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Sample records for body temperature measurements

  1. TECHNOLOGICAL POSSIBILITIES OF CONTACTLESS MEASURING THE BODY SURFACE TEMPERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Kateřina Švejdová; Miloslav Šoch; Anna Šimková; Luboš Zábranský; Luboš Smutný; Šárka Smutná; Bohuslav Čermák

    2013-01-01

    The regular measuring of the body surface temperature can help to evaluate health condition of animals and react immediately on the first symptoms of illness. There are many of technological possibilities of contactless measuring the body surface temperature. It is important to find the right part of the body which the temperature will show the first possible symptoms of illness. This experiment with dairy cows and heifers was realized at the farm in Petrovice. The body surface temperature an...

  2. Implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes;

    temperature. The peripheral body temperature measured by the microchip transponder was on average 0.5-1.0 °C lower than the core body temperature measured by rectal thermometer, in all 3 groups. However, the paired data sets followed the same pattern throughout the experimental period. Standard deviation of......Objective Body temperature is a simple, but clinically important parameter in monitoring the health status of pigs, both at individual level and herd level. The standard procedure for obtaining such data is normally performed by recording of the core body temperature, using a rectal digital...... body temperature was tested, in order to evaluate the utility and reliability of this tool, in domestic pigs. The system is presently used and well optimized in small laboratory animals [1, 2]. We tested the microchip transponders during experimental infection of pigs with classical swine fever virus...

  3. Implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes; Nielsen, Jens

    body temperature was tested, in order to evaluate the utility and reliability of this tool, in domestic pigs. The system is presently used and well optimized in small laboratory animals [1, 2]. We tested the microchip transponders during experimental infection of pigs with classical swine fever virus...... the 2 methods were compared. As the pigs included in this experiment were sequentially killed and hence the number of pigs within each group was reduced with 3-4 individuals per week, the corresponding data sets diminished during the experimental period. Results All virus inoculated pigs were infected...... thermometer. This work, however, can be quite time consuming and laborious, and further compromising the immediate well-fare of the pig, when restraining of the individual animal is necessary. Therefore, an electronic body monitoring system using implantable microchip transponders for measuring peripheral...

  4. Microchip-based body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Lohse, Louise

    In the present study, we tested whether an electronic identification and body temperature monitorring technology presently applied in small experimental animals could be transferred for use in pigs.......In the present study, we tested whether an electronic identification and body temperature monitorring technology presently applied in small experimental animals could be transferred for use in pigs....

  5. Non-Invasive Body Temperature Measurement of Wild Chimpanzees Using Fecal Temperature Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Siv Aina; Mundry, Roger; Nunn, Charles L.; Boesch, Christophe; Leendertz, Fabian

    2009-01-01

    New methods are required to increase our understanding of pathologic processes in wild mammals. We developed a noninvasive field method to estimate the body temperature of wild living chimpanzees habituated to humans, based on statistically fitting temperature decline of feces after defecation. The method was established with the use of control measures of human rectal temperature and subsequent changes in fecal temperature over time. The method was then applied to temperature data collected...

  6. Placement of temperature probe in bovine vagina for continuous measurement of core-body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. N.; Gebremedhin, K. G.; Parkhurst, A.; Hillman, P. E.

    2015-09-01

    There has been increasing interest to measure core-body temperature in cattle using internal probes. This study examined the placement of HOBO water temperature probe with an anchor, referred to as the "sensor pack" (Hillman et al. Appl Eng Agric ASAE 25(2):291-296, 2009) in the vagina of multiparous Holstein cows under grazing conditions. Two types of anchors were used: (a) long "fingers" (4.5-6 cm), and (b) short "fingers" (3.5 cm). The long-finger anchors stayed in one position while the short-finger anchors were not stable in one position (rotate) within the vagina canal and in some cases came out. Vaginal temperatures were recorded every minute and the data collected were then analyzed using exponential mixed model regression for non-linear data. The results showed that the core-body temperatures for the short-finger anchors were lower than the long-finger anchors. This implied that the placement of the temperature sensor within the vagina cavity may affect the data collected.

  7. A study on the applicability of implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes;

    2010-01-01

    Background The applicability of an electronic monitoring system using microchip transponders for measurement of body temperatures was tested in 6-week-old conventional Danish weaners infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Subcutaneous tissue temperatures obtained by the implantable...

  8. Temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003400.htm Temperature measurement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The measurement of body temperature can help detect illness. It can also monitor ...

  9. Estimation of the temperature of a radiating body by measuring the stationary temperatures of a thermometer placed at different distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán, V. M.; Villaluenga, J. P. G.; Izquierdo-Gil, M. A.; Pérez-Cordón, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a novel method for determining the temperature of a radiating body. The experimental method requires only very common instrumentation. It is based on the measurement of the stationary temperature of an object placed at different distances from the body and on the application of the energy balance equation in a stationary state. The method allows one to obtain the temperature of an inaccessible radiating body when radiation measurements are not available. The method has been applied to the determination of the filament temperature of incandescent lamps of different powers.

  10. A study on the applicability of implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enøe Claes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The applicability of an electronic monitoring system using microchip transponders for measurement of body temperatures was tested in 6-week-old conventional Danish weaners infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV. Subcutaneous tissue temperatures obtained by the implantable transponders were compared with rectal temperatures, recorded by a conventional digital thermometer. Methods In a preliminary study, transponders were inserted subcutaneously at 6 different positions of the body of 5 pigs. The transponders positioned by the ear base provided the best correlation to rectal temperature. To test the stability of the monitoring system in a larger group of pigs, transponders were therefore inserted by the left ear base in a subsequent infection experiment with 30 pigs. Results Generally, the microchip transponders measured a subcutaneous tissue temperature, which was about 1°C lower than the rectal temperature. However, a simple linear relationship between the measures of the two methods was found. Conclusions Our study showed that the tested body monitoring system may represent a promising tool to obtain an approximate correlate of body temperatures in groups of pigs. In contrast, however, the tested system did not constitute a suitable tool to measure body temperatures of individual animals in the present pig infection experiment.

  11. Influence of ambient temperature on whole body and segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, G.; Bausch, R.; Ismail, A. H.; Cordes, A.; Pikkemaat, R.; Leonhardt, S.

    2010-04-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurements are easy to implement and could be used for continuous monitoring. However, several factors (e.g. environment temperature) influence the measurements limiting the accuracy of the technology. Changes in skin temperature produced by changes in ambient temperature are related with changes in skin blood flow and skin impedance. It is assumed that skin impedance change is responsible for the error observed in whole body and segmental measurements. Measurements including body parts more distant from the torso seem to be more affected. In the present article skin and segment impedance have been performed on healthy subjects under extreme changes in environment temperature (13-39 °C). A commercial BIS device with a range between 5 kHz and 1 MHz has been used for the measurements. The results indicate that not only skin impedance, but also impedance of deeper tissue (e.g. muscle) may be responsible for the influence of environment temperature on BIS measurements. Segmental (knee-to-knee) BIS measurements show a relative change of only 2 %, while forearm and whole body impedance changed 14 % and 8 % respectively.

  12. Theoretical study on the inverse modeling of deep body temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the theoretical aspects of monitoring the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse modeling method. A two-dimensional model was built based on anatomical structure to simulate the human abdomen. By integrating biophysical and physiological information, the deep body temperature distribution was estimated from cutaneous surface temperature measurements using an inverse quasilinear method. Simulations were conducted with and without the heat effect of blood perfusion in the muscle and skin layers. The results of the simulations showed consistently that the noise characteristics and arrangement of the temperature sensors were the major factors affecting the accuracy of the inverse solution. With temperature sensors of 0.05 °C systematic error and an optimized 16-sensor arrangement, the inverse method could estimate the deep body temperature distribution with an average absolute error of less than 0.20 °C. The results of this theoretical study suggest that it is possible to reconstruct the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse method and that this approach merits further investigation. (paper)

  13. Insulated skin temperature as a measure of core body temperature for individuals wearing CBRN protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed the validity of insulated skin temperature (Tis) to predict rectal temperature (Tre) for use as a non-invasive measurement of thermal strain to reduce the risk of heat illness for emergency service personnel. Volunteers from the Police, Fire and Rescue, and Ambulance Services performed role-related tasks in hot (30 °C) and neutral (18 °C) conditions, wearing service specific personal protective equipment. Insulated skin temperature and micro climate temperature (Tmc) predicted Tre with an adjusted r2 = 0.87 and standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 0.19 °C. A bootstrap validation of the equation resulted in an adjusted r2 = 0.85 and SEE = 0.20 °C. Taking into account the 0.20 °C error, the prediction of Tre resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 91%, respectively. Insulated skin temperature and Tmc can be used in a model to predict Tre in emergency service personnel wearing CBRN protective clothing with an SEE of 0.2 °C. However, the model is only valid for Tis over 36.5 °C, above which thermal stability is reached between the core and the skin. (paper)

  14. Human Body Respiration Measurement Using Digital Temperature Sensor with I2C Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archita Agnihotri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vital signs are measurements of the body's most basic functions. The four main vital signs routinely monitored by medical professionals and healthcare providers include the following body temperature, pulse rate, respiration rate (rate of breathing, blood pressure (Blood pressure is not considered a vital sign, but is often measured along with the vital signs. Vital signs are useful in detecting or monitoring medical problems. Vital signs can be measured in a medical setting, at home, at the site of a medical emergency, or elsewhere. This paper aims at measurement of respiration rate using digital sensor extending the methods of measuring it with help of thermistor, chest expansion etc. The respiration rate is measured with the help of TMP100 a Digital temperature sensor which monitor the slightest change in temperature during inhale {&} exhale. Wireless GSM MODEM, which is serially interfaced with microcontroller, sends the collected data to the physician. The theory, design procedures, experimental results and discussions of these systems are presented

  15. Comparison of estimated core body temperature measured with the BioHarness and rectal temperature under several heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; DiLeo, Travis; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and measuring core body temperature is important to prevent or minimize physiological strain and cognitive dysfunction for workers such as first responders (e.g., firefighters) and military personnel. The purpose of this study is to compare estimated core body temperature (Tco-est), determined by heart rate (HR) data from a wearable chest strap physiology monitor, to standard rectal thermometry (Tre) under different conditions.  Tco-est and Tre measurements were obtained in thermoneutral and heat stress conditions (high temperature and relative humidity) during four different experiments including treadmill exercise, cycling exercise, passive heat stress, and treadmill exercise while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).  Overall, the mean Tco-est did not differ significantly from Tre across the four conditions. During exercise at low-moderate work rates under heat stress conditions, Tco-est was consistently higher than Tre at all-time points. Tco-est underestimated temperature compared to Tre at rest in heat stress conditions and at a low work rate under heat stress while wearing PPE. The mean differences between the two measurements ranged from -0.1 ± 0.4 to 0.3 ± 0.4°C and Tco-est correlated well with HR (r = 0.795 - 0.849) and mean body temperature (r = 0.637 - 0.861).  These results indicate that, the comparison of Tco-est to Tre may result in over- or underestimation which could possibly lead to heat-related illness during monitoring in certain conditions. Modifications to the current algorithm should be considered to address such issues. PMID:26954265

  16. Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Manzano-Szalai

    Full Text Available In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i milk allergy, ii peanut allergy and iii egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour.

  17. Accuracy of parents in measuring body temperature with a tympanic thermometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spady Donald W

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is now common for parents to measure tympanic temperatures in children. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of these measurements. Methods Parents and then nurses measured the temperature of 60 children with a tympanic thermometer designed for home use (home thermometer. The reference standard was a temperature measured by a nurse with a model of tympanic thermometer commonly used in hospitals (hospital thermometer. A difference of ≥ 0.5 °C was considered clinically significant. A fever was defined as a temperature ≥ 38.5 °C. Results The mean absolute difference between the readings done by the parent and the nurse with the home thermometer was 0.44 ± 0.61 °C, and 33% of the readings differed by ≥ 0.5 °C. The mean absolute difference between the readings done by the parent with the home thermometer and the nurse with the hospital thermometer was 0.51 ± 0.63 °C, and 72 % of the readings differed by ≥ 0.5 °C. Using the home thermometer, parents detected fever with a sensitivity of 76% (95% CI 50–93%, a specificity of 95% (95% CI 84–99%, a positive predictive value of 87% (95% CI 60–98%, and a negative predictive value of 91% (95% CI 79–98 %. In comparing the readings the nurse obtained from the two different tympanic thermometers, the mean absolute difference was 0.24 ± 0.22 °C. Nurses detected fever with a sensitivity of 94% (95 % CI 71–100 %, a specificity of 88% (95% CI 75–96 %, a positive predictive value of 76% (95% CI 53–92%, and a negative predictive value of 97% (95%CI 87–100 % using the home thermometer. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the three sets of readings was 0.80, and the consistency of readings was not affected by the body temperature. Conclusions The readings done by parents with a tympanic thermometer designed for home use differed a clinically significant amount from the reference standard (readings done by nurses with a model of

  18. Accuracy of parents in measuring body temperature with a tympanic thermometer

    OpenAIRE

    Spady Donald W; Jou Hsing; Robinson Joan L

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background It is now common for parents to measure tympanic temperatures in children. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of these measurements. Methods Parents and then nurses measured the temperature of 60 children with a tympanic thermometer designed for home use (home thermometer). The reference standard was a temperature measured by a nurse with a model of tympanic thermometer commonly used in hospitals (hospital thermometer). A difference of ≥ 0.5 ...

  19. A study on the measurement of the core body temperature change after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) through MR temperature mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Bok; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Yu, Young; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Joo, Kyu-Ji

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the change in the heat generated during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using a self-manufactured phantom and used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to analyze the change in the temperature of the core body and the tissues surrounding the phantom. In this experiment, the image and the phase image were obtained simultaneously from a gradient echo-based sequence using 1.5-Tesla MRI equipment and a 12-channel head coil. The temperature mapping technique was used to calculate the change in temperature. The regions of interest (ROIs) (ROI 1 - ROI 6) were set with a focus on the area where the RFA was performed, according to the temperature distribution, before monitoring the temperature change for one hour in time intervals of five minutes. The results showed that the temperature change in the ROI with time was largest in the ROI 1 and smallest in the ROI 5. In addition, after the RFA procedure, the temperature decreased from the initial value to 0 °C in one hour. The temperature changes in the core body and the surrounding tissues were confirmed by MRI temperature mapping, which is a noninvasive method.

  20. Central control of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis. PMID:27239289

  1. Central control of body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F.

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis. PMID:27239289

  2. Chorioretinal burn: body temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiance thresholds for chorioretinal damage in rhesus monkeys vary linearly with core temperatures between 34 and 390C. Damage results from the combined thermal effects of retinal irradiation and the body temperature. Visible damage is calculated to occur at a tissue temperature of 42.50C. Fever increases the retina's susceptibility to burns from the sun, lasers, and other radiant energy sources

  3. Body Temperature Measurement Skills and Fever Knowledge of Caregivers with a Child Having Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begul Yagci-Kupeli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We did not encounter a study dealing with the knowledge of fever and attitudes of caregivers having children with a diagnosis of malignant disease toward fever in English literature. Materials and Methods: Caregivers of 124 pediatric oncology patients and 72 patients without any malignant disease were recruited and interviewed using a 26-item questionnaire about fever and its management in two hospital clinics in Diyarbakir, Turkey. Results: Seventy point one percent of the mothers in oncology group were illiterate and in 75% of the cases, caregiver was the mother of the patient. Most of the caregivers in control group (72.2% knew at least one harmful effect of high fever (p=0.001. The primary method of measurement however was palpation in both groups. 41.9% of the caregivers in oncology group knew the correct measurement of fever, but only 2.7% in control group (p=0.001. Resources of fever konowledge was mainly doctors and nurses in oncology group (p=0.001. Conclusion: Pediatric health care providers must have more initiative and exploit oppportunities on parental understanding of fever and its management. Educational interventions are needed to correct caregivers’ misconceptions about fever and to promote appropriate management of febrile pediatric oncology patients. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 706-711

  4. Temperature Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    M. van Ruymbeke; Westerhaus, H.; Fernández Torres, José

    1989-01-01

    We describe a new electronic interface adapted to solid state thermistors, placed in a probe for boreholes. Four applications are detailed: - temperature profiles in a borehole at the Royal Observatory of Belgium - continuous records of water temperature in boreholes in Turkey which confirm that a thermal wave is induced by earth tides. - high precision temperature profiles along an underground gallery in the Corona volcano (Lanzarote island) - continuous records of...

  5. Usb Spectrometers and the Temperature of the Sun: Measuring Black Body Radiation in the Palm of your Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Horrocks, Benjamin R.; Walker, Nick

    2015-06-01

    A new experiment appropriate for both general chemistry and physical chemistry students will be described. The experiment utilizes "pocket size" USB spectrometers (operating in the UV/vis region) coupled with fiber optic cables to record a solar spectrum. A further extension of the experiment involves recording spectra of a light bulb at several voltages (and thus resistances). Using provided software, students can fit black body distributions to their obtained spectra. The software will display the acquired spectrum, a simulation based on their guess temperature, a simulation based on their fit, and OMC2 for both. Students can then compare their results to the known temperature of the sun and the known temperature vs resistance curve of tungsten.

  6. Computational estimation of decline in sweating in the elderly from measured body temperatures and sweating for passive heat exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies reported the difference in heat tolerance between younger and older adults, which may be attributable to the decline in the sweating rate. One of the studies suggested a hypothesis that the dominant factor causing the decline in sweating was the decline in thermal sensitivity due to a weaker signal from the periphery to the regulatory centres. However, no quantitative investigation of the skin temperature threshold for activating the sweating has been conducted in previous studies. In this study, we developed a computational code to simulate the time evolution of the temperature variation and sweating in realistic human models under heat exposure, in part by comparing the computational results with measured data from younger and older adults. Based on our computational results, the difference in the threshold temperatures for activating the thermophysiological response, especially for sweating, is examined between older and younger adults. The threshold for activating sweating in older individuals was found to be about 1.5 °C higher than that in younger individuals. However, our computation did not suggest that it was possible to evaluate the central alteration with ageing by comparing the computation with the measurements for passive heat exposure, since the sweating rate is marginally affected by core temperature elevation at least for the scenarios considered here. The computational technique developed herein is useful for understanding the thermophysiological response of older individuals from measured data. (note)

  7. Body Fat Measurement Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advisors Press Releases Annual Reports Donations Privacy Policy Advertising Site Map Adults Cyberkitchen Fitness Center Shape Up & Drop 10 Body Fat Lab BMI Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Children Assessing Childhood Obesity Pediatric BMI Assessment Overweight Assessment: A Parent's Guide ...

  8. 3 - Dimensional Body Measurement Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xu-dong; LI Yan-mei

    2002-01-01

    3 - dimensional body measurement technology, the basis of developing high technology in industry, accelerates digital development of aplparel industry. This paper briefly introduces the history of 3 - dimensional body measurement technology, and recounts the principle and primary structure of some types of 3 - dimensional automatic body measurement system. With this understanding, it discusses prospect of 3- dimensional CAD and virtual technology used in apparel industry.

  9. Effect of temperature on body temperature and resting metabolic rate in pups of Eothenomys miletus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Wan-long; Mu, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Zheng-Kun

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the ability of ambient temperature and thermoregulation in Eothenomys miletus, body temperature and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured during postnatal development (1-49 day) when E. miletus exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in E. miletus increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in low tem...

  10. Using Pressure- and Temperature-Sensitive Paint for Global Surface Pressure and Temperature Measurements on the Aft-Body of a Capsule Reentry Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Buck, Gregory M.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Lipford, William E.; Oglesby, Donald M.

    2008-01-01

    Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) and Temperature Sensitive Paint (TSP) were used to visualize and quantify the surface interactions of reaction control system (RCS) jets on the aft body of capsule reentry vehicle shapes. The first model tested was an Apollo-like configuration and was used to focus primarily on the effects of the forward facing roll and yaw jets. The second model tested was an early Orion Crew Module configuration blowing only out of its forward-most yaw jet, which was expected to have the most intense aerodynamic heating augmentation on the model surface. This paper will present the results from the experiments, which show that with proper system design, both PSP and TSP are effective tools for studying these types of interaction in hypersonic testing environments.

  11. Body temperature in early postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Voigtsberger, R; Bonk, S; Heuwieser, W

    2014-07-01

    A strategy widely adopted in the modern dairy industry is the introduction of postpartum health monitoring programs by trained farm personnel. Within these fresh cow protocols, various parameters (e.g., rectal temperature, attitude, milk production, uterine discharge, ketones) are evaluated during the first 5 to 14 days in milk (DIMs) to diagnose relevant diseases. It is well documented that 14% to 66% of healthy cows exhibit at least one temperature of 39.5 °C or greater within the first 10 DIM. Although widely adopted, data on diagnostic performance of body temperature (BT) measurement to diagnose infectious diseases (e.g., metritis, mastitis) are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify possible factors associated with BT in postpartum dairy cows. A study was conducted on a commercial dairy farm including 251 cows. In a total of 217 cows, a vaginal temperature logger was inserted from DIM 2 to 10, whereas 34 cows did not receive a temperature logger as control. Temperature loggers measured vaginal temperature every 10 minutes. Rectal temperature was measured twice daily in all cows. On DIM 2, 5, and 10, cows underwent a clinical examination. Body temperature was influenced by various parameters. Primiparous cows had 0.2 °C higher BT than multiparous cows. Multiparous cows that calved during June and July had higher BT than those that calved in May. In primiparous cows, this effect was only evident from DIM 7 to 10. Furthermore, abnormal calving conditions (i.e., assisted calving, dead calf, retained placenta, twins) affected BT in cows. This effect was more pronounced in multiparous cows. Abnormal vaginal discharge did increase BT in primiparous and multiparous cows. Primiparous cows suffering from hyperketonemia (beta-hydroxybutyrat ≥ 1.4 mmol/L) had higher BT than those not affected. In multiparous cows, there was no association between hyperketonemia and BT. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that BT is influenced

  12. Lower body temperature in sleeping supine infants.

    OpenAIRE

    R. G. North; Petersen, S A; Wailoo, M P

    1995-01-01

    Night time rectal temperature recordings were made from 103 infants sleeping in their own home in different sleeping positions. In most cases sleeping position was verified by video monitoring throughout the night. In the period before an adult-like night time body temperature pattern appeared there was no significant effect of sleeping position upon night time body temperature, in line with previous reports. Once an adult-like night time temperature pattern appeared, infants sleeping supine ...

  13. Air temperature investigation in microenvironment around a human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sekhar, Chandra;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the temperature boundary layer around a human body in a quiescent indoor environment. The air temperature, mean in time and standard deviation of the temperature fluctuations around a breathing thermal manikin are examined in relation to the room temperatur...... accurate measurements of occupant's thermal microenvironment....

  14. Body temperature regulation in diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Glen P.; Sigal, Ronald J.; McGinn, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effects of type 1 and type 2 diabetes on the body's physiological response to thermal stress is a relatively new topic in research. Diabetes tends to place individuals at greater risk for heat-related illness during heat waves and physical activity due to an impaired capacity to dissipate heat. Specifically, individuals with diabetes have been reported to have lower skin blood flow and sweating responses during heat exposure and this can have important consequences on cardiovascu...

  15. The relationship between body and ambient temperature and corneal temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Johnson, Leif; Arvidsson, Henrik Sven;

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature.......Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature....

  16. Low Temperature Emissivity Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignesh A. Patel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The emissivity of a material is the relative ability of its surface to emit energy by radiation. It is the ratio of energy radiated by a particular material to energy radiated by a black body at the same temperature. Knowledge about the low temperature emissivity of materials and coatings can be essential to the design of fusion cryoplants and in the thermal modeling for space satellite missions. The emittance of materials at cryogenics temperatures often cannot be predicted from room temperature data, but for computing radiative loads and infrared backgrounds this cryogenic data is often required. Measurement of the cryogenic emissivity of a highly reflective surface is a significant challenge: little thermal power is radiated from the sample, and the background radiation. However some researchers have measured emissivity at various low temperature ranges. Present work reports, the various emissivity measurement setup and their considerations.

  17. Assessment of body composition by air-displacement plethysmography: influence of body temperature and moisture

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, David A; Higgins, Paul B.; Hunter, Gary R.

    2004-01-01

    Background To investigate the effect of body temperature and moisture on body fat (%fat), volume and density by air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD). Methods %fat, body volume and density by the BOD POD before (BOD PODBH) and immediately following hydrostatic weighing (BOD PODFH) were performed in 32 healthy females (age (yr) 33 ± 11, weight (kg) 64 ± 14, height (cm) 167 ± 7). Body temperature and moisture were measured prior to BOD PODBH and prior to BOD PODFH with body moisture define...

  18. Temperature measurement and control

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, JR

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the theory and practice of temperature measurement and control and important related topics such as energy management and air pollution. There are no specific prerequisites for the book although a knowledge of elementary control theory could be useful. The first half of the book is an application oriented survey of temperature measurement techniques and devices. The second half is concerned mainly with temperature control in both simple and complex situations.

  19. Body composition measurements during infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, W W

    2000-05-01

    Infancy is the period of most rapid postnatal growth and is accompanied by major changes in body composition (BC). There are many challenges to successfully measuring BC of infants in vivo, which include the inherent limitations in the underlying assumptions for each technique. The small body mass and rapid nonuniform changes in body parts, that is, the components of BC during infancy, can strain the technical limits of all methods. Many techniques for in vivo BC measurement used in older people have been applied to infants. However, the vast majority of them either are difficult to adapt for widespread use in infants, or the roles and limitations for using them during infancy are ill-defined because of limited or no critical validation and cross-calibration studies. Based on validation data from animals, well-defined methodological issues in data acquisition and analyses, availability of normative data, and pertinent accuracy and precision of the technique to allow us to determinate clinically relevant changes in BC within a reasonable time interval, three techniques appear to be most suitable for in vivo BC measurement in infants. Anthropometric measurements can be used in field studies or for group comparisons, and total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and selected dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements can be used to compare BC in individual infants. DXA has the advantages of being able to measure bone mass and the potential to be adaptable to the widely available existing instruments. However, regardless of the techniques used in measuring BC in infants, meticulous attention to details in data acquisition and data analysis, and a knowledge of the limitations of the particular technique are the prerequisites for generating valid data. PMID:10865776

  20. Ultrasonic temperature measuring probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature measuring probe made of sensor wire and the tube encasing it is suited for being used in fuel columns at temperatures above 20000C. The thermal expansion coefficient, the linear dimensions, and the fastening points are chosen in such manner that the temperature fluctuations occuring during operation produce such relative variations in length that formation of bridges between sensor wire and encasing tube are suppressed already in the initial stage. (DG) 891 HP/DG 892 MKO

  1. Measurements of body protein for clinical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body protein (nitrogen) is determined by bilaterally irradiating the body with neutrons using Pu-Be sources and measuring the resultant 10.8 MeV gamma rays from the reaction 14N(n,8) 15N. In the authors lab the whole body can be scanned or separate segments of the body can be measured independently. A nitrogen index has been developed based on body size and is used as a predictor of normal total body nitrogen (TBN). They have found that TBN, when normalized to body size in this way, provides a reliable index of protein status which cannot be accurately determined by body weight, anthropometry, or body potassium measurements. Changes in body composition with age were studied by measuring the composition of 56 healthy female volunteers aged 20-80. Measurements were made for K(40K), Ca and N. It was shown that protein and bone mineral decrease with age but that this is not reflected in K or anthropometry measurements. Results of other studies to be presented include: body protein measurements pre and post TPN (total parenteral nutrition), nutritional status of patients on long term CAPD (continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis) and changes in body composition as a result of TPN in patients with small cell lung cancer receiving chemotherapy. Clinical results show that indirect measurements of body protein based on weight, potassium, or anthropometry, do not give an accurate measure of body protein. For an accurate measurement, direct measurement of body protein is necessary

  2. EFFECT OF AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ON BODY TEMPERATURE AND REST METABOLIC RATE IN APODEMUS CHEVRIERI DURING POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Wan-long; Sun Shu-ran; Ge Fang; Sun Cong-nan; Zhang Lin; Wang Zheng-kun

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation in Apodemus chevrieri, body temperature and rest metabolic rate (RMR) were measured during postnatal development (1~42 day) when the A. chevrieri exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in A. chevrieri increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in lo...

  3. Diurnal temperature fluctuations in an artificial small shallow water body

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, A. F. G.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Kraai, S.; K. P. Paaijmans

    2008-01-01

    For aquatic biological processes, diurnal and annual cycles of water temperature are very important to plants as well as to animals and microbes living in the water. An existing one-dimensional model has been extended to simulate the temperature profile within a small water body. A year-round outdoor experiment has been conducted to estimate the model input parameters and to verify the model. Both model simulations and measurements show a strong temperature stratification in the water during ...

  4. Precision temperature measurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Pavel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a great variety of sensors for temperature measurements. The Pt100 is well known as one of the transducers with excellent precision and linearity. The only problem is the need of a high gain precision instrumentation amplifier which greatly increases the cost of the system. A large varriety of simple microcontrollers are developed to use with a lot of type of senzor which made the first translate of a nonelectric parameter in the electric form like pulse width or frequency or analogue voltage amplitude. After the signal was converted it can be transmited to an upper level to proces them.

  5. A comparison of technologies used for estimation of body temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body temperature measurement is an important clinical parameter. The performance of a number of non-invasive thermometers was measured by comparing intra- and inter-operator variability (n = 100) and clinical accuracy (n = 61). Variability was elevated in febrile compared to normothermic subjects for axillary and oral electronic contact thermometer measures and a temporal artery thermometer (p < 0.001 for both). Temporal artery thermometry and one mode of an infrared tympanic thermometer demonstrated significant clinical inaccuracy (p < 0.001 for both). Electronic contact thermometer repeatability and reproducibility are highly variable in febrile adults both in the axilla and oral cavity. Infrared thermometry of the skin over the superficial temporal artery is unreliable for measuring core body temperature, particularly in febrile subjects and patients in theatre. The infrared tympanic thermometers tested are acceptable for clinical practice; however, care should be exercised with the different modes of operation offered

  6. Nutritional assessment with body composition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution provides an accurate and precise measure of both the nutritional state and the response to nutritional support. A multiple isotope dilution technique has been developed that permits measurement of the three major components of body composition: body fat, extracellular mass (ECM), and body cell mass (BCM). Normal body composition was defined by data obtained in 25 healthy volunteers. Malnutrition is characterized by a loss of BCM and an expansion of the ECM, and as a result the lean body mass is not significantly different from normal. The loss of body weight with malnutrition therefore often reflects the loss of body fat. The utility of body composition measurements was demonstrated by determining the effect of total parenteral nutrition on body composition to determine the relationship between caloric intake and the change in the BCM. A statistically significant relationship was developed which demonstrated that a caloric intake in the range of 30-40 cal/kg/day is required for maintenance. To restore a depleted or malnourished BCM requires a caloric intake in excess of that required for maintenance. The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution is complex and time consuming, and requires specialized laboratory facilities and specially trained personnel. As a result, these measurements are not suited for routine patient management, but should rather be reserved for research purposes

  7. Contemporary methods of body composition measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Reliable and valid body composition assessment is important in both clinical and research settings. A multitude of methods and techniques for body composition measurement exist, all with inherent problems, whether in measurement methodology or in the assumptions upon which they are based....... This review is focused on currently applied methods for in vivo measurement of body composition, including densitometry, bioimpedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance techniques and anthropometry. Multicompartment models including quantification of trace...

  8. Temperature measurement with neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results presented in this report were obtained from the information provided by charged products. Another alternative consists in detecting the neutrons abundantly emitted particularly by heavy nuclei. The residue channel was studied in the 40Ar + 197Au at 60 MeV/nucleon by means of the neutron multidetector DEMON. The evolution of the multiplicity of neutrons emitted backwards in the framework of the heavy nucleus forwardly detected as a function of the residue velocity by a silicon detector, placed at 8 degrees and at 24.5 cm from target, agrees with the expected results i.e. an increase with the residue velocity hence with the collision violence. For the same detector the first measurements show similarly a linear increase of the apparent temperature of 4.0 to around 6.5 MeV for residue velocities varying from 0.5 to 1.3 cm/ns and masses ranging from 140 to 160 uma. This first results of the analysis show therefore a good behaviour of the assembly and especially of the couple DeMoN-SyReP

  9. Temperature measurement from perturbations

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    The notion of configuration temperature is extended to discontinuous systems by identifying the temperature as the nontrivial root of several integral equations regarding the distribution of the energy change upon configuration perturbations. The relations are generalized to pressure and a distribution mean force.

  10. Low Temperature Emissivity Measurement System

    OpenAIRE

    Jignesh A. Patel

    2014-01-01

    The emissivity of a material is the relative ability of its surface to emit energy by radiation. It is the ratio of energy radiated by a particular material to energy radiated by a black body at the same temperature. Knowledge about the low temperature emissivity of materials and coatings can be essential to the design of fusion cryoplants and in the thermal modeling for space satellite missions. The emittance of materials at cryogenics temperatures often cannot be predicted f...

  11. Wireless body sensor design for intra-vaginal temperature monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, João F. R.; Caldeira, J.M.L.P.; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.

    2010-01-01

    Sensor nodes are small devices able to collect and retrieve sensorial data. The use of these sensors for medical purposes offers valuable contributions to improve patients’ healthcare, both for diagnosis and therapeutics monitoring. An important and common parameter used on healthcare diagnosis is the body temperature. It is monitored on several matters related with gynecological and obstetrics issues but, usually it is measure at the skin surface. Then, this paper propos...

  12. Effect of temperature on body temperature and resting metabolic rate in pups of Eothenomys miletus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu, Wan-Long

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the ability of ambient temperature and thermoregulation in Eothenomys miletus, body temperature and resting metabolic rate (RMR were measured during postnatal development (1-49 day when E. miletus exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in E. miletus increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in low temperature (5 oC, 10 oC, relatively and RMR increased significantly when day age is 14 day, it indicated that the pups showed a certain degree of thermoregulation in this phase. Its thermoregulation ability developed quickly during 7 day to 14 day. RMR of pups was extreme significantly higher in low temperature than that in other temperature when day age was 21 day, it showed that the pups had some thermoregulation to low temperature stimulation. The RMR of pups was showed increasing trend in high temperature (35 oC when 28 day; on 35 day and 42 day, the thermal neutral zone were 22.5 to 30 oC and approaching its adult level. All of these results indicated that pups of E. miletus in the different growing period had different thermogenesis and energy allocation to maintain stable to body temperature, thermogenesis was weaker in the early phase of postnatal development, most of energy is used to its growth. After pups were weaned, the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation developed quickly to adjust variations of environment during postnatal development.

  13. Measuring temperature and thermal flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive temperature measuring device is described for detecting small temperature differences and associated thermal fluxes. Highly-doped silicon diodes operated at constant current are used in conjunction with suitable circuitry. (U.K.)

  14. Temperature correction in conductivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1962-01-01

    Electrical conductivity has been widely used in freshwater research but usual methods employed by limnologists for converting measurements to conductance at a given temperature have not given uniformly accurate results. The temperature coefficient used to adjust conductivity of natural waters to a given temperature varies depending on the kinds and concentrations of electrolytes, the temperature at the time of measurement, and the temperature to which measurements are being adjusted. The temperature coefficient was found to differ for various lake and stream waters, and showed seasonal changes. High precision can be obtained only by determining temperature coefficients for each water studied. Mean temperature coefficients are given for various temperature ranges that may be used where less precision is required.

  15. Measuring Temperature: The Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoun, Mirvette

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses the historical development of the thermometer with the view of helping children understand the role that mathematics plays in society. A model thermometer that is divided into three sections, each displaying one of the three temperature scales used today (Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin) is highlighted as a project to allow…

  16. Effect of irrigation fluid temperature on body temperature during arthroscopic elbow surgery in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Thompson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This prospective randomised clinical trial evaluated the effect of warmed irrigation fluid on body temperature in anaesthetised dogs undergoing arthroscopic elbow surgery. Nineteen dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy were included in the study and were randomly allocated to one of two groups. Group RT received irrigation fluid at room temperature (RT while dogs in group W received warmed (W irrigation fluid (36oC. A standardised patient management and anaesthetic protocol was used and body temperature was measured at four time points; (T1 pre-anaesthetic examination, (T2 arrival into theatre, (T3 end of surgery and (T4 arrival into recovery. There was no significant difference in body temperature at any time point between the groups. The mean overall decrease in body temperature between pre-anaesthetic examination (T1 and return to the recovery suite (T4 was significant in both groups, with a fall of 1.06±0.58oC (p<0.001 in group RT and 1.53±0.76oC (p<0.001 group W. There was no significant difference between the groups. At the end of surgery (T3 4/19 (21.1% of dogs were hypothermic (<37oC. The addition of warmed irrigation fluids to a temperature management protocol in dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy during general anaesthesia did not lead to decreased temperature losses.

  17. [Temperature Measurement with Bluetooth under Android Platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Shen, Hao; Luo, Changze

    2015-03-01

    To realize the real-time transmission of temperature data and display using the platform of intelligent mobile phone and bluetooth. Application of Arduino Uno R3 in temperature data acquisition of digital temperature sensor DS18B20 acquisition, through the HC-05 bluetooth transmits the data to the intelligent smart phone Android system, realizes transmission of temperature data. Using Java language to write applications program under Android development environment, can achieve real-time temperature data display, storage and drawing temperature fluctuations drawn graphics. Temperature sensor is experimentally tested to meet the body temperature measurement precision and accuracy. This paper can provide a reference for other smart phone mobile medical product development. PMID:26524781

  18. Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the

  19. The circadian rhythm of core body temperature (Part I: The use of modern telemetry systems to monitor core body temperature variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słomko Joanna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The best known daily rhythms in humans include: the sleep-wake rhythm, the circadian core body temperature variability, daily fluctuations in arterial blood pressure and heartbeat frequency, and daily changes in hormone secretion: e.g. melatonin, cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin. The core body temperature in humans has a characteristic sinusoidal course, with the maximum value occurring between 3:00-5:00 pm and the minimum between 3:00-5:00 am. Analysis of literature indicates that the obtained results concerning core body temperature are to a large extent influenced by the type of method applied in the measurement. Depending on test protocols, we may apply various methodologies to measuring core body temperature. One of the newest methods of measuring internal and external body temperature consists in the utilisation of remote temperature sensors transmitting the obtained value via a radio signal. The advantages of this method includes the ability to perform: continuous core temperature measurement, observe dynamic changes in core body temperature occurring in circadian rhythm and the repeatability and credibility of the obtained results, which is presented in numerous scientific reports.

  20. Radiometric temperature measurements fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhuomin M; Machin, Graham

    2009-01-01

    This book describes the theory of radiation thermometry, both at a primary level and for a variety of applications, such as in the materials processing industries and remote sensing. This book is written for those who will apply radiation thermometry in industrial practice; use radiation thermometers for scientific research; the radiation thermometry specialist in a national measurement institute; developers of radiation thermometers who are working to innovate products for instrument manufacturers, and developers of non-contact thermometry methods to address challenging thermometry problems.

  1. Central control of body temperature [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun F. Morrison

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis.

  2. Contemporary methods of body composition measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Reliable and valid body composition assessment is important in both clinical and research settings. A multitude of methods and techniques for body composition measurement exist, all with inherent problems, whether in measurement methodology or in the assumptions upon which they are based. This review is focused on currently applied methods for in vivo measurement of body composition, including densitometry, bioimpedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance techniques and anthropometry. Multicompartment models including quantification of trace elements by in vivo neutron activation analysis, which are regarded as gold standard methods, are also summarized. The choice of a specific method or combination of methods for a particular study depends on various considerations including accuracy, precision, subject acceptability, convenience, cost and radiation exposure. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed with these considerations in mind. PMID:24735332

  3. Body Temperature-Related Structural Transitions of Monotremal and Human Hemoglobin

    OpenAIRE

    Digel, I.; Maggakis-Kelemen, Ch.; Zerlin, K. F.; Linder, Pt.; Kasischke, N.; Kayser, P.; Porst, D; Temiz Artmann, A.; Artmann, G. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, temperature-related structural changes were investigated in human, duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus, body temperature Tb = 31–33°C), and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus, body temperature Tb = 32–33°C) hemoglobin using circular dichroism spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. The average hydrodynamic radius (Rh) and fractional (normalized) change in the ellipticity (Fobs) at 222 ± 2 nm of hemoglobin were measured. The temperature was varied stepwise from 25°C t...

  4. Sensing Movement: Microsensors for Body Motion Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansong Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of body posture and motion is an important physiological function that can keep the body in balance. Man-made motion sensors have also been widely applied for a broad array of biomedical applications including diagnosis of balance disorders and evaluation of energy expenditure. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art sensing components utilized for body motion measurement. The anatomy and working principles of a natural body motion sensor, the human vestibular system, are first described. Various man-made inertial sensors are then elaborated based on their distinctive sensing mechanisms. In particular, both the conventional solid-state motion sensors and the emerging non solid-state motion sensors are depicted. With their lower cost and increased intelligence, man-made motion sensors are expected to play an increasingly important role in biomedical systems for basic research as well as clinical diagnostics.

  5. Investigation of radiofrequency heating for a closed conducting loop formed in a part of the patient's body in 1.5 tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and 3.0 tesla MR imaging. Measurement of temperature by use of human body-equivalent phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal injuries have been sometimes reported due to a closed conducting loop formed in a part of the patient's body during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In recent years, 3.0 T-MRI scanner has been widely used. However, it is considered that the specific absorption rate (SAR) of 3.0 T-MRI can affect the heat of the loop because its own SAR becomes approximately 4 times as much as that of the 1.5 T-MRI scanner. With this, the change in temperature was measured with human body-equivalent loop phantom in both 1.5 T-MRI and 3.0 T-MRI. In the two scanners, the temperature during 20 min of scanning time was measured with three types of sequences such as field echo (FE), spin echo (SE), and turbo SE (TSE) set up with the same scanning condition. It was found from the result that rise in temperature depended on SAR of the scanning condition irrespective of static magnetic field intensity and any pulse sequences. Furthermore, the increase of SAR and rise in temperature were not only in proportion to each other but also were indicated to have good correlation. However, even low SAR can occasionally induce serious thermal injuries. It was found from result that we had to attempt not to form a closed conducting loop with in a part of the patient's body during MRI. (author)

  6. Live weight and body measurement of Hungarian Thoroughbred broodmares

    OpenAIRE

    Szabolcs Bene; Anita Giczi; Zsuzsanna Nagy; Zsuzsanna Benedek; Ferenc Szabo; Peter Polgar

    2013-01-01

    Live weights and 21 body measurements of 110 adult brood mares from Thoroughbred breed were evaluated in Hungary. Body measurements and some body measure indices were determined. One way ANOVA was used to compare the studs. Regression equations were developed to estimate the live weight from body measurements. Population genetic parameters of the examined traits were estimated. Only few differences among studs, concerning evaluated body measurements, were presented - firstly: body measurement...

  7. Being cool: how body temperature influences ageing and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Gerald; Cummings, Elizabeth; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Temperature is a basic and essential property of any physical system, including living systems. Even modest variations in temperature can have profound effects on organisms, and it has long been thought that as metabolism increases at higher temperatures so should rates of ageing. Here, we review the literature on how temperature affects longevity, ageing and life history traits. From poikilotherms to homeotherms, there is a clear trend for lower temperature being associated with longer lifespans both in wild populations and in laboratory conditions. Many life-extending manipulations in rodents, such as caloric restriction, also decrease core body temperature. Nonetheless, an inverse relationship between temperature and lifespan can be obscured or reversed, especially when the range of body temperatures is small as in homeotherms. An example is observed in humans: women appear to have a slightly higher body temperature and yet live longer than men. The mechanisms involved in the relationship between temperature and longevity also appear to be less direct than once thought with neuroendocrine processes possibly mediating complex physiological responses to temperature changes. Lastly, we discuss species differences in longevity in mammals and how this relates to body temperature and argue that the low temperature of the long-lived naked mole-rat possibly contributes to its exceptional longevity. PMID:25832892

  8. Body measures: phenomenological considerations of corporeal ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, H A

    1998-08-01

    The development of bioethics primarily at the cognitive level further perpetuates the tendency to construe all aspects of our lives, including our bodies, as technical systems. For example, if we consider the moral issue of organ sales without taking our embodiment into account there appear to be no sound arguments for opposing such sales. However, it is important to consider the aspects of the phenomenal body that challenge rational deliberation by exploring an embodied approach to the ethical dilemma produced by a proposed kidney exchange as presented in one of Krzysztof Kieślowski's Dekalog films. What is sought is a description of a body-measure that would serve as a critique of strictly cognitive bioethical deliberations. PMID:9892039

  9. Many-body methods at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approximation methods relevant to describe many-fermion systems at finite temperatures are reviewed. The grand canonical formalism is outlined for independent fermions, and its applicability to the case of finite nuclei is discussed for which fluctuations arising from the small number of particles involved are expected to be sizeable. Derivation of the mean field equations is presented based on the variational method. Perturbation expansions of partition functions are discussed. A particularly important subseries containing the so called ring diagrams whose summation leads to the random phase approximation (RPA) is studied. An application to the physics of giant resonances in hot nuclei is described. (K.A.) 64 refs., 3 figs

  10. Whole body measurements in Bavarian school children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the Bavarian State Ministry for State Development and Environmental Affairs measurements were conducted using the whole body counters at the Institute for Radiation Hygiene (of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection), and the Institute for Radiation Biology (of the GSF Research Centre for Environment and Health). Between September 1988 and July 1990 about 1600 school children from all over Bavaria were investigated for incorporated radiocesium. The aim of these measurements was to evaluate the whole body activity due to regionally differing soil contaminations in Bavaria following the accident in the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl and to assess the effective dose from an intake of radionuclides for the pupils by comparing the results of their WBC measurements with those of reference groups of children which underwent WBC examinations at regular intervals at both institutes since the middle of the year 1986. The results of the WBC measurements of those pupils who had not eaten mushrooms in the days before the measurement are in good agreement with the results of comparative measurements in children living in the regions of Munich and Frankfurt-am-Main. Based on these results an effective dose of 0,2 mSv for the Munich region children and of 0,1 mSv for Nothern Bavarian children can be derived. For children living in the highest contaminated region of Bavaria, i.e. the counties adjacent to the Alps, no comparable reference group results are available, but the amount of incorporated radiocesium is only twice that for pupils in the Munich region. The mean value for the specific activity of radiocesium in South Bavarian school children who consumed mushrooms was found to be twice the value of pupils who did not. This is also true for that group of children whose parents had bought allegedly low contaminated foodstuffs. Other effecs of nutrition habits on the specific whole body activity could not be found. (orig.)

  11. Body Motion in a Resistive Medium at Temperature T

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, M. I.

    2002-01-01

    We consider a macroscopic body propagating in a one-dimensional resistive medium, consisting of an ideal gas at temperature $T$. For a whole family of collisions with varying degree of inelasticity, we find an exact expression for the effective force on the moving body as a function of the body's speed and the value of the restitution coefficient. At low and high speeds it reduces to the well-known Stoke's and Newton's law, respectively.

  12. Hypercoagulability in response to elevated body temperature and central hypovolemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Martin; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Overgaard, Flemming Anders;

    2013-01-01

    Coagulation abnormalities contribute to poor outcomes in critically ill patients. In trauma patients exposed to a hot environment, a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, elevated body temperature, and reduced central blood volume occur in parallel with changes in hemostasis and endothelial...

  13. Universal temperature and body-mass scaling of feeding rates

    OpenAIRE

    Rall, Björn C.; Brose, Ulrich; Hartvig, Martin; Kalinkat, Gregor; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Petchey, Owen L

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of feeding rates is the basis to understand interaction strength and subsequently the stability of ecosystems and biodiversity. Feeding rates, as all biological rates, depend on consumer and resource body masses and environmental temperature. Despite five decades of research on functional responses as quantitative models of feeding rates, a unifying framework of how they scale with body masses and temperature is still lacking. This is perplexing, considering that the strength of fun...

  14. Estimation of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements and Body Condition Scores in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width, and...... body condition score were consistently associated with BW. The coefficients of multiple determination varied from 80 to 89%. The number of significant terms and the parameter estimates of the models differed markedly among groups of cows. Apparently, these differences were due to breed and feeding...... regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes...

  15. Effect of heat stress on body temperature in healthy early postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Heuwieser, W

    2012-12-01

    Measurement of body temperature is the most common method for an early diagnosis of sick cows in fresh cow protocols currently used on dairy farms. Thresholds for fever range from 39.4 °C to 39.7 °C. Several studies attempted to describe normal temperature ranges for healthy dairy cows in the early puerperium. However, the definition of a healthy cow is variable within these studies. It is challenging to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows because body temperature is usually included in the definition. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify factors that influence body temperature in healthy dairy cows early postpartum and to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows that calved in a moderate (temperature humidity index: 59.8 ± 3.8) and a hot period (temperature humidity index: 74.1 ± 4.4), respectively, excluding body temperature from the definition of the health status. Furthermore, the prevalence of fever was calculated for both periods separately. A subset of 17 (moderate period) and 15 cows (hot period) were used for analysis. To ensure their uterine health only cows with a serum haptoglobin concentration ≤ 1.1 g/L were included in the analysis. Therefore, body temperature could be excluded from the definition. A vaginal temperature logger that measured vaginal temperature every 10 min was inserted from Day 2 to 10 after parturition. Additionally rectal temperature was measured twice daily. Day in milk (2 to 10), period (moderate and hot), and time of day had an effect on rectal and vaginal temperature. The prevalence of fever (≥ 39.5 °C) was 7.4% and 28.1% for rectal temperature in the moderate and hot period, respectively. For vaginal temperature (07.00 to 11.00 h) it was 10% and 33%, respectively, considering the same threshold and period. This study demonstrates that body temperature in the early puerperium is influenced by several factors (day in milk, climate, time of day). Therefore, these factors

  16. Microchip transponder thermometry for monitoring core body temperature of antelope during capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Fuller, Andrea; Hetem, Robyn S; Lease, Hilary M; Mitchell, Duncan; Meyer, Leith C R

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthermia is described as the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with capture, immobilization and restraint of wild animals. Therefore, accurately determining the core body temperature of wild animals during capture is crucial for monitoring hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. We investigated if microchip thermometry can accurately reflect core body temperature changes during capture and cooling interventions in the springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), a medium-sized antelope. Subcutaneous temperature measured with a temperature-sensitive microchip was a weak predictor of core body temperature measured by temperature-sensitive data loggers in the abdominal cavity (R(2)=0.32, bias >2 °C). Temperature-sensitive microchips in the gluteus muscle, however, provided an accurate estimate of core body temperature (R(2)=0.76, bias=0.012 °C). Microchips inserted into muscle therefore provide a convenient and accurate method to measure body temperature continuously in captured antelope, allowing detection of hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. PMID:26724197

  17. Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

    2003-01-01

    A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. These types of measurements are used in computer models to relate remotely sensed water-surface temperature to bulkwater temperature. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured.

  18. Midinfrared Temperature Measurement Technique Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosuosso, George R.

    2003-01-01

    Infrared thermography is the measuring of the temperature of an object by examining the spectral quantities of light emission. The microgravity combustion experiment Solid Inflammability Boundary at Low-Speeds (SIBAL) calls for full-field temperature measurements of a thin sheet of cellulosic fuel as a flame front moves across the fuel, and infrared thermography is the only technique that can accomplish this task. The thermography is accomplished by imaging the fuel with a midinfrared camera that is sensitive in the 3.0- to 5.0-microns wavelength region in conjunction with a 3.7 - to 4.1-microns bandpass filter to eliminate unwanted infrared radiation from components other than the fuel.

  19. The pupal body temperature and inner space temperature of cocoon under microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature of pupal surface,body and inner space of cocoon on cocoon drying of microwave irradiation was investigated to make clear the effect of temperature with pupa and cocoon shell. After pupal surface temperature and body temperature were risen rapidly in early irradiation and slowly thereafter, these were done fast again. Then these rising degrees fell. The variation of inner space temperature consists three terms: as the first stage of rapidly rising on early irradiation, the second stage of slowly doing and the third stage of fast doing again in temperature. In the first stage and the second stage, the higher the temperature of sending air during irradiation was, the shorter the term was and the higher the reached temperature was. The surface, pupal body and inner space have reached higher temperature than the sending air before cocoon drying was over

  20. Temperature fields in large radiation-absorbing bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodies in the vicinity of radiation sources are heated by absorption of radiation energy. Information on the temperature fields in such bodies is often important from the safety point of view, e.g., in connection with possible local melting or with temperature-induced changes in the properties of materials. This paper shows how such temperature fields can be calculated. The theoretical results are supported by experimental findings. For this purpose a large body was equipped with an array of thermocouples and was irradiated in a reactor at Juelich. The paper presents an unidimensional temperature field equation, sufficient for many cases arising in practice, in a form taking into account the decrease in the heat source term in the direction of the radiation, as well as a system of equations for determining three-dimensional temperature fields with any specified boundary conditions. The system is written in a matrix from appropriate for solution by the finite element method. The matrices for a rith-prism finite element, required for practical calculations, are presented explicitly. These matrices make it possible to calculate temperature fields in very extensive bodies. (orig.)

  1. Noninvasive Temperature Measurement Based on Microwave Temperature Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Shoucheng Ding

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have a research of the noninvasive temperature measurement based on microwave temperature sensor. Moreover, in order to solve the surface temperature measurement for designing microwave temperature sensor, the microwave was issued by the transmitting antenna. Microwave encountered by the measured object to return back to the measured object and then convert it into electrical signals, the use of the quantitative relationship between this signal and input noise temperature to...

  2. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p < 0.001). Aging decreased the body temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p < 0.001) allowing them to maintain body temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p < 0.050). These results suggest that higher PA level together with greater relative muscle mass and higher mitochondrial content/function contribute to the accumulation of heat in the HCRs. Interestingly, neither aging nor voluntary training had a significant impact on core body temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p < 0

  3. A Novel Intra-body Sensor for Vaginal Temperature Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Binod Vaidya; João Caldeira; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.

    2009-01-01

    Over the years some medical studies have tried to better understand the internal behavior of human beings. Many researchers in this domain have been striving to find relationships between intra-vaginal temperature and certain female health conditions, such as ovulation and fertile period since woman’s intra-vaginal temperature is one of the body parameters most preferred in such studies. However, due to lack of a appropriate technology, medical research devoted to studying correlations of suc...

  4. Increase of body surface temperature and blood flow by theanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suntheanine (Taiyo Kagaku Co.: Theanine) is the trade name for L-theanine which is a unique amino acid found almost solely in tea plants, responsible for the exotictaste of green tea. We investigated the effects of relate to relaxation, improves the taste of processed foods, radiation sensitization, and increase of body surface temperature in vivo study. The results of the present study confirmed, (1) Suntheanine is incorporated into the brain and induces the emission of α -waves an induced of relaxation. (2) Body surface temperature and blood flow on skin were increased after administration of Suntheanine. (3) There was effects of radiation sensitization in whole body irradiation of X-rays after Suntheanine IP injection on C3H mice. (4) Acute toxicity, subacute toxicity and mutagen testconfirm the safety Suntheanine in this study

  5. Increase of body surface temperature and blood flow by theanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Takeo; Noguchi, Kenichi; Ando, Satoshi [Suzuka, Univ. of Medical Science, Suzuka (Japan)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    Suntheanine (Taiyo Kagaku Co.: Theanine) is the trade name for L-theanine which is a unique amino acid found almost solely in tea plants, responsible for the exotictaste of green tea. We investigated the effects of relate to relaxation, improves the taste of processed foods, radiation sensitization, and increase of body surface temperature in vivo study. The results of the present study confirmed, (1) Suntheanine is incorporated into the brain and induces the emission of {alpha} -waves an induced of relaxation. (2) Body surface temperature and blood flow on skin were increased after administration of Suntheanine. (3) There was effects of radiation sensitization in whole body irradiation of X-rays after Suntheanine IP injection on C3H mice. (4) Acute toxicity, subacute toxicity and mutagen testconfirm the safety Suntheanine in this study.

  6. Body temperature-related structural transitions of monotremal and human hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digel, I; Maggakis-Kelemen, Ch; Zerlin, K F; Linder, Pt; Kasischke, N; Kayser, P; Porst, D; Temiz Artmann, A; Artmann, G M

    2006-10-15

    In this study, temperature-related structural changes were investigated in human, duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus, body temperature T(b) = 31-33 degrees C), and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus, body temperature T(b) = 32-33 degrees C) hemoglobin using circular dichroism spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. The average hydrodynamic radius (R(h)) and fractional (normalized) change in the ellipticity (F(obs)) at 222 +/- 2 nm of hemoglobin were measured. The temperature was varied stepwise from 25 degrees C to 45 degrees C. The existence of a structural transition of human hemoglobin at the critical temperature T(c) between 36-37 degrees C was previously shown by micropipette aspiration experiments, viscosimetry, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Based on light-scattering measurements, this study proves the onset of molecular aggregation at T(c). In two different monotremal hemoglobins (echidna and platypus), the critical transition temperatures were found between 32-33 degrees C, which are close to the species' body temperature T(b). The data suggest that the correlation of the structural transition's critical temperature T(c) and the species' body temperature T(b) is not mere coincidence but, instead, is a more widespread structural phenomenon possibly including many other proteins. PMID:16844747

  7. Relationships among Body Weight, Body Measurements and Estimated Feed Efficiency Characteristics in Holstein Friesian Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bayram

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Data concerning body measurements, milk yield and body weights data were analysed on 101 of Holstein Friesian cows. Phenotypic correlations indicated positive significant relations between estimated feed efficiency (EFE and milk yield as well as 4 % fat corrected milk yield, and between body measurements and milk yield. However, negative correlations were found between the EFE and body measurements indicating that the taller, longer, deeper and especially heavier cows were not to be efficient as smaller cows

  8. Miniature bioelectric device accurately measures and telemeters temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, T. B.

    1966-01-01

    Miniature micropower solid-state circuit measures and telemeters the body temperature of laboratory animals over periods up to two years. The circuit employs a thermistor as a temperature sensing element and an fm transmitter. It is constructed from conventional discrete components or integrated circuits.

  9. Effect of Ambient Temperature on Body Temperature and Rest Metabolic Rate in Apodemus chevrieri During Postnatal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wan-long

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation in Apodemus chevrieri, body temperature and rest metabolic rate (RMR were measured during postnatal development (1~42 day when the A. chevrieri exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in A. chevrieri increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in low temperature(5oC and 10oC, relatively and RMR significant increased when day age is 14 day, it indicated that the pups showed a certain degree of thermoregulation in this phase. Its thermoregulation ability developed quickly during 7 day to 14 day. RMR of pups was extreme significantly higher in low temperature than that in other temperature when day age was 21 day, it showed that the pups had some thermoregulation to low temperature stimulation. The RMR of pups was showed increasing trend in high temperature(35oC when 28 day; when day age was 35 day and 42 day, the thermal neutral zone were 22.5 to 30oC and approaching its adult level. All of these results indicated that pups of A. chevrieri in the different growing period had different thermogenesis and energy allocation to maintain stable to body temperature, thermogenesis was weaker in the early phase of postnatal development, most of energy is used to its growth. After pups were weaned, the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation developed quickly to adjust variations of environment during postnatal development.

  10. New Developments in High-Temperature Measurement Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Temperature can be measured via emitted thermal radiation of the measured object using Max Planck’s law of thermal radiation, which describes the emission of thermal radiation as a function of temperature of an ideal black body. However, thermal radiation measurement requires accurately calibrated detectors. The calibration of such detectors has been significantly improved in the last years, yielding calibration uncertainties of the spectral responsivity of detectors down to 10-4 in ...

  11. The effect of myostatin genotype on body temperature during extreme temperature events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J T; Kachman, S D; Nielsen, M K; Mader, T L; Spangler, M L

    2013-07-01

    Extreme heat and cold events can create deleterious physiological changes in cattle as they attempt to cope. The genetic background of animals can influence their response to these events. The objective of the current study was to determine the impact of myostatin genotype (MG) on body temperature during periods of heat and cold stress. Two groups of crossbred steers and heifers of unknown pedigree and breed fraction with varying percentages of Angus, Simmental, and Piedmontese were placed in a feedlot over 2 summers and 2 winters. Before arrival, animals were genotyped for the Piedmontese-derived myostatin mutation (C313Y) to determine their MG as either homozygous normal (0 copy; n = 84), heterozygous (1 copy; n = 96), or homozygous for inactive myostatin (2 copy; n = 59). Hourly tympanic and vaginal temperature measurements were collected for steers and heifers, respectively, for 5 d during times of anticipated heat and cold stress. Mean (±SD) ambient temperature for summer and winter stress events were 24.4 (±4.64) and -1.80 (±11.71), respectively. A trigonometric function (sine + cosine) with periods of 12 and 24 h was used to describe the diurnal cyclical pattern. Hourly body temperature was analyzed within a season, and fixed effects included MG, group, trigonometric functions nested within group, and interaction of MG with trigonometric functions nested within group; random effects were animal and residual (Model [I]). A combined analysis of season and group was also investigated with the inclusion of season as a main effect and the nesting of effects within both group and season (Model [C]). In both models, the residual was fitted using an autoregressive covariance structure. A 3-way interaction of MG, season, and trigonometric function periodicities of 24 h (P 0.05). The current study illustrated that a genotype × environment interaction exists for MG and 1-copy animals were more robust to environmental extremes in comparison with 0- or 2-copy animals

  12. Impact of nesting material on mouse body temperature and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Gordon, Christopher J; Pajor, Edmond A; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Davis, Jerry K; Garner, Joseph P

    2013-02-17

    In laboratories, mice are housed at 20-24 °C, which is below their lower critical temperature (≈30 °C). Thus, mice are potentially cold stressed, which can alter metabolism, immune function, and reproduction. These physiological changes reflect impaired wellbeing, and affect scientific outcomes. We hypothesized that nesting material would allow mice to alleviate cold stress by controlling their thermal microenvironment, thus insulating them, reducing heat loss and thermogenic processes. Naïve C57BL/6, CD-1, and BALB/c mice (24 male and 24 female/strain in groups of 3) were housed in standard cages at 20 °C either with or without 8 g nesting material for 4 weeks. Core body temperature was followed using intraperitoneal radio telemetry. The thermal properties of the nests were assessed using a thermal imaging camera, and related to nest quality. Higher scoring nests were negatively correlated with the mean radiated temperature and were thus more insulating. No effects of nesting material on body temperature were found. CD-1 mice with nesting material had higher end body weights than controls. No effect was seen in the other two strains. Mice with the telemetry implant had larger spleens than controls, possibly indicating an immune response to the implant or low level infection from the surgery. BALB/c mice express less mRNA for the UCP1 protein than mice without nesting material. This indicates that BALB/c's with nesting material do not utilize their brown fat to create heat as readily as controls. Nests can alleviate thermal discomfort by decreasing the amount of radiated heat and reduce the need for non-shivering thermogenesis. However, different strains appear to use different behavioral (through different primary modes of behavioral thermoregulation) and physiological strategies (utilizing thermogenesis to different degrees) to maintain a constant body temperature under cool standard laboratory ambient temperatures. PMID:23313562

  13. Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment during periodical changes in air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Siyeon; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5 °C with an amplitude of 6 °C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature, and 12 skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that the forehead and chest were identified as the most valid sites to predict rectal temperature (R(2) = 0.826 and 0.824, respectively) in an environment with periodically fluctuated air temperatures. This study suggests that particular skin temperatures are valid as a non-invasive variable when predicting rectal temperature of an individual wearing PPE in changing ambient temperatures. Practitioner Summary: This study should offer assistance for developing a more reliable indirect indicating system of individual heat strain for firefighters in real time, which can be used practically as a precaution of firefighters' heat-related illness and utilised along with physiological monitoring. PMID:26214379

  14. The measurement of single particle temperature in plasma sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement technique for simultaneously obtaining the size, velocity, temperature, and relative number density of particles entrained in high temperature flow fields is described. In determining the particle temperature from a two-color pyrometery technique, assumptions about the relative spectral emissivity of the particle are required. For situations in which the particle surface undergoes chemical reactions the assumption of grey body behavior is shown to introduce large Temperature measurement uncertainties. Results from isolated, laser heated, single particle measurements and in-flight data from the plasma spraying of WC-Co are presented. 10 refs., 5 figs

  15. A simple method to predict body temperature of small reptiles from environmental temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Mathew; Schwarzkopf, Lin

    2016-05-01

    To study behavioral thermoregulation, it is useful to use thermal sensors and physical models to collect environmental temperatures that are used to predict organism body temperature. Many techniques involve expensive or numerous types of sensors (cast copper models, or temperature, humidity, radiation, and wind speed sensors) to collect the microhabitat data necessary to predict body temperatures. Expense and diversity of requisite sensors can limit sampling resolution and accessibility of these methods. We compare body temperature predictions of small lizards from iButtons, DS18B20 sensors, and simple copper models, in both laboratory and natural conditions. Our aim was to develop an inexpensive yet accurate method for body temperature prediction. Either method was applicable given appropriate parameterization of the heat transfer equation used. The simplest and cheapest method was DS18B20 sensors attached to a small recording computer. There was little if any deficit in precision or accuracy compared to other published methods. We show how the heat transfer equation can be parameterized, and it can also be used to predict body temperature from historically collected data, allowing strong comparisons between current and previous environmental temperatures using the most modern techniques. Our simple method uses very cheap sensors and loggers to extensively sample habitat temperature, improving our understanding of microhabitat structure and thermal variability with respect to small ectotherms. While our method was quite precise, we feel any potential loss in accuracy is offset by the increase in sample resolution, important as it is increasingly apparent that, particularly for small ectotherms, habitat thermal heterogeneity is the strongest influence on transient body temperature. PMID:27252829

  16. Locatable-body temperature monitoring based on semi-active UHF RFID tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangwei; Mao, Luhong; Chen, Liying; Xie, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the use of radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology for the real-time remote monitoring of body temperature, while an associated program can determine the location of the body carrying the respective sensor. The RFID chip's internal integrated temperature sensor is used for both the human-body temperature detection and as a measurement device, while using radio-frequency communication to broadcast the temperature information. The adopted RFID location technology makes use of reference tags together with a nearest neighbor localization algorithm and a multiple-antenna time-division multiplexing location system. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed for collecting temperature and location data for the data fusion by using RFID protocols. With a puppy as test object, temperature detection and localization experiments were carried out. The measured results show that the applied method, when using a mercury thermometer for comparison in terms of measuring the temperature of the dog, has a good consistency, with an average temperature error of 0.283 °C. When using the associated program over the area of 12.25 m2, the average location error is of 0.461 m, which verifies the feasibility of the sensor-carrier location by using the proposed program. PMID:24675759

  17. Auto-measuring System of 3- Dimensional Human Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 尚保平; 付小莉; 尚会超

    2001-01-01

    To realize the automation of fashion industry measuring,designing and manufacturing, the auto-measurement of 3D size of human body is of great importance. The auto measurement system of 3D human body based on Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) and infrared sensors is presented in this paper. The system can measure the bare size of human body that excludes the effect of clothing quickly and accurately.

  18. Diamond stabilization of ice multilayers at human body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2007-08-01

    Diamond is a promising material for wear-resistant medical coatings. Here we report a remarkable increase in the melting point of ice resting on a diamond (111) surface modified with a submonolayer of Na+ . Our molecular dynamics simulations show that the interfacial ice bilayer melts at a temperature 130K higher than in free ice, and relatively thick ice films ( 2.6nm at 298K and 2.2nm at 310K ) are stabilized by dipole interactions with the substrate. This unique physical effect may enable biocompatibility-enhancing ice overcoatings for diamond at human body temperature.

  19. Primate body temperature and sleep responses to lower body positive pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, D. M.; Fuller, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Cephalic fluid shifts, induced by lower body positive pressure (LBPP) are known to influence various physiological systems (i.e., cardiovascular and renal). In earlier experiments, an apparent change in the arousal state of primates in such LBPP conditions was observed. This study was designed to examine the effects of LBPP on arousal state and body temperature level which is normally correlated with sleep. Chair-restrained male squirrel monkeys were exposed to 40 mmHg LBPP for 90-100 minutes between the daytime hours of 13:00-15:00. Each monkey was placed in a specially modified restraint chair to which they were highly trained. Deep body temperature (DBT) was collected from 10 animals. Sleep parameters were obtained from six animals chronically implanted for sleep recording. A video camera was used to observe each animal's apparent state of arousal. LBPP resulted in an approximate 0.9 C decrease in DBT. During video observation, some animals appeared drowsy during LBPP; however, sleep recording revealed no significant changes in the state of arousal. Thus, LBPP is capable of inducing a mild hyperthermia. Further, the mechanisms underlying the observed lowering of body temperature appear to be independent of arousal state.

  20. Noninvasive Temperature Measurement Based on Microwave Temperature Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoucheng Ding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the noninvasive temperature measurement based on microwave temperature sensor. Moreover, in order to solve the surface temperature measurement for designing microwave temperature sensor, the microwave was issued by the transmitting antenna. Microwave encountered by the measured object to return back to the measured object and then convert it into electrical signals, the use of the quantitative relationship between this signal and input noise temperature to real-time calibration. In order to calculate the antenna brightness temperature and then after signal conditioning circuit, which can show the temperature value, in order to achieve the detection of microwave temperature. Microwave-temperature measurement system hardware based on 89C51 microcontroller consists of the microwave temperature sensor, signal conditioning circuitry and chip control circuit, AD converter circuit and display circuit. The system software is by the main program, the AD conversion routines, subroutines and delay subprogram. The microwave temperature measurement characterize has: without gain fluctuations, without the impact of changes in the noise of the machine, to provide continuous calibration, wide dynamic range.

  1. Comparison between core temperatures measured telemetrically using the CorTemp® ingestible temperature sensor and rectal temperature in healthy Labrador retrievers

    OpenAIRE

    Osinchuk, Stephanie; Taylor, Susan M.; Shmon, Cindy L.; Pharr, John; Campbell, John

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the CorTemp® ingestible telemetric core body temperature sensor in dogs, to establish the relationship between rectal temperature and telemetrically measured core body temperature at rest and during exercise, and to examine the effect of sensor location in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract on measured core temperature. CorTemp® sensors were administered orally to fasted Labrador retriever dogs and radiographs were taken to document sensor location. Core and rectal temperatu...

  2. Instrument for Measuring Temperature of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert; Nixon, Thomas; Pagnutti, Mary; Zanoni, Vicki

    2003-01-01

    A pseudo-Brewster-angle infrared radiometer has been proposed for use in noncontact measurement of the surface temperature of a large body of water (e.g., a lake or ocean). This radiometer could be situated on a waterborne, airborne, or spaceborne platform. The design of the pseudo-Brewster-angle radiometer would exploit the spectral-emissivity and polarization characteristics of water to minimize errors attributable to the emissivity of water and to the reflection of downwelling (e.g., Solar and cloud-reflected) infrared radiation. The relevant emissivity and polarization characteristics are the following: . The Brewster angle is the angle at which light polarized parallel to the plane of incidence on a purely dielectric material is not reflected. The pseudo-Brewster angle, defined for a lossy dielectric (somewhat electrically conductive) material, is the angle for which the reflectivity for parallel-polarized light is minimized. For pure water, the reflectivity for parallel-polarized light is only 2.2 x 10(exp -4) at its pseudo- Brewster angle of 51deg. The reflectivity remains near zero, several degrees off from the 51deg optimum, allowing this angle of incidence requirement to be easily achieved. . The wavelength range of interest for measuring water temperatures is 8 to 12 microns. The emissivity of water for parallel- polarized light at the pseudo-Brewster angle is greater than 0.999 in this wavelength range. The radiometer would be sensitive in the wavelength range of 8 to 12 microns, would be equipped with a polarizer to discriminate against infrared light polarized perpendicular to the plane of incidence, and would be aimed toward a body of water at the pseudo- Brewster angle (see figure). Because the infrared radiation entering the radiometer would be polarized parallel to the plane of incidence and because very little downwelling parallel-polarized radiation would be reflected into the radiometer on account of the pseudo-Brewster arrangement, the

  3. Measurement of total body radioactivity in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques for the determination of whole-body radioactivity in man using uncollimated NaI(Tl) detectors have been studied. Geometrical effects and photon attenuation effects due to the different shapes of humans as well as due to varying in-vivo radioactivity distributions have been evaluated particularly for scanning-bed geometries and the chair geometry. Theoretically it is shown that the attenuation effects are generally dominating, for full-energy-peak pulse-range methods. For the application in radiation protection a cheap and simple chair-geometry unit has been constructed and used at various places distantly from the home-laboratory, for studies of body activity of Cs-137 in northern Sweden. High body activities were found particularly in reindeer-breeding Lapps. The elimination rate of Cs-137 in man was studied in the stationary whole-body counter in Lund as well as with the field-system. For the study of the performances at low and high photon energies clinical applications of methods for gastro-intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 (Co-57; 122 keV) and total body potassium determination (K-40; 1.46 MeV, K-42; 1.52 MeV) have been evaluated. Theoretical and experimental results as well as experiences of applications in radiation protection and medicine show that the scanning-bed geometry effectively evens out redistributional effects. For optimum results, however, scatter-energy pulse-ranges rather than full-energy-peak ranges should be used. (Auth.)

  4. Speed over efficiency: locusts select body temperatures that favour growth rate over efficient nutrient utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Gabriel A; Clissold, Fiona J; Mayntz, David;

    2009-01-01

    Ectotherms have evolved preferences for particular body temperatures, but the nutritional and life-history consequences of such temperature preferences are not well understood. We measured thermal preferences in Locusta migratoria (migratory locusts) and used a multi-factorial experimental design...... diets or a choice between both. Locusts placed in a thermal gradient selected temperatures near 38°C, maximizing rates of weight gain; however, this enhanced growth rate came at the cost of poor protein and carbohydrate utilization. Protein and carbohydrate were equally digested across temperature...... to investigate relationships between growth/development and macronutrient utilization (conversion of ingesta to body mass) as a function of temperature. A range of macronutrient intake values for insects at 26, 32 and 38°C was achieved by offering individuals high-protein diets, high-carbohydrate...

  5. Comparison of different methods of temperature measurement in children

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović Momčilo; Radlović Nedeljko; Leković Zoran; Berenji Karolina

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The consequences of failing to notice fever in children can be serious. On the other hand, false positive reading can result in unnecessary investigation or diagnostic approach. The aim of this study was to compare different ways of body temperature measurement. Material and methods This prospective study was carried out on Pediatric Department of General Hospital in Subotica during 10 months (March-December 2006). In 263 children aged 1 month to 18 years of age, the body tempera...

  6. Integration of body temperature into the analysis of energy expenditure in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Abreu-Vieira

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: At 22 °C, cold-induced thermogenesis is ∼120% of basal metabolic rate. The higher body temperature during physical activity is due to a higher set point, not simply increased heat generation during exercise. Most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms, with little from fur or fat. Our analysis suggests that the definition of the upper limit of the thermoneutral zone should be re-considered. Measuring body temperature informs interpretation of energy expenditure data and improves the predictiveness and utility of the mouse to model human energy homeostasis.

  7. Carbon Budget of Bastard Halibut Paralichthys Oliva-eus in Relation to Body Weight and Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    线薇薇; 刘瑞玉; 朱鑫华

    2003-01-01

    The effects of body weight and temperature on the carbon budget of the juvenile bastard halibut, Paralichthys olivaceus , were studied at temperature 13.5, 18, 21.5 and 24 ℃, respectively. The carbon intake, faecal and growth carbon were measured, and the carbon respiration was calculated using the carbon budget equation(CC=GC+FC+RC). The combined relationship between different components of the carbon budget, body weight and temperature could be described by regression equations: CC =1.0206 W 0.8126 e 0.1483 T; G=0.0042 W 1.4096 (-5.11 T 3+285.90 T2-5173.72 T +30314.03); FC =0.0485 W0.7711e 0.1624 T ; UC = 1.4333 W 0.6715e 0.1487 T. Body weight had no significant ffect on the carbon absorption efficiency and the conversion efficiency.

  8. Measuring Poisson Ratios at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozon, R. S.; Shepic, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    Simple extensometer ring measures bulges of specimens in compression. New method of measuring Poisson's ratio used on brittle ceramic materials at cryogenic temperatures. Extensometer ring encircles cylindrical specimen. Four strain gauges connected in fully active Wheatstone bridge self-temperature-compensating. Used at temperatures as low as liquid helium.

  9. Surface Temperature Measurement Using Hematite Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencic, Timothy J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods that are capable of measuring temperature via spectrophotometry principles are discussed herein. These systems and methods are based on the temperature dependence of the reflection spectrum of hematite. Light reflected from these sensors can be measured to determine a temperature, based on changes in the reflection spectrum discussed herein.

  10. Pyrometric Gas and Surface Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fralick, Gustave; Ng, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    A multiwavelength pyrometer possessing advantages over the one- and two-wavelength designs is described. Results of its application to surface temperature measurements of ceramics is presented. Also described is a probe suitable for gas temperature measurements to temperatures > 2600 K. The design of the probe includes a multiwavelength pyrometer with fiber optic input.

  11. Deep Temperature Measurements in Oncothermia Processes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Temperature in depth of various model systems was measured, starting with muscle and other phantoms. It was shown that the temperature can be selectively increased in the target. In water-protein phantom, the protein coagulation (>60°C) was observed selectively while the water temperature around it was a little higher than room temperature.

  12. Preventive Measure for Generating Bend Pipe Caused From Different Temperature in Pipe Body During HFW Pipe Production%高频焊管生产中管体温度不均造成弯管的防止措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆根

    2011-01-01

    Through analysis on generation reason of bend pipe caused by various factors during HFW pipe production,it stress discussed the reason resulted in bend pipe by outside diameter, steel grade and thickness under different running speed and weld heat treatment temperature. Controlling the surface temperature of the pipe body before entering into cooling water tank,matching unit running speed,and adjusting bend pipe according to different direction to make the straightness of pipe body be in accordance with the standard.%通过对HFW焊管生产过程中不同因素导致产生弯管的原因分析,着重论述了钢管外径、钢级、壁厚三者之间在不同运行速度和焊缝热处理温度下形成弯管的原因.通过采取控制焊管进入冷却水槽前的管体表面温度,配合机组运行速度,根据钢管弯曲的不同方向进行必要调整,使管体达到符合标准的直度.

  13. Body temperature of the parasitic wasp Pimpla turionellae (Hymenoptera) during host location by vibrational sounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroder, Stefan; Samietz, Jörg; Stabentheiner, Anton; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-03-01

    The pupal parasitoid Pimpla turionellae (L.) uses self-produced vibrations transmitted on the plant substrate, so-called vibrational sounding, to locate immobile concealed pupal hosts. The wasps are able to use vibrational sounding reliably over a broad range of ambient temperatures and even show an increased signal frequency and intensity at low temperatures. The present study investigates how control of body temperature in the wasps by endothermic mechanisms may facilitate host location under changing thermal environments. Insect body temperature is measured with real-time IR thermography on plant-stem models at temperature treatments of 10, 18, 26 and 30 °C, whereas behaviour is recorded with respect to vibrational host location. The results reveal a low-level endothermy that likely interferes with vibrational sound production because it occurs only in nonsearching females. At the lowest temperature of 10 °C, the thoracic temperature is 1.15 °C warmer than the ambient surface temperature whereas, at the high temperatures of 26 and 30 ° C, the wasps cool down their thorax by 0.29 and 0.47 °C, respectively, and their head by 0.45 and 0.61 °C below ambient surface temperature. By contrast, regardless of ambient temperature, searching females always have a slightly elevated body temperature of at most 0.30 °C above the ambient surface temperature. Behavioural observations indicate that searching females interrupt host location more frequently at suboptimal temperatures, presumably due to the requirements of thermoregulation. It is assumed that both mechanisms, producing vibrations for host location and low-level endothermy, are located in the thorax. Endothermy by thoracic muscle work probably disturbs signal structure of vibrational sounding, so the processes cannot be used at the same time. PMID:22140295

  14. Measurement of body potassium with a whole-body counter: relationship between lean body mass and resting energy expenditure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted studies to determine whether the Mayo whole-body counter could be used to measure body potassium, and thus lean body mass (LBM), and whether moderate obesity alters resting energy expenditure when corrected for LBM. Twenty-four nonobese and 18 moderately obese adults underwent body potassium (40K) counting, as well as tritiated water space measurement and indirect calorimetry. LBM values predicted from 40K counting and tritiated water space measurements were highly correlated (P = 0.001; r = 0.88). Resting energy expenditure was closely related to LBM (P less than 0.0001; r = 0.78): kcal/day = 622 kcal + (LBM.20.0 kcal/kg LBM). In this relationship, the obese subjects did not differ from nonobese subjects. In summary, the Mayo whole-body counter can accurately measure LBM, and moderate obesity has no detectable effect on corrected resting energy expenditure

  15. Predicting body weight from body measurements in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hile, M E; Hintz, H F; Erb, H N

    1997-12-01

    Accurate estimates of body weight can be useful in the evaluations of feeding programs, nutritional status and general health, and in calculation of dose levels (such as for anesthesia)-thus providing a valuable tool for captive elephant management. We used body measurements of 75 Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to predict body weight. Weight, heart girth, height at the withers, body length, and foot-pad circumference were measured. All possible linear regressions of weight on one, two, three, or four body measurements were calculated. The highest correlation with a single measurement was that between heart girth and weight (R2 = 0.90). The data were also divided into age groups (1-13, 18-28, 29-39, and 40-57 yr), and all possible linear regressions were calculated for each group (there were no elephants aged 14-17 yr). Adding body length or pad circumference to heart girth resulted in a slight increase in R2. We conclude that body weight in Asian elephants can be predicted from body measurements and that heart girth is the best predictor. A second body measurement might improve predictive accuracy for some age groups. PMID:9523637

  16. Sodium temperature measurement using ultrasonic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) the concern to avoid structural components directly above the breeder region, is the temperature fluctuations in this region can cause fatigue. So it is difficult to mount thermocouples in these positions (breeder element) for monitoring outlet temperature accurately. Additional techniques are therefore required to monitor outlet temperature at these locations. An ultrasonic technique in which the sensor mounted some distance from this region enables remote temperature measurement. A high temperature ultrasonic transducer is used in pulse echo mode for this measurement technique. The maximum percentage error in temperature is 6%. This technique can also be used as an alternate method for measuring fuel sub assembly outlet temperature in future as a single transducer can measure temperature of sodium coming out of two or three sub assemblies. (author)

  17. Measures of body fat in South Asian adults

    OpenAIRE

    S Kalra; Mercuri, M.; Anand, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: South Asian people who originate from the Indian subcontinent have greater percent body fat (%BF) for the same body mass index (BMI) compared with white Caucasians. This has been implicated in their increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is limited information comparing different measures of body fat in this ethnic group. Objectives: The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate the correlation of %BF measured by a foot-to-foot bioelectrical im...

  18. Temperature influence on non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2009-02-01

    Regular monitoring of blood sugar level is important for the management of diabetes. The Near-Infra-Red (NIR) spectroscopy method is a promising approach and this involves some form of contact with the body skin. It is noted that the skin temperature does fluctuate with the environment and physiological conditions and the temperature has an influence on the glucose measurement. In this paper, in-vitro and in-vivo investigations on the temperature influence on blood glucose measurement were studied. The in-vitro results from FTIR spectrometer show that sample temperature has significant influence on water absorption, which significantly affects the glucose absorption measurement. The in-vivo results show that when skin temperature around the measurement site is taken into consideration, the prediction of blood glucose level greatly improves.

  19. Field measurements of radium in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two whole body counting systems have been developed and employed for field measurements. The radium contents of nine previously unmeasured cases have been determined during three field trips. Future trips are being scheduled to make body radioactivity measurements on a specific subpopulation of CHR radium cases

  20. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S.; Hazel, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1–3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r2 = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38oC, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal temperatures

  1. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S; Hazel, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1-3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r (2) = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38(o)C, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal

  2. Dust Ejection from Planetary Bodies by Temperature Gradients: Laboratory Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kelling, Thorben; Kocifaj, Miroslav; Klacka, Jozef; Reiss, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory experiments show that dusty bodies in a gaseous environment eject dust particles if they are illuminated. We find that even more intense dust eruptions occur when the light source is turned off. We attribute this to a compression of gas by thermal creep in response to the changing temperature gradients in the top dust layers. The effect is studied at a light flux of 13 kW/(m*m) and 1 mbar ambient pressure. The effect is applicable to protoplanetary disks and Mars. In the inner part of protoplanetary disks, planetesimals can be eroded especially at the terminator of a rotating body. This leads to the production of dust which can then be transported towards the disk edges or the outer disk regions. The generated dust might constitute a significant fraction of the warm dust observed in extrasolar protoplanetary disks. We estimate erosion rates of about 1 kg/s for 100 m parent bodies. The dust might also contribute to subsequent planetary growth in different locations or on existing protoplanets which ...

  3. Temperature measurement in nuclear environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some criterions, that the used sensors have to follow, are given together with the conditions they may encountered. They may be used in irradiation or safety test devices, in experiments concerning mock-up or plant element, or even in nuclear plants themselves. The most suitable sensor type are mentioned, with their characteristics and their fiability. Two use examples of temperature probes are given, chosen to illustrate two sensor types: thermocouples in Superphenix-1 and platinum resistance probes in research reactor Orphee

  4. Mechanically Enhanced Liquid Interfaces at Human Body Temperature Using Thermosensitive Methylated Nanocrystalline Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuble, N; Geue, T; Kuster, S; Adamcik, J; Mezzenga, R; Windhab, E J; Fischer, P

    2016-02-01

    The mechanical performance of materials at oil/water interfaces after consumption is a key factor affecting hydrophobic drug release. In this study, we methylated the surface of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) by mercerization and dimethyl sulfate exposure to produce thermosensitive biopolymers. These methylated NCC (metNCC) were used to investigate interfacial thermogelation at air/water and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)/water interfaces at body temperature. In contrast to bulk fluid dynamics, elastic layers were formed at room temperature, and elasticity increased significantly at body temperature, which was measured by interfacial shear and dilatational rheology in situ. This unique phenomenon depends on solvent quality, temperature, and polymer concentration at interfaces. Thus, by adjusting the degree of hydrophobicity of metNCC, the interfacial elasticity and thermogelation of the interfaces could be varied. In general, these new materials (metNCC) formed more brittle interfacial layers compared to commercial methylcellulose (MC A15). Thermogelation of methylcellulose promotes attractive intermolecular forces, which were reflected in a change in self-assembly of metNCC at the interface. As a consequence, layer thickness and density increased as a function of temperature. These effects were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the displaced interface and confirmed by neutron reflection. The substantial structural and mechanical change of methylcellulose interfaces at body temperature represents a controllable encapsulation parameter allowing optimization of lipid-based drug formulations. PMID:26779953

  5. Temperature Evaluation of Heat Transferring Body while Preparing Temperature Chart of Heating Technologies and Metal Thermal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to temperature evaluation of a heat transferring body in the operational space of high temperature installations. A formula for evaluation of this temperature has been written down in the paper. Calculation of a heating transferring body (furnace makes it possible to realize temperature chart parameters in the plant heating technologies and steel thermal treatment.

  6. Temperature Evaluation of Heat Transferring Body while Preparing Temperature Chart of Heating Technologies and Metal Thermal Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    A. P. Nesenchuk; T. V. Ryzhova; O. F. Kraetskaya; S. S. Коvaliov; A. V. Begliak

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers problems pertaining to temperature evaluation of a heat transferring body in the operational space of high temperature installations. A formula for evaluation of this temperature has been written down in the paper. Calculation of a heating transferring body (furnace) makes it possible to realize temperature chart parameters in the plant heating technologies and steel thermal treatment.

  7. Temperature standards, what and where: resources for effective temperature measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, W.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Many standards have been published to describe devices, methods, and other topics. How they are developed and by whom are briefly described, and an attempt is made to extract most of those relating to temperature measurements. A directory of temperature standards and their sources is provided.

  8. Temperature standards, what and where: resources for effective temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many standards have been published to describe devices, methods, and other topics. How they are developed and by whom are briefly described, and an attempt is made to extract most of those relating to temperature measurements. A directory of temperature standards and their sources is provided

  9. Sex, season, and time of day interact to affect body temperatures of the Giant Gartersnake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, G.D.; Casazza, M.L.; Halstead, B.J.; Gregory, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    1.We examined multiple hypotheses regarding differences in body temperatures of the Giant Gartersnake using temperature-sensitive radio telemetry and an information-theoretic analytical approach.2.Giant Gartersnakes selected body temperatures near 30 ??C, and males and females had similar body temperatures most of the year, except during the midsummer gestation period.3.Seasonal differences in the body temperatures of males and females may relate to both the costs associated with thermoregulatory behavior, such as predation, and the benefits associated with maintaining optimal body temperatures, such as successful incubation.

  10. BODY TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT ACTIONS OF CHLORDIMEFORM ON VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS AND AXONAL TRANSPORT IN OPTIC SYSTEM OF RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattern reversal evoked potentials (PREPs), flash evoked potentials (FEPs), optic nerve axonal transport, and body temperature were measured in hooded rats treated with either saline or the formamidine insecticide/acaricide, chlordimeform (CDM). Rats receiving CDM had low body te...

  11. Measurement of body fat using leg to leg bioimpedance

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, R; Lau, P; Yu, C.; Lam, P.; Nelson, E

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—(1) To validate a leg to leg bioimpedance analysis (BIA) device in the measurement of body composition in children by assessment of its agreement with dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and its repeatability. (2) To establish a reference range of percentage body fat in Hong Kong Chinese children.
METHODS—Sequential BIA and DXA methods were used to determine body composition in 49 children aged 7-18 years; agreement between the two methods was calculated. Repea...

  12. The effect of stress on core and peripheral body temperature in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, Christiaan H.; Penning, Renske; Hellhammer, Juliane; Verster, Joris C.; Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Olivier, Berend; Kalkman, Cor J.

    2013-01-01

    Even though there are indications that stress influences body temperature in humans, no study has systematically investigated the effects of stress on core and peripheral body temperature. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of acute psychosocial stress on body temperature u

  13. Comparison of different methods of temperature measurement in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Momčilo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The consequences of failing to notice fever in children can be serious. On the other hand, false positive reading can result in unnecessary investigation or diagnostic approach. The aim of this study was to compare different ways of body temperature measurement. Material and methods This prospective study was carried out on Pediatric Department of General Hospital in Subotica during 10 months (March-December 2006. In 263 children aged 1 month to 18 years of age, the body temperature was obtained from 4 measurement sites: tactile assessment, forehead and ear by electronic thermometer, rectal temperature in small children (up to 2 years of age or axillar temperature in older children by mercury thermometer. Tympanic thermometry was considered as a standard for fever detection. Results The sensitivity of rectal temperature to detect fever is 46.67%, while specificity is 92.19%. The sensitivity of fever detection by electronic thermometry on the forehead is lower according to rectal thermometry - 36.08%, while specificity is 95.18%. The lowest values of sensitivity are recorded in axillar thermometry (35.82%, specificity is 90.20%. The correlation coefficient is higher between tympanic and rectal temperature measurement (r=0.5076, p<0.0005, than between tympanic and forehead measurements (r=0.5076, p<0,0005, while the lowest was between tympanic and axillar measurement sites (r=0.4933, p<0.0005. Conclusions The results of our study and literature data show that the most accurate methods of thermometry are rectal measurement of body temperature in small children and tympanic thermometry in children over 2 years of age.

  14. Liquid crystal quantitative temperature measurement technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Wu, Zongshan

    2001-10-01

    Quantitative temperature measurement using wide band thermochromic liquid crystals is an “area” thermal measurement technique. This technique utilizes the feature that liquid crystal changes its reflex light color with variation of temperature and applies an image capturing and processing system to calibrate the characteristic curve of liquid crystal’s color-temperature. Afterwards, the technique uses this curve to measure the distribution of temperature on experimental model. In this paper, firstly, each part of quantitative temperature measurement system using liquid crystal is illustrated and discussed. Then the technique is employed in a long duration hypersonic wind tunnel, and the quantitative result of the heat transfer coefficient along laminar plate is obtained. Additionally, some qualitative results are also given. In the end, comparing the experimental results with reference enthalpy theoretical results, a conclusion of thermal measurement accuracy is drawn.

  15. Liquid Crystal Quantitative Temperature Measurement Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Lu; Zongshan Wu

    2001-01-01

    Quantitatve temperature measurement using wide band thermochromic liquid crystals is an "area" thermal measurement technique. This technique utilizes the feature that liquid crystal changes its reflex light color with variation of temperature and applies an image capturing and processing system to calibrate the characteristic curve of liquid crystal's color-temperature. Afterwards, the technique uses this curve to measure the distribution of temperature on experimental model. In this paper, firstly, each part of quantitative temperature measurement system using liquid crystal is illustrated and discussed. Then the technique is employed in a long duration hypersonic wind tunnel, and the quantitative result of the heat transfer coefficient along laminar plate is obtained.Additionally, some qualitative results are also given. In the end, comparing the experimental results with reference enthalpy theoretical results, a conclusion of thermal measurement accuracy is drawn.

  16. Development of Low-Temperature Sintering Stoneware Bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied on development of stoneware bodies, which sintered at low-temperature in ball clay-quartz-Indian feldspar system and ball clay-quartz-Indian feldspar-nepheline syenite system. It was found that the ceramics around 30wt% ball clay, 44wt% quartz, 26wt% Indian feldspar composition showed high shrinkage rate (9.4%) by sintering at 1200 deg. C in ball clay-quartz-Indian feldspar system. Dense stoneware with low water absorption rate (0.1%) was fabricated by sintering mixtures composed of 30wt% ball clay, 44wt% quartz, 10wt% Indian feldspar, 16wt% nepheline syenite at 1100 deg. C 2h in ball clay-quartz-Indian feldspar-nepheline syenite system.

  17. ESTIMATION OF LIVE BODY WEIGHT FROM LINEAR BODY MEASUREMENTS FOR FARTA SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENGISTIE TAYE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study, to develop regression models for prediction of body weight from other linear body measurements, was conducted in Esite, Farta and Lai-Gaint districts of South Gondar, Amhara region. Records on body weight (BW and other linear body measurements (Body Length (BL, Wither Height (WH, Chest Girth (CH, Pelvic Width (PW and Ear Length (EL were taken from 941 sheep. Non-linear, simple linear and multiple linear regression models were developed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 12.0. For the multiple linear regressions, step-wise regression procedures were used. Predicting models were developed for different age, sex and for the pool. Positive and significant (P<0.01 correlations were observed between body weight and linear body measurements for all sex and age groups. Among the four linear body measurements, heart girth had the highest correlation coefficient (except ear length in all age and sex groups which is followed by body length, height at wither and pelvic width. Heart girth was the first variable to explain more variation than other variables in both sex and age groups. The models developed had a coefficient of determination of 0.26 to 0.89; the highest coefficient of determination was depicted for male while the lowest was for dentition groups having two permanent incisors. Regression models in general were poor in explaining weight for the dentition groups above one pair of permanent incisors. Heart girth alone was able to estimate weight with a coefficient of determination of 0.77, for both sexes and the pool. The coefficient of determination of the fitted equations (in general decreased as the age of sheep advances indicating that the fitted equations can predict weight for younger sheep with better accuracy than for older ones. In general, much of the variation in weight was explained when many traits were included in the model. However, for ease of use and to avoid complexity at field condition, it is

  18. Improved measurement system for the whole body monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A static four-detector system has been established as a whole body radioactivity measurement system. A technique is being developed to position the detectors in such a manner as to minimise longitudinal distribution effects within a subject. This technique, which represents the human body as a simple geometric model, requires the determination of efficiency at any point within this model

  19. Uncertainty of temperature measurement with thermal cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, Krzysztof; Matyszkiel, Robert; Fischer, Joachim; Barela, Jaroslaw

    2001-06-01

    All main international metrological organizations are proposing a parameter called uncertainty as a measure of the accuracy of measurements. A mathematical model that enables the calculations of uncertainty of temperature measurement with thermal cameras is presented. The standard uncertainty or the expanded uncertainty of temperature measurement of the tested object can be calculated when the bounds within which the real object effective emissivity (epsilon) r, the real effective background temperature Tba(r), and the real effective atmospheric transmittance (tau) a(r) are located and can be estimated; and when the intrinsic uncertainty of the thermal camera and the relative spectral sensitivity of the thermal camera are known.

  20. Change in the body temperature of healthy term infant over the first 72 hours of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng-xia (李萌霞); SUN Ge (孙革); NEUBAUER Henning

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the range of body temperature in a group of healthy Chinese term neonates over the first 72 hours of life and to assess the influence of body weight, gestational age and route of delivery. Method: All 200 consecutive cases of neonates delivered at our hospital from March to August 2001 were included in this retrospective study. Temperatures were measured immediately after delivery, after 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 8 hours and 15 hours and on the 2nd and 3rd day. Axillary temperatures ranging from 36.5 oC to 37 oC were regarded as normal. No cases of maternal fever or systemic infection of the newborns were discovered. All infants were discharged in good general condition. Results: The mean rectal temperature at birth was 37.19 ℃. The lowest average temperature was reached at 1 hour after delivery (36.54 ℃) with a significant difference between natural delivery (36.48 ℃) and section (36.59 ℃) (P<0.05). Temperature subsequently rose to 36.70 ℃ at 8 hours and 36.78 ℃ at 15 hours (P<0.05). Hypothermia was seen in 51.8% and hypothermia in 42.5% of the patients. On the 3rd day after delivery, 96% of all temperatures were in the normal range. A significant relation was found between hypothermia and both low birth weight (P<0.001) and low gestational age (P<0.05). Conclusion: The reference range presently used did not include all physiological temperatures in the first 72 hours of life. Considering other factors, such as birth weight, route of delivery, gestational age and body temperature on the 2nd and 3rd day of life, may help to correctly assess the significance of temperatures beyond the reference range.

  1. Change in the body temperature of healthy term infant over the first 72 hours of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萌霞; 孙革; NEUBAUERHenning

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To determine the range of body temperature in a group of healthy Chinese term neonates over the first 72 hours of life and to assess the influence of body weight, gestational age and route of delivery.Method: All 200 consecutive cases of neonates delivered at our hospital from March to August 2001 were included in this retrospective study.Temperatures were measured immediately after delivery, after 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 8 hours and 15 hours and on the 2nd and 3rd day. Axillary temperatures ranging from 36.5℃ to 37℃ were regarded as normal. No cases of maternal fever or systemic infection of the newborns were discovered. All infants were discharged in good general condition. Results:The mean rectal temperature at birth was 37.19℃. The lowest average temperature was reached at 1 hour after delivery (36.54℃) with a significant difference between natural delivery (36.48℃) and section (36.59℃) (P<0.05).Temperature subsequently rose to 36.70℃ at 8 hours and 36.78℃ at 15 hours (P<0.05).Hypothermia was seen in 51.8% and hypothermia in 42.5% of the patients.On the 3rd day after delivery, 96% of all temperatures were in the normal range. A significant relation was found between hypothermia and both low birth weight (P<0.001) and low gestational age (P<0.05).Conclusion: The reference range presently used did not include all physiological temperatures in the first 72 hours of life. Considering other factors,such as birth weight, route of delivery,gestational age and body temperature on the 2nd and 3rd day of life, may help to correctly assess the significance of temperatures beyond the reference range.

  2. National survey of human body radioactivity measured by a mobile whole-body counter and installed whole-body counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body radioactivity in the general public has been measured in 2339 volunteers throughout the U.K. A mobile whole-body monitor visited collaborating Medical Physics Departments and data were also contributed by Medical Physics Departments possessing installed counters. Levels of body radiocaesium ranged from below detection level to 4149 Bq. Radiocaesium levels were normalised by dividing by the content of natural body potassium-40. In all cases, the dose rate to the body from radiocaesium was less than that from potassium-40. Radiocaesium levels were 2-3 times higher in N.W. England, Scotland and N. Wales than the rest of the country, but this factor is much less than the variation in deposition of Chernobyl radiocaesium. This discrepancy may be accounted for by the nationwide distribution of foodstuffs. At all sites where volunteers were monitored, the ratio of caesium-137/caesium-134 was consistent with a radiocaesium intake attributable primarily to fallout from the Chernobyl fire. (author)

  3. Using pairs of physiological models to estimate temporal variation in amphibian body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roznik, Elizabeth A; Alford, Ross A

    2014-10-01

    Physical models are often used to estimate ectotherm body temperatures, but designing accurate models for amphibians is difficult because they can vary in cutaneous resistance to evaporative water loss. To account for this variability, a recently published technique requires a pair of agar models that mimic amphibians with 0% and 100% resistance to evaporative water loss; the temperatures of these models define the lower and upper boundaries of possible amphibian body temperatures for the location in which they are placed. The goal of our study was to develop a method for using these pairs of models to estimate parameters describing the distributions of body temperatures of frogs under field conditions. We radiotracked green-eyed treefrogs (Litoria serrata) and collected semi-continuous thermal data using both temperature-sensitive radiotransmitters with an automated datalogging receiver, and pairs of agar models placed in frog locations, and we collected discrete thermal data using a non-contact infrared thermometer when frogs were located. We first examined the accuracy of temperature-sensitive transmitters in estimating frog body temperatures by comparing transmitter data with direct temperature measurements taken simultaneously for the same individuals. We then compared parameters (mean, minimum, maximum, standard deviation) characterizing the distributions of temperatures of individual frogs estimated from data collected using each of the three methods. We found strong relationships between thermal parameters estimated from data collected using automated radiotelemetry and both types of thermal models. These relationships were stronger for data collected using automated radiotelemetry and impermeable thermal models, suggesting that in the field, L. serrata has a relatively high resistance to evaporative water loss. Our results demonstrate that placing pairs of thermal models in frog locations can provide accurate estimates of the distributions of temperatures

  4. Measuring optical temperature coefficients of Intralipid (registered)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature sensitivities of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients in the range 700-1000 nm are determined for the liquid phantom Intralipid (registered) using spatially resolved continuous wave measurements. The measurements were conducted on a 10 L heated volume of 1% Intralipid (registered) subjected to a 40-30 deg. C cooling regime. The temperature sensitivities of the absorbance coefficients are similar to that expected for pure water. However, the reduced scattering coefficients are more sensitive than can be explained by temperature related density changes, and show an unexpected relationship with wavelength. We have also found that temperature perturbations provide a useful means to evaluate instrument model performance

  5. Body composition determination by measurement of total body activation products in expired air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-vivo neutron activation followed by whole body counting has become a routine method for measuring the major elements in the body, such as total body calcium. More recently a careful analysis of radioactive components in expired air after neutron activation has shown some of these components are directly related to the body content of major elements. The gaseous activation products are produced both by direct fast neutron reactions and by secondary proton reactions. The protons are produced by hydrogen atom recoil after neutron interaction with the large quantity of hydrogen in the body. The specific longer-lived radionuclides which are easily measured in expired air are 37Ar, 41Ar, 11C, and 13N. The 37Ar is expired as noble gas and is produced by the reaction 40Ca(n, α)37Ar. The accurate determination of total body calcium in animals has been demonstrated using 37Ar measurements and the determination in humans appears very feasible. The 11C, expired as 11CO and 11CO2, is produced by 14N(p, α)11C and it appears that total body nitrogen can be determined from the 11C measurements All activation products which form gases in the body after neutron irradiation are potentially useful in determining the body content of the parent element. Several radioactive gases have been recently identified in the expired air of animals or humans after low level neutron irradiation. These include 37Ar, 41Ar, 11CO, 11CO2, 13N2, 13NO or 13N2O. Other radioactive gases which can probably be measured at very low levels are 11CH3

  6. Body composition as measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large scale study is currently underway on the changes in body composition resulting from the cachexia of malignancy. The ultimate objective of the overall project is to assess the changes in body composition associated with hyperalimentation and other modes of nutritional support to cancer patients. The first phase of this study is now in progress. In this phase, a study is being made of a control group of normal patients to provide baseline data against which data from cancer patients can be evaluated. Total body nitrogen and potassium are measured in a group of normal men and women, and are analyzed as a function of age. Additionally, changes in skeletal mass (total body calcium) are also recorded, and body water is measured simultaneously with the use of tritiated water

  7. Body core temperature of rats subjected to daily exercise limited to a fixed time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shido, O.; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Sakurada, Sotaro; Kaneko, Yoshiko; Nagasaka, Tetsuo

    Several timed daily environmental cues alter the pattern of nycthemeral variations in body core temperature in rodents. The present study investigated the effect of timed exercise on variations of daily body core temperature. Male rats were housed in cages with a running wheel at an ambient temperature of 24° C with a 12:12 h light/dark cycle. Timed daily exercise rats (TEX) were allowed access to the wheel for 6 h in the last half of the dark phase, freely exercising rats (FEX) could run at any time, and sedentary rats (NEX) were not allowed to run. After a 3-week exercise period, all animals were denied access to the wheel. The intraabdominal temperatures (Tab) and spontaneous activities of rats were measured for 6 days after the exercise period. The Tab values of the TEX rats were significantly higher than those of the other two groups only in the last half of the dark phase, while Tab in the FEX and NEX rats showed no significant difference. The specific Tab changes in the TEX rats lasted for 2 days after the exercise period. Spontaneous activity levels were higher in the TEX rats than the FEX and NEX rats in the last half of the dark phase for 1 day after the exercise period. The results suggest that daily exercise limited to a fixed time per day modifies nycthemeral variations of body core temperature in rats so that the temperature increases during the period when the animals had previously exercised. Such a rise in body core temperature is partly attributed to an increase in the spontaneous activity level.

  8. Design, Development and Implementation of the IR Signalling Techniques for Monitoring Ambient and Body Temperature in WBANs

    OpenAIRE

    Attiya Baqai; Fahim Aziz Umrani; Bhawani Shanker Chowdhry

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare systems such as hospitals, homecare, telemedicine, and physical rehabilitation are expected to be revolutionized by WBAN (Wireless Body Area Networks). This research work aims to investigate, design, optimize, and demonstrate the applications of IR (Infra-Red) communication systems in WBAN. It is aimed to establish a prototype WBAN system capable of measuring Ambient and Body Temperature using LM35 as temperature sensor and transmitting and receiving the data using optical signals....

  9. A method for measuring the inertia properties of rigid bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, M.; Mastinu, G.; Previati, G.

    2011-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the inertia properties of rigid bodies is presented. Given a rigid body and its mass, the method allows to measure (identify) the centre of gravity location and the inertia tensor during a single test. The proposed technique is based on the analysis of the free motion of a multi-cable pendulum to which the body under consideration is connected. The motion of the pendulum and the forces acting on the system are recorded and the inertia properties are identified by means of a proper mathematical procedure based on a least square estimation. After the body is positioned on the test rig, the full identification procedure takes less than 10 min. The natural frequencies of the pendulum and the accelerations involved are quite low, making this method suitable for many practical applications. In this paper, the proposed method is described and two test rigs are presented: the first is developed for bodies up to 3500 kg and the second for bodies up to 400 kg. A validation of the measurement method is performed with satisfactory results. The test rig holds a third part quality certificate according to an ISO 9001 standard and could be scaled up to measure the inertia properties of huge bodies, such as trucks, airplanes or even ships.

  10. Body Mass Index and the Measurement of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method of measuring obesity using Body Mass Index (BMI) data. Conventional measures which simply count the number of individuals with BMI in excess of an upper limit ignore the extent by which individuals exceed BMI limits and also the increased risk ratios for various conditions associated very high levels of BMI. This paper suggests that measures currently used in the poverty literature can be usefully applied to measure obesity and provide us with measures which m...

  11. Evolution and plasticity of body size of Drosophila in response to temperature.

    OpenAIRE

    Calboli, F. C. F.

    2004-01-01

    Ectotherm body size is positively correlated with latitude, giving rise to body size clines, found in different continents. Ectotherm body size also shows a developmental response to temperature, increasing at lower developmental temperatures. To investigate the effects of temperature in the evolution and plasticity of body size dines, I used two species of the genus Drosophila as model organisms. To investigate the cellular mechanism underlying the evolution of wing size clines the two newly...

  12. COMMUNICATION: The effects of elevated body temperature on the complexity of the diaphragm EMG signals during maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkurt, David; Akay, Yasemin M.; Akay, Metin

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we examine the effect of elevated body temperature on the complexity of the diaphragm electromyography (EMGdia), the output of the respiratory neural network--using the approximate entropy method. The diaphragm EMG, EEG, EOG as well as other physiological signals (tracheal pressure, blood pressure and respiratory volume) in chronically instrumented rats were recorded at two postnatal ages: 25-35 days age (juvenile, n = 5) and 36-44 days age (early adult, n = 6) groups during control (36-37 °C), mild elevated body temperature (38 °C) and severe elevated body temperature (39-40 °C). Three to five trials of the recordings were performed at normal body temperature before raising the animal's core temperature by 1-4 °C with an electric heating pad. At the elevated temperature, another 3-5 trials were performed. Finally, the animal was cooled to the original temperature, and trials were again repeated. Complexity values of the diaphragm EMG signal were estimated and evaluated using the approximate entropy method (ApEn) over the ten consecutive breaths. Our results suggested that the mean approximate entropy values for the juvenile age group were 1.01 ± 0.01 (standard error) during control, 0.91 ± 0.02 during mild elevated body temperature and 0.81 ± 0.02 during severe elevated body temperature. For the early adult age group, these values were 0.94 ± 0.01 during control, 0.93 ± 0.01 during mild elevated body temperature and 0.92 ± 0.01 during severe elevated body temperature. Our results show that the complexity values and the durations of the diaphragm EMG (EMGdia) were significantly decreased when the elevated body temperature was shifted from control or mild to severe body temperature (p < 0.05) for the juvenile age group. However, for the early adult age group, an increase in body temperature slightly reduced the complexity measures and the duration of the EMGdia. But, these changes were not statistically significant. These results furthermore

  13. Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Daniel H.,; Seagle, Christopher T; Ao, Tommy

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes LDRD project number 151365, %5CDynamic Temperature Measurements with Embedded Optical Sensors%22. The purpose of this project was to develop an optical sensor capable of detecting modest temperature states (<1000 K) with nanosecond time resolution, a recurring diagnostic need in dynamic compression experiments at the Sandia Z machine. Gold sensors were selected because the visible re ectance spectrum of gold varies strongly with temperature. A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible connection between static calibrations and dynamic measurements was found. With re nements to the model and diagnostic upgrades, embedded gold sensors seem capable of detecting minor (<50 K) temperature changes under dynamic compression.

  14. The acute and subchronic effect of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on body temperature in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The consumption of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy is known to cause severe hyperthermia in humans. This is of extreme importance since ecstasy is often consumed at 'rave' parties, where dancing takes place in a warm environment, which may exacerbate the effect of MDMA on thermoregulation. The present study was performed in order to evaluate the effects of single and repeated administration of MDMA on body temperature in Wistar rats. Material and methods. The study included 72 male Wistar rats, housed in groups of four in cages at a room temperature of 222oC. They were divided in two groups. The rats in the first group were treated with oral solution of MDMA (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg and their temperature was measured hourly until 8th hour. The rats in the second group were treated with oral solution of MDMA (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg every day during 15 days and their temperature was measured daily at 0th, 1st, 3rd, 5th and 8th hour. Temperature was measured by inserting a thermocouple probe 2,5 cm into the rectum. Results. Both groups showed dose dependent increase of body temperature, determined by rectal temperature measurements. The magnitude of hyperthemic response caused by subchronic administration of MDMA was markedly diminished during the experiment. Conclusion. The hyperthermic effect of MDMA was dose-dependent. The magnitude of the hyperthermic response was markedly diminished in subchronic administration.

  15. Critical body temperature profile as indicator of heat stress vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, P K; Dutta, Priya; Nag, Anjali

    2013-01-01

    Extreme climatic heat is a major health concern among workers in different occupational pursuits. People in the regions of western India confront frequent heat emergencies, with great risk of mortality and morbidity. Taking account of informal occupational groups (foundry and sheet metal, FSM, N=587; ceramic and pottery, CP, N=426; stone quarry, SQ, N=934) in different seasons, the study examined the body temperature profiling as indicator of vulnerability to environmental warmth. About 3/4th of 1947 workers had habitual exposure at 30.1-35.5°C WBGT and ~10% of them were exposed to 38.2-41.6°C WBGT. The responses of FSM, CP and SQ workers indicated prevailing high heat load during summer and post-monsoon months. Local skin temperatures (T(sk)) varied significantly in different seasons, with consistently high level in summer, followed by post-monsoon and winter months. The mean difference of T(cr) and T(sk) was ~5.2°C up to 26.7°C WBGT, and ~2.5°C beyond 30°C WBGT. Nearly 90% of the workers had T(cr) within 38°C, suggesting their self-adjustment strategy in pacing work and regulating T(cr). In extreme heat, the limit of peripheral adjustability (35-36°C T(sk)) and the narrowing down of the difference between T(cr) and T(sk) might indicate the limit of one's ability to withstand heat exposure. PMID:23411761

  16. Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature Dependent Thermophysical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czél, Balázs; Gróf, Gyula; Kiss, László

    2011-11-01

    A new evaluation method for a transient measurement of thermophysical properties is presented in this paper. The aim of the research was to couple a new automatic evaluation procedure to the BICOND thermophysical property measurement method to enhance the simultaneous determination of the temperature dependent thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity. The thermophysical properties of two different polymers were measured and compared with the literature data and with the measurement results that were done by well-known, traditional methods. The BICOND method involves a step-down cooling, recording the temperature histories of the inner and the outer surfaces of a hollow cylindrical sample and the thermophysical properties are evaluated from the solution of the corresponding inverse heat conduction using a genetic algorithm-based method (BIGEN) developed by the authors. The BIGEN is able to find the material properties with any kind of temperature dependency, that is illustrated through the measurement results of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and polyamide (PA) samples.

  17. MISSE 1 and 2 Tray Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Kinard, William H.

    2006-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE 1 & 2) was deployed August 10,2001 and retrieved July 30,2005. This experiment is a co-operative endeavor by NASA-LaRC. NASA-GRC, NASA-MSFC, NASA-JSC, the Materials Laboratory at the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Boeing Phantom Works. The objective of the experiment is to evaluate performance, stability, and long term survivability of materials and components planned for use by NASA and DOD on future LEO, synchronous orbit, and interplanetary space missions. Temperature is an important parameter in the evaluation of space environmental effects on materials. The MISSE 1 & 2 had autonomous temperature data loggers to measure the temperature of each of the four experiment trays. The MISSE tray-temperature data loggers have one external thermistor data channel, and a 12 bit digital converter. The MISSE experiment trays were exposed to the ISS space environment for nearly four times the nominal design lifetime for this experiment. Nevertheless, all of the data loggers provided useful temperature measurements of MISSE. The temperature measurement system has been discussed in a previous paper. This paper presents temperature measurements of MISSE payload experiment carriers (PECs) 1 and 2 experiment trays.

  18. Measuring entanglement entropy in a quantum many-body system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Rajibul; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp M; Tai, M Eric; Lukin, Alexander; Rispoli, Matthew; Greiner, Markus

    2015-12-01

    Entanglement is one of the most intriguing features of quantum mechanics. It describes non-local correlations between quantum objects, and is at the heart of quantum information sciences. Entanglement is now being studied in diverse fields ranging from condensed matter to quantum gravity. However, measuring entanglement remains a challenge. This is especially so in systems of interacting delocalized particles, for which a direct experimental measurement of spatial entanglement has been elusive. Here, we measure entanglement in such a system of itinerant particles using quantum interference of many-body twins. Making use of our single-site-resolved control of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices, we prepare two identical copies of a many-body state and interfere them. This enables us to directly measure quantum purity, Rényi entanglement entropy, and mutual information. These experiments pave the way for using entanglement to characterize quantum phases and dynamics of strongly correlated many-body systems. PMID:26632587

  19. High frequency body mass measurement, feedback, and health behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooreman, P.; Scherpenzeel, A.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze weight and fat percentage measurements of respondents in an online general population panel in the Netherlands, collected using wireless scales, with an average frequency of 1.6 measurements per week. First, we document the existence of a weekly cycle; body mass is lowest on Fridays and h

  20. The Measured Temperature and Pressure of EDC37 detonation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, James; Richley, James; Ota, Tom; Sutton, Ben; Price, Ed

    2015-06-01

    We present the experimentally determined temperature and pressure of the detonation products of EDC37; a HMX based conventional high explosive. These measurements were performed on a series of cylinder tests. The temperature measurements were performed at the end of the cylinder with optical fibres observing the bare explosive through a LiF window. The temperature of the products was measured for 2 microseconds using single colour pyrometry, multicolour pyrometry and spectroscopy with the results from all three methods being consistent. The peak temperature was found to be ~ 3600 K dropping to ~ 2400 K at the end of the measurement window. The spectroscopy was time integrated and showed that the emission spectra can be approximated using a grey body curve with no other emission or absorption lines being present. The pressure was obtained using an analytical method which used the velocity of the expanding cylinder wall, measured using heterodyne velocimetry (HetV), and the velocity of detonation, measured with chirped fibre Bragg gratings. The pressure drops from an initial CJ value of ~38 GPa to ~4 GPa at the end of the 2 microsecond temperature measurement window.

  1. Relationship of anthropometric measurements to body fat as determined by densitometry 40K and body water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of anthropometric measurements were made on 223 male and 36 female military personnel for whom total body fat was estimated by density, 40K counting, and D2O dilution. Simple correlations with body fat estimates indicated that for the male population, waist, weight and buttocks circumferences were most highly correlated with fat estimate ( r = 0.70 to 0.85). In the female population skinfold thicknesses were the measurements most highly correlated with weight of body fat (r = 0.66 to 0.87). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that five of the variables could account for 60 to 70 percent of the variation in fat in males and up to 90 percent in females. Correlations of measurements were higher with fat as estimated by density than with estimates derived from potassium-40 counting or D2O dilution in males. (U.S.)

  2. Optical fibre pyrometer for low temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical fibres made of fluoride glass allow surface temperature measurement of various objects uneasy to reach, mobile or located in adverse environments. Such an infrared fibre, with transmittance extending beyond 5 μm, allows transmission of IR radiation to an IR sensor which transforms it into a usable signal. The set-up realized can take measurements down to 500C, and 300C in a next future. The sensor signal is pre-amplified and then processed by a lock-in amplifier. An IR reference internal source is used to deliver a known constant level to the sensor and allows absolute temperature measurements. The present measurement accuracy obtained with a blackbody at 2000C is ± 0.50C. We are about to use such a device for monitoring irradiated fuel rods temperature in the Superphenix 1 breeder power plant. 8 figs., 10 refs

  3. Effect of Probiotic Addition in Drinking Water on Body Weight and Body Measurements of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrnčár

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was todetermine the effects of probiotic addition in drinking water on body weightand body measurements of broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out inhalf-operation conditions experimental base of Department of Poultry Science and Small Animal Husbandry of SlovakUniversity of Agriculture in Nitra in three-floor cage system. A total of 180 one day old chickens (Ross 308 wererandomly divided to 3 groups: experimental chickens of E1 group received a probiotic in drinking waterwith concentration of 1x109 colony forming units (CFU of Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7158 in 1 g of nutrient medium andexperimental, chickens of E2 group concentration of 2x109 CFU of Enterococcus faecium M 74 in 1 g of nutrientmedium. The control group of chickens received drinking water without anyadditives. The fattening period lasted 42 days. Data of body weight and bodymeasurements (body length, bodycircumference, keel length, thigh length, and shank length were recording atages in 42day. The results of this study showed that body weight wassignificantly affected (P<0.05 by addition ofprobiotic strains Lactobacillus fermentum andEnterococcus faecium, betweenexperimental groups we found statistically not significant difference(P>0.05. The body measurements was not significantly affected (P>0.05by addition of probiotic in drinking water.

  4. Ambient temperature influences core body temperature response in rat lines bred for differences in sensitivity to 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Andrea C; Seiden, Lewis S

    2003-04-01

    Agonist-induced decrease in core body temperature has commonly been used as a measure of serotonin1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor sensitivity in mood disorder. The thermoregulatory basis for 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist-induced temperature responses in humans and rats remains unclear. Therefore, the influence of ambient temperature on 5-HT(1A) receptor-mediated decreases in core body temperature were measured in rat lines bred for high (HDS) or low (LDS) sensitivity to the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT). HDS and LDS rats were injected with either saline, 0.25 or 0.50 mg/kg 8-OH-DPAT at ambient temperatures of 10.5, 24, 30, or 37.5 degrees C, and core temperature was measured by radiotelemetry. For both lines, the thermic response to acute 8-OH-DPAT was greatest at 10.5 degrees C and decreased in magnitude as ambient temperature increased to 30 degrees C, consistent with hypothermia. HDS rats displayed a greater hypothermic response than LDS rats at 10.5, 24, and 30 degrees C. At 37.5 degrees C, LDS rats showed a lethal elevation of temperature in response to 0.50 mg/kg 8-OH-DPAT. All thermic responses to 8-OH-DPAT, including the lethality, were effectively blocked by pretreatment with the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY100635, suggesting line differences in thermoregulatory circuits that are influenced by 5-HT(1A) receptor activation. Following repeated injection of 8-OH-DPAT, the magnitude of the hypothermic response decreased in both lines at 10.5 degrees C, but increased in HDS rats treated with 0.50 mg/kg 8-OH-DPAT at 30 and 37.5 degrees C. This pattern was reversed in HDS rats following 8-OH-DPAT challenge at 24 degrees C, suggesting that a compensatory thermoregulatory response accounts for changes in the hypothermic response to chronic 8-OH-DPAT. PMID:12649391

  5. Relationship between ultrasound measurements of body fat reserves and body condition score in female donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, M; Payan-Carreira, R; Silva, S R

    2013-08-01

    Several methods have been developed to monitor body fat reserves of farm animals and body condition scoring (BCS) is generally assumed to be the most practical. Objective methods, such as real time ultrasonography (RTU), are accepted methods for measuring fat reserves in several farm species but there is no published information about the use of RTU to monitor body fat reserves in donkeys. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between RTU measurements and BCS in female donkeys (jennies) (n=16) with a BCS of 3-7 on a 9 point scale. Ultrasound images were captured using an Aloka 500-V scanner equipped with a 7.5 MHz probe and subcutaneous fat (SF, range: 1.0-14.0mm) and thoracic wall tissue (TD, range: 5.6-21.4mm) depths measurements were determined. A significant correlation was found between BCS and all RTU measurements (0.65measurements and BCS and between log transformed RTU measurements and log transformed BCS. All equations with variables transformed into a logarithmic scale gave better coefficients of determination (0.42measurements have a logarithmic relationship with BCS and that RTU combined with image analysis permits accurate fat and tissue depths measurements to monitor fat reserves in jennies. PMID:23395347

  6. High resolution temperature measurement technique for measuring marine heat flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN; YangYang; YANG; XiaoQiu; WU; BaoZhen; SUN; ZhaoHua; SHI; XiaoBin

    2013-01-01

    High resolution temperature measurement technique is one of the key techniques for measuring marine heat flow. Basing on Pt1000 platinum resistance which has the characteristics of high accuracy and good stability, we designed a bridge reversal excitation circuit for high resolution temperature measurement. And the deep ocean floor in-situ test results show that: (1) temperature deviation and peak-to-peak resolution of the first version circuit board (V1) are 1.960-1.990 mK and 0.980-0.995 m Kat 1.2-2.7°C, respectively; and temperature deviation and peak-to-peak resolution of the second circuit board (V2) are 2.260mK and 1.130 mK at 1.2-1.3°C, respectively; (2) During the 2012NSFC-IndOcean cruise, seafloor geothermal gradient at Ind2012HF03,-07 and-12 stations (water depth ranges from 3841 to 4541 m) were successfully measured, the values are 59.1,75.1 and 71.6°C/km, respectively. And the measurement errors of geothermal gradient at these three stations are less than 3.0% in terms of the peak-to-peak resolution. These indicate that the high resolution temperature measurement technique based on Pt1000 platinum resistance in this paper can be applied to marine heat flow measurement to obtain high precision geothermal parameters.

  7. Laboratory setup for temperature and humidity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Eimre, Kristjan

    2015-01-01

    In active particle detectors, the temperature and humidity conditions must be under constant monitoring and control, as even small deviations from the norm cause changes to detector characteristics and result in a loss of precision. To monitor the temperature and humidity, different kinds of sensors are used, which must be calibrated beforehand to ensure their accuracy. To calibrate the large number of sensors that are needed for the particle detectors and other laboratory work, a calibration system is needed. The purpose of the current work was to develop a laboratory setup for temperature and humidity sensor measurements and calibration.

  8. Temperature measurements of shock-compressed deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors measured the temperatures of single and double-shocked D2 and H2 up to 85 GPa (0.85 Mbar) and 5,200 K. While single shock temperatures, at pressures to 23 GPa, agree well with previous models, the double shock temperatures are as much as 40% lower than predicted. This is believed to be caused by molecular dissociation, and a new model of the hydrogen EOS at extreme conditions has been developed which correctly predicts their observations. These data and model have important implications for programs which use condensed-phase hydrogen in implosion systems

  9. Cutting temperature measurement and material machinability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Bogdan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.

  10. Research options for the development of sensors to measure the thermal state of solid steel bodies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar, T.A.; Lownie, H.W. Jr.

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of the study reported here is to assist Battelle's Pcacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in planning a research and development program to develop temperature sensors for metal and ceramic industries. This study focuses on sensors to measure internal temperatures within bodies of hot steel. A series of literature surveys, interviews, field visits, and meetings with steel-industry organizations was conducted in seeking answers to questions posed by PNL. These questions, with responses, are summarized.

  11. Design, development and implementation of the IR signaling techniques for monitoring ambient and body temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healthcare systems such as hospitals, homecare, telemedicine, and physical rehabilitation are expected to be revolutionized by WBAN (Wireless Body Area Networks). This research work aims to investigate, design, optimize, and demonstrate the applications of IR (Infra-Red) communication systems in WBAN. It is aimed to establish a prototype WBAN system capable of measuring Ambient and Body Temperature using LM35 as temperature sensor and transmitting and receiving the data using optical signals. The corresponding technical challenges that have to be faced are also discussed in this paper. Investigations are carried out to efficiently design the hardware using low-cost and low power optical transceivers. The experimental results reveal the successful transmission and reception of Ambient and Body Temperatures over short ranges i.e. up to 3-4 meters. A simple IR transceiver with an LED (Light Emitting Diodes), TV remote control IC and Arduino microcontroller is designed to perform the transmission with sufficient accuracy and ease. Experiments are also performed to avoid interference from other sources like AC and TV remote control signals by implementing IR tags. (author)

  12. Being cool: how body temperature influences ageing and longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Gerald; Cummings, Elizabeth; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Temperature is a basic and essential property of any physical system, including living systems. Even modest variations in temperature can have profound effects on organisms, and it has long been thought that as metabolism increases at higher temperatures so should rates of ageing. Here, we review the literature on how temperature affects longevity, ageing and life history traits. From poikilotherms to homeotherms, there is a clear trend for lower temperature being associated with longer lifes...

  13. Slot Antenna for Wireless Temperature Measurement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Öncel; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel clover-slot antenna for a surface-acoustic-wave sensor based wireless temperature measurement system. The slot is described by a parametric locus curve that has the shape of a clover. The antenna is operated at high temperatures, in rough environments, and has a 43......% fractional bandwidth at the 2.4 GHz ISM-band. The slot antenna has been optimized for excitation by a passive chip soldered onto it. Measurement results are compared with simulation results and show good agreements....

  14. Measurement of body fat and hydration of the fat-free body in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body fat mass, fat-free body mass and body water are basic components of body composition which are used in nutritional and metabolic studies and in patient care. A method of measuring total body fat (TBF), fat-free mass (FFM) and its hydration (TBW/FFM) involving prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) and tritium dilution has been compared with the more traditional methods of densitometry and skinfold anthropometry in 36 normal volunteers, and with skinfold anthropometry in 56 patients presenting for nutritional support. While the mean values of TBF were in reasonable agreement for the three methods in normals it was founds that skinfold anthropometry underestimated TBF relative to the IVNAA/tritium method by, on average, 3.0 kg (19%) in patients. Furthermore, the ranges of values in normals of the ratio TBW/FFM for the anthropometric (0.62 to 0.80) and densitometric (0.65 to 0.80) methods were much wider than the range for the IVNAA/tritium method (0.69 to 0.76), in which TBW was measured by tritium dilution in all cases. In the patients, the ranges of this ratio were 0.52 to 0.90 for the anthropometric method and 0.67 to 0.82 for the IVNAA/tritium method; clearly anthropometry yields values of TBW/FFM which are outside accepted biological limits. On the basis of these findings, ranges of TBW/FFM are suggested for both normal adults (0.69 to 0.75) and patients requiring nutritional support (0.67 to 0.83). Finally it is concluded that the IVNAA/tritium method is a suitable method for measuring TBF and FFM and particularly so when body composition is abnormal

  15. Measurement of body fat and hydration of the fat-free body in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streat, S.J.; Beddoe, A.H.; Hill, G.L.

    1985-06-01

    Body fat mass, fat-free body mass and body water are basic components of body composition which are used in nutritional and metabolic studies and in patient care. A method of measuring total body fat (TBF), fat-free mass (FFM) and its hydration (TBW/FFM) involving prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) and tritium dilution has been compared with the more traditional methods of densitometry and skinfold anthropometry in 36 normal volunteers, and with skinfold anthropometry in 56 patients presenting for nutritional support. While the mean values of TBF were in reasonable agreement for the three methods in normals it was founds that skinfold anthropometry underestimated TBF relative to the IVNAA/tritium method by, on average, 3.0 kg (19%) in patients. Furthermore, the ranges of values in normals of the ratio TBW/FFM for the anthropometric (0.62 to 0.80) and densitometric (0.65 to 0.80) methods were much wider than the range for the IVNAA/tritium method (0.69 to 0.76), in which TBW was measured by tritium dilution in all cases. In the patients, the ranges of this ratio were 0.52 to 0.90 for the anthropometric method and 0.67 to 0.82 for the IVNAA/tritium method; clearly anthropometry yields values of TBW/FFM which are outside accepted biological limits. On the basis of these findings, ranges of TBW/FFM are suggested for both normal adults (0.69 to 0.75) and patients requiring nutritional support (0.67 to 0.83). Finally it is concluded that the IVNAA/tritium method is a suitable method for measuring TBF and FFM and particularly so when body composition is abnormal.

  16. Measurements of whole-body radioactivity in the UK population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A national survey of whole-body radioactivity was undertaken. A mobile whole-body counter visited collaborating Medical Physics Departments and Hospitals in England and Wales. Data were also obtained from an installed whole-body counter at the West Cumberland Hospital, Whitehaven, and from a control site at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge. 1657 volunteer members of the public were measured, including 162 children. 36% of volunteers had been measured in a similar survey 2 years earlier, and showed between a two and five fold reduction in body radiocaesium. No radiocaesium was detected in 54% of people measured. Measurements showed a progressive fall over the course of the study, reaching a baseline of 0.3 Bq137Cs/gK. In 1989, the additional radiation dose incurred from radiocaesium varied from a maximum of 4.1 μSv in Cumbria to 1.5 μSv in the South East, compared with the average annual radiation dose of 2500 μSv due to all other causes. No other gamma-emitting radionuclides were found. Results are consistent with Chernobyl as the source of the radiocaesium detected. (author)

  17. Convergence of Algorithms for Reconstructing Convex Bodies and Directional Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Richard; Kiderlen, Markus; Milanfar, Peyman

    2006-01-01

    intersections in k directions u1, . . . , uk. Here the Dudley and Prohorov metrics are used. The methods are linked to those employed for the support and brightness function algorithms via the fact that the rose of intersections is the support function of a projection body.......We investigate algorithms for reconstructing a convex body K in Rn from noisy measurements of its support function or its brightness function in k directions u1, . . . , uk. The key idea of these algorithms is to construct a convex polytope Pk whose support function (or brightness function) best...... for the metric entropy of the class of origin-symmetric zonoids contained in the unit ball. Similar results are obtained for the convergence of an algorithm that reconstructs an approximating measure to the directional measure of a stationary fibre process from noisy measurements of its rose of...

  18. Ion temperature measurements in the Maryland Spheromak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauvreau, J.L.

    1992-12-31

    Initial spectroscopic data from MS showed evidence of ion heating as deduced from the line widths of different ion species. Detailed measurements of OIV spectral emission line profiles in space and time revealed that heating takes place at early time, before spheromak formation and is occurring within the current discharge. The measured ion temperature is several times the electron temperature and cannot be explained by classical (Spitzer) resistivity. Classically, ions are expected to have lower temperatures than the electrons and therefore, lower temperatures than observed. High ion temperatures have been observed in different RFP`s and Spheromaks but are usually associated with relaxation to the Taylor state and occur in the sustainment phase. During formation, the current delivered to start the discharge is not axisymmetric and as a consequence, X-points appear in the magnetic flux. A two dimensional analysis predicts that magnetic reconnection occurring at an X-point can give rise to high ion heating rates. A simple 0-dimensional calculation showed that within the first 20 {mu}s, a conversion of mass flow kinetic energy into ion temperature could take place due to viscosity.

  19. Ion temperature measurements in the Maryland Spheromak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial spectroscopic data from MS showed evidence of ion heating as deduced from the line widths of different ion species. Detailed measurements of OIV spectral emission line profiles in space and time revealed that heating takes place at early time, before spheromak formation and is occurring within the current discharge. The measured ion temperature is several times the electron temperature and cannot be explained by classical (Spitzer) resistivity. Classically, ions are expected to have lower temperatures than the electrons and therefore, lower temperatures than observed. High ion temperatures have been observed in different RFP's and Spheromaks but are usually associated with relaxation to the Taylor state and occur in the sustainment phase. During formation, the current delivered to start the discharge is not axisymmetric and as a consequence, X-points appear in the magnetic flux. A two dimensional analysis predicts that magnetic reconnection occurring at an X-point can give rise to high ion heating rates. A simple 0-dimensional calculation showed that within the first 20 μs, a conversion of mass flow kinetic energy into ion temperature could take place due to viscosity

  20. The effect of lower body cooling on the changes in three core temperature indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rectal (Tre), ear canal (Tear) and esophageal (Tes) temperatures have been used in the literature as core temperature indices in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate if localized lower body cooling would have a different effect on each of these measurements. We hypothesized that prolonged lower body surface cooling will result in a localized cooling effect for the rectal temperature not reflected in the other core measurement sites. Twelve participants (mean ± SD; 26.8 ± 6.0 years; 82.6 ± 13.9 kg; 179 ± 10 cm, BSA = 2.00 ± 0.21 m2) attended one experimental session consisting of sitting on a rubberized raft floor surface suspended in 5 °C water in a thermoneutral air environment (∼21.5 ± 0.5 °C). Experimental conditions were (a) a baseline phase during which participants were seated for 15 min in an upright position on an insulated pad (1.408 K . m2 . W−1); (b) a cooling phase during which participants were exposed to the cooling surface for 2 h, and (c) an insulation phase during which the baseline condition was repeated for 1 h. Temperature data were collected at 1 Hz, reduced to 1 min averages, and transformed from absolute values to a change in temperature from baseline (15 min average). Metabolic data were collected breath-by-breath and integrated over the same temperature epoch. Within the baseline phase no significant change was found between the three indices of core temperature. By the end of the cooling phase, Tre was significantly lower (Δ = −1.0 ± 0.4 °C) from baseline values than from Tear (Δ = −0.3 ± 0.3 °C) and Tes (Δ = −0.1 ± 0.3 °C). Tre continued to decrease during the insulation phase from Δ −1.0 ± 0.4 °C to as low as Δ −1.4 ± 0.5 °C. By the end of the insulation phase Tre had slightly risen back to Δ −1.3 ± 0.4 °C but remained significantly different from baseline values and from the other two core measures. Metabolic data showed no variation throughout the experiment. In conclusion, the local

  1. Body composition : methods of measurement, normative values and clinical use

    OpenAIRE

    Genton Graf, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of body composition is an important part of nutritional assessment. The low FFM associated with malnutrition has been associated with numerous infectious and noninfectious complications, increasing length of stay, morbidity and mortality. DXA and TBK are reference method for determination of FFM and BCM, but, as these methods are expensive and require extensive technique of the operator, we have focused especially on BIA, an easy, quick, safe and reliable bedside method to measure...

  2. Downhole temperature tool accurately measures well bore profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that an inexpensive temperature tool provides accurate temperatures measurements during drilling operations for better design of cement jobs, workovers, well stimulation, and well bore hydraulics. Valid temperature data during specific wellbore operations can improve initial job design, fluid testing, and slurry placement, ultimately enhancing well bore performance. This improvement applies to cement slurries, breaker activation for slurries, breaker activation for stimulation and profile control, and fluid rheological properties for all downhole operations. The temperature tool has been run standalone mounted inside drill pipe, on slick wire line and braided cable, and as a free-falltool. It has also been run piggyback on both directional surveys (slick line and free-fall) and standard logging runs. This temperature measuring system has been used extensively in field well bores to depths of 20,000 ft. The temperature tool is completely reusable in the field, ever similar to the standard directional survey tools used on may drilling rigs. The system includes a small, rugged, programmable temperature sensor, a standard body housing, various adapters for specific applications, and a personal computer (PC) interface

  3. Spectroscopy of flame emission temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study laser induced fluorescence technique is applied to bunsen burner flame.The emission spectra of the bunsen burner which consist visible and infrared bands coming from exited CH and H2O vapor molecules in butane/air flame, were recorded.The transition probability of the lines was calculated.The ratio of the emission intensity peaks was used for the estimation of the local temperature in different positions above the primary reaction zone. It was shown that the ratio of emission lines corresponding to λ1 and λ2 changes smoothly with temperature, which makes valid the empirically obtained relationship.This technique is used as a thermometer to determine different temperatures remotely. This is necessarily needed for measuring high temperatures in certain industries.(Author)

  4. Global trends of measured surface air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the results of surface air temperature measurements from available meteorological stations for the period of 1880-1985. It is shown that the network of meteorological stations is sufficient to yield reliable long-term, decadal, and interannual temperature changes for both the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, despite the fact that most stations are located on the continents. The results indicate a global warming of about 0.5-0.7 C in the past century, with warming of similar magnitude in both hemispheres. A strong warming trend between 1965 and 1980 raised the global mean temperature in 1980 and 1981 to the highest level in the period of instrumental records. Selected graphs of the temperature change in each of the eight latitude zones are included.

  5. Influence of elevated body temperature on circulating immunoglobulin-secreting cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, M; Barington, T; Gyhrs, A; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    1995-01-01

    This work was designed to investigate the effect of in vivo hyperthermia in man on circulating immunoglobulin-secreting cells. Eight healthy male volunteers were immersed into a hot waterbath (WI) (water temperature 39.5 degrees C) for 2 h, whereby their body temperature rose to 39.5 degrees C. On...... another occasion they served as their own controls, being immersed into thermoneutral water (water temperature 34.5 degrees C) for 2 h. Blood samples were drawn before immersion, at body temperatures of 38, 39 and 39.5 degrees C, as well as 2 h after WI when their body temperatures were normalized. In the...

  6. Temperature distribution in the human body under various conditions of induced hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobko, O. V.; Perelman, T. L.; Fradkin, S. Z.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model based on heat balance equations was developed for studying temperature distribution in the human body under deep hyperthermia which is often induced in the treatment of malignant tumors. The model yields results which are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The distribution of temperature under various conditions of induced hyperthermia, i.e. as a function of water temperature and supply rate, is examined on the basis of temperature distribution curves in various body zones.

  7. Temperature measurements of shocked silica aerogel foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, K; McCoy, C A; Fryer, C L; Greeff, C W; Hungerford, A L; Montgomery, D S; Schmidt, D W; Sheppard, D G; Williams, J R; Boehly, T R; Benage, J F

    2014-09-01

    We present recent results of equation-of-state (EOS) measurements of shocked silica (SiO_{2}) aerogel foam at the OMEGA laser facility. Silica aerogel is an important low-density pressure standard used in many high energy density experiments, including the novel technique of shock and release. Due to its many applications, it has been a heavily studied material and has a well-known Hugoniot curve. This work then complements the velocity and pressure measurements with additional temperature data providing the full EOS information within the warm dense matter regime for the temperature interval of 1-15 eV and shock velocities between 10 and 40 km/s corresponding to shock pressures of 0.3-2 Mbar. The experimental results were compared with hydrodynamic simulations and EOS models. We found that the measured temperature was systematically lower than suggested by theoretical calculations. Simulations provide a possible explanation that the emission measured by optical pyrometry comes from a radiative precursor rather than from the shock front, which could have important implications for such measurements. PMID:25314547

  8. Emissivity measurements of opaque gray bodies up to 2000 C by a dual-frequency pyrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the SPES project at LNL-INFN a method for emissivity measurements by a double-frequency pyrometer in the infrared region at high temperatures on opaque gray bodies of SiC and graphite is presented. The measurement method proposed in this work reveals a good fitting with literature values. Moreover, the effect of surface finishing on emissivity values has been investigated. (orig.)

  9. Emissivity measurements of opaque gray bodies up to 2000 C by a dual-frequency pyrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasetto, L. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Settore Materiali, Padova (Italy); Manzolaro, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Padova (Italy); Andrighetto, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    In the framework of the SPES project at LNL-INFN a method for emissivity measurements by a double-frequency pyrometer in the infrared region at high temperatures on opaque gray bodies of SiC and graphite is presented. The measurement method proposed in this work reveals a good fitting with literature values. Moreover, the effect of surface finishing on emissivity values has been investigated. (orig.)

  10. PIV as a temperature measurement tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oweis, Ghanem F.

    2015-11-01

    In particle image velocimetry (PIV), a camera records time-lapse snapshot images of the positions of particles embedded in a fluid, which faithfully trace the flow path. Cross correlating sequential particle image pairs results in 2D maps of the particle displacement and velocity fields. Here, the same PIV method is extended to temperature measurements in viscoelastic material. The motivation originates in a need for tissue temperature measurements in hyperthermia therapies such as laser ablation eye surgery and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) tumor ablation. Micron sized particles are embedded in an optically clear tissue mimicking phantom, illuminated with a laser sheet, and imaged with a CCD camera. When the phantom is subjected to heating from a focused ultrasound beam, the particles remain stationary, but not their spatial distribution in the recorded images. The images manifest particle displacements commensurate with alterations in the temperature distribution from heating. The underlying principle behind the thermometric capability of PIV is discussed. Temperature changes can be detected with high sensitivity, and the method works best with spatially localized temperature distributions.

  11. Ice swimming and changes in body core temperature: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction ‘Ice Mile’ swimming is a new discipline in open-water swimming introduced in 2009. This case study investigated changes in body core temperature during preparation for and completion of two official ‘Ice Miles’, defined as swimming 1.609 km in water of 5°C or colder, in one swimmer. Case description One experienced ice swimmer (56 years old, 110.2 kg body mass, 1.76 m body height, BMI of 35.6 kg/m2, 44.8% body fat) recorded data including time, distance and body core temperature ...

  12. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  13. Changes in body chemical composition with age measured by total-body neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total-body levels of calcium and phosphorus (reflecting skeletal mass) and total-body levels of potassium (reflecting muscle mass) were measured by neutron activation analysis in 39 men and 40 women ages 30 to 90 yr. In order to intercompare the total body calcium (TBCa) values in a heterogeneous population, such as this, it was necessary to normalize the data for skeletal size. The normalization consisted of dividing the absolute calcium level by the predicted calcium level for each individual matched to a set of critical parameters. The parameter used in the computation of normal values were age, sex, muscle mass, i.e., total body potassium (TBK) and height. For the calcium data of the women, it was necessary to add an age correction factor after the age of 55 yr. The calcium ratio (mean ratio of the predicted to measured TBCa) in men was 1.000 +- 7.8 percent and in women 0.996 +- 7.1 percent. The TBCa of normal males and females can thus be predicted to +-13 percent (at the 90 percent confidence level). An exception to this was found in males (70 to 90 yr) who exhibited a mean calcium ratio greater than 1.13

  14. Body mass index and blood pressure measurement during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The accurate measurement of blood pressure requires the use of a large cuff in subjects with a high mid-arm circumference (MAC). This prospective study examined the need for a large cuff during pregnancy and its correlation with maternal obesity. METHODS: Maternal body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and MAC were measured. RESULTS: Of 179 women studied, 15.6% were obese. With a BMI of level 1 obesity, 44% needed a large cuff and with a BMI of level 2 obesity 100% needed a large cuff. CONCLUSION: All women booking for antenatal care should have their MAC measured to avoid the overdiagnosis of pregnancy hypertension.

  15. Gamma-ray backscatter for body composition measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, H M; Shakeshaft, J T; Lillicrap, S C

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of using backscatter information to assess regional body composition at selected sites. Two measurement techniques are examined: the measurement of the ratio of coherent to Compton scatter, and the measurement of the Compton scatter profile. Two possible applications are considered: the measurement of trabecular bone mineral density, and the measurement of the average fat/muscle ratio in a tissue volume. The results presented indicate that the analysis of coherent and Compton backscattered gamma-ray spectra from an 241Am source has the potential for measuring both trabecular bone mineral density and average fat/muscle ratio in a tissue volume, with a low absorbed dose to the subject. PMID:9569541

  16. Global rainbow refractometry for droplet temperature measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascal Lemaitre; Emmanuel Porcheron; Amandine Nuboer; Philippe Brun; Pierre Cornet; Jeanne Malet; Jacques Vendel; Laurent Bouilloux [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire DSU/SERAC, BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Gerard Grehan [UMR 6614 CORIA, Laboratoire d' Electromagnetisme et Systemes Particulaires Site Universitaire du Madrillet, Avenue de l' universite BP 12, 76 801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray Cedex, (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to establish an accurate database to characterize the heat and mass transfers between a spray and the atmosphere with thermal-hydraulic conditions representative of a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident in the containment enclosure of a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) has developed the TOSQAN experimental facility. This experiment is highly instrumented with non-intrusive diagnostics allowing to measure droplet size and velocity and gas concentrations [1]. The aim of this work is to present the Global Rainbow Thermometry (GRT), which is an advanced non-intrusive optical diagnostic, developed to measure the mean temperature of a set of falling droplets, in a measurement volume of 1 cm{sup 3}. The final paper will be divided in three parts. In the first one, we will explain the principle of the rainbow formation and how droplet temperature can be deduced from the rainbow analysis [2]. This part will be illustrated with the theoretical background on the rainbow and numerical simulations of the global rainbow. The second part will be devoted to present the global rainbow experimental set-up we have developed on optical table, its experimental qualification and finally its implementation on the TOSQAN facility [3]. Finally, we will present the temperature measurements achieved in TOSQAN for thermal-hydraulic conditions representative of a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident. These measurements are useful to characterize the heat and mass transfers between the spraying droplets and the air-steam mixture composing the atmosphere. This analysis will be exposed in a two companion papers. References: [1] E. Porcheron, P. Brun, P. Cornet, J. Malet, J. Vendel. Optical diagnostics applied for single and multi-phase flow characterization in the TOSQAN facility dedicated for thermal hydraulic containment studies. NURETH-10 Seoul, Korea, October 5-9, 2003. [2] P

  17. Reliability of an infrared forehead skin thermometer for core temperature measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistemaker, J.A.; Hartog, E.A. den; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The SensorTouch thermometer performs an infrared measurement of the skin temperature above the Superficial Temporal Artery (STA). This study evaluates the validity and the accuracy of the SensorTouch thermometer. Two experiments were performed in which the body temperature was measured with a rectal

  18. Temperature measurement in French atomic piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Chatillon reactor the temperature is measured (1) in the interior of one of the vertical A1 cylinders filled with UO2 (temperature interval 20 to 70 deg. C), and (2) in the center of the tank containing D2O (20 to 50 deg. C). The instruments used are silver-constantan thermocouples; the wires are insulated by SiO2 sheaths, those immersed in D2O being placed within Al cases 10 mm diameter. In the Saclay reactor the temperature is taken (1) in the interior of 4 U rods (20 to 300 deg. C), (2) at 2 points of the D2O mass (20 to 60 deg. C), (3) at one point in graphite (20 to 100 deg. C), and (4) at 5 points in the catalytic setup (200 deg. C). Copper-constantan couples are used (Ag-constantan is not suitable above 150 deg. C); the wires are enclosed in a sheath of glass fabric. In both reactors the accuracy of the temperature measurements is 0.5 deg. C. (author)

  19. Thermoreflectance temperature measurement with millimeter wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradere, C., E-mail: christophe.pradere@ensam.eu; Caumes, J.-P.; BenKhemis, S.; Palomo, E.; Batsale, J.-C. [I2M (Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie de Bordeaux) UMR CNRS 5295, TREFLE Department, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Pernot, G.; Dilhaire, S. [LOMA UMR 5798: CNRS-UB1, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)

    2014-06-15

    GigaHertz (GHz) thermoreflectance technique is developed to measure the transient temperature of metal and semiconductor materials located behind an opaque surface. The principle is based on the synchronous detection, using a commercial THz pyrometer, of a modulated millimeter wave (at 110 GHz) reflected by the sample hidden behind a shield layer. Measurements were performed on aluminum, copper, and silicon bulks hidden by a 5 cm thick Teflon plate. We report the first measurement of the thermoreflectance coefficient which exhibits a value 100 times higher at 2.8 mm radiation than those measured at visible wavelengths for both metallic and semiconductor materials. This giant thermoreflectance coefficient κ, close to 10{sup −3} K{sup −1} versus 10{sup −5} K{sup −1} for the visible domain, is very promising for future thermoreflectance applications.

  20. Thermoreflectance temperature measurement with millimeter wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GigaHertz (GHz) thermoreflectance technique is developed to measure the transient temperature of metal and semiconductor materials located behind an opaque surface. The principle is based on the synchronous detection, using a commercial THz pyrometer, of a modulated millimeter wave (at 110 GHz) reflected by the sample hidden behind a shield layer. Measurements were performed on aluminum, copper, and silicon bulks hidden by a 5 cm thick Teflon plate. We report the first measurement of the thermoreflectance coefficient which exhibits a value 100 times higher at 2.8 mm radiation than those measured at visible wavelengths for both metallic and semiconductor materials. This giant thermoreflectance coefficient κ, close to 10−3 K−1 versus 10−5 K−1 for the visible domain, is very promising for future thermoreflectance applications

  1. Sleeping body temperatures in 3-4 month old infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Wailoo, M P; Petersen, S A; Whittaker, H.; Goodenough, P

    1989-01-01

    Rectal, skin, and ambient temperatures were continuously recorded overnight from 3-4 month old normal infants in their home cots under conditions of room temperature and wrapping chosen freely by parents. It was found that rectal temperature was above 37 degrees C when infants were put down, but fell rapidly to 36.4 degrees C within one and a half hours, then stabilised for a few hours before rising steadily. This pattern was tied more closely to the time of putting down than time of day. The...

  2. Developing a Novel Measure of Body Satisfaction Using Virtual Reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare K Purvis

    Full Text Available Body image disturbance (BID, considered a key feature in eating disorders, is a pervasive issue among young women. Accurate assessment of BID is critical, but the field is currently limited to self-report assessment methods. In the present study, we build upon existing research, and explore the utility of virtual reality (VR to elicit and detect changes in BID across various immersive virtual environments. College-aged women with elevated weight and shape concerns (n = 38 and a non-weight and shape concerned control group (n = 40 were randomly exposed to four distinct virtual environments with high or low levels of body salience and social presence (i.e., presence of virtual others. Participants interacted with avatars of thin, normal weight, and overweight body size (BMI of approximately 18, 22, and 27 respectively in virtual social settings (i.e., beach, party. We measured state-level body satisfaction (state BD immediately after exposure to each environment. In addition, we measured participants' minimum interpersonal distance, visual attention, and approach preference toward avatars of each size. Women with higher baseline BID reported significantly higher state BD in all settings compared to controls. Both groups reported significantly higher state BD in a beach with avatars as compared to other environments. In addition, women with elevated BID approached closer to normal weight avatars and looked longer at thin avatars compared to women in the control group. Our findings indicate that VR may serve as a novel tool for measuring state-level BID, with applications for measuring treatment outcomes. Implications for future research and clinical interventions are discussed.

  3. New insulating material in maintenance of body temperature.

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, B M; Bates, A R; Gray, O. P.; Pearson, J F; Wardrop, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Flectalon, web of aluminised polyvinylchloride fibres, has been formulated to minimise radiant heat losses and to provide conventional insulation. Critical temperature determinations were used to assess the insulating efficacy of this and other swaddling materials in infants. The critical temperature for a baby 2 to 10 days old was 31 degrees C when naked and 23 degrees C when wrapped in a Silver Swaddler or a sheet and two blankets. The use of a quilt made with Thinsulate or Hollofil with a ...

  4. Low Temperature and Polyploidy Result in Larger Cell and Body Size in an Ectothermic Vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermaniuk, Adam; Rybacki, Mariusz; Taylor, Jan R E

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported that low temperatures result in increases in both cell size and body size in ectotherms that may explain patterns of geographic variation of their body size across latitudinal ranges. Also, polyploidy showed the same effect on body size in invertebrates. In vertebrates, despite their having larger cells, no clear effect of polyploidy on body size has been found. This article presents the relationship between temperature, cell size, growth rate, and body size in diploid and polyploid hybridogenetic frog Pelophylax esculentus reared as tadpoles at 19° and 24°C. The size of cells was larger in both diploid and triploid tadpoles at 19°C, and triploids had larger cells at both temperatures. In diploid and triploid froglets, the temperature in which they developed as tadpoles did not affect the size of their cells, but triploids still had larger cells. Triploid tadpoles grew faster than diploids at 19°C and had larger body mass; there was no clear difference between ploidies in growth rate at 24°C. This indicates better adaptation of triploid tadpoles to cold environment. This is the first report on the increase of body mass of a polyploid vertebrate caused by low temperature, and we showed relationship between increase in cell size and increased body mass. The large body mass of triploids may provide a selective advantage, especially in colder environments, and this may explain the prevalence of triploids in the northern parts of the geographic range of P. esculentus. PMID:27082722

  5. [An instrument for estimating human body composition using impedance measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J; Peng, C

    1997-03-01

    According to the impedance feature of biological tissue, the instrument was designed at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100kHz to measure human impedance, and then to calculate human FAT, FFM, FAT%, TBW, ECW, ICW and so on. A 8031 singlechip microprocessor contacuting used as a control center in the instrument. The part of electric circuit contacuting human body in the instrument was unreally earthing. The instrument was safty, effective, repeatable, and easily manpulative. Prelimintary clinical experiment showed the results measured with the instrument could effectively reflect practical, status of human composition. PMID:9647623

  6. Interferometric measurement of many-body topological invariants using polarons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusdt, Fabian; Yao, Norman; Abanin, Dmitry; Demler, Eugene

    2014-05-01

    We present a scheme for the direct detection of many-body topological invariants in ultra cold quantum gases in optical lattices. We generalize single-particle interferometric schemes developed for the detection of topologically non-trivial band structures [Atala et al., Nature Physics 9, 795 (2013)] by coupling a spin-1/2 impurity to a (topological) excitation of an interacting many-body system. Performing Ramsey interferometry in combination with Bloch oscillations of the resulting polaronic particle allows to directly detect the many body-topological invariant. In particular we consider adiabatic Thouless pumps in the super-lattice Bose-Hubbard model, which transport a quantized amount of particles across a one-dimensional lattice. In the presence of inter-atomic interactions this quantized current is given by a many-body Chern number, which can be measured using our protocol. These systems also support symmetry-protected topological phases, the invariants of which can be obtained from our protocol as well.

  7. Apparatus for measuring rat body volume: a methodological proposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohl, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Renato Buscariolli; Vaz de Macedo, Denise; Brenzikofer, René

    2007-03-01

    We propose a communicating-vessels system to measure body volume in live rats through water level detection by hydrostatic weighing. The reproducibility, accuracy, linearity, and reliability of this apparatus were evaluated in two tests using previously weighed water or six aluminum cylinders of known volume after proper system calibration. The applicability of this apparatus to measurement of live animals (Wistar rats) was tested in a transversal experiment with five rats, anesthetized and nonanesthetized. We took 18 measurements of the volume under each condition (anesthetized and nonanesthetized), totaling 90 measurements. The addition of water volumes (50-700 ml) produced a regression equation with a slope of 1.0006 +/- 0.0017, intercept of 0.75 +/- 0.81 (R(2) = 0.99999, standard error of estimate = 0.58 ml), and bias of approximately 1 ml. The differences between cylinders of known volumes and volumes calculated by the system were air bubbles trapped in the apparatus or the fur. The proposed apparatus for measuring rat body volume is inexpensive and may be useful for a range of scientific purposes. PMID:17082370

  8. Coherence imaging for ion temperature and flow measurements in a low-temperature helicon plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, R.; Zhai, Y.; Corr, C.; Howard, J.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes a coherence imaging system designed for spectroscopic Doppler measurements of ion light in a low-temperature (T e   delay (comparable with the coherence length of the emission line). For these polarization interferometers, this can only be achieved using large thicknesses (100 mm) of birefringent crystal. This poses special design challenges including the application of field-widening techniques and the development of passive thermal stabilization of the optical phase offset. We discuss the measurement principles and the optical design of these systems and present measurements of the line-integrated emissivity, and ion flow and ion temperatures along with tomographic reconstructions of the local values, for a cylindrical low temperature helicon discharge in a linear magnetized device with downstream magnetic mirror. Key results reveal a hollow edge-peaked temperature profile (central temperature  ∼0.1 eV) and sheared rigid-body rotational flows and axial flows which are comparable with the ion thermal speed. The emission line brightness, ion temperature and azimuthal ion flows are all found to increase with increased mirror magnetic field strength.

  9. Measurement of total body potassium in premature infants by means of a whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a whole-body counter (WBC) specially designed to measured total body potassium (TBK) infants under 4500 g. The counter is a ''shadow shield'' design and consists of a single 10 cm X 10 cm X 45 cm NaI(Tl) crystal, positioned lengthwise and shielded from environmental background radiation by a minimum of 10 cm of lead. The standard error of counting for a 2000-s counting period is 19.9% for a 1000-g infant and 11.9% for a 2000-g infant. TBK of stillborn pigs, measured by the WBC, agreed to an average of 3% of TBK determined by carcass analysis in the same animals. A total of 118 measurements of TBK have been made in 50 premature infants ranging in weight between 1100 and 3600 g and in age between 2 and 75 days. The observed relationship of TBK with weight is described by the equation: TBK (mEq) = 0.0433Wt (g + 1.57 r = 0.92. Potassium retention per gram weight gain is estimated to be 0.043 mEq. The obtained TBK values agree well with values published by other workers but extend the range of measurement to 1100 g

  10. The display of portable infrared measuring temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yitao; Gu, Guohua; Sui, Xiubao

    2014-11-01

    In recent years based on security, quality supervision, inspection and medical for the urgent need of infrared temperature measurement and infrared display technology, coupled with embedded system to achieve rapid development, which is widely used in the electronic products and the field of intelligent instruments and industrial control, this paper has designed a kind of more comprehensive, more efficient and more intuitive infrared thermometer. Unlike previous handheld infrared thermometer, we regard an embedded Linux system as the system, with its open source code, support most mainstream hardware platforms, unified peripheral interface and can be customized, to build an embedded infrared system that has provided strong system support; the pseudocolor techniques and Qt interface display technology make the image more colorful and the picture function more diverse; With ARM microprocessor as the display and temperature measuring platform, it costs reduction and reduce volume and power consumption; the FrameBuffer interface technology and multithreading technology realize the smooth real-time display. And ultimately the display size of real-time infrared image is 640 * 480 at a speed of 25 frames / sec. What is more, display is equipped with the menu option so that thermometer can be required to complete the operation through the button. The temperature display system aims at small volume, easy to use and flexible. I believe this thermometer will have a good application prospect.

  11. Ice swimming and changes in body core temperature: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION 'Ice Mile' swimming is a new discipline in open-water swimming introduced in 2009. This case study investigated changes in body core temperature during preparation for and completion of two official 'Ice Miles', defined as swimming 1.609 km in water of 5°C or colder, in one swimmer. CASE DESCRIPTION One experienced ice swimmer (56 years old, 110.2 kg body mass, 1.76 m body height, BMI of 35.6 kg/m(2), 44.8% body fat) recorded data including time, distance and body core tempera...

  12. A wireless body measurement system to study fatigue in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Fei; Rabotti, Chiara; Bilberg, Arne;

    2012-01-01

    developed to study fatigue in MS. It can continuously measure electrocardiogram, body-skin temperature, electromyogram and motions of feet. The goal of this study is to test the ability of distinguishing fatigued MS patients from healthy subjects by the use of FAMOS. This paper presents the realization of...... fatigued MS patients and healthy controls. The usability and reliability of the FAMOS should however be further improved and validated through larger clinical trials....

  13. Boiled Water Temperature Measurement System Using PIC Microcontroller

    OpenAIRE

    A.T.KARUPPIAH, AZHA. PERIASAMY, P.RAJKUMAR

    2013-01-01

    The measurement system for temperature of boiled water is a critical task in industry. In this paper we designed and implemented a PIC micro controller based boiled water temperature measurement system using PIC 18F452 and national semiconductors LM35 temperature sensor. The designing system is used to measure the tank I boiled water temperature value. If the temperature value reaches the set value high temperature relay board becomes ON to control the solenoid valve. The high temperature of ...

  14. PIV measurement of flow around an arbitrarily moving body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Young Jin; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a PIV (particle image velocimetry) image processing method for measuring flow velocities around an arbitrarily moving body. This image processing technique uses a contour-texture analysis based on user-defined textons to determine the arbitrarily moving interface in the particle images. After the interface tracking procedure is performed, the particle images near the interface are transformed into Cartesian coordinates that are related to the distance from the interface. This transformed image always has a straight interface, so the interrogation windows can easily be arranged at certain distances from the interface. Accurate measurements near the interface can then be achieved by applying the window deformation algorithm in concert with PIV/IG (interface gradiometry). The displacement of each window is evaluated by using the window deformation algorithm and was found to result in acceptable errors except for the border windows. Quantitative evaluations of this method were performed by applying it to computer-generated images and actual PIV measurements.

  15. HML's whole body counter: measuring highly radioactive persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gary H; Capello, Kevin; Chiang, Albert; Hauck, Barry M

    2009-12-01

    The National Internal Radiation Assessment Section's Human Monitoring Laboratory (HML) has the responsibility to measure persons who may become internally contaminated following an accidental or intentional release of radioactivity. In preparation for measuring individuals who may be highly internally contaminated, the HML has reconfigured and recalibrated its whole body counter for this event. The calibration was performed using Monte Carlo simulations and validated by experimental measurements. An equation was developed that related the counting efficiency as a function of photon energy and phantom-to-detector distance. The equation could predict efficiencies to within 10% or better. Dead time problems, as a result of high internal activities, have been minimized by having a variety of counting positions. Six example nuclides have been used (Co, Co, Y, Ba, Cs, and Am) to show what is achievable and what is not. PMID:19901599

  16. Measuring adiposity in patients: the utility of body mass index (BMI, percent body fat, and leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav R Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a serious disease that is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and cancer, among other diseases. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC estimates a 20% obesity rate in the 50 states, with 12 states having rates of over 30%. Currently, the body mass index (BMI is most commonly used to determine adiposity. However, BMI presents as an inaccurate obesity classification method that underestimates the epidemic and contributes to failed treatment. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of precise biomarkers and duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA to help diagnose and treat obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study of adults with BMI, DXA, fasting leptin and insulin results were measured from 1998-2009. Of the participants, 63% were females, 37% were males, 75% white, with a mean age = 51.4 (SD = 14.2. Mean BMI was 27.3 (SD = 5.9 and mean percent body fat was 31.3% (SD = 9.3. BMI characterized 26% of the subjects as obese, while DXA indicated that 64% of them were obese. 39% of the subjects were classified as non-obese by BMI, but were found to be obese by DXA. BMI misclassified 25% men and 48% women. Meanwhile, a strong relationship was demonstrated between increased leptin and increased body fat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the prevalence of false-negative BMIs, increased misclassifications in women of advancing age, and the reliability of gender-specific revised BMI cutoffs. BMI underestimates obesity prevalence, especially in women with high leptin levels (>30 ng/mL. Clinicians can use leptin-revised levels to enhance the accuracy of BMI estimates of percentage body fat when DXA is unavailable.

  17. Effects of Body Weight and Water Temperature on Maximum Food Consumption of Juvenile Sebastodes fuscescens (Houttuyn)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢松光; 杨红生; 周毅; 张福绥

    2004-01-01

    Maximum rate of food consumption (Cmax) was determined for juvenile Sebastodes fuscescens (Houttuyn) at water temperature of 10, 15, 20 and 25℃. The relationships of Cmax to the body weight (W) at each temperature were described by a power equation: lnCmax = a + b lnW. Covariance analysis revealed significant interaction of the temperature and body weight. The relationship of adjusted Cmax to water temperature (T) was described by a quadratic equation: Cmax =-0.369 + 0.456T - 0.0117T2. The optimal feeding temperature calculated from this equation was 19.5℃. The coefficients of the multiple regression estimation relating Cmax to body weight (W) and water temperature (T) were given in the Table 2.

  18. Development of pellet melting temperature measurement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the extended fuel burn-up project of the light water reactor (LWR), the irradiation behavior of high burn-up fuels should be clarified. Data accumulation of thermal properties such as melting point of LWR fuel pellets is quite urgent from the view point of safety evaluation in the normal operation and accident conditions. In the department of Hot Laboratories, several apparatuses have been developed for investigating the irradiation behavior of high burn-up fuels under the consignment of the Science and Technology Agency since 1990. A pellet Melting Temperature measurement apparatus was developed as one of them. This paper describes outline and characteristic test of the apparatus, and measurements of melting point of unirradiated and irradiated UO2 pellets. (author)

  19. The effect of body temperature on the dynamic respiratory system compliance–breathing frequency relationship in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Rubini, Alessandro; Bosco, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical inhomogeneity of the respiratory system is frequently investigated by measuring the frequency dependence of dynamic compliance, but no data are currently available describing the effects of body temperature variations. The aim of the present report was to study those effects in vivo. Peak airway pressure was measured during positive pressure ventilation in eight anesthetized rats while breathing frequency (but not tidal volume) was altered. Dynamic compliance was calculated as ...

  20. Constraining the redshift evolution of the Cosmic Microwave Background black-body temperature with PLANCK data

    CERN Document Server

    de Martino, I; Atrio-Barandela, F; Ebeling, H; Kashlinsky, A; Kocevski, D; Martins, C J A P

    2015-01-01

    We constrain the deviation of adiabatic evolution of the Universe using the data on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropies measured by the {\\it Planck} satellite and a sample of 481 X-ray selected clusters with spectroscopically measured redshifts. To avoid antenna beam effects, we bring all the maps to the same resolution. We use a CMB template to subtract the cosmological signal while preserving the Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (TSZ) anisotropies; next, we remove galactic foreground emissions around each cluster and we mask out all known point sources. If the CMB black-body temperature scales with redshift as $T(z)=T_0(1+z)^{1-\\alpha}$, we constrain deviations of adiabatic evolution to be $\\alpha=-0.007\\pm 0.013$, consistent with the temperature-redshift relation of the standard cosmological model. This result could suffer from a potential bias associated with the CMB template, that we quantify it to be less than $-0.02$, but is free from those biases associated with using TSZ selected ...

  1. Effects of body mass and water temperature on routine metabolism of American paddlefish Polyodon spathula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, J T; Mims, S D; Wright, R A

    2013-04-01

    This study quantified the effects of temperature and fish mass on routine metabolism of the American paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Thermal sensitivity, as measured by Q(10) value, was low in P. spathula. Mean Q(10) was 1·78 while poikilotherms are generally expected to have Q(10) values in the 2·00-2·50 range. Mass-specific metabolism did not decrease with increased fish size to the extent that this phenomenon is observed in teleosts, as evidenced by a mass exponent (β) value of 0·92 for P. spathula compared with 0·79 in a review of teleost species. Other Acipenseriformes have exhibited relatively high β values for mass-specific respiration. Overall P. spathula metabolism appears to be more dependent on body mass and less dependent on temperature than for many other fishes. An equation utilizing temperature and fish mass to estimate gross respiration for P. spathula was derived and this equation was applied to respiratory data from other Acipenseriformes to assess inter-species variation. Polyodon spathula respiration rates across water temperature and fish mass appear most similar to those of Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. PMID:23557305

  2. Measurement of temperature rise during Si cleavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transient temperature change has been measured during the cleavage of Si(100) wafers both in air and in vacuum (5xl06 torr). A fine thermocouple(TC) (E type) formed by wires of diameter 25 μm was placed in a groove cut on the (100) surface where the crack was to occur. A tiny drop of thermal transfer compound was applied to enhance the thermal conduction between TC and sample surface. The thermocouple signal was recorded by a digital storage adaptor after an amplification of 10,000 by a special low noise amplifier. The width of the pulse appeared to be narrower in vacuum than in air. The difference is ascribed to effects of adsorption. Great care was taken to avoid spurious effects. The technique was tested by experiments on perspex and glass, where the results show reasonable agreement with those from previous work. Theoretical analysis of the measurements shows that the freshly cleaved surface can temporarily attain high temperatures, which is very significant for formation of surface structures

  3. Measurement of caesium-137 in the human body using a whole body counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elessawi, Elkhadra Abdulmula

    Gamma radiation in the environment is mainly due to naturally occurring radionuclides. However, there is also a contribution from anthropogenic radionuclides such as 137Cs which originate from nuclear fission processes. Since 1986, the accident at the Chernobyl power plant has been a significant source of artificial environmental radioactivity. In order to assess the radiological impact of these radionuclides, it is necessary to measure their activities in samples drawn from the environment and in plants and animals including human populations. The whole body counter (WBC) at the University Hospital of Wales in Cardiff makes in vivo measurements of gamma emitting radionuclides using a scanning ring of six large-volume thallium-doped sodium iodide (Nal(Tl)) scintillation detectors. In this work the WBC was upgraded by the addition of two high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The performance and suitability of the detection systems were evaluated by comparing the detection limits for Cs. Sensitivities were measured using sources of known activity in a water filled anthropomorphic phantom and theoretical minimum detectable count-rates were estimated from phantom background pulse height spectra. The theoretical minimum detectable activity was about 24 Bq for the combination of six Nal(Tl) detectors whereas for the individual HPGe detectors it was 64 Bq and 65 Bq, despite the much improved energy resolution Activities of 137Cs in the human body between 1993 and 2007 were estimated from the background Nal(Tl) spectra of 813 patients and compared with recent measurements in 14 volunteers. The body burden of Cs in Cardiff patients increased from an average of about 60 Bq in the early and mid 1990s to a maximum of about 100 Bq in 2000. By 2007 it had decreased to about 40 Bq. This latter value was similar to that of Cardiff residents at the time of the Chernobyl accident and to that of the volunteers measured in 2007 (51 Bq). However, it was less than the mean activity of

  4. cAMP signalling in mushroom bodies modulates temperature preference behaviour in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Tae; Bang, Sunhoe; Hyun, Seogang; Kang, Jongkyun; Jeong, Kyunghwa; Paik, Donggi; Chung, Jongkyeong; Kim, Jaeseob

    2008-08-01

    Homoiotherms, for example mammals, regulate their body temperature with physiological responses such as a change of metabolic rate and sweating. In contrast, the body temperature of poikilotherms, for example Drosophila, is the result of heat exchange with the surrounding environment as a result of the large ratio of surface area to volume of their bodies. Accordingly, these animals must instinctively move to places with an environmental temperature as close as possible to their genetically determined desired temperature. The temperature that Drosophila instinctively prefers has a function equivalent to the 'set point' temperature in mammals. Although various temperature-gated TRP channels have been discovered, molecular and cellular components in Drosophila brain responsible for determining the desired temperature remain unknown. We identified these components by performing a large-scale genetic screen of temperature preference behaviour (TPB) in Drosophila. In parallel, we mapped areas of the Drosophila brain controlling TPB by targeted inactivation of neurons with tetanus toxin and a potassium channel (Kir2.1) driven with various brain-specific GAL4s. Here we show that mushroom bodies (MBs) and the cyclic AMP-cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) pathway are essential for controlling TPB. Furthermore, targeted expression of cAMP-PKA pathway components in only the MB was sufficient to rescue abnormal TPB of the corresponding mutants. Preferred temperatures were affected by the level of cAMP and PKA activity in the MBs in various PKA pathway mutants. PMID:18594510

  5. Comparison of physical characteristics, body temperature and resting metabolic rate at 30‡C between subtropical and temperate natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, S.; Ihzuka, H.

    1986-06-01

    Anthropometric measurements, measurements of skin temperatures, rectal temperature, heart rate and metabolic rate at 30‡C were made on 25 young male residents of Okinawa who were born and raised in Okinawa (group O) and 25 young male residents of Okinawa who were born and raised on the Japan mainland but moved to Okinawa less than 2 years before the test (group M) in summer. Group O showed significantly shorter height, lighter body weight, and slender body shape than group M. Group O showed thinner skinfold thickness and smaller percentage of body fat content than group M. Skin temperatures for group O were higher than those for group M, and rectal temperature for group O was slightly lower than that for group M. Group O showed, less metabolic rate per body surface area and slower heart rate than group M. It is concluded that physical characteristics of subtropical natives is favorable for heat dissipation, and subtropical natives have superior capacity for non-evaporative heat dissipation than migrants of temperate natives to a subtropical zone.

  6. Leptin actions on food intake and body temperature are mediated by IL-1

    OpenAIRE

    Luheshi, Giamal N; Gardner, Jason D.; Rushforth, David A.; Loudon, Andrew S.; Rothwell, Nancy J

    1999-01-01

    Leptin regulates energy balance through its actions in the brain on appetite and energy expenditure and also shares properties with cytokines such as IL-1. We report here that leptin, injected into rats intracerebroventricularly or peripherally, induces significant dose-dependent increases in core body temperature as well as suppression of appetite. Leptin failed to affect food intake or body temperature in obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, which posses a defective leptin receptor. Furthermore, inje...

  7. Critical roles of nardilysin in the maintenance of body temperature homoeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraoka, Yoshinori; Matsuoka, Tatsuhiko; Ohno, Mikiko; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Saijo, Sayaka; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Nishi, Kiyoto; Sakamoto, Jiro; Chen, Po-Min; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru; Kita, Toru; Kimura, Takeshi; Nishi, Eiichiro

    2014-01-01

    Body temperature homoeostasis in mammals is governed centrally through the regulation of shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis and cutaneous vasomotion. Non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is mediated by sympathetic activation, followed by PGC-1α induction, which drives UCP1. Here we identify nardilysin (Nrd1 and NRDc) as a critical regulator of body temperature homoeostasis. Nrd1 −/− mice show increased energy expenditure owing to enhanced BAT thermogenesis and hype...

  8. Influence of body temperatures and hypercapnia on pulmonary ventilation during hyperthermia

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Jesse Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Static and dynamic body temperatures, hypercapnia, and exercise state were assessed for their influence on human pulmonary ventilation. METHODS: In study 1, each participant exercised with normothermic and hyperthermic core temperatures, in ambient temperatures of 25, 30 and 35°C, and were subjected to hypercapnic challenges of +4 and +8 mmHg in each condition. In study 2 before and after sub-maximal exercise, radiant heating was employed to assess the influence of dynamic skin temperature on...

  9. Methodology and factors influencing the association of body weight, performance parameters with linear body measurements assessment in poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Never Assan

    2015-01-01

    The preceding review gives some insight on different methods and factors which influence the association of live weight, performance parameters with linear body measurements assessment in poultry. The relationship existing among linear body parameters provides useful information on the performance and carcass value of poultry.  Linear body measurements  variability in poultry arises due to genotypic and environmental effects, and the magnitude of variability may differs under different manage...

  10. Body potassium measurement by 40K gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 150 normal Indian adult males were studied for their total body potassium using the whole body counter of the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi. The potassium values were found to vary between 1.69 to 1.89 with average of 1.73 g. of potassium per kilogram of body weight. There was poor correlation between total body potassium and body weight. The body build index was found to be anthropometric parameter which is better correlated with the estimated values of total body potassium. The study further pointed out the important role of variable body fat on the estimation of total body potassium by whole body counter. The effect of age and the nature of physical activity of the subject on total body potassium were also investigated. The importance of an independent method for fast estimation is indicated. (auth.)

  11. Temperature measurement and stabilization in a birefringent whispering gallery resonator

    OpenAIRE

    Strekalov, D. V.; Thompson, R.J.; Baumgartel, L. M.; Grudinin, I. S.; Yu, N

    2011-01-01

    Temperature measurement with nano-Kelvin resolution is demonstrated at room temperature, based on the thermal dependence of an optical crystal anisotropy in a high quality whispering gallery resonator. As the resonator's TE and TM modes frequencies have different temperature coefficients, their differential shift provides a sensitive measurement of the temperature variation, which is used for active stabilization of the temperature.

  12. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  13. Circadian rhythm of body temperature during prolonged undersea voyages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquhoun, W P; Paine, M W; Fort, A

    1978-05-01

    Circadian rhythms of oral temperature were assessed in 12 watchkeepers during a prolonged submarine voyage and compared with a "standard" rhythm obtained from nonwatchkeepers ashore. Initially, the parameters of the rhythms were similar to those of the standard; however, among eight ratings working 4-h watches in a rapidly rotating cycle, considerable changes in the rhythms occurred as the voyage progressed, and concurrent alterations in sleep patterning were observed. The most characteristic change in the rhythm was a marked decline in its amplitude. In most subjects, the rhythm also tended to depart from its original circadian pattern; in at least one case, it effectively disintegrated. One subject's rhythm appeared to "free-run" with a period greater than 24 h. A strong circadian rhythm was maintained in only one of these eight subjects. In four officers whose watch times were at fixed hours, adaptation of the rhythm to unusual times of sleep occurred in 2 of 3 cases where the schedule demanded it. The results are discussed in relation to the design of optimal watchkeeping systems for submariners. PMID:655989

  14. High temperature hall effect measurement system design, measurement and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkun, Isil

    A reliable knowledge of the transport properties of semiconductor materials is essential for the development and understanding of a number of electronic devices. In this thesis, the work on developing a Hall Effect measurement system with software based data acqui- sition and control for a temperature range of 300K-700K will be described. A system was developed for high temperature measurements of materials including single crystal diamond, poly-crystalline diamond, and thermoelectric compounds. An added capability for monitor- ing the current versus voltage behavior of the contacts was used for studying the influence of ohmic and non-ohmic contacts on Hall Effect measurements. The system has been primar- ily used for testing the transport properties of boron-doped single crystal diamond (SCD) deposited in a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor [1]. Diamond has several outstanding properties that are of high interest for its development as an electronic material. These include a relatively wide band gap of 5.5 (eV), high thermal conductivity, high mobility, high saturation velocity, and a high breakdown voltage. For a temperature range of 300K-700K, IV curves, Hall mobilities and carrier concentrations are shown. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements have shown carrier concentrations from below 1017cm --3 to approximately 1021 cm--3 with mobilities ranging from 763( cm2/V s) to 0.15(cm 2/V s) respectively. Simulation results have shown the effects of single and mixed carrier models, activation energies, effective mass and doping concentrations. These studies have been helpful in the development of single crystal diamond for diode applications. Reference materials of Ge and GaAs were used to test the Hall Effect system. The system was also used to characterize polycrystalline diamond deposited on glass for electrochemical applications, and Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds which are promising candidates of low-cost, light weight and non

  15. Variations of body temperature and metabolism during entrance into cold lethargy in the bat Myotis myotis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldmaier, Gerhard

    1970-01-01

    Bats of temperate zones which hibernate during winter become cold-lethargic during their diurnal rest time even in summer. At the end of their nocturnal activity period they show a drop in body temperature close to ambient temperature (M. myotis, cf. Pohl, 1961). This takes place periodically even i

  16. Development and Initial Validation of the Adolescent Responses to Body Dissatisfaction Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Melissa A.; Cole, David A.

    2012-01-01

    One community sample (N = 607) of youths generated self-reported responses to body dissatisfaction, from which the Adolescent Responses to Body Dissatisfaction (ARBD) inventory was constructed. A 2nd, similar sample (N = 830) completed this measure as well as measures of coping, body dissatisfaction, body mass index, depressive symptoms, and…

  17. Nonlinear mixed effects modelling for the analysis of longitudinal body core temperature data in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Kok-Yong; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ting; Ming Chai, Adam Kian; Yuen Fun, David Chiok; Teo, Ya Shi; Sze Tan, Pearl Min; Ang, Wee Hon; Wei Lee, Jason Kai

    2016-04-01

    Many longitudinal studies have collected serial body core temperature (T c) data to understand thermal work strain of workers under various environmental and operational heat stress environments. This provides the opportunity for the development of mathematical models to analyse and forecast temporal T c changes across populations of subjects. Such models can reduce the need for invasive methods that continuously measure T c. This current work sought to develop a nonlinear mixed effects modelling framework to delineate the dynamic changes of T c and its association with a set of covariates of interest (e.g. heart rate, chest skin temperature), and the structure of the variability of T c in various longitudinal studies. Data to train and evaluate the model were derived from two laboratory investigations involving male soldiers who participated in either a 12 (N  =  18) or 15 km (N  =  16) foot march with varied clothing, load and heat acclimatisation status. Model qualification was conducted using nonparametric bootstrap and cross validation procedures. For cross validation, the trajectory of a new subject's T c was simulated via Bayesian maximum a posteriori estimation when using only the baseline T c or using the baseline T c as well as measured T c at the end of every work (march) phase. The final model described T c versus time profiles using a parametric function with its main parameters modelled as a sigmoid hyperbolic function of the load and/or chest skin temperature. Overall, T c predictions corresponded well with the measured data (root mean square deviation: 0.16 °C), and compared favourably with those provided by two recently published Kalman filter models. PMID:26963194

  18. The effects of floor heating on body temperature, water consumption, stress response and immune competence around parturition in loose-housed sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, B M; Malmkvist, J; Pedersen, L J;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to study whether floor heating from 12 h after onset of nest building until 48 h after birth of the first piglet had any effect on measures related to body temperature, water consumption, stress response and immune competence in loose-housed sows (n = 23). In...... conclusion, the present results indicate that floor heating for a limited period around parturition did not compromise physiological and immunological parameters, water intake and body temperature in loose-housed sows. The water intake peaked the day before parturition and the body temperature peaked on the...

  19. Influence of winter temperature and simulated climate change on body mass and fat body depletion during diapause in adults of the solitary bee, Osmia rufa (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliszkiewicz, Monika; Giejdasz, Karol; Wasielewski, Oskar; Krishnan, Natraj

    2012-12-01

    The influence of simulated climate change on body weight and depletion of fat body reserves was studied during diapause in the European solitary bee Osmia rufa L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Insects (females) were reared and collected from outdoor nests from September to March. One cohort of females was weighed and dissected immediately for analyses, whereas another cohort was subjected to simulated warmer temperature (15°C for 7 d) before analyses. A gradual decline in body mass and fat body content was recorded with declining temperatures from September to January in female bees from natural conditions. Temperature increased gradually from January to March with a further decline in body mass and fat body content. The fat body development index dropped from five in September-October (≈ 89% individuals) to four for the period from November to February (≈ 84% individuals) and further to three in March (95% individuals) before emergence. Simulated warmer winter temperature also resulted in a similar decline in body weight and fat body content; however, body weight and fat body content declined faster. The fat body development index dropped to three in December in the majority of individuals and continued at this level until March just before emergence. Taken together, our data indicate an earlier depletion of fat body reserves under simulated climate change conditions that may impact ovarian development and reproductive fitness in O. rufa. PMID:23321111

  20. Methodology and factors influencing the association of body weight, performance parameters with linear body measurements assessment in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Never Assan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The preceding review gives some insight on different methods and factors which influence the association of live weight, performance parameters with linear body measurements assessment in poultry. The relationship existing among linear body parameters provides useful information on the performance and carcass value of poultry.  Linear body measurements  variability in poultry arises due to genotypic and environmental effects, and the magnitude of variability may differs under different management practices and environmental conditions. The knowledge of the relationship existing between live weight,  carcass traits  and other performance traits in poultry is crucial because it enable us to predict the body weight and performance  from linear body parts and vice versa. This is on the background that different methods have been employed to assess the association of live weight, performance parameters with linear body measurements in poultry. It is suffice to suggest that the understating of the relationship between linear body measurements and performance traits in poultry could be useful in designing appropriate management, selection and breeding  programs for utilization of poultry genetic resources. Therefore, the conclusion that linear body measurements information for a particular poultry species or breed is important for breed or species identification and economic valuation in its utilization, might be valid.

  1. Dopamine Signalling in Mushroom Bodies Regulates Temperature-Preference Behaviour in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Sunhoe Bang; Seogang Hyun; Sung-Tae Hong; Jongkyun Kang; Kyunghwa Jeong; Joong-Jean Park; Joonho Choe; Jongkyeong Chung

    2011-01-01

    The ability to respond to environmental temperature variation is essential for survival in animals. Flies show robust temperature-preference behaviour (TPB) to find optimal temperatures. Recently, we have shown that Drosophila mushroom body (MB) functions as a center controlling TPB. However, neuromodulators that control the TPB in MB remain unknown. To identify the functions of dopamine in TPB, we have conducted various genetic studies in Drosophila. Inhibition of dopamine biosynthesis by ge...

  2. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on the ventilatory response to rising body temperature during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Keiji; Kawashima, Takayo; Suzuki, Yuichi

    2012-07-01

    To examine the effect of menstrual cycle on the ventilatory sensitivity to rising body temperature, ten healthy women exercised for ~60 min on a cycle ergometer at 50% of peak oxygen uptake during the follicular and luteal phases of their cycle. Esophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, mean body temperature, minute ventilation, and tidal volume were all significantly higher at baseline and during exercise in the luteal phase than the follicular phase. On the other hand, end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide was significantly lower during exercise in the luteal phase than the follicular phase. Plotting ventilatory parameters against esophageal temperature revealed there to be no significant menstrual cycle-related differences in the slopes or intercepts of the regression lines, although minute ventilation and tidal volume did significantly differ during exercise with mild hyperthermia. To evaluate the cutaneous vasodilatory response, relative laser-Doppler flowmetry values were plotted against mean body temperature, which revealed that the mean body temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was significantly higher in the luteal phase than the follicular phase, but there were no significant differences in the sensitivity or peak values. These results suggest that the menstrual cycle phase influences the cutaneous vasodilatory response during exercise and the ventilatory response at rest and during exercise with mild hyperthermia, but it does not influence ventilatory responses during exercise with moderate hyperthermia. PMID:22604882

  3. 凸体的包含测度(Ⅱ)%Inclusion measures of convex bodies (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊革

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, several inequalities for inclusion measures of convex bodies were obtained. The inclusion measure was proved to have concavity by considering the property of relative inner parallel body.

  4. The effect of water temperature on the human body and the swimming effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERAFEIM ALEXIOU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although many research papers have dealt with the influence of environmental temperature on the various Human body functions during exercise in land, a few only informations exist for the equivalent alterations in water temperatures during immersion and swimming. The present preview research paper is referred on this subject. During swimming in the normal water temperature 26° ± 1° C (63, the functions of the human body respond regularly and the performance of swimmers tends to be improved. However, during swimming in cold water critical differences appear in human functions, such as bradycardia, angiospasm, hyperventilation and adaptations of thermoregulatory mechanism which influence the swimming performance and the life itself. Especially in very cold water temperature the disturbances of the cardiovascular system may lead in critical arrhythmia or sudden death. The cold water temperature, however, influences the kinetic and energy behavior related to the reduction of swimmers performance because of its possible influence on the neuromuscular function. In the increased water temperature up to 28° C appears tachycardia, vasodilation and other alternations which aim to better thermoregulation. The swimmers records are possibly equivalent with a tendency to be improved, to the records in normal temperature of championships 26° C and the increased temperature mainly in the speed events (3. Therefore, there is a differentiation on swimmers performances due to water temperature declination from normal. Also, body functions change during water immersion.

  5. Core and body surface temperatures of nesting leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Thomas J; McCafferty, Dominic J; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2015-07-01

    Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are the largest species of marine turtle and the fourth most massive extant reptile. In temperate waters they maintain body temperatures higher than surrounding seawater through a combination of insulation, physiological, and behavioural adaptations. Nesting involves physical activity in addition to contact with warm sand and air, potentially presenting thermal challenges in the absence of the cooling effect of water, and data are lacking with which to understand their nesting thermal biology. Using non-contact methods (thermal imaging and infrared thermometry) to avoid any stress-related effects, we investigated core and surface temperature during nesting. The mean±SE core temperature was 31.4±0.05°C (newly emerged eggs) and was not correlated with environmental conditions on the nesting beach. Core temperature of leatherbacks was greater than that of hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) nesting at a nearby colony, 30.0±0.13°C. Body surface temperatures of leatherbacks showed regional variation, the lateral and dorsal regions of the head were warmest while the carapace was the coolest surface. Surface temperature increased during the early nesting phases, then levelled off or decreased during later phases with the rates of change varying between body regions. Body region, behavioural phase of nesting and air temperature were found to be the best predictors of surface temperature. Regional variation in surface temperature were likely due to alterations in blood supply, and temporal changes in local muscular activity of flippers during the different phases of nesting. Heat exchange from the upper surface of the turtle was dominated by radiative heat loss from all body regions and small convective heat gains to the carapace and front flippers. PMID:25965013

  6. High-temperature archeointensity measurements from Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Yves; Le Goff, Maxime

    2006-01-01

    We present new archeointensity results obtained from 127 potsherds and baked brick fragments dated from the last four millennia BC which were collected from different Syrian archeological excavations. High temperature magnetization measurements were carried out using a laboratory-built triaxial vibrating sample magnetometer (Triaxe), and ancient field intensity determinations were derived from the experimental procedure described by Le Goff and Gallet [Le Goff and Gallet. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 229 (2004) 31-43]. As some of the studied samples were previously analyzed using the classical Thellier and Thellier [Thellier and Thellier . Ann. Geophys. 15 (1959) 285-376] method revised by Coe [Coe. J. Geophys. Res. 72 (1967) 3247-3262], a comparison of the results is made from the two methods. The differences both at the fragment and site levels are mostly within ± 5%, which strengthens the validity of the experimental procedure developed for the Triaxe. The new data help to better constrain the geomagnetic field intensity variations in Mesopotamia during archeological times, with the probable occurrence of an archeomagnetic jerk around 2800-2600 BC.

  7. Synthesis of Thermoresponsive Amphiphilic Polyurethane Gel as a New Cell Printing Material near Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Chun; Li, Suming; Hu, Shiaw-Guang; Chang, Wen-Chi; Jeng, U-Ser; Hsu, Shan-hui

    2015-12-23

    Waterborne polyurethane (PU) based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) diol and a second oligodiol containing amphiphilic blocks was synthesized in this study. The microstructure was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and rheological measurement of the PU dispersion. The surface hydrophilicity measurement, infrared spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, mechanical and thermal analyses were conducted in solid state. It was observed that the presence of a small amount of amphiphilic blocks in the soft segment resulted in significant changes in microstructure. When 90 mol % PCL diol and 10 mol % amphiphilic blocks of poly(l-lactide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PLLA-PEO) diol were used as the soft segment, the synthesized PU had a water contact angle of ∼24° and degree of crystallinity of ∼14%. The dispersion had a low viscosity below room temperature. As the temperature was raised to body temperature (37 °C), the dispersion rapidly (∼170 s) underwent sol-gel transition with excellent gel modulus (G' ≈ 6.5 kPa) in 20 min. PU dispersions with a solid content of 25-30% could be easily mixed with cells in sol state, extruded by a 3D printer, and deposited layer by layer as a gel. Cells remained alive and proliferating in the printed hydrogel scaffold. We expect that the development of novel thermoresponsive PU system can be used as smart injectable hydrogel and applied as a new type of bio-3D printing ink. PMID:26651013

  8. Whole body measurements for in vivo monitoring in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional procedures for in vivo monitoring of γ-emitting radionuclides require a lot of information, such as time and pathway of intake, physical and chemical form of incorporated materials, metabolism etc. In emergency situations this information is rarely available, thus resulting in significant uncertainties for the estimation of intake and committed dose equivalent. Moreover, the procedure is time consuming and thus only a relatively small number of persons can be monitored. In order to cope with these difficulties, a new method for direct internal dosimetry has recently been developed at Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre. The method is based on the measurement of the integral photon flux emitted from the body using a special detector system which has been optimised in such a way that the system sensitivity matches the respective dose factors for a maximum number of radionuclides and deposition sites in the body. The detector system consists of four plastic scintillation detectors, which are positioned at the thyroid, at the lungs, under the gastro-intestinal tract and over the thighs of the person monitored in a seated posture. The system allows for detection of effective dose equivalent rates down to 1.6 μSv/week, the mean detection uncertainty being about 200% for known radionuclide mixtures and about 600% for unknown radionuclide mixtures, respectively. The detector system is very easy to handle; the measurement can be performed by untrained individuals and the results are available after a very short measuring time (20 s). Thus, the detector system is appropriate especially for short-term decision making after incidents or accidents. Because of its relative low weight (1 t) the detector system could be installed as a mobile unit in a container for transportation by car, train or aircraft. Thus, in emergency situations the detector system can be brought to the site within a short period of time. It allows for the rapid monitoring of a large number

  9. Accuracy and precision of four common peripheral temperature measurement methods in intensive care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadian S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Simin Asadian,1 Alireza Khatony,1 Gholamreza Moradi,2 Alireza Abdi,1 Mansour Rezaei,3 1Nursing and Midwifery School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Anesthesiology, 3Biostatistics & Epidemiology Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran Introduction: An accurate determination of body temperature in critically ill patients is a fundamental requirement for initiating the proper process of diagnosis, and also therapeutic actions; therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the accuracy and precision of four noninvasive peripheral methods of temperature measurement compared to the central nasopharyngeal measurement. Methods: In this observational prospective study, 237 patients were recruited from the intensive care unit of Imam Ali Hospital of Kermanshah. The patients’ body temperatures were measured by four peripheral methods; oral, axillary, tympanic, and forehead along with a standard central nasopharyngeal measurement. After data collection, the results were analyzed by paired t-test, kappa coefficient, receiver operating characteristic curve, and using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 19, software. Results: There was a significant meaningful correlation between all the peripheral methods when compared with the central measurement (P<0.001. Kappa coefficients showed good agreement between the temperatures of right and left tympanic membranes and the standard central nasopharyngeal measurement (88%. Paired t-test demonstrated an acceptable precision with forehead (P=0.132, left (P=0.18 and right (P=0.318 tympanic membranes, oral (P=1.00, and axillary (P=1.00 methods. Sensitivity and specificity of both the left and right tympanic membranes were more than for other methods. Conclusion: The tympanic and forehead methods had the highest and lowest accuracy for measuring body temperature, respectively. It is recommended to use the tympanic method (right and left for

  10. Measurement of many-body chaos using a quantum clock

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Guanyu; Grover, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    There has been recent progress in understanding chaotic features in many-body quantum systems. Motivated by the scrambling of information in black holes, it has been suggested that the time dependence of out-of-time-ordered (OTO) correlation functions such as $\\langle O_2(t) O_1(0) O_2(t) O_1(0) \\rangle $ is a faithful measure of quantum chaos. Experimentally, these correlators are challenging to access since they apparently require access to both forward and backward time evolution with the system Hamiltonian. Here, we propose a protocol to measure such OTO correlators using an ancilla which controls the direction of time. Specifically, by coupling the state of ancilla to the system Hamiltonian of interest, we can emulate the forward and backward time propagation, where the ancilla plays the role of a 'quantum clock'. Within this scheme, the continuous evolution of the entire system (the system of interest and the ancilla) is governed by a time-independent Hamiltonian. Our protocol is immune to errors that c...

  11. Optical Signature Analysis of Tumbling Rocket Bodies via Laboratory Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, H.; Lederer, S.; Liou, J.-C.; Ojakangas, G.; Mulrooney, M.

    2012-09-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has acquired telescopic lightcurve data on massive intact objects, specifically spent rocket bodies (R/Bs), to ascertain tumble rates in support of the Active Debris Removal (ADR) studies to help remediate the LEO environment. Tumble rates are needed to plan and develop proximity and docking operations for potential future ADR operations. To better characterize and model optical data acquired from ground-based telescopes, the Optical Measurements Center (OMC) at NASA/JSC emulates illumination conditions in space using equipment and techniques that parallel telescopic observations and source-target-sensor orientations. The OMC employs a 75-W Xenon arc lamp as a solar simulator, an SBIG CCD camera with standard Johnson/Bessel filters, and a robotic arm to simulate an object's position and rotation. The OMC does not attempt to replicate the rotation rates, but focuses on ascertaining how an object is rotating as seen from multiple phase angles. The two targets studied are scaled (1:48) SL-8 Cosmos 3M second stages. The first target is painted in the standard Russian government "gray" scheme and the second target is white/orange as used for commercial missions. This paper summarizes results of the two scaled rocket bodies, each observed in three independent rotation states: (a) spin-stabilized rotation (about the long axis), (b) end-over-end rotation, and (c) a 10 degree wobble about the center of mass. The first two cases represent simple spin about either primary axis. The third - what we call "wobble" - represents maximum principal axis rotation, with an inertia tensor that is offset from the symmetry axes. By comparing the resultant phase and orientation-dependent laboratory signatures with actual lightcurves derived from telescopic observations of orbiting R/Bs, we intend to assess the intrinsic R/B rotation states. In the simplest case, simulated R/B behavior coincides with principal axis spin states, while more complex R

  12. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the temperature: (1) At the bottom of the tank; and (2) Near the top of the tank and below the maximum...

  13. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  14. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  15. Plasma, magnetic, and electromagnetic measurements at nonmagnetic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.

    1993-01-01

    The need to explore the magnetospheres of the Earth and the giant planets is widely recognized and is an integral part of our planetary exploration program. The equal need to explore the plasma, magnetic, and electromagnetic environments of the nonmagnetic bodies is not so widely appreciated. The previous, albeit incomplete, magnetic and electric field measurements at Venus, Mars, and comets have proven critical to our understanding of their atmospheres and ionospheres in areas ranging from planetary lightning to solar wind scavenging and accretion. In the cases of Venus and Mars, the ionospheres can provide communication paths over the horizon for low-altitude probes and landers, but we know little about their lower boundaries. The expected varying magnetic fields below these planetary ionospheres penetrates the planetary crusts and can be used to sound the electrical conductivity and the thermal profiles of the interiors. However, we have no knowledge of the levels of such fields, let alone their morphology. Finally, we note that the absence of an atmosphere and an ionosphere does not make an object any less interesting for the purposes of electromagnetic exploration. Even weak remanent magnetism such as that found on the Moon during the Apollo program provides insight into the present and past states of planetary interiors. We have very intriguing data from our space probes during times of both close and distant passages of asteroids that suggest they may have coherent magnetization. If true, this observation will put important constraints on how the asteroids formed and have evolved. Our planetary exploration program must exploit its full range of exploration tools if it is to characterize the bodies of the solar system thoroughly. We should especially take advantage of those techniques that are proven and require low mass, low power, and low telemetry rates to undertake.

  16. Sea surface temperature measurements with AIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumann, H.

    2003-01-01

    The comparison of global sea surface skin temperature derived from cloud-free AIRS super window channel at 2616 cm-1 (sst2616) with the Real-Time Global Sea Surface Temperature for September 2002 shows surprisingly small standard deviation of 0.44K.

  17. The effect of body temperature on the hypoxic fraction in mouse tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General anaesthesia as well as mechanical restraint of animals, which is necessary to allow precise local irradiation of mouse tumours, is associated with a rapid drop in body temperature if no special precautions are taken to prevent it. This drop in body temperature leads to an increased sentitivity of the tumour to normoxic irradiation which, in the reported case, may be due to a decrease in the hypoxic fraction from about 20% to about 4% as a result of decreased oxygen consumption and increased tumour perfusion. (orig.)

  18. Bulk temperature measurement in thermally striped pipe flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot leg flows in some Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designs have a temperature distribution across the pipe cross-section. This condition is often referred to as a thermally striped flow. Here, the bulk temperature measurement of pipe flows with thermal striping is explored. An experiment is conducted to examine the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the external surface of the pipe to estimate the bulk temperature of the flow. Simple mixing models are used to characterize the development of the temperature profile in the flow. Simple averaging techniques and Backward Propagating Neural Net are used to predict bulk temperature from the external temperature measurements. Accurate bulk temperatures can be predicted. However, some temperature distributions in the flow effectively mask the bulk temperature from the wall and cause significant error in the bulk temperature predicted using this technique

  19. Deep-body temperature changes in rats exposed to chronic centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, J.; Platt, W. T.; Holland, V. B.

    1971-01-01

    Deep-body temperature was monitored continuously by implant biotelemetry in unrestrained rats before, during, and after exposure to prolonged and almost continuous centrifugation. Rats subjected to centrifugation for the first time at various G loads ranging up to 2.5 G show a rapid and significant fall in temperature which is sustained below normal levels for periods as long as 3 days. The magnitude of the temperature fall and the recovery time were generally proportional to the G load imposed. The initial fall and recovery of body temperature closely parallels the decrease in food consumption and to a lesser degree the decrease in body mass experienced by centrifuged rats. After exposure to 2 weeks of centrifugation, rats show either no change or only a small transient increase in temperature when decelerated to a lower G level or when returned to normal gravity. Rats repeatedly exposed to centrifugation consistently showed a smaller temperature response compared to the initial exposure. Implant temperature biotelemetry has been found to be a sensitive, reliable, and extremely useful technique for assessing the initial stress of centrifugation and in monitoring the time course of recovery and acclimation of rats to increase as well as*decrease G.

  20. Regional body composition in college-aged Caucasians from anthropometric measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Robert T

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitating fat and lean tissue in isolated body regions may be helpful or required in obesity and health-outcomes research. However, current methods of regional body composition measurement require specialized, expensive equipment such as that used in computed tomography or dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Simple body size or circumference measurement relationships to body composition have been developed but are limited to whole-body applications. We investigated relationships between body size measurements and regional body composition. Methods Using DEXA technology we determined the fat and lean tissue composition for six regions of the body in predominantly Caucasian, college-aged men (n = 32 and women (n = 67. Circumference measurements as well as body weight and height were taken for each individual. Equations relating body measurements to a respective regional fat and lean mass were developed using multiple regression analysis. Results Multiple regression R2 values ranged from 0.4451 to 0.8953 and 0.1697 to 0.7039 for regional fat and lean mass relationships to body measurements, respectively. Conclusion The equations developed in this study offer a simple way of estimating regional body composition in a college-aged adult population. The parameters used in the equations are common body measurements that can be obtained with the use of a measuring tape and weight scale.

  1. Body K and 40K in Chinese subjects measured with a whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 380 Chinese adults of both sexes were studied for their total body K and 40K using the National Tsing Hua University whole-body counter. The K values were found to have an average of 1.75 ± 0.4 g K kg-1 body weight for males and 1.41 ± 0.1 g K kg-1 body weight for females. The average K value for both sexes was 1.69 ± 0.4 g K kg-1 body weight. The annual absorbed dose for the average male was calculated to be 0.21 ± 0.04 mGy and for the average female was 0.17 ± 0.01 mGy. The average for both sexes was 0.20 ± 0.04 mGy. The 40K activity per unit body weight varied inversely with slenderness, and total body K varied directly with body-build index

  2. Investigation into the relationship between body surface area and total body potassium using Monte Carlo and measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. A.; Blake-James, M.; Green, S.; Beddoe, A. H.

    2002-03-01

    The use of body surface area (BSA) as a means of indexing chemotherapy doses is widespread even though the value of this practice is uncertain. In principle, the body cell mass (BCM) more closely represents the body's metabolic size and this is investigated here as an alternative to BSA; since 98% of body potassium is intracellular the derivation of total body potassium (TBK) via the measurement of 40K in a whole body counter (WBC) will provide a useful normalizing index for metabolic size, potentially avoiding toxicity and underdosing. The Queen Elizabeth Hospital WBC has been used in this study, initially involving single geometrical phantoms and then combinations of these to simulate human body habitus. Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) codes were constructed to model the phantoms and simulate the measurements made in the WBC. Efficiency corrections were derived by comparing measurement and modelled data for each detector separately. A method of modelling a person in the WBC as a series of ellipsoids was developed. Twenty-four normal males and 24 females were measured for their 40K emissions. Individual MCNP codes were constructed for each volunteer and the results used in conjunction with the measurements to derive TBK, correcting for body habitus effects and detector efficiencies. An estimate of the component of error arising from sources other than counting statistics was included by analysing data from the measurement of phantoms. The total residual errors (expressed as coefficients of variation) for males and females were 10.1% and 8.5% respectively. The measurement components were determined to be 2.4% and 2.5%, implying that the biological components were 9.8% and 8.1% respectively. These results suggest that the use of BSA for indexing chemotherapy doses is likely to give rise to clinically significant under- or overdosing.

  3. Investigation into the relationship between body surface area and total body potassium using Monte Carlo and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of body surface area (BSA) as a means of indexing chemotherapy doses is widespread even though the value of this practice is uncertain. In principle, the body cell mass (BCM) more closely represents the body's metabolic size and this is investigated here as an alternative to BSA; since 98% of body potassium is intracellular the derivation of total body potassium (TBK) via the measurement of 40K in a whole body counter (WBC) will provide a useful normalizing index for metabolic size, potentially avoiding toxicity and underdosing. The Queen Elizabeth Hospital WBC has been used in this study, initially involving single geometrical phantoms and then combinations of these to simulate human body habitus. Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) codes were constructed to model the phantoms and simulate the measurements made in the WBC. Efficiency corrections were derived by comparing measurement and modelled data for each detector separately. A method of modelling a person in the WBC as a series of ellipsoids was developed. Twenty-four normal males and 24 females were measured for their 40K emissions. Individual MCNP codes were constructed for each volunteer and the results used in conjunction with the measurements to derive TBK, correcting for body habitus effects and detector efficiencies. An estimate of the component of error arising from sources other than counting statistics was included by analysing data from the measurement of phantoms. The total residual errors (expressed as coefficients of variation) for males and females were 10.1% and 8.5% respectively. The measurement components were determined to be 2.4% and 2.5%, implying that the biological components were 9.8% and 8.1% respectively. These results suggest that the use of BSA for indexing chemotherapy doses is likely to give rise to clinically significant under- or overdosing. (author)

  4. A high temperature apparatus for measurement of the Seebeck coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanaga, Shiho; Toberer, Eric S.; LaLonde, Aaron; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    A high temperature Seebeck coefficient measurement apparatus with various features to minimize typical sources of error is designed and built. Common sources of temperature and voltage measurement error are described and principles to overcome these are proposed. With these guiding principles, a high temperature Seebeck measurement apparatus with a uniaxial 4-point contact geometry is designed to operate from room temperature to over 1200 K. This instrument design is simple to operate, and su...

  5. Direct methods for measuring radionuclides in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational exposure leading to intakes of internally incorporated radionuclides can occur as a result of various activities. This includes work associated with the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, scientific research, agriculture and industry, and occupations which involve exposure to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. In 1987 the IAEA published a Safety Guide on basic principles for occupational radiation monitoring which set forth principles and objectives of a strategy for monitoring exposures of workers. Since drafting of the present Safety Practice commenced, the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) have been issued. On the basis of the principles laid down in the BSS, the 1987 Safety Guide is also being revised, and recommendations on the assessment of the occupational intake of radioactive materials are to be added. The present Safety Practice, which deals with direct measurement of radionuclides in the human body, is the first to be published in this area. Refs, figs, tabs

  6. Whole body counter measurements of contaminated people in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The violation and rupture of a 50.9 TBq (1375 Ci) 137Cs source in the form of caesium chloride salt (CsCI), in Goiania/Go, Brazil, resulted in a substantially large accident. In order to quantify the internal contamination of the individuals involved, a special whole body counter system, using an 8''x4'' NaI(Tl) detector, was developed. The major goal of this counting system, at the initial phase, was to be able to assess the very high level of 137Cs activity in individuals who had direct contact with the radionuclide. The system, initially set up at the Goiania General Hospital, was adapted to detect a wide range of 137Cs activities. Subjects were required to wear disposable clothing and lie on a reclining, fibreglass chair. Counting time was standardised in 2 minutes (live time) and the minimum detectable activity was 7.3 kBq (197 nCi). Among the people measured, 151 showed 137Cs internal contamination levels ranged from the minimum detectable activity to 78 Mbq (2.1 mCi). (author)

  7. Measurement of whole-body vibration in taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, Mitsuhiko; Taoda, Kazushi; Tsujimura, Hiroji; Nishiyama, Katsuo

    2004-03-01

    In a previous epidemiological study we reported that the prevalence (45.8%) of low-back pain (LBP) and the two-year incidence (25.9%) of LBP in 284 male taxi drivers in Japan was comparable with rates reported for other occupational drivers in which LBP frequently occurs. LBP was significantly related with the level of uncomfortable road vibrations, and, importantly, increased with total mileage. The aim of this study was to measure whole-body vibration (WBV) on the driver's seat pan of 12 taxis operating under actual working conditions. The results were evaluated according to the health guidelines in International Standard ISO 2631-1:1997. Finally, the relation between total mileage and WBV was investigated. The majority of the frequency-weighted r.m.s. accelerations of the taxis fell into the "potential health risks" zone, under ISO 2631-1:1997. It was clear that the taxi drivers were exposed to serious WBV magnitudes. Therefore, occupational health and safety management should be carried out to help prevent adverse health effects in taxi drivers. In particular, reduction of WBV in taxis and shortening of driving time to reduce duration of WBV exposure should be considered. Moreover, because many taxi drivers work 18 h every other day, the shortening of working hours and taking of rest breaks while working should be considered. Frequency-weighted r.m.s. accelerations of taxis had a tendency to decrease as total mileage increased. The relation between total mileage and WBV should be investigated by taking measurements on the floor and the back rest in addition to the seat pan. PMID:15090686

  8. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD......) cycle. The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypetide (VIP) and its receptor (VPAC2) are highly expressed in the SCN. Recent studies indicate that VIPergic signaling plays an essential role in the maintenance of ongoing circadian rhythmicity by synchronizing SCN cells and by maintaining rhythmicity...... within individual neurons. To further increase the understanding of the role of VPAC2 signaling in circadian regulation, we implanted telemetric devices and simultaneously measured core body temperature, spontaneous activity, and heart rate in a strain of VPAC2-deficient mice and compared these...

  9. Specific problems of temperature measurement in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of examples are given based on the WWER reactor design which serve for a discussion on problems of measuring temperature in nuclear power plants. Attention is devoted to specific features, the choice and placement of temperature sensors, the impact of radiation on the properties of the measured medium and on the accuracy of measuring temperature with thermocouples. A brief description is presented of the present state of temperature measurement in light-water reactors in the world, namely the temperature of fuel, cladding and coolant. Also characterized is the development of new types of temperature sensors, namely thermocouples based on tungsten-rhenium alloys, noise thermometers, ion temperature sensors and the application of ultrasound for measuring temperature in the reactor core. (Z.M.). 10 refs

  10. Immediate effects of reiki on heart rate variability, cortisol levels, and body temperature in health care professionals with burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, Cesar; García-Lafuente, Francisca; García-Royo, Carmen; Tomás-Rojas, Inmaculada

    2011-10-01

    Burnout is a work-related mental health impairment comprising three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Reiki aims to help replenish and rebalance the body's energetic system, thus stimulating the healing process. The objective of this placebo-controlled, repeated measures, crossover, single-blind, randomized trial was to analyze the immediate effects of Reiki on heart rate variability (HRV), body temperature, and salivary flow rate and cortisol level in health care professionals with burnout syndrome (BS). Participants included 21 health care professionals with BS, who were asked to complete two visits to the laboratory with a 1-week interval between sessions. They were randomly assigned the order in which they would receive a Reiki session applied by an experienced therapist and a placebo treatment applied by a therapist with no knowledge of Reiki, who mimicked the Reiki treatment. Temperature, Holter ECG recordings (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval [SDNN], square root of mean squared differences of successive NN intervals [RMSSD], HRV index, low frequency component [LF], and high frequency component [HF]), salivary flow rate and cortisol levels were measured at baseline and postintervention by an assessor blinded to allocation group. SDNN and body temperature were significantly higher after the Reiki treatment than after the placebo. LF was significantly lower after the Reiki treatment. The decrease in the LF domain was associated with the increase in body temperature. These results suggest that Reiki has an effect on the parasympathetic nervous system when applied to health care professionals with BS. PMID:21821642

  11. Effects of whole body cryotherapy and cold water immersion on knee skin temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, J T; Donnelly, A E; Karki, A; Selfe, J

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to (a) compare and contrast the effect of 2 commonly used cryotherapy treatments, 4 min of -110 °C whole body cryotherapy and 8 °C cold water immersion, on knee skin temperature and (b) establish whether either protocol was capable of achieving a skin temperature (body fat; mean±SD) participated in this randomised controlled crossover study. Skin temperature around the patellar region was assessed in both knees via non-contact, infrared thermal imaging and recorded pre-, immediately post-treatment and every 10 min thereafter for 60 min. Compared to baseline, average, minimum and maximum skin temperatures were significantly reduced (pwhole body cryotherapy (19.0±0.9 °C) compared to cold water immersion (20.5±0.6 °C). However, from 10 to 60 min post, the average, minimum and maximum skin temperatures were lower (p<0.05) following the cold water treatment. Finally, neither protocol achieved a skin temperature believed to be required to elicit an analgesic effect. PMID:23780900

  12. Forearm blood flow during body temperature transients produced by leg exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, C. B.; Roberts, M. F.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Nadel, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects exercised for 30 min on a bicycle ergometer at 30, 50, and 70% of maximal aerobic power in ambient temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 C and vapor pressures of less than 18 torr. Exercise was used to vary internal temperature during an experiment, and different ambient temperatures were used to vary skin temperatures independently of internal temperature. Forearm skin temperature was fixed at about 36.5 C. Esophageal temperature was measured with a thermocouple at the level of the left atrium, and mean skin temperature was calculated from a weighted mean of thermocouple temperatures at eight skin sites. Forearm blood flow was measured by electrocapacitance plethysmography. Data are well accounted for by a linear equation independent of exercise intensity, although some subjects showed an equivocal vasodilator effect of exercise.

  13. Design of High Precision Temperature Measurement System based on Labview

    OpenAIRE

    Weimin Zhu; Jin Liu; Haima Yang; Chaochao Yan

    2015-01-01

    Using the LabVIEW software platform, a high precision temperature measuring device is designed based on the principle of the thermocouple. The system uses the STM32 MCU as the main control chip, using AD7076 analog digital converter. The converter has 8 channel, synchronous sampling, and bipolar input. Improving the precision of temperature measurement by cold end compensation, fitting and other measures. The test results show that, the device temperature measurement precision can reach ±0.1 ...

  14. Measurement of the argon plasma temperature by use of pyrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes in detail how to use pyrometer to measure the plasma temperature. The temperatures of shock-generated argon plasmas are given in the present work. Measured results of temperature-pressure curve are compared with calculated results using Saha-Debye-Huckel model, which are in good agreement

  15. Water temperature-influential factors, field measurement, and data presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Herbert H.; Ficke, John F.; Smoot, George F.

    1975-01-01

    This manual contains suggested procedures for collecting and reporting of water-temperature data on streams, lakes and reservoirs, estuaries, and ground water. Among the topics discussed are the selection of equipment and measuring sites, objectives and accuracy of measurements, and data processing and presentation. Background information on the influence of temperature on water quality and the factors influencing water temperature are also presented.

  16. Model of Indirect Temperature Measurement by Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Karol Kostúr; Andrea Mojžišová

    2008-01-01

    Determination of temperature inside steel rolls during annealing is key to achieving the best quality of the process. Today it is not typical to measure this temperature and the time of annealing is determined empirically. In this article we present a model of neural networks for indirect measurement of surface temperature array of steel roll.

  17. 7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section 28... for Length of Staple § 28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple of any cotton... its fibers under a relative humidity of the atmosphere of 65 percent and a temperature of 70° F....

  18. a Measurement of the Three-Body Photodisintegration of HELIUM-3 and its Relation to Three-Body Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarty, Adam James

    The three-body photodisintegration of ^3He has been measured at energies below the pion production threshold using a continuous bremsstrahlung gamma-ray beam at the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory. Coincident proton pairs emitted on opposite sides of the beam were detected using four sets of plastic scintillator telescopes arranged symmetrically about the beam at 81^ circ and 91^circ. Differential cross sections were extracted, as a function of the undetected neutron momentum, from kinematic regions where three-body forces effects are expected to be maximized and two-body mechanisms suppressed. These measured cross sections show an enhancement over calculations using one-body and two -body photo-absorption mechanisms only. The inclusion of the two-pion-exchange three-body absorption mechanism is needed to adequately describe the data. This constitutes direct evidence for the existence of three-body forces in ^3He, since the two-pion-exchange mechanism is directly related to three-body forces through gauge invariance. Cross sections differential only in the solid angles of the two detected protons were also measured as a function of incident gamma-ray energy. The angular and energy dependence of these cross sections were compared to those expected from 3N phase-space considerations alone. The measured angular dependence is indicative of a non-phase -space distribution, with an enhancement in the collinear geometry. The measured energy distribution followed the general trend of phase-space predictions, but show a departure from phase-space in the 150-200 MeV energy range.

  19. Grain-scale thermoelastic stresses and spatiotemporal temperature gradients on airless bodies, implications for rock breakdown

    CERN Document Server

    Molaro, Jamie L; Langer, Steve A

    2015-01-01

    Thermomechanical processes such as fatigue and shock have been suggested to cause and contribute to rock breakdown on Earth, and on other planetary bodies, particularly airless bodies in the inner solar system. In this study, we modeled grain-scale stresses induced by diurnal temperature variations on simple microstructures made of pyroxene and plagioclase on various solar system bodies. We found that a heterogeneous microstructure on the Moon experiences peak tensile stresses on the order of 100 MPa. The stresses induced are controlled by the coefficient of thermal expansion and Young's modulus of the mineral constituents, and the average stress within the microstructure is determined by relative volume of each mineral. Amplification of stresses occurs at surface-parallel boundaries between adjacent mineral grains and at the tips of pore spaces. We also found that microscopic spatial and temporal surface temperature gradients do not correlate with high stresses, making them inappropriate proxies for investig...

  20. A Survey on Temperature-Aware Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangman Moh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the elderly population in the world and the rising cost of healthcare impose big issues for healthcare and medical monitoring. A Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN is comprised of small sensor nodes attached inside, on or around a human body, the main purpose of which is to monitor the functions and surroundings of the human body. However, the heat generated by the node’s circuitry and antenna could cause damage to the human tissue. Therefore, in designing a routing protocol for WBSNs, it is important to reduce the heat by incorporating temperature into the routing metric. The main contribution of this paper is to survey existing temperature-aware routing protocols that have been proposed for WBSNs. In this paper, we present a brief overview of WBSNs, review the existing routing protocols comparatively and discuss challenging open issues in the design of routing protocols.

  1. Endogenous and exogenous components in the circadian variation of core body temperature in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddinga, AE; Beersma, DGM; VandenHoofdakker, RH

    1997-01-01

    Core body temperature is predominantly modulated by endogenous and exogenous components. In the present study we tested whether these two components can be reliably assessed in a protocol which lasts for only 120 h. In this so-called forced desynchrony protocol, 12 healthy male subjects (age 23.7 +/

  2. A body temperature model for lizards as estimated from the thermal environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fei, T.; Skidmore, A.K.; Venus, V.; Wang, T.; Schlerf, M.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Overjijk, van S.; Bian, B.M.; Liu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    A physically based model was built to predict the transient body temperature of lizards in a thermally heterogeneous environment. Six heat transfer terms were taken into account in this model: solar radiation, convective heat flow, longwave radiation, conductive heat flow, metabolic heat gain and re

  3. Simultaneous collection of body temperature and activity data in burrowing mammals : a new technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, Ryan A.; Hut, Roelof A.; Barnes, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    Integrating physiological and behavioral observations into ecological field studies of animals can provide novel insights into relationships among animal behavior, physiology, and ecology. We describe and evaluate a new technique for simultaneously collecting body temperature (T-b) and burrow use da

  4. Orexin-a regulates body temperature in coordination with control of arousal state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Orexins, hypothalamic neuropeptieds, are involved in modulation of food intake and arousal state. To examine further physiological roles of orexin in brain function, the effects of centrally administered orexin- A on body temperature was investigated in rats. Assessed by a telemetry-sensor system implanted into the abdominal cavity, infusion of orexin-A into the third cerebroventricle increased body temperature in a dose-responsive manner. Cumulative ambulatory activity was concomitantly increased during 6 h but not 12 h after administration of orexin-A. Expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mRNA in brown adipose tissue, as a marker for peripheal thermogenesis which affects body temperature, failed to increase after orexin-A administration. Expression of UCP3 mRNA in skeletal muscle but not UCP 2 in white adipose tissue was upregulated by infusion of orexin-A. The resulting information indicates that orexin neuron regulates body temperature in coordination with control of arousal system independently of peripheral thermogenesis through the BAT UCP1.

  5. A technique of melting temperature measurement and its application for irradiated high-burnup MOX fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A melting temperature measurement technique for irradiated oxide fuels is described. In this technique, the melting temperature was determined from a thermal arrest on a heating curve of the specimen which was enclosed in a tungsten capsule to maintain constant chemical composition of the specimen during measurement. The measurement apparatus was installed in an alpha-tight steel box within a gamma-shielding cell and operated by remote handling. The temperature of the specimen was measured with a two-color pyrometer sighted on a black-body well at the bottom of the tungsten capsule. The diameter of the black-body well was optimized so that the uncertainties of measurement were reduced. To calibrate the measured temperature, two reference melting temperature materials, tantalum and molybdenum, were encapsulated and run before and after every oxide fuel test. The melting temperature data on fast reactor mixed oxide fuels irradiated up to 124 GWd/t were obtained. In addition, simulated high-burnup mixed oxide fuel up to 250 GWd/t by adding non-radioactive soluble fission products was examined. These data shows that the melting temperature decrease with increasing burnup and saturated at high burnup region. (author)

  6. Measuring the Temperature of Hot Nuclear Fragments

    CERN Document Server

    Wuenschel, S; May, L W; Souliotis, G A; Tripathi, R; Galanopoulos, S; Kohley, Z; Hagel, K; Shetty, D V; Huseman, K; Soisson, S N; Stein, B C; Yennello, S J

    2010-01-01

    A new thermometer based on fragment momentum fluctuations is presented. This thermometer exhibited residual contamination from the collective motion of the fragments along the beam axis. For this reason, the transverse direction has been explored. Additionally, a mass dependence was observed for this thermometer. This mass dependence may be the result of the Fermi momentum of nucleons or the different properties of the fragments (binding energy, spin etc..) which might be more sensitive to different densities and temperatures of the exploding fragments. We expect some of these aspects to be smaller for protons (and/or neutrons); consequently, the proton transverse momentum fluctuations were used to investigate the temperature dependence of the source.

  7. Mechanisms of temperature-dependent swimming: the importance of physics, physiology and body size in determining protist swimming speed

    OpenAIRE

    Beveridge, Oliver S; Petchey, Owen L; Humphries, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Body temperatures and thus physiological rates of poikilothermic organisms are determined by environmental temperature. The power an organism has available for swimming is largely dependent on physiological rates and thus body temperature. However, retarding forces such as drag are contingent on the temperature-dependent physical properties of water and on an organism’s size. Consequently, the swimming ability of poikilotherms is highly temperature dependent. The importance of the te...

  8. Testing and evaluation of thermal cameras for absolute temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, Krzysztof; Fischer, Joachim; Matyszkiel, Robert

    2000-09-01

    The accuracy of temperature measurement is the most important criterion for the evaluation of thermal cameras used in applications requiring absolute temperature measurement. All the main international metrological organizations currently propose a parameter called uncertainty as a measure of measurement accuracy. We propose a set of parameters for the characterization of thermal measurement cameras. It is shown that if these parameters are known, then it is possible to determine the uncertainty of temperature measurement due to only the internal errors of these cameras. Values of this uncertainty can be used as an objective criterion for comparisons of different thermal measurement cameras.

  9. Design of High Precision Temperature Measurement System based on Labview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Zhu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the LabVIEW software platform, a high precision temperature measuring device is designed based on the principle of the thermocouple. The system uses the STM32 MCU as the main control chip, using AD7076 analog digital converter. The converter has 8 channel, synchronous sampling, and bipolar input. Improving the precision of temperature measurement by cold end compensation, fitting and other measures. The test results show that, the device temperature measurement precision can reach ±0.1 °C, has the advantages of small size, high precision, and reliable performance, this high precision temperature measurement can be widely used in industrial production.

  10. Measuring CP violation in 3- and 4-body decays

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas Rademacker

    2013-01-01

    Multibody charm decays have a rich phenomenology and potentially unique sensitivity to CP violation. In these proceedings we discuss recent results, challenges and prospects in searches for CP violation in three and four body charm decays.

  11. Measuring CP violation in 3- and 4-body decays

    CERN Document Server

    Rademacker, J

    2014-01-01

    Multibody charm decays have a rich phenomenology and potentially unique sensitivity to CP violation. In these proceedings we discuss recent results, challenges and prospects in searches for CP violation in three and four body charm decays.

  12. Isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient measurement in TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct measurement of an isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient at room temperatures in TRIGA Mark II research reactor at Jozef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana is presented. Temperature reactivity coefficient was measured in the temperature range between 15 oC and 25 oC. All reactivity measurements were performed at almost zero reactor power to reduce or completely eliminate nuclear heating. Slow and steady temperature decrease was controlled using the reactor tank cooling system. In this way the temperatures of fuel, of moderator and of coolant were kept in equilibrium throughout the measurements. It was found out that TRIGA reactor core loaded with standard fuel elements with stainless steel cladding has small positive isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient in this temperature range.(author)

  13. The Analysis of Fiber Sensor of Temperature Field Disturbance by Human Body Part Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Dvorak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of this sensor function is based on polarization maintaining fiber (PMF sensitivity during excitation of both two polarization modes. This excitation is caused by temperature change, when absorbing thermal radiation. This mechanism is used for detection of temperature field disturbance as an indicator. In the case described below, attention was devoted to temperature field disturbance on a part of the human body. Thus this sensor system could be used for protection of some entity. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of PMF to radiating heat, the space configuration and time response.

  14. Influence of body temperature on the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, J; Teller, C; Andersen, S L; Jensen, F B; Hyldig, T; Nielsen, B

    1999-03-01

    We investigated whether fatigue during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments occurred at the same critical level of hyperthermia when the initial value and the rate of increase in body temperature are altered. To examine the effect of initial body temperature [esophageal temperature (Tes) = 35.9 +/- 0.2, 37.4 +/- 0. 1, or 38.2 +/- 0.1 (SE) degrees C induced by 30 min of water immersion], seven cyclists (maximal O2 uptake = 5.1 +/- 0.1 l/min) performed three randomly assigned bouts of cycle ergometer exercise (60% maximal O2 uptake) in the heat (40 degrees C) until volitional exhaustion. To determine the influence of rate of heat storage (0.10 vs. 0.05 degrees C/min induced by a water-perfused jacket), four cyclists performed two additional exercise bouts, starting with Tes of 37.0 degrees C. Despite different initial temperatures, all subjects fatigued at an identical level of hyperthermia (Tes = 40. 1-40.2 degrees C, muscle temperature = 40.7-40.9 degrees C, skin temperature = 37.0-37.2 degrees C) and cardiovascular strain (heart rate = 196-198 beats/min, cardiac output = 19.9-20.8 l/min). Time to exhaustion was inversely related to the initial body temperature: 63 +/- 3, 46 +/- 3, and 28 +/- 2 min with initial Tes of approximately 36, 37, and 38 degrees C, respectively (all P heat storage, all subjects reached exhaustion at similar Tes and muscle temperature (40.1-40.3 and 40. 7-40.9 degrees C, respectively), but with significantly different skin temperature (38.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 35.6 +/- 0.2 degrees C during high vs. low rate of heat storage, respectively, P heat storage (31 +/- 4 vs. 56 +/- 11 min, respectively, P stroke volume paralleled the rise in core temperature (36-40 degrees C), with skin blood flow plateauing at Tes of approximately 38 degrees C. These results demonstrate that high internal body temperature per se causes fatigue in trained subjects during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments. Furthermore, time to exhaustion in

  15. Measured body mass index, body weight perception, dissatisfaction and control practices in urban, low-income African American adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Xiaoli; Liang Huifang; Wang Youfa

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Current understanding of the associations between actual body weight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited. The knowledge can help direct future intervention efforts. Methods Cross-sectional data including measured weight and height and self-reported weight status collected from 448 adolescents in four Chicago Public Schools were used. Results The prevalence of overweight...

  16. Nanosecond-resolved temperature measurements using magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenbiao; Liu, Wenzhong; Zhang, Pu

    2016-05-01

    Instantaneous and noninvasive temperature measurements are important when laser thermotherapy or welding is performed. A noninvasive nanosecond-resolved magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) temperature measurement system is described in which a transient change in temperature causes an instantaneous change in the magnetic susceptibilities of the MNPs. These transient changes in the magnetic susceptibilities are rapidly recorded using a wideband magnetic measurement system with an upper frequency limit of 0.5 GHz. The Langevin function (the thermodynamic model characterizing the MNP magnetization process) is used to obtain the temperature information. Experiments showed that the MNP DC magnetization temperature-measurement system can detect a 14.4 ns laser pulse at least. This method of measuring temperature is likely to be useful for acquiring the internal temperatures of materials irradiated with lasers, as well as in other areas of research.

  17. Smart sensor for surface temperature measurement on manufacturing machines

    OpenAIRE

    Tansley, Dean; Fletcher, Simon; Longstaff, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    The requirement for accurate milling machinery gives rise to a host of controllers capable of data handling from sensors. Accurate measurement of temperature is important since thermal gradients cause deformity in machinery. The development of a temperature-measuring instrumentation system is proposed to improve surface temperature reading accuracy on machinery. The use of digital temperature sensors are combination with a 32-bit ARM cortex M4 processor enabling data handling and averaging is...

  18. Temperature field measurements in thermal plasma equipment using thermocouple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the method of temperature field measurements in the cylindrical reaction chamber of the laboratory thermal plasma equipment using thermocouple Pt + Rh/Pt. The working gas (argon) is heated in an arc heater. The results of the measurements give information about the asymmetry of the gas flow temperature profiles in the investigated cross-sections of the reaction chamber and about the change of temperature profiles with increasing mean temperature of the working gas flow. (author)

  19. Application of Curve Fitting Extrapolation in Measuring Transient Surface Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojian Hao; Lina Hao; Hanchang Zhou; Sanping Jiang; Yanfeng Li

    2013-01-01

    The engine inner wall surface temperature was measured by the plug blind-hole extrapolation, and multiple thermocouples were installed at different depths in the substrate. The engine wall extrapolation model of transient high temperature was established according to the basic principles of heat transfer. The transient temperatures were measured by thermocouples buried at different depths of the engine wall and fitting curve was got. The transient temperature field which was generated by the ...

  20. Temperature measurement of plasma and a spectroscopic pyrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperature measurement technique based on the principles of optical spectroscopy was discussed and the spectroscopic pyrometer developed thereunder was presented. Temperature distribution in arc or RF plasma torch which conform to local thermodynamic equilibrium and axis-symmetry can be obtained with this pyrometer. The measurement range is 5000∼15000 K and the uncertainty of measurement is 2.2%

  1. Air Temperature Measurements Using Dantec Draught Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin Heine; Jensen, Jakob Søland; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    This technical report is written based on investigations of Dantec measurement equipment used in a master thesis project by the authors in the period September 2014 to June 2015 (Kristensen & Jensen, 2015).......This technical report is written based on investigations of Dantec measurement equipment used in a master thesis project by the authors in the period September 2014 to June 2015 (Kristensen & Jensen, 2015)....

  2. A furnace for high temperature perturbed angular correlation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forker, M.; Herz, W.; Huetten, U.; Mueller, M.; Muesseler, R.; Schmidberger, J.; Simon, D.; Weingarten, A.; Bedi, S.C. (Inst. fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Univ. Bonn (Germany))

    1993-04-01

    A compact furnace for perturbed angular correlation (PAC) measurements at high temperatures is described. Using a graphite heating element, the furnace combines small dimensions and high temperatures. With an outer diameter of only 23 mm and outer walls at room temperature, it provides sample temperatures up to 2350 K. Test measurements carried out up to this temperature with the standard PAC probe [sup 181]Ta in Zr and Hf metal and in undoped zirconia ZrO[sub 2] show problems arising from interactions of the sample with furnace materials, but at the same time illustrate the great potential of high-temperature PAC spectroscopy for solid state reaction studies. (orig.).

  3. Deferoxamine prevents cerebral glutathione and vitamin E depletions in asphyxiated neonatal rats: role of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletkiewicz, Hanna; Nowakowska, Anna; Siejka, Agnieszka; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Woźniak, Alina; Caputa, Michał; Rogalska, Justyna

    2016-03-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury involves increased oxidative stress. In asphyxiated newborns iron deposited in the brain catalyses formation of reactive oxygen species. Glutathione (GSH) and vitamin E are key factors protecting cells against such agents. Our previous investigation has demonstrated that newborn rats, showing physiological low body temperature as well as their hyperthermic counterparts injected with deferoxamine (DF) are protected against iron-mediated, delayed neurotoxicity of perinatal asphyxia. Therefore, we decided to study the effects of body temperature and DF on the antioxidant status of the brain in rats exposed neonatally to critical anoxia. Two-day-old newborn rats were exposed to anoxia in 100% nitrogen atmosphere for 10 min. Rectal temperature was kept at 33 °C (physiological to rat neonates), or elevated to the level typical of healthy adult rats (37 °C), or of febrile adult rats (39 °C). Half of the rats exposed to anoxia under extremely hyperthermic conditions (39 °C) were injected with DF. Cerebral concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA, lipid peroxidation marker) and the levels of GSH and vitamin E were determined post-mortem, (1) immediately after anoxia, (2) 3 days, (3) 7 days, and (4) 2 weeks after anoxia. There were no post-anoxic changes in MDA, GSH and vitamin E concentrations in newborn rats kept at body temperature of 33 °C. In contrast, perinatal anoxia at elevated body temperatures intensified oxidative stress and depleted the antioxidant pool in a temperature-dependent manner. Both the depletion of antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were prevented by post-anoxic DF injection. The data support the idea that hyperthermia may extend perinatal anoxia-induced brain lesions. PMID:26794834

  4. Infrared measurement and simulation of magnesium alloy welding temperature field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Liming; CHI; Mingsheng; HUANG; Ruisheng; SONG; Gang

    2005-01-01

    The welding temperature field of magnesium alloy AZ31 welded by TIG was measured with the uncooled infrared (IR) thermal imaging technology. The variables in the mathematic mode of welding temperature fields were revised by IR temperature data. Based on the results of simulation, the loss of temperature fields caused by arc interfered was compensated, and a whole temperature field was achieved, which provided a precise and powerful foundation for the investigation of microstructure of the joints.

  5. Design, Development and Implementation of the IR Signalling Techniques for Monitoring Ambient and Body Temperature in WBANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attiya Baqai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare systems such as hospitals, homecare, telemedicine, and physical rehabilitation are expected to be revolutionized by WBAN (Wireless Body Area Networks. This research work aims to investigate, design, optimize, and demonstrate the applications of IR (Infra-Red communication systems in WBAN. It is aimed to establish a prototype WBAN system capable of measuring Ambient and Body Temperature using LM35 as temperature sensor and transmitting and receiving the data using optical signals. The corresponding technical challenges that have to be faced are also discussed in this paper. Investigations are carried out to efficiently design the hardware using low-cost and low power optical transceivers. The experimental results reveal the successful transmission and reception of Ambient and Body Temperatures over short ranges i.e. up to 3-4 meters. A simple IR transceiver with an LED (Light Emitting Diodes, TV remote control IC and Arduino microcontroller is designed to perform the transmission with sufficient accuracy and ease. Experiments are also performed to avoid interference from other sources like AC and TV remote control signals by implementing IR tags

  6. Post-warmup strategies to maintain body temperature and physical performance in professional rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel J; Russell, Mark; Bracken, Richard M; Cook, Christian J; Giroud, Tibault; Kilduff, Liam P

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effects of using passive-heat maintenance, explosive activity or a combination of both strategies during the post-warmup recovery time on physical performance. After a standardised warmup, 16 professional rugby union players, in a randomised design, completed a counter-movement jump (peak power output) before resting for 20 min and wearing normal-training attire (CON), wearing a passive heat maintenance (PHM) jacket, wearing normal attire and performing 3 × 5 CMJ (with a 20% body mass load) after 12 min of recovery (neuromuscular function, NMF), or combining PHM and NMF (COMB). After 20 min, participants completed further counter-movement jump and a repeated sprint protocol. Core temperature (Tcore) was measured at baseline, post-warmup and post-20 min. After 20 min of recovery, Tcore was significantly lower under CON and NMF, when compared with both PHM and COMB (P < 0.05); PHM and COMB were similar. Peak power output had declined from post-warmup under all conditions (P < 0.001); however, the drop was less in COMB versus all other conditions (P < 0.05). Repeated sprint performance was significantly better under COMB when compared to all other conditions. Combining PHM with NMF priming attenuates the post-warmup decline in Tcore and can positively influence physical performance in professional rugby union players. PMID:25925751

  7. A new Ultra Precision Interferometer for absolute length measurements down to cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new Ultra Precision Interferometer (UPI) was built at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. As its precursor, the precision interferometer, it was designed for highly precise absolute length measurements of prismatic bodies, e.g. gauge blocks, under well-defined temperature conditions and pressure, making use of phase stepping imaging interferometry. The UPI enables a number of enhanced features, e.g. it is designed for a much better lateral resolution and better temperature stability. In addition to the original concept, the UPI is equipped with an external measurement pathway (EMP) in which a prismatic body can be placed alternatively. The temperature of the EMP can be controlled in a much wider range compared to the temperature of the interferometer's main chamber. An appropriate cryostat system, a precision temperature measurement system and improved imaging interferometry were established to permit absolute length measurements down to cryogenic temperature, demonstrated for the first time ever. Results of such measurements are important for studying thermal expansion of materials from room temperature towards less than 10 K. (paper)

  8. Dissipation measurements using temperature microstructure from an underwater glider

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Algot Kristoffer; Fer, Ilker

    2014-01-01

    Microstructure measurements of temperature and current shear are made using an autonomous underwater glider. The glider is equipped with fast-response thermistors and airfoil shear probes, providing measurements of dissipation rate of temperature variance, χχ, and of turbulent kinetic energy, εε, respectively. Furthermore, by fitting the temperature gradient variance spectra to a theoretical model, an independent measurement of εε is obtained. Both Batchelor (εBεB) and Kraichnan (εKεK) theore...

  9. An All Fiber White Light Interferometric Absolute Temperature Measurement System

    OpenAIRE

    Jeonggon Harrison Kim

    2008-01-01

    Recently the author of this article proposed a new signal processing algorithm for an all fiber white light interferometer. In this article, an all fiber white light interferometric absolute temperature measurement system is presented using the previously proposed signal processing algorithm. Stability and absolute temperature measurement were demonstrated. These two tests demonstrated the feasibility of absolute temperature measurement with an accuracy of 0.015 fringe and 0.0005 fringe, resp...

  10. Research on a New Circuit of Temperature Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Zhixiang Zeng; Xuanze Wang; Liangen Yang; Yuning Zhong; Zhongsheng Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Temperature measurement is an important link in industrial production, also an important part of modern testing technology. The traditional single bridge circuit is already unable to meet the requirements of modern precise temperature measurement system on temperature measurement. The relation between the output voltage of general Wheatstone bridge and real strain is nonlinear. The nonlinear error will be very serious if the variance ratio of resistance ΔR/ R is very large. Platinum resista...

  11. Measurement of magnetic properties at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This picture shows part of the low-mu permeameter to measure permeability of stainless steels and other low-mu materials used in superconducting magnets. The sample, a 5 mm diam., 45 mm long rod, is suspended to long leads before being inserted in the test cryostat. For the measurement the sample is surrounded by a flux- measuring coil and placed in the field of a superconducting solenoid. At a given field the sample is removed.During the removal, the voltage induced in the flux-measuring coil is time integrated giving the flux variation. This equipment was developed to select stainless steels and other low-mu materials used in the ISR Prototype Superconducting Qaudrupole. The person is W.Ansorge.

  12. On-farm estimation of energy balance in dairy cows using only frequent body weight measurements and body condition score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Vivi Mørkøre; Edwards, David; Friggens, N C

    2012-01-01

    Precise energy balance estimates for individual cows are of great importance to health, reproduction and feed management. Energy balance is usually calculated as energy input minus output (EBalinout), requiring measurements of feed intake and energy output sources (milk, maintenance, activity......, growth and pregnancy). Except milk yield, direct measurements of these are difficult to obtain in practice, and estimates involve considerable error sources, so limiting on-farm use. Alternatively, energy balance can be estimated from body reserve changes (EBalbody) using body weight (BW) and body....... Further, the FEC profile did not suggest any systematic bias in EBalbody with stage of lactation. Moreover we successfully modeled EBalbody differences between breeds, parities and diets. For the farmer, the ability to predict energy balance for individual cows on-farm without having to measure feed...

  13. Autonomous System for MISSE Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, G. A.; Lash, T. J.; Kinard, W. H.; Bull, K.; deGeest, F.

    2001-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is scheduled to be deployed during the summer of 2001. This experiment is a cooperative endeavor by NASA-LaRC, NASA-GRC, NASA MSFC, NASA-JSC, the Materials Laboratory at the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Boeing Phantom Works. The objective of the experiment is to evaluate performance, stability, and long term survivability of materials and components planned for use by NASA and DOD on future LEO, synchronous orbit, and interplanetary space missions. Temperature is an important parameter in the evaluation of space environmental effects on materials.

  14. Measuring Accurate Body Parameters of Dressed Humans with Large-Scale Motion Using a Kinect Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidan Du

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-contact human body measurement plays an important role in surveillance, physical healthcare, on-line business and virtual fitting. Current methods for measuring the human body without physical contact usually cannot handle humans wearing clothes, which limits their applicability in public environments. In this paper, we propose an effective solution that can measure accurate parameters of the human body with large-scale motion from a Kinect sensor, assuming that the people are wearing clothes. Because motion can drive clothes attached to the human body loosely or tightly, we adopt a space-time analysis to mine the information across the posture variations. Using this information, we recover the human body, regardless of the effect of clothes, and measure the human body parameters accurately. Experimental results show that our system can perform more accurate parameter estimation on the human body than state-of-the-art methods.

  15. Refining temperature measures in thermal/optical carbon analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Chow

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal/optical methods have been widely used for quantifying total carbon (TC, organic carbon (OC, and elemental carbon (EC in ambient and source particulate samples. Thermally defined carbon fractions have been used for source identification. Temperature precision in thermal carbon analysis is critical to the allocation of carbon fractions. The sample temperature is determined by a thermocouple, which is usually located in the oven near the sample. Sample and thermocouple temperature may differ owing to different thermal properties between the sample filter punch and the thermocouple, or inhomogeneities in the heating zone. Quick-drying temperature-indicating liquids (Tempil Inc., South Plainfield, NJ of different liquefying points are used as temperature calibration standards. These consist of chemicals that change their appearance at specific temperatures and can be optically monitored to determine the sample temperature. Temperature measures were evaluated for three different models of carbon analyzers. Sample temperatures were found to differ from sensor temperatures by 10 to 50°C. Temperature biases of 14 to 22°C during thermal analysis were found to change carbon fraction measurements. The temperature indicators allow calibration curves to be constructed that relate the sample temperature to the temperature measured by a thermocouple.

  16. No relation between body temperature and arterial recanalization at three days in patients with acute ischaemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Geurts (Marjolein); H.B. Van Der Worp (H. Bart); A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); G.J. Biessels (Geert Jan); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta); C.B. Majoie (Charles); Y.B.W.E.M. Roos; L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); K. Keizer (Koos); A. van der Lugt (Aad); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); K.E. Droogh-De Greve; H.P. Bienfait; M.A. van Walderveen (M.); M.J.H. Wermer (Marieke); G.J. Lycklama à Nijeholt (Geert); J. Boiten (Jelis); A. Duyndam (Anita); V.I.H. Kwa; F.J. Meijer (F.); E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud); A.M. Kesselring (Anouk); J. Hofmeijer; J.A. Vos (Jan Albert); W.J. Schonewille (W.); W.J. van Rooij (W.); P.L.M. de Kort (Paul); C.C. Pleiter (C.); S.L.M. Bakker (Stef); J. Bot (Joseph); M.C. Visser (Marieke); I.C. van der Schaaf (Irene); J.W. Dankbaar (Jan); W.P. Mali (Willem); T. van Seeters (Tom); A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); J.M. Niesten (Joris); G.J. Biessels; L.J. Kappelle; J.S.K. Luitse; Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recanalization of an occluded intracranial artery is influenced by temperature-dependent enzymes, including alteplase. We assessed the relation between body temperature on admission and recanalization. Methods: We included 278 patients with acute ischaemic stroke within nine

  17. Wireless Low-Power Integrated Basal-Body-Temperature Detection Systems Using Teeth Antennas in the MedRadio Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Lung Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes using wireless low power thermal sensors for basal-body-temperature detection using frequency modulated telemetry devices. A long-term monitoring sensor requires low-power circuits including a sampling circuit and oscillator. Moreover, temperature compensated technologies are necessary because the modulated frequency might have additional frequency deviations caused by the varying temperature. The temperature compensated oscillator is composed of a ring oscillator and a controlled-steering current source with temperature compensation, so the output frequency of the oscillator does not drift with temperature variations. The chip is fabricated in a standard Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process, and the chip area is 0.9 mm2. The power consumption of the sampling amplifier is 128 µW. The power consumption of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO core is less than 40 µW, and the output is −3.04 dBm with a buffer stage. The output voltage of the bandgap reference circuit is 1 V. For temperature measurements, the maximum error is 0.18 °C with a standard deviation of ±0.061 °C, which is superior to the required specification of 0.1 °C.

  18. Body radioactivity and radiation dose from 40K in Bangladeshi subjects measured with a whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of subjects of Bangladeshi adults from both sexes were studied for internal radioactivity and effective dose by measuring the whole-body activity of naturally occurring 40K using a whole-body counter. The mean activity concentration in the whole body and effective dose due to naturally occurring 40K for the average male were found to be 2.0 ± 0.4 Bq.g-1 and 100 ± 26 μSv.y-1, respectively and those for the average female were 1.7 ± 0.3 Bq.g-1 and 100 ± 20 μSv.y-1, respectively. The mean activity concentration in the whole body and effective dose for both sexes were 1.9 ± 0.4 Bq.g-1 and 100 ± 25 μSv.y 1, respectively. The effective dose from 40K for subjects is below the value reported by the UNSCEAR. (authors)

  19. Measuring Accurate Body Parameters of Dressed Humans with Large-Scale Motion Using a Kinect Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Sidan Du; Yang Li; Yao Yu; Yu Zhou; Huanghao Xu

    2013-01-01

    Non-contact human body measurement plays an important role in surveillance, physical healthcare, on-line business and virtual fitting. Current methods for measuring the human body without physical contact usually cannot handle humans wearing clothes, which limits their applicability in public environments. In this paper, we propose an effective solution that can measure accurate parameters of the human body with large-scale motion from a Kinect sensor, assuming that the people are wearing clo...

  20. Error analysis of rigid body posture measurement system based on circular feature points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Ju; Cui, Jishan; Yang, Ning

    2015-02-01

    For monocular vision pose parameters determine the problem, feature-based target feature points on the plane quadrilateral, an improved two-stage iterative algorithm is proposed to improve the optimization of rigid body posture measurement calculating model. Monocular vision rigid body posture measurement system is designed; experimentally in each coordinate system determined coordinate a unified method to unify the each feature point measure coordinates; theoretical analysis sources of error from rigid body posture measurement system simulation experiments. Combined with the actual experimental analysis system under the condition of simulation error of pose accuracy of measurement, gives the comprehensive error of measurement system, for improving measurement precision of certain theoretical guiding significance.

  1. An Integrated-Circuit Temperature Sensor for Calorimetry and Differential Temperature Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyskens, Mark A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the application of an integrated-circuit (IC) chip which provides an easy-to-use, inexpensive, rugged, computer-interfaceable temperature sensor for calorimetry and differential temperature measurement. Discusses its design and advantages. (JRH)

  2. Does Impedance Measure a Functional State of the Body Fat?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Větrovská, R.; Vilikus, Z.; Klaschka, Jan; Stránská, Z.; Svačina, Š.; Svobodová, Š.; Matoulek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl. 2 (2014), S309-S320. ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : body composition * DEXA * fat mass * obesity * anthropometric methods * fat tissue functional properties Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  3. Reconstruction of core inlet temperature distribution by cold leg temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduced core of Loviisa NPP contains 33 thermocouple measurements measuring the core inlet temperature. Currently, these thermocouple measurements are not used in determining the inlet temperature distribution. The average of cold leg temperature measurements is used as inlet temperature for each fuel assembly. In practice, the inlet temperature distribution is not constant. Thus, using a constant inlet temperature distribution induces asymmetries in the measured core power distribution. Using a more realistic inlet temperature distribution would help us to reduce virtual asymmetries of the core power distribution and increase the thermal margins of the core. The thermocouples at the inlet cannot be used directly to measure the inlet temperature accurately because the calibration of the thermocouples that is done at hot zero power conditions is no longer valid at full power, when there is temperature change across the core region. This is due to the effect of neutron irradiation on the Seebeck coefficient of the thermocouple wires. Therefore, we investigate in this paper a method to determine the inlet temperature distribution based on the cold leg temperature measurements. With this method we rely on the assumption that although the core inlet thermocouple measurements do not measure the absolute temperature accurately they do measure temperature changes with sufficient accuracy particularly in big disturbances. During the yearly testing of steam generator safety valves we observe a large temperature increase up to 12 degrees in the cold leg temperature. The change in the temperature of one of the cold legs causes a local disturbance in the core inlet temperature distribution. Using the temperature changes observed in the inlet thermocouple measurements we are able to fit six core inlet temperature response functions, one for each cold leg. The value of a function at an assembly inlet is determined only by the corresponding cold leg temperature disturbance

  4. A wireless body measurement system to study fatigue in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatigue is reported as the most common symptom by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The physiological and functional parameters related to fatigue in MS patients are currently not well established. A new wearable wireless body measurement system, named Fatigue Monitoring System (FAMOS), was developed to study fatigue in MS. It can continuously measure electrocardiogram, body-skin temperature, electromyogram and motions of feet. The goal of this study is to test the ability of distinguishing fatigued MS patients from healthy subjects by the use of FAMOS. This paper presents the realization of the measurement system including the design of both hardware and dedicated signal processing algorithms. Twenty-six participants including 17 MS patients with fatigue and 9 sex- and age-matched healthy controls were included in the study for continuous 24 h monitoring. The preliminary results show significant differences between fatigued MS patients and healthy controls. In conclusion, the FAMOS enables continuous data acquisition and estimation of multiple physiological and functional parameters. It provides a new, flexible and objective approach to study fatigue in MS, which can distinguish between fatigued MS patients and healthy controls. The usability and reliability of the FAMOS should however be further improved and validated through larger clinical trials. (paper)

  5. Effects of humid heat exposure in later sleep segments on sleep stages and body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo; Mizuno, Koh

    2005-03-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of humid heat exposure in later sleep segments on sleep stages and body temperature in humans. The subjects were eight healthy males, from whom informed consent had been obtained. The experiments were carried out under three different sets of conditions: a control climate [air temperature (Ta)=26°C, relative humidity (RH)=50%] (C); a humid heat climate (Ta=32°C, RH=80%) (H); and a humid heat exposure in later sleep segments (C for the first 3 h 45 min, followed by a 30-min transition to H, which was then maintained for the last 3 h 45 min) (C H). Electroencephalogram, EOG, and mental electromyogram, rectal temperature (Tre), and skin temperature (Tsk) were continuously measured. The total amount of wakefulness was significantly increased in H compared to C H or C. Compared to C, wakefulness in C H and H was significantly increased during later sleep segments. Tre and mean Tsk were significantly higher in H than in C H or C. In C H, Tsk and Tre increased to levels equal to those observed in H after Ta and RH increase. Whole body sweat loss was significantly lower in C H and C than in H. These results suggest that humid heat exposure in the later sleep segment reduces thermal load as compared to full-night humid heat exposure. In daily life, the use of air conditioning in the initial sleep hours can protect sleep and thermoregulation.

  6. Squeezing and temperature measurement in Bose-Einstein Condensates

    OpenAIRE

    Rogel-Salazar, J.; Choi, S.; New, G. H. C.; Burnett, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the presence of temperature-dependent squeezing in the collective excitations of trapped Bose-Einstein condensates, based on a recent theory of quasiparticle damping. A new scheme to measure temperature below the critical temperature is also considered.

  7. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, J.P.; Harlow, H.J.; Durner, George M.; Anderson-Sprecher, R.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Regehr, Eric V.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ben-David, M.

    2015-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of “ice” bears in summer is unknown, “shore” bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation.

  8. Animal physiology. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, J P; Harlow, H J; Durner, G M; Anderson-Sprecher, R; Albeke, S E; Regehr, E V; Amstrup, S C; Ben-David, M

    2015-07-17

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of "ice" bears in summer is unknown, "shore" bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation. PMID:26185248

  9. Regional and total body active heating and cooling of a resting diver in water of varied temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardy, Erik [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Grove City College, 100 Campus Drive, Grove City, PA 16127 (United States); Mollendorf, Joseph [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, State University of New York at Buffalo, 318 Jarvis Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260-4400 (United States); Pendergast, David [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, State University of New York at Buffalo, 318 Jarvis Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260-4400 (United States)

    2008-02-07

    Passive insulations alone are not sufficient for maintaining underwater divers in thermal balance or comfort. The purpose of this study was to experimentally determine the active heating and cooling requirements to keep a diver at rest in thermal balance and comfort in water temperatures between 10 and 40 deg. C. A diver wearing a prototype tubesuit and a wetsuit (3 or 6.5 mm foam neoprene) was fully submersed (0.6 m) in water at a specified temperature (10, 20, 30 and 40 deg. C). During immersion, the tubesuit was perfused with 30 deg. C water at a flow rate of 0.5 L min{sup -1} to six individual body regions. An attempt was made to keep skin temperatures below 42 deg. C in hot water (>30 deg. C) and elevated but below 32 deg. C in cold water (<20 deg. C). A skin temperature of 32 deg. C is the threshold for maximal body thermal resistance due to vasoconstriction. Skin temperatures and core temperature were monitored during immersion to ensure they remained within set thermal limits. In addition skin heat flux, oxygen consumption and the thermal exchange of the tubesuit were measured. In both wetsuit thicknesses there was a linear correlation between the thermal exchange of the tubesuit and ambient water temperature. In the 6.5 mm wetsuit -214 W to 242 W of heating (-) and cooling (+) was necessary in 10 deg. C to 40 deg. C water, respectively. In the 3 mm wetsuit -462 to 342 W was necessary in 10 deg. C to 40 deg. C water, respectively. It was therefore concluded that a diver at rest can be kept in thermal balance in 10-40 deg. C water with active heating and cooling.

  10. Global exospheric temperatures from ESRO 4 scale height measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, G. M.; Prior, E. J.; Lake, L. R.; Nicholson, J. Y., III; Fricke, K.

    1977-01-01

    The scale height temperatures considered are based on molecular nitrogen measurements by the gas analyzer aboard the ESRO 4 in the altitude range from 280 to 310 km during the interval from December 1972 to April 1974, a period of low solar activity. At the altitude of measurement during the considered period, the scale height temperature is essentially the exospheric temperature. The mean scale height temperature derived from 1833 independent N2 scale heights is 708 K. It is concluded that the ESRO 4 data provides evidence of mean global temperatures of less than 800 K.

  11. Measurement of pure water resistivity in a high temperature region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resistivity of high temperature pure water has been measured up to 180degC which is the maximum water temperature in the ITER Neutral Beam Injector. The resistivity of the pure water is decreased by increasing the water temperature. It was found that even different resistivity water of 9 MΩ · cm and 5 MΩ · cm showed almost the same resistivity at the higher temperature region of 100degC. The resistivity of 0.36 MΩ · cm was measured at the temperature of 180degC. This resistivity agreed well to the calculated value for the theoretical pure water. (author)

  12. Intraspecific scaling in frog calls: the interplay of temperature, body size and metabolic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Lucia; Arim, Matías; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Understanding physiological and environmental determinants of strategies of reproductive allocation is a pivotal aim in biology. Because of their high metabolic cost, properties of sexual acoustic signals may correlate with body size, temperature, and an individual's energetic state. A quantitative theory of acoustic communication, based on the metabolic scaling with temperature and mass, was recently proposed, adding to the well-reported empirical patterns. It provides quantitative predictions for frequencies, call rate, and durations. Here, we analysed the mass, temperature, and body condition scaling of spectral and temporal attributes of the advertisement call of the treefrog Hypsiboas pulchellus. Mass dependence of call frequency followed metabolic expectations (f~M (-0.25), where f is frequency and M is mass) although non-metabolic allometry could also account for the observed pattern. Temporal variables scaled inversely with mass contradicting metabolic expectations (d~M (0.25), where d is duration), supporting instead empirical patterns reported to date. Temperature was positively associated with call rate and negatively with temporal variables, which is congruent with metabolic predictions. We found no significant association between temperature and frequencies, adding to the bulk of empirical evidence. Finally, a result of particular relevance was that body condition consistently determined call characteristics, in interaction with temperature or mass. Our intraspecific study highlights that even if proximate determinants of call variability are rather well understood, the mechanisms through which they operate are proving to be more complex than previously thought. The determinants of call characteristics emerge as a key topic of research in behavioural and physiological biology, with several clear points under debate which need to be analysed on theoretical and empirical grounds. PMID:26552381

  13. Microenvironment temperature prediction between body and seat interface using autoregressive data-driven model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuofu; Wang, Lin; Luo, Zhongming; Heusch, Andrew I; Cascioli, Vincenzo; McCarthy, Peter W

    2015-11-01

    There is a need to develop a greater understanding of temperature at the skin-seat interface during prolonged seating from the perspectives of both industrial design (comfort/discomfort) and medical care (skin ulcer formation). Here we test the concept of predicting temperature at the seat surface and skin interface during prolonged sitting (such as required from wheelchair users). As caregivers are usually busy, such a method would give them warning ahead of a problem. This paper describes a data-driven model capable of predicting thermal changes and thus having the potential to provide an early warning (15- to 25-min ahead prediction) of an impending temperature that may increase the risk for potential skin damages for those subject to enforced sitting and who have little or no sensory feedback from this area. Initially, the oscillations of the original signal are suppressed using the reconstruction strategy of empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Consequentially, the autoregressive data-driven model can be used to predict future thermal trends based on a shorter period of acquisition, which reduces the possibility of introducing human errors and artefacts associated with longer duration "enforced" sitting by volunteers. In this study, the method had a maximum predictive error of seat and skin interface 15 min ahead, but required 45 min data prior to give this accuracy. Although the 45 min front loading of data appears large (in proportion to the 15 min prediction), a relative strength derives from the fact that the same algorithm could be used on the other 4 sitting datasets created by the same individual, suggesting that the period of 45 min required to train the algorithm is transferable to other data from the same individual. This approach might be developed (along with incorporation of other measures such as movement and humidity) into a system that can give caregivers prior warning to help avoid exacerbating the skin disorders of patients who suffer

  14. Cumulant approach to the low-temperature thermodynamics of many-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current methods to describe the thermodynamic behavior of many-particle systems are often based on perturbation theory with an unperturbed system consisting of free particles. Therefore, only a few methods are able to describe both strongly and weakly correlated systems along the same lines. In this article we propose a cumulant approach which allows for the evaluation of excitation energies and is especially appropriate to account for the thermodynamics at low temperatures. The method is an extension of a cumulant formalism which was recently proposed to study statical and dynamical properties of many-body systems at zero temperature. The present approach merges into the former one for vanishing temperature. As an application we investigate the thermodynamics of the hole-doped antiferromagnetic phase in high-temperature superconductors in the framework of the anisotropic t-J model. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  15. Measurement of flame temperature distribution by IR emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noncontact and nondestructive measurements for determining flame temperature distribution are under investigation. This paper proposes a new method we have called infrared emission computed tomography to measure the temperature distribution in arbitrary transaxial layers of the flame by calculating the infrared radiation intensity emitted from a flame as the projection data. The authors developed an experimental system using an infrared sensor as the detector and applied our method to a laminar flame. They obtained good images of the temperature distribution in a flame. In addition, temperature profiles obtained by this method were in good agreement with the results of the thermocouple probe measurement

  16. Development of electron temperature measuring system by silicon drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soft X-ray spectroscopy with two channels Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) are adopted for electron temperature measuring on HL-2A tokamak in 2005. The working principle, design and first operation of the SDD soft X-ray spectroscopy are introduced. The measuring results of electron temperature are also presented. The results show that the SDD is very good detector for electron temperature measuring on HL-2A tokamak. These will become a solid basic work to establish SDD array for electron temperature profiling. (authors)

  17. The Effects of Increased Body Temperature on Motor Control during Golf Putting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, John F.; Grealy, Madeleine A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of increased core temperature on the performance outcome and movement kinematics of elite golfers during a golf putting task. The study aimed to examine individual differences in the extent to which increased temperature influenced the rate of putting success, whether increased temperature speeded up the timing of the putting downswing and whether elite golfers changed their movement kinematics during times of thermal stress. Six participants performed 20 putts to each of four putt distances (1, 2, 3, and 4 m) under normal temperature conditions and when core body temperature was increased. There was no significant difference in the number of successful putts between the two temperature conditions, but there was an increase in putterhead velocity at ball impact on successful putts to distances of 1 and 4 m when temperature was elevated. This reflected an increase in swing amplitude rather than a reduction in swing duration as hypothesized. There were individual differences in the motor control response to thermal stress as three of the golfers changed the kinematic parameters used to scale their putting movements to achieve putts of different distances at elevated temperatures. Theoretical implications for these findings and the practical implications for elite golfers and future research are discussed.

  18. Digital holographic interferometry for measurement of temperature in axisymmetric flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shobhna; Sheoran, Gyanendra; Shakher, Chandra

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, experimental investigations and analysis is presented to measure the temperature and temperature profile of gaseous flames using lensless Fourier transform digital holographic interferometry. The evaluations of the experimental results give the accuracy, sensitivity, spatial resolution, and range of measurements to be well within the experimental limits. Details of the experimental results and analysis are presented. PMID:22695554

  19. Measured gas and particle temperatures in VTT's entrained flow reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Sørensen, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    Particle and gas temperature measurements were carried out in experiments on VTTs entrained flow reactor with 5% and 10% oxygen using Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy (FTIR). Particle temperature measurements were performed on polish coal,bark, wood, straw particles, and bark and...

  20. Optically Powered Temperature Measuring Instrument for Big Rotor①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGDezhong

    1997-01-01

    A micro-power consumption non-contact temperature measuring instrument for big rotos is introduced.As it solver very well the signal coupling under high speed rotation and power supply problem for probe,the instrument can realize persistent on-line temperature measurement for big rotor drived by the ordinary light transmitted by optical fiber under the room light.

  1. Measuring transient high temperature thermal phenomena in hostile environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of equipment for measuring temperature and strain in a rapidly heated and pressurized cylinder of stainless steel is discussed. Simultaneous cinematography of the full circumference of the cylinder without interference with temperature and strain measurements is also illustrated. The integrated system uses a reflective chamber for the sample and requires careful consideration of the spectral energy distribution utilized by each instrument

  2. Temperature measurements from oxygen isotope ratios of fish otoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, I

    1967-03-31

    Measurements have shown that the temperature of a fish's habitat can be deduced from the Oxygen isotope ratio of its otoliths (ear bones). Isotope ratios Obtained from fossil otoliths indicate a water temperature which agrees wiht that found by isotope measurements on associated benthonic foraminifera. PMID:6020293

  3. Finite-temperature second-order many-body perturbation theory revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Santra, Robin

    2016-01-01

    We present an algebraic, nondiagrammatic derivation of finite-temperature second-order many-body perturbation theory [FT-MBPT(2)], using techniques and concepts accessible to theoretical chemical physicists. We give explicit expressions not just for the grand potential but particularly for the mean energy of an interacting many-electron system. The framework presented is suitable for computing the energy of a finite or infinite system in contact with a heat and particle bath at finite temperature and chemical potential. FT-MBPT(2) may be applied if the system, at zero temperature, may be described using standard (i.e., zero-temperature) second-order many-body perturbation theory [ZT-MBPT(2)] for the energy. We point out that in such a situation, FT-MBPT(2) reproduces, in the zero-temperature limit, the energy computed within ZT-MBPT(2). In other words, the difficulty that has been referred to as the Kohn--Luttinger conundrum, does not occur. We comment, in this context, on a "renormalization" scheme recently ...

  4. Biphasic Effect of Melanocortin Agonists on Metabolic Rate and Body Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Lute, Beth; Jou, William; Lateef, Dalya M.; Goldgof, Margalit; Xiao, Cuiying; Piñol, Ramón A.; Kravitz, Alexxai V.; Miller, Nicole R.; Huang, Yuning George; Girardet, Clemence; Butler, Andrew A.; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L.

    2014-01-01

    The melanocortin system regulates metabolic homeostasis and inflammation. Melanocortin agonists have contradictorily been reported to both increase and decrease metabolic rate and body temperature. We find two distinct physiologic responses occurring at similar doses. Intraperitoneal administration of the nonselective melanocortin agonist MTII causes a melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r) mediated hypermetabolism/hyperthermia. This is preceded by a profound, transient hypometabolism/hypothermia tha...

  5. Contribution of a Membrane Estrogen Receptor to the Estrogenic Regulation of Body Temperature and Energy Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Roepke, Troy A.; Bosch, Martha A.; Rick, Elizabeth A.; Lee, Benjamin; Wagner, Edward J.; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Scanlan, Thomas S.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Martin J Kelly

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamus is a key region of the central nervous system involved in the control of homeostasis, including energy and core body temperature (Tc). 17β-Estradiol (E2) regulates Tc, in part, via actions in the basal hypothalamus and preoptic area. E2 primarily controls hypothalamic functions via the nuclear steroid receptors, estrogen receptor α/β. However, we have previously described an E2-responsive, Gq-coupled membrane receptor that reduces the postsynaptic inhibitory γ-aminobutyric ac...

  6. An extensometer for axial strain measurement at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J.; Motoie, K.; Sakane, M.

    1983-01-01

    Most existing strain measuring instruments, important for the investigation of the mechanical behavior of metals at high temperature, have temperature, strain range, and size limitations. In this short note the authors give the design and construction of an extensometer with sufficient dynamic range and good stability over long periods of time, for measuring the longitudinal strain of plane specimens from 0.001 to 0.1 at temperatures up to 800 C.

  7. Developing a Novel Measure of Body Satisfaction Using Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Purvis, Clare K.; Jones, Megan; Bailey, Jakki O.; Bailenson, Jeremy; Taylor, C. Barr

    2015-01-01

    Body image disturbance (BID), considered a key feature in eating disorders, is a pervasive issue among young women. Accurate assessment of BID is critical, but the field is currently limited to self-report assessment methods. In the present study, we build upon existing research, and explore the utility of virtual reality (VR) to elicit and detect changes in BID across various immersive virtual environments. College-aged women with elevated weight and shape concerns (n = 38) and a non-weight ...

  8. Measurement of relative permittivity of LTCC ceramic at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulin Tan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Devices based on LTCC (low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology are more widely applied in high temperature environments, and the temperature-dependent properties of the LTCC material play an important role in measurements of the characteristics of these devices at high temperature. In this paper, the temperature-dependence of the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic is studied from room temperature to 500 °C. An expression for relative permittivity is obtained, which relates the relative permittivity to the resonant frequency, inductance, parasitic capacitance and electrode capacitance of the LTCC sample. Of these properties, the electrode capacitance is the most strongly temperature-dependent. The LTCC sample resonant frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance were measured (from room temperature to 500 °C with a high temperature measurement system comprising a muffle furnace and network analyzer. We found that the resonant frequency reduced and the inductance and parasitic capacitance increased slightly as the temperature increases. The relative permittivity can be calculated from experimental frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance measurements. Calculating results show that the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic ceramic increases to 8.21 from room temperature to 500 °C.

  9. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing--Multiple Analysis of Skin Surface Temperature Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 吴海燕; 张渭源

    2003-01-01

    A new researching method on clothing comfort perception is developed.By it the skin surface temperature changes and subjective psychological perception of human body sections stimulated by the same cold stimulation are studied.With the multiple comparison analysis method the changing laws of skin temperature of main human body sections is obtained.

  10. Solar cell junction temperature measurement of PV module

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2011-02-01

    The present study develops a simple non-destructive method to measure the solar cell junction temperature of PV module. The PV module was put in the environmental chamber with precise temperature control to keep the solar PV module as well as the cell junction in thermal equilibrium with the chamber. The open-circuit voltage of PV module Voc is then measured using a short pulse of solar irradiation provided by a solar simulator. Repeating the measurements at different environment temperature (40-80°C) and solar irradiation S (200-1000W/m2), the correlation between the open-circuit voltage Voc, the junction temperature Tj, and solar irradiation S is derived.The fundamental correlation of the PV module is utilized for on-site monitoring of solar cell junction temperature using the measured Voc and S at a short time instant with open circuit. The junction temperature Tj is then determined using the measured S and Voc through the fundamental correlation. The outdoor test results show that the junction temperature measured using the present method, Tjo, is more accurate. The maximum error using the average surface temperature Tave as the junction temperature is 4.8 °C underestimation; while the maximum error using the present method is 1.3 °C underestimation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Measuring Temperature in Pipe Flow with Non-Homogeneous Temperature Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klason, P.; Kok, G. J.; Pelevic, N.; Holmsten, M.; Ljungblad, S.; Lau, P.

    2014-04-01

    Accurate temperature measurements in flow lines are critical for many industrial processes. It is normally more a rule than an exception in such applications to obtain water flows with inhomogeneous temperature distributions. In this paper, a number of comparisons were performed between different 100 ohm platinum resistance thermometer (Pt-100) configurations and a new speed-of-sound-based temperature sensor used to measure the average temperature of water flows with inhomogeneous temperature distributions. The aim was to achieve measurement deviations lower than 1 K for the temperature measurement of water flows with inhomogeneous temperature distributions. By using a custom-built flow injector, a water flow with a hot-water layer on top of a cold-water layer was created. The temperature difference between the two layers was up to 32 K. This study shows that the deviations to the temperature reference for the average temperature of four Pt-100s, the multisensor consisting of nine Pt-100s, and the new speed-of-sound sensors are remarkably lower than the deviation for a single Pt-100 under the same conditions. The aim of reaching a deviation lower than 1 K was achieved with the speed-of-sound sensors, the configuration with four Pt-100s, and the multisensor. The promising results from the speed-of sound temperature sensors open the possibility for an integrated flow and temperature sensor. In addition, the immersion depth of a single Pt-100 was also investigated at three different water temperatures.

  12. Measurements of the total-body potassium contents. Application of reference value with the whole-body counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Training Radiological Technicians; Saegusa, Kenji; Arimizu, Noboru; Kuniyasu, Yoshio; Itoh, Hisao

    2001-08-01

    The total-body potassium contents were measured in 405 healthy volunteers and 186 patients with whole body counter in Chiba University Hospital. The total-body potassium contents was expressed by the reference value (R value). The R value was calculated as measured potassium contents (g) divided by the body surface area (m{sup 2}) and adjusted by age and sex of healthy persons. The R value was 100.65{+-}9.22% in 405 healthy volunteers. Those of each disease were as follows: liver cirrhosis; 94.24{+-}11.22%, chronic hepatitis; 95.74{+-}11.24%, hyperthyroidism; 99.37{+-}10.8%, periodic paralysis; 82.0{+-}9.01%, Barter's syndrome; 93.99{+-}9.86%, myasthenia gravis; 97.34{+-}6.42% and hypo-potassemia; 90.64{+-}11.76%, respectively. The R values of other diseases such as uterine cancer, breast cancer, anemia, hypertension were 97.78{+-}11.5%, 99.22{+-}8.88%, 96.64{+-}12.73%, 98.5{+-}9.63% respectively. Fourteen patients showed especially lower R values under 75%. These were 1 liver cirrhosis, 3 hypertension, 1 diabetes mellitus, 3 hypo-potassemia, 1 periodic paralysis, 2 Barter's syndrome, 2 chemical poisoning, and 1 breast cancer. Follow-up study was performed in some patients with the lower R values. The result of follow-up study showed that there was a relationship between improvement of symptoms and increase of total body potassium contents. (author)

  13. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing-Smirnov Test of Skin Surface Temperatures' Dynamic Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WU Hai-yan; WANG Yun-yi

    2004-01-01

    Skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing is the theoretic foundation of thermal insulation clothing design.By a new method of researching on clothing comfort perception,the skin temperature live changing procedure of human body sections affected by the same cold stimulation is inspected.Furthermore with the Smirnov test the skin temperatures dynamic changing patterns of main human body sections are obtained.

  14. Effect of programmed diurnal temperature cycles on plasma thyroxine level, body temperature, and feed intake of holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, I. M.; Johnson, H. D.; Hahn, G. L.

    1983-03-01

    Holstein cows exposed to simulated summer diurnal ambient temperature cycles of Phoenix, Arizona and Atlanta, Georgia and diurnal modifications of these climates displayed daily cycles fluctuations in plasma thyroxine (T4) and rectal temperatures (Tre). There were daily diurnal changes in T4 and Tre under all simulated climate conditions. Maximal values generally occurred in the evening hours and minimum values in the morning. Although the diurnal rhythm was influenced by the various simulated climates (diurnal modifications) a diurnal rhythm was very evident even under constant conditions at thermoneutral (Tnc) and at cyclic thermoneutral conditions (TN). The major significance of the study is that the initiation of night cooling of the animals at a time when their Tre was highest was most beneficial to maintenance of a TN plasma T4 level. There was a highly significant negative relationship of average T4 and average Tre. There was also a significant negative relationship of feed consumption and average temperature-humidity index (THI). These data suggest that night cooling may be a most effective method to alleviate thermoregulatory limitations of a hot climate on optimal animal performance. Decreasing the night time air temperature (Ta) or THI or increasing the diurnal range allows the cows to more easily dissipate excess body heat accumulated during the day and minimize the thermal inhibition on feed intake, and alterations in plasma T4 and Tre.

  15. Effect of Body Temperature on the Radionuclide Evaluation of Cerebral Blood Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) may reflect physiological correlates of the disease state. In neuro-imaging studies, some diseases have frequently been reported to be associated with reduced or increased rCBF. In a previous study we had shown evidence of heat induced vasoconstriction of the carotid artery, which is the main vessel supplying blood to the brain. This vasoconstriction may lead to a decrease in cerebral blood flow in hyperthermic patients. Most radionuclide studies used to assess cerebral blood flow are routinely performed without taking into consideration patients' body temperature. In this regard it may be noted that results of radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies may be affected by hyperthermia, which could lead to false positive studies or misinterpretation of results when they are performed on patients suffering from various cerebrovascular diseases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the importance of body temperature and its effect on the results of radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies. Cerebral blood flow was assessed using Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime (Tc-99m HMPAO) imaging. Baseline scintigraphic images of the brain were obtained in 10 rabbits using a gamma camera equipped with a low energy parallel hole and high resolution collimator interfaced with a computer. Repeat brain studies were performed on the same rabbits at 3 and 6 days after raising the body temperature by 2 deg. C and 4 deg. C respectively using the same imaging protocol. The counts per pixel were determined on control and hyperthermia images. The uptake of Tc-99m HMPAO in the brain was found to be significantly reduced following hyperthermia implying reduction in blood flow. This decrease in cerebral perfusion appears to be variable from region to region, being more in the cerebral hemispheres, frontal areas (olfactory lobes) than in the cerebellum. Based on the results, the authors conclude that a rise in body temperature might

  16. Development and validation of parenting measures for body image and eating patterns in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M.; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based parenting interventions are important in assisting parents to help their children develop healthy body image and eating patterns. To adequately assess the impact of parenting interventions, valid parent measures are required. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the validity and reliability of two new parent measures, the Parenting Intentions for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Parenting Intentions BEC) and the Knowledge Test for Body image an...

  17. Measuring temperatures with modified Kleiber 270B pyrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At ECN a fast pyrometer is being used as a diagnostic tool for plasma disruption simulation experiments on candidate plasma facing materials for future thermonuclear fusion devices such as NET or ITER. The pyrometer is being used to measure the surface temperature response of the materials to short pulse high heat loads as induced by high power laser or electron beam, simulating the disrupting plasma's energy deposition. A procedure to measure surface temperatures without having to know surface emissivity in advance is described. The formulae needed in this procedure to obtain the correct temperature, starting from the initial incorrect temperature reading, are derived. Inversely, the formula to determine the emissivity of the surface when its temperature is known is equally derived. Finally, a small study on background level sensitivity is presented, showing the, in general, small effect of background on the temperature measurement. (orig.)

  18. Thermo-voltage measurements of atomic contacts at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofarim, Ayelet; Kopp, Bastian; Möller, Thomas; Martin, León; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Summary We report the development of a novel method to determine the thermopower of atomic-sized gold contacts at low temperature. For these measurements a mechanically controllable break junction (MCBJ) system is used and a laser source generates a temperature difference of a few kelvins across the junction to create a thermo-voltage. Since the temperature difference enters directly into the Seebeck coefficient S = −ΔV/ΔT, the determination of the temperature plays an important role. We present a method for the determination of the temperature difference using a combination of a finite element simulation, which reveals the temperature distribution of the sample, and the measurement of the resistance change due to laser heating of sensor leads on both sides next to the junction. Our results for the measured thermopower are in agreement with recent reports in the literature. PMID:27335765

  19. Bose–Einstein Condensates with Two- and Three-Body Interactions in an Anharmonic Trap at Finite Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transition temperature, the depletion of the condensate atoms and the collective excitations of a Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC) with two- and three-body interactions in an anharmonic trap at finite temperature are studied in detail. By using the Popov version of the Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov (HFB) approximation, an extended self-consistent model describing BEC with both two- and three-body interactions in a distorted harmonic potential at finite temperature is obtained and solved numerically. The results show that the transition temperature, the condensed atom number and the collective excitations are modified dramatically by the atomic three-body interactions and the distortion of the harmonic trap. (general)

  20. Temperature lags of luminescence measurements in a commercial luminescence reader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitis, George [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kiyak, Nafiye G. [ISIK University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Physics Department, Sile, 34980 Istanbul (Turkey); Polymeris, George S., E-mail: gspolymeris@ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Beşevler, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-09-15

    The temperature recorded in thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence equipments is not the temperature of the sample but that of the heating element on which the thermocouple is attached. Depending upon the rate of heating, a temperature difference appears between the samples and the heating element, termed as temperature lag, which could have serious effects on the curve shapes and trapping parameters. In the present work the temperature lag effect is studied in a newly developed luminescence equipment measuring both thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. It is found that the temperature lag could be large for heating rates above 2 K/s and it is strongly dependent upon the sample holder. A simple approximation method is proposed in order to both predict as well as correct for temperature lag effects in luminescence measurements.

  1. Temperature dependence of conductivity measurement for conducting polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Leandro; Duran, Jesus; Isah, Anne; Albers, Patrick; McDougall, Michael; Wang, Weining

    2014-03-01

    Conducting polymer-based solar cells are the newest generation solar cells. While research on this area has been progressing, the efficiency is still low because certain important parameters of the solar cell are still not well understood. It is of interest to study the temperature dependence of the solar cell parameters, such as conductivity of the polymer, open circuit voltage, and reverse saturation current to gain a better understanding on the solar cells. In this work, we report our temperature dependence of conductivity measurement using our in-house temperature-varying apparatus. In this project, we designed and built a temperature varying apparatus using a thermoelectric cooler module which gives enough temperature range as we need and costs much less than a cryostat. The set-up of the apparatus will be discussed. Temperature dependence of conductivity measurements for PEDOT:PSS films with different room-temperature conductivity will be compared and discussed. NJSGC-NASA Fellowship grant

  2. Temperature lags of luminescence measurements in a commercial luminescence reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature recorded in thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence equipments is not the temperature of the sample but that of the heating element on which the thermocouple is attached. Depending upon the rate of heating, a temperature difference appears between the samples and the heating element, termed as temperature lag, which could have serious effects on the curve shapes and trapping parameters. In the present work the temperature lag effect is studied in a newly developed luminescence equipment measuring both thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. It is found that the temperature lag could be large for heating rates above 2 K/s and it is strongly dependent upon the sample holder. A simple approximation method is proposed in order to both predict as well as correct for temperature lag effects in luminescence measurements

  3. PCPV instrumentation and measurement techniques at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrumentation and measurement techniques used on a prototype prestressed concrete pressure vessel at inner wall temperatures up to 3000C are described. Properties of the concrete from test samples cast at the same time as the prototype were carefully evaluated. With accurate knowledge of concrete properties and measuring gauge behaviour, accurate stress and strain measurements could be obtained for the vessel for one year after the concrete was poured including prestressing high temperature and pressure tests

  4. Electron Temperature Measurements and Energy Transport in SSPX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, B. F.; Casper, T. A.; Hooper, E. B.; Jayakumar, R. J.; Lodestro, L. L.; McLean, H. S.; Moller, J. M.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Wood, R. D.

    2007-11-01

    Time-resolved measurements (CORSICA code where the equilibrium is kept fixed and the discharge is evolved to observe the change in temperature profiles for different transport coefficients. In addition, electron transport and heating will be correlated with measured MHD mode activity. Temperature and density measurements during multi-pulse coaxial gun-current operation will also be presented. * Work performed under the auspices of the US DOE by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W--7405--ENG--48.

  5. Measurement of three-dimensional posture and trajectory of lower body during standing long jumping utilizing body-mounted sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibata, Yuki; Kitamura, Seiji; Motoi, Kosuke; Sagawa, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    The measurement method of three-dimensional posture and flying trajectory of lower body during jumping motion using body-mounted wireless inertial measurement units (WIMU) is introduced. The WIMU is composed of three-dimensional (3D) accelerometer and gyroscope of two kinds with different dynamic range and one 3D geomagnetic sensor to adapt to quick movement. Three WIMUs are mounted under the chest, right thigh and right shank. Thin film pressure sensors are connected to the shank WIMU and are installed under right heel and tiptoe to distinguish the state of the body motion between grounding and jumping. Initial and final postures of trunk, thigh and shank at standing-still are obtained using gravitational acceleration and geomagnetism. The posture of body is determined using the 3D direction of each segment updated by the numerical integration of angular velocity. Flying motion is detected from pressure sensors and 3D flying trajectory is derived by the double integration of trunk acceleration applying the 3D velocity of trunk at takeoff. Standing long jump experiments are performed and experimental results show that the joint angle and flying trajectory agree with the actual motion measured by the optical motion capture system. PMID:24110831

  6. Prompt temperature feedback coefficient measurement of TRR-1/M 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompt temperature feedback coefficient measurement of TRR-1M/1 (TRIGA MARK III) at the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace was carried out by direct measurements of heat transfer and reactor power characteristics during small power excursion experiment (reactivities less than 60 cent). An instrumented fuel element at position Bl was used to measure the temperature characteristic of fuel elements. From measured reactivities and heat transfer, prompt temperature feedback coefficient was calculated by using prompt-jump and one-delayed-neutron-group approximated diffusion equation, Newton's Law of Cooling, and linear reactivity equation. The core loading was mainly standard fuel elements. Averaged value of prompt temperature feedback coefficient obtained was-1.39 cent/degree C over the temperature range from 53 degree C to 57 degree C. The result is comparable to that obtained, by similar experiment, at the University of Arizona and about 16 percent above that reported by General Atomic Company, supplier of the reactor

  7. RS trigger based relaxation oscillator for temperature measurement circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Zhi-ge; ZOU Xue-cheng; JIAN Wen-xiang; LEI Jian-ming

    2008-01-01

    Resistance-to-time converter is always used for digital temperature measurement. An reset-set (RS) trigger based, relaxation oscillator based temperature measurement circuit, which is used to convert the change of thermistor sensor into a frequency signal for later processing, has been presented in this article. The RS trigger, which is composed of two inverters designed with distinct logical transition threshold voltages by changing the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistor gains, has the same function as the Schmitt trigger in the relaxation oscillator. The advantage of the RS trigger based Schmitt trigger is that it reduces the dependence to supply voltage, chip temperature, and process variation. This temperature measurement circuit has been applied in a clinical thermometer chip that can measure temperature to an accuracy of better than 0.05℃ down to 1.1 V battery voltage. It is fabricated in 0.5double metal single poly complementary MOS (CMOS) process.

  8. Validity of total and segmental impedance measurements for prediction of body composition across ethnic population groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.R.M.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schouten, F.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Methods: Anthropometric parameters were measured in addition to impedance (100 kHz) of the total body, arms and legs. Impedance indexes were calculated as height2/impedance. Arm length (span) and leg length (sitting height), wrist and knee width were measured from which body build indices were calcu

  9. Measurement Invariance and the Role of Body Consciousness in Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang Fang; Russo, Nancy Felipe

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this article are threefold: (a) to test measurement invariance of the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBCS), a central tool for testing objectification theory, across men and women, given that measurement invariance is a prerequisite for gender comparisons; (b) to examine the mediating role of body shame in the link between…

  10. Reliability of body size measurements obtained at autopsy: impact on the pathologic assessment of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Carmen A; Lo Gullo, Roberto; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Louissaint, Abner; Stone, James R

    2016-06-01

    Purpose Assessment of body size at autopsy is important for interpreting organ weight measurements and in some cases body identification. The reliability of post-mortem body size measurements, the causes for perturbations in these measurements from their corresponding pre-mortem values, and the impact of such perturbations on heart weight interpretation have not been fully explored. Methods Autopsy body length and weight measurements and pre-mortem height and body weight measurements were compared in 132 autopsies. Clinical records were evaluated for peripheral edema and serum albumin levels. Causes of death, body cavity fluid collections, and heart weights were obtained from the autopsy reports. A subset of patients underwent quantitative post-mortem computed tomography assessment of anasarca. Results At autopsy, body weight differed from the pre-mortem value by 11 ± 1 %, compared with -0.2 ± 0.3 % for body length (P edema (14 ± 2 % vs. 7 ± 2 %, P = 0.01), serum albumin edema/anasarca. Alterations in body weight at autopsy can confound the interpretation of organ weight measurements. PMID:27020890

  11. Application of phosphor thermometry to a Galvanneal Temperature Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Galvanneal Temperature Measurement System (GTMS) was developed for the American Iron and Steel Institute by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory through a partnership with the National Steel Midwest Division in Portage, Indiana. The GTMS provides crucial on-line thermal process control information during the manufacturing of galvanneal steel. The system has been used with the induction furnaces to measure temperatures ranging from 450 to 700 degrees C with an accuracy of better than +/-5 Degrees C. The GTMS provides accurate, reliable temperature information thus ensuring a high quality product, reducing waste, and saving energy. The production of uniform, high-quality galvanneal steel is only possible through strict temperature control

  12. Applications of quantum measurement in single and many body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis contains a study about the influence of the back action of a signal emitted by a trapped ion onto itself. The continuous measurement signal is used to alter the motional state of the ion, corresponding to classical friction, in order to cool the ion. The quantum mechanical evolution of the ion with the help of stochastic Schroedinger- and master equations is explored, as well as experimental results. A second method of feedback to obtain the momentum necessary for cooling by means of electromagnetically induced transparency is discussed next. This method allows for a theoretical cooling down to the motional ground state. In a second part of the thesis, the measurement of particle currents in optical lattices is discussed. The usual method of measuring spatial correlations in a cold gas, the time-of-flight method, disadvantageously destroys the measured sample. Here a measurement scheme for atoms with an internal Lambda level structure, coupled with lasers as a Raman transition, is used instead. The measured photons are transformed with the help of homodyne detection into a continuous photon current proportional to the particle current. This thesis contains numerical and analytical calculations for this measurement process and the back action on the measured system. As an application example, the measurement of superfluid currents in a ring optical lattice is described, as well as the entanglement of two of these macroscopic quantum objects. (author)

  13. High temperature ultrasonic sensor for the simultaneous measurement of viscosity and temperature of melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultrasonic sensor that simultaneously measures temperature and viscosity of molten materials at very high temperature is described. This sensor has applications as a process monitor in melters. The sensor is based on ultrasonic shear reflectance at the solid-melt interface. A delay line probe is constructed using refractory materials. A change in the time of flight within the delay line is used to measure the temperature. The results obtained from this sensor on various calibration glass samples demonstrate a measurement range of 100-20 000 P for the viscosity and 25-1500 degree sign C for the temperature. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics

  14. An Investigation of Summertime Inland Water Body Temperatures in California and Nevada (USA): Recent Trends and Future Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Nathan; Hook, Simon; Piccolroaz, Sebastiano; Toffolon, Marco; Radocinski, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Inland water body temperature has been identified as an ideal indicator of potential climate change. Understanding inland water body temperature trends is important for forecasting impacts to limnological, biological, and hydrological resources. Many inland water bodies are situated in remote locations with incomplete data records of in-situ monitoring or lack in-situ observations altogether. Thus, the utilization of satellite data is essential for understanding the behavior of global inland water body temperatures. Part of this research provides an analysis of summertime (July-September) temperature trends in the largest California/Nevada (USA) inland water bodies between 1991 and 2015. We examine satellite temperature retrievals from ATSR (ATSR-1, ATSR-2, AATSR), MODIS (Terra and Aqua), and VIIRS sensors. Our findings indicate that inland water body temperatures in the western United States were rapidly warming between 1991 and 2009, but since then trends have been decreasing. This research also includes implementation of a model called air2water to predict future inland water body surface temperature through the sole input of air temperature. Using projections from CMIP5-CCSM4 output, our model indicates that Lake Tahoe (USA) is expected to experience an increase of roughly 3 °C by 2100.

  15. The definition analyses of radiation temperature measurement area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Tairan; Cheng Xiaofang; Zhong Maohua

    2008-01-01

    In the research of primary spectrum pyrometry, this paper discussed the definition problem of radiation tem-perature measurement area based on the measurement coordinates. For the linear spectrum emissivity model and im-proved monotonic spectrum emissivity model, the characteristics of radiation temperature measurement area restricted by the measurement coordinates were theoretically analyzed, through the investigations of the temperature and emissivity co-ordinate axes. Choosing the specific primary spectrum pyrometer as an example in applications, the theoretical area of radiation temperature measurement of this pyrometer was given and it was verified through blackbody experiments. The discussions of this paper will provide the necessary foundation for the theory research development of primary spectrum pyrometry and the realization of technical applications.

  16. Fully automated setup for high temperature Seebeck coefficient measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the fabrication of fully automated experimental setup for high temperature Seebeck coefficient ($\\alpha$) measurement. The K-type thermocouples are used to measure the average temperature of the sample and Seebeck voltage (SV) across it. The temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficients of the thermocouple and its negative leg is taken care by using the integration method. Steady state based differential technique is used for $\\alpha$ measurement. Use of limited component and thin heater simplify the sample holder design and minimize the heat loss. The power supplied to the heater decides temperature difference across the sample and measurement is carried out by achieving the steady state. The LabVIEW based program is built to automize the whole measurement process. The complete setup is fabricated by using commonly available materials in the market. This instrument is standardized for materials with a wide range of $\\alpha$ and for the wide range of $\\Delta T$ across the specimen...

  17. Mold temperature measurement for glass-pressing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The largest use of radiation thermometers within Corning Glass Works is for mold temperature measurement for the glass-pressing process. Pressing television panels at today's high quality would be very difficult without a mold temperature measurement system and the computer manipulation of the quality control data to supervise the mold temperature control loop. The most critical part of a television panel is the inside surface curvature. The ideal surface is usually defined as a spherical surface. The tolerance for a normal TV panel is +-0.30 mm (+-0.012 in.). High resolution display panels are more critical, having a dimensional tolerance only one half as large as TV panels. Panel curvature is a direct (but negative) function of mold temperature. Every 10C increase in mold temperature results in the panel center being 0.025 mm (0.001 in.) shorter (flatter). Random dimensional variations within a panel take up most of the dimensional tolerance. The result is that each mold is controlled to its own individual temperature set point, +-10C. Hot panel and cold panel curvature measurements are correlated by a process computer and used to update the mold temperature set points. The same computer adjusts the mold cooling air to maintain the required mold temperatures. From the temperature measurement standpoint, the significant problem is the changing emissivity of the mold surface when the mold is new or reconditioned. The selection of a radiation thermometer with a short wavelength was an obvious choice to minimize the effect of emissivity variations

  18. Infrared temperature measurement with automatic consideration of emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Volker

    1989-07-01

    The theoretical and practical development of a system, for contactless infrared temperature measurement, is discussed. The components, the data reduction and the calibration procedures are investigated. A method, which measures spectral radiances of an object in ten narrow infrared bands is used. It is based on a balancing calculation of this data. The temperatures of the object and its environment as well as the object's emissivity are computed. The method is also suitable for strongly reflecting objects below the temperature of glow. Examples of measurements are included.

  19. The measurement of temperature of dust flame in the terms of magnetohydrodynamic generator chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attempts of utilization of coal as a fuel for the magnetohydrodynamic generators chamber were entered upon last years. They required to study the combustion kinetics of solid fuel in range 2500 - 3500 K. It was necessary to build the stand for measurement of high and quick-variable temperatures. The monochromatic radiometer built on the base of two-colour pyrometer, was made in Institute of Power Engineering and Fluid Mechanics of Technical University of Wroclaw and it is the instrument intended to non-contact measurement of real temperatures of grey body. (author)

  20. Miniaturized implantable sensors for in vivo localized temperature measurements in mice during cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, R; Lehnert, T; Cettour-Rose, P; Doenlen, R; Auwerx, J; Gijs, M A M

    2016-02-01

    We report on in vivo temperature measurements performed in mice at two specific sites of interest in the animal body over a period of several hours. In particular, the aim of this work was to monitor mouse metabolism during cold exposure, and to record possible temperature differences between the body temperature measured in the abdomen and the temperature of the brown adipose tissue (BAT) situated in the interscapular area. This approach is of biological interest as it may help unravelling the question whether biochemical activation of BAT is associated with local increase in metabolic heat production. For that purpose, miniaturized thermistor sensors have been accurately calibrated and implanted in the BAT and in the abdominal tissue of mice. After 1 week of recovery from surgery, mice were exposed to cold (6 °C) for a maximum duration of 6 h and the temperature was acquired continuously from the two sensors. Control measurements with a conventional rectal probe confirmed good performance of both sensors. Moreover, two different mouse phenotypes could be identified, distinguishable in terms of their metabolic resistance to cold exposure. This difference was analyzed from the thermal point of view by computational simulations. Our simple physical model of the mouse body allowed to reproduce the global evolution of hypothermia and also to explain qualitatively the temperature difference between abdomen and BAT locations. While with our approach, we have demonstrated the importance and feasibility of localized temperature measurements on mice, further optimization of this technique may help better identify local metabolism variations. PMID:26660457

  1. Scanning optical pyrometer for measuring temperatures in hollow cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life-limiting processes in hollow cathodes are determined largely by the temperature of the electron emitter. To support cathode life assessment, a noncontact temperature measurement technique which employs a stepper motor-driven fiber optic probe was developed. The probe is driven inside the hollow cathode and collects light radiated by the hot interior surface of the emitter. Ratio pyrometry is used to determine the axial temperature profile. Thermocouples on the orifice plate provide measurements of the external temperature during cathode operation and are used to calibrate the pyrometer system in situ with a small oven enclosing the externally heated cathode. The diagnostic method and initial measurements of the temperature distribution in a hollow cathode are discussed

  2. The emittance of space radiator materials measured at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirtich, M.J. [Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); DiFilippo, F. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Barry, J.; Kussmaul, M. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The spectral emittances of textured space radiator materials between 1.7 and 14.7 {mu}m have been evaluated at room temperature and elevated temperature (630{degrees}C) in air. Heating in air caused a permanent increase in spectral emittance for all materials tested: HCl/ion beam textured 304 stainless steel, untextured Ti (6 percent Al, 4 percent V), and sandblasted Ti (6 percent Al, 4 percent V). Changes in the surface chemistry and/or surface morphology of these materials were also observed. Elevated temperature spectral emittance was measured in an argon atmosphere and compared to the measurements in air. Similarity between the room temperature and elevated temperature spectral emittance measurements was also investigated, and limited agreement was found.

  3. Scanning optical pyrometer for measuring temperatures in hollow cathodes

    OpenAIRE

    Polk, J. E.; Marrese-Reading, C. M.; Thornber, B.; Dang, L.; Johnson, L. K.; Katz, I

    2007-01-01

    Life-limiting processes in hollow cathodes are determined largely by the temperature of the electron emitter. To support cathode life assessment, a noncontact temperature measurement technique which employs a stepper motor-driven fiber optic probe was developed. The probe is driven inside the hollow cathode and collects light radiated by the hot interior surface of the emitter. Ratio pyrometry is used to determine the axial temperature profile. Thermocouples on the orifice plate provide measu...

  4. Climate change effects on macrofaunal litter decomposition: the interplay of temperature, body masses and stoichiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, David; Rall, Björn C; Brose, Ulrich

    2012-11-01

    Macrofauna invertebrates of forest floors provide important functions in the decomposition process of soil organic matter, which is affected by the nutrient stoichiometry of the leaf litter. Climate change effects on forest ecosystems include warming and decreasing litter quality (e.g. higher C : nutrient ratios) induced by higher atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. While litter-bag experiments unravelled separate effects, a mechanistic understanding of how interactions between temperature and litter stoichiometry are driving decomposition rates is lacking. In a laboratory experiment, we filled this void by quantifying decomposer consumption rates analogous to predator-prey functional responses that include the mechanistic parameters handling time and attack rate. Systematically, we varied the body masses of isopods, the environmental temperature and the resource between poor (hornbeam) and good quality (ash). We found that attack rates increased and handling times decreased (i) with body masses and (ii) temperature. Interestingly, these relationships interacted with litter quality: small isopods possibly avoided the poorer resource, whereas large isopods exhibited increased, compensatory feeding of the poorer resource, which may be explained by their higher metabolic demands. The combination of metabolic theory and ecological stoichiometry provided critically important mechanistic insights into how warming and varying litter quality may modify macrofaunal decomposition rates. PMID:23007091

  5. Ultrasonic vocalization and body temperature maintenance in infant voles of three species (Rodentia: Arvicolidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, B H

    1992-12-01

    Infant voles thermoregulate poorly and produce ultrasonic vocalizations when cooled. Vocalizing and the ability to maintain body temperature in isolated pups cold-challenged at 5 degrees C or 22 degrees C were studied in nestling Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus agrestis, and Arvicola terrestris. The tendency to vocalize varied with age, since pups vocalized more in their 2nd week than in their 1st or 3rd weeks. Rate of vocalizing was correlated with sound pressure level of vocalizations. Their was no apparent relation between vocalizing rate and deep body temperature. M. agrestis pups vocalized most and A. terrestris pups least, and all three species vocalized more at the lower temperature. Maximal vocalizing occurred in mid aged M. agrestis (at 5 degrees C) with mean of 1291 vocalizations/20 min and mean SPL of 80 dB (decibels re: 20 microN/m2). It is suggested that the vocalizing response is an adaptation related to risk from hypothermia in infant voles. PMID:1487083

  6. The extent of temporal smearing in surface-temperature histories derived from borehole temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of borehole temperature data to resolve past climatic events is investigated using Backus-Gilbert inversion methods. Two experimental approaches are considered: (1) the data consist of a single borehole temperature profile, and (2) the data consist of climatically-induced temperature transients measured within a borehole during a monitoring experiment. The sensitivity of the data's resolving power to the vertical distribution of the measurements, temperature measurement errors, the inclusion of a local meteorological record, and the duration of a monitoring experiment, are investigated. The results can be used to help interpret existing surface temperature histories derived from borehole temperature data and to optimize future experiments for the detection of climatic signals. ?? 1992.

  7. HEATED PLATE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT USING ELECTRONIC SPECKLE PATTERN INTERFEROMERY

    OpenAIRE

    Said Rachafi; Salah Darfi

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present an original technique for heated plate temperature measurement using electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). A Fourier Transform Method algorithm is proposed to analyze fringe patterns in order to extract the phase from which one can get the unknown temperature.

  8. Survey of Temperature Measurement Techniques For Studying Underwater Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Alderfer, David W.

    2004-01-01

    Several optical methods for measuring temperature near underwater shock waves are reviewed and compared. The relative merits of the different techniques are compared, considering accuracy, precision, ease of use, applicable temperature range, maturity, spatial resolution, and whether or not special additives are required.

  9. LIDAR for atmospheric backscatter and temperature measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objectives of this effort are to measure atmospheric backscatter profiles and temperature using a zenith looking lidar, designed for a small lander.The lidar...

  10. [Temperature measuring and heating controlling in transurethral prostate thermotherapy system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, L; Wang, Q; Chen, Y; Yu, X

    1997-07-01

    This paper introduces the system construction of Transurethral Prostate Thermotherapy Device. The temperature measuring device, I/O interface circuit and the programming principle of PID controlling system is illustrated also. PMID:11189255

  11. IGBT Junction Temperature Measurement via Peak Gate Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Liserre, Marco

    2016-01-01

    An electrical method for junction temperature measurement of MOS-gated power semiconductor devices is presented. The measurement method involves detecting the peak voltage over the external gate resistor of an insulated-gate bipolar transistor or MOSFET during turn-on. This voltage is directly...... proportional to the peak gate current, and fluctuates with temperature due to the temperature-dependent resistance of the internal gate resistance. Primary advantages of the method include an immunity to load current variation, and a good linear relationship with temperature. A measurement circuit can be...... integrated into a gate driver with no disruption to operation and allows autonomous measurements controlled directly via the gate signal. Advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed....

  12. Titan Surface Temperatures as Measured by Cassini CIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Flasar, F.M.; Kunde, V.G.; Nixon, C.A.; Romani, P.N.; Samuelson, R.E.; Coustenis, A.; Courtin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal radiation from the surface of Titan reaches space through a spectral window of low opacity at 19-microns wavelength. This radiance gives a measure of the brightness temperature of the surface. Composite Infrared Spectrometer' (CIRS) observations from Cassini during its first four years at Saturn have permitted latitude mapping of zonally averaged surface temperatures. The measurements are corrected for atmospheric opacity using the dependence of radiance on emission angle. With the more complete latitude coverage and much larger dataset of CIRS we have improved upon the original results from Voyager IRIS. CIRS measures the equatorial surface brightness temperature to be 93.7+/-0.6 K, the same as the temperature measured at the Huygens landing site. The surface brightness temperature decreases by 2 K toward the south pole and by 3 K toward the north pole. The drop in surface temperature between equator and north pole implies a 50% decrease in methane saturation vapor pressure and relative humidity; this may help explain the large northern lakes. The H2 mole fraction is derived as a by-product of our analysis and agrees with previous results. Evidence of seasonal variation in surface and atmospheric temperatures is emerging from CIRS measurements over the Cassini mission.

  13. Ultrasonic Measurements of Temperature in Aqueous Solutions: Why and How

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Afaneh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes two different approaches to ultrasonic measurements of temperature in aqueous solutions. The first approach uses two narrowband ultrasonic transducers and support electronics that form an oscillating sensor which output frequency is related to the measured temperature. This low-cost sensor demonstrated sensitivity of about 40 Hz/K at the distance of 190 mm and the operating frequency of about 25 kHz. The second approach utilised pulse-echo mode at the centre frequency of 20 MHz. The reflector featured a cavity that was filled with deionised water. The ultrasound propagation delay in the cavity was related to the temperature in the solution. The experiments were conducted for deionised water, and solutions of sodium persulfate, sodium chloride, and acetic acid with concentrations up to 0.5 M. In the experiments (conducted within the temperature range from 15 to 30°C, we observed increases in the ultrasound velocity for increased temperatures and concentrations as was expected. Measurement results were compared with literature data for pure and seawater. It was concluded that ultrasonic measurements of temperature were conducted with the resolution well below 0.1 K for both methods. Advantages of ultrasonic temperature measurements over conventional thermometers were discussed.

  14. On bias of kinetic temperature measurements in complex plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantor, M.; Moseev, D.; Salewski, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    The kinetic temperature in complex plasmas is often measured using particle tracking velocimetry. Here, we introduce a criterion which minimizes the probability of faulty tracking of particles with normally distributed random displacements in consecutive frames. Faulty particle tracking results in...... a measurement bias of the deduced velocity distribution function and hence the deduced kinetic temperature. For particles with a normal velocity distribution function, mistracking biases the obtained velocity distribution function towards small velocities at the expense of large velocities, i...

  15. Laser-modulated ac measurement of high temperature thermopower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zhen-Jun; Zhang Dian-Lin

    2005-01-01

    An experimental set-up for ac-measurement of thermopower between room temperature and 1200K by using modulated laser-heating has been developed. The method shows many advantages compared with the conventional dc-measurements: convenience, applicability to small samples, possibility to measure the anisotropy of single crystals,and capability to continuously trace the temperature dependence of thermopower. The thermopower of a very short piece of pure Pt was measured with the present set-up to test the reliability and accuracy of our new method.

  16. Ring to measure magnetic permeability at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    While for magn. permeability measurements at room temperature a split-coil permeameter is used (see photo 7708553X), for measurements at cryogenic temperatures the excitation and the flux-measuring coils are wound directly on the ring sample by means of a toroidal winding machine. The ring in the picture was made to select the mild steel for the ISR Prototype Superconducting Quadrupole(see photo 7702690X). The excitation coil was wound with 1 mm diam. copper wire and had about 2730 turns. For measurements at 4.2 K a max. current of 90 A was used. See also photos 7708553X,7708100,7708103.

  17. Measurements of the total-body potassium contents. Application of reference value with the whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total-body potassium contents were measured in 405 healthy volunteers and 186 patients with whole body counter in Chiba University Hospital. The total-body potassium contents was expressed by the reference value (R value). The R value was calculated as measured potassium contents (g) divided by the body surface area (m2) and adjusted by age and sex of healthy persons. The R value was 100.65±9.22% in 405 healthy volunteers. Those of each disease were as follows: liver cirrhosis; 94.24±11.22%, chronic hepatitis; 95.74±11.24%, hyperthyroidism; 99.37±10.8%, periodic paralysis; 82.0±9.01%, Barter's syndrome; 93.99±9.86%, myasthenia gravis; 97.34±6.42% and hypo-potassemia; 90.64±11.76%, respectively. The R values of other diseases such as uterine cancer, breast cancer, anemia, hypertension were 97.78±11.5%, 99.22±8.88%, 96.64±12.73%, 98.5±9.63% respectively. Fourteen patients showed especially lower R values under 75%. These were 1 liver cirrhosis, 3 hypertension, 1 diabetes mellitus, 3 hypo-potassemia, 1 periodic paralysis, 2 Barter's syndrome, 2 chemical poisoning, and 1 breast cancer. Follow-up study was performed in some patients with the lower R values. The result of follow-up study showed that there was a relationship between improvement of symptoms and increase of total body potassium contents. (author)

  18. Prediction of thermal environment via revision of PMV index with body temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Yan; Liu Jiaping; Kubota Hideki

    2007-01-01

    PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) is a widely used index for evaluating the thermal environment. However, few studies have been conducted to take physiological values directly as evaluating indices. This paper assumes a linear relation between body temperature and both sweating rate and heat produced by shivering, and introduces the linear relation into the human heat balance equation to revise the classic PMV. And the assumption of linear relation is subsequently proved. The revised PMV possesses the same characteristic of dependent heat load as that of the classic one, and moreover it is convenient to be calculated.

  19. Characteristics of Body Measurement and Shape of Garut Sheep and Its Crosses with Other Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismeth Inounu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to know body measurement because it could be used to estimate body weight as well as to differentiate the chrateristic of body measurement and shape of animal due to different breed or environment. This research was carried out to study morphometric characteristic of body size and body shape from 78 of Garut sheep (GG, 29 HG sheep {crossbred between St. Croix (HH and Garut sheep (GG}, 36 MG sheep {crossbred between Mouton Charollais (MM and Garut sheep (GG}, 62 MHG sheep (MG x HG and 38 HMG sheep (HG x MG. Body part measured were wither height (X1, rump height (x2, body length (X3, chest width (X4, chest depth (X5, hip width (X6, chest girth (X7, cannon circumference (X8 and hip length (X9. Data obeserved were analised using t test and Principle Components Analysis (PCA. Based on PCA it was showen that chest girth was the primary identity for body measurement on males and females of Garut, HG, MG, MHG and HMG with its Eigenvector value 0.689; 0.709; 0.689 and 0.681 respectively. The primary indentity for body shape of Garut sheep were chest girth and hip heigth with Eigenvector value -0.600 and 0.551 respectively. The primary indentity for body shape of HG sheep were body length with Eigenvector value -0.725. The primary indentity for body shape of MG sheep were chest girth, rump heigth, and wither heigth with Eigenvectors value: -0.600; 0.558 and 0.555 respectively. The primary indentity for body shape of MHG sheep was wither height with Eigenvector value 0.608. The primary indentity for body shape of HMG was body length with Eigenvector value 0.764. Body shape of HG and MG sheep is different than that of Garut sheep, but the body shape of MHG and HMG were close to Garut body shape. This result indicated that the adaptability to environment of HMG and MHG is close to that of Garut sheep.

  20. Inertial Vector Based Attitude Stabilization of Rigid Body Without Angular Velocity Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Benziane, L.; Benallegue, A.; Chitour, Y.; Tayebi, A.

    2015-01-01

    We address the problem of attitude stabilization of a rigid body, in which neither the angular velocity nor the instantaneous measurements of the attitude are used in the feedback, only body vector measurements are needed. The design of the controller is based on an angular velocity observer-like system, where a first order linear auxiliary system based directly on vector measurements is introduced. The introduction of gain matrices provides more tuning flexibility and better results compared...

  1. Acute changes in oxygen consumption and body temperature after burn injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Childs, C.; Little, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    This study describes the pattern of oxygen consumption (VO2), rectal temperature (Tr), and acral skin temperature (Tac) in sleeping and resting (awake) burned children nursed in a thermoneutral environment. Measurements of respiratory gas exchange (VO2 and carbon dioxide production (VCO2)) were made using an open circuit, flow through system of indirect calorimetry. Tr and Tac were monitored continuously. Sixteen patients were studied during the first 18 hours after being burned. Three phases...

  2. Rocket plume temperature measurement by wire welded thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang

    2006-05-01

    The plume of solid rocket motor is a high velocity flow with high temperature. Temperature distribution in the plume is of great interest for analyzing the compatibility of rocket weapon system. The high temperature exhausted flow field would cause damage on certain equipment and loading vehicles. An instantaneous temperature field with sharp step is established by the exhausted flow field of rocket motor. The increasing rate of the step depends on the flow velocity at cross section of nozzle exit. To perform an accurate measurement of temperature inside the flow field, a thermocouple must be sturdy enough to endure the flow impingement. In the meantime, the thermocouple must have a short time constant to trace the temperature fluctuation in flow field and a small size to avoid disturbing the flow field severely. The dynamic performance of the thermocouples used in exhausted flow temperature measurement must be evaluated before the experiment. The thermocouple which can be used in measuring the temperature distribution in rocket plume was presented in this paper. A NAMNAC (R) self-renew-erode thermocouples with a nominal time constant of 10 microseconds was used as a reference in a dynamic calibration test for this kind of thermocouple. The thermocouple could trace the temperature increase in the exhausted flow perfectly. This kind of thermocouples was used in several real tests of rocket motors, such as the temperature in free exhausted flow field of a stationary rocket motor test, the stagnate temperature in a shock flow field during the launching of a rocket, and the temperature in a launch tube.

  3. Body composition in hemodialysis patients measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenver, Doris Irene; Gotfredsen, Arne; Hilsted, J;

    1995-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures three of the principal components of the body: fat mass, lean soft-tissue mass (comprising muscle, inner organs, and the body water), and the bone mineral content. The purpose of this study was to test the estimation capacity of DXA when it is applied...... conclude that DXA is a useful tool for estimating the magnitude of body compartments in patients with end-stage renal failure....

  4. Quantum variance: A measure of quantum coherence and quantum correlations for many-body systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frérot, Irénée; Roscilde, Tommaso

    2016-08-01

    Quantum coherence is a fundamental common trait of quantum phenomena, from the interference of matter waves to quantum degeneracy of identical particles. Despite its importance, estimating and measuring quantum coherence in generic, mixed many-body quantum states remains a formidable challenge, with fundamental implications in areas as broad as quantum condensed matter, quantum information, quantum metrology, and quantum biology. Here, we provide a quantitative definition of the variance of quantum coherent fluctuations (the quantum variance) of any observable on generic quantum states. The quantum variance generalizes the concept of thermal de Broglie wavelength (for the position of a free quantum particle) to the space of eigenvalues of any observable, quantifying the degree of coherent delocalization in that space. The quantum variance is generically measurable and computable as the difference between the static fluctuations and the static susceptibility of the observable; despite its simplicity, it is found to provide a tight lower bound to most widely accepted estimators of "quantumness" of observables (both as a feature as well as a resource), such as the Wigner-Yanase skew information and the quantum Fisher information. When considering bipartite fluctuations in an extended quantum system, the quantum variance expresses genuine quantum correlations among the two parts. In the case of many-body systems, it is found to obey an area law at finite temperature, extending therefore area laws of entanglement and quantum fluctuations of pure states to the mixed-state context. Hence the quantum variance paves the way to the measurement of macroscopic quantum coherence and quantum correlations in most complex quantum systems.

  5. Dielectric properties measurement system at cryogenic temperatures and microwave frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system based on the resonant cavity method has been developed to measure the permittivity and loss tangent at 12-18 GHz over the temperature range 80 K to 300 K. Changes of permittivity as low as 0.01% in the range 1 to 30, and 3 x 10''6 for loss tangent values below 10''2, can be obtained without requiring temperature stability. The thermal expansion coefficient and resistivity factor of copper have been measured between 80 K and 300 K. Permittivity of sapphire and loss tangent of alumina of 99,9% purity in the same temperature range are presented

  6. Controlled Atmosphere High Temperature SPM for electrochemical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new controlled atmosphere high temperature SPM has been designed and build for the purpose of performing electrochemical measurements on solid oxide fuel cell materials. The first tests show that images can be obtained at a surface temperature of 465deg. C in air with a standard AFM AC probe. The aim is to produce images at a surface temperature of 800deg. C with electrically conducting ceramic probes as working electrodes that can be positioned at desired locations at the surface for electrochemical measurements

  7. [Analyses of spectral emissivity in radiation temperature measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tai-Ran; Cheng, Xiao-Fang; Zhong, Mao-Hua; Yang, Zang-Jian

    2008-01-01

    The complexity of the spectral emissivity of actual surfaces is the key point in the research and applications of radiation temperature measurement, resulting in the difficulty in the achievement of the temperature measurement. In the present paper, based on the discussions of the Taylor expansion, the non-dimension wavelength and the exponent, the authors describe the mathematical expression of the spectral emissivity of actual surfaces, and establish the general spectral emissivity function. Through the fitting of experimental data of the spectral emissivities of different metals at different temperatures, the applicability of the spectral emissivity function is verified which especially becomes the fundamental in the research of primary spectrum pyrometry. PMID:18422106

  8. Hysteresis and Temperature Dependency of Moisture Sorption – New Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    measurements of hysteresis and temperature dependency of the moisture sorption characteristics of three different porous building materials: aerated concrete, cement paste and spruce. Scanning curves are measured for all three materials where periods with adsorption and desorption interrupt each other......It is well known that sorption characteristics of building materials exhibit hysteresis in the way the equilibrium curves develop between adsorption and desorption, and that the sorption curves are also somewhat temperature dependent. However, these two facts are most often neglected in models for...... intermittently. For one of the materials, aerated concrete, the sorption curves are determined at three different temperatures....

  9. Measurement of Temperature Dependent Apparent Specific Heat Capacity in Electrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaki, Wafaa; Akyildiz, Ali; Borca Tasciuc, Diana-Andra; De, Suvranu

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the measurement of temperature dependent apparent specific heat of ex-vivo porcine liver tissue during radiofrequency alternating current heating for a large temperature range. The difference between spatial and temporal evolution of experimental temperature, obtained during electrosurgical heating by infrared thermometry, and predictions based on finite element modeling was minimized to obtain the apparent specific heat. The model was based on transient heat transfer with internal heat generation considering heat storage along with conduction. Such measurements are important to develop computational models for real time simulation of electrosurgical procedures. PMID:27046573

  10. Remote measurement of temperature distribution using an optical fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Hartog, A.H.; Payne, D. N.

    1982-01-01

    A new fibre sensor which measures temperature-distribution is proposed. The sensor uses optical-time-domain reflectometry to determine temperature-induced changes in the levels of the backscatter signal. Experiments using liquid-core fibres have demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.018 dBk over distances of more than 100m. The proposed sensor is able to monitor the temperature of over 100 points simultaneously. Solid core fibres have also been used; they exhibit a wide temperature range, but somew...

  11. The use of ultrasound in support of body radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the ultrasound scanner has been investigated as an adjunct to medical radiography. To date, the equipment has been used by the NRPB mainly for examining chest wall thickness and structure, but it can also be used to locate organs such as the liver, kidneys, or thyroid. The information from the scanner would be most useful in support of measurements of lower-energy photon emitters. The measurement of iodine-125 (with emissions around 30 keV) in the thyroid is presented as an example. From such a scan, it would be possible to estimate the tissue cover over the thyroid and hence choose an appropriate detection efficiency for that subject. (U.K.)

  12. Monte Carlo study of thermal flux profiles and body correction factors for body protein measurements of obese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In previous calculations for total body nitrogen measurements of children, the anterior/posterior thermal neutron flux profile with depth was found to be fairly flat after an initial rise. However, for obese adults significant variations are found in the flux profile with the central flux value being as low as 20% of the peak value. The significance of these flux variations is examined. Correction factors are calculated for the varying attenuation of the nitrogen and hydrogen photons by a range of obese bodies. The calculations included the effect of the thermal flux profile as well as that of an outer layer of low nitrogen content adipose tissue. The bodies are assumed to have a homogeneous hydrogen content. A study of four obese body models with varying sex and fat content shows that the correction factors do not vary much between males and females. This is surprising since the female models are assumed to have a surface fat layer twice as thick as for the male models. The correction factors are found to be only slightly sensitive to the thermal flux variations with depth. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  13. Segmental and whole body electrical impedance measurements in dialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nescolarde Selva, Lexa

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to contribute to the prevention and control of the cardiovascular risk, hydration state and nutritional state in dialysis patients using non-invasive electrical impedance measurements. The thesis is structured in three parts with the following objectives: 1) to establish electrical impedance reference data for healthy Cuban population, 2)to improve the diagnostic based on impedance methods in Cuban hemodialysis (HD)patients and 3) to develop the impedance ...

  14. Measurement of thermal expansion coefficient of nonuniform temperature specimen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingmin Dai; Chunsuo Kin; Xiaowa He

    2008-01-01

    A new technique is developed to measure the longitudinal thermal expansion coefficient of C/C composite material at high temperature. The measuring principle and components of the apparatus are described in detail. The calculation method is derived from the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient. The apparatus mainly consists of a high temperature environmental chamber, a power circuit of heating, two high-speed pyrometers, and a laser scanning system. A long solid specimen is resistively heated to a steady high-temperature state by a steady electrical current. The temperature profile of the specimen surface is not uniform because of the thermal conduction and radiation. The temperature profile and the total expansion are measured with a high-speed scanning pyrometer and a laser slit scanning measuring system, respectively. The thermal expansion coefficient in a wide temperature range (1000 - 3800 K) of the specimen can therefore be obtained. The perfect consistency between the present and previous results justifies the validity of this technique.

  15. Multi-spectral temperature measurement method for gas turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Feng, Chi; Wang, Lixin; Li, Dong

    2016-02-01

    One of the basic methods to improve both the thermal efficiency and power output of a gas turbine is to increase the firing temperature. However, gas turbine blades are easily damaged in harsh high-temperature and high-pressure environments. Therefore, ensuring that the blade temperature remains within the design limits is very important. There are unsolved problems in blade temperature measurement, relating to the emissivity of the blade surface, influences of the combustion gases, and reflections of radiant energy from the surroundings. In this study, the emissivity of blade surfaces has been measured, with errors reduced by a fitting method, influences of the combustion gases have been calculated for different operational conditions, and a reflection model has been built. An iterative computing method is proposed for calculating blade temperatures, and the experimental results show that this method has high precision.

  16. Measurement of high temperature strain by the laser-speckle strain gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, I.

    1984-01-01

    By using the laser-speckle strain gauge, the strain of metal at the temperature lower than 250 C is measured. The principle of the gauge is to measure the expansion or contraction of the fine structures of surface by detecting the resultant speckle displacement in an optoelectronic way, whereby the effect of rigid-body motion is automatically cancelled out with the aid of a differential detection system. A transportable apparatus was built and a comparison experiment performed with a resistance strain gauge at room temperature. It has a strain sensitivity of .00002, a gauge length smaller than 1 mm, and no upper limit in a range of strain measurement. In the measurement of high-temperature strain it is free from the need for a dummy gauge and insensitive to an electric drift effect. As examples of strain measurement at high-temperature, thermal expansion and contraction of a top of a soldering iron are measured. The interval of the measurement can be made at shortest 1.6 sec. and the change in the strain is clearly followed until the ultimate stationary temperature is reached.

  17. Modern gas-based temperature and pressure measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pavese, Franco

    2013-01-01

    This 2nd edition volume of Modern Gas-Based Temperature and Pressure Measurements follows the first publication in 1992. It collects a much larger set of information, reference data, and bibliography in temperature and pressure metrology of gaseous substances, including the physical-chemical issues related to gaseous substances. The book provides solutions to practical applications where gases are used in different thermodynamic conditions. Modern Gas-Based Temperature and Pressure Measurements, 2nd edition is the only comprehensive survey of methods for pressure measurement in gaseous media used in the medium-to-low pressure range closely connected with thermometry. It assembles current information on thermometry and manometry that involve the use of gaseous substances which are likely to be valid methods for the future. As such, it is an important resource for the researcher. This edition is updated through the very latest scientific and technical developments of gas-based temperature and pressure measurem...

  18. OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness alters murine heart rate variability and body temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Jasmin Domnik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Altered autonomic (ANS tone in chronic respiratory disease is implicated as a factor in cardiovascular co-morbidities, yet no studies address its impact on cardiovascular function in the presence of murine allergic airway (AW hyperresponsiveness (AHR. Since antigen (Ag-induced AHR is used to model allergic asthma (in which ANS alterations have been reported, we performed a pilot study to assess measurement feasibility of, as well as the impact of allergic sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA on, heart rate variability (HRV in a murine model. Heart rate (HR, body temperature (TB and time- and frequency-domain HRV analyses, a reflection of ANS control, were obtained in chronically instrumented mice (telemetry before, during and for 22 h after OVA or saline aerosolization in sensitized (OVA or Alum adjuvant control exposed animals. OVA mice diverged significantly from Alum mice with respect to change in HR during aerosol challenge (P < 0.001, two-way ANOVA; HR max change Ctrl = +80 ± 10 bpm vs. OVA = +1 ± 23 bpm, mean ± SEM, and displayed elevated HR during the subsequent dark cycle (P = 0.006. Sensitization decreased the TB during aerosol challenge (P < 0.001. Sensitized mice had decreased HRV prior to challenge (SDNN: P = 0.038; Low frequency (LF power: P = 0.021; Low/high Frequency (HF power: P = 0.042, and increased HRV during Ag challenge (RMSSD: P = 0.047; pNN6: P = 0.039. Sensitized mice displayed decreased HRV subsequent to OVA challenge, primarily in the dark cycle (RMSSD: P = 0.018; pNN6: P < 0.001; LF: P < 0.001; HF: P = 0.040; LF/HF: P < 0.001. We conclude that implanted telemetry technology is an effective method to assess the ANS impact of allergic sensitization. Preliminary results show mild sensitization is associated with reduced HRV and a suppression of the acute TB response to OVA challenge. This approach to assess altered ANS control in the acute OVA model may also be beneficial in chronic AHR models.

  19. Body conscious? Interoceptive awareness, measured by heartbeat perception, is negatively correlated with self-objectification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Ainley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 'Self-objectification' is the tendency to experience one's body principally as an object, to be evaluated for its appearance rather than for its effectiveness. Within objectification theory, it has been proposed that self-objectification accounts for the poorer interoceptive awareness observed in women, as measured by heartbeat perception. Our study is, we believe, the first specifically to test this relationship. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a well-validated and reliable heartbeat perception task, we measured interoceptive awareness in women and compared this with their scores on the Self-Objectification Questionnaire, the Self-Consciousness Scale and the Body Consciousness Questionnaire. Interoceptive awareness was negatively correlated with self-objectification. Interoceptive awareness, public body consciousness and private body consciousness together explained 31% of the variance in self-objectification. However, private body consciousness was not significantly correlated with interoceptive awareness, which may explain the many nonsignificant results in self-objectification studies that have used private body consciousness as a measure of body awareness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose interoceptive awareness, assessed by heartbeat perception, as a measure of body awareness in self-objectification studies. Our findings have implications for those clinical conditions, in women, which are characterised by self-objectification and low interoceptive awareness, such as eating disorders.

  20. HIGH TEMPERATURE HIGH PRESSURE THERMODYNAMIC MEASUREMENTS FOR COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2000-05-01

    The flow VLE apparatus designed and built for a previous project was upgraded and recalibrated for data measurements for this project. The modifications include better and more accurate sampling technique, addition of a digital recorder to monitor temperature and pressure inside the VLE cell, and a new technique for remote sensing of the liquid level in the cell. VLE data measurements for three binary systems, tetralin-quinoline, benzene--ethylbenzene and ethylbenzene--quinoline, have been completed. The temperature ranges of data measurements were 325 C to 370 C for the first system, 180 C to 300 C for the second system, and 225 C to 380 C for the third system. The smoothed data were found to be fairly well behaved when subjected to thermodynamic consistency tests. SETARAM C-80 calorimeter was used for incremental enthalpy and heat capacity measurements for benzene--ethylbenzene binary liquid mixtures. Data were measured from 30 C to 285 C for liquid mixtures covering the entire composition range. An apparatus has been designed for simultaneous measurement of excess volume and incremental enthalpy of liquid mixtures at temperatures from 30 C to 300 C. The apparatus has been tested and is ready for data measurements. A flow apparatus for measurement of heat of mixing of liquid mixtures at high temperatures has also been designed, and is currently being tested and calibrated.

  1. Online junction temperature measurement using peak gate current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Iannuzzo, Francesco;

    2015-01-01

    A new method for junction temperature measurement of MOS-gated power semiconductor switches is presented. The measurement method involves detecting the peak voltage over the external gate resistor of an IGBT or MOSFET during turn-on. This voltage is directly proportional to the peak gate current...

  2. Reconstructing bottom water temperatures from measurements of temperature and thermal diffusivity in marine sediments

    OpenAIRE

    F. Miesner; Lechleiter, A.; Müller, C.(Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Sternwartstr. 7, 96049 , Bamberg, Germany)

    2015-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of oceanic bottom water temperatures is a complicated task, even in relatively easy-to-access basins like the North or Baltic seas. Here, a method to determine annual bottom water temperature variations from inverse modeling of instantaneous measurements of temperatures and sediment thermal properties is presented. This concept is similar to climate reconstructions over several thousand years from deep borehole data. However, in contrast, the presented ...

  3. Measured body mass index, body weight perception, dissatisfaction and control practices in urban, low-income African American adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaoli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current understanding of the associations between actual body weight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited. The knowledge can help direct future intervention efforts. Methods Cross-sectional data including measured weight and height and self-reported weight status collected from 448 adolescents in four Chicago Public Schools were used. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile was 39.8%, but only 27.2% considered themselves as obese, although 43.4% reported trying to lose weight. Girls were more likely to express weight dissatisfaction than boys, especially those with BMI ≥ 95th percentile (62.9% vs. 25.9%. BMI ≥ 85th percentile girls were more likely to try to lose weight than boys (84.6% vs. 66.7%. Among all adolescents, 27.2% underestimated and 67.2% correctly judged their own weight status. Multinomial logistic models show that those with BMI ≥ 85th percentile, self-perceived as obese, or expressed body dissatisfaction were more likely to try to lose weight; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 4.52 (2.53–8.08, 18.04 (7.19–45.30, 4.12 (1.64–10.37, respectively. No significant differences were found in diet and physical activity between those trying to lose weight and those not trying, but boys who reported trying to lose weight still spent more television time (P Conclusion Gender differences in weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices exist among African American adolescents. One-third did not appropriately classify their weight status. Weight perception and body dissatisfaction are correlates of weight control practices. Adolescents attempting to lose weight need be empowered to make adequate desirable behavioral changes.

  4. Too hot to sleep? Sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of Wahlberg's Epauletted Fruit Bat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen T Downs

    Full Text Available The significance of sleep and factors that affect it have been well documented, however, in light of global climate change the effect of temperature on sleep patterns has only recently gained attention. Unlike many mammals, bats (order: Chiroptera are nocturnal and little is known about their sleep and the effects of ambient temperature (Ta on their sleep. Consequently we investigated seasonal temperature effects on sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of free-ranging Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi, at a tree roost. Sleep behaviours of E. wahlbergi were recorded, including: sleep duration and sleep incidences (i.e. one eye open and both eyes closed. Sleep differed significantly across all the individuals in terms of sleep duration and sleep incidences. Individuals generally spent more time awake than sleeping. The percentage of each day bats spent asleep was significantly higher during winter (27.6%, compared with summer (15.6%. In summer, 20.7% of the sleeping bats used one eye open sleep, and this is possibly the first evidence of one-eye-sleep in non-marine mammals. Sleep duration decreased with extreme heat as bats spent significantly more time trying to cool by licking their fur, spreading their wings and panting. Skin temperatures of E. wahlbergi were significantly higher when Ta was ≥35°C and no bats slept at these high temperatures. Consequently extremely hot days negatively impact roosting fruit bats, as they were forced to be awake to cool themselves. This has implications for these bats given predicted climate change scenarios.

  5. Fiber - Optic Devices as Temperature Sensors for Temperature Measurements in AC Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rablau, Corneliu; Lafrance, Joseph; Sala, Anca

    2007-10-01

    We report on the investigation of several fiber-optic devices as potential sensors for temperature measurements in AC magnetic fields. Common temperature sensors, such as thermocouples, thermistors or diodes, will create random and/or systematic errors when placed in a magnetic field. A DC magnetic field is susceptible to create a systematic offset to the measurement, while in an AC magnetic field of variable frequency random errors which cannot be corrected for can also be introduced. Fiber-Bragg-gratings and thin film filters have an inherent temperature dependence. Detrimental for their primary applications, the same dependence allows one to use such devices as temperature sensors. In an AC magnetic field, they present the advantage of being immune to electromagnetic interference. Moreover, for fiber-Bragg-gratings, the shape factor and small mass of the bare-fiber device make it convenient for temperature measurements on small samples. We studied several thin-film filters and fiber-Bragg-gratings and compared their temperature measurement capabilities in AC magnetic fields of 0 to 150 Gauss, 0 to 20 KHz to the results provided by off-the-shelf thermocouples and thermistor-based temperature measurement systems.

  6. Comparison of two methods for contactless surface temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecka, Magdalena; Michalski, Dariusz; Strąk, Kinga

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the paper is to determine the temperature filed of the heating surface on the basis of temperature measurements taken by liquid crystal thermography and infrared thermography applied in boiling heat transfer research during FC-72 flow in minichannels, and to compare them. The essential part of the experimental stand is the test section with two parallel rectangular minichannels, each 1.7 mm deep, 24 mm wide and 360 mm long. It is possible to observe the channel surfaces through panes: of the first minichannel allows observing foil temperature changes on the plain side due to liquid crystal thermography (LCT), which required treating the foil surface with thermochromic liquid crystals, of the other minichannel enables detecting outer glass or foil surface temperature changes due to infrared thermography (IRT). Comparison of the results of the measurements are presented in graphical form as thermographs and as heating surface temperature vs. minichannel length. The differences between two sets of measurement data concerning the temperature of the heating surface obtained with LCT and IRT, were analyzed using: Pearson linear correlation coefficient, determination coefficient, Experimental Method Error and Method Accuracy. The comparative data analysis shows that similar values and distributions of the surface temperature were obtained from both techniques.

  7. Comparison of two methods for contactless surface temperature measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecka Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to determine the temperature filed of the heating surface on the basis of temperature measurements taken by liquid crystal thermography and infrared thermography applied in boiling heat transfer research during FC-72 flow in minichannels, and to compare them. The essential part of the experimental stand is the test section with two parallel rectangular minichannels, each 1.7 mm deep, 24 mm wide and 360 mm long. It is possible to observe the channel surfaces through panes: of the first minichannel allows observing foil temperature changes on the plain side due to liquid crystal thermography (LCT, which required treating the foil surface with thermochromic liquid crystals, of the other minichannel enables detecting outer glass or foil surface temperature changes due to infrared thermography (IRT. Comparison of the results of the measurements are presented in graphical form as thermographs and as heating surface temperature vs. minichannel length. The differences between two sets of measurement data concerning the temperature of the heating surface obtained with LCT and IRT, were analyzed using: Pearson linear correlation coefficient, determination coefficient, Experimental Method Error and Method Accuracy. The comparative data analysis shows that similar values and distributions of the surface temperature were obtained from both techniques.

  8. Temperature Grid Sensor for the Measurement of Spatial Temperature Distributions at Object Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Uwe Hampel; Thomas Schäfer; Markus Schubert

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results of the development and application of a new temperature grid sensor based on the wire-mesh sensor principle. The grid sensor consists of a matrix of 256 Pt1000 platinum chip resistors and an associated electronics that measures the grid resistances with a multiplexing scheme at high speed. The individual sensor elements can be spatially distributed on an object surface and measure transient temperature distributions in real time. The advantage compared with other t...

  9. Methods for calculating phase angle from measured whole body bioimpedance modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbotten, Bernt J.; Martinsen, Ørjan G.; Grimnes, Sverre

    2010-04-01

    Assuming the Cole equation we have developed a method to calculate the Cole parameters (R0, R∞, α, τZ) and the phase angle from four frequency measurements of impedance modulus values. The values obtained compare well with impedance measurements obtained using the Solatron 1294/1260 as obtained when making whole body measurements on five persons. We have also performed calculations using an algorithm based on the Kramers-Kronig approach. The results which are presented show that it is possible to obtain complete body impedance data combining relatively simple measurements with advanced calculation using a laptop. This extends the potential of portable equipment, since the measurements will require less instrumentation.

  10. Linear temperature dependence of the mobility in two-dimensional electron gases: many-body and spin-polarization effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results for the temperature dependence of the mobility for elastic scattering in a two-dimensional electron gas at low temperatures. Due to anomalous screening in two-dimensional systems the mobility varies linearly with temperature. We discuss many-body effects and spin-polarization effects and compare with some recent experimental and theoretical results. We show that the sign of the temperature dependence may change in spin-polarized systems

  11. Non-contact infrared temperature measurements in dry permafrost boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Ralf; Grigoriev, Mikhail N.; Kaul, Norbert

    2008-04-01

    While planning the COAST Expedition to the Siberian Laptev Sea in 2005, the question of how to make a short equilibrium temperature measurement in a dry borehole arose. As a result, an infrared borehole tool was developed and used in three dry boreholes (up to 60.2 m deep) in the coastal transition zone from terrestrial to sub-sea permafrost near Mamontovy Klyk in the western Laptev Sea. A depth versus temperature profile was acquired with equilibration times of 50 × 10-3 s at each depth interval. Comparison with a common resistor string revealed an offset due to limitations of accuracy of the infrared technique and the influence of the probe's massive steel housing. Therefore it was necessary to calibrate the infrared sensor with a high precision temperature logger in each borehole. The results of the temperature measurements show a highly dynamic transition zone with temperature gradients up to -0.092°C/m and heat flow of -218 mW/m. A period of submergence of only 600 years the drilled sub-sea permafrost is approaching the overlying seawater temperature at -1.61°C with a temperature gradient of 0.021°C/m and heat flow of 49 mW/m. Further offshore, 11 km from the coastline, a temperature gradient of 0.006°C/m and heat flow of 14 mW/m occur. Thus the sub-sea permafrost in the Mamontovy Klyk region has reached a critical temperature for the presence of interstitial ice. The aim of this article is to give a brief feasibility study of infrared downhole temperature measurements and to present experiences and results of its successful application.

  12. Surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During this PhD, the challenges on the non-intrusive surface temperature measurements of metallic plasma facing components in tokamaks are reported. Indeed, a precise material emissivity value is needed for classical infrared methods and the environment contribution has to be known particularly for low emissivities materials. Although methods have been developed to overcome these issues, they have been implemented solely for dedicated experiments. In any case, none of these methods are suitable for surface temperature measurement in tokamaks.The active pyrometry introduced in this study allows surface temperature measurements independently of reflected flux and emissivities using pulsed and modulated photothermal effect. This method has been validated in laboratory on metallic materials with reflected fluxes for pulsed and modulated modes. This experimental validation is coupled with a surface temperature variation induced by photothermal effect and temporal signal evolvement modelling in order to optimize both the heating source characteristics and the data acquisition and treatment. The experimental results have been used to determine the application range in temperature and detection wavelengths. In this context, the design of an active pyrometry system on tokamak has been completed, based on a bicolor camera for a thermography application in metallic (or low emissivity) environment.The active pyrometry method introduced in this study is a complementary technique of classical infrared methods used for thermography in tokamak environment which allows performing local and 2D surface temperature measurements independently of reflected fluxes and emissivities. (author)

  13. Analogue Materials Measured Under Simulated Lunar and Asteroid Environments: Application to Thermal Infrared Measurements of Airless Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Patterson, W., III; Moriarty, D.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing observations provide key insights into the composition and evolution of planetary surfaces. A fundamentally important component to any remote sensing study of planetary surfaces is laboratory measurements of well-characterized samples measured under the appropriate environmental conditions. The near-surface vacuum environment of airless bodies like the Moon and asteroids creates a thermal gradient in the upper hundred microns of regolith. Lab studies of particulate rocks and minerals as well as selected lunar soils under vacuum and lunar-like conditions have identified significant effects of this thermal gradient on thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements [e.g. Logan et al. 1973, Salisbury and Walter 1989, Thomas et al. 2010, Donaldson Hanna et al. 2012]. Compared to ambient conditions, these effects include: (1) the Christiansen feature (CF), an emissivity maximum diagnostic of mineralogy and average composition, shifts to higher wavenumbers and (2) an increase in spectral contrast of the CF relative to the Reststrahlen bands (RB), the fundamental molecular vibration bands due to Si-O stretching and bending. Such lab studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of TIR emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured. The Asteroid and Lunar Environment Chamber (ALEC) is the newest addition to the RELAB at Brown University. The vacuum chamber simulates the space environment experienced by the near-surface soils of the Moon and asteroids. The internal rotation stage allows for six samples and two blackbodies to be measured without breaking vacuum (emission environment (mimicking the space environment) for heated samples to radiate into. Sample cups can be heated in one of three configurations: (1) from below using heaters embedded in the base of the sample cup, (2) from above using a solar-like radiant heat source, and (3) from below and above to allow the magnitude of the thermal gradient to be examined. ALEC is connected

  14. Body surface monitor for measuring radioactive contamination of the general population after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new body surface monitor for monitoring the surface radioactive contamination of the general population living and working around the site in the early stages of a nuclear accident has been designed. The body surface monitors will be installed in a medium-sized bus with a thyroid counter and moved to the place where measurement is required. The different characteristics needed for the body surface monitor to measure the general population from those of monitors used in nuclear power stations are discussed. The detection sensitivity of the plastic scintillator was measured under various geometric conditions and the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) was found to be lower than 1 Bq/cm2 in a 10-second count time. Two body surface monitors can measure 2,880 persons in eight hours. (author)

  15. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, R.F.; Kunigk, A.; Alspaugh, M.; Andronis, P.T.; Leitch, C.A.; Schoeller, D.A. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition.

  16. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition

  17. Circadian rhythms of body temperature and locomotor activity in aging BALB/c mice: early and late life span predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Andrea; Del Bello, Giovanna; Piacenza, Francesco; Giacconi, Robertina; Costarelli, Laura; Malavolta, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Impairment of one or more parameters of circadian rhythms (CR) of body temperature (BT) and locomotor activity (LMA) are considered among the hallmarks of mammalian aging. These alterations are frequently used as markers for imminent death in laboratory mice. However, there are still contradictory data for particular strains and it is also uncertain which changes might predict senescence changes later in life, including the force of mortality. In the present paper we use telemetry to study LMA and CR of BT during aging of BALB/c mice. At our knowledge this is the first time that CR of BT and LMA are investigated in this strain in a range of age covering the whole lifespan, from young adult up to very old age. CR of BT was analyzed with a cosine model using a cross sectional approach and follow-up measurements. The results show that BT, LMA, amplitude, goodness-of-fit (GoF) to circadian cycle of temperature decrease with different shapes during chronological age. Moreover, we found that the % change of amplitude and BT in early life (5-19 months) can predict the remaining lifespan of the mice. Later in life (22-32 months), best predictors are single measurements of LMA and GoF. The results of this study also offer potential measures to rapidly identifying freely unrestrained mice with the worst longitudinal outcome and against which existing or novel biomarkers and treatments may be assessed. PMID:26820297

  18. Comparing the Effects of Swaddled and Conventional Bathing Methods on Body Temperature and Crying Duration in Premature Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Edraki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Maintaining body temperature and reducing stress are important challenges in bathing preterm infants. Swaddle bathing, which includes in itself the principles of developmental care, can be used as a low-stress and appropriate bathing method for premature infants. Given the limitations of the researches carried out on this bathing method, the present study was conducted with the aim of comparing the effects of swaddled and conventional bathing methods on body temperature and crying duration in premature infants. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, 50 premature infants hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU who were eligible for the study were divided by random allocation into two experimental and control groups. The infants in the experimental group were bathed using the swaddle bathing method and the infants in the control group were bathed using the conventional bathing method. Body temperature was measured 10 minutes before and 10 minutes after the bath. To record the crying, the infants' faces were filmed during the bath. The data were analyzed using chi-squared test, independent t-test, paired t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The mean temperature loss was significantly less in the swaddle-bathed newborns compared to the conventionally-bathed newborns. Furthermore, crying time was significantly less in the experimental group than in the control group. Conclusion: Given the positive effect of swaddled bathing in maintaining body temperature and reducing stress, it can be used as an appropriate bathing method in NICU.

  19. Diet-independent remodeling of cellular membranes precedes seasonally changing body temperature in a hibernator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Arnold

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have a multitude of health effects. Their incorporation into membrane phospholipids (PL is generally believed to depend directly on dietary influx. PL influence transmembrane protein activity and thus can compensate temperature effects; e.g. PL n-6 PUFA are thought to stabilize heart function at low body temperature (T(b, whereas long chain (>C18 n-3 PUFA may boost oxidative capacity. We found substantial remodeling of membranes in free-living alpine marmots which was largely independent of direct dietary supply. Organ PL n-6 PUFA and n-6 to n-3 ratios were highest at onset and end of hibernation after rapid increases during a brief transitional period prior to hibernation. In contrast, longer chain PL n-3 PUFA content was low at end of summer but maximal at end of hibernation. After termination of hibernation in spring, these changes in PL composition were rapidly reversed. Our results demonstrate selective trafficking of PUFA within the body, probably governed by a circannual endogenous rhythm, as hibernating marmots were in winter burrows isolated for seven months from food and external cues signaling the approaching spring. High concentrations of PL n-6 PUFA throughout hibernation are in line with their hypothesized function of boosting SERCA 2a activity at low T(b. Furthermore, we found increasing rate of rewarming from torpor during winter indicating increasing oxidative capacity that could be explained by the accumulation of long-chain PL n-3 PUFA. It may serve to minimize the time necessary for rewarming despite the increasing temperature range to be covered, because rewarming is a period of highest metabolic rate and hence production of reactive oxygen species. Considering the importance of PUFA for health our results may have important biomedical implications, as seasonal changes of T(b and associated remodeling of membranes are not restricted to hibernators but presumably common among endothermic

  20. TAX FRAUD ON THE EU BUDGET AND MEASURES TAKEN BY THE COMMUNITY BODIES

    OpenAIRE

    Croitoru Elena Lucia

    2010-01-01

    Even if good financial management of EU funds is gradually improving throughout the EU, tax fraud affecting the EU budget remains a problem that always concerned bodies and member states alike. They coordinate their measures to protect the EU budget, to reduce the financial impact caused by tax fraud, but the total eradication of this phenomenon is impossible. However, community bodies have adopted many measures to prevent and combat this phenomenon.

  1. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ULTRASONIC ESTIMATES OF CARCASS TRAITS AND BODY MEASUREMENTS OF JAPANESE BLACK BULL

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Rachma, Aprilita Bugiwati

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was done at 292 head of Japanese black bull at Kagoshima and Miyazaki Prefectural Experimental Stations Japan to find out the relationship between ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits and body measurements as one of criteria to select Japanese black bull. The carcass traits of 20 months of age were predicted using the ultrasonic machine. The body dimensions were measured at the end of performance test (12 months of age) and 16 months of age. The ultrasonic evaluati...

  2. Reliability and Validity of Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density Measurements by DXA

    OpenAIRE

    Zack, Melissa Kareen

    2002-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been well established in both clinical and research settings for measurement of bone mineral density (BMD), and is becoming more widely utilized for assessment of body composition. Reliability and validity are essential factors in both applications of this technique; however, neither have been confirmed for the QDR-4500A DXA at Virginia Tech. Therefore, measurements of the whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS), total proximal femur (TPF) and total for...

  3. Regression analysis between body and head measurements of Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis in the captive population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu, X. B.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Four body-size and fourteen head-size measurements were taken from each Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis according to the measurements adapted from Verdade. Regression equations between body-size and head-size variables were presented to predict body size from head dimension. The coefficients of determination of captive animals concerning body- and head-size variables can be considered extremely high, which means most of the head-size variables studied can be useful for predicting body length. The result of multivariate allometric analysis indicated that the head elongates as in most other species of crocodilians. The allometric coefficients of snout length (SL and lower ramus (LM were greater than those of other variables of head, which was considered to be possibly correlated to fights and prey. On the contrary, allometric coefficients for the variables of obita (OW, OL and postorbital cranial roof (LCR, were lower than those of other variables.

  4. Measurement of body composition in cats using computed tomography and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buelund, Lene E; Nielsen, Dorte H; McEvoy, Fintan;

    2011-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is a reference method for assessing body composition but is seldom `accessible in veterinary settings. Computed tomography (CT) can provide similar body composition estimates and we propose that it can be used in body composition studies in animals. We...... compared CT and DEXA data from 73 healthy adult neutered domestic cats. Three approaches for measuring adipose tissue percentage from full-body CT scans were explored. By examining the frequency distribution of voxels by Hounsfield unit (HU) value, it is possible to calculate a fat index (Fat...... and in one of the methods, the difference between the values from the two modalities was proportional to their mean. By using CT, it is possible to obtain body composition estimates that are in close agreement with those available using DEXA. While the significance of individual Fat% measurements obtained...

  5. Global surface temperature/heat transfer measurements using infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran

    1992-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted to evaluate the use of scanning radiometric infrared imaging systems for providing global surface temperature/heat transfer measurements in support of hypersonic wind tunnel testing. The in situ precision of the technique with narrow temperature span setting over the temperature range of 20 to 200 C was investigated. The precision of the technique over wider temperature span settings was also determined. The accuracy of technique for providing aerodynamic heating rates was investigated by performing measurements on a 10.2-centimeter hemisphere model in the Langley 31-inch Mach 10 tunnel, and comparing the results with theoretical predictions. Data from tests conducted on a generic orbiter model in this tunnel are also presented.

  6. Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong W. Lee

    2005-10-01

    The objectives of this project during this semi-annual reporting period are to test the effects of coating layer of the thermal couple on the temperature measurement and to screen out the significant factors affecting the temperature reading under different operational conditions. The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray coated thermal couples were completed in this reporting period. The comparison tests of coated and uncoated thermal couples were conducted under various operational conditions. The temperature changes were recorded and the temperature differences were calculated to describe the thermal spray coating effect on the thermal couples. To record the temperature data accurately, the computerized data acquisition system (DAS) was adopted to the temperature reading. The DAS could record the data with the accuracy of 0.1 C and the recording parameters are configurable. In these experiments, DAS was set as reading one data for every one (1) minute. The operational conditions are the combination of three parameters: air flow rate, water/ammonia flow rate and the amount of fine dust particles. The results from the temperature readings show the temperature of uncoated thermal couple is uniformly higher than that of coated thermal couple for each operational condition. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was computed based on the results from systematic tests to screen out the significant factors and/or interactions. The temperature difference was used as dependent variable and three operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water/ammonia flow rate and amount of fine dust particle) were used as independent factors. The ANOVA results show that the operational parameters are not the statistically significant factors affecting the temperature readings which indicate that the coated thermal couple could be applied to temperature measurement in gasifier. The actual temperature reading with the coated thermal couple in

  7. Pregnant women maintain body temperatures within safe limits during moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic classes conducted in pools heated up to 33 degrees Celsius: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Brearley

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Question: What is the body temperature response of healthy pregnant women exercising at moderate intensity in an aqua-aerobics class where the water temperature is in the range of 28 to 33 degrees Celsius, as typically found in community swimming pools? Design: An observational study. Participants: One hundred and nine women in the second and third trimester of pregnancy who were enrolled in a standardised aqua-aerobics class. Outcome measures: Tympanic temperature was measured at rest pre-immersion (T1, after 35 minutes of moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic exercise (T2, after a further 10 minutes of light exercise while still in the water (T3 and finally on departure from the facility (T4. The range of water temperatures in seven indoor community pools was 28.8 to 33.4 degrees Celsius. Results: Body temperature increased by a mean of 0.16 degrees Celsius (SD 0.35, p < 0.001 at T2, was maintained at this level at T3 and had returned to pre-immersion resting values at T4. Regression analysis demonstrated that the temperature response was not related to the water temperature (T2 r = –0.01, p = 0.9; T3 r = –0.02, p = 0.9; T4 r = 0.03, p = 0.8. Analysis of variance demonstrated no difference in body temperature response between participants when grouped in the cooler, medium and warmer water temperatures (T2 F = 0.94, p = 0.40; T3 F = 0.93, p = 0.40; T4 F = 0.70, p = 0.50. Conclusions: Healthy pregnant women maintain body temperatures within safe limits during moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic exercise conducted in pools heated up to 33 degrees Celsius. The study provides evidence to inform guidelines for safe water temperatures for aqua-aerobic exercise during pregnancy. [Brearley AL, Sherburn M, Galea MP, Clarke SJ, (2015 Pregnant women maintain body temperatures within safe limits during moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic classes conducted in pools heated up to 33 degrees Celsius: an observational study. Journal of

  8. Validation of Temperature Measurements from the Airborne Raman Ozone Temperature and Aerosol Lidar During SOLVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, John; McGee, Thomas; Hoegy, Walter; Lait, Leslie; Twigg, Laurence; Sumnicht, Grant; Heaps, William; Hostetler, Chris; Bui, T. Paul; Neuber, Roland; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Airborne Raman Ozone, Temperature and Aerosol Lidar (AROTEL) participated in the recent Sage III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) by providing profiles of aerosols, polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), ozone and temperature with high vertical and horizontal resolution. Temperatures were derived from just above the aircraft to approximately 60 kilometers geometric altitude with a reported vertical resolution of between 0.5 and 1.5 km. The horizontal footprint varied from 4 to 70 km. This paper explores the measurement uncertainties associated with the temperature retrievals and makes comparisons with independent, coincident, measurements of temperature. Measurement uncertainties range from 0.1 K to approximately 4 K depending on altitude and integration time. Comparisons between AROTEL and balloon sonde temperatures retrieved under clear sky conditions using both Rayleigh and Raman scattered data showed AROTEL approximately 1 K colder than sonde values. Comparisons between AROTEL and the Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) on NASA's ER-2 show AROTEL being from 2-3 K colder for altitudes ranging from 14 to 18 km. Temperature comparisons between AROTEL and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office's model showed differences of approximately 1 K below approximately 25 km and a very strong cold bias of approximately 12 K at altitudes between 30 and 35 km.

  9. Multi-channel temperature measurement system for CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis introduces a multi-channel (64) monitor system of temperature which serves magnetic field safety in CSR. According to the needs of CSR project, the system whose attainable precision is ±1 degree C is able to measure temperature of a few hundred points on magnet windings. This instrument was based on Msp430F149. The research, design and implementation of its hardware and software are particularly described in this thesis. (authors)

  10. Photonic Crystal Fiber Sensors for Strain and Temperature Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Ju; Wei Jin

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the applications of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) for strain and temperature measurement. Long-period grating sensors and in-fiber modal interferometric sensors are described and compared with their conventional single-mode counterparts. The strain sensitivities of the air-silica PCF sensors are comparable or higher than those implemented in conventional single-mode fibers but the temperature sensitivities of the PCF sensors are much lower.

  11. Experimental measurement of an effective temperature for jammed granular materials

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Chaoming; Wang, Ping; Makse, Hernán A.

    2005-01-01

    A densely packed granular system is an example of an out-of-equilibrium system in the jammed state. It has been a longstanding problem to determine whether this class of systems can be described by concepts arising from equilibrium statistical mechanics, such as an ``effective temperature'' and ``compactivity''. The measurement of the effective temperature is realized in the laboratory by slowly shearing a closely-packed ensemble of spherical beads confined by an external pressure in a Couett...

  12. Infrared Thermography for Temperature Measurement and Non-Destructive Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Usamentiaga; Pablo Venegas; Jon Guerediaga; Laura Vega; Julio Molleda; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fie...

  13. Photonic Crystal Fiber Sensors for Strain and Temperature Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ju

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the applications of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs for strain and temperature measurement. Long-period grating sensors and in-fiber modal interferometric sensors are described and compared with their conventional single-mode counterparts. The strain sensitivities of the air-silica PCF sensors are comparable or higher than those implemented in conventional single-mode fibers but the temperature sensitivities of the PCF sensors are much lower.

  14. Measurements of temperature profiles in gases by laser beam deflection

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Zhang; Petit, Jean-Pierre; Taine, J.

    1989-01-01

    The determination of temperature profiles in gases is based on the light beam deflection due to the refractive index gradient induced by a temperature gradient at constant pressure. The geometry considered for the system is a cylinder of arbitrary section characterized by isothermal generative lines. A parameter estimation method and a parabolical trajectory method are considered to treat experimental data. The measurement technique is then applied to laminar natural convection flow along a v...

  15. Temperature calibration of Pico-Rad detectors for radon measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple mathematical equation linking the activity of adsorbed radon in the vials to the time and temperature of its exposure is discussed. The calibration coefficient - Ks, defined as activity measured in cpm after saturation time, corresponding to radon air concentration of 1 Bq m-3, was determined for four temperatures: 284, 291, 294 and 298 K. A linear relationship of ln Ks values versus T-1 was found. The relatively high difference in Ks values: 2.12 and 1.24 cpm/Bq m-3 for the temperatures of 284 and 298 K, respectively, was observed. It indicates that temperature fluctuations during Pico-Rad vial exposure may lead to erroneous results if the constant average temperature of exposure is introduced into a commonly used computer programme for calculating Rn concentration. (author)

  16. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT OF REFLECTED SHOCK WAVE BY USING CHEMICAL INDICATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Jiping; He Yuzhong; Wang Su; Wang Jing; Fan Bingcheng

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a new method for measuring the temperature of the gas behind the reflected shock wave in shock tube,corresponding to the reservoir temperature of a shock tunnel,based on the chemical reaction of small amount of CF4 premixed in the test gas.The final product C2F4 is used as the temperature indicator,which is sampled and detected by a gas chromatography in the experiment.The detected concentration of C2F4 is correlated to the temperature of the reflected shock wave with the initial pressure P1 and test time γas parameters in the temperature range 3300K<T<5600K,pressure range 5kPa<P1<12kPa andγ≈0.4ms.

  17. A Temperature Sensor using a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Timer for Very Wide Temperature Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik; Culley, Dennis E.

    2008-01-01

    A temperature sensor based on a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Timer was designed for extreme temperature applications. The sensor can operate under a wide temperature range from hot jet engine compartments to cryogenic space exploration missions. For example, in Jet Engine Distributed Control Architecture, the sensor must be able to operate at temperatures exceeding 150 C. For space missions, extremely low cryogenic temperatures need to be measured. The output of the sensor, which consisted of a stream of digitized pulses whose period was proportional to the sensed temperature, can be interfaced with a controller or a computer. The data acquisition system would then give a direct readout of the temperature through the use of a look-up table, a built-in algorithm, or a mathematical model. Because of the wide range of temperature measurement and because the sensor is made of carefully selected COTS parts, this work is directly applicable to the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics/Subsonic Fixed Wing Program--Jet Engine Distributed Engine Control Task and to the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. In the past, a temperature sensor was designed and built using an SOI operational amplifier, and a report was issued. This work used an SOI 555 timer as its core and is completely new work.

  18. Between-centre variability versus variability over time in DXA whole body measurements evaluated using a whole body phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to compare the variability of whole body measurements, using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), among geographically distinct centres versus that over time in a given centre. A Hologic-designed 28 kg modular whole body phantom was used, including high density polyethylene, gray polyvinylchloride and aluminium. It was scanned on seven Hologic QDR 4500 DXA devices, located in seven centres and was also repeatedly (n = 18) scanned in the reference centre, over a time span of 5 months. The mean between-centre coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 2.0 (lean mass) to 5.6% (fat mass) while the mean within-centre CV ranged from 0.3 (total mass) to 4.7% (total area). Between-centre variability compared well with within-centre variability for total area, bone mineral content and bone mineral density, but was significantly higher for fat (p < 0.001), lean (p < 0.005) and total mass (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that, even when using the same device, the between-centre variability remains a matter of concern, particularly where body composition is concerned

  19. USGS Polar Temperature Logging System, Description and Measurement Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an updated technical description of the USGS Polar Temperature Logging System (PTLS) and a complete assessment of the measurement uncertainties. This measurement system is used to acquire subsurface temperature data for climate-change detection in the polar regions and for reconstructing past climate changes using the 'borehole paleothermometry' inverse method. Specifically designed for polar conditions, the PTLS can measure temperatures as low as -60 degrees Celsius with a sensitivity ranging from 0.02 to 0.19 millikelvin (mK). A modular design allows the PTLS to reach depths as great as 4.5 kilometers with a skid-mounted winch unit or 650 meters with a small helicopter-transportable unit. The standard uncertainty (uT) of the ITS-90 temperature measurements obtained with the current PTLS range from 3.0 mK at -60 degrees Celsius to 3.3 mK at 0 degrees Celsius. Relative temperature measurements used for borehole paleothermometry have a standard uncertainty (urT) whose upper limit ranges from 1.6 mK at -60 degrees Celsius to 2.0 mK at 0 degrees Celsius. The uncertainty of a temperature sensor's depth during a log depends on specific borehole conditions and the temperature near the winch and thus must be treated on a case-by-case basis. However, recent experience indicates that when logging conditions are favorable, the 4.5-kilometer system is capable of producing depths with a standard uncertainty (uZ) on the order of 200-250 parts per million.

  20. A dual measurement method of strain and temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hai-li; SUN Wei-min; ZHANG Cong; LIU Zhi-hai; JIANG Fu-qiang; ZHANG Yang

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's foreign trade, the coastal and inland waterway transport has been increased rapidly. The potential market for marine engines is more and more obvious.The measurement of the engine temperature and strain becomes very important. The fluorescence fiber sensors are broadly used to measure temperature, concentration, and pH value, etc. The fluorescence sensing systems are based on different principles, namely fluorescence intensity, fluorescence intensity ratio, and fluorescence lifetime. The fluorescence lifetime is an effective parameter for sensing purpose,because it is independent of the intensity of the pumping source and does not need expensive narrow-band filters. An experiment system has been established, in which some samples were produced to measure the fluorescence lifetime and temperature characteristics and the relationship of the strain and temperature versus the fluorescence lifetime was achieved at the same time. The experiment result was fitted and analyzed. The test results show that the fluorescence lifetime decreases with the increasing of temperature. The change of fluorescence lifetime with the strain is inconspicuous comparing to that with the temperature.

  1. Simultaneous temperature and velocity Lagrangian measurements in turbulent thermal convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liot, O.; Seychelles, F.; Zonta, F.; Chibbaro, S.; Coudarchet, T.; Gasteuil, Y.; Pinton, J.-F.; Salort, J.; Chillà, F.

    2016-05-01

    We report joint Lagrangian velocity and temperature measurements in turbulent thermal convection. Measurements are performed using an improved version (extended autonomy) of the neutrally-buoyant instrumented particle that was used by to performed experiments in a parallelepipedic Rayleigh-Benard cell. The temperature signal is obtained from a RFtransmitter. Simultaneously, we determine particle's position and velocity with one camera, which grants access to the Lagrangian heat flux. Due to the extended autonomy of the present particle, we obtain well converged temperature and velocity statistics, as well as pseudo-eulerian maps of velocity and heat flux. Present experimental results have also been compared with the results obtained by a corresponding campaign of Direct Numerical Simulations and Lagrangian Tracking of massless tracers. The comparison between experimental and numerical results show the accuracy and reliability of our experimental measurements. Finally, the analysis of lagrangian velocity and temperature frequency spectra is shown and discussed. In particular, we observe that temperature spectra exhibit an anomalous f^2.5 frequency scaling, likely representing the ubiquitous passive and active scalar behavior of temperature

  2. Nonintrusive measurement of temperature and velocity in free convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Stefan

    1993-12-01

    A technique for simultaneously measuring the temperature and velocity in liquid flows is developed. Small droplets of thermochromic liquid crystals, suspended in the liquid, serve as tracer particles. The color of the light reflected by the crystals yields the temperature, while their velocity was measured via PIV (particle image velocimetry) from their displacement in a time interval. The measurement and evaluation are performed by digital image processing of color video images. By shifting the plane of observation, a three dimensional flow field can be scanned. The technique was applied to the convective flow in a box with two differentially heated opposite side walls. Two cases were considered: the influence of the thermal boundary conditions on a stationary flow and the onset of convection in a fluid initially at rest after imposing a temperature difference on the heated walls. The results were compared with numerical simulations.

  3. Simultaneous temperature and velocity Lagrangian measurements in turbulent thermal convection

    CERN Document Server

    Liot, O; Zonta, F; Chibbaro, S; Coudarchet, T; Gasteuil, Y; Pinton, J -F; Salort, J; Chillà, F

    2015-01-01

    We report joint Lagrangian velocity and temperature measurements in turbulent thermal convection. Measurements are performed using an improved version (extended autonomy) of the neutrally-buoyant instrumented particle that was used by to performed experiments in a parallelepipedic Rayleigh-Benard cell. The temperature signal is obtained from a RFtransmitter. Simultaneously, we determine particle's position and velocity with one camera, which grants access to the Lagrangian heat flux. Due to the extended autonomy of the present particle, we obtain well converged temperature and velocity statistics, as well as pseudo-eulerian maps of velocity and heat flux. Present experimental results have also been compared with the results obtained by a corresponding campaign of Direct Numerical Simulations and Lagrangian Tracking of massless tracers. The comparison between experimental and numerical results show the accuracy and reliability of our experimental measurements. Finally, the analysis of lagrangian velocity and t...

  4. Comparative Spectroscopic Temperature Measurements In Hydrogen Hollow Cathode Glow Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majstorovic, G. Lj.; Šišovic, N. M.; Konjevic, N.

    2010-07-01

    We report results of optical emission spectroscopy measurements of rotational Trot and translational temperature Ttr of hydrogen molecules. The light source was hollow cathode glow discharge with titanium cathode operated in hydrogen at low pressure. The rotational temperature of excited electronic states of H2 was determined either from relative line intensities of the R branch of the GK ? B band or from the Q branch of the Fulcher-a diagonal band. The population of excited energy levels, determined from relative line intensities, was used to derive ro-vibronic temperature of the ground state of hydrogen molecule.

  5. Low temperature magnetoresistance measurements on bismuth nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present low temperature resistance R(T) and magnetoresistance measurements for Bi nanowires with diameters between 100 and 500 nm, which are close to being single-crystalline. The nanowires were fabricated by electrochemical deposition in pores of polycarbonate membranes. R(T) varies as T2 in the low temperature range 1.5 K1.5 variation. Its size depends strongly on the diameter of the wires but only weakly on temperature. Finally, a steplike increase in the magnetoresistance of our sample with a wire diameter of 100 nm was found and this might be attributed to a transition from one-dimensional to three-dimensional localization.

  6. Salinity and temperature measurements in San Francisco Bay waters, 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedini, L.A.; Schemel, L.E.; Tembreull, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of salinity and temperature in waters of the San Francisco Bay estuarine system are presented. Sampling was conducted at selected locations (stations) and depths over the period between January-December 1980 at approximately two week intervals. Stations were located in deep channels and adjacent shallow water areas from Calaveras Point in South San Francisco Bay to the town of Rio Vista on the Sacramento River and to the Three-Mile Slough on the San Joaquin River. Numerical values of salinity, temperature, and station locations are tabulated. Contour maps of deep-channel salinity and temperature are presented and the analytical methods are briefly described.

  7. Temperature Dependent Fluorescence Lifetime Measurements in a Phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Charles J.; Smith, R. Seth; Heath, Jonathan J.

    2012-03-01

    This poster will describe an undergraduate senior research project involving fluorescence lifetime measurements in a LaSO4:Eu phosphor compound. Specifically, this project seeks to determine the temperature dependence of the lifetime. The temperature of the phosphor will be varied using a heater block with temperature control. The phosphor will be excited with the 337 nm output of a Nitrogen Laser. An Oriel Monochromator will be used to disperse the fluorescence, and the lifetime for a particular wavelength will be determined from a photomultiplier tube signal. At the time of the presentation, this project will be nearing completion; and I will discuss my progress, successes, and challenges.

  8. Global temperature distributions from OGO-6 6300 A airglow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamont, J. E.; Luton, J. M.; Nisbet, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    The OGO-6 6300 A airglow temperature measurements have been used to develop models of the global temperature distributions under solstice and equinox conditions for the altitude region from 240 to 300 km and for times ranging from dawn in this altitude region to shortly after sunset. The distributions are compared with models derived from satellite orbital decay and incoherent scatter sounding. The seasonal variation of the temperature as a function of latitude is shown to be very different from that derived from static diffusion models with constant boundary conditions.

  9. Neutral gas temperature measurements within transformer coupled toroidal argon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatially resolved neutral gas temperature of Ar plasmas within a new type of transformer-coupled toroidal plasma source was measured by fitting unresolved rovibrational bands of trace gas N2 (C 3Πu→B 3Πg). With power density as high as 4.8 W/cm3, the maximum neutral gas temperature inside Ar plasmas was found to be 2000 K. The position with maximum neutral gas temperature was off the center of the cross section and close to the ferrite core, where higher electric field contributes to higher heating power. The dependence of neutral gas temperature on pressure was measured and can be empirically fitted by proportionality between gas temperature and logarithm of the pressure, as found by other researchers. A simple physical model gives the dependence of pressure as the sixth order of neutral gas temperature, which fits the experimental data as well. It was also found that added N2 gas perturbed Ar plasmas obviously, and therefore we recommend adding less than 1% N2 as trace gas. There is no dependence of fitted neutral gas temperature on the optical resolution of monochromator, as would be expected

  10. The ratio total body potassium/total body water as a measure of the mean intracellular potassium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratios total body potassium (TBK)/total body water (TBW) and TBK/(TBW-82Br-R) are compared as a measure of the mean intracellular potassium concentration. TBK (40K), THO-distribution volume (TBW) and 82Br space (82Br-R) were measured in 28 controls, in 15 patients with cirrhosis of the liver, and in 37 rsp. 42 mechanically ventilated patients of the intensive care unit. Effects of dehydration, hyperhydration and increased membraneous permeability concerning the ratios 82Br-R/TBW, TBK/TBW and TBK/(TBW-82Br-R) are discussed and evaluated by a theoretical model. In cirrhosis of the liver we found a significantly lowered TBK and simultaneously increased values of TBW and 82Br-R. In critically ill patients TBK was lowered whereas the TBW was normal and the bromide space was increased. We believe that this was due to an increased bromide penetration into cells and to a potassium depletion. It is concluded that: a) In homeostasis of water and electrolytes TBK/TBW is a better measure of the mean intracellular potassium concentration; this is because of a lower standard error and a lower radiation dose. b) In the case of isotonic hyperhydration TBK/(TBW-82Br-R) is a better measure of the mean intracellular potassium concentration than TBK/TBW; within the next 2 weeks it is not possible to make a TBK follow-up. c) In a pathophysiological state with an increased permeability of cells to tracers of the extracellular space TBK/TBW is the better measure for the mean intracellular potassium concentration in patients with normal TBW values. (orig.)

  11. Ratio total body potassium/total body water as a measure of the mean intracellular potassium concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, O.; Ollech, J.; Lehr, L.; Hundeshagen, H.

    1981-10-01

    The ratios total body potassium (TBK)/total body water (TBW) and TBK/(TBW-/sup 82/Br-R) are compared as a measure of the mean intracellular potassium concentration. TBK (/sup 40/K), THO-distribution volume (TBW) and /sup 82/Br space (/sup 82/Br-R) were measured in 28 controls, in 15 patients with cirrhosis of the liver, and in 37 rsp. 42 mechanically ventilated patients of the intensive care unit. Effects of dehydration, hyperhydration and increased membraneous permeability concerning the ratios /sup 82/Br-R/TBW, TBK/TBW and TBK/(TBW-/sup 82/Br-R) are discussed and evaluated by a theoretical model. In cirrhosis of the liver we found a significantly lowered TBK and simultaneously increased values of TBW and /sup 82/Br-R. In critically ill patients TBK was lowered whereas the TBW was normal and the bromide space was increased. We believe that this was due to an increased bromide penetration into cells and to a potassium depletion. It is concluded that: a) In homeostasis of water and electrolytes TBK/TBW is a better measure of the mean intracellular potassium concentration; this is because of a lower standard error and a lower radiation dose. b) In the case of isotonic hyperhydration TBK/(TBW-/sup 82/Br-R) is a better measure of the mean intracellular potassium concentration than TBK/TBW; within the next 2 weeks it is not possible to make a TBK follow-up. c) In a pathophysiological state with an increased permeability of cells to tracers of the extracellular space TBK/TBW is the better measure for the mean intracellular potassium concentration in patients with normal TBW values.

  12. Evaluation of radium-226 body burden by in vivo measurement of bismuth-214

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An indirect method of estimation of radium-226 body burden has been developed to overcome the difficulties of direct measurement of radium on account of low emission of 186 KeV gamma radiation that too in a region where the background count rate is high. The method is based on in vivo measurement of sup(214)Bi content of the body by a shadow shield whole body counter [102 mm (dia) x 76 mm (thick) NaI(Tl) detector]. sup(214)Bi emits gamma rays of 0.609, 1.120 and 1.764 MeV of which the last one is suitable for whole body counting because in that energy region there is no contribution from naturally occurring radioisotopes in the body (e.g. sup(40)K) and the response is independent of variation in body build. The ratio of the minimum detectable radium body burden for the whole body monitor at Jaduguda uranium mines using the indirect and direct methods for the same counting periods works out to be 0.85, indicating that the indirect method is somewhat superior to the direct method. (M.G.B.)

  13. Fiber optic sensor for hydrostatic pressure and temperature measurement in riverbanks monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenato, Luca; Aneesh, Rajendran; Palmieri, Luca; Galtarossa, Andrea; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    An optical fiber sensor for the simultaneous measurement of hydrostatic pressure and temperature in soil embankments is presented. It exploits the differential strain induced on a fiber in a dual-chamber case, constituting the sensor body. The strain, either induced by the pressure or by the temperature, is optically measured by means of coherent frequency domain reflectometry and variations induced by the two physical phenomena are discriminated because of the different behavior of the two chambers. Characterization of the sensor is presented and discussed. The prototype shows promising performance: temperature and pressure sensitivities are approximately -7 GHz/°C and -3.2 GHz/kPa, respectively, with accuracies of 0.5 °C and 0.3 kPa.

  14. Standardized uptake value of FDG corrected by lean body mass measured by DEXA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluating the metabolic activity of tumor lesion sometimes becomes important to evaluate grading of malignancy, prognosis, or response to therapy. The most used measure of the metabolic activity of [18F]-Fluorodeoxiglucose (FDG) in clinical PET is the Standardized Uptake Value (SUV). It relates the activity measured by the PET scan to the injected dose of FDG divided by the body mass. This approach overestimates SUV in 'heavy' patients, as the proportion of the 'low avid of FDG' fat mass increases. For this reason, different approaches are being evaluated to obtain a more accurate SUV measure. Aims: to compare the measured lean body mass by Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry with the previous methods of correction, to assess the more independent to the body constitution. Material and Methods: FDG metabolism was studied to 15 patients of both sexes, age between 28 and 72 y.o., body weight 55 to 92 Kg. One hour after the IV injection of 0.0045mCi/Kg of FDG, a whole body emission and transmission scan was performed to each subject in a positron emission tomograph (QUEST 250, GE-UGM, USA) for over 1 hour. Body lean mass composition was measured the same or next day by DEXA (Lunar DPX-L, USA.) ROIs were drawn on brain, liver and muscle. SUVbw =[(corrected mCi/g of tissue) / (mCi injected / body weight in grams)] was calculated for each tissue, and then recalculated replacing body weight with the measured lean body mass (SUVlm), calculated lean mass (SUVlc), body mass index (SUVmi) and body surface area (SUVsa). Corrected SUVs were normalized to each SUVbw average for a comparable visualization of results. Results: obtained data was analyzed by linear regression and curve estimation for each case in all tissues with the SPSS statistical software. A positive correlation between SUVbw and subject weight was confirmed for the 3 tissues. In Muscle and liver there was no significant correlation. The liver scanning time was variable ( 90 to 123 minutes after injection). Relating liver

  15. A simple two-pyrometer method for the measurement of high-temperature melting points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique has been developed to observe melting points, congruent or incongruent, at high temperatures. In this technique, two pyrometers are used, one focused into a calibrated blackbody and the other onto the sample undergoing the transition. The calibration of the black-body, and hence the temperature of the sample, is established by use of the known melting points of gold, aluminium, and platinum. The temperature readings of the two pyrometers are compared as the sample is heated. The phase transition is detected by an abrupt change in the temperature difference between the two pyrometers because of a change in the emittance of the sample. The two-pyrometer technique was applied to the measurement of solidus points of Zircaloy-4 containing dissolved oxygen (0.0001 to 31 at% oxygen) between 2000 and 2300 K. (author)

  16. Comparison of temperature measurement methods for evaluation of the thermal environment in vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, J..; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    A new standard, ISO/DIS 14505 is under preparation, dealing with the assessment of the thermal environment in vehicles, based on the equivalent temperature. The scope of this paper is to demonstrate the different results obtained when evaluating the thermal environment inside a vehicle, using the...... three well known parameters, air temperature, operative temperature and equivalent temperature. The tests were carried out in the winter season during heat-up of the vehicle cabin. Six identical transducers were placed on a body-shaped aluminium rig to ensure comparable positioning of the transducers...... during each test. Based on the measurement results, the time used to reach the level of thermal comfort is evaluated and compared....

  17. Minimum daily core body temperature in western grey kangaroos decreases as summer advances: a seasonal pattern, or a direct response to water, heat or energy supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Kamerman, Peter R; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan

    2011-06-01

    Using implanted temperature loggers, we measured core body temperature in nine western grey kangaroos every 5 min for 24 to 98 days in spring and summer. Body temperature was highest at night and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00 h, after ambient temperature and solar radiation had begun to increase. On hotter days, the minimum morning body temperature was lower than on cooler days, decreasing from a mean of 36.2°C in the spring to 34.0°C in the summer. This effect correlated better with the time of the year than with proximate thermal stressors, suggesting that either season itself or some factor correlated with season, such as food availability, caused the change. Water saving has been proposed as a selective advantage of heterothermy in other large mammals, but in kangaroos the water savings would have been small and not required in a reserve with permanent standing water. We calculate that the lower core temperature could provide energy savings of nearly 7%. It is likely that the heterothermy that we observed on hot days results either from decreased energy intake during the dry season or from a seasonal pattern entrained in the kangaroos that presumably has been selected for because of decreased energy availability during the dry season. PMID:21562167

  18. Influence of body position, food and beverage consumption on BIS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, G.; Eitner, F.; Ismail, A. H.; Pikkemaat, R.; Cordes, A.; Floege, J.; Leonhardt, S.

    2010-04-01

    Continuous monitoring of fluid changes using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) during hemodialysis could help to predict hypotensive complications and extend the patient's life. Food and beverage consumption during the treatment may influence the measurements and the calculated fluid removal. In the present article the change observed in whole body and segmental (knee-to-knee, abdomen) BIS measurements following a sequence similar to the one of dialysis treatment (lying down, sitting and eating, lying down) on healthy subjects is presented. The measurements have been performed using a commercial bioimpedance device with a frequency range of 5 kHz to 1 MHz. Knee-to-knee measurements seem to be less sensitive to these influences, compared to the standard whole body and the alternative abdomen BIS measurements. The results indicate that the individual influence of both body posture and food and beverage consumption may be superposed when combined.

  19. Transient temperature probe measurements in a Mach 4 nitrogen jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttsworth, D.R. [Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, 4350, Toowoomba, Queensland (Australia); Jones, T.V. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, OX1 3PJ, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Stagnation temperature measurements have been obtained in a Mach 4 free jet of nitrogen using a technique based on transient thin film heat flux probe measurements. The uncertainty in the stagnation temperature measurements depends on the probe location within the jet but is typically around {+-}5 K at the centre of the jet. The thin film heat flux probe technique also provides a measurement of the heat transfer coefficient of the thin film probes with an uncertainty of around {+-}4% at the centre of the jet. Pitot pressure measurements were also obtained within the jet. Analysis of the heat transfer coefficient results yields the Mach number and velocity profiles which are compared with results from the pitot probe measurements. Jet velocities identified using the thin film probe and the pitot probe techniques produce results with uncertainties of less than {+-}2% at the centre of the jet. Measurements of RMS stagnation temperature fluctuations indicate values of around 3 K at the centre of the jet to more than 10 K in the shear layer. (orig.)

  20. Baseline body temperatures, heart rates, and respiratory rates of moose in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzmann, A W; Schwartz, C C; Johnson, D C

    1984-10-01

    Baseline body temperatures (BT), heart rates (HR) and respiratory rates (RR) were obtained from Alaskan moose (Alces alces gigas Miller) at the Moose Research Center (MRC), Alaska. Excitability, seasons and drugs influenced the values to varying degrees. Excitability was the most influential factor. Safe expected ranges were: BT 38.4 to 38.9 C, HR 70 to 91 beats/min (b/min), and RR 13 to 40 respirations/min (r/min). These ranges incorporated all seasons, a central nervous system depressant drug and a paralyzing drug. Values which may be considered critical and an indication that corrective action should be taken include: BT 40.2 C, HR 102 b/min, and RR 40 r/min. It is recommended that persons trained in monitoring vital signs be on hand during moose capture and immobilization procedures. PMID:6530720

  1. Cohort Removal Induces Changes in Body Temperature, Pain Sensitivity, and Anxiety-Like Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Keizo; Shoji, Hirotaka; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal). Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests. PMID:27375443

  2. Reproducibility of DXA measurements of bone mineral density and body composition in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Cheryl M.; Roza, Melissa A.; Webber, Colin E. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Barr, Ronald D. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    The technique of X-ray-based dual photon absorptiometry (DXA) is frequently used in children for the detection of changes in bone mass or body composition. Such changes can only be considered real if the uncertainties arising from the measurement technique are exceeded. Our objectives were twofold: (1) to determine the reproducibility of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in children at the spine and the hip and from the whole body, as well as of whole-body measurements of mineral mass, lean body mass and fat mass in children; and (2) to estimate, from the measured precision, the time interval that needs to elapse before a statistically significant change in a DXA variable can be detected. The reproducibility of techniques for the measurement of BMD and body composition using DXA was measured in 15 young children (9 girls and 6 boys) and 17 older children (9 girls and 8 boys). Reproducibility was derived from the standard deviation of three repeated measurements of spine BMD, total hip BMD, whole-body BMD (WBBMD), whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC), lean mass and fat mass. Technique precision was better than 0.01 g cm{sup -2} for spine BMD and for WBBMD. Hip BMD measurements were slightly less precise, particularly in younger children (0.013 g cm{sup -2}). For body composition variables, technique precision was 13 g for WBBMC, 201 g for lean body mass and 172 g for fat mass in younger children. Technique precision for older children was 18 g, 251 g and 189 g for the corresponding variables. Predictions showed that the absence of a normal increase in WBBMC in a small-for-age girl could be established after 12 months. For spine BMD, a significant increase should be observable after 6 months for boys over the age of 11 years. For younger boys, more than 12 months has to elapse before anticipated changes can be detected with confidence. The time intervals required to elapse before decisions can be made concerning the significance of observed differences

  3. Reproducibility of DXA measurements of bone mineral density and body composition in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of X-ray-based dual photon absorptiometry (DXA) is frequently used in children for the detection of changes in bone mass or body composition. Such changes can only be considered real if the uncertainties arising from the measurement technique are exceeded. Our objectives were twofold: (1) to determine the reproducibility of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in children at the spine and the hip and from the whole body, as well as of whole-body measurements of mineral mass, lean body mass and fat mass in children; and (2) to estimate, from the measured precision, the time interval that needs to elapse before a statistically significant change in a DXA variable can be detected. The reproducibility of techniques for the measurement of BMD and body composition using DXA was measured in 15 young children (9 girls and 6 boys) and 17 older children (9 girls and 8 boys). Reproducibility was derived from the standard deviation of three repeated measurements of spine BMD, total hip BMD, whole-body BMD (WBBMD), whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC), lean mass and fat mass. Technique precision was better than 0.01 g cm-2 for spine BMD and for WBBMD. Hip BMD measurements were slightly less precise, particularly in younger children (0.013 g cm-2). For body composition variables, technique precision was 13 g for WBBMC, 201 g for lean body mass and 172 g for fat mass in younger children. Technique precision for older children was 18 g, 251 g and 189 g for the corresponding variables. Predictions showed that the absence of a normal increase in WBBMC in a small-for-age girl could be established after 12 months. For spine BMD, a significant increase should be observable after 6 months for boys over the age of 11 years. For younger boys, more than 12 months has to elapse before anticipated changes can be detected with confidence. The time intervals required to elapse before decisions can be made concerning the significance of observed differences between

  4. Optical sensor for measuring humidity, strain and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical sensor (100) adapted to measure at least three physical parameters, said optical sensor comprising a polymer-based optical waveguide structure comprising a first Bragg grating structure (101) being adapted to provide information about a first, a second ...... further relates to a method for measuring the first, the second and the third physical parameter. Preferably, the first, the second and the third physical parameter, are humidity, strain and temperature, respectively....

  5. Body measurements and carcass characteristics correlation of Nellore young bulls finishidedED IN FEEDLOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Laurindo Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work it was aimed to evaluate Pearson correlations between body measurements, carcass characteristics and production of 35 Nellore bulls, confined for 96 days, with 402±14.90 kg and 18 months old. Weightings, ultrasound images and 14 measurements were obtained at the beginning of each experimental period and before slaughter, totaling four weight ratings of ultrasound images and measurements per animal. For the evaluation of body measurements and ultrasound images with carcass traits the values from the last measurement were considered. The images were made along with weighing animals through a Scanner, and measurements with a tape measure and a zoométrica cane, and these were correlated with each other and with productive and carcass characteristics. For measures of loin eye area evaluated by ultrasonography, it were found positive correlations with body length (0.32, rump (0.36 and thigh (0.20; withers height (0.20 and pelviano contour (0.38 (P<0.05. Variables of hip height and chest, chest width and pin bones, and heart girth showed positive correlations with two or more productive traits of economic interest, such as slaughter weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage (P<0.05. Significant correlations were found for most of the variables studied. Linear body measurements such as length and height emerge as a tool that can be useful in the formation of more homogenous lots and to predict the point of slaughter, along with the weight of the animals.

  6. Quantitative measurements of body composition: State of the art and QA processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The human body is composed of fat, water, mineral, and protein, and body composition is an important indicator of health. Most reporting of body composition in the lay press and with respect to health guidelines have used Body Mass Index (BMI), the ratio of body mass to height squared, as a simple measure of fattiness. A BMI of 25 kg/m2 is considered overweight. This measure is simple yet flawed since it doesn't take into account individuals with very high lean mass for their height and misclassifies them as obese. Other very simple techniques include skin fold analysis that assesses the thickness of subcutaneous fat at specific sites. Although practical, economical, and administratively feasible, the models are specific to body shape and may differ by ethnicity and age. Underwater weighing is also accessible to all with a water tank and a scale, and used to calculate the proportion of body weight that is fat and lean mass if the compartment densities are assumed to be constant. Anthropomorphy and underwater weighing are examples of two compartment models. However, more sophisticated models of three (DXA), four or more compartments (combinational methods) are available. In addition to fat, these models include direct measures of whole body bone mass, total body water, and water-free lean body mass and will be described in this paper. The purpose of a quality assurance program in body composition measures is to assure that the resulting data is accurate and precise while the purpose of a quality control programme is to correct the data if inaccuracies are found. Accuracy can be absolute in terms of international standards or relative to a reference population or baseline measurements. In general, absolute accuracy is beyond the scope of most research projects and clinics and not part of the QA/QC process. However an assurance programme for relative accuracy is essential and more easily obtainable. Baseline accuracy is established through comparative

  7. Use of a pulsed neutron generator for in vivo measurement of body carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of total body fat is of importance in studies of nutritional assessment, dietary regimens, and for the management of obesity. In the past, fat has been determined either by anthropometric methods, which introduce high uncertainties, or by model-dependent estimation of fat-free tissue. The validity, however, of the different models in disease is questionable. Total body carbon measurements provide a more direct evaluation of body fat both in normal subjects and in patients. The authors present here a facility for carbon measurements without the use of a major accelerator. The same facility can be used for the measurement of other major body elements and for the evaluation of the body's compartments. Carbon is measured in vivo through neutron inelastic scattering, by detecting the 4.44 MeV gamma rays. A miniature (10 cm long) 14 MeV D-T neutron generator is used. The short half-life of the 4.44 MeV state of carbon requires detection of the gamma rays simultaneously with the 10 μs neutron pulse. Generators with low pulsing rate were found inappropriate for carbon measurement because of their low duty-cycle (high neutron output during pulse). The detection system consists of NaI(T1) detectors and fast electronics for handling the high even rate during the neutron pulse. A description of the facility and an evaluation of the technique will be presented

  8. Radon measurements with charcoal canisters temperature and humidity considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Miloš Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon testing by using open-faced charcoal canisters is a cheap and fast screening method. Many laboratories perform the sampling and measurements according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency method - EPA 520. According to this method, no corrections for temperature are applied and corrections for humidity are based on canister mass gain. The EPA method is practiced in the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences with recycled canisters. In the course of measurements, it was established that the mass gain of the recycled canisters differs from mass gain measured by Environmental Protection Agency in an active atmosphere. In order to quantify and correct these discrepancies, in the laboratory, canisters were exposed for periods of 3 and 4 days between February 2015 and December 2015. Temperature and humidity were monitored continuously and mass gain measured. No significant correlation between mass gain and temperature was found. Based on Environmental Protection Agency calibration data, functional dependence of mass gain on humidity was determined, yielding Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves. The results of mass gain measurements of recycled canisters were plotted against these curves and a discrepancy confirmed. After correcting the independent variable in the curve equation and calculating the corrected mass gain for recycled canisters, the agreement between measured mass gain and Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves was attained. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009: New Technologies for Monitoring and Protection of Environment from Harmful Chemical Substances and Radiation Impact

  9. Measurement of temperature and temperature gradient in millimeter samples by chlorine NQR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lužnik, Janko; Pirnat, Janez; Trontelj, Zvonko

    2009-09-01

    A mini-thermometer based on the 35Cl nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) frequency temperature dependence in the chlorates KClO3 and NaClO3 was built and successfully tested by measuring temperature and temperature gradient at 77 K and higher in about 100 mm3 active volume of a mini Joule-Thomson refrigerator. In the design of the tank-circuit coil, an array of small coils connected in series enabled us (a) to achieve a suitable ratio of inductance to capacity in the NQR spectrometer input tank circuit, (b) to use a single crystal of KClO3 or NaClO3 (of 1-2 mm3 size) in one coil as a mini-thermometer with a resolution of 0.03 K and (c) to construct a system for measuring temperature gradients when the spatial coordinates of each chlorate single crystal within an individual coil are known.

  10. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Dollins, A B; Zhdanova, I.V.; Wurtman, R J; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M H

    1994-01-01

    We examined effects of very low doses of melatonin (0.1-10 mg, orally) or placebo, administered at 1145 h, on sleep latency and duration, mood, performance, oral temperature, and changes in serum melatonin levels in 20 healthy male volunteers. A repeated-measure double-blind Latin square design was used. Subjects completed a battery of tests designed to assess mood and performance between 0930 and 1730 h. The sedative-like effects of melatonin were assessed by a simple sleep...

  11. Microwave plasma burner and temperature measurements in its flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus for generating flames and more particularly the microwave plasma burner for generating high-temperature large-volume plasma flame was presented. The plasma burner is operated by injecting liquid hydrocarbon fuels into a microwave plasma torch in air discharge and by mixing the resultant gaseous hydrogen and carbon compounds with air or oxygen gas. The microwave plasma torch can instantaneously vaporize and decompose the hydrogen and carbon containing fuels. It was observed that the flame volume of the burner was more than 50 times that of the torch plasma. While the temperature of the torch plasma flame was only 550 K at a measurement point, that of the plasma-burner flame with the addition of 0.025 lpm (liters per minute) kerosene and 20 lpm oxygen drastically increased to about 1850 K. A preliminary experiment was carried out, measuring the temperature profiles of flames along the radial and axial directions

  12. In Situ Measurement of the Junction Temperature of Light Emitting Diodes Using a Flexible Micro Temperature Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Jung Hsieh; Wei-Yuan Fan; Yin-Chieh Liu; Ay Su; Chi-Yuan Lee

    2009-01-01

    This investigation aimed to fabricate a flexible micro resistive temperature sensor to measure the junction temperature of a light emitting diode (LED). The junction temperature is typically measured using a thermal resistance measurement approach. This approach is limited in that no standard regulates the timing of data capture. This work presents a micro temperature sensor that can measure temperature stably and continuously, and has the advantages of being lightweight and able to monitor j...

  13. Temperature calibration of PICO-RAD detectors for radon measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple mathematical equation linking the activity of adsorbed radon in the vials to the time of its exposure has been discussed. The calibration coefficient Ks, defined as a measured activity in cpm after a saturation time, corresponding to a radon air concentration of 1 Bq m-3 has been determined for four temperatures: 284, 291, 294 and 298 K. A linear relationship of ln Ks values versus T-1 has been found. The relatively high difference in Ks values: 2.12 and 1.24 cpm/Bq m3 for the temperatures of 284 and 298 K, respectively, was observed. It indicates that temperature fluctuations during Pico-Rad vial exposure may lead to erroneous results if the constant average temperature of exposure is introduced into a commonly used computer program for calculating Rn concentration. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs

  14. On Possibility of Detonation Products Temperature Measurements of Emulsion Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestrov V. V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The new view on the structure of the radiance signal recorded by optical pyrometer and the preliminary results of brightness detonation temperature of the emulsion explosive are presented. The structure of an optical signal observed is typical for the heterogeneous explosives. First, there is the short temperature spike to 2500 ÷ 3300 K connecting with a formation of “hot spots” assembly that fire the matrix capable of exothermal reaction. Then the relaxation of radiance to equilibrium level is observed that corresponds to brightness temperature 1840 ÷ 2260 K of explosion products at detonation pressure 1 ÷ 11 GPa. Experimental results are compared with the calculations of other authors. The detonation temperature of the investigated explosive is measured for the first time.

  15. CARS Temperature Measurements in a Combustion-Heated Supersonic Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, S. A.; Danehy, P. M.; Magnotti, G.; Cutler, A. D.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements were made in a combustion-heated supersonic axi-symmetric free jet from a nozzle with a diameter of 6.35 cm using dual-pump Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS). The resulting mean and standard deviation temperature maps are presented. The temperature results show that the gas temperature on the centerline remains constant for approximately 5 nozzle diameters. As the heated gas mixes with the ambient air further downstream the mean temperature decreases. The standard deviation map shows evidence of the increase of turbulence in the shear layer as the jet proceeds downstream and mixes with the ambient air. The challenges of collecting data in a harsh environment are discussed along with influences to the data. The yield of the data collected is presented and possible improvements to the yield is presented are discussed.

  16. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ramos; Eduardo Sebastián; Carlos Armiens; Javier Gómez-Elvira; Zorzano, María P.; Jesus Martinez-Frias; Blanca Esteban

    2010-01-01

    We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight cal...

  17. Simple insertible high performance variable temperature regulator for measurement of physical properties at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendran, R.; Satya, A. T.; Chinnasamy, N.; Baskaran, R.; Janawadkar, M. P.

    2016-04-01

    An impedance capillary based Variable Temperature Regulator (VTR) for regulation of temperature in the range of 4.2 K-300 K, which can be detached and inserted into any experimental setup with a 50 mm diameter top access, has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The VTR may be used as a highly compact probe, which can be readily inserted in any liquid helium dewar or cryostat to realize uniform rates of cooling/heating and to achieve excellent temperature stability of ±1 mK at any temperature between 4.2 K and 300 K. VTR has been subjected to extensive experimental testing to arrive at optimum values of control parameters that are expected to influence its performance. The VTR may be integrated into any experimental setup for measurement of physical properties at low temperatures.

  18. Evolution of microstructure in flyash-containing porcelain body on heating at different temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kausik Dana; Swapan Kumar Das

    2004-04-01

    15 wt% flyash (a calcined byproduct of thermal power plant) was incorporated in a normal triaxial kaolin–quartz–feldspar system by replacing equivalent amount of quartz. The differences in microstructural evolution on heating the compact mass of both normal and flyash-containing porcelain at different temperatures (1150–1300°C) were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) operating in secondary electron image (SEI) mode. Microstructure of normal porcelain did not show the presence of mullite and quartz grains at 1200°C and the viscosity of silica-rich glass restricted the growth of mullite crystals at 1250°C. Flyash porcelain, on the other hand, shows the presence of primary mullite aggregates in the clay relict and a significant growth of mullite crystals in a low viscosity glassy matrix at 1200°C itself. At 1300°C, both the bodies show a larger region of more elongated (> 1 m) secondary mullite along with clusters of smaller sized primary mullite (< 1 m). Small primary mullite crystals in the clay relict can be distinguished from elongated secondary mullite crystals in the feldspar relict in their size. Primary mullite aggregates remain stable also at higher temperatures. XRD studies were carried out for quantitative estimation of quartz, mullite and glass, which supported the SEM observations. An attempt was also made to correlate their mechanical strength with the constituent phases.

  19. Whole-body hyperthermia at moderate temperatures in the treatment of malignant disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moderate-temperature (40 to 410C) hyperthermia in combination with localized radiotherapy is undergoing a Phase I trial at Tufts-New England Medical Center. Hyperthermia is achieved by depositing 27 MHz RF energy primarily into the great vessels of the trunk and abdomen, using a computer-assisted system. Circulation of warm malignant disease. The treatment plan calls for 9 courses of hyperthermia over 3 weeks, i.e., 3 treatments/week, with local radiotherapy (according to department policy for the particular tumors) 5 times/week. Unsedated patients are brought to 40 +- 1/20C in 30 to 40 min, maintained at this temperature for 45 min and irradiated immediately thereafter. Of 9 patients, 6 completed 8 or more courses of hyperthermia without serious side-effects. Three patients did not complete the treatment because of complications of their disease. The rationale for 40 to 410C hyperthermia is presented and fundamental research in this area is described. Clinical laboratory investigations on patients subjected to whole-body hyperthermia are summarized

  20. The time of day differently influences fatigue and locomotor activity: is body temperature a key factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Frederico Sander Mansur; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the possible interactions between exercise capacity and spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) during the oscillation of core body temperature (Tb) that occurs during the light/dark cycle. Wistar rats (n=11) were kept at an animal facility under a light/dark cycle of 14/10h at an ambient temperature of 23°C and water and food ad libitum. Initially, in order to characterize the daily oscillation in SLA and Tb of the rats, these parameters were continuously recorded for 24h using an implantable telemetric sensor (G2 E-Mitter). The animals were randomly assigned to two progressive exercise test protocols until fatigue during the beginning of light and dark-phases. Fatigue was defined as the moment rats could not keep pace with the treadmill. We assessed the time to fatigue, workload and Tb changes induced by exercise. Each test was separated by 3days. Our results showed that exercise capacity and heat storage were higher during the light-phase (pexercise performance and spontaneous locomotor activity are not directly associated, both are strongly influenced by daily cycles of light and dark. PMID:25479573