in response to their fat stores, but little information is available about the timing of implantation and parturition in free-ranging brown bears. Body temperature and activity of pregnant brown bears is higher during the gestation period than during the rest of hibernation and drops at parturition. We compared mean daily body temperature and activity levels of pregnant and nonpregnant females during preimplantation, gestation, and lactation. Additionally we tested whether age, litter size, primiparity, environmental conditions, and the start of hibernation influence the timing of parturition. The mean date of implantation was 1 December (SD = 12, the mean date of parturition was 26 January (SD = 12, and the mean duration of the gestation period was 56 days (SD = 2. The body temperature of pregnant females was higher during the gestation and lactation periods than that of nonpregnant bears. The body temperature of pregnant females decreased during the gestation period. Activity recordings were also used to determine the date of parturition. The parturition dates calculated with activity and body temperature data did not differ significantly and were the same in 50% of the females. Older females started hibernation earlier. The start of hibernation was earlier during years with favorable environmental conditions. Dates of parturition were later during years with good environmental conditions which was unexpected. We suggest that free-ranging pregnant brown bears in areas with high levels of human activities at the beginning of the denning period, as in our study area, might prioritize investing energy in early denning than in early parturition during years with favorable environmental conditions, as a strategy to prevent disturbances caused by human.

  16. Listeria monocytogenes differential transcriptome analysis reveals temperature-dependent Agr regulation and suggests overlaps with other regulons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Garmyn

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous, opportunistic pathogenic organism. Environmental adaptation requires constant regulation of gene expression. Among transcriptional regulators, AgrA is part of an auto-induction system. Temperature is an environmental cue critical for in vivo adaptation. In order to investigate how temperature may affect AgrA-dependent transcription, we compared the transcriptomes of the parental strain L. monocytogenes EGD-e and its ΔagrA mutant at the saprophytic temperature of 25°C and in vivo temperature of 37°C. Variations of transcriptome were higher at 37°C than at 25°C. Results suggested that AgrA may be involved in the regulation of nitrogen transport, amino acids, purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways and phage-related functions. Deregulations resulted in a growth advantage at 37°C, but affected salt tolerance. Finally, our results suggest overlaps with PrfA, σB, σH and CodY regulons. These overlaps may suggest that through AgrA, Listeria monocytogenes integrates information on its biotic environment.

  17. A model for the description of feeding regulation by mesozooplankton under different conditions of temperature and prey nutritional status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, Emmanuel; Hense, Inga; St. John, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem modelling studies that consider mesozooplankton feeding regulation have primarily focused on the impact of prey nutritional status and temperature separately, despite experimental evidence for strong links between these two factors. Here, we propose a method based on optimal feeding...... and structural biochemical substances. They then regulate their feeding behaviour as well as metabolic physiology in order to satisfy their specific biochemical requirements for maintenance and growth. The approach is applicable to all heterotrophic plankton. In the example presented here the model has been...

  18. Organ identity specification factor WGE localizes to the histone locus body and regulates histone expression to ensure genomic stability in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Nao; Furuhashi, Hirofumi; Masuko, Keita; Numao, Eriko; Makino, Takashi; Yano, Tamaki; Kurata, Shoichiro

    2016-05-01

    Over-expression of Winged-Eye (WGE) in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc induces an eye-to-wing transformation. Endogenous WGE is required for organ development, and wge-deficient mutants exhibit growth arrest at the larval stage, suggesting that WGE is critical for normal growth. The function of WGE, however, remains unclear. Here, we analyzed the subcellular localization of WGE to gain insight into its endogenous function. Immunostaining showed that WGE localized to specific nuclear foci called the histone locus body (HLB), an evolutionarily conserved nuclear body required for S phase-specific histone mRNA production. Histone mRNA levels and protein levels in cytosolic fractions were aberrantly up-regulated in wge mutant larva, suggesting a role for WGE in regulating histone gene expression. Genetic analyses showed that wge suppresses position-effect variegation, and that WGE and a HLB component Mute appears to be synergistically involved in heterochromatin formation. Further supporting a role in chromatin regulation, wge-deficient mutants showed derepression of retrotransposons and increased γH2Av signals, a DNA damage marker. These findings suggest that WGE is a component of HLB in Drosophila with a role in heterochromatin formation and transposon silencing. We propose that WGE at HLB contributes to genomic stability and development by regulating heterochromatin structure via histone gene regulation. PMID:27145109

  19. 网络化电子体温测量系统的研制%Development of the Networked Body Temperature Measuring System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧伟明; 邓新群

    2014-01-01

    目的:研制网络化电子体温测量系统.方法分析国内外体温测量工具的使用现状,研制由数字温度传感器DS18B20和微控制器 AT89S53两部件组成的体温测量系统.结果可以多人同时测量体温,并能够实现体温测量的网络化,测温分辨率达到0.0625℃.结论目前,大部分医院采用玻璃水银温度计测量体温,护理工作量大且存在水银中毒的危险,网络化电子体温测量系统是今后体温测量的发展趋势.%Objective To develop the networked new body temperature measuring system.Methods This paper analyzes the current application of body temperature measuring tool both in domestic and foreign countries,and develop the digital temperature sensor DS18B20 and micro controller AT89S53 temperature measuring system.Results Taking body temperature for multiple people at the same time is possible and can be networked,with a resolution of 0.0625℃.Conclusion At present,glass mercury thermometers are widely used in most hospitals which lead to heavy nursing workload and the risk of mercury poisoning.Net-working electronic body temperature measuring system is now becoming the new trend.

  20. Intake of High-intensity Sweeteners alters the Ability of Sweet Taste to Signal Caloric Consequences: Implications for the Learned Control of Energy and Body Weight Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Terry L.; Martin, Ashley A.; Clark, Kiely; Swithers, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent results from both human epidemiological and experimental studies with animals suggest that intake of non-caloric sweeteners may promote, rather than protect against, weight gain and other disturbances of energy regulation. However, without a viable mechanism to explain how consumption of non-caloric sweeteners can increase energy intake and body weight, the persuasiveness of such results has been limited. Using a rat model, the present research showed that intake of non-caloric sweeteners reduces the effectiveness of learned associations between sweet tastes and postingestive caloric outcomes (Experiment 1) and that interfering with this association may impair the ability of rats to regulate their intake of sweet, but not nonsweet, high-fat and high-calorie food (Experiment 2). The results support the hypothesis that consuming noncaloric sweeteners may promote excessive intake and body weight gain by weakening a predictive relationship between sweet taste and the caloric consequences of eating. PMID:21424985

  1. Intake of High-intensity Sweeteners alters the Ability of Sweet Taste to Signal Caloric Consequences: Implications for the Learned Control of Energy and Body Weight Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Terry L.; Martin, Ashley A.; Clark, Kiely; Swithers, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Recent results from both human epidemiological and experimental studies with animals suggest that intake of non-caloric sweeteners may promote, rather than protect against, weight gain and other disturbances of energy regulation. However, without a viable mechanism to explain how consumption of non-caloric sweeteners can increase energy intake and body weight, the persuasiveness of such results has been limited. Using a rat model, the present research showed that intake of non-caloric sweeten...

  2. Temperature dependent changes in cocaine- and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) peptide in the brain of tadpole, Sylvirana temporalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewale, Swapnil A; Gaupale, Tekchand C; Bhargava, Shobha

    2015-09-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CARTp) has emerged as a novel neurotransmitter in the brain. Although the physiological role of the peptide has been intensely investigated in mammals, its role in amphibians has not been investigated. In the present study, an attempt has been undertaken to study the expression of CART in the tadpole brain of frog Sylvirana temporalis, subjected to thermal stress. Cells with strong CART-immunoreactivity were observed in the nucleus preoptic area (NPO) of tadpoles exposed to high temperature (37±2°C) as compared to those in the tadpoles exposed to low (12±2°C) and normal (24±2°C) temperatures. In the ventromedial thalamic nucleus (VM) and nucleus posterocentralis thalami (NPC), moderate CART-ir cells were observed in the control groups while number of cells and intensity of immunoreactivity was increased in tadpoles at low and high temperatures. In the nucleus infundibularis ventralis (NIV) and raphe nucleus (RA), CART immunoreactivity increased in the low as well as high temperature treated groups. Intensely stained CART cells were observed in the pituitary of tadpoles exposed to high temperature as compared to low temperature and control groups. We suggest that CART system in the brain and pituitary of tadpole may play a very important role in mediating responses to temperature variations in the environment. PMID:24983774

  3. Back calculation Anti Windup PID controller on Several Well-Known Tuning Method for Glycerin Bleaching Process Temperature Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz A. Jalil; Mohd Nasir Taib; M. H. Fazalul Rahiman; Rohaiza Hamdan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to comprehend the performance of back calculation anti windup scheme with difference tracking time constant, Ta on Proportional – Integral - Derivative (PID) controller for improving temperature regulation of glycerin bleaching process.  Several available well tuning methods including Ziegler Nichols (ZN), Internal Model Control (IMC) and Integral Square Error (ISE)-Load are used and analyzed. The performance of the controller tuning methods are  compared based on per...

  4. Salinity and temperature variations reflecting on cellular PCNA, IGF-I and II expressions, body growth and muscle cellularity of a freshwater fish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Y S; Melo, R M C; Campos-Junior, P H A; Santos, J C E; Luz, R K; Rizzo, E; Bazzoli, N

    2014-06-01

    The present study assessed the influence of salinity and temperature on body growth and on muscle cellularity of Lophiosilurus alexaxdri vitelinic larvae. Slightly salted environments negatively influenced body growth of freshwater fish larvae and we observed that those conditions notably act as an environmental influencer on muscle growth and on local expression of hypertrophia and hypeplasia markers (IGFs and PCNA). Furthermore, we could see that salinity tolerance for NaCl 4gl(-)(1) diminishes with increasing temperature, evidenced by variation in body and muscle growth, and by irregular morphology of the lateral skeletal muscle of larvae. We saw that an increase of both PCNA and autocrine IGF-II are correlated to an increase in fibre numbers and fibre diameter as the temperature increases and salinity diminishes. On the other hand, autocrine IGF-I follows the opposite way to the other biological parameters assessed, increasing as salinity increases and temperature diminishes, showing that this protein did not participate in muscle cellularity, but participating in molecular/cellular repair. Therefore, slightly salted environments may provide adverse conditions that cause some obstacles to somatic growth of this species, suggesting some osmotic expenditure with a salinity increment.

  5. Transcriptional regulation of temperature stress response during development in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects can be significantly affected by temperature induced stress. While evidence of the physiological consequences of temperature stress is growing, very little is known about how insects respond at the genetic level to these stressors. The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, an emergin...

  6. Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators Enhance the Morpho-Physiological Growth and Yield of Rice under High Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Ihsan, Zahid; Shah, Adnan N; Wu, Chao; Yousaf, Muhammad; Nasim, Wajid; Alharby, Hesham; Alghabari, Fahad; Huang, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on rice growth and yield attributes under high day (HDT) and high night temperature (HNT). Two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan) were subjected to temperature treatments in controlled growth chambers and four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc), alpha-tocopherol (Ve), brassinosteroids (Br), methyl jasmonates (MeJA), and triazoles (Tr) were applied. High temperature severely affected rice morphology, and also reduced leaf area, above-, and below-ground biomass, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency, while increased the leaf water potential of both rice cultivars. Grain yield and its related attributes except number of panicles, were reduced under high temperature. The HDT posed more negative effects on rice physiological attributes, while HNT was more detrimental for grain formation and yield. The Huanghuazhan performed better than IR-64 under high temperature stress with better growth and higher grain yield. Exogenous application of PGRs was helpful in alleviating the adverse effects of high temperature. Among PGR combinations, the Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the most effective treatment for both cultivars under high temperature stress. The highest grain production by Vc+Ve+MejA+Br treated plants was due to enhanced photosynthesis, spikelet fertility and grain filling, which compensated the adversities of high temperature stress. Taken together, these results will be of worth for further understanding the adaptation and survival mechanisms of rice to high temperature and will assist in developing heat-resistant rice germplasm in future.

  7. Exogenously applied plant growth regulators enhance the morpho-physiological growth and yield of rice under high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Fahad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A two-year experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (PGR on rice growth and yield attributes under high day (HDT and high night temperature (HNT. Two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan were subjected to temperature treatments in controlled growth chambers and four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc, alpha-tocopherol (Ve, brassinosteroids (Br, methyl jasmonates (MeJA and triazoles (Tr were applied. High temperature severely affected rice morphology, and also reduced leaf area, above- and below-ground biomass, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency, while increased the leaf water potential of both rice cultivars. Grain yield and its related attributes except number of panicles, were reduced under high temperature. The HDT posed more negative effects on rice physiological attributes, while HNT was more detrimental for grain formation and yield. The Huanghuazhan performed better than IR-64 under high temperature stress with better growth and higher grain yield. Exogenous application of PGRs was helpful in alleviating the adverse effects of high temperature. Among PGR combinations, the Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the most effective treatment for both cultivars under high temperature stress. The highest grain production by Vc+Ve+MejA+Br treated plants was due to enhanced photosynthesis, spikelet fertility and grain filling, which compensated the adversities of high temperature stress. Taken together, these results will be of worth for further understanding the adaptation and survival mechanisms of rice to high temperature and will assist in developing heat-resistant rice germplasm in future.

  8. Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators Enhance the Morpho-Physiological Growth and Yield of Rice under High Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Ihsan, Zahid; Shah, Adnan N; Wu, Chao; Yousaf, Muhammad; Nasim, Wajid; Alharby, Hesham; Alghabari, Fahad; Huang, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on rice growth and yield attributes under high day (HDT) and high night temperature (HNT). Two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan) were subjected to temperature treatments in controlled growth chambers and four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc), alpha-tocopherol (Ve), brassinosteroids (Br), methyl jasmonates (MeJA), and triazoles (Tr) were applied. High temperature severely affected rice morphology, and also reduced leaf area, above-, and below-ground biomass, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency, while increased the leaf water potential of both rice cultivars. Grain yield and its related attributes except number of panicles, were reduced under high temperature. The HDT posed more negative effects on rice physiological attributes, while HNT was more detrimental for grain formation and yield. The Huanghuazhan performed better than IR-64 under high temperature stress with better growth and higher grain yield. Exogenous application of PGRs was helpful in alleviating the adverse effects of high temperature. Among PGR combinations, the Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the most effective treatment for both cultivars under high temperature stress. The highest grain production by Vc+Ve+MejA+Br treated plants was due to enhanced photosynthesis, spikelet fertility and grain filling, which compensated the adversities of high temperature stress. Taken together, these results will be of worth for further understanding the adaptation and survival mechanisms of rice to high temperature and will assist in developing heat-resistant rice germplasm in future. PMID:27625658

  9. Temperature regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in a poikilothermic vertebrate, crucian carp (Carassius carassius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Eeva; Tranberg, Hanna K; Sollid, Jørund; Nilsson, Göran E; Nikinmaa, Mikko

    2006-03-01

    Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of hypoxia-induced gene responses. To find out whether HIF-1 function is involved in gene expression changes associated with temperature acclimation as well as in hypoxia adaptation in poikilotherms, we studied HIF-1 DNA binding activity and HIF-1alpha expression in normoxia and during hypoxia (0.7 mg l(-1) O2) in crucian carp at temperatures of 26, 18 and 8 degrees C. Temperature had a marked influence on HIF-1 in normoxia. Although HIF-1alpha mRNA levels remained unaltered, cold acclimation (8 degrees C) increased HIF-1alpha protein amounts in the liver, gills and heart and HIF-1 DNA binding activity in the heart, gills and kidney of crucian carp by two- to threefold compared to warm acclimated fish (26 degrees C). In the heart and kidney HIF-1 activity was already significantly increased in the 18 degrees C acclimated fish. Temperature also affected hypoxic regulation of HIF-1. Although hypoxia initially increased amounts of HIF-1alpha protein in all studied tissues at every temperature, except for liver at 18 degrees C, HIF-1 activity increased only in the heart of 8 degrees C acclimated and in the gills of 18 degrees C acclimated fish. At 8 degrees C HIF-1alpha mRNA levels increased transiently in the gills after 6 h of hypoxia and in the kidney after 48 h of hypoxia. In the gills at 26 degrees C HIF-1alpha mRNA levels increased after 6 h of hypoxia and remained above normoxic levels for up to 48 h of hypoxia. These results show that HIF-1 is involved in controlling gene responses to both oxygen and temperature in crucian carp. No overall transcriptional control mechanism has been described for low temperature acclimation in poikilotherms, but the present results suggest that HIF-1 could have a role in such regulation. Moreover, this study highlights interaction of the two prime factors defining metabolism, temperature and oxygen, in the transcriptional control of metabolic homeostasis in

  10. Regulations in interaction of indium monochloride with concentrated water solutions of indium trichloride at various temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equilibrium concentration of univalent indium is determined at temperatures 20-50 deg C. At concentration of the trichloride of 1.8-4.8 mol/l the equilibrium concentration of univalent indium is defined by the balance of disproportionation-reproportionation, and at higher concentration of the trichloride by solubility of the corresponding solid phase. The temperature dependences for solubility of these compounds are obtained

  11. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, K. Y.; A. Sastri; G. C. Gong; C. H. Hsieh

    2012-01-01

    Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food) on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested th...

  12. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, K. Y.; A. R. Sastri; G. C. Gong; C. H. Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs, and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food) on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically,...

  13. On the average temperature of airless spherical bodies and the magnitude of Earth’s atmospheric thermal effect

    OpenAIRE

    Volokin, Den; ReLlez, Lark

    2014-01-01

    The presence of atmosphere can appreciably warm a planet’s surface above the temperature of an airless environment. Known as a natural Greenhouse Effect (GE), this near-surface Atmospheric Thermal Enhancement (ATE) as named herein is presently entirely attributed to the absorption of up-welling long-wave radiation by greenhouse gases. Often quoted as 33 K for Earth, GE is estimated as a difference between planet’s observed mean surface temperature and an effective radiating temperature calcul...

  14. Postprandial Energy Metabolism in the Regulation of Body Weight: Is there a Mechanistic Role for Dietary Calcium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario J. Soares

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been much interest in the mechanisms by which calcium may attenuate weight gain or accelerate body fat loss. This review focuses on postprandial energy metabolism and indicates that dietary calcium increases whole body fat oxidation after single and multiple meals. There is, as yet, no conclusive evidence for a greater diet induced thermogenesis, an increased lipolysis or suppression of key lipogenic enzyme systems. There is however convincing evidence that higher calcium intakes promote a modest energy loss through increased fecal fat excretion. Overall, there is a role for dietary calcium in human energy metabolism. Future studies need to define threshold intakes for metabolic and gastrointestinal outcomes.

  15. dSir2 in the Adult Fat Body, but Not in Muscles, Regulates Life Span in a Diet-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushal Kr. Banerjee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sir2, an evolutionarily conserved NAD+-dependent deacetylase, has been implicated as a key factor in mediating organismal life span. However, recent contradictory findings have brought into question the role of Sir2 and its orthologs in regulating organismal longevity. In this study, we report that Drosophila Sir2 (dSir2 in the adult fat body regulates longevity in a diet-dependent manner. We used inducible Gal4 drivers to knock down and overexpress dSir2 in a tissue-specific manner. A diet-dependent life span phenotype of dSir2 perturbations (both knockdown and overexpression in the fat body, but not muscles, negates the effects of background genetic mutations. In addition to providing clarity to the field, our study contrasts the ability of dSir2 in two metabolic tissues to affect longevity. We also show that dSir2 knockdown abrogates fat-body dFOXO-dependent life span extension. This report highlights the importance of the interplay between genetic factors and dietary inputs in determining organismal life spans.

  16. Do Lactation-Induced Changes in Ghrelin, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1, and Peptide YY Influence Appetite and Body Weight Regulation during the First Postpartum Year?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Enette Larson-Meyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether fasting and meal-induced appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with body weight retention after childbearing, we studied 24 exclusively breastfeeding women (BMI = 25.2 ± 3.6 kg/m2 at 4-5 weeks postpartum and 20 never-pregnant controls (BMI = 24.0 ± 3.1 kg/m2. Ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1, and appetite ratings were measured before/and 150 minutes after a standardized breakfast and 60 minutes after an ad libitum lunch. Body weight/composition were measured at 6 and 12 months. Fasting and area under-the-curve responses for appetite-regulating hormones did not differ between lactating and control groups; ghrelinacyl, however, tended to track higher after the standardized breakfast in lactating women and was higher (p6.0 kg. The retainers had greater (p<0.05 postmeal ghrelin rebound responses following breakfast. Overall these studies do not support the hypothesis that appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with postpartum weight retention. Altered ghrelin responses, however, deserve further exploration.

  17. Use of the lethal body burden in the risk quantification of field sediments: influence of temperature and salinity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, A.P.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene that is additionally required within an organism for lethality, after long-term exposure to sediments, is evaluated as an endpoint for risk assessment. This additionally required body burden for lethality after 2 months of exposure to sediments from differ

  18. From skin to bulk: An adjustment technique for assimilation of satellite-derived temperature observations in numerical models of small inland water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri, Amir; Babbar-Sebens, Meghna; Miller, Robert N.

    2016-06-01

    Data Assimilation (DA) has been proposed for multiple water resources studies that require rapid employment of incoming observations to update and improve accuracy of operational prediction models. The usefulness of DA approaches in assimilating water temperature observations from different types of monitoring technologies (e.g., remote sensing and in-situ sensors) into numerical models of in-land water bodies (e.g., lakes and reservoirs) has, however, received limited attention. In contrast to in-situ temperature sensors, remote sensing technologies (e.g., satellites) provide the benefit of collecting measurements with better X-Y spatial coverage. However, assimilating water temperature measurements from satellites can introduce biases in the updated numerical model of water bodies because the physical region represented by these measurements do not directly correspond with the numerical model's representation of the water column. This study proposes a novel approach to address this representation challenge by coupling a skin temperature adjustment technique based on available air and in-situ water temperature observations, with an ensemble Kalman filter based data assimilation technique. Additionally, the proposed approach used in this study for four-dimensional analysis of a reservoir provides reasonably accurate surface layer and water column temperature forecasts, in spite of the use of a fairly small ensemble. Application of the methodology on a test site - Eagle Creek Reservoir - in Central Indiana demonstrated that assimilation of remotely sensed skin temperature data using the proposed approach improved the overall root mean square difference between modeled surface layer temperatures and the adjusted remotely sensed skin temperature observations from 5.6°C to 0.51°C (i.e., 91% improvement). In addition, the overall error in the water column temperature predictions when compared with in-situ observations also decreased from 1.95°C (before assimilation

  19. The water hexamer: three-body interactions, structures, energetics, and OH-stretch spectroscopy at finite temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainter, C J; Skinner, J L

    2012-09-14

    Using a newly developed and recently parameterized classical empirical simulation model for water that involves explicit three-body interactions, we determine the eleven most stable isomers of the water hexamer. We find that the lowest energy isomer is one of the cage structures, in agreement with far-IR and microwave experiments. The energy ordering for the binding energies is cage > glove > book > bag > chair > boat > chaise, and energies relative to the cage are in good agreement with CCSD(T) calculations. The three-body contributions to the cage, book, and chair are also in reasonable agreement with CCSD(T) results. The energy of each isomer results from a delicate balance involving the number of hydrogen bonds, the strain of these hydrogen bonds, and cooperative and anti-cooperative three-body interactions, whose contribution we can understand simply from the form of the three-body interactions in the simulation model. Oxygen-oxygen distances in the cage and book isomers are in good agreement with microwave experiments. Hydrogen-bond distances depend on both donor and acceptor, which can again be understood from the three-body model. Fully anharmonic OH-stretch spectra are calculated for these low-energy structures, and compared with shifted harmonic results from ab initio and density functional theory calculations. Replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations were performed from 40 to 194 K, which show that the cage isomer has the lowest free energy from 0 to 70 K, and the book isomer has the lowest free energy from 70 to 194 K. OH-stretch spectra were calculated between 40 and 194 K, and results at 40, 63, and 79 K were compared to recent experiments, leading to re-assignment of the peaks in the experimental spectra. We calculate local OH-stretch cumulative spectral densities for different donor-acceptor types and compare to analogous results for liquid water.

  20. A long-range and long-life telemetry data-acquisition system for heart rate and multiple body temperatures from free-ranging animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, G. F.; Westbrook, R. M.; Fryer, T. B.; Miranda, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    The system includes an implantable transmitter, external receiver-retransmitter collar, and a microprocessor-controlled demodulator. The size of the implant is suitable for animals with body weights of a few kilograms or more; further size reduction of the implant is possible. The ECG is sensed by electrodes designed for internal telemetry and to reduce movement artifacts. The R-wave characteristics are then specifically selected to trigger a short radio frequency pulse. Temperatures are sensed at desired locations by thermistors and then, based on a heartbeat counter, transmitted intermittently via pulse interval modulation. This modulation scheme includes first and last calibration intervals for a reference by ratios with the temperature intervals to achieve good accuracy even over long periods. Pulse duration and pulse sequencing are used to discriminate between heart rate and temperature pulses as well as RF interference.

  1. LMKB/MARF1 localizes to mRNA processing bodies, interacts with Ge-1, and regulates IFI44L gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald B Bloch

    Full Text Available The mRNA processing body (P-body is a cellular structure that regulates the stability of cytoplasmic mRNA. MARF1 is a murine oocyte RNA-binding protein that is associated with maintenance of mRNA homeostasis and genomic stability. In this study, autoantibodies were used to identify Limkain B (LMKB, the human orthologue of MARF1, as a P-body component. Indirect immunofluorescence demonstrated that Ge-1 (a central component of the mammalian core-decapping complex co-localized with LMKB in P-bodies. Two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays were used to demonstrate interaction between Ge-1 and LMKB. The C-terminal 120 amino acids of LMKB mediated interaction with Ge-1 and the N-terminal 1094 amino acids of Ge-1 were required for interaction with LMKB. LMKB is the first protein identified to date that interacts with this portion of Ge-1. LMKB was expressed in human B and T lymphocyte cell lines; depletion of LMKB increased expression of IFI44L, a gene that has been implicated in the cellular response to Type I interferons. The interaction between LMKB/MARF1, a protein that contains RNA-binding domains, and Ge-1, which interacts with core-decapping proteins, suggests that LMKB has a role in the regulation of mRNA stability. LMKB appears to have different functions in different cell types: maintenance of genomic stability in developing oocytes and possible dampening of the inflammatory response in B and T cells.

  2. PKA and cAMP/CNG Channels Independently Regulate the Cholinergic Ca2+-Response of Drosophila Mushroom Body Neurons1,2,3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavot, Pierre; Carbognin, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The mushroom bodies (MBs), one of the main structures in the adult insect brain, play a critical role in olfactory learning and memory. Though historical genes such as dunce and rutabaga, which regulate the level of cAMP, were identified more than 30 years ago, their in vivo effects on cellular and physiological mechanisms and particularly on the Ca2+-responses still remain largely unknown. In this work, performed in Drosophila, we took advantage of in vivo bioluminescence imaging, which allowed real-time monitoring of the entire MBs (both the calyx/cell-bodies and the lobes) simultaneously. We imaged neuronal Ca2+-activity continuously, over a long time period, and characterized the nicotine-evoked Ca2+-response. Using both genetics and pharmacological approaches to interfere with different components of the cAMP signaling pathway, we first show that the Ca2+-response is proportional to the levels of cAMP. Second, we reveal that an acute change in cAMP levels is sufficient to trigger a Ca2+-response. Third, genetic manipulation of protein kinase A (PKA), a direct effector of cAMP, suggests that cAMP also has PKA-independent effects through the cyclic nucleotide-gated Ca2+-channel (CNG). Finally, the disruption of calmodulin, one of the main regulators of the rutabaga adenylate cyclase (AC), yields different effects in the calyx/cell-bodies and in the lobes, suggesting a differential and regionalized regulation of AC. Our results provide insights into the complex Ca2+-response in the MBs, leading to the conclusion that cAMP modulates the Ca2+-responses through both PKA-dependent and -independent mechanisms, the latter through CNG-channels. PMID:26464971

  3. NOA1 Functions in a Temperature-Dependent Manner to Regulate Chlorophyll Biosynthesis and Rubisco Formation in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Qiaosong; He, Han; Li, Heying; Tian, Hua; Zhang, Jianjun; Zhai, Liguang; Chen, Jiandong; Wu, Hong; Yi, Ganjun; He, Zheng-Hui; Peng, Xinxiang

    2011-01-01

    NITRIC OXIDE-ASSOCIATED1 (NOA1) encodes a circularly permuted GTPase (cGTPase) known to be essential for ribosome assembly in plants. While the reduced chlorophyll and Rubisco phenotypes were formerly noticed in both NOA1-supressed rice and Arabidopsis, a detailed insight is still necessary. In this study, by using RNAi transgenic rice, we further demonstrate that NOA1 functions in a temperature-dependent manner to regulate chlorophyll and Rubisco levels. When plants were grown at 30°C, the c...

  4. The effect of temperature and body size on metabolic scope of activity in juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Behrens, Jane; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2015-01-01

    ), maximum metabolic rate (MMR, mg O2 h−1) and metabolic scope (MS, mg O2 h−1) of juvenile Atlantic cod. SMR increased with BM irrespectively of temperature, resulting in an average scaling exponent of 0.87 (0.82–0.92). Q10 values were 1.8–2.1 at temperatures between 5 and 15 °C but higher (2.6–4.3) between...

  5. Influence of the Near Molecular Vicinity on the Temperature Regulated Fluorescence Response of Poly(N-vinylcaprolactam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Enzenberg

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of new fluorescent dye bearing monomers, including glycomonomers, based on maleamide and maleic esteramide was synthesized. The dye monomers were incorporated by radical copolymerization into thermo-responsive poly(N‑vinyl-caprolactam that displays a lower critical solution temperature (LCST in aqueous solution. The effects of the local molecular environment on the polymers’ luminescence, in particular on the fluorescence intensity and the extent of solvatochromism, were investigated below as well as above the phase transition. By attaching substituents of varying size and polarity in the close vicinity of the fluorophore, and by varying the spacer groups connecting the dyes to the polymer backbone, we explored the underlying structure–property relationships, in order to establish rules for successful sensor designs, e.g., for molecular thermometers. Most importantly, spacer groups of sufficient length separating the fluorophore from the polymer backbone proved to be crucial for obtaining pronounced temperature regulated fluorescence responses.

  6. Disturbances in pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance after passive body overheating and after exercise in elevated ambient temperatures in athletes and untrained men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Pilch

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance in two series of examinations with two types of stressors (exogenous heat and the combined exogenous and endogenous heat in trained and untrained men. The exogenous stressor was provided by Finnish sauna session, whereas the combined stressor was represented by the exercise in elevated ambient temperature. The men from the two groups performed the physical exercise on a cycle ergometer with the load of 53 ± 2% maximal oxygen uptake at the temperature of 33 ± 1 °C and relative humidity of 70% until their rectal temperature rose by 1.2 °C. After a month from completion of the exercise test the subjects participated in a sauna bathing session with the temperature of 96 ± 2 °C, and relative humidity of 16 ± 5%. 15-minutes heating and 2-minute cool-down in a shower with the temperature of 20 °C was repeated until rectal temperature rose by 1.2 °C compared to the initial value. During both series of tests rectal temperature was measured at 5-minute intervals. Before both series of tests and after them body mass was measured and blood samples were taken for biochemical tests. Serum total protein, serum concentration of lipid peroxidation products and serum antioxidants were determined. The athletes were characterized by higher level of antioxidant status and lower concentration of lipid peroxidation products. Physical exercise at elevated ambient temperature caused lower changes in oxidative stress indices compared to sauna bathing. Sauna induced a shift in pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance towards oxidation, which was observed less intensively in the athletes compared to the untrained men. This leads to the conclusion that physical exercise increases tolerance to elevated ambient temperature and oxidative stress.

  7. Fan-Shaped Body Neurons Are Involved in "Period"-Dependent Regulation of Long-Term Courtship Memory in "Drosophila"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takaomi; Inami, Show; Sato, Shoma; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its established function in the regulation of circadian rhythms, the "Drosophila" gene "period" ("per") also plays an important role in processing long-term memory (LTM). Here, we used courtship conditioning as a learning paradigm and revealed that (1) overexpression and knocking down of "per" in subsets of brain neurons enhance and…

  8. Experiment K-7-35: Circadian Rhythms and Temperature Regulation During Spaceflight. Part 2; Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. A.; Dotsenko, M. A.; Korolkov, V. I.; Griffin, D. W.; Stein, T. P.

    1994-01-01

    Energy expenditure can be regarded as the sum of two components; the basal metabolic rate and the energy costs of activity. Weight loss is usually associated with an energy deficit. A negative energy balance exists when energy intake is less that energy utilization. The deficit is made up by tissue catabolism (principally fat, but also some protein). By analyzing food and water intake, urine and fecal output, and changes in body weight, the Skylab investigators reached the unexpected conclusion that energy expenditure during spaceflight was about 5% greater than at 1 G (Leonard, 1983; Rambaut et al., 1977). Possible explanations for the human metabolic responses are an increased workload during spaceflight (Leonard, 1983), or as Rambaut and co-workers (1977) suggested, a progressive decrease in metabolic efficiency. It is likely to be very difficult to distinguish between these two possibilities in man because the activity component may be different during spaceflight than it is the ground. The problem is to measure energy expenditure with efficient precision during spaceflight in a non-invasive manner which will not interfere with other investigations or take an time. The doubly labeled water (DLW) method meets these criteria. The DLW method is the only method available for continuously measuring energy expenditure during spaceflight given the severely restricted conditions in the spaceflight environment. Therefore, this study focuses on the development and use of this procedure on nonhuman primates during spaceflight. Energy expenditure and total body water was determined in two Rhesus monkeys by the doubly labeled water (2H2'80) method. Three determinations were made. Monkey B (#2483) was studied twice, during the flight of COSMOS 2044 and during a follow-up ground control study a month later. A second monkey was studied on the ground only (Monkey D, #782).

  9. Generalizing the self-healing diffusion Monte Carlo approach to finite temperature: A path for the optimization of low-energy many-body bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboredo, Fernando A.; Kim, Jeongnim [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-02-21

    A statistical method is derived for the calculation of thermodynamic properties of many-body systems at low temperatures. This method is based on the self-healing diffusion Monte Carlo method for complex functions [F. A. Reboredo, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 204101 (2012)] and some ideas of the correlation function Monte Carlo approach [D. M. Ceperley and B. Bernu, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 6316 (1988)]. In order to allow the evolution in imaginary time to describe the density matrix, we remove the fixed-node restriction using complex antisymmetric guiding wave functions. In the process we obtain a parallel algorithm that optimizes a small subspace of the many-body Hilbert space to provide maximum overlap with the subspace spanned by the lowest-energy eigenstates of a many-body Hamiltonian. We show in a model system that the partition function is progressively maximized within this subspace. We show that the subspace spanned by the small basis systematically converges towards the subspace spanned by the lowest energy eigenstates. Possible applications of this method for calculating the thermodynamic properties of many-body systems near the ground state are discussed. The resulting basis can also be used to accelerate the calculation of the ground or excited states with quantum Monte Carlo.

  10. Microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 regulates the Balbiani body and animal-vegetal polarity of the zebrafish oocyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Gupta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Although of fundamental importance in developmental biology, the genetic basis for the symmetry breaking events that polarize the vertebrate oocyte and egg are largely unknown. In vertebrates, the first morphological asymmetry in the oocyte is the Balbiani body, a highly conserved, transient structure found in vertebrates and invertebrates including Drosophila, Xenopus, human, and mouse. We report the identification of the zebrafish magellan (mgn mutant, which exhibits a novel enlarged Balbiani body phenotype and a disruption of oocyte polarity. To determine the molecular identity of the mgn gene, we positionally cloned the gene, employing a novel DNA capture method to target region-specific genomic DNA of 600 kb for massively parallel sequencing. Using this technique, we were able to enrich for the genomic region linked to our mutation within one week and then identify the mutation in mgn using massively parallel sequencing. This is one of the first successful uses of genomic DNA enrichment combined with massively parallel sequencing to determine the molecular identity of a gene associated with a mutant phenotype. We anticipate that the combination of these technologies will have wide applicability for the efficient identification of mutant genes in all organisms. We identified the mutation in mgn as a deletion in the coding sequence of the zebrafish microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 (macf1 gene. macf1 is a member of the highly conserved spectraplakin family of cytoskeletal linker proteins, which play diverse roles in polarized cells such as neurons, muscle cells, and epithelial cells. In mgn mutants, the oocyte nucleus is mislocalized; and the Balbiani body, localized mRNAs, and organelles are absent from the periphery of the oocyte, consistent with a function for macf1 in nuclear anchoring and cortical localization. These data provide the first evidence for a role for spectraplakins in polarization of the vertebrate oocyte and egg.

  11. WASH complex regulates Arp2/3 complex for actin-based polar body extrusion in mouse oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Guang-Li; Wang, Zhen-Bo; CUI, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Prior to their fertilization, oocytes undergo asymmetric division, which is regulated by actin filaments. Recently, WASH complex were identified as actin nucleation promoting factors (NPF) that activated Arp2/3 complex. However, the roles of WASH complex remain uncertain, particularly for oocyte polarization and asymmetric division. Here, we examined the functions of two important subunits of a WASH complex, WASH1 and Strumpellin, during mouse oocyte meiosis. Depleting WASH1 or disrupting Str...

  12. Fan-shaped body neurons are involved in period-dependent regulation of long-term courtship memory in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Takaomi; Inami, Show; Sato, Shoma; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its established function in the regulation of circadian rhythms, the Drosophila gene period (per) also plays an important role in processing long-term memory (LTM). Here, we used courtship conditioning as a learning paradigm and revealed that (1) overexpression and knocking down of per in subsets of brain neurons enhance and suppress LTM, respectively, and (2) suppression of synaptic transmission during memory retrieval in the same neuronal subsets leads to defective LTM. Furth...

  13. Using temperature-sensitive smart polymers to regulate DNA-mediated nanoassembly and encoded nanocarrier drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamner, Kristen L; Alexander, Colleen M; Coopersmith, Kaitlin; Reishofer, David; Provenza, Christina; Maye, Mathew M

    2013-08-27

    In this paper we describe the use of a temperature-responsive polymer to regulate DNA interactions in both a DNA-mediated assembly system and a DNA-encoded drug delivery system. A thermoresponsive pNIPAAm-co-pAAm polymer, with a transition temperature (TC) of 51 °C, was synthesized with thiol modification and grafted onto gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) also containing single-stranded oligonucleotides (ssDNA). The thermoresponsive behavior of the polymer regulated the accessibility of the sequence-specific hybridization between complementary DNA-functionalized Au NPs. At T TC, the polymer shell undergoes a hydrophilic to -phobic phase transition and collapses, shrinking below the outer ssDNA, allowing for the sequence-specific hybridization to occur. The potential application of this dynamic interface for drug delivery is shown, in which the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX) is bound to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)-functionalized Au NPs whose sequences are known to be high-affinity intercalation points for it. The presence of the polymer capping is shown to decrease drug release kinetics and equilibrium at T TC, thus improving the cytotoxicity of the encoded nanocarrier design. PMID:23899347

  14. Standard Practice for Installation, Inspection, and Maintenance of Valve-body Pressure-relief Methods for Geothermal and Other High-Temperature Liquid Applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers installation, inspection, and maintenance of valve body cavity pressure relief methods for valves used in geothermal and other high-temperature liquid service. The valve type covered by this practice is a design with an isolated body cavity such that when the valve is in either the open or closed position pressure is trapped in the isolated cavity, and there is no provision to relieve the excess pressure internally. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. The theoretical aspects of the time dependent Z equation as a means of postmortem interval estimation using body temperature data only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M A; Wright, J C

    1985-05-01

    It has been clearly demonstrated that the rectal cooling curve does not obey Newton's Law, which is exponential. The first success in modelling rectal cooling mathematically was achieved by Marshall and Hoare [1]. An amendment was made to the simple exponential curve which led to a good mathematical model, exhibiting the three main sections of rectal cooling, i.e. lag, linear and quasi-exponential. The resultant method of postmortem interval estimation required a knowledge of the body mass and height. The present study has led to a totally different amendment to Newton's Law, which provides a means of postmortem interval estimation from body temperature data only. The derivation of the method, with a background on Newton's Law follows.

  16. Low temperature regulated growth of PbS quantum dots by wet chemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Hitanshu, E-mail: hitanshuminhas@gmail.com; Barman, P. B.; Singh, Ragini Raj [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan-173234, H.P. (India); Bind, Umesh Chandra [Centre of Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2015-08-28

    Narrow size distribution with regulated synthesis of lead sulfide (PbS) quantum dots (QDs) was achieved through wet chemical method. Different concentrations of 2-mercaptoethanol (capping agent) were used for tailoring the QDs size. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the QDs have mean diameters between 6 to 15 nm. The optical absorption spectra were compared to the predictions of a theoretical model for the electronic structure. The theory agrees well with experiment for QDs larger than 7 nm, but for smaller dots there is some deviation from the theoretical predictions. Consequently, the produced particles are having monodispersity, good water solubility, stability and may be good arguments to be biologically compatible due to the use of 2-mercaptoethanol.

  17. Study of the regulation of the outlet temperature of Rapsodie end exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a study which is part of general tests on end exchangers of the Rapsodie pile and associated servo-devices. They report an open-loop theoretical study of equipment responses, and the development of transfer functions to determine regulator adjustments, a closed-loop practical study to achieve better adjustments, and a hardware control. The authors present Rapsodie, describe the control process and the transfer function, reports the open loop study, the determination of the transfer function, and the closed loop study, report the analogical study (presentation of the simulator, simulation of the electro-pneumatic converter, of the servo-control and of derivatives), and present and discuss the obtained results

  18. Central dopamine D2 receptors regulate growth-hormone-dependent body growth and pheromone signaling to conspecific males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noaín, Daniela; Pérez-Millán, M Inés; Bello, Estefanía P; Luque, Guillermina M; Casas Cordero, Rodrigo; Gelman, Diego M; Peper, Marcela; Tornadu, Isabel García; Low, Malcolm J; Becú-Villalobos, Damasia; Rubinstein, Marcelo

    2013-03-27

    Competition between adult males for limited resources such as food and receptive females is shaped by the male pattern of pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion that determines body size and the production of urinary pheromones involved in male-to-male aggression. In the brain, dopamine (DA) provides incentive salience to stimuli that predict the availability of food and sexual partners. Although the importance of the GH axis and central DA neurotransmission in social dominance and fitness is clearly appreciated, the two systems have always been studied unconnectedly. Here we conducted a cell-specific genetic dissection study in conditional mutant mice that selectively lack DA D2 receptors (D2R) from pituitary lactotropes (lacDrd2KO) or neurons (neuroDrd2KO). Whereas lacDrd2KO mice developed a normal GH axis, neuroDrd2KO mice displayed fewer somatotropes; reduced hypothalamic Ghrh expression, pituitary GH content, and serum IGF-I levels; and exhibited reduced body size and weight. As a consequence of a GH axis deficit, neuroDrd2KO adult males excreted low levels of major urinary proteins and their urine failed to promote aggression and territorial behavior in control male challengers, in contrast to the urine taken from control adult males. These findings reveal that central D2Rs mediate a neuroendocrine-exocrine cascade that controls the maturation of the GH axis and downstream signals that are critical for fitness, social dominance, and competition between adult males.

  19. Iron-dependent regulation of hepcidin in Hjv-/- mice: evidence that hemojuvelin is dispensable for sensing body iron levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Gkouvatsos

    Full Text Available Hemojuvelin (Hjv is a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP co-receptor involved in the control of systemic iron homeostasis. Functional inactivation of Hjv leads to severe iron overload in humans and mice due to marked suppression of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. To investigate the role of Hjv in body iron sensing, Hjv-/- mice and isogenic wild type controls were placed on a moderately low, a standard or a high iron diet for four weeks. Hjv-/- mice developed systemic iron overload under all regimens. Transferrin (Tf was highly saturated regardless of the dietary iron content, while liver iron deposition was proportional to it. Hepcidin mRNA expression responded to fluctuations in dietary iron intake, despite the absence of Hjv. Nevertheless, iron-dependent upregulation of hepcidin was more than an order of magnitude lower compared to that seen in wild type controls. Likewise, iron signaling via the BMP/Smad pathway was preserved but substantially attenuated. These findings suggest that Hjv is not required for sensing of body iron levels and merely functions as an enhancer for iron signaling to hepcidin.

  20. Alternative oxidase pathway optimizes photosynthesis during osmotic and temperature stress by regulating cellular ROS, malate valve and antioxidative systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINAKAR eCHALLABATHULA

    2016-02-01

    results indicated the importance of AOX pathway in optimizing photosynthesis under both hyper-osmotic stress and sub-optimal temperatures. Regulation of ROS through redox couples related to malate valve and antioxidant system by AOX pathway to optimize photosynthesis under these stresses are discussed.

  1. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz e Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower ( P cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle.

  2. PISA. The effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) and ibuprofen on body temperature in acute stroke: protocol for a phase II double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN98608690

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. van Breda (Eric); H.B. van der Worp (Bart); H.M.A. van Gemert (Maarten); R. Meijer; L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: During the first days after stroke, one to two fifths of the patients develop fever or subfebrile temperatures. Body temperature is a strong prognostic factor after stroke. Pharmacological reduction of temperature in patients with acute ischaemic stroke may

  3. PISA. The effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) and ibuprofen on body temperature in acute stroke: Protocol for a phase II double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN98608690

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. van Breda (Eric); B. van der Worp (Bart); M. van Gemert (Maarten); R.J. Meijer (Ron); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBackground: During the first days after stroke, one to two fifths of the patients develop fever or subfebrile temperatures. Body temperature is a strong prognostic factor after stroke. Pharmacological reduction of temperature in patients with acute ischaemic stroke may improve their func

  4. Computational estimation of decline in sweating in the elderly from measured body temperatures and sweating for passive heat exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies reported the difference in heat tolerance between younger and older adults, which may be attributable to the decline in the sweating rate. One of the studies suggested a hypothesis that the dominant factor causing the decline in sweating was the decline in thermal sensitivity due to a weaker signal from the periphery to the regulatory centres. However, no quantitative investigation of the skin temperature threshold for activating the sweating has been conducted in previous studies. In this study, we developed a computational code to simulate the time evolution of the temperature variation and sweating in realistic human models under heat exposure, in part by comparing the computational results with measured data from younger and older adults. Based on our computational results, the difference in the threshold temperatures for activating the thermophysiological response, especially for sweating, is examined between older and younger adults. The threshold for activating sweating in older individuals was found to be about 1.5 °C higher than that in younger individuals. However, our computation did not suggest that it was possible to evaluate the central alteration with ageing by comparing the computation with the measurements for passive heat exposure, since the sweating rate is marginally affected by core temperature elevation at least for the scenarios considered here. The computational technique developed herein is useful for understanding the thermophysiological response of older individuals from measured data. (note)

  5. Effect of successive irrigation of subarachnoid cavity on body temperature and cerebrospinal fluid-related index in suppurative meningitis model dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Liu; Guohou He; Yuanyuan Wang; Xueqiang Chen; Qibin Wang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, suppurative meningitis is mainly treated through anti-infection with antibiotics, depressing encephalic pressure with mannitol , lowering body temperature with drugs, supporting treatment,etc. However, it takes a long course of treatment and has poor therapeutic effect. Successive irrigation of subarachnoid cavity maybe have better effect on suppurative meningitis.OBJECTIVE: We compared the successive irrigation of subbarachnoid cavity with routine therapeutic methods to observe the effect of successive irrigation of subarachnoid cavity on the body temperature, cerebrospinal fluid pressure, the number of white blood cell and the level of protein of suppurative meningitis dogs.DESIGN: A randomized and controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Institute of Neuroscience, Taihe Hospital Affiliated to Yunyang Medical College.MATERIALS: Totally 17 healthy adult male Beagle dogs, of common grade, weighing 9 to 10 kg, were involved in the experiment, and raised in the 20 ℃ temperature with relative humidity of 50% for 1 week.They were randomized into 3 groups: normal group (n=5), control group (n=5) and irrigation group (n=6).Artificial cerebrospinal fluid was prepared according to the level of glucose and chloride of cerebrospinal fluid of normal dogs, and then it was sterilized with high pressure.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the experimental animal center of Yunyang Medical College from April to August 2001.① After the dogs were anesthetized,1 mL fresh staphylococcus aureus liquid [(1.5-1.6) ×109 L-1] was injected into medullary cistern to establish suppurative meningitis models.② After models were successfully established, intravenous drip infusion of 1.2 ×106 U/(kg.d), muscular injection of sulday were performed in the control group. The irrigation of subarachnoid meningitis was conducted in the irrigation group besides the routine treatments in the control group: Artificial cerebrospinal fluid was successively injected into

  6. Individual room temperature regulation - Taking stock after 16 years experience; ERR - Bilanz nach 16 Jahren Erfahrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scalbert, J.-P.; Dyla, B.

    2007-07-01

    This article takes a look at experience gained with individual room temperature control in ten schoolhouses in Basel, Switzerland. The systems were introduced as part of a comprehensive energy-saving scheme in Basel. The first installation was made in 1991. The article discusses experience gained in general in buildings with various usage. Topics discussed include the effects of varying occupation times, user behaviour and the control technologies used. Various data-collection and control system using data-bus and power line communication are examined. The susceptibility of the control systems to vandalism is also looked at. Energy savings made are discussed. Economic viability is reviewed and figures are presented for the ten schoolhouses in tabular form. Finally future actions to be taken is reviewed and recommendations for further buildings are made.

  7. Temperature and phytoplankton cell size regulate carbon uptake and carbon overconsumption in the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Craig

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton plays a critical role in the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide by the ocean, and is comprised of a spectrum of cell sizes that are strongly associated with different oceanographic conditions. Studies suggest that the ocean will become increasingly stratified in response to a warming climate, limiting nutrient exchange to the upper sunlit ocean and favouring small cells able to grow in warmer, nutrient poor conditions. Here we show that, in a temperate shelf sea, a summertime population of numerically abundant small cells accounts for approximately 20% of annual carbon uptake. These small cells are not well represented by chlorophyll a – the ubiquitously used proxy of phytoplankton biomass – but rather, are strongly correlated with surface water temperature. Given the persistent near-zero nutrient concentrations during the summer, it appears that small cells drive carbon overconsumption, and suggest that their role in carbon fixation will become increasingly important in a warming ocean.

  8. Stoichiometrical regulation of soil organic matter decomposition and its temperature sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Nianpeng; Yu, Guirui

    2016-01-01

    The decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) can be described by a set of kinetic principles, environmental constraints, and substrate supply. Here, we hypothesized that SOM decomposition rates (R) and its temperature sensitivity (Q 10) would increase steadily with the N:C ratios of added substrates by alleviating N limitation on microbial growth. We tested this hypothesis by investigating SOM decomposition in both grassland and forest soils after addition of substrates with a range of N:C ratios. The results showed that Michaelis-Menten equations well fit the response of R to the N:C ratio variations of added substrates, and their coefficients of determination (R (2)) ranged from 0.65 to 0.89 (P forest soils. Therefore, these correlations should be incorporated into the models for the prediction of SOM decomposition rate under warmer climatic scenarios. PMID:26843944

  9. Effects of interleukin-1 beta injections into the subfornical organ and median preoptic nucleus on sodium appetite, blood pressure and body temperature of sodium-depleted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Diana R; Ferreira, Hilda S; Moiteiro, Andrei L B B; Fregoneze, Josmara B

    2016-09-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) appears to be the mediator of the reciprocal communication between the brain and the immune system. IL-1β has been shown to modulate homeostatic functions including fever, feeding, drinking and cardiovascular control. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of IL-1β injections directly into the subfornical organ (SFO) and the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) on salt appetite, hedonic response, locomotion, body temperature and blood pressure in sodium-depleted rats. IL-1β injections into the SFO and MnPO at the doses of 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6ng/0.2μl promoted a dose-dependent inhibition of salt intake in sodium-depleted rats. Results of the "dessert" test and the "open field" test suggested that the inhibition of salt appetite is not due to any changes in the hedonic aspect of ingestive behavior or to changes in locomotor activity. As expected, IL-1β injections into the SFO and MnPO promoted an increase in body temperature. However, the fever induced by IL-1β injected into the SFO was slower than the increase in body temperature obtained following IL-1β injection into the MnPO. Furthermore, IL-1β at a dose of 1.6ng/0.2μl directly injected into the MnPO led to a significant increase in blood pressure, while injection of the same concentration of IL-1β into the SFO caused no significant change in blood pressure or heart rate. The action of pro-inflammatory cytokines may interfere with the normal control of body temperature, blood pressure and fluid homeostasis, producing the adjustment required to cope with infection and inflammation. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms involved in fever, blood pressure increase and inhibition of sodium appetite induced by injections of IL-1β into the SFO and MnPO in sodium-depleted rats. PMID:27163523

  10. Two novel soluble trehalase genes cloned from Harmonia axyridis and regulation of the enzyme in a rapid changing temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zuokun; Liu, Xiaojun; Xu, Qingye; Qin, Zi; Wang, Su; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Shigui; Tang, Bin

    2016-08-01

    In previous studies, we have cloned two soluble trehalase genes (HaTreh1-1 and HaTreh1-2) from the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis. Here, we obtained the other two novel genes (HaTreh1-3 and HaTreh1-4) by transcriptome sequencing and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Generally, anabolism enhancement and catabolism inhibition together contribute to accumulation of trehalose, and trehalase is the key enzyme to start the catabolism of trehalose. To characterize the metabolism of trehalose in H. axyridis and how these trehalase genes are regulated under cold stress conditions, a comparison of trehalose content and trehalase levels in two different rapidly changing temperature environments was carried out to explore the regulation of these genes. We found that an accumulation of trehalose could be observed at 5°C, 0°C and -5°C and trehalase was suppressed in these temperature points during a gradually cooling environment. Then, in a gradually warming environment, trehalose levels increased slightly from -5°C to 15°C and then decreased at 25°C; however, no significant negative association was observed between trehalase and trehalose. Additionally, we found that glycogen could be converted into trehalose to help the individual resist the low temperature. Analysis of the expression of soluble trehalase showed that HaTreh1-1, HaTreh1-2, HaTreh1-3 and HaTreh1-4 were involved in trehalose metabolism; but the gene HaTreh1-4 plays the most important role in the cooling process, and HaTreh1-2 and HaTreh1-4 play the most important role in the warming process. Finally, we found that 5°C might be a temperature signal for H. axyridis; prior to this temperature, individuals must make enough physical preparations to resist cold stress during the winter. PMID:26969108

  11. The lavender plumage colour in Japanese quail is associated with a complex mutation in the region of MLPH that is related to differences in growth, feed consumption and body temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bed’hom Bertrand

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lavender phenotype in quail is a dilution of both eumelanin and phaeomelanin in feathers that produces a blue-grey colour on a wild-type feather pattern background. It has been previously demonstrated by intergeneric hybridization that the lavender mutation in quail is homologous to the same phenotype in chicken, which is caused by a single base-pair change in exon 1 of MLPH. Results In this study, we have shown that a mutation of MLPH is also associated with feather colour dilution in quail, but that the mutational event is extremely different. In this species, the lavender phenotype is associated with a non-lethal complex mutation involving three consecutive overlapping chromosomal changes (two inversions and one deletion that have consequences on the genomic organization of four genes (MLPH and the neighbouring PRLH, RAB17 and LRRFIP1. The deletion of PRLH has no effect on the level of circulating prolactin. Lavender birds have lighter body weight, lower body temperature and increased feed consumption and residual feed intake than wild-type plumage quail, indicating that this complex mutation is affecting the metabolism and the regulation of homeothermy. Conclusions An extensive overlapping chromosome rearrangement was associated with a non-pathological Mendelian trait and minor, non deleterious effects in the lavender Japanese quail which is a natural knockout for PRLH.

  12. Effects of External Chemical Regulation on Bt Transgenic Cotton Plants under Combined Stress of High Temperature and Water Deficit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Gui-sheng; ZHANG Wang-ding; TONG Chen; LIN Yan; AN Lin-lin; LIU Gui-juan

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to find a possible way to combat or alleviate the negative effects caused by high temperature and water deficit at the growth stage of peak boll-setting.[Method] With Bt transgenic cotton GK22 as the test cultivar,a potted experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of the regulation of external substances(the water solutions of pix,urea and their mixture) on the physiological parameters,insecticidal protein content,yield and yield component of cotton plants in artificial climate chambers treated with high temperature and water deficit.[Result] The application of external pix,urea or their mixture was effective in stabilizing the physiological parameters of cotton plants,insecticidal protein content,yield and yield components.Compared with the exclusive application of pix and urea,the mixture of pix and urea played the most effective role in stabilizing the content of chlorophyll,soluble sugar and insecticidal protein,alleviating the increase of the content of free amino acids and proline,and increasing boll number per plant,boll weight and seed cotton yield.[Conclusion] The water solutions of pix,urea or their mixtures can be used to combat or alleviate the stress of high temperature and water deficit if they are sprayed onto cotton plants prior to stress occurrence.

  13. Driven-dissipative many-body systems with mixed power-law interactions: Bistabilities and temperature-driven phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Šibalić, Nikola; Adams, Charles S; Weatherill, Kevin J; Pohl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the non-equilibrium dynamics of a driven-dissipative spin ensemble with competing power-law interactions. Contrary to previous work on pure van der Waals systems, we demonstrate that the emergence of a dynamical phase transition and bistable steady states critically relies on the presence of a finite dipolar potential-core. Upon introducing random particle motion, we show that a finite gas temperature can drive a phase transition with regards to the spin degree of freedom and eventually leads to mean-field behaviour in the high-temperature limit. Our work reconciles contrasting observations of recent experiments with Rydberg atoms in the cold-gas and hot-vapour domain, and establishes an efficient theoretical framework in the latter regime.

  14. A possible means of monitoring the progress of demyelination in multiple sclerosis: effect of body temperature on visual perception of double light flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, R J; Regan, D; Heron, J R

    1976-09-01

    The ability to discriminate closely separated pairs of light flashes as being double is impaired in multiple sclerosis. The effects of altering body temperature on double flash resolution and on visual acuity were studied in four multiple sclerosis patients and in control subjects. At demyelinated sites heating impaired and cooling improved double flash resolution. Visual acuity behaved similarly. The double flash test was very sensitive, changing up to 75 ms in response to simple heating and cooling procedures that produced small variations in acuity. Apart from its diagnostic value, the double flash test furnishes a simple in vivo model to study the effect of temperature change (and potential symptomatic therapy) on conduction in partially demyelinated axons in the visual system.

  15. Investigation of blood pulse PPG signal regulation on toe effect of body posture and lower limb height

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Shang-zhi; HU Sijung; CRABTREE Vincent P.; ZHENG Jia

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the regulation of blood pulse volume via photoplethysmography (PPG) signal detected from toe, while the lower limb is passively raised in different height positions. Methods: Use a modified non-invasive PPG technique to detect the blood pulse signal on toe with infrared (IR) photo sensor. A protocol consisting of two postures, i.e., supine and 45° reclining, was designed to conduct laboratory trial in this study. During the period of performing the protocol of these postures, the lower limb was passively raised from the heights of 10 cm to 60 cm randomly and individually with sponge blocks underneath the foot. Results: In the supine posture, the higher the foot was passively raised, the more the blood PPG signal decreased. In the 45° reclining posture, the blood PPG signal increased at the beginning and then decreased in the foot height position from 10 cm to 60 cm. In both postures the normalized AC signal changes significantly while the normalized DC signal changes little. Conclusion:The toe PPG signals can obviously indicate the regulated blood volume change with the designated postural procedures due to the heart level position.

  16. The effect of temperature and body size on filtration rates of Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia, Mytilidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Pestana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei, Mollusca: Bivalvia is an invasive species that has been causing considerable environmental and economic problems in South America. In the present study, filtration rates of L. fortunei were determined in the laboratory under different temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 28, and 30 ºC and two types of food (Algamac-2000® and the chlorophycean alga Scenedesmus sp.. There was a statistically significant relationship between time and filtration rates in the experiment using Scenedesmus sp., regardless of temperature. However, this pattern was absent in the experiment using Algamac, suggesting that the relationship between filtration rates and temperature might depend on the size of the filtered particles. In addition, there was no correlation between filtration rates and either shell size or condition index (the relationship between the weight and the length of a mussel. The filtration rate measured in the present study (724.94 ml/h was one of the highest rates recorded among invasive bivalves to date. Given that the colonies of the golden mussel could reach hundreds of thousands of individuals per square meter, such filtration levels could severely impact the freshwater environments in its introduced range.

  17. 体温维持对剖宫产产妇的保护作用%The Protective Effect of Body Temperature Maintenance on Puerpera under Cesarean Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹彦; 王海艳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the protective effect of maintaining body temperature for the puerpera under cesarean section.Methods Total of 106 cases receiving cesarean section in Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College from Jan.2013 to Dec.2013 were included in the study.They were divided into observation group and control group by random number table method,53 cases each.The control group was treated with conventional surgery,and the observation group received insulating measures on the basis of the control group.The perioperative changes in body temperature,intraoperative basic situation and postoperative shivering of the two groups were compared and analyzed .Results Three min after entering the operation room,there was no significant difference on the body temperature between the observation group and the con-trol group(P>0.05).However,during surgery and after surgery,body temperature of the observation group was significantly better than the control group.The postoperative temperature reached(36.82 ±0.57) ℃ in the observation group,the patient′s body temperature was gradually reduced as the surgery proceeded,but gradually picked up to normal at the end of the surgery .The operative time of the observation group was lower than the control group[(78 ±10) min vs (84 ±11) min],the difference was statistically significant(P 0.05 ) ,但在术中及术后,体温均明显优于对照组,术后体温达到(36.82 ±0.57 ) ℃,两组患者的体温随着手术的进行逐步降低,但于手术完结时逐步回升,直至正常;观察组患者手术时间短于对照组[(78 ±10) min 比(84 ± 12) min],差异有统计学意义(P <0.01),且术中出血量、输液量及尿量显著低于对照组[(233 ± 21) mL比(342 ±32) mL,(1354 ±211) mL比(1423 ±347) mL,(98 ±27) mL比(246 ±52) mL],差异有统计学意义( P <0.05 或 P <0.01 );经治疗,观察组患者寒战总发生率显著低于对照组[11.32%(6/53)比39.62%(21/53)],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).

  18. The NAV2 homolog Sickie regulates F-actin-mediated axonal growth in Drosophila mushroom body neurons via the non-canonical Rac-Cofilin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takashi; Yamazaki, Daisuke; Murakami, Satoshi; Hiroi, Makoto; Nitta, Yohei; Maeyama, Yuko; Tabata, Tetsuya

    2014-12-01

    The Rac-Cofilin pathway is essential for cytoskeletal remodeling to control axonal development. Rac signals through the canonical Rac-Pak-LIMK pathway to suppress Cofilin-dependent axonal growth and through a Pak-independent non-canonical pathway to promote outgrowth. Whether this non-canonical pathway converges to promote Cofilin-dependent F-actin reorganization in axonal growth remains elusive. We demonstrate that Sickie, a homolog of the human microtubule-associated protein neuron navigator 2, cell-autonomously regulates axonal growth of Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neurons via the non-canonical pathway. Sickie was prominently expressed in the newborn F-actin-rich axons of MB neurons. A sickie mutant exhibited axonal growth defects, and its phenotypes were rescued by exogenous expression of Sickie. We observed phenotypic similarities and genetic interactions among sickie and Rac-Cofilin signaling components. Using the MARCM technique, distinct F-actin and phospho-Cofilin patterns were detected in developing axons mutant for sickie and Rac-Cofilin signaling regulators. The upregulation of Cofilin function alleviated the axonal defect of the sickie mutant. Epistasis analyses revealed that Sickie suppresses the LIMK overexpression phenotype and is required for Pak-independent Rac1 and Slingshot phosphatase to counteract LIMK. We propose that Sickie regulates F-actin-mediated axonal growth via the non-canonical Rac-Cofilin pathway in a Slingshot-dependent manner.

  19. Core Body Temperature as Adjunct to Endpoint Determination in Murine Median Lethal Dose Testing of Rattlesnake Venom

    OpenAIRE

    Cates, Charles C; McCabe, James G; Lawson, Gregory W; Marcelo A Couto

    2014-01-01

    Median lethal dose (LD50) testing in mice is the ‘gold standard’ for evaluating the lethality of snake venoms and the effectiveness of interventions. As part of a study to determine the murine LD50 of the venom of 3 species of rattlesnake, temperature data were collected in an attempt to more precisely define humane endpoints. We used an ‘up-and-down’ methodology of estimating the LD50 that involved serial intraperitoneal injection of predetermined concentrations of venom. By using a