WorldWideScience

Sample records for body surface area

  1. Body Surface Area Prediction in Odorrana grahami

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiying CHEN; Jiongyu LIU; Qiang DAI; Jianping JIANG

    2014-01-01

    Body surface area (BSA) was regarded as a more readily quantiifable parameter relative to body mass in the normalization of comparative biochemistry and physiology. The BSA prediction has attracted unceasing research back more than a century on animals, especially on humans and rats. Few studies in this area for anurans were reported, and the equation for body surface area (S) and body mass (W):S=9.9 W 0.56, which was concluded from toads of four species in 1969, was generally adopted to estimate the body surface areas for anurans until recent years. However, this equation was not applicable to Odorrana grahami. The relationship between body surface area and body mass for this species was established as:S=15.4 W 0.579. Our current results suggest estimation equations should be used cautiously across different species and body surface area predictions on more species need to be conducted.

  2. Body surface area determined by whole-body CT scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Primeau, Charlotte; Hesse, Ulrik;

    2016-01-01

    Calculation of the estimated body surface area (BSA) by body height and weight has been a challenge in the past centuries due to lack of a well-documented gold standard. More recently, available techniques such as 3D laser surface scanning and CT scanning may be expected to quantify the BSA...... in an easier and more accurate way. This study provides the first comparison between BSA obtained from post-mortem whole-body CT scans and BSA calculated by nine predictive formulae. The sample consisted of 54 male cadavers ranging from 20 to 87 years old. 3D reconstructions were generated from CT scans using...

  3. Indexing aortic valve area by body surface area increases the prevalence of severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jander, Nikolaus; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Bahlmann, Edda;

    2014-01-01

    To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are...

  4. Association of body surface area and body composition with heart structural characteristics of female swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    SHEIKHSARAF, BAHAREH; ALLAH, NIKBAKHT HOJAT; ALI, AZARBAYJANI MOHAMMAD

    2010-01-01

    In healthy nonathletic populations, some left ventricle (LV) parameters such as LV mass (LVM) and LV end diastolic dimension (LVEDD) can be predicted by some of body size parameters such as body surface area (BSA), fat-free mass (FFM), and height (H). These body size parameters use to remove covariate influence of body size from cardiac dimension variables and allow comparisons to be made between individuals and groups of different body size. Endurance exercise has been associated with change...

  5. Determination of hand and palm area as a ratio of body surface area in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Pawan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate estimation of body surface area (BSA burn is important. In small and patchy burns, the patient′s hand is used to estimate percentage of burn which is traditionally considered as 1%. There is discrepancy about what percentage of TBSA is constituted by the palm and hand. Therefore, this study was designed to determine correctly the TBSA represented by the palmar surface of the entire hand and palm in the Indian population. Material and Methods: 300 healthy adult (male and female and 300 healthy children (male and female were included in the study. TBSA was calculated using DuBois formula and hand and palm surface area was calculated using hand tracing on plain paper. The hand/palm percentage of BSA (ratio was determined by dividing hand/palm surface area by total BSA. Results: The mean hand and palm ratio for adults was 0.92% and 0.50%, respectively. The mean hand and palm ratio in children was 1.06% and 0.632%, respectively. Conclusion: The hand area (palm plus digits is more closely represented to 1% of TBSA in Indian population.

  6. Indexing Glomerular Filtration Rate to Body Surface Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redal-Baigorri, Belén; Rasmussen, Knud; Heaf, James Goya

    2014-01-01

    -indexed GFR vs. mean absolute GFR were analyzed with a t-test for paired data. Bland-Altman plot was used to analyze agreement between the indexed and absolute GFR values. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: BSA-GFR in patients with a BSA <1.60 m(2) overestimated GFR with a bias of 10.08 ml/min (11.46%) and....... We investigated the impact of indexing GFR to BSA in cancer patients, as this BSA indexation might affect the reported individual kidney function. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 895 adults who had their kidney function measured with (51) chrome ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Mean values of BSA...... underestimated GFR in those with a BSA >2 m(2) with a bias up to -20.76 ml/min (-23.59%). BSA is not a good normalization index (NI) in patients with extreme body sizes. Therefore, until a better NI is found, we recommend clinicians to use the absolute GFR to calculate individual drug chemotherapy dosage as well...

  7. Interdependence between body surface area and ultraviolet B dose in vitamin D production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, M K B; Schmedes, Anne; Philipsen, P A;

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) B radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) [25(OH)D], but the relationship to body surface area and UVB dose needs investigation.......Ultraviolet (UV) B radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) [25(OH)D], but the relationship to body surface area and UVB dose needs investigation....

  8. Escaping the correction for body surface area when calculating glomerular filtration rate in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, Amy; Tondeur, Marianne [CHU St. Pierre, Department of Radioisotopes, Brussels (Belgium); Ham, Hamphrey [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-09-15

    {sup 51}Cr ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid ({sup 51}Cr EDTA) clearance is nowadays considered as an accurate and reproducible method for measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. Normal values in function of age, corrected for body surface area, have been recently updated. However, much criticism has been expressed about the validity of body surface area correction. The aim of the present paper was to present the normal GFR values, not corrected for body surface area, with the associated percentile curves. For that purpose, the same patients as in the previous paper were selected, namely those with no recent urinary tract infection, having a normal left to right {sup 99m}Tc MAG3 uptake ratio and a normal kidney morphology on the early parenchymal images. A single blood sample method was used for {sup 51}Cr EDTA clearance measurement. Clearance values, not corrected for body surface area, increased progressively up to the adolescence. The percentile curves were determined and allow, for a single patient, to estimate accurately the level of non-corrected clearance and the evolution with time, whatever the age. (orig.)

  9. The role of body surface area in quantity discrimination in angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Laplaza, Luis M; Gerlai, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Although some fish species have been shown to be able to discriminate between two groups (shoals) of conspecifics differing in the number of members, most studies have not controlled for continuous variables that covary with number. Previously, using angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) we started the systematic analysis of the potential influence of such continuous variables, and found that they play different roles in shoal discrimination depending on whether large (≥ 4 fish) or small (<4 fish) shoals were contrasted. Here, we examine the potential role of the overall body surface area of stimulus fish in shoal preference, a prominent variable not yet examined in angelfish. We report that both when numerically large (5 versus 10 fish) and when small (2 versus 3 fish) shoals were contrasted, angelfish were unable to discriminate the numerically different shoals as long as the surface area of the contrasted shoals was equated. Thus, we conclude that body surface may be an important continuous variable in shoal discrimination. This conclusion was further supported by the analysis of preference when shoals of the same numerical size but different body surface area were contrasted. We found subjects to spend significantly more time close to the shoals with the greater overall surface area. Last, we conducted an experiment in which we simultaneously controlled a set of continuous variables, including overall surface area, and found angelfish to use the number of shoal members as a cue only in large shoal contrasts but not in small shoal contrasts. This result suggests the potential existence of different processing systems for large and small numbers in fish. PMID:24386299

  10. The role of body surface area in quantity discrimination in angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M Gómez-Laplaza

    Full Text Available Although some fish species have been shown to be able to discriminate between two groups (shoals of conspecifics differing in the number of members, most studies have not controlled for continuous variables that covary with number. Previously, using angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare we started the systematic analysis of the potential influence of such continuous variables, and found that they play different roles in shoal discrimination depending on whether large (≥ 4 fish or small (<4 fish shoals were contrasted. Here, we examine the potential role of the overall body surface area of stimulus fish in shoal preference, a prominent variable not yet examined in angelfish. We report that both when numerically large (5 versus 10 fish and when small (2 versus 3 fish shoals were contrasted, angelfish were unable to discriminate the numerically different shoals as long as the surface area of the contrasted shoals was equated. Thus, we conclude that body surface may be an important continuous variable in shoal discrimination. This conclusion was further supported by the analysis of preference when shoals of the same numerical size but different body surface area were contrasted. We found subjects to spend significantly more time close to the shoals with the greater overall surface area. Last, we conducted an experiment in which we simultaneously controlled a set of continuous variables, including overall surface area, and found angelfish to use the number of shoal members as a cue only in large shoal contrasts but not in small shoal contrasts. This result suggests the potential existence of different processing systems for large and small numbers in fish.

  11. Scaling of Measured Glomerular Filtration Rate in Kidney Donor Candidates by Anthropometric Estimates of Body Surface Area, Body Water, Metabolic Rate, or Liver Size

    OpenAIRE

    Daugirdas, John T.; Meyer, Kathryn; Greene, Tom; Butler, Robert S.; Poggio, Emilio D.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: GFR is scaled to body surface area (S), whereas hemodialysis dosage is scaled to total body water (V). Scaling to metabolic rate (M) or liver size (L) has also been proposed.

  12. The Average Body Surface Area of Adult Cancer Patients in the UK: A Multicentre Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sacco, Joseph J.; Joanne Botten; Fergus Macbeth; Adrian Bagust; Peter Clark

    2010-01-01

    The majority of chemotherapy drugs are dosed based on body surface area (BSA). No standard BSA values for patients being treated in the United Kingdom are available on which to base dose and cost calculations. We therefore retrospectively assessed the BSA of patients receiving chemotherapy treatment at three oncology centres in the UK between 1(st) January 2005 and 31(st) December 2005.A total of 3613 patients receiving chemotherapy for head and neck, ovarian, lung, upper GI/pancreas, breast ...

  13. Investigation into the relationship between body surface area and total body potassium using Monte Carlo and measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. A.; Blake-James, M.; Green, S.; Beddoe, A. H.

    2002-03-01

    The use of body surface area (BSA) as a means of indexing chemotherapy doses is widespread even though the value of this practice is uncertain. In principle, the body cell mass (BCM) more closely represents the body's metabolic size and this is investigated here as an alternative to BSA; since 98% of body potassium is intracellular the derivation of total body potassium (TBK) via the measurement of 40K in a whole body counter (WBC) will provide a useful normalizing index for metabolic size, potentially avoiding toxicity and underdosing. The Queen Elizabeth Hospital WBC has been used in this study, initially involving single geometrical phantoms and then combinations of these to simulate human body habitus. Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) codes were constructed to model the phantoms and simulate the measurements made in the WBC. Efficiency corrections were derived by comparing measurement and modelled data for each detector separately. A method of modelling a person in the WBC as a series of ellipsoids was developed. Twenty-four normal males and 24 females were measured for their 40K emissions. Individual MCNP codes were constructed for each volunteer and the results used in conjunction with the measurements to derive TBK, correcting for body habitus effects and detector efficiencies. An estimate of the component of error arising from sources other than counting statistics was included by analysing data from the measurement of phantoms. The total residual errors (expressed as coefficients of variation) for males and females were 10.1% and 8.5% respectively. The measurement components were determined to be 2.4% and 2.5%, implying that the biological components were 9.8% and 8.1% respectively. These results suggest that the use of BSA for indexing chemotherapy doses is likely to give rise to clinically significant under- or overdosing.

  14. Investigation into the relationship between body surface area and total body potassium using Monte Carlo and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of body surface area (BSA) as a means of indexing chemotherapy doses is widespread even though the value of this practice is uncertain. In principle, the body cell mass (BCM) more closely represents the body's metabolic size and this is investigated here as an alternative to BSA; since 98% of body potassium is intracellular the derivation of total body potassium (TBK) via the measurement of 40K in a whole body counter (WBC) will provide a useful normalizing index for metabolic size, potentially avoiding toxicity and underdosing. The Queen Elizabeth Hospital WBC has been used in this study, initially involving single geometrical phantoms and then combinations of these to simulate human body habitus. Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) codes were constructed to model the phantoms and simulate the measurements made in the WBC. Efficiency corrections were derived by comparing measurement and modelled data for each detector separately. A method of modelling a person in the WBC as a series of ellipsoids was developed. Twenty-four normal males and 24 females were measured for their 40K emissions. Individual MCNP codes were constructed for each volunteer and the results used in conjunction with the measurements to derive TBK, correcting for body habitus effects and detector efficiencies. An estimate of the component of error arising from sources other than counting statistics was included by analysing data from the measurement of phantoms. The total residual errors (expressed as coefficients of variation) for males and females were 10.1% and 8.5% respectively. The measurement components were determined to be 2.4% and 2.5%, implying that the biological components were 9.8% and 8.1% respectively. These results suggest that the use of BSA for indexing chemotherapy doses is likely to give rise to clinically significant under- or overdosing. (author)

  15. DMSA scan nomograms for renal length and area: Related to patient age and to body weight, height or surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To create nomograms for renal size as measured from DMSA renal studies, and to test the nomograms for their ability to separate normal from abnormal kidneys. Method: Renal length was measured from posterior oblique views and renal area from posterior views. Results from 253 patients with bilateral normal kidneys were used to create nomograms for renal size relative to patient age, body height, weight or body surface area (BSA). The nomograms enclosed 95% of the normal kidneys, thus indicating the range for 95% confidence limits, and hence the specificity. Each nomogram was then tested against 46 hypertrophied kidneys and 46 damaged kidneys. Results: The results from nomograms of renal length and renal area, compared to age, body height, body weight and BSA are presented. For each nomogram, the range is presented as a fraction of the mean value, and the number of abnormal kidneys (hypertrophied or damaged) outside the normal range is presented as a percentage (indicating the sensitivity). Conclusion: Renal Area was no better than renal length for detecting abnormal kidneys. Patient age was the least useful method of normalisation. BSA normalisation produced the best results most frequently (narrower ranges and highest detection of abnormal kidneys)

  16. Impact of industrial wastewater disposal on surface water bodies in Mostord area north Greater Cairo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The studied area (Shoubra El-Khima, Bahteem and Mostorod) lies in the industrial area north of Greater Cairo. The area suffers from several environmental problems such as sewage and disposal of pollutants from the surrounding factories into the surface water pathways in the area. Water samples were collected seasonally from different waterways found in the area, domestic and or industrial liquid wastes from 12 discharge tubes of different factories (as a point source of pollution). Chemical characteristics of different water samples and its heavy metals content were determined using ion coupled plasma technique (ICP). Results indicate that industrial and domestic wastewater samples contain several toxic levels of tested heavy metals (Cd, Co, Pb and Ni) which have a serious impact on surface waterways in the area.Shebin El-Qanater collector drain samples exhibited the highest levels of Cd, Co, Pb and Ni compared to other tested water bodies Mostorod collector drain samples showed the highest levels of Zn and Cu. Industrial effluent samples collected from Cairo Company for Fabric industry had the highest amounts of total Zn Cu, Cd, Co and Pb, while Delta steel company discharges the highest amounts of total Fe and Mn. Al-Ahleya Plastic Company discharges the highest amounts of total-Ni. Generally, it is necessary to impose the environmental laws and its regulation regarding the industrial wastewater treatments and disposals to minimize the risk of the adverse effects of these pollutants.

  17. The average body surface area of adult cancer patients in the UK: a multicentre retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Sacco

    Full Text Available The majority of chemotherapy drugs are dosed based on body surface area (BSA. No standard BSA values for patients being treated in the United Kingdom are available on which to base dose and cost calculations. We therefore retrospectively assessed the BSA of patients receiving chemotherapy treatment at three oncology centres in the UK between 1(st January 2005 and 31(st December 2005.A total of 3613 patients receiving chemotherapy for head and neck, ovarian, lung, upper GI/pancreas, breast or colorectal cancers were included. The overall mean BSA was 1.79 m(2 (95% CI 1.78-1.80 with a mean BSA for men of 1.91 m(2 (1.90-1.92 and 1.71 m(2 (1.70-1.72 for women. Results were consistent across the three centres. No significant differences were noted between treatment in the adjuvant or palliative setting in patients with breast or colorectal cancer. However, statistically significant, albeit small, differences were detected between some tumour groups.In view of the consistency of results between three geographically distinct UK cancer centres, we believe the results of this study may be generalised and used in future costings and budgeting for new chemotherapy agents in the UK.

  18. Retting of jute grown in arsenic contaminated area and consequent arsenic pollution in surface water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Aparajita; Bairagya, M D; Basu, B; Gupta, P C; Sarkar, S

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity of ground water in Bengal delta is a major environmental catastrophe. Cultivation of jute, a non edible crop after summer rice usually reduces arsenic load of the soil. However, during retting of jute As is present in the crop and thus increase its amount in surface water bodies. To test this hypothesis, a study was carried out in ten farmers' field located in As affected areas of West Bengal, India. As content of soil and variou the jute plant were recorded on 35 and 70 days after sowing (DAS) as well as on harvest date (110 DAS). During the study period, due to the influence of rainfall, As content of surface (0-150 mm) soil fluctuates in a narrow range. As content of jute root was in the range of 1.13 to 9.36 mg kg(-1). As content of both root and leaf attained highest concentration on 35 DAS and continuously decreased with the increase in crop age. However, in case of shoot, the As content initially decreased by 16 to 50% during 35 to 70 DAS and on 110 DAS the value slightly increased over 70 DAS. Retting of jute in pond water increased the water As content by 0.2 to 2.0 mg L(-1). The increment was 1.1 to 4 times higher over the WHO safe limit (0.05 mg L(-1)) for India and Bangladesh. Microbiological assessment in this study reveals the total bacterial population of pre and post retting pond water. Bacterial strains capable in transforming more toxic As-III to less toxic AS-V were screened and six of them were selected based on their As tolerance capacity. Importantly, identified bacterial strain Bacterium C-TJ19 (HQ834294) has As transforming ability as well as pectinolytic activity, which improves fibre quality of jute. PMID:23178784

  19. Narrowband interference mitigation in body surface to external communication in UWB body area networks using first-order Hermite pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Deepak Kumar; Das, Susmita

    2016-06-01

    Ultra wideband (UWB) is the most preferred candidate for body area networks (BAN). The higher data rate and lower multipath fading makes it highly suitable for the design of BAN. However, narrowband interference (NBI) may significantly degrade the performance of UWB. The paper presents an effective method of NBI mitigation for UWB BAN. The method uses modified Hermite pulse (MHP) in lieu of Gaussian and other pulse shapes. The spectral characteristics of the MHP make them immune to interference. The performance has been tested in various body postures in the CM4 channel model of the BAN, and further validated by transmitting medical signals like electrocardiography and MRI. The results show that MHP pulse is highly immune to NBI.

  20. Prophylactic aortic root surgery in patients with Marfan syndrome : 10 years' experience with a protocol based on body surface area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberts, Jan J. J.; van Tintelen, J. Peter; Hillege, Hans L.; Boonstra, Piet W.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; Waterbolk, T

    2008-01-01

    Background: Current guidelines recommending prophylactic aortic root replacement in Marfan syndrome are based on absolute diameters of the aortic root. However, aortic root diameter is a function of body surface area (BSA). Here, we report our experience with a protocol for prophylactic aortic root

  1. THE MONITORING OF SURFACE WATER BODIES (RIVERS FROM TISA CATCHMENT AREA - MARAMUREŞ COUNTY IN 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA ANDREEA DESPESCU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the monitoring and evaluation of river’s water bodies from Maramureş County, using the methodology associated with the EU Water Framework Directive 60/2000. Thus, in the first part are defined the theoretical terms of monitoring activities related to the water bodies’ quality and the specific features of those we can find in the studied area. There are presented the water bodies’ features, quality indicators and the monitoring frequencies for the rivers situated in the Tisa catchment area. The results have shown the actual ecological and chemical state of those water bodies, in relation with the standard values mentioned through the Water Framework Directive.

  2. THE MONITORING OF SURFACE WATER BODIES (RIVERS) FROM TISA CATCHMENT AREA - MARAMUREŞ COUNTY IN 2014

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA ANDREEA DESPESCU; S. NACU; BĂTINAŞ R

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on the monitoring and evaluation of river’s water bodies from Maramureş County, using the methodology associated with the EU Water Framework Directive 60/2000. Thus, in the first part are defined the theoretical terms of monitoring activities related to the water bodies’ quality and the specific features of those we can find in the studied area. There are presented the water bodies’ features, quality indicators and the monitoring frequencies for the rivers situated in th...

  3. Decontamination of body surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two important points for an effective application of decontamination procedures. One is the organizing method of responsible decontamination teams. The team should be directed by medical doctor with the knowledge of decontamination of radionuclides. The other point is the place of application of the decontamination. Hospitals and clinics, especially with a department of nuclear medicine, or specialized units such as an emergency medical center are preferable. Before decontamination procedures are initiated, adequate monitoring of the body surface should be undertaken by a competent person in order to demarcate the areas which are contaminated. There are fundamental principles which are applicable to all decontamination procedures. (1) Precautions must always be taken to prevent further spread of contamination during decontamination operations. (2) Mild decontamination methods should be tried before resorting to treatment which can damage the body surface. The specific feature of each contamination varies widely in radionuclides involved, place and area of the contamination, condition of the contaminated skin such as whether the skin is wounded or not, and others. Soap and water are usually good detergents in most cases. If they fail, orange oil cream (SUPERDECONCREAM, available from Tokyo Engineering Co.) specially prepared for decontamination of radionuclides of most fission and corrosion products may be used. Contaminated hair should be washed several times with an efficient shampoo. (author)

  4. The estimation of future surface water bodies at Olkiluoto area based on statistical terrain and land uplift models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this working report the modelling effort of future landscape development and surface water body formation at the modelling area in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island is presented. Estimation of the features of future surface water bodies is based on probabilistic terrain and land uplift models presented in previous working reports. The estimation is done using a GIS-based toolbox called UNTAMO. The future surface water bodies are estimated in 10 000 years' time span with 1000 years' intervals for the safety assessment of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site. In the report a brief overview on the techniques used for probabilistic terrain modelling, land uplift modelling and hydrological modelling are presented first. The latter part of the report describes the results of the modelling effort. The main features of the future landscape - the four lakes forming in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island - are identified and the probabilistic model of the shoreline displacement is presented. The area and volume of the four lakes is modelled in a probabilistic manner. All the simulations have been performed for three scenarios two of which are based on 10 realizations of the probabilistic digital terrain model (DTM) and 10 realizations of the probabilistic land uplift model. These two scenarios differ from each other by the eustatic curve used in the land uplift model. The third scenario employs 50 realizations of the probabilistic DTM while a deterministic land uplift model, derived solely from the current land uplift rate, is used. The results indicate that the two scenarios based on the probabilistic land uplift model behave in a similar manner while the third model overestimates past and future land uplift rates. The main features of the landscape are nevertheless similar also for the third scenario. Prediction results for the volumes of the future lakes indicate that a couple of highly probably lake formation scenarios can be identified with other

  5. The estimation of future surface water bodies at Olkiluoto area based on statistical terrain and land uplift models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjola, J.; Turunen, J.; Lipping, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Ikonen, A.

    2014-03-15

    In this working report the modelling effort of future landscape development and surface water body formation at the modelling area in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island is presented. Estimation of the features of future surface water bodies is based on probabilistic terrain and land uplift models presented in previous working reports. The estimation is done using a GIS-based toolbox called UNTAMO. The future surface water bodies are estimated in 10 000 years' time span with 1000 years' intervals for the safety assessment of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site. In the report a brief overview on the techniques used for probabilistic terrain modelling, land uplift modelling and hydrological modelling are presented first. The latter part of the report describes the results of the modelling effort. The main features of the future landscape - the four lakes forming in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island - are identified and the probabilistic model of the shoreline displacement is presented. The area and volume of the four lakes is modelled in a probabilistic manner. All the simulations have been performed for three scenarios two of which are based on 10 realizations of the probabilistic digital terrain model (DTM) and 10 realizations of the probabilistic land uplift model. These two scenarios differ from each other by the eustatic curve used in the land uplift model. The third scenario employs 50 realizations of the probabilistic DTM while a deterministic land uplift model, derived solely from the current land uplift rate, is used. The results indicate that the two scenarios based on the probabilistic land uplift model behave in a similar manner while the third model overestimates past and future land uplift rates. The main features of the landscape are nevertheless similar also for the third scenario. Prediction results for the volumes of the future lakes indicate that a couple of highly probably lake formation scenarios can be identified

  6. Effect of oral olive oil on healing of 10-20% total body surface area burn wounds in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmi, Mahtab; Vahdat Shariatpanahi, Zahra; Tolouei, Mohammad; Amiri, Zohreh

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of consumption of oral olive oil on clinical outcomes and wound healing of thermally injured patients with hospital stays. One hundred patients (mean age; 33.34±7 years) with 10-20% total body surface area, deep second degree and more burn wounds were randomized to receive either oral olive oil or sunflower oil as the oil in their diet. Patients were evaluated daily for occurrence of wound infection, sepsis and healing of the grafted skin. Also the duration of hospitalization and admission to the intensive care unit were compared in two groups. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the olive oil group and the control group in percent of TBSA involvement (14.28±0.53 vs. 13.02±0.48, P=0.7), albumin concentration (3.25±0.5 vs. 3.13±0.5, P=0.5) and mean calorie intake (2034±216.9 kcal vs2118±192.1 kcal, P=0.2). We found a significant difference in the duration of wound healing (7.2±0.5 vs. 8.7±0.5, P=0.04) and duration of hospitalization (7.4±0.5 vs. 8.9±0.4, P=0.05) in the olive oil group versus the control group. We did not find any difference in ICU admission, wound infection and occurrence of sepsis between two groups. This study showed that an oral diet provided with olive oil in patients with burn may accelerate wound healing and decrease the duration of hospitalization. PMID:25306088

  7. Measuring glomerular filtration rate using 51Cr-EDTA: body surface area normalization before or after Bröchner-Mortensen correction?

    OpenAIRE

    Pottel, Hans; Hoste, Liesbeth; De Waele, Liesbeth; Braat, Elke; Baete, Kristof; Goffin, Karolien; Levtchenko, Elena; Gheysens, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Guidelines for measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using Cr-EDTA require normalizing of GFR for body surface area (BSA) before applying the Bröchner-Mortensen (BM) correction. The guideline explicitly mentions the importance of performing BSA normalization before BM correction and that this is particularly important in children in whom the effects of BSA normalization are largest.

  8. Reconstruction of convex bodies from surface tensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Astrid; Kiderlen, Markus

    The set of all surface tensors of a convex body K (Minkowski tensors derived from the surface area measure of K) determine K up to translation, and hereby, the surface tensors of K contain all information on the shape of K. Here, shape means the equivalence class of all convex bodies that are...... translates of each other. An algorithm for reconstructing an unknown convex body in R 2 from its surface tensors up to a certain rank is presented. Using the reconstruction algorithm, the shape of an unknown convex body can be approximated when only a finite number s of surface tensors are available. The...... output of the reconstruction algorithm is a polytope P, where the surface tensors of P and K are identical up to rank s. We establish a stability result based on a generalization of Wirtinger’s inequality that shows that for large s, two convex bodies are close in shape when they have identical surface...

  9. 77 FR 55715 - Medical Area Body Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 95 Medical Area Body Network AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... (MedRadio) rules to permit the development of new Medical Body Area Network (MBAN) devices in the 2360... permit the development of new Medical Body Area Network (MBAN) devices in the 2360-2400 MHz band....

  10. MICROBIAL LOAD AND MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM FEACES AND BODY SURFACES OF COCKROACHES IN AN URBAN AREA OF SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monsuru Adebayo Adeleke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of pathogenic bacteria isolated from the faeces and body surfaces of cockroaches in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria. The cockroaches collected from residential areas and hospital vicinities were screened for microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern using standard protocols. A total of twenty- three microorganisms namely Klebsiella aerogenes, Bacillius cereus, Proteus spp, Staphyloccocus aureus, S. saprophyticus, Enteroccocus faecalis, Staphylococus epididermis, E. coli, Listeria monoctogene, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Psuedomonas species, Seretia mensence, Candida albicans, Candida spp., Aspergilius spp., A. flavus, A. fumigates, Mucor species and Penicilium species were isolated. The microbial load of the microorganisms was significantly higher in the isolates from hospital as compared with the residential area (p<0.05 with the exception of Canidida species, Mucor and Penicillium which had higher or equal microbial load at the residential areas. All the pathogenic bacteria isolated had multiple resistance to antibiotics most importantly, Ampicillin, Augumentin, Amoxicillin and Septrin (30μg. Efforts geared towards controlling the insects will be indispensable in curbing the wide spread of multi-drug resistant pathogens in the study area.

  11. High surface area calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, L. N.; Andersson, M. P.; Dalby, K. N.; Müter, D.; Okhrimenko, D. V.; Fordsmand, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2013-05-01

    Calcite (CaCO3) is important in many fields—in nature, because it is a component of aquifers, oil reservoirs and prospective CO2 storage sites, and in industry, where it is used in products as diverse as paper, toothpaste, paint, plastic and aspirin. It is difficult to obtain high purity calcite with a high surface area but such material is necessary for industrial applications and for fundamental calcite research. Commercial powder is nearly always contaminated with growth inhibitors such as sugars, citrate or pectin and most laboratory synthesis methods deliver large precipitates, often containing vaterite or aragonite. To address this problem, we (i) adapted the method of carbonating a Ca(OH)2 slurry with CO2 gas to develop the first simple, cheap, safe and reproducible procedure using common laboratory equipment, to obtain calcite that reproducibly had a surface area of 14-17 m2/g and (ii) conducted a thorough characterization of the product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed nanometer scale, rhombohedral crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) confirmed highly crystalline, pure calcite that more closely resembles the dimensions of the biogenic calcite produced by algae in coccoliths than other methods for synthesizing calcite. We suggest that this calcite is useful when purity and high surface area are important.

  12. Convergecast in Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Badreddine, Wafa; Khernane, Nesrine; Potop-Butucaru, Maria; Chaudet, Claude

    2015-01-01

    —Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) is a recent challenging area in the domain of health monitoring. There are several concerns in this area ranging from energy efficient communication to designing delays efficient protocols that support nodes dynamicity induced by human body mobility. This paper focuses on the convergecast or data gathering protocols in WBAN. Our contribution is twofold. First, we extensively analyze the impact of postural body mobility on various classes of multi-hop conver...

  13. Correlation between caudal pulmonary artery diameter to body surface area ratio and echocardiography-estimated systolic pulmonary arterial pressure in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngjae; Choi, Wooshin; Lee, Donghoon; Chang, Jinhwa; Kang, Ji-Houn; Choi, Jihye; Chang, Dongwoo

    2016-06-30

    Caudal pulmonary artery diameter (CPAD) to body surface area (BSA) ratios were measured in ventrodorsal thoracic radiographs to assess the correlation between CPAD to BSA ratios and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) in dogs. Thoracic radiographs of 44 dogs with systolic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and 55 normal dogs were evaluated. Systolic PAP was estimated by Doppler echocardiography. CPADs were measured at their largest point at the level of tracheal bifurcation on ventrodorsal radiographs. Both right and left CPAD to BSA ratios were significantly higher in the PAH group than in the normal group (p PAP and right and left CPAD to BSA ratio (right, p = 0.0230; left, p = 0.0012). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the CPAD to BSA ratio had moderate diagnostic accuracy for detecting PAH. The operating point, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve were 28.35, 81.40%, 81.82%, and 0.870; respectively, for the right side and 26.92, 80.00%, 66.67%, and 0.822, respectively, for the left. The significant correlation of CPAD to BSA ratio with echocardiography-estimated systolic PAP supports its use in identifying PAH on survey thoracic radiographs in dogs. PMID:26645336

  14. 77 FR 43567 - Medical Area Body Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed electronically using the... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 95 Medical Area Body Network AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... Medical Body Area Network (``MBAN'') coordinator(s) for the 2360-2390 MHz band. Although the ]...

  15. Multi-temporal image analysis of historical aerial photographs and recent satellite imagery reveals evolution of water body surface area and polygonal terrain morphology in Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-temporal image analysis of very-high-resolution historical aerial and recent satellite imagery of the Ahnewetut Wetlands in Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska, revealed the nature of thaw lake and polygonal terrain evolution over a 54-year period of record comprising two 27-year intervals (1951–1978, 1978–2005). Using active-contouring-based change detection, high-precision orthorectification and co-registration and the normalized difference index, surface area expansion and contraction of 22 shallow water bodies, ranging in size from 0.09 to 179 ha, and the transition of ice-wedge polygons from a low- to a high-centered morphology were quantified. Total surface area decreased by only 0.4% during the first time interval, but decreased by 5.5% during the second time interval. Twelve water bodies (ten lakes and two ponds) were relatively stable with net surface area decreases of ≤10%, including four lakes that gained area during both time intervals, whereas ten water bodies (five lakes and five ponds) had surface area losses in excess of 10%, including two ponds that drained completely. Polygonal terrain remained relatively stable during the first time interval, but transformation of polygons from low- to high-centered was significant during the second time interval. (letter)

  16. 78 FR 78769 - Medical Body Area Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ...), 95.1217(a)(3), 95.1223 and 95.1225 published at 78 FR 55715, September 11, 2012 are effective... First Report and Order, FCC 12-54, published at 78 FR 55715, September 11, 2012. The OMB Control Number... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 95 Medical Body Area Networks AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION:...

  17. Cloud-assisted Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Sana; Vasilakos, Athanasios; Chao, Han-Chieh; Suzuki, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a promising technology for medical and non-medical applications. WBANs consist of a number of miniaturized, portable, and autonomous sensor nodes that are used for long-term health monitoring of patients. These sensor nodes continuously collect information of patients, which are used for ubiquitous health monitoring. In addition, WBANs may be used for managing catastrophic events and increasing the effectiveness and performance of rescue for...

  18. Reconstruction of convex bodies from surface tensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Astrid; Kiderlen, Markus

    2016-01-01

    We present two algorithms for reconstruction of the shape of convex bodies in the two-dimensional Euclidean space. The first reconstruction algorithm requires knowledge of the exact surface tensors of a convex body up to rank s for some natural number s. When only measurements subject to noise of...... surface tensors are available for reconstruction, we recommend to use certain values of the surface tensors, namely harmonic intrinsic volumes instead of the surface tensors evaluated at the standard basis. The second algorithm we present is based on harmonic intrinsic volumes and allows for noisy...

  19. Channel models for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kenichi; Aoyagi, Akahiro; Takada, Jun-Ichi; Katayama, Norihiko; Yekeh, Kamya; Takehiko, Yazdandoost; Kohno, Kobayashi Ryuji

    2008-01-01

    Wireless patient monitoring using wearable sensors is a promising application. This paper provides stochastic channel models for wireless body area network (WBAN) on the human body. Parameters of the channel models are extracted from measured channel transfer functions (CTFs) in a hospital room. Measured frequency bands are selected so as to include permissible bands for WBAN; ultra wideband (UWB), the industry, science and medical (ISM) bands, and wireless medical telemetry system (WMTS) bands. As channel models, both a path loss model and a power delay profile (PDP) model are considered. But, even though path loss models are derived for the all frequency bands, PDP model is only for the UWB band due to the highly frequency selectiveness of UWB channels. The parameters extracted from the measurement results are summarized for each channel model. PMID:19162968

  20. Body Area Network Standardization, Analysis and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Asare, Diamond

    2014-01-01

    WBAN (Wireless Body Area Network) on sisätiloissa tai ihmiskehon välittömässä läheisyydessä käytettävä lyhyen kantaman langaton tiedonsiirtotapa. Se soveltuu sekä lääketieteellisiin että ei-lääketieteellisiin sovelluksiin. Yleisimmin sitä käytetään lääketieteessä potilaan reaaliaikaisessa diagnosoinnissa. Olemassa olevat lyhyen kantaman tiedonsiirtoteknologiat, kuten Bluetooth, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), ZigBee ja Wi-Fi olisivat olleet soveltuvia teknologioita WBAN:lle. Ne ovat k...

  1. Mobile middleware for wireless body area network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Waluyo, Agustinus Borgy; Pek, Isaac; Yeoh, Wee-Soon

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible, efficient and lightweight Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) Middleware. The Middleware is developed to bridge the communication between mobile device as a gateway and the sensor nodes, and therefore it shields the underlying sensor and OS/protocol stack away from the WBAN application layer. The middleware is coded in the form of lightweight dynamic link library, which allows the application developer to simply incorporate the middleware resource dynamic link library into their application and call the required functions (i.e. data acquisition, resource management and configurations). A showcase of the middleware deployment is exhibited at the end of the paper. PMID:21096294

  2. AN EXAMPLE IN SURFACE AREA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Casper

    1969-01-01

    For length and area, a central fact is that the value of the length of a curve or the area of a surface, as given by the Lebesgue theory, is at least as great as that given by the classical formula, whenever the latter has meaning. This is now found not to be valid in higher dimensions. We give an example of a continuous mapping of the unit cube into itself for which the value given by the formula exceeds the three-dimensional Lebesgue area of the corresponding suface. PMID:16591750

  3. Reconstruction of convex bodies from surface tensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Astrid; Kiderlen, Markus

    We present two algorithms for reconstruction of the shape of convex bodies in the two-dimensional Euclidean space. The first reconstruction algorithm requires knowledge of the exact surface tensors of a convex body up to rank s for some natural number s. The second algorithm uses harmonic intrinsic...... volumes which are certain values of the surface tensors and allows for noisy measurements. From a generalized version of Wirtinger's inequality, we derive stability results that are utilized to ensure consistency of both reconstruction procedures. Consistency of the reconstruction procedure based on...

  4. Ultra wideband wireless body area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Thotahewa, Kasun Maduranga Silva; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the design of ultra wideband (UWB) technology for wireless body-area networks (WBAN).  The authors describe a novel implementation of WBAN sensor nodes that use UWB for data transmission and narrow band for data reception, enabling low power sensor nodes, with high data rate capability.  The discussion also includes power efficient, medium access control (MAC) protocol design for UWB based WBAN applications and the authors present a MAC protocol in which a guaranteed delivery mechanism is utilized to transfer data with high priority.  Readers will also benefit from this book’s feasibility analysis of the UWB technology for human implant applications through the study of electromagnetic and thermal power absorption of human tissue that is exposed to UWB signals.   • Describes hardware platform development for IR-UWB based WBAN communication; • Discusses power efficient medium access control (MAC) protocol design for IR-UWB based WBAN applications; • Includes feasibility analy...

  5. Body Area Networks performance analysis using UWB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehy, Mohammed; Kohno, Ryuji

    2013-01-01

    The successful realization of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) using Ultra Wideband (UWB) technology supports different medical and consumer electronics (CE) applications but stand in a need for an innovative solution to meet the different requirements of these applications. Previously, we proposed to use adaptive processing gain (PG) to fulfill the different QoS requirements of these WBAN applications. In this paper, interference occurred between two different BANs in a UWB-based system has been analyzed in terms of acceptable ratio of overlapping between these BANs' PG providing the required QoS for each BAN. The first BAN employed for a healthcare device (e.g. EEG, ECG, etc.) with a relatively longer spreading sequence is used and the second customized for entertainment application (e.g. wireless headset, wireless game pad, etc.) where a shorter spreading code is assigned. Considering bandwidth utilization and difference in the employed spreading sequence, the acceptable ratio of overlapping between these BANs should fall between 0.05 and 0.5 in order to optimize the used spreading sequence and in the meantime satisfying the required QoS for these applications. PMID:24109913

  6. A supramodal representation of the body surface

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, F.; Longo, Matthew R.; Iannetti, G.D.; Haggard, P.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to accurately localize both tactile and painful sensations on the body is one of the most important functions of the somatosensory system. Most accounts of localization refer to the systematic spatial relation between skin receptors and cortical neurons. The topographic organization of somatosensory neurons in the brain provides a map of the sensory surface. However, systematic distortions in perceptual localization tasks suggest that localizing a somatosensory stimulus involves m...

  7. Realistic Simulation for Body Area and Body-To-Body Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes; Ben Arbia, Dhafer; Maman, Mickael; Mani, Francesco; Denis, Benoit; D'Errico, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an accurate and realistic simulation for body area networks (BAN) and body-to-body networks (BBN) using deterministic and semi-deterministic approaches. First, in the semi-deterministic approach, a real-time measurement campaign is performed, which is further characterized through statistical analysis. It is able to generate link-correlated and time-varying realistic traces (i.e., with consistent mobility patterns) for on-body and body-to-body shadowing and fading, including body orientations and rotations, by means of stochastic channel models. The full deterministic approach is particularly targeted to enhance IEEE 802.15.6 proposed channel models by introducing space and time variations (i.e., dynamic distances) through biomechanical modeling. In addition, it helps to accurately model the radio link by identifying the link types and corresponding path loss factors for line of sight (LOS) and non-line of sight (NLOS). This approach is particularly important for links that vary over time due to mobility. It is also important to add that the communication and protocol stack, including the physical (PHY), medium access control (MAC) and networking models, is developed for BAN and BBN, and the IEEE 802.15.6 compliance standard is provided as a benchmark for future research works of the community. Finally, the two approaches are compared in terms of the successful packet delivery ratio, packet delay and energy efficiency. The results show that the semi-deterministic approach is the best option; however, for the diversity of the mobility patterns and scenarios applicable, biomechanical modeling and the deterministic approach are better choices. PMID:27104537

  8. Realistic Simulation for Body Area and Body-To-Body Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes; Ben Arbia, Dhafer; Maman, Mickael; Mani, Francesco; Denis, Benoit; D’Errico, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an accurate and realistic simulation for body area networks (BAN) and body-to-body networks (BBN) using deterministic and semi-deterministic approaches. First, in the semi-deterministic approach, a real-time measurement campaign is performed, which is further characterized through statistical analysis. It is able to generate link-correlated and time-varying realistic traces (i.e., with consistent mobility patterns) for on-body and body-to-body shadowing and fading, including body orientations and rotations, by means of stochastic channel models. The full deterministic approach is particularly targeted to enhance IEEE 802.15.6 proposed channel models by introducing space and time variations (i.e., dynamic distances) through biomechanical modeling. In addition, it helps to accurately model the radio link by identifying the link types and corresponding path loss factors for line of sight (LOS) and non-line of sight (NLOS). This approach is particularly important for links that vary over time due to mobility. It is also important to add that the communication and protocol stack, including the physical (PHY), medium access control (MAC) and networking models, is developed for BAN and BBN, and the IEEE 802.15.6 compliance standard is provided as a benchmark for future research works of the community. Finally, the two approaches are compared in terms of the successful packet delivery ratio, packet delay and energy efficiency. The results show that the semi-deterministic approach is the best option; however, for the diversity of the mobility patterns and scenarios applicable, biomechanical modeling and the deterministic approach are better choices. PMID:27104537

  9. Cleaning Dirty Surfaces: A Three-Body Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoehr, Bastian; Hall, Colin; Evans, Drew; Murphy, Peter

    2016-07-20

    Human interaction with touch screens requires physical touch and hence results in contamination of these surfaces, resulting in the necessity of cleaning. In this study we discuss the three bodies of this problem and how each component contributes and can be controlled. Utilizing a standard fingerprint machine and a standard cleanability test, this study examines the influence of parameters such as the wiping speed and pressure, the material and surface area of the cloths, and the surface energy of the contaminated surfaces. It was shown that fingerprint contamination undergoes shear banding and hence is not easily removed. The degree of material removal depends on the position of the shear plane, which is influenced by surface energies and shear rates. PMID:27351355

  10. A system and method for imaging body areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goethals, F.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a system for imaging one or more external human body areas comprising a photographic device configured to acquire, store and output an image or images of the one or more body areas. The invention also relates to a method for determining a probable disease state of an externa

  11. Downscaling MODIS Surface Reflectance to Improve Water Body Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghong Che

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inland surface water is essential to terrestrial ecosystems and human civilization. Accurate mapping of surface water dynamic is vital for both scientific research and policy-driven applications. MODIS provides twice observation per day, making it perfect for monitoring temporal water dynamic. Although MODIS provides two bands at 250 m resolution, accurately deriving water area always depends on observations from the spectral bands with 500 m resolution, which limits its discrimination ability over small lakes and rivers. The paper presents an automated method for downscaling the 500 m MODIS surface reflectance (SR to 250 m to improve the spatial discrimination of water body extraction. The method has been tested at Co Ngoin and Co Bangkog in Qinghai-Tibet plateau. The downscaled SR and the derived water bodies were compared to SR and water body mapped from Landsat-7 ETM+ images were acquired on the same date. Consistency metrics were calculated to measure their agreement and disagreement. The comparisons indicated that the downscaled MODIS SR showed significant improvement over the original 500 m observations when compared with Landsat-7 ETM+ SR, and both commission and omission errors were reduced in the derived 250 m water bodies.

  12. Antennas, Wave Propagation, and Localization in Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    A network of communicating wireless devices that are implantable, wearable or within close proximity of a human body is called wireless body area network (WBAN). The propagation channels for the devices in the WBAN are either through the body or over the body. This results in the attenuation and the absorption of electromagnetic waves radiated by the antenna of these devices due to the lossy tissues of the body. With a proper antenna and knowledge of the signal loss between the devices in the...

  13. TECHNOLOGICAL POSSIBILITIES OF CONTACTLESS MEASURING THE BODY SURFACE TEMPERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Kateřina Švejdová; Miloslav Šoch; Anna Šimková; Luboš Zábranský; Luboš Smutný; Šárka Smutná; Bohuslav Čermák

    2013-01-01

    The regular measuring of the body surface temperature can help to evaluate health condition of animals and react immediately on the first symptoms of illness. There are many of technological possibilities of contactless measuring the body surface temperature. It is important to find the right part of the body which the temperature will show the first possible symptoms of illness. This experiment with dairy cows and heifers was realized at the farm in Petrovice. The body surface temperature an...

  14. Analytical model of human body in area influenced by superhigh voltage overhead lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafaev, R.I.; Krutko, E.G.

    1985-05-01

    A new model for the human body is proposed that makes it possible, employing the smallest possible number of fictitious charges, to perform biomedical research, by establishing the current distribution in the human body analytically, and also to determine the induced leakage potentials and currents in the system consisting of a superhigh voltage overhead line, a human body, and grounded or ungrounded objects. The proposed model reflects the real shape and surface area of the human body with sufficient accuracy, and can be used to calculate the total leakage current through the legs of grounded body to within 5%. The displacement current can be found to within 15%.

  15. Cutaneous Anthrax in an Unestimated Area of Body

    OpenAIRE

    Guclu, Ertugrul; Tuna, Nazan; Karabay, Oguz

    2012-01-01

    Ertugrul Guclu, Nazan Tuna, Oguz Karabay Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. cutaneous anthrax is the most commonly seen form of anthrax. Skin lesions usually occur on the most exposed areas of the body, such as the face, neck, hand or upper extremity. The aim of this paper is to report a case of cutaneous anthrax form which was occurred on an unexpected area of the body of a slaughter-house worker.

  16. Right to Left Ventricular Diameter Ratio ≥0.42 is the Warning Flag for Suspecting Atrial Septal Defect in Preschool Children: Age- and Body Surface Area-Related Reference Values Determined by M-Mode Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ikuo; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Ichida, Fukiko

    2016-04-01

    It is not always easy to observe and screen atrial septal defects (ASD) using echocardiography. In addition, there are no established echocardiographic reference indices for screening patients with ASDs. We retrospectively reviewed our database and recruited 151 isolated ASD patients and 2769 healthy subjects. In total, 307 echocardiographic studies were performed for ASD patients. Surgical repairs were done in 75 of the ASD patients. The ratio of right to left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions (RVD/LVD), which was determined by M-mode echocardiography, was used as an index of RV dilatation. After obtaining age- and body surface area (BSA)-related RVD/LVD nomograms in healthy subjects, we calculated the z-scores of RVD/LVD for all subjects and obtained the optimal cut-off values to differentiate patients with ASD from healthy subjects. The optimal cut-off values were high in neonates and gradually decreased with an increase in the age and BSA, but were almost constant in children aged >4 years or whose BSA was >0.65 m(2). The cut-off values of RVD/LVD for suspected ASD were ≥0.42 in children aged >4 years or those whose BSA was >0.65 m(2). Those for an ASD operation were ≥0.46 in those whose BSA > 0.65 m(2). The RVD/LVD determined by M-mode echocardiography is a useful index to evaluate RV dilatation in patients with ASDs. The RVD/LVD ≥ 0.42 is the warning flag for suspecting ASD in preschool children and that ≥0.46 may be a clinical important sign to determine ASD operation. PMID:26700967

  17. Body surface area adapted iopromide 300 mg/ml versus 370 mg/ml contrast medium injection protocol: Influence on quantitative and clinical assessment in combined PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the quantitative and qualitative differences between combined positron emission tomography and computed X-ray tomography (PET/CT) enhanced with contrast medium with either an iodine concentration 300 mg/ml or 370 mg/ml. Materials and methods: 120 consecutive patients scheduled for F-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT were included. The first (second) 60 patients received contrast medium with 300 (370) mg iodine/ml. Intravenous injection protocols were adapted for an identical iodine delivery rate (1.3 mg/s) and body surface area (BSA) adapted iodine dose (22.26 g I/m2). Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax; SUVmean) and contrast enhancement (HU) were determined in the ascending aorta, the abdominal aorta, the inferior vena cava, the portal vein, the liver and the right kidney in the venous contrast medium phase. PET data were evaluated visually for the presence of malignancy and image quality. Results: Both media caused significantly higher values for HU, SUVmean and SUVmax for the enhanced PET/CT than the non-enhanced one (all p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the degree of increase of HU, SUVmean and SUVmax between the two contrast media at any anatomic site (all p > 0.05). Visual evaluation of lesions showed no differences between contrast and non-contrast PET/CT or between the two different contrast media (p = 0.77). Conclusion: When using a constant iodine delivery rate and total iodine dose in a BSA adapted injection protocol, there are no quantitative or qualitative differences in either CT or PET between contrast media with an iodine concentration of 300 mg/ml and 370 mg/ml, respectively

  18. Body surface area adapted iopromide 300 mg/ml versus 370 mg/ml contrast medium injection protocol: Influence on quantitative and clinical assessment in combined PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Frederik A., E-mail: fverburg@ukaachen.de [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht (Netherlands); Apitzsch, Jonas [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Lensing, Carina [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kuhl, Christiane K. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Pietsch, Hubertus [Bayer Pharma AG, Müllerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Mottaghy, Felix M. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht (Netherlands); Behrendt, Florian F. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate the quantitative and qualitative differences between combined positron emission tomography and computed X-ray tomography (PET/CT) enhanced with contrast medium with either an iodine concentration 300 mg/ml or 370 mg/ml. Materials and methods: 120 consecutive patients scheduled for F-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT were included. The first (second) 60 patients received contrast medium with 300 (370) mg iodine/ml. Intravenous injection protocols were adapted for an identical iodine delivery rate (1.3 mg/s) and body surface area (BSA) adapted iodine dose (22.26 g I/m{sup 2}). Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}; SUV{sub mean}) and contrast enhancement (HU) were determined in the ascending aorta, the abdominal aorta, the inferior vena cava, the portal vein, the liver and the right kidney in the venous contrast medium phase. PET data were evaluated visually for the presence of malignancy and image quality. Results: Both media caused significantly higher values for HU, SUV{sub mean} and SUV{sub max} for the enhanced PET/CT than the non-enhanced one (all p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the degree of increase of HU, SUV{sub mean} and SUV{sub max} between the two contrast media at any anatomic site (all p > 0.05). Visual evaluation of lesions showed no differences between contrast and non-contrast PET/CT or between the two different contrast media (p = 0.77). Conclusion: When using a constant iodine delivery rate and total iodine dose in a BSA adapted injection protocol, there are no quantitative or qualitative differences in either CT or PET between contrast media with an iodine concentration of 300 mg/ml and 370 mg/ml, respectively.

  19. Experimental Characterization of a UWB Channel for Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Lingli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrawideband (UWB communication is a promising technology for wireless body area networks (BANs, especially for applications that require transmission of both low and high data rates with excellent energy efficiency. Therefore, understanding the unique UWB channel propagation characteristics around the human body is critical for a successful wireless system, especially for insuring the reliability of important vital sign data. Previous work has focused only on on-body channels, where both TX and RX antennas are located on the human body. In this paper, a 3–5 GHz UWB channel is measured and analyzed for human body wireless communications. Beyond the conventional on-body channel model, line-of-sight (LOS and non-line-of-sight (NLOS channel models are obtained using a TX antenna placed at various locations of the human body while the RX antenna is placed away from the human body. Measurement results indicate that the human body does not significantly degrade the impedance of a monopole omnidirectional antenna. The measured path loss and multipath analysis suggest that a LOS UWB channel is excellent for low-power, high-data-rate transmission, while NLOS and on-body channels need to be reconfigured to operate at a lower data rate due to high path loss.

  20. Coexistence and Interference Mitigation for Wireless Body Area Networks: Improvements using On-Body Opportunistic Relaying

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Jie; SMITH, DAVID

    2013-01-01

    Coexistence, and hence interference mitigation, across multiple wireless body area networks (WBANs) is an important problem as WBANs become more pervasive. Here, two-hop relay-assisted cooperative communications using opportunistic relaying (OR) is proposed for enhancement of coexistence for WBANs. Suitable time division multiple access (TDMA) schemes are employed for both intra-WBAN and inter-WBANs access protocols. To emulate actual conditions of WBAN use, extensive on-body and inter-body "...

  1. Estimating the surface area of birds: using the homing pigeon (Columba livia as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina R. Perez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of the surface area of the avian body is valuable for thermoregulation and metabolism studies as well as for assessing exposure to oil and other surface-active organic pollutants from a spill. The use of frozen carcasses for surface area estimations prevents the ability to modify the posture of the bird. The surface area of six live homing pigeons in the fully extended flight position was estimated using a noninvasive method. An equation was derived to estimate the total surface area of a pigeon based on its body weight. A pigeon's surface area in the fully extended flight position is approximately 4 times larger than the surface area of a pigeon in the perching position. The surface area of a bird is dependent on its physical position, and, therefore, the fully extended flight position exhibits the maximum area of a bird and should be considered the true surface area of a bird.

  2. Nondestructive, stereological estimation of canopy surface area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Sciortino, Marco; Aaslyng, Jesper M.; García-Fiñana, Marta

    2010-01-01

    We describe a stereological procedure to estimate the total leaf surface area of a plant canopy in vivo, and address the problem of how to predict the variance of the corresponding estimator. The procedure involves three nested systematic uniform random sampling stages: (i) selection of plants from...... a canopy using the smooth fractionator, (ii) sampling of leaves from the selected plants using the fractionator, and (iii) area estimation of the sampled leaves using point counting. We apply this procedure to estimate the total area of a chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium L.) canopy and...... counting is high. Using a grid intensity of 1.76 cm2/point we estimated plant and canopy surface areas with accuracies similar to or better than those obtained using image analysis and a commercial leaf area meter. For canopy surface areas of approximately 1 m2 (10 plants), the fractionator leaf approach...

  3. A Biometric Key Establishment Protocol for Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Yao; Bing Liu; Guowei Wu; Kai Yao; Jia Wang

    2011-01-01

    Current advances in semiconductor technology have made it possible to implant a network of biosensors inside the human body for health monitoring. In the context of a body area network (BAN), the confidentiality and integrity of the sensitive health information is particularly important. In this paper, we present an ECG (electrocardiogram)-signal-based key establishment protocol to secure the communication between every sensor and the control unit before the physiological data are transferred...

  4. Directional MAC Approach for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Asdaque Hussain; Md. Nasre Alam; Kyung Sup Kwak

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) designed for medical, sports, and entertainment applications, have drawn the attention of academia and industry alike. A WBAN is a special purpose network, designed to operate autonomously to connect various medical sensors and appliances, located inside and/or outside of a human body. This network enables physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real time feedback for medical diagnosis and consultations. The WBAN system can offer ...

  5. Performance Analysis of Traffic Sensitive Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    ÇALHAN, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The cooperation of micro-electronics, wireless communications, integrated circuits and sensor networks have led to rise of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). The aim of WBANs is to keep a human body under control by means of a set of small-size, lightweight, and low-power sensor nodes placed in, on, or around the human body. The WBANs are also used in a number of new applications namely health monitoring, entertainment, sports, and military applications. The sensor nodes in WBANs have limit...

  6. The Development & Implementation of Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Madhumita Dash

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : The increasing use of wireless networks and the constant miniaturization of electrical devices has empowered the development of Wireless Body Area Net-works . Wireless Body Area Network is a system of devices in close proximity to a person’s body that cooperate for the benefit of the user where various sensors are attached on clothing or on the body or even implanted under the skin. This paper shows several uses of the BAN technology and the most obvious application of a BAN is in the medical sector, however there are also more recreational uses to BANs. Using a WBAN, the patient experiences a greater physical mobility and is no longer compelled to stay in the hospital. This paper offers a survey of the concept of Wireless Body Area Networks. As WBANs are placed on the human body and often transport private data, security is also considered. This paper will discuss the technologies surrounding BANs, as well as several common applications for BANs.

  7. Surface Packages for Geophysical Exploration of Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeres, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The geophysical exploration of small rubble pile bodies is fundamentally important for understanding the mechanics of gravitationally bound aggregates. The mechanical and geotechnical properties of these bodies are not understood from an experimental perspective, and have only been studied theoretically and using numerical simulations. To carry out experiments in this environment requires the development and deployment of surface packages to the body surface to enable physical interactions and measurements. This talk will discuss how such experiments can be developed and used in the small body environment. It will particularly focuse on one approach that uses a combination of surface seismic sources and probes to measure the seismic properties of a rubble pile. The small body dynamical environment is particularly well suited for the deployment of such surface packages for exploration and scientific measurement purposes. This is mainly due to their meager gravity fields, which allow the delivery of complex instruments to the surface with impact speeds that are at most a meter per second — equivalent to dropping an object from less than a 5 cm height on Earth. Despite this seeming advantage, the delivery and mobility of such packages on the surface of a small body remains a challenging endeavor, and to date the delivery of surface packages to small bodies has had a mixed success rate. Issues that must be accounted for include the delivery trajectories for probes to the surface, motion on the surface of a small body, and interactions between a probe and a small body surface. Studies of all of these issues both theoretically and experimentally will be presented, along with proposed applications to achieve scientific goals on the surfaces of small bodies.

  8. Surface thermodynamics, surface stress, equations at surfaces and triple lines for deformable bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermodynamics and mechanics of the surface of a deformable body are studied here, following and refining the general approach of Gibbs. It is first shown that the 'local' thermodynamic variables of the state of the surface are only the temperature, the chemical potentials and the surface strain tensor (true thermodynamic variables, for a viscoelastic solid or a viscous fluid). A new definition of the surface stress is given and the corresponding surface thermodynamics equations are presented. The mechanical equilibrium equation at the surface is then obtained. It involves the surface stress and is similar to the Cauchy equation for the volume. Its normal component is a generalization of the Laplace equation. At a (body-fluid-fluid) triple contact line, two equations are obtained, which represent: (i) the equilibrium of the forces (surface stresses) for a triple line fixed on the body; (ii) the equilibrium relative to the motion of the line with respect to the body. This last equation leads to a strong modification of Young's classical capillary equation.

  9. Reading the Surface: Body Language and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Andrejevic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role played by body language in recent examples of popular culture and political news coverage as a means of highlighting the poten-tially deceptive haracter of speech and promising to bypass it altogether. It situ-ates the promise of "visceral literacy" - the alleged ability to read inner emotions and dispositions - within emerging surveillance practices and the landscapes of risk they navigate. At the same time, it describes portrayals of body language analysis as characteristic of an emerging genre of "securitainment" that instructs viewers in monitoring techniques as it entertains and informs them. Body lan-guage ends up caught in the symbolic impasse it sought to avoid: as soon as it is portrayed as a language that can be learned and consciously "spoken" it falls prey to the potential for deceit. The article's conclusion considers the way in which emerging technologies attempt to address this impasse, bypassing the attempt to infer underlying signification altogether.

  10. A Review of Wireless Body Area Networks for Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Ullah, Niamat; Saleem, Shahnaz; Higgins, Henry; Kwak, Kyung Sup; 10.4236/ijcns.2009.28093

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology, integrated circuits, and wire-less communication have allowed the realization of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). WBANs promise unobtrusive ambulatory health monitoring for a long period of time, and provide real-time updates of the patients status to the physician. They are widely used for ubiquitous healthcare, entertainment, and military applications. This paper reviews the key aspects of WBANs for numerous applications. We present a WBAN infrastructure that provides solutions to on-demand, emergency, and normal traffic. We further discuss in-body antenna design and low-power MAC protocol for a WBAN. In addition, we briefly outline some of the WBAN applications with examples. Our discussion realizes a need for new power-efficient solutions towards in-body and on-body sensor networks.

  11. Semantic Interoperability in Body Area Sensor Networks and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, V.T.; Brandt, P.; Liu, H.; Basten, T.; Lukkien, J.

    2014-01-01

    Crucial to the success of Body Area Sensor Networks is the flexibility with which stakeholders can share, extend and adapt the system with respect to sensors, data and functionality. The first step is to develop an interoperable platform with explicit interfaces, which takes care of common managemen

  12. Cell Surface Receptor Theory of Disease Infectivity; Body's Defence and Normal Body Functioning in Living Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utoh-Nedosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A study of the pattern of Candida spp. infection of the human body and the mode and pattern of reaction of the human body to this infection showed that disease infectivity and self healing by plants followed the same procedures and patterns. Approach: A comparism of these procedures and patterns of natural self- healing of disease infection by the human body and plants/plant parts with the cutaneous Candida spp. killing and elimination procedures and patterns of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract, showed that cell surface receptors are the sites through which disease infects the body and also the sites at which the body is defended. They are also the sites where activities which result in normal body functioning are carried out. The mode and patterns of Cutaneous Candida infection in a human subject and its containment by the body was examined and photographed. The disease infection and self healing procedures and patterns of plants were also examined in comparism with those of their healthy counterparts and photographed. The findings from the observations on disease infectivity and natural body’s defence patterns and procedures of the plant parts studied and those of the human body in reaction to Candida spp. infection were compared with those of the Candida spp. killing procedures and patterns of aqueous and Arachis hypogeal oil extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaf. Results: The findings of this study also showed that disease-infective organisms gain access to the body of a host through attachment to the cell surface receptors of that host which are placed linearly and are interconnected by channels. The results of the study also indicated that living organisms have a main endogenous substance that mediates both their body’s defence and their normal physiological functioning which is therefore the owner of the cell surface receptor. Other endogenous substances which participate in normal body functioning/body’s defence or in

  13. Emerging Trends in Healthcare Adoption of Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Real-time personal health monitoring is gaining new ground with advances in wireless communications. Wireless body area networks (WBANs) provide a means for low-powered sensors, affixed either on the human body or in vivo, to communicate with each other and with external telecommunication networks. The healthcare benefits of WBANs include continuous monitoring of patient vitals, measuring postacute rehabilitation time, and improving quality of medical care provided in medical emergencies. This study sought to examine emerging trends in WBAN adoption in healthcare. To that end, a systematic literature survey was undertaken against the PubMed database. The search criteria focused on peer-reviewed articles that contained the keywords "wireless body area network" and "healthcare" or "wireless body area network" and "health care." A comprehensive review of these articles was performed to identify adoption dimensions, including underlying technology framework, healthcare subdomain, and applicable lessons-learned. This article benefits healthcare technology professionals by identifying gaps in implementation of current technology and highlighting opportunities for improving products and services. PMID:27413830

  14. Division of Icy Bodies into Groups Based on Surface Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Rabinowitz, D. L.; Tourtellottte, S. W.

    2008-09-01

    We propose the division of the icy bodies in the outer Solar System into five groups based on their surface properties. This division can be equivalently made by three definitions involving: size/orbit/color; measured surface properties; the physical mechanisms that reprocess the surfaces. Our first group is the Small/Red bodies (including the red Centaurs, Kuiper Belt Objects, and Scattered Disk Objects) which are 1.5 mag. These surfaces all have albedo history leaving only their original rocky material to cover the surface. Our third group is the Intermediate bodies (Quaoar, Orcus, and Charon) with diameters 800-1400 km. Their surfaces have lost some of the volatile ices (methane and nitrogen in particular) to Jeans escape, while the remaining ices contain ammonia and crystalline water ice with some cryovolcanism. Our fourth group is the Large bodies (Pluto, Eris, Sedna, Triton, and 2005 FY9) with diameters >1400; km. These bodies are large enough to support active cryovolcanism plus seasonal frost formation/sublimation and are large enough so that the methane and nitrogen ices dominate because they have not been lost to Jeans escape. Our fifth group is the Collisional bodies (including the 2003 EL61 collisional family) which all have similar orbits. Their surfaces all have very neutral colors, low opposition surges, and relatively high albedos, because the volatile ices were all lost during the collision leaving a young surface with only water ice.

  15. Monitoring System for ALICE Surface Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Demirbasci, Oguz

    2016-01-01

    I have been at CERN for 12 weeks within the scope of Summer Student Programme working on a monitoring system project for surface areas of the ALICE experiment during this period of time. The development and implementation of a monitoring system for environmental parameters in the accessible areas where a cheap hardware setup can be deployed were aim of this project. This report explains how it was developed by using Arduino, Raspberry PI, WinCC OA and DIM protocol.

  16. SURFACE WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN PRAHOVA AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CASEN PANAITESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To achieve an appropriate management strategy was monitored surface water quality in the county of Prahova. In this regard were determinate major physical and chemical indicators: pH, BOD5, COD, nitrates, nitrites, and suspended solids. Depending on the value of the data obtained was identified water quality classes corresponding to each surface water body studied. The correlation values obtained with the best solutions for water service and maintenance of water courses is a management plan for surface water in the county of Prahova. The novelty of the paper consists of study of water resources in the county and not in the Basin as is done at present by the Romanian Waters National Administration

  17. Performance Analysis of Traffic Sensitive Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Çalhan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The cooperation of micro-electronics, wireless communications, integrated circuits and sensor networks have led to rise of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs. The aim of WBANs is to keep a human body under control by means of a set of small-size, lightweight, and low-power sensor nodes placed in, on, or around the human body. The WBANs are also used in a number of new applications namely health monitoring, entertainment, sports, and military applications. The sensor nodes in WBANs have limited energy resources as a result of communicating with each other wirelessly. Therefore, the medium access control protocols for WBANs must be energy efficient protocols. Also, WBAN’s importance of having the different data traffics has increased determination of operation sequence at the coordinator nodes. In this study, data traffic sensitive WBAN is proposed. End to end delay and throughput results are examined for performance evaluation.

  18. Surface area estimation: pocket calculator v nomogram.

    OpenAIRE

    Briars, G L; Bailey, B J

    1994-01-01

    Three sheets of 10 surface area determinations were completed by 10 subjects using a nomogram and a formula. The formula was faster to calculate, 4.27 v 7.6 minutes for each sheet, and resulted in fewer serious errors (three v 30 errors).

  19. Exercise body surface mapping in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in patients with electrocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), including ST·T changes, body surface maps (QRST area maps) were recorded using 87 lead points before and after exercise. The patterns of the subtraction QRST area maps (S-maps) were compared with the findings of stress thallium (Tl) scans in 31 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and in five with essential hypertension. All 18 patients whose S-maps revealed changes less than -40 μVS or only an increase over the anterior chest region showed no positive findings on the stress Tl scans. However, there were clearly positive findings on stress Tl scans in eight (89%) of nine patients whose S-maps revealed changes greater than -40 μVS over a wide precordial region or in six (67%) of nine patients whose S-maps revealed increases over the anterior chest region and had accompanying changes greater than -40 μVS somewhere over the precordial region. These results suggested that exercise QRST area maps could differentiate exercise-induced myocardial ischemia from LVH with ST·T changes. (author)

  20. Improving the reliability of wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrobo, Gabriel E; Gitlin, Richard D

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a highly reliable wireless body area network (WBAN) that provides increased throughput and avoids single points of failure. Such networks improve upon current WBANs by taking advantage of a new technology, Cooperative Network Coding (CNC). Using CNC in wireless body area network to support real-time applications is an attractive solution to combat packet loss, reduce latency due to retransmissions, avoid single points of failure, and improve the probability of successful recovery of the information at the destination. In this paper, we have extended Cooperative Network Coding, from its original configuration (one-to-one) to many-to-many as in multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems. Cooperative Network Coding results in increased throughput and network reliability because of the cooperation of the nodes in transmitting coded combination packets across spatially distinct paths to the information sinks. PMID:22254774

  1. PROPOSED TRANSPORT PROTOCOLS SUITE FOR WIRELESS MEDICAL BODY AREA NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Sotirios Kontogiannis; George Kokkonis; Stavros Valsamidis

    2016-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) is the recent trend for localized and personalized medical services. For that purpose, several tele-medicine architectures and WBAN frameworks for patient monitoring have been proposed. This paper presents a new medical protocol MESETP (Medical Services Transport Protocol), that underlies data delivery for both real-time and non real-time medical services. Furthermore, performance tests of MESETP with existing real time protocols and non real-...

  2. Unobstructive Body Area Networks (BAN) for Efficient Movement Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    António Pereira; Florentino Fdez-Riverola; Filipe Felisberto; Nuno Costa

    2012-01-01

    The technological advances in medical sensors, low-power microelectronics and miniaturization, wireless communications and networks have enabled the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks: the so-called wireless body area networks (WBAN). These networks can be used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment. The data gathered by these networks contributes to improve users’ quality of life and allows the creation of a knowledge ...

  3. Opportunistic Relaying in Wireless Body Area Networks: Coexistence Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Jie; SMITH, DAVID

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a cooperative two-hop communication scheme, together with opportunistic relaying (OR), is applied within a mobile wireless body area network (WBAN). Its effectiveness in interference mitigation is investigated in a scenario where there are multiple closely-located networks. Due to a typical WBAN's nature, no coordination is used among different WBANs. A suitable time-division-multiple-access (TDMA) is adopted as both an intra-network and also an inter-network access scheme. Ext...

  4. Wireless Body Area Networks for Healthcare: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth V. Crosby

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless body area networks (WBANs are emerging as important networks, applicable in various fields. This paper surveys the WBANs that are designed for applications in healthcare. We present a comprehensive survey consisting of stand-alone sections focusing on important aspects of WBANs. We examine the following: monitoring and sensing, power efficient protocols, system architectures, routing and security. We conclude by discussing some open research issues, their potential solutions and future trends.

  5. Wireless Body Area Networks for Healthcare Applications: Protocol Stack Review

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Filipe; Florentino Fdez-Riverola; Nuno Costa; António Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) supporting healthcare applications are in early development stage but offer valuable contributions at monitoring, diagnostic, or therapeutic levels. They cover real-time medical information gathering obtained from different sensors with secure data communication and low power consumption. As a consequence of the increasing interest in the application of this type of networks, several articles dealing with different aspects of such systems have been publishe...

  6. A Review of Wireless Body Area Networks for Medical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology, integrated circuits, and wireless communication have allowed the realization of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). WBANs promise unobtrusive ambulatory health monitoring for a long period of time and provide real-time updates of the patient's status to the physician. They are widely used for ubiquitous healthcare, entertainment, and military applications. This paper reviews the key aspects of WBANs for numerous applicati...

  7. Adaptive Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, N.; Ahmad, A.; A. Rahim; Z.A. Khan; M. Ishfaq; Qasim, U.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are widely used for applications such as modern health-care systems, where wireless sensors (nodes) monitor the parameter(s) of interest. Nodes are provided with limited battery power and battery power is dependent on radio activity. MAC protocols play a key role in controlling the radio activity. Therefore, we present Adaptive Medium Access Control (A-MAC) protocol for WBANs supported by linear programming models for the minimization of energy consumption ...

  8. Wireless body area networks technology, implementation, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yuce, Mehmet R

    2011-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive overview for the latest WBAN systems, technologies, and applications. The chapters of the book have been written by various specialists who are experts in their areas of research and practice. The book starts with the basic techniques involved in designing and building WBAN systems. It explains the deployment issues and then moves into the application areas of WBAN. The remaining chapters focus on the development of hardware, signal processing algorithms, and wireless communication and network design for wearable and implantable body sensors used in WBAN appli

  9. Cutaneous anthrax on an unexpected area of body

    OpenAIRE

    Ertuğrul Güçlü; Nazan Tuna; Oğuz Karabay

    2012-01-01

    Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. Cutaneous anthrax is the most commonly seen form of anthrax.Skin lesions usually occur on the most exposed areas of the body, such as the face, neck, hand or upper extremity.The aim of this paper is to report a case of cutaneous anthrax form which was occurred on an unexpected area of thebody of a slaughter-house worker. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012;2(4): 163-164Key words: Anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, cutaneous

  10. Ultra low power transceiver for wireless body area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Masuch, Jens

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the design of ultra low power transceivers for body area networks.  Since these applications have very limited energy resources, typically powered only by tiny batteries or through energy harvesting techniques, this book describes an architecture for a Bluetooth low energy transceiver to overcome these limitations. Coverage includes not only the main concepts for achieving low power consumption, but also the details of the circuit design and its implementation in a standard CMOS technology.     ·         Guides readers through the design of ultra low power transceivers for body area networks, from architecture to circuit-level implementation; ·         Describes 4 key strategies for ultra-low power transceiver design and specific, innovative techniques for circuit-level design; ·         Enables readers to design transceivers for body area networks that are 27% more energy efficient than those currently available; ·         Includes a review of the st...

  11. Comment on 'Surface thermodynamics, surface stress, equations at surfaces and triple lines for deformable bodies'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a recent publication by Olives (2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 085005) he studied 'the thermodynamics and mechanics of the surface of a deformable body, following and refining the general approach of Gibbs' and believed that 'a new definition of the surface stress is given'. However, using the usual way of deriving the equations of Gibbs-Duhem type the author, nevertheless, has fallen into a mathematical discrepancy because he has tried to unite in one equation different thermodynamic systems and 'a new definition of the surface stress' has appeared known in the usual theory of elasticity. (comment)

  12. Estimating the surface area of birds: using the homing pigeon (Columba livia) as a model

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina R. Perez; Moye, John K.; Chris A. Pritsos

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Estimation of the surface area of the avian body is valuable for thermoregulation and metabolism studies as well as for assessing exposure to oil and other surface-active organic pollutants from a spill. The use of frozen carcasses for surface area estimations prevents the ability to modify the posture of the bird. The surface area of six live homing pigeons in the fully extended flight position was estimated using a noninvasive method. An equation was derived to estimate the total s...

  13. Surface Motion Relative to the Irregular Celestial Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yu; Baoyin, Hexi

    2016-01-01

    We study the motion and equilibria of the grains on the surface of the irregular celestial body (hereafter called irregular bodies). Motions for the grains on the smooth and unsmooth surfaces are discussed, respectively. The linearized equations of motion relative to a surface equilibrium point and its characteristic equations are presented. Considering the stick-slip effect, the damping forces and the spring forces for the grain are calculated, then the linearized equations of motion and the characteristic equations relative to the surface equilibrium points are derived. The number of non-degenerate surface equilibria is an even number. We compute the motion of a grain released above three different regions relative to the irregular asteroid 6489 Golevka, including the flat surface, the concave region, and the convex region. Following the grain release and initial bounce, three kinds of motions exist, the orbital motion, the impact motion and the surface motion. We find that the maximum height of the next ho...

  14. Reconstruction of n-dimensional convex bodies from surface tensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Astrid

    In this paper, we derive uniqueness and stability results for surface tensors. Further, we develop two algorithms that reconstruct shape of n-dimensional convex bodies. One algorithm requires knowledge of a finite number of surface tensors, whereas the other algorithm is based on noisy measurements...

  15. Unobstructive Body Area Networks (BAN for Efficient Movement Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The technological advances in medical sensors, low-power microelectronics and miniaturization, wireless communications and networks have enabled the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks: the so-called wireless body area networks (WBAN. These networks can be used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment. The data gathered by these networks contributes to improve users’ quality of life and allows the creation of a knowledge database by using learning techniques, useful to infer abnormal behaviour. In this paper we present a wireless body area network architecture to recognize human movement, identify human postures and detect harmful activities in order to prevent risk situations. The WBAN was created using tiny, cheap and low-power nodes with inertial and physiological sensors, strategically placed on the human body. Doing so, in an as ubiquitous as possible way, ensures that its impact on the users’ daily actions is minimum. The information collected by these sensors is transmitted to a central server capable of analysing and processing their data. The proposed system creates movement profiles based on the data sent by the WBAN’s nodes, and is able to detect in real time any abnormal movement and allows for a monitored rehabilitation of the user.

  16. Unobstructive Body Area Networks (BAN) for efficient movement monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felisberto, Filipe; Costa, Nuno; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Pereira, António

    2012-01-01

    The technological advances in medical sensors, low-power microelectronics and miniaturization, wireless communications and networks have enabled the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks: the so-called wireless body area networks (WBAN). These networks can be used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment. The data gathered by these networks contributes to improve users' quality of life and allows the creation of a knowledge database by using learning techniques, useful to infer abnormal behaviour. In this paper we present a wireless body area network architecture to recognize human movement, identify human postures and detect harmful activities in order to prevent risk situations. The WBAN was created using tiny, cheap and low-power nodes with inertial and physiological sensors, strategically placed on the human body. Doing so, in an as ubiquitous as possible way, ensures that its impact on the users' daily actions is minimum. The information collected by these sensors is transmitted to a central server capable of analysing and processing their data. The proposed system creates movement profiles based on the data sent by the WBAN's nodes, and is able to detect in real time any abnormal movement and allows for a monitored rehabilitation of the user. PMID:23112726

  17. An Overview of Applications, Standards and Challenges in Futuristic Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragesh G K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent technical advancements in low-power integrated circuits, ultra low-power RF (radio frequency technology, wireless communications and micro sensors allowed the realization of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs. It is one of the latest technologies in health care diagnosis and management. A body area network wirelessly connects independent nodes (e.g. medical devices, earphones, sensors, actuators attached to the body surface, implanted into tissues/body, or dispersed in the clothing for applications in home/health care, sports, entertainment, defense, ambient intelligence, pervasive computing and many other areas. These sensors offer promising applications in areas such as real time health monitoring, interactive gaming and consumer electronics. WBAN does not compel the patient to stay in the hospital thereby giving much physical mobility. Thus it greatly increases the efficiency of a health care system. This paper presents an overview on the various aspects of WBAN including sensors used, applications, power efficiency, communication protocols, security requirements, existing projects in WBANs and challenges faced in wireless body area networks.

  18. High surface area fibrous silica nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2014-11-11

    Disclosed are high surface area nanoparticles that have a fibrous morphology. The nanoparticles have a plurality of fibers, wherein each fiber is in contact with one other fiber and each fiber has a length of between about 1 nm and about 5000 nm. Also disclosed are applications of the nanoparticles of the present invention, and methods of fabrication of the nanoparticles of the present invention.

  19. A security suite for wireless body area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sampangi, Raghav V; Urs, Shalini R; Sampalli, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have gained a lot of research attention in recent years since they offer tremendous benefits for remote health monitoring and continuous, real-time patient care. However, as with any wireless communication, data security in WBANs is a challenging design issue. Since such networks consist of small sensors placed on the human body, they impose resource and computational restrictions, thereby making the use of sophisticated and advanced encryption algorithms infeasible. This calls for the design of algorithms with a robust key generation / management scheme, which are reasonably resource optimal. This paper presents a security suite for WBANs, comprised of IAMKeys, an independent and adaptive key management scheme for improving the security of WBANs, and KEMESIS, a key management scheme for security in inter-sensor communication. The novelty of these schemes lies in the use of a randomly generated key for encrypting each data frame that is generated independently at both the s...

  20. A Novel Human Body Area Network for Brain Diseases Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Xu, Tianlang

    2016-10-01

    Development of wireless sensor and mobile communication technology provide an unprecedented opportunity for realizing smart and interactive healthcare systems. Designing such systems aims to remotely monitor the health and diagnose the diseases for users. In this paper, we design a novel human body area network for brain diseases analysis, which is named BABDA. Considering the brain is one of the most complex organs in the human body, the BABDA system provides four function modules to ensure the high quality of the analysis result, which includes initial data collection, data correction, data transmission and comprehensive data analysis. The performance evaluation conducted in a realistic environment with several criteria shows the availability and practicability of the BABDA system. PMID:27526187

  1. Cooperative communications for sleep monitoring in wireless body area networks

    OpenAIRE

    Shimly, Samiya; Movassaghi, Samaneh; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of cooperative receive diversity, for the wireless body area network (WBAN) radio channel, compliant with the IEEE 802.15.6 Standard, in the case of monitoring a sleeping person. Extensive WBAN measurements near the 2.4 GHz ISM band were used. Up to 7 dB and 20% improvement for two-hop communications with the use of relays are empirically demonstrated with respect to outage probability and outage duration, with 3-branch cooperative selection combining a...

  2. A SECURE KEY MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUE FOR WIRELESS BODY AREA NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatasubramanian Sivaprasatham; Jothi Venkateswaran

    2012-01-01

    In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN), the key factors to be considered for transmission of confidential data are security and privacy as it is mostly having applications in emergency medical response systems. The lack of security may lead to loss of data privacy resulting in an adversary to bring in bogus data or altering the legal ones. Hence in this study, a secure key management technique for WBAN is proposed. The proposed architecture consists of a set of WBANs connected to the master se...

  3. PROPOSED TRANSPORT PROTOCOLS SUITE FOR WIRELESS MEDICAL BODY AREA NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Kontogiannis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN is the recent trend for localized and personalized medical services. For that purpose, several tele-medicine architectures and WBAN frameworks for patient monitoring have been proposed. This paper presents a new medical protocol MESETP (Medical Services Transport Protocol, that underlies data delivery for both real-time and non real-time medical services. Furthermore, performance tests of MESETP with existing real time protocols and non real-time protocols used by existing medical services are examined and comparison results are presented.

  4. Directional MAC Approach for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Asdaque Hussain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs designed for medical, sports, and entertainment applications, have drawn the attention of academia and industry alike. A WBAN is a special purpose network, designed to operate autonomously to connect various medical sensors and appliances, located inside and/or outside of a human body. This network enables physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real time feedback for medical diagnosis and consultations. The WBAN system can offer two significant advantages: patient mobility due to their use of portable monitoring devices and a location independent monitoring facility. With its appealing dimensions, it brings about a new set of challenges, which we do not normally consider in such small sensor networks. It requires a scalable network in terms of heterogeneous data traffic, low power consumption of sensor nodes, integration in and around the body networking and coexistence. This work presents a medium access control protocol for WBAN which tries to overcome the aforementioned challenges. We consider the use of multiple beam adaptive arrays (MBAA at BAN Coordinator (BAN_C node. When used as a BAN_C, an MBAA can successfully receive two or more overlapping packets at the same time. Each beam captures a different packet by automatically pointing its pattern toward one packet while annulling other contending packets. This paper describes how an MBAA can be integrated into a single hope star topology as a BAN_C. Simulation results show the performance of our proposed protocol.

  5. Directional MAC approach for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Md Asdaque; Alam, Md Nasre; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) designed for medical, sports, and entertainment applications, have drawn the attention of academia and industry alike. A WBAN is a special purpose network, designed to operate autonomously to connect various medical sensors and appliances, located inside and/or outside of a human body. This network enables physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real time feedback for medical diagnosis and consultations. The WBAN system can offer two significant advantages: patient mobility due to their use of portable monitoring devices and a location independent monitoring facility. With its appealing dimensions, it brings about a new set of challenges, which we do not normally consider in such small sensor networks. It requires a scalable network in terms of heterogeneous data traffic, low power consumption of sensor nodes, integration in and around the body networking and coexistence. This work presents a medium access control protocol for WBAN which tries to overcome the aforementioned challenges. We consider the use of multiple beam adaptive arrays (MBAA) at BAN Coordinator (BAN_C) node. When used as a BAN_C, an MBAA can successfully receive two or more overlapping packets at the same time. Each beam captures a different packet by automatically pointing its pattern toward one packet while annulling other contending packets. This paper describes how an MBAA can be integrated into a single hope star topology as a BAN_C. Simulation results show the performance of our proposed protocol. PMID:22346602

  6. Efficient and Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Libing; Zhang, Yubo; Li, Li; Shen, Jian

    2016-06-01

    As a significant part of the Internet of Things (IoT), Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has attract much attention in this years. In WBANs, sensors placed in or around the human body collect the sensitive data of the body and transmit it through an open wireless channel in which the messages may be intercepted, modified, etc. Recently, Wang et al. presented a new anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and claimed that their scheme can solve the security problems in the previous schemes. Unfortunately, we demonstrate that their scheme cannot withstand impersonation attack. Either an adversary or a malicious legal client could impersonate another legal client to the application provider. In this paper, we give the detailed weakness analysis of Wang et al.'s scheme at first. Then we present a novel anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and prove that it's secure under a random oracle model. At last, we demonstrate that our presented anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs is more suitable for practical application than Wang et al.'s scheme due to better security and performance. Compared with Wang et al.'s scheme, the computation cost of our scheme in WBANs has reduced by about 31.58%. PMID:27091755

  7. The applicability of the dubois height weight formula for measurement of body surface of Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Ramaswami

    1953-07-01

    Full Text Available The body surface area of 18 healthy adult Indian subjects was measured by taking part by part linear measurements for the whole body with the help of Anthropometry Beam Calipers and applying Du Bois linear formula method. The surface area values computed from Du Bois Height-weight formula were compared with the measured values. The average error in the eighteen cases is 1.5 percent. The standard deviation of the errors is 1.8 percent about the mean error of -0.5 percent. The errors are not statistically significant. As the original Du Bois formula itself is stated to have an average error of 1.5 percent, the present work confirms that the accuracy, with which Du Bois formula predicts body surface, is not sensibly different for Indians as against Europeans

  8. Reconfigurable antenna options for 2.45/5 GHz wireless body area networks in healthcare applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Syed Muzahir; Ranga, Yogesh; Esselle, Karu P

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents electronically reconfigurable antenna options in healthcare applications. They are suitable for wireless body area network devices operating in the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band at 2.45 GHz and IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) band at 5 GHz (5.15-5.35 GHz, 5.25-5.35 GHz). Two types of antennas are investigated: Antenna-I has a full ground plane and Antenna-II has a partial ground plane. The proposed antennas provide ISM operation in one mode while in another mode they support 5 GHz WLAN band. Their performance is assessed for body centric wireless communication using a simplified human body model. Antenna sensitivity to the gap between the antenna and the human body is investigated for both modes of each antenna. The proposed antennas exhibit a wide radiation pattern along the body surface to provide wide coverage and their small width (14 mm) makes them suitable for on-body communication in healthcare applications. PMID:26737528

  9. Increase of body surface temperature and blood flow by theanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suntheanine (Taiyo Kagaku Co.: Theanine) is the trade name for L-theanine which is a unique amino acid found almost solely in tea plants, responsible for the exotictaste of green tea. We investigated the effects of relate to relaxation, improves the taste of processed foods, radiation sensitization, and increase of body surface temperature in vivo study. The results of the present study confirmed, (1) Suntheanine is incorporated into the brain and induces the emission of α -waves an induced of relaxation. (2) Body surface temperature and blood flow on skin were increased after administration of Suntheanine. (3) There was effects of radiation sensitization in whole body irradiation of X-rays after Suntheanine IP injection on C3H mice. (4) Acute toxicity, subacute toxicity and mutagen testconfirm the safety Suntheanine in this study

  10. Increase of body surface temperature and blood flow by theanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Takeo; Noguchi, Kenichi; Ando, Satoshi [Suzuka, Univ. of Medical Science, Suzuka (Japan)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    Suntheanine (Taiyo Kagaku Co.: Theanine) is the trade name for L-theanine which is a unique amino acid found almost solely in tea plants, responsible for the exotictaste of green tea. We investigated the effects of relate to relaxation, improves the taste of processed foods, radiation sensitization, and increase of body surface temperature in vivo study. The results of the present study confirmed, (1) Suntheanine is incorporated into the brain and induces the emission of {alpha} -waves an induced of relaxation. (2) Body surface temperature and blood flow on skin were increased after administration of Suntheanine. (3) There was effects of radiation sensitization in whole body irradiation of X-rays after Suntheanine IP injection on C3H mice. (4) Acute toxicity, subacute toxicity and mutagen testconfirm the safety Suntheanine in this study.

  11. Surface Inspection Of Automotive Bodies By Reflective Computer Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Y. Y.; Jin, G. C.; Tang, S. H.

    1988-12-01

    A simple but practical optical technique for automated surface inspection of car bodies is presented. The method which is based on light reflection is applicable to inspecting specularly reflective surfaces such as painted car bodies. A structured light signal consists of linear grating is imaged by a video camera via the surface to be inspected. With this arrangement, the surface being inspected acts as a mirror. Presence of surface flaws causes the grating to be locally perturbed. The grating-image is digitized and analyzed by a computer. Several algorithms are developed which automatically identifies the surface flaws by analyzing the perturbation in the grating-image. The technique allows surface flaws to be quantified in terms of slope deviation or depth variation. The sensitivity of the technique is very high permitting minute flaws to be detected. In the paper the theory of the technique will be presented together with experimental validation. The technique possesses numerous practical features such as requiring no special surface preparation, allowing evaluation in place, requiring minimum environmental safeguards, allowing rapid testing and evaluation, providing reliable and quantitative results, and it can be automated. Therefore the technique has clearly exhibited a great potential for being developed into a production-line inspection tool.

  12. Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) design techniques and performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jamil Yusuf; Yuce, Mehmet R; Bulger, Garrick; Harding, Benjamin

    2012-06-01

    In recent years interest in the application of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) for patient monitoring applications has grown significantly. A WBAN can be used to develop patient monitoring systems which offer flexibility to medical staff and mobility to patients. Patients monitoring could involve a range of activities including data collection from various body sensors for storage and diagnosis, transmitting data to remote medical databases, and controlling medical appliances, etc. Also, WBANs could operate in an interconnected mode to enable remote patient monitoring using telehealth/e-health applications. A WBAN can also be used to monitor athletes' performance and assist them in training activities. For such applications it is very important that a WBAN collects and transmits data reliably, and in a timely manner to a monitoring entity. In order to address these issues, this paper presents WBAN design techniques for medical applications. We examine the WBAN design issues with particular emphasis on the design of MAC protocols and power consumption profiles of WBAN. Some simulation results are presented to further illustrate the performances of various WBAN design techniques. PMID:20953680

  13. Model-Driven Approach for Body Area Network Application Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algimantas Venčkauskas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the sensor-networked IoT model as a prototype to support the design of Body Area Network (BAN applications for healthcare. Using the model, we analyze the synergistic effect of the functional requirements (data collection from the human body and transferring it to the top level and non-functional requirements (trade-offs between energy-security-environmental factors, treated as Quality-of-Service (QoS. We use feature models to represent the requirements at the earliest stage for the analysis and describe a model-driven methodology to design the possible BAN applications. Firstly, we specify the requirements as the problem domain (PD variability model for the BAN applications. Next, we introduce the generative technology (meta-programming as the solution domain (SD and the mapping procedure to map the PD feature-based variability model onto the SD feature model. Finally, we create an executable meta-specification that represents the BAN functionality to describe the variability of the problem domain though transformations. The meta-specification (along with the meta-language processor is a software generator for multiple BAN-oriented applications. We validate the methodology with experiments and a case study to generate a family of programs for the BAN sensor controllers. This enables to obtain the adequate measure of QoS efficiently through the interactive adjustment of the meta-parameter values and re-generation process for the concrete BAN application.

  14. Model-Driven Approach for Body Area Network Application Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venčkauskas, Algimantas; Štuikys, Vytautas; Jusas, Nerijus; Burbaitė, Renata

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the sensor-networked IoT model as a prototype to support the design of Body Area Network (BAN) applications for healthcare. Using the model, we analyze the synergistic effect of the functional requirements (data collection from the human body and transferring it to the top level) and non-functional requirements (trade-offs between energy-security-environmental factors, treated as Quality-of-Service (QoS)). We use feature models to represent the requirements at the earliest stage for the analysis and describe a model-driven methodology to design the possible BAN applications. Firstly, we specify the requirements as the problem domain (PD) variability model for the BAN applications. Next, we introduce the generative technology (meta-programming as the solution domain (SD)) and the mapping procedure to map the PD feature-based variability model onto the SD feature model. Finally, we create an executable meta-specification that represents the BAN functionality to describe the variability of the problem domain though transformations. The meta-specification (along with the meta-language processor) is a software generator for multiple BAN-oriented applications. We validate the methodology with experiments and a case study to generate a family of programs for the BAN sensor controllers. This enables to obtain the adequate measure of QoS efficiently through the interactive adjustment of the meta-parameter values and re-generation process for the concrete BAN application. PMID:27187394

  15. Model-Driven Approach for Body Area Network Application Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venčkauskas, Algimantas; Štuikys, Vytautas; Jusas, Nerijus; Burbaitė, Renata

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the sensor-networked IoT model as a prototype to support the design of Body Area Network (BAN) applications for healthcare. Using the model, we analyze the synergistic effect of the functional requirements (data collection from the human body and transferring it to the top level) and non-functional requirements (trade-offs between energy-security-environmental factors, treated as Quality-of-Service (QoS)). We use feature models to represent the requirements at the earliest stage for the analysis and describe a model-driven methodology to design the possible BAN applications. Firstly, we specify the requirements as the problem domain (PD) variability model for the BAN applications. Next, we introduce the generative technology (meta-programming as the solution domain (SD)) and the mapping procedure to map the PD feature-based variability model onto the SD feature model. Finally, we create an executable meta-specification that represents the BAN functionality to describe the variability of the problem domain though transformations. The meta-specification (along with the meta-language processor) is a software generator for multiple BAN-oriented applications. We validate the methodology with experiments and a case study to generate a family of programs for the BAN sensor controllers. This enables to obtain the adequate measure of QoS efficiently through the interactive adjustment of the meta-parameter values and re-generation process for the concrete BAN application. PMID:27187394

  16. Network Coding for Energy Efficiency in Wireless Body Area Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Xiaomeng; Lucani, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A network coding scheme for practical implementations of wireless body area networks is presented, with the objective of providing reliability under low-energy constraints. We propose a simple network layer protocol, study the mean energy to complete in-cast transmissions of given packets from the sensors to the base station (BS), and show through numerical examples that this scheme can reduce the overall energy consumption. More specifically, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is used to allocate the wireless channel to individual nodes. Each node linearly combines its data packets before taking turns to send the ensuing mixtures to the BS. An acknowledgement message is broadcasted by the BS after each round of transmissions, indicating the number of coded packets to be transmitted in the next round. We parametrically study the optimal number of coded packets to send, in terms of completion energy, given the packet erasure probabilities, and the energy use for transmitting data packets as well as listening...

  17. Wireless Body Area Networks and Its Emerging Technologies in Real Time Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Evangelin; Dahlia Sam

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid improvement of wireless communication and semiconductor technologies, the body area sensor network (BASN) is fast developing. The BASN which is also referred to as the WBAN (Wireless Body Area Network), is widely used in medical applications and comprises of Body Sensors attached to human body. These body sensors will help to monitor the interior functions of the body. The data generated by the sensors is transmitted via the internet and collected in external se...

  18. Single-friction-surface triboelectric generator with human body conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a transparent single-friction-surface triboelectric generator (STEG) employing human body as the conduit, making the applications of STEG in portable electronics much more practical and leading to a significant output improvement. The STEG with micro-patterned polydimethylsiloxane surface achieved an output voltage of over 200 V with a current density of 4.7 μA/cm2. With human body conduit, the output current increased by 39% and the amount of charge that transferred increased by 34% compared to the results with grounded electrode. A larger increment of 210% and 81% was obtained in the case of STEG with a large-size flat polyethylene terephthalate surface

  19. Single-friction-surface triboelectric generator with human body conduit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Han, Mengdi; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Haixia, E-mail: zhang-alice@pku.edu.cn [National Key Lab of Nano/Micro Fabrication Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-03-10

    We present a transparent single-friction-surface triboelectric generator (STEG) employing human body as the conduit, making the applications of STEG in portable electronics much more practical and leading to a significant output improvement. The STEG with micro-patterned polydimethylsiloxane surface achieved an output voltage of over 200 V with a current density of 4.7 μA/cm{sup 2}. With human body conduit, the output current increased by 39% and the amount of charge that transferred increased by 34% compared to the results with grounded electrode. A larger increment of 210% and 81% was obtained in the case of STEG with a large-size flat polyethylene terephthalate surface.

  20. Estimation of surface area and surface area measure of three-dimensional sets from digitizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegel, Johanna; Kiderlen, Markus

    2010-01-01

    . The method is based on an exact asymptotic result that holds for increasing resolution of the digitization. It states that the number of occurrences of a 2 ×  2 × 2 configuration is asymptotically proportional to an integral of its “h-function” with respect to the surface area measure of the object....... We find explicit representations for these h-functions. Analyzing them in detail, we determine weights that lead to an asymptotic worst case error for surface area estimation of less than 4%. We show that this worst case error is the best possible. Exploiting the local nature of the asymptotic result...

  1. Accessible surface area from NMR chemical shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafsa, Noor E.; Arndt, David; Wishart, David S., E-mail: david.wishart@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Computing Science (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    Accessible surface area (ASA) is the surface area of an atom, amino acid or biomolecule that is exposed to solvent. The calculation of a molecule’s ASA requires three-dimensional coordinate data and the use of a “rolling ball” algorithm to both define and calculate the ASA. For polymers such as proteins, the ASA for individual amino acids is closely related to the hydrophobicity of the amino acid as well as its local secondary and tertiary structure. For proteins, ASA is a structural descriptor that can often be as informative as secondary structure. Consequently there has been considerable effort over the past two decades to try to predict ASA from protein sequence data and to use ASA information (derived from chemical modification studies) as a structure constraint. Recently it has become evident that protein chemical shifts are also sensitive to ASA. Given the potential utility of ASA estimates as structural constraints for NMR we decided to explore this relationship further. Using machine learning techniques (specifically a boosted tree regression model) we developed an algorithm called “ShiftASA” that combines chemical-shift and sequence derived features to accurately estimate per-residue fractional ASA values of water-soluble proteins. This method showed a correlation coefficient between predicted and experimental values of 0.79 when evaluated on a set of 65 independent test proteins, which was an 8.2 % improvement over the next best performing (sequence-only) method. On a separate test set of 92 proteins, ShiftASA reported a mean correlation coefficient of 0.82, which was 12.3 % better than the next best performing method. ShiftASA is available as a web server ( http://shiftasa.wishartlab.com http://shiftasa.wishartlab.com ) for submitting input queries for fractional ASA calculation.

  2. Accessible surface area from NMR chemical shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accessible surface area (ASA) is the surface area of an atom, amino acid or biomolecule that is exposed to solvent. The calculation of a molecule’s ASA requires three-dimensional coordinate data and the use of a “rolling ball” algorithm to both define and calculate the ASA. For polymers such as proteins, the ASA for individual amino acids is closely related to the hydrophobicity of the amino acid as well as its local secondary and tertiary structure. For proteins, ASA is a structural descriptor that can often be as informative as secondary structure. Consequently there has been considerable effort over the past two decades to try to predict ASA from protein sequence data and to use ASA information (derived from chemical modification studies) as a structure constraint. Recently it has become evident that protein chemical shifts are also sensitive to ASA. Given the potential utility of ASA estimates as structural constraints for NMR we decided to explore this relationship further. Using machine learning techniques (specifically a boosted tree regression model) we developed an algorithm called “ShiftASA” that combines chemical-shift and sequence derived features to accurately estimate per-residue fractional ASA values of water-soluble proteins. This method showed a correlation coefficient between predicted and experimental values of 0.79 when evaluated on a set of 65 independent test proteins, which was an 8.2 % improvement over the next best performing (sequence-only) method. On a separate test set of 92 proteins, ShiftASA reported a mean correlation coefficient of 0.82, which was 12.3 % better than the next best performing method. ShiftASA is available as a web server ( http://shiftasa.wishartlab.com http://shiftasa.wishartlab.com ) for submitting input queries for fractional ASA calculation

  3. Elements intake to the human body in contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Estimation of trace elements (including toxic ones) intake to human body is an extremely important problem because deficiency or toxic levels of these elements can cause diseases in humans. There are many studies in this field including the recommendation of International Commission on Radiological Protection [1] and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives [2]. There are very averaged data. Actually each region may have quite different levels of elements intake [3]. In some cases foodstuff is produced in contaminated by industrial activity regions and is also contaminated. Foodstuffs from reference area and industrially contaminated area of Uzbekistan were collected and analysed using INAA. It has been shown that locally produced foodstuffs may contain significantly elevated levels of elements. For some elements was found that the total daily intake is tens times higher than levels given by recommended daily allowance (FAO/IAEA/WHO and ICRP). This study has been carried out within the framework of the IAEA CRP RC - 863 'Use of Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques in Studying Human Health Impacts of Toxic Elements Consumed Through Foodstuffs Contaminated by Industrial Activities', and STCU Project Uzb-109

  4. Interoperability and security in wireless body area network infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Steve; Lebak, Jeffrey; Yao, Jianchu; Creekmore, Jonathan; Milenkovic, Aleksandar; Jovanov, Emil

    2005-01-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) and their supporting information infrastructures offer unprecedented opportunities to monitor state of health without constraining the activities of a wearer. These mobile point-of-care systems are now realizable due to the convergence of technologies such as low-power wireless communication standards, plug-and-play device buses, off-the-shelf development kits for low-power microcontrollers, handheld computers, electronic medical records, and the Internet. To increase acceptance of personal monitoring technology while lowering equipment cost, advances must be made in interoperability (at both the system and device levels) and security. This paper presents an overview of WBAN infrastructure work in these areas currently underway in the Medical Component Design Laboratory at Kansas State University (KSU) and at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). KSU efforts include the development of wearable health status monitoring systems that utilize ISO/IEEE 11073, Bluetooth, Health Level 7, and OpenEMed. WBAN efforts at UAH include the development of wearable activity and health monitors that incorporate ZigBee-compliant wireless sensor platforms with hardware-level encryption and the TinyOS development environment. WBAN infrastructures are complex, requiring many functional support elements. To realize these infrastructures through collaborative efforts, organizations such as KSU and UAH must define and utilize standard interfaces, nomenclature, and security approaches. PMID:17281067

  5. Compressive-sampling-based positioning in wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banitalebi-Dehkordi, Mehdi; Abouei, Jamshid; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N

    2014-01-01

    Recent achievements in wireless technologies have opened up enormous opportunities for the implementation of ubiquitous health care systems in providing rich contextual information and warning mechanisms against abnormal conditions. This helps with the automatic and remote monitoring/tracking of patients in hospitals and facilitates and with the supervision of fragile, elderly people in their own domestic environment through automatic systems to handle the remote drug delivery. This paper presents a new modeling and analysis framework for the multipatient positioning in a wireless body area network (WBAN) which exploits the spatial sparsity of patients and a sparse fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based feature extraction mechanism for monitoring of patients and for reporting the movement tracking to a central database server containing patient vital information. The main goal of this paper is to achieve a high degree of accuracy and resolution in the patient localization with less computational complexity in the implementation using the compressive sensing theory. We represent the patients' positions as a sparse vector obtained by the discrete segmentation of the patient movement space in a circular grid. To estimate this vector, a compressive-sampling-based two-level FFT (CS-2FFT) feature vector is synthesized for each received signal from the biosensors embedded on the patient's body at each grid point. This feature extraction process benefits in the combination of both short-time and long-time properties of the received signals. The robustness of the proposed CS-2FFT-based algorithm in terms of the average positioning error is numerically evaluated using the realistic parameters in the IEEE 802.15.6-WBAN standard in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise. Due to the circular grid pattern and the CS-2FFT feature extraction method, the proposed scheme represents a significant reduction in the computational complexity, while improving the level of the

  6. Quantification of surface amorphous content using dispersive surface energy: the concept of effective amorphous surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, Jeffrey; Burnett, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the use of dispersive surface energy in quantifying surface amorphous content, and the concept of effective amorphous surface area is introduced. An equation is introduced employing the linear combination of surface area normalized square root dispersive surface energy terms. This equation is effective in generating calibration curves when crystalline and amorphous references are used. Inverse gas chromatography is used to generate dispersive surface energy values. Two systems are investigated, and in both cases surface energy data collected for physical mixture samples comprised of amorphous and crystalline references fits the predicted response with good accuracy. Surface amorphous content of processed lactose samples is quantified using the calibration curve, and interpreted within the context of effective amorphous surface area. Data for bulk amorphous content is also utilized to generate a thorough picture of how disorder is distributed throughout the particle. An approach to quantifying surface amorphous content using dispersive surface energy is presented. Quantification is achieved by equating results to an effective amorphous surface area based on reference crystalline, and amorphous materials. PMID:21725707

  7. Body surface related flow rate nomograms in a normal pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wese, F X; Gaum, L D; Liu, T P; Wong, A K; Hardy, B E; Churchill, B M

    1989-01-01

    Uroflow studies for 511 normal pediatric subjects (272 boys, 239 girls) were analyzed statistically. Nomograms relating peak flow to volume voided and body surface were established. An acceptable lower limit for peak flow was obtained from the data and a volume voided range was calculated so that both criteria could be used with 90% probability to define the normal voiding situation. Body surface area was found to be a more reliable index than age in the establishment of nomograms. In the male population the 90% probability applied to a significantly greater volume voided reliability. In the female population mean peak flow rate rose with increased body surface. Finally, in both sexes the 10% lower limit was closer to the regression mean, allowing a tighter distribution around this value. PMID:2763926

  8. Surface-Based Body Shape Index and Its Relationship with All-Cause Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ashiqur Rahman

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global public health challenge. In the US, for instance, obesity prevalence remains high at more than one-third of the adult population, while over two-thirds are obese or overweight. Obesity is associated with various health problems, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, depression, some forms of cancer, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, among others. The body mass index (BMI is one of the best known measures of obesity. The BMI, however, has serious limitations, for instance, its inability to capture the distribution of lean mass and adipose tissue, which is a better predictor of diabetes and CVDs, and its curved ("U-shaped" relationship with mortality hazard. Other anthropometric measures and their relation to obesity have been studied, each with its advantages and limitations. In this work, we introduce a new anthropometric measure (called Surface-based Body Shape Index, SBSI that accounts for both body shape and body size, and evaluate its performance as a predictor of all-cause mortality.We analyzed data on 11,808 subjects (ages 18-85, from the National Health and Human Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004, with 8-year mortality follow up. Based on the analysis, we introduce a new body shape index constructed from four important anthropometric determinants of body shape and body size: body surface area (BSA, vertical trunk circumference (VTC, height (H and waist circumference (WC. The surface-based body shape index (SBSI is defined as follows: SBSI = ((H(7/4(WC(5/6/(BSA VTC (1 SBSI has negative correlation with BMI and weight respectively, no correlation with WC, and shows a generally linear relationship with age. Results on mortality hazard prediction using both the Cox proportionality model, and Kaplan-Meier curves each show that SBSI outperforms currently popular body shape indices (e.g., BMI, WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, A Body Shape Index (ABSI in predicting all

  9. Electrocardiographic markers of ischemia during mental stress testing in postinfarction patients. Role of body surface mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients with coronary artery disease, radionuclide investigations have documented a high incidence of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in the absence of significant electrocardiographic changes and/or angina. To investigate the causes of the low electrocardiographic sensitivity, we recorded body surface maps during mental arithmetic in 22 normal volunteers and 37 postinfarction patients with residual exercise ischemia. Myocardial perfusion was studied with thallium-201 or technetium-99 (SESTAMIBI) planar scans. In 14 patients, body surface maps were also recorded during atrial pacing at the heart rate values achieved during mental stress. While taking the body surface maps, the area from J point to 80 msec after this point (ST-80) was analyzed by integral maps, difference maps, and departure maps. The body surface mapping criteria for ischemia were a new negative area on the integral maps, a negative potential of more than 2 SD from mean normal values on the difference maps, and a negative departure index of more than 2. Scintigraphy showed asymptomatic myocardial hypoperfusion in 33 patients. Eight patients had significant ST segment depression. The ST-80 integral and difference maps identified 17 ischemic patients. Twenty-four patients presented abnormal departure maps. One patient presented ST depression and abnormal body surface maps without reversible tracer defect. In 14 of 14 patients, atrial pacing did not reproduce the body surface map abnormalities. The analyses of the other electrocardiographic variables showed that in patients with mental stress-induced perfusion defects, only changes of T apex-T offset (aT-eT) interval in Frank leads and changes of maximum negative potential value of aT-eT integral maps significantly differed from those of normal subjects

  10. Robot and Human Surface Operations on Solar System Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbin, C. R.; Easter, R.; Rodriguez, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of robot and human surface operations on solar system bodies. The topics include: 1) Long Range Vision of Surface Scenarios; 2) Human and Robots Complement Each Other; 3) Respective Human and Robot Strengths; 4) Need More In-Depth Quantitative Analysis; 5) Projected Study Objectives; 6) Analysis Process Summary; 7) Mission Scenarios Decompose into Primitive Tasks; 7) Features of the Projected Analysis Approach; and 8) The "Getting There Effect" is a Major Consideration. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  11. ECG-cryptography and authentication in body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Honggang; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Fang, Hua

    2012-11-01

    Wireless body area networks (BANs) have drawn much attention from research community and industry in recent years. Multimedia healthcare services provided by BANs can be available to anyone, anywhere, and anytime seamlessly. A critical issue in BANs is how to preserve the integrity and privacy of a person's medical data over wireless environments in a resource efficient manner. This paper presents a novel key agreement scheme that allows neighboring nodes in BANs to share a common key generated by electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. The improved Jules Sudan (IJS) algorithm is proposed to set up the key agreement for the message authentication. The proposed ECG-IJS key agreement can secure data communications over BANs in a plug-n-play manner without any key distribution overheads. Both the simulation and experimental results are presented, which demonstrate that the proposed ECG-IJS scheme can achieve better security performance in terms of serval performance metrics such as false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) than other existing approaches. In addition, the power consumption analysis also shows that the proposed ECG-IJS scheme can achieve energy efficiency for BANs. PMID:22752143

  12. Analyzing Medium Access Techniques in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Javaid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparison of Access Techniques used in Medium Access Control (MAC protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs. Comparison is performed between Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA, Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA, Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA, Pure ALOHA and Slotted ALOHA (S-ALOHA. Performance metrics used for comparison are Throughput (T, Delay (D and Offered Load (G. The main goal for comparison is to show which technique gives highest Throughput and lowest Delay with increase in Load. Energy efficiency is major issue in WBAN that is why there is need to know which technique performs best for energy conservation and also gives minimum delay. Simulations are performed for different scenarios and results are compared for all techniques. We suggest TDMA as best technique to be used in MAC protocol for WBANs due to its high throughput and minimum delay with increase in load. MATLAB is the tool that is used for simulation.

  13. A SECURE KEY MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUE FOR WIRELESS BODY AREA NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatasubramanian Sivaprasatham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN, the key factors to be considered for transmission of confidential data are security and privacy as it is mostly having applications in emergency medical response systems. The lack of security may lead to loss of data privacy resulting in an adversary to bring in bogus data or altering the legal ones. Hence in this study, a secure key management technique for WBAN is proposed. The proposed architecture consists of a set of WBANs connected to the master server via backend server using authentication channel. Initially, backend server and master server use a shared symmetric key. When a node wants to join a network, it forwards a request message protected by the Message Authentication Code (MAC to the master server via the backend server. The master server verifies the MAC and generates message key and master key for the node and sends it to backend server. The backend server encrypts the message key with the master key and sends it to the node that initiates the joining process. After all nodes receive key information from the master server, the Base Server (BS schedules a re-keying period to refresh the master key. By simulation results, it is shown that the proposed technique is more authenticated. The proposed approach offers data confidentiality and integrity in WBANs.

  14. Casimir effect in dielectrics Surface area contribution

    CERN Document Server

    Molina-Paris, C; Molina-Paris, Carmen; Visser, Matt

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we take a deeper look at the technically elementary but physically robust viewpoint in which the Casimir energy in dielectric media is interpreted as the change in the total zero point energy of the electromagnetic vacuum summed over all states. Extending results presented in previous papers [hep-th/9609195; hep-th/9702007] we approximate the sum over states by an integral over the density of states including finite volume corrections. For an arbitrarily-shaped finite dielectric, the first finite-volume correction to the density of states is shown to be proportional to the surface area of the dielectric interface and is explicitly evaluated as a function of the permeability and permitivity. Since these calculations are founded in an elementary and straightforward way on the underlying physics of the Casimir effect they serve as an important consistency check on field-theoretic calculations. As a concrete example we discuss Schwinger's suggestion that the Casimir effect might be the underlying ph...

  15. Electrostatic dust transport on the surfaces of airless bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Schwan, J.; Hsu, H. W.; Horanyi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The surfaces of airless bodies are charged due to the exposure to solar wind plasma and UV radiation. Dust particles on the regolith of these surfaces can become charged, and may move and even get lofted due to electrostatic force. Electrostatic dust transport has been a long-standing problem that may be related to many observed phenomena on the surfaces of airless planetary bodies, including the lunar horizon glow, the dust ponds on asteroid Eros, the spokes in Saturn's rings, and more recently, the collection of dust particles ejected off Comet 67P, observed by Rosetta. In order to resolve these puzzles, a handful of laboratory experiments have been performed in the past and demonstrated that dust indeed moves and lifts from surfaces exposed to plasma. However, the exact mechanisms for the mobilization of dust particles still remain a mystery. Current charging models, including the so-called "shared charge model" and the charge fluctuation theory, will be discussed. It is found that neither of these models can explain the results from either laboratory experiments or in-situ observations. Recently, single dust trajectories were captured with our new dust experiments, enabling novel micro-scale investigations. The particles' initial launch speeds and size distributions are analyzed, and a new so-called "patched charge model" is proposed to explain our findings. We identify the role of plasma micro-cavities that are formed in-between neighboring dust particles. The emitted secondary or photo- electrons are proposed to be absorbed inside the micro-cavities, resulting in significant charge accumulation on the exposed patches of the surfaces of neighboring particles. The resulting enhanced Coulomb force (repulsion) between particles is likely the dominant force to mobilize and lift them off the surface. The role of other properties, including surface morphology, cohesion and photoelectron charging, will also be discussed.

  16. Downscaling MODIS Surface Reflectance to Improve Water Body Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Xianghong Che; Min Feng; Hao Jiang; Jia Song; Bei Jia

    2015-01-01

    Inland surface water is essential to terrestrial ecosystems and human civilization. Accurate mapping of surface water dynamic is vital for both scientific research and policy-driven applications. MODIS provides twice observation per day, making it perfect for monitoring temporal water dynamic. Although MODIS provides two bands at 250 m resolution, accurately deriving water area always depends on observations from the spectral bands with 500 m resolution, which limits its discrimination abilit...

  17. Predicting skin deficits through surface area measurements in ear reconstruction and adult ear surface area norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, Memet; Sevim, Kamuran Zeynep; Irmak, Fatih; Yazar, Sevgi Kurt; Yeşilada, Ayşin Karasoy; Karşidağğ, Semra Hacikerim; Tatlidede, Hamit Soner

    2013-07-01

    Ear reconstruction is one of the most challenging procedures in plastic surgery practice. Many studies and techniques have been described in the literature for carving a well-pronounced framework. However, just as important as the cartilage framework is the ample amount of delicate skin coverage of the framework. In this report, we introduce an innovative method of measuring the skin surface area of the auricle from a three-dimensional template created from the healthy ear.The study group consisted of 60 adult Turkish individuals who were randomly selected (30 men and 30 women). The participant ages ranged from 18 to 45 years (mean, 31.5 years), and they had no history of trauma or congenital anomalies. The template is created by dividing the ear into aesthetic subunits and using ImageJ software to estimate the necessary amount of total skin surface area required.Reconstruction of the auricle is a complicated process that requires experience and patience to provide the auricular details. We believe this estimate will shorten the learning curve for residents and surgeons interested in ear reconstruction and will help surgeons obtain adequate skin to drape over the well-sculpted cartilage frameworks by providing a reference list of total ear skin surface area measurements for Turkish men and women. PMID:23851770

  18. Concentrations of geogenic heavy metals in meadowland sediments and soils in the Saale river catchment area. A contribution to the ecological assessment of heavy metal pollution in bodies of surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a joint project covering the main tributaries of the Elbe river, heavy metal concentrations in recent river sediments of the Saale river were measured. Apart from the most relevant pollutants (Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Hg, As), further metals and Se were also measured. The results provided information on the volumes, distribution, sources and regional distribution of heavy metal pollution as well as on the development of pollution with time since 1991. Natural (geogenic) metal concentrations are an issue as renaturing plans are being developed. In order to avoid unrealistic sanitation goals, an attempt was made to assess the distribution of the geogenic background values of fine-grained river sediments in part catchment areas of a large river catchment area (here: the Saale river) in order to obtain a standard regional geogenic background value for each element

  19. Optimizing Data Forwarding from Body Area Networks in the Presence of Body Shadowing with Dual Wireless Technology Nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Argyriou, Antonios; Breva, Alberto Caballero; Aoun, Marc

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we are concerned with the problem of data forwarding from a wireless body area network (WBAN) to a gateway when body shadowing affects the ability of WBAN nodes to communicate with the gateway. To solve this problem we present a new WBAN architecture that uses two communication technologies. One network is formed between on-body nodes, and is realized with capacitive body-coupled communication (BCC), while an IEEE 802.15.4 radio frequency (RF) network is used for forwarding data...

  20. Physical Monitoring in Daily Life by Remote Body Area Network System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To spend daily life in high QOL, it is important to keep our health condition. Physical diseases are caused by various body parameters. People must get body parameter in daily life. Therefore people need wearable body area network system for getting body parameter in daily life. Authors made wearable body area network system which can get heart rate, SpO2, body temperature, skin temperature, air temperature, impact and acceleration of waist, shoulder, both ankles and wrist. Moreover authors made some applications by using these parameters. This paper describes the wearable sensing network system, host system to monitor dynamic physical conditions of user at remote location and applications

  1. Palatal Surface Area of Maxillary Plaster Casts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darvann, Tron Andre; Hermann, Nuno V.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær;

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between corresponding two-dimensional and three-dimensional measurements on maxillary plaster casts taken from photographs and three-dimensional surface scans, respectively. Materials and Methods: Corresponding two-dimensional and three-dimensional measu......Objective: To investigate the relationship between corresponding two-dimensional and three-dimensional measurements on maxillary plaster casts taken from photographs and three-dimensional surface scans, respectively. Materials and Methods: Corresponding two-dimensional and three...

  2. Numerical simulation of floating bodies in extreme free surface waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Z. Hu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use the in-house Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD flow code AMAZON-SC as a numerical wave tank (NWT to study wave loading on a wave energy converter (WEC device in heave motion. This is a surface-capturing method for two fluid flows that treats the free surface as contact surface in the density field that is captured automatically without special provision. A time-accurate artificial compressibility method and high resolution Godunov-type scheme are employed in both fluid regions (air/water. The Cartesian cut cell method can provide a boundary-fitted mesh for a complex geometry with no requirement to re-mesh globally or even locally for moving geometry, requiring only changes to cut cell data at the body contour. Extreme wave boundary conditions are prescribed in an empty NWT and compared with physical experiments prior to calculations of extreme waves acting on a floating Bobber-type device. The validation work also includes the wave force on a fixed cylinder compared with theoretical and experimental data under regular waves. Results include free surface elevations, vertical displacement of the float, induced vertical velocity and heave force for a typical Bobber geometry with a hemispherical base under extreme wave conditions.

  3. Impacts of water surface area of watershed on design flood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-hua ZHANG; Yan-fang DIAO; Jie DONG

    2014-01-01

    In order to analyze the impact of the water surface area of a watershed on the design flood, the watershed was classified into a land watershed and a water surface watershed for flood flow calculation at the same time interval. Then, the design flood of the whole watershed was obtained by adding the two flood flows together. Using this method, we calculated design floods with different water surface areas of three reservoirs and analyzed the impact of water surface area on the flood volume and peak flow. The results indicate that larger water surface areas lead to greater impacts on the flood volume and peak flow. For the same watershed area, the impact of water surface area on the flood volume and peak flow is positively proportional to the flood frequency, i.e., the higher the frequency, the greater the impact becomes.

  4. ASE-BAN, a Wireless Body Area Network Testbed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Karstoft, Henrik; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg;

    2010-01-01

    /actuators attached to the body and a host server application. The gateway uses the BlackFin BF533 processor from Analog Devices, and uses Bluetooth for wireless communication. Two types of sensors are attached to the network: an electro-cardio-gram sensor and an oximeter sensor. The testbed has been successfully...

  5. Calculation of cell volumes and surface areas in MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCNP is a general Monte Carlo neutron-photon particle transport code which treats an arbitrary three-dimensional configuration of materials in geometric cells bounded by first- and second-degree surfaces, and some special fourth-degree surfaces. It is necessary to calculate cell volumes and surface areas so that cell masses, fluxes, and other important information can be determined. The volume/area calculation in MCNP computes cell volumes and surface areas for cells and surfaces rotationally symmetric about any arbitrary axis. 5 figures, 1 table

  6. LIGHT WEIGHT SECURITY AND AUTHENTICATION IN WIRELESS BODY AREA NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    A.Siva Sangari; Martin Leo Manickam, J.

    2014-01-01

    In recent year, the increasing number of wearable sensors on human can serve for many purposes like emergency care, health care remote monitoring, personal entertainment and communication etc. The healthcare application is used for 24 hours constant monitoring without disturbing day to day activities. The WBAN enables the medical applications to be developed using electronic devices and sensors. The WBAN is created by wearing small sensors on the human body. In this paper we propose a low ...

  7. A Subject-Specificity Analysis of Radio Channels in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hao

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of subject-specific radio channels in wireless body area networks (WBANs using a simulation tool based on the parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD technique. This technique is well suited to model radio propagations around complex, inhomogeneous objects such as the human body. The impacts of different subjects varying in size on on-body, inter-body, and off-body radio channels are studied. The analysis demonstrates that the characteristics of on-body radio channels are subject-specific and are associated with human gender, height, and body mass index. On the other hand, when waves propagate away from the body, such as in the inter-body and off-body cases, the impacts of different subjects on the channel characteristics are found to be negligible.

  8. Surface Area Distribution Descriptor for object matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Gafar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Matching 3D objects by their similarity is a fundamental problem in computer vision, computer graphics and many other fields. The main challenge in object matching is to find a suitable shape representation that can be used to accurately and quickly discriminate between similar and dissimilar shapes. In this paper we present a new volumetric descriptor to represent 3D objects. The proposed descriptor is used to match objects under rigid transformations including uniform scaling. The descriptor represents the object by dividing it into shells, acquiring the area distribution of the object through those shells. The computed areas are normalised to make the descriptor scale-invariant in addition to rotation and translation invariant. The effectiveness and stability of the proposed descriptor to noise and variant sampling density as well as the effectiveness of the similarity measures are analysed and demonstrated through experimental results.

  9. Numerosity judgments for tactile stimuli distributed over the body surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallace, Alberto; Tan, Hong Z; Spence, Charles

    2006-01-01

    A large body of research now supports the claim that two different and dissociable processes are involved in making numerosity judgments regarding visual stimuli: subitising (fast and nearly errorless) for up to 4 stimuli, and counting (slow and error-prone) when more than 4 stimuli are presented. We studied tactile numerosity judgments for combinations of 1-7 vibrotactile stimuli presented simultaneously over the body surface. In experiment 1, the stimuli were presented once, while in experiment 2 conditions of single presentation and repeated presentation of the stimulus were compared. Neither experiment provided any evidence for a discontinuity in the slope of either the RT or error data suggesting that subitisation does not occur for tactile stimuli. By systematically varying the intensity of the vibrotactile stimuli in experiment 3, we were able to demonstrate that participants were not simply using the 'global intensity' of the whole tactile display to make their tactile numerosity judgments, but were, instead, using information concerning the number of tactors activated. The results of the three experiments reported here are discussed in relation to current theories of counting and subitising, and potential implications for the design of tactile user interfaces are highlighted. PMID:16583769

  10. On semiautomatic estimation of surface area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvorak, J.; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    2013-01-01

    convex particles, the estimator is equal to four times the area of the support set (flower set) of the particle transect. We study the statistical properties of the flower estimator and compare its performance to that of two discretizations of the flower estimator, namely the pivotal estimator and the...... surfactor. For ellipsoidal particles, it is shown that the flower estimator is equal to the pivotal estimator based on support function measurements along four perpendicular rays. This result makes the pivotal estimator a powerful approximation to the flower estimator. In a simulation study of prolate and...

  11. Ceres' deformational surface features compared to other planetary bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Gathen, Isabel; Jaumann, Ralf; Krohn, Katrin; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Elgner, Stephan; Kersten, Elke; Matz, Klaus-Dieter; Nass, Andrea; Otto, Katharina; Preusker, Frank; Roatsch, Thomas; Schröder, Stefanus E.; Schulzeck, Franziska; Stephan, Katrin; Wagner, Roland; De Sanctis, Maria C.; Schenk, Paul; Scully, Jennifer E. C.; Williams, Dave A.; Raymond, Carol A.

    2016-04-01

    On March 2015, NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the dwarf planet Ceres and has been providing images of its surface. Based on High Altitude Mapping Orbiter (HAMO) clear filter images (140 m/px res.), a Survey mosaic (~400 m/px) and a series of Low Altitude Mapping Orbiter (LAMO) clear filter images (35 m/px) of the Dawn mission [1], deformational features are identified on the surface of Ceres. In order to further our knowledge about the nature and origin of these features, we start a comparative analysis of similar features on different planetary bodies, like Enceladus, Ganymede and the Moon, based on images provided by the Cassini, Galileo and Lunar Orbiter mission. This study focuses on the small scale fractures, mostly located on Ceres' crater floors, in comparison with crater fractures on the planetary bodies named above. The fractures were analyzed concerning the morphology and shape, the distribution, orientation and possible building mechanisms. On Ceres, two different groups of fractures are distinct. The first one includes fractures, normally arranged in subparallel pattern, which are usually located on crater floors, but also on crater rims. Their sense of direction is relatively uniform but in some cases they get deformed by shearing. The second group consists of joint systems, which spread out of one single location, sometimes arranged concentric to the crater rim. They were likely formed by cooling-melting processes linked to the impact process or up doming material. Fractures located on crater floors are also common on the icy satellite Enceladus [3]. While Enceladus' fractures don't seem to have a lot in common compared to those on Ceres, we assume that similar fracture patterns and therefore similar building mechanism can be found e.g. on Ganymede and especially on the Moon [2]. Further work will include the comparison of the fractures with additional planetary bodies and the trial to explain why fracturing e.g. on Enceladus differs from that on

  12. Impact of the environment and the topology on the performance of hierarchical body area networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari Gianluigi; Dricot Jean-Michel; Van Roy Stéphane; Horlin François; De Doncker Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Personal area networks and, more specifically, body area networks (BANs) are key building blocks of future generation networks and of the Internet of Things as well. In this article, we present a novel analytical framework for network performance analysis of body sensor networks with hierarchical (tree) topologies. This framework takes into account the specificities of the on-body channel modeling and the impact of the surrounding environment. The obtained results clearly highlight t...

  13. LIGHT WEIGHT SECURITY AND AUTHENTICATION IN WIRELESS BODY AREA NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Siva Sangari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent year, the increasing number of wearable sensors on human can serve for many purposes like emergency care, health care remote monitoring, personal entertainment and communication etc. The healthcare application is used for 24 hours constant monitoring without disturbing day to day activities. The WBAN enables the medical applications to be developed using electronic devices and sensors. The WBAN is created by wearing small sensors on the human body. In this paper we propose a low cost and high quality electro cardiography and diagnostic system for healthcare applications . A major issue is how to preserve security and privacy of patient’s medical healthcare information over wireless communication. The energy consumption and data security are still major challenges in healthcare applications. This paper based on light weight security algorithm. Skipjack is the secret key encryption algorithm which provide the secure communication between sensor node and mobile node. The proposed algorithm protect the patient data against eavesdropping attack.

  14. Characterization of on-body communication channel and energy efficient topology design for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusens, Elisabeth; Joseph, Wout; Latré, Benoît; Braem, Bart; Vermeeren, Günter; Tanghe, Emmeric; Martens, Luc; Moerman, Ingrid; Blondia, Chris

    2009-11-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) offer many promising new applications in the area of remote health monitoring. An important element in the development of a WBAN is the characterization of the physical layer of the network, including an estimation of the delay spread and the path loss between two nodes on the body. This paper discusses the propagation channel between two half-wavelength dipoles at 2.45 GHz, placed near a human body and presents an application for cross-layer design in order to optimize the energy consumption of different topologies. Propagation measurements are performed on real humans in a multipath environment, considering different parts of the body separately. In addition, path loss has been numerically investigated with an anatomically correct model of the human body in free space using a 3-D electromagnetic solver. Path loss parameters and time-domain channel characteristics are extracted from the measurement and simulation data. A semi-empirical path loss model is presented for an antenna height above the body of 5 mm and antenna separations from 5 cm up to 40 cm. A time-domain analysis is performed and models are presented for the mean excess delay and the delay spread. As a cross-layer application, the proposed path loss models are used to evaluate the energy efficiency of single-hop and multihop network topologies. PMID:19789118

  15. Metro Cebu: A Metropolitan Area in Need of Coordinative Body

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Glenda R.

    2004-01-01

    Urbanization and rapid increase in population in Metro Cebu brought about increased demand for basic services and infrastructure. The creation of the Metro Cebu Development Council comprising of the four (4) cities and six (6) municipalities in the eastern part of the Cebu Province, as an organizational structure, attempts to address these problems. However, services that require areas larger than a local jurisdiction for cost-effective provisioning like water supply, garbage disposal and sol...

  16. A human body model for efficient numerical characterization of UWB signal propagation in wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hooi Been; Baumann, Dirk; Li, Er-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Wireless body area network (WBAN) is a new enabling system with promising applications in areas such as remote health monitoring and interpersonal communication. Reliable and optimum design of a WBAN system relies on a good understanding and in-depth studies of the wave propagation around a human body. However, the human body is a very complex structure and is computationally demanding to model. This paper aims to investigate the effects of the numerical model's structure complexity and feature details on the simulation results. Depending on the application, a simplified numerical model that meets desired simulation accuracy can be employed for efficient simulations. Measurements of ultra wideband (UWB) signal propagation along a human arm are performed and compared to the simulation results obtained with numerical arm models of different complexity levels. The influence of the arm shape and size, as well as tissue composition and complexity is investigated. PMID:21062677

  17. Surface structure and properties of plant seed oil bodies

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Storage triacylglycerols (TAG) in plant seeds are present in small discrete intracellular organelles called oil bodies. An oil body has a matrix of TAG, which is surrounded by phospholipids (PL) and alkaline proteins, termed oleosins. Oil bodies isolated from mature maize (Zea mays) embryos maintained their discreteness, but coalesced after treatment with trypsin but not with phospholipase A2 or C. Phospholipase A2 or C exerted its activity on oil bodies only after the exposed portion of oleo...

  18. Area minimizing surfaces in mean convex 3-manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Coşkunüzer, Barış; Bourni, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    J. reine angew. Math. 704 (2015), 135–167 Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik DOI 10.1515/ crelle-2013-0050 © De Gruyter 2015 Area minimizing surfaces in mean convex 3-manifolds By Theodora Bourni at Berlin and Baris Coskunuzer at Istanbul Abstract. In this paper, we give several results on area minimizing surfaces in strictly mean convex 3-manifolds. First, we study the genus of absolutely area minimizing surfaces in a compact, orientable, strictly mean conve...

  19. Wireless Body Area Networks and Its Emerging Technologies in Real Time Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Evangelin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid improvement of wireless communication and semiconductor technologies, the body area sensor network (BASN is fast developing. The BASN which is also referred to as the WBAN (Wireless Body Area Network, is widely used in medical applications and comprises of Body Sensors attached to human body. These body sensors will help to monitor the interior functions of the body. The data generated by the sensors is transmitted via the internet and collected in external servers which are then used for analysis. The sensors being flexible and compact consume less power and provide a perfect environment for wireless sensing research. The main area of application of the WBAN is the medical field although it can also be extended to other areas like gaming, entertainment, road safety etc. These sensors will help to increase sensitivity and specificity. These days body sensors are emerging as wearable computers such as Computer clothing, Google glass, Smart watches etc which paves the way for using it in many more real time applications. In this paper we have discussed in detail about the architecture, application areas, and characteristics of the WBAN and how they are attached with the human body. WBAN is a sure platform that will dominate all the future wireless applications.

  20. Human Body Modeling and Posture Simulating Based on 3D Surface Scan Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永有; 张辉; 任少云; 蒋寿伟

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for modeling the human body by considering the motion state and the shape of whole body. The body model consists of a skeleton kinematic model and a surface model. The former is used to determine the posture of the body,and the latter is used to generate the body shape according to the given posture. The body surface is reconstructed with multi-segment B-spline surfaces based on the 3D scan data from a real human body.Using only a few joints parameters and the original surface scan data, the various body postures and the shape can be generated easily. The model has a strong potential of being used for ergonomic design,garment design, virtual reality environment, as well as creating human animation, etc.

  1. On the Interaction between a Nanoparticulate System and the Human Body in Body Area Nanonetworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Loscrí

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the interaction of a nanoparticulate system for nanomedicine applications with the biological environment, i.e., the human body. Following the molecular communication paradigm, we assess how our nanoparticulate system model is suitable for coexistence in a biological environment. Specifically, we assume the presence of the human immune system that can affect the optimal behavior of nanoparticles, aiming to locally deliver drug inside the human body. When a flow of nanoparticles is injected into the blood, the interference due to the immune system can provide a strong decrease of the nanoparticle concentration, by means of “humoral immunity”, the phagocytosis process, etc. As a consequence, the correct drug delivery will occur with a lower probability. Since the mechanism behind the biological immune system is very complicated, in this paper, we start from a simplistic nanoparticulate model, where the nanoparticles and the cells of the immune system are subject to the diffusion laws. Finally, we derive the end-to-end physical model of our nanoparticulate nanomedicine system with the presence of the human immune system cells. The error analysis is then investigated in terms of how these errors can affect the performance of the system, i.e., nanoparticle survival probability.

  2. Requirements and System Architecture for a Healthcare Wireless Body Area Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Overgaard; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    Wireless body area networks enable new opportunities for personal healthcare monitoring and personal healthcare applications. This paper presents a comprehensive set of requirements and challenges for building a wireless body area network to support diverse user groups and a corresponding set of ...... of an ASE-BAN test bed. The major goal for this test bed is to be a platform for research and experiments with development of an ultra-low power body area network including sensor, communication nodes, communication protocols and a body gateway component.......Wireless body area networks enable new opportunities for personal healthcare monitoring and personal healthcare applications. This paper presents a comprehensive set of requirements and challenges for building a wireless body area network to support diverse user groups and a corresponding set...... of healthcare applications. Based on the identified requirements, the paper presents an architecture for a wireless body area network and describes how this architecture is connected to an existing it-infrastructure supporting healthcare at home. Finally the paper presents our on-going research with development...

  3. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Peter; Bhanu Pratap Reddy; Farshad Momtaz; Tony Givargis

    2016-01-01

    Body area sensor networks (BANs) utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same ...

  4. Reliable and Energy Efficient Network Protocols for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Latré, B.

    2008-01-01

    In a wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) various sensors are attached on clothing, on the body or are even implanted under the skin. The wireless nature of the network and the wide variety of sensors offers numerous new, practical and innovative applications. A motivating example can be found in the world of health monitoring. The sensors of the WBAN measure for example the heartbeat, the body temperature or record a prolonged electrocardiogram. Using a WBAN, the patient experiences a greater p...

  5. ATLAS: A Traffic Load Aware Sensor MAC Design for Collaborative Body Area Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Cheol Bang; Md. Obaidur Rahman; Sungwon Lee; Choong Seon Hong

    2011-01-01

    In collaborative body sensor networks, namely wireless body area networks (WBANs), each of the physical sensor applications is used to collaboratively monitor the health status of the human body. The applications of WBANs comprise diverse and dynamic traffic loads such as very low-rate periodic monitoring (i.e., observation) data and high-rate traffic including event-triggered bursts. Therefore, in designing a medium access control (MAC) protocol for WBANs, energy conservation should be the p...

  6. Using CFD Surface Solutions to Shape Sonic Boom Signatures Propagated from Off-Body Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz, Irian; Li, Wu

    2013-01-01

    The conceptual design of a low-boom and low-drag supersonic aircraft remains a challenge despite significant progress in recent years. Inverse design using reversed equivalent area and adjoint methods have been demonstrated to be effective in shaping the ground signature propagated from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) off-body pressure distributions. However, there is still a need to reduce the computational cost in the early stages of design to obtain a baseline that is feasible for low-boom shaping, and in the search for a robust low-boom design over the entire sonic boom footprint. The proposed design method addresses the need to reduce the computational cost for robust low-boom design by using surface pressure distributions from CFD solutions to shape sonic boom ground signatures propagated from CFD off-body pressure.

  7. OXYANION SORPTION TO HIGH SURFACE AREA IRON AND ALUMINUM OXIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorption of selected oxyanions (Mo, As, and P) to high surface area iron and aluminum oxides was investigated using in situ Raman and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, batch sorption methods, electrophoretic mobility measurements, and surface complexation modeling. In situ ATR-FTIR and Raman spectra were coup...

  8. Development of a Lab Experiment for Intrusion Detection System in Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of sophisticated technology and associated indubitable benefits, the wireless network is gaining popularity day by day. Still there exists numerous security challenges and to overcome these, different researches are being carried on. This suggests that the wireless security is still in nascent stage and requires further development. The new wireless technologies like Wireless Body Area Network, thus provides tough challenges to security professionals. Wireless Body Area Networ...

  9. Energy Efficient Aggregation and Reliable Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatasubramanian Sivaprasatham; Dr. Jothi venkateswaran; Dr. Hafidh Taher Ba Omar

    2014-01-01

    In wireless body area networks (WBAN), the data loss, security and reliability requirements are not handled in the existing literature works. This necessitates the technique that deals with slot allocation scheme, delay and other performance metrics. In order to overcome this issue, in this paper, we propose an energy efficient aggregation and reliable communication for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN). Initially, the aggregator nodes are chosen based on the nodes connectivity. During the d...

  10. Quantifying object and material surface areas in residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Ming, Katherine Y.; Singer, Brett C.

    2005-01-05

    The dynamic behavior of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor environments depends, in part, on sorptive interactions between VOCs in the gas phase and material surfaces. Since information on the types and quantities of interior material surfaces is not generally available, this pilot-scale study was conducted in occupied residences to develop and demonstrate a method for quantifying surface areas of objects and materials in rooms. Access to 33 rooms in nine residences consisting of bathrooms, bedroom/offices and common areas was solicited from among research group members living in the East San Francisco Bay Area. A systematic approach was implemented for measuring rooms and objects from 300 cm{sup 2} and larger. The ventilated air volumes of the rooms were estimated and surface area-to-volume ratios were calculated for objects and materials, each segregated into 20 or more categories. Total surface area-to-volume ratios also were determined for each room. The bathrooms had the highest total surface area-to-volume ratios. Bedrooms generally had higher ratios than common areas consisting of kitchens, living/dining rooms and transitional rooms. Total surface area-to-volume ratios for the 12 bedrooms ranged between 2.3 and 4.7 m{sup 2} m{sup -3}. The importance of individual objects and materials with respect to sorption will depend upon the sorption coefficients for the various VOC/materials combinations. When combined, the highly permeable material categories, which may contribute to significant interactions, had a median ratio of about 0.5 m{sup 2} m{sup -3} for all three types of rooms.

  11. Tropical cyclone rainfall area controlled by relative sea surface temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yanluan; ZHAO Ming; Zhang, Minghua

    2015-01-01

    Tropical cyclone rainfall rates have been projected to increase in a warmer climate. The area coverage of tropical cyclones influences their impact on human lives, yet little is known about how tropical cyclone rainfall area will change in the future. Here, using satellite data and global atmospheric model simulations, we show that tropical cyclone rainfall area is controlled primarily by its environmental sea surface temperature (SST) relative to the tropical mean SST (that is, the relative ...

  12. Characterization of large area nanostructured surfaces using AFM measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido;

    2012-01-01

    A surface characterisation study has been developed to validate an innovative tool making solution for nano patterning large areas via anodizing of aluminium (Al) and subsequent nickel electroforming. A surface topography characterization through atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated a decreased...... magnitude of the 3D surface amplitude parameters chosen for the analysis, when increasing the Al purity from 99,5% to 99,999%. AFM was then employed to evaluate the periodical arrangements of the nano structured cells. Image processing was used to estimate the average areas value, the height variation...

  13. Reliable Communication in Wireless Body Area Sensor Network for Health Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Bahanfar, Saeid; Kousha, Helia; Babaie, Shahram

    2011-01-01

    Now days, interests in the application of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) have grown considerably. A number of tiny wireless sensors, strategically placed on the human body, create a wireless body area network that can monitor various vital signs, providing real-time feedback to the user and medical personnel. This communication needs to be energy efficient and highly reliable while keeping delays low. In this paper we present hardware and software architecture for BAN and also we offer reliable communication and data aggregation.

  14. Indoor patient position estimation using particle filtering and wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongliang; Meng, Max Q H; Xu, Lisheng

    2007-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has been recently promoted to monitor the physiological parameters of patient in an unobtrusive and natural way. This paper towards to make advantage of those ongoing wireless communication links between the body sensors to provide estimated position information of patients or particular body area networks, which make daily activity surveillance possible for further analysis. The proposed particle filtering based localization algorithm just picks up the received radio signal strength information from beacons or its neighbors to infer its own pose, which do not require additional hardware or instruments. Theoretical analysis and simulation experiments are presented to examine the performance of location estimating method. PMID:18002445

  15. Reliable Communication in Wireless Body Area Sensor Network for Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Bahanfar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Now days, interests in the application of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN have grown considerably. A number of tiny wireless sensors, strategically placed on the human body, create a wireless body area network that can monitor various vital signs, providing real-time feedback to the user and medical personnel. This communication needs to be energy efficient and highly reliable while keeping delays low. In this paper we present hardware and software architecture for BAN and also we offer reliable communication and data aggregation.

  16. Surface area considerations for corroding N reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The N Reactor fuel is corroding at sites where the Zircaloy cladding was damaged when the fuel was discharged from the reactor. Corroding areas are clearly visible on the fuel stored in open cans in the K East Basin. There is a need to estimate the area of the corroding uranium to analyze aspects of fuel behavior as it is transitioned. from current wet storage to dry storage. In this report, the factors that contribute to open-quotes trueclose quotes surface area are analyzed in terms of what is currently known about the N Reactor fuel. Using observations from a visual examinations of the fuel in the K East wet storage facility, a value for the corroding geometric area is estimated. Based on observations of corroding uranium and surface roughness values for other metals, a surface roughness factor is also estimated and applied to the corroding K East fuel to provide an estimated open-quotes trueclose quotes surface area. While the estimated area may be modified as additional data become available from fuel characterization studies, the estimate provides a basis to assess effects of exposed uranium metal surfaces on fuel behavior in operations involved in transitioning from wet to dry storage, during shipment and staging, conditioning, and dry interim storage

  17. Sub-discretized surface model with application to contact mechanics in multi-body simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S; Williams, J

    2008-02-28

    The mechanics of contact between rough and imperfectly spherical adhesive powder grains are often complicated by a variety of factors, including several which vary over sub-grain length scales. These include several traction factors that vary spatially over the surface of the individual grains, including high energy electron and acceptor sites (electrostatic), hydrophobic and hydrophilic sites (electrostatic and capillary), surface energy (general adhesion), geometry (van der Waals and mechanical), and elasto-plastic deformation (mechanical). For mechanical deformation and reaction, coupled motions, such as twisting with bending and sliding, as well as surface roughness add an asymmetry to the contact force which invalidates assumptions for popular models of contact, such as the Hertzian and its derivatives, for the non-adhesive case, and the JKR and DMT models for adhesive contacts. Though several contact laws have been offered to ameliorate these drawbacks, they are often constrained to particular loading paths (most often normal loading) and are relatively complicated for computational implementation. This paper offers a simple and general computational method for augmenting contact law predictions in multi-body simulations through characterization of the contact surfaces using a hierarchically-defined surface sub-discretization. For the case of adhesive contact between powder grains in low stress regimes, this technique can allow a variety of existing contact laws to be resolved across scales, allowing for moments and torques about the contact area as well as normal and tangential tractions to be resolved. This is especially useful for multi-body simulation applications where the modeler desires statistical distributions and calibration for parameters in contact laws commonly used for resolving near-surface contact mechanics. The approach is verified against analytical results for the case of rough, elastic spheres.

  18. Students' and Teachers' Application of Surface Area to Volume Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amy R.; Jones, M. Gail

    2013-02-01

    The National Science Education Standards emphasize teaching unifying concepts and processes such as basic functions of living organisms, the living environment, and scale (NRC 2011). Scale includes understanding that different characteristics, properties, or relationships within a system might change as its dimensions are increased or decreased (NRC 2011). One such relationship involves surface area to volume which is a pervasive concept that can be found throughout different sciences. This concept is important for students to not only understand the association of the two, but to also be able to apply this relationship in science contexts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that influence the understanding surface area to volume relationships. This study examined middle school students', high school students', and science teachers' logical thinking skills (including proportional reasoning), visual-spatial skills, and understandings of surface area to volume relationships. Regression results indicated that participants' reasoning abilities and components of visual-spatial skills could be possible predictors for one's ability to understand surface area to volume relationships. Implications for teaching scale concepts such as surface area to volume relationships in the science classroom are discussed.

  19. Can foot anthropometric measurements predict dynamic plantar surface contact area?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Natalie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that increased plantar surface area, associated with pes planus, is a risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries. The intent of this study was to determine if a single or combination of foot anthropometric measures could be used to predict plantar surface area. Methods Six foot measurements were collected on 155 subjects (97 females, 58 males, mean age 24.5 ± 3.5 years. The measurements as well as one ratio were entered into a stepwise regression analysis to determine the optimal set of measurements associated with total plantar contact area either including or excluding the toe region. The predicted values were used to calculate plantar surface area and were compared to the actual values obtained dynamically using a pressure sensor platform. Results A three variable model was found to describe the relationship between the foot measures/ratio and total plantar contact area (R2 = 0.77, p R2 = 0.76, p Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the clinician can use a combination of simple, reliable, and time efficient foot anthropometric measurements to explain over 75% of the plantar surface contact area, either including or excluding the toe region.

  20. MCO gas composition for low reactive surface areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This calculation adjusts modeled output (HNF-SD-SNF-TI-040, Rev. 2) by considering lower reactive fuel surface areas and by increasing the input helium backfill overpressure from 0.5 to 1.5 atm (2.5 atm abs) to verify that MCO gas-phase oxygen concentrations can remain below 4 mole % over a 40 year interim period under a worst case condition of zero reactive surface area. Added backfill gas will dilute any gases generated during interim storage and is a strategy within the current design capability. The zero reactive surface area represents a hypothetical worst case example where there is no fuel scrap and/or damaged spent fuel rods in an MCO. Also included is a hypothetical case where only K East fuel exists in an MCO with an added backfill overpressure of 0.5 atm (1.5 atm abs)

  1. MCO gas composition for low reactive surface areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, M.J.

    1998-07-23

    This calculation adjusts modeled output (HNF-SD-SNF-TI-040, Rev. 2) by considering lower reactive fuel surface areas and by increasing the input helium backfill overpressure from 0.5 to 1.5 atm (2.5 atm abs) to verify that MCO gas-phase oxygen concentrations can remain below 4 mole % over a 40 year interim period under a worst case condition of zero reactive surface area. Added backfill gas will dilute any gases generated during interim storage and is a strategy within the current design capability. The zero reactive surface area represents a hypothetical worst case example where there is no fuel scrap and/or damaged spent fuel rods in an MCO. Also included is a hypothetical case where only K East fuel exists in an MCO with an added backfill overpressure of 0.5 atm (1.5 atm abs).

  2. STEREOLOGICAL ESTIMATION OF SURFACE AREA FROM DIGITAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Ziegel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A sampling design of local stereology is combined with a method from digital stereology to yield a novel estimator of surface area based on counts of configurations observed in a digitization of an isotropic 2- dimensional slice with thickness s. As a tool, a result of the second author and J. Rataj on infinitesimal increase of volumes of morphological transforms is refined and used. The proposed surface area estimator is asymptotically unbiased in the case of sets contained in the ball centred at the origin with radius s and in the case of balls centred at the origin with unknown radius. For general shapes bounds for the asymptotic expected relative worst case error are given. A simulation example is discussed for surface area estimation based on 2×2×2-configurations.

  3. Dependence of friction noise of rough surfaces with contact area

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bot, Alain; Dang, Viet Hung; Bou Chakra, Elie

    2012-01-01

    The noise emitted during the friction of rough surfaces is a wide band noise generated by the numerous impacts occuring between antagonist asperites of surfaces. This study presents an experiment which investigates the law between the acoustical power and a varying number of identical sliders i.e. the nominal contact area. It is found that in some cases, the acoustical power is proportional to the number of sliders while the sound is constant in some others. This result is explained by introd...

  4. Specific surface area of some minerals commonly found in granite

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Isabelle E.

    2011-01-01

    The specific surface area, determined by the BET method, is a parameter often used to scale results of mineral studies of surface reactions in terms of rate and capacity to the field scale. Such extrapolations of results from small-scale laboratory experiments to the field-scale are important within many environmental applications. An example of this is for the prediction of radionuclide retention in the bedrock surrounding a deep repository for radioactive waste, following failure of the eng...

  5. Stereological estimation of surface area from digital images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegel, Johanna; Kiderlen, Markus

    2010-01-01

    A sampling design of local stereology is combined with a method from digital stereology to yield a novel estimator of surface area based on counts of configurations observed in a digitization of an isotropic 2- dimensional slice with thickness s. As a tool, a result of the second author and J....... Rataj on infinitesimal increase of volumes of morphological transforms is refined and used. The proposed surface area estimator is asymptotically unbiased in the case of sets contained in the ball centred at the origin with radius s and in the case of balls centred at the origin with unknown radius. For...

  6. Examples of Area-Minimizing Surfaces in 3-manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Coşkunuzer, Barış

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we give some examples of area-minimizing surfaces to clarify some wellknown features of these surfaces in more general settings. The first example is about Meeks–Yau’s result on the embeddedness of the solution to the Plateau problem. We construct an example of a simple closed curve in R3 which lies in the boundary of a mean convex domain in R3, but the area-minimizing disk in R3 bounding this curve is not embedded. Our second example shows that White’s boundary decomposition t...

  7. Terrain-surface Estimation from Body Configurations of Passive Linkages

    OpenAIRE

    Daisuke Chugo; Kuniaki Kawabata; Hayato Kaetsu; Hajime Asama; Taketoshi Mishima

    2014-01-01

    A passive linkage mechanism is used for increasing the mobile performance of a wheeled vehicle on uneven ground. The mechanism changes its shape according to the terrain and enables all the wheels to remain grounded while the vehicle operates over rough terrain. This means that the shape of the passive linkage mechanism must correspond to that of the terrain surface, so that the vehicle can estimate the shape of the surface while passing over it. This paper proposes a new terrain- surface est...

  8. Electromagnetic Fields at the Surface of Human-Body Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper;

    2016-01-01

    transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarization. The results show that the material assumption when modeling the human body as a homogeneous material is very important. Furthermore, it is shown that one assumption might lead to higher fields for a specific polarization, angle of incidence and...

  9. Weighted Energy-Balanced Efficient Routing Algorithm for Wireless Body Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuoming Li; Zhenyu Xu; Shengge Mao; Xing Tong; Xuejun Sha

    2016-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a small-scaled sensor network consisting of a series of medical devices attributed to, around, or implanted in a human body, providing continuous monitoring by different sensors to collect vital signals or motion and GPS. This paper proposes an effective routing algorithm to balance the energy consumption within a WBAN in order to prolong the overall lifetime of the network, called dynamic routing algorithm (DRA) and its improved version based on a multipa...

  10. A Study of IEEE 802.15.4 Security Framework for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung Sup Kwak; Sana Ullah; Shahnaz Saleem

    2011-01-01

    A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a collection of low-power and lightweight wireless sensor nodes that are used to monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. It supports a number of innovative and interesting applications, including ubiquitous healthcare and Consumer Electronics (CE) applications. Since WBAN nodes are used to collect sensitive (life-critical) information and may operate in hostile environments, they require strict security mechanisms to prevent mal...

  11. Improved Successive Interference Cancellation for MIMO/UWB-Based Wireless Body Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasheela, M; Rajeswari, A.

    2012-01-01

    In body area networks, various sensors are attached to clothing or on the body or even implanted under the skin. The sensors measure such as heart beat, the record of prolonged electrocardiogram, blood pressure, and so on. In this paper, an improved Successive interference cancellation (SIC) scheme based on zero correlation zone sequences is proposed. Here ZCZ is used as a random code for TH PPM UWB system. Nodes in a WBAN are connected through wireless communication channel within a very clo...

  12. Technologies and Research Trends in Wireless Body Area Networks for Healthcare: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ilkyu Ha

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the increasing interest in the integration of the medical technology and the information and communications technology, research on wireless body area networks (WBANs), which apply a sensor network to the human body, is being actively conducted. Existing sensor network technology has the potential to be used in a WBAN; however, it has some limitations. In particular, a WBAN has a very different network environment compared to a sensor network that uses free space, because wireless se...

  13. A comprehensive survey of wireless body area networks on PHY, MAC, and network layers solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Sana; Higgins, Henry; Braem, Bart; Latré, Benoît; Blondia, Chris; Moerman, Ingrid; Saleem, Shahnaz; Rahman, Ziaur; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in microelectronics and integrated circuits, system-on-chip design, wireless communication and intelligent low-power sensors have allowed the realization of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN is a collection of low-power, miniaturized, invasive/non-invasive lightweight wireless sensor nodes that monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. In addition, it supports a number of innovative and interesting applications such as ubiquitous healthcare, e...

  14. Design and implementation of a multi-purpose Wireless Body Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Virk, M. (Muhammad)

    2013-01-01

    A wireless body area network (WBAN) is a collection of miniaturized and energy efficient wireless sensor nodes which monitor human body functions and its surroundings. It has been observed that WBANs perform single application per network, computation and storage capacities are scarce and there is no or limited mobility support. Technically complex WBAN application solutions today, find refuge in processing computationally complex data external to WBANs, i.e., processing sensor data on a conv...

  15. Game Theory Based Security in Wireless Body Area Network with Stackelberg Security Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Somasundaram, M.; R. Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is effectively used in healthcare to increase the value of the patient's life and also the value of healthcare services. The biosensor based approach in medical care system makes it difficult to respond to the patients with minimal response time. The medical care unit does not deploy the accessing of ubiquitous broadband connections full time and hence the level of security will not be high always. The security issue also arises in monitoring the user body fu...

  16. MAC Protocol in Wireless Body Area Network for Mobile Health: A Survey and an Architecture Design

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Qi; Kun Wang; AnPeng Huang; Haifeng Hu; Guangjie Han

    2015-01-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) have become a leading solution in mobile health (mHealth). Typically, a WBAN consists of in-body or around-body sensor nodes for collecting data of physiological feature. For a WBAN to provide high throughput and low delay in an energy-efficient way, designing an efficient medium access control (MAC) protocol is of paramount importance because the MAC layer coordinates nodes’ access to the shared wireless medium. To show the difference of MAC protocols betw...

  17. Impact of Indoor Environment on Path Loss in Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Hausman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of an example indoor environment on narrowband radio channel path loss for body area networks operating around 2.4 GHz is investigated using computer simulations and on-site measurements. In contrast to other similar studies, the simulation model included both a numerical human body phantom and its environment—room walls, floor and ceiling. As an example, radio signal attenuation between two different configurations of transceivers with dipole antennas placed in a direct vicinity of a human body (on-body scenario is analyzed by computer simulations for several types of reflecting environments. In the analyzed case the propagation environments comprised a human body and office room walls. As a reference environment for comparison, free space with only a conducting ground plane, modelling a steel mesh reinforced concrete floor, was chosen. The transmitting and receiving antennas were placed in two on-body configurations chest–back and chest–arm. Path loss vs. frequency simulation results obtained using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD method and a multi-tissue anthropomorphic phantom were compared to results of measurements taken with a vector network analyzer with a human subject located in an average-size empty cuboidal office room. A comparison of path loss values in different environments variants gives some qualitative and quantitative insight into the adequacy of simplified indoor environment model for the indoor body area network channel representation.

  18. Body-Painting: A Tool Which Can Be Used to Teach Surface Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjundaiah, Komala; Chowdapurkar, Sheshgiri

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The primary method of learning the surface anatomy is by making the students mark structures on mummified bodies. The students feel that learning the surface anatomy on mummified cadavers is not interesting. The present project on learning the surface anatomy through the body painting method was undertaken to evoke interest among the students. Materials and Methods Physiotherapy and dental undergraduate students who volunteered were involved in this study. A few surface anatomy classes were conducted by using the traditional method and a few more by using the body painting exercise. Non toxic body paints of various colours and brushes of different sizes were used for the body painting. Results A feedback was obtained from the students by using a structured questionnaire. The students opined that the body painting method was advantageous to them in learning the human anatomy. They also felt that they could have more practice sessions in any setting other than in the classroom and that they did not need to rely upon the mummified bodies. They described the body painting method as self explanatory, which gave them the feel of live structures. Conclusion This project was successful in achieving its objectives as the students felt that the method was exciting, with lots of fun during the learning. The body painting method was well accepted by the students as an effective method for learning the surface and the clinical anatomy. PMID:23205358

  19. Error bounds for surface area estimators based on Crofton's formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiderlen, Markus; Meschenmoser, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    According to Crofton’s formula, the surface area S(A) of a sufficiently regular compact set A in R^d is proportional to the mean of all total projections pA (u) on a linear hyperplane with normal u, uniformly averaged over all unit vectors u. In applications, pA (u) is only measured in k directions...

  20. Energy Efficient MAC for QoS Traffic in Wireless Body Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Anil K. Jacob; Lillykutty Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Lifetimes and latencies of devices in wireless body area networks (WBANs) that monitor the health conditions of patients largely determine their utility under such a setup. It is seen that the medium access method used in the body area network can play a significant role in determining the quality of service such medical devices can provide. IEEE 802.15.6 standard for WBAN includes different types of medium access, namely, CSMA/CA, scheduled, and polling access schemes, or a combination of th...

  1. Surface water and groundwater interaction in Marala - Khanki area, Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope hydrological investigations were carried out in two selected areas of Indus Basin viz. Haripur Area and Chashma- Taunsa Area for elucidating various aspects of surface water and groundwater interaction. Groundwater samples were collected on seasonal basis (low and high river discharge periods) while surface water samples were collected more frequently (weekly or monthly basis). Isotopic data suggested that there is no contribution of surface water to groundwater recharge in Haripur Area and rain is the prevailing source of groundwater recharge. The data further revealed that isotopic values of the Haripur pocket of Tarbela Lake are higher than those of Main Lake / Indus River meaning that there is a significant contribution of base flow in this pocket. Indus River appeared to be the dominant source of groundwater recharge at most of the locations in Chashma- Taunsa Area. Isotopic data of Indus River showed an increase at Taunsa as compared to Chashma in low flow period indicating the high contribution of base flow at this point in time. Stable isotopes were successfully used to quantify the base flow contribution. (author)

  2. Tritium retention in nanostructured tungsten with large effective surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tungsten specimens with fiberform nanostructure (Nano-W) were prepared by exposure to helium plasma in the divertor plasma simulator NAGDIS-II with different amounts of helium fluence. For comparison, tungsten specimens with smooth surface (Polished-W) were also prepared. Surface area of Nano-W was measured by using Brunauer, Emmet and Teller (B.E.T.) method. Tritium retention of Nano-W and Polished-W was investigated by an imaging plate (IP) and β-ray induced X-ray spectrometry (BIXS) technique exposure to mixture gas of deuterium and tritium. It was found that surface area of Nano-W was significantly larger than that of Polished-W and increased in proportion to the amount of helium irradiation. On the other hand, tritium retention showed a saturation trend when the helium fluence was higher than 5.0 × 1025 m−2

  3. Joint body and surface wave tomography applied to the Toba caldera complex (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Koulakov, Ivan; Shapiro, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    We developed a new algorithm for a joint body and surface wave tomography. The algorithm is a modification of the existing LOTOS code (Koulakov, 2009) developed for local earthquake tomography. The input data for the new method are travel times of P and S waves and dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love waves. The main idea is that the two data types have complementary sensitivities. The body-wave data have good resolution at depth, where we have enough crossing rays between sources and receivers, whereas the surface waves have very good near-surface resolution. The surface wave dispersion curves can be retrieved from the correlations of the ambient seismic noise and in this case the sampled path distribution does not depend on the earthquake sources. The contributions of the two data types to the inversion are controlled by the weighting of the respective equations. One of the clearest cases where such approach may be useful are volcanic systems in subduction zones with their complex magmatic feeding systems that have deep roots in the mantle and intermediate magma chambers in the crust. In these areas, the joint inversion of different types of data helps us to build a comprehensive understanding of the entire system. We apply our algorithm to data collected in the region surrounding the Toba caldera complex (north Sumatra, Indonesia) during two temporary seismic experiments (IRIS, PASSCAL, 1995, GFZ, LAKE TOBA, 2008). We invert 6644 P and 5240 S wave arrivals and ~500 group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love waves. We present a series of synthetic tests and real data inversions which show that joint inversion approach gives more reliable results than the separate inversion of two data types. Koulakov, I., LOTOS code for local earthquake tomographic inversion. Benchmarks for testing tomographic algorithms, Bull. seism. Soc. Am., 99(1), 194-214, 2009, doi:10.1785/0120080013

  4. Scaling Up Nature: Large Area Flexible Biomimetic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinyong; John, Jacob; Kolewe, Kristopher W; Schiffman, Jessica D; Carter, Kenneth R

    2015-10-28

    The fabrication and advanced function of large area biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) and slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) are reported. The use of roll-to-roll nanoimprinting techniques enabled the continuous fabrication of SHS and SLIPS based on hierarchically wrinkled surfaces. Perfluoropolyether hybrid molds were used as flexible molds for roll-to-roll imprinting into a newly designed thiol-ene based photopolymer resin coated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate films. The patterned surfaces exhibit feasible superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle around 160° without any further surface modification. The SHS can be easily converted into SLIPS by roll-to-roll coating of a fluorinated lubricant, and these surfaces have outstanding repellence to a variety of liquids. Furthermore, both SHS and SLIPS display antibiofouling properties when challenged with Escherichia coli K12 MG1655. The current article describes the transformation of artificial biomimetic structures from small, lab-scale coupons to low-cost, large area platforms. PMID:26423494

  5. Definition of Method of Measurement of Supporting and Control Surface Areas, Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1931-01-01

    Definitions of methods of measurements of supporting and control surface areas are presented. Methods for measuring the supporting surface, i.e., the wing area, and the control surfaces, i.e., the horizontal tail area, the vertical tail area, and the trailing control surface areas are defined. Illustrations of each of the areas are included.

  6. Body surface monitor for measuring radioactive contamination of the general population after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new body surface monitor for monitoring the surface radioactive contamination of the general population living and working around the site in the early stages of a nuclear accident has been designed. The body surface monitors will be installed in a medium-sized bus with a thyroid counter and moved to the place where measurement is required. The different characteristics needed for the body surface monitor to measure the general population from those of monitors used in nuclear power stations are discussed. The detection sensitivity of the plastic scintillator was measured under various geometric conditions and the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) was found to be lower than 1 Bq/cm2 in a 10-second count time. Two body surface monitors can measure 2,880 persons in eight hours. (author)

  7. Influence of Surface Treatment on the Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel in Simulated Human Body Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esmaeil Jafari; Mohammad Jafar Hadianfard

    2009-01-01

    In the present research, the influence of chromium enrichment by surface treatment on corrosion resistance of type 316L stainless steel in body environment was investigated. For this study, weight loss test during 18 months, cyclic and liner polarization tests before and after surface treatment and metallography by electron and light microscopy were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) method was used to determine the chromium concentration in the surface layer after surface treatment. Results show that the surface treatment has improved corrosion resistance of the type 316L stainless steel in body environment.

  8. Terrain-surface Estimation from Body Configurations of Passive Linkages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Chugo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A passive linkage mechanism is used for increasing the mobile performance of a wheeled vehicle on uneven ground. The mechanism changes its shape according to the terrain and enables all the wheels to remain grounded while the vehicle operates over rough terrain. This means that the shape of the passive linkage mechanism must correspond to that of the terrain surface, so that the vehicle can estimate the shape of the surface while passing over it. This paper proposes a new terrain- surface estimation scheme that uses a passive linkage mechanism. Our key concept is to enable changes in the vehicle body’s configuration to correspond to those in the terrain’s shape. Using this concept, our mobile platform estimates the shape of terrain surfaces without using external sensors; the estimated surface shapes are used to adjust the reference velocities of individual wheels, thereby improving the mobile performance of the vehicle. We test our proposed scheme by experiments using a prototype vehicle.

  9. Migrated foreign body granulomas on mammography after injection in the cervicofacial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe the mammographic findings of localized foreign body granulomas in women who were injected with a foreign body in the cervicofacial area to flatten wrinkles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The teaching files of our institutions were searched, and nine mammograms of migrated foreign body granulomas located. The mammograms were analysed, including the location, shape, size, distribution and depth of the high-density nodules. All these cases had undergone sonography. RESULTS: The migrated foreign body granulomas appeared bilateral (n=6), or unilateral (n=3), as oval or round high-density nodules, in the upper inner and/or upper central locations. The average size of the lesions was less than 5 mm in all cases. All nine sonograms showed multiple, round cystic nodules, less than 5 mm in size, with strong posterior shadowing from far upper central to the upper inner breast. Sonography of the lower neck revealed the anatomy could not be visualized due to the strong posterior shadowing in the skin and subcutaneous fat layer. CONCLUSION: Migrated foreign body granulomas appeared on mammograms as localized, multiple oval or round high-density nodules, less than 0.5 cm in size, in the upper inner and/or upper central breast. Breast sonography, including the sonography of the suspected cervicofacial area, is helpful in verifying migrated foreign body granulomas

  10. RE-ATTEMPT: A New Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Modern health care system is one of the most popular Wireless Body Area Sensor Network (WBASN) applications and a hot area of research subject to present work. In this paper, we present Reliability Enhanced-Adaptive Threshold based Thermal-unaware Energy-efficient Multi-hop ProTocol (RE-ATTEMPT) for WBASNs. The proposed routing protocol uses fixed deployment of wireless sensors (nodes) such that these are placed according to energy levels. Moreover, we use direct communication for the deliver...

  11. Small carpal bone surface area, a characteristic of Turner's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An abnormality which has received little attention but may be easily recognized on radiographs of the hand of patients with Turner's syndrome is described. Eleven of thirty-one patients (35.5%) with Turner's syndrome were shown on radiographs of the hand to have a visually detectable smallness of the bone surface area of the carpus when compared to the area of the second through fifth metacarpals. Values for the ''C/M'' ratio (the area of the carpals divided by the area of the second through fifth metacarpals) were calculated for films of 31 individuals with gonadal dysgenesis and compared with those from bone age-matched films of seventy-six individuals with normal development of the hand and wrist. A consistent difference with minimal overlap was documented. (orig./WL)

  12. Tropical cyclone rainfall area controlled by relative sea surface temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanluan; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Minghua

    2015-01-01

    Tropical cyclone rainfall rates have been projected to increase in a warmer climate. The area coverage of tropical cyclones influences their impact on human lives, yet little is known about how tropical cyclone rainfall area will change in the future. Here, using satellite data and global atmospheric model simulations, we show that tropical cyclone rainfall area is controlled primarily by its environmental sea surface temperature (SST) relative to the tropical mean SST (that is, the relative SST), while rainfall rate increases with increasing absolute SST. Our result is consistent with previous numerical simulations that indicated tight relationships between tropical cyclone size and mid-tropospheric relative humidity. Global statistics of tropical cyclone rainfall area are not expected to change markedly under a warmer climate provided that SST change is relatively uniform, implying that increases in total rainfall will be confined to similar size domains with higher rainfall rates. PMID:25761457

  13. Impact of the environment and the topology on the performance of hierarchical body area networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Gianluigi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Personal area networks and, more specifically, body area networks (BANs are key building blocks of future generation networks and of the Internet of Things as well. In this article, we present a novel analytical framework for network performance analysis of body sensor networks with hierarchical (tree topologies. This framework takes into account the specificities of the on-body channel modeling and the impact of the surrounding environment. The obtained results clearly highlight the differences between indoor and outdoor scenarios, and provide several insights on BAN design and analysis. In particular, it will be shown that the BAN topology should be selected according to the foreseen medical application and the deployment environment.

  14. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Body Area Networks Using the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Mittra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous full-wave solution, via the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (FDTD method, is performed in an attempt to obtain realistic communication channel models for on-body wireless transmission in Body-Area-Networks (BANs, which are local data networks using the human body as a propagation medium. The problem of modeling the coupling between body mounted antennas is often not amenable to attack by hybrid techniques owing to the complex nature of the human body. For instance, the time-domain Green’s function approach becomes more involved when the antennas are not conformal. Furthermore, the human body is irregular in shape and has dispersion properties that are unique. One consequence of this is that we must resort to modeling the antenna network mounted on the body in its entirety, and the number of degrees of freedom (DoFs can be on the order of billions. Even so, this type of problem can still be modeled by employing a parallel version of the FDTD algorithm running on a cluster. Lastly, we note that the results of rigorous simulation of BANs can serve as benchmarks for comparison with the abundance of measurement data.

  15. From BAN to AmI-BAN: micro and nano technologies in future Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Val; Jones, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    At the University of Twente we have been researching mobile healthcare applications since 1999. Since 2002 the University of Twente and partners have been developing health Body Area Networks (BANs) and a BAN service platform. We define a BAN as a network of communicating devices worn on, around or

  16. A Graph Theoretical Approach for Network Coding in Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Eimear; Manada, Akiko; Marinkovic, Stevan; Popovici, Emanuel

    2011-01-01

    Modern medical wireless systems, such as wireless body area networks (WBANs), are applications of wireless networks that can be used as a tool of data transmission between patients and doctors. Accuracy of data transmission is an important requirement for such systems. In this paper, we will propose a WBAN which is robust against erasures and describe its properties using graph theoretic techniques.

  17. A lightweight security scheme for wireless body area networks: design, energy evaluation and proposed microprocessor design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selimis, G.; Huang, L.; Massé, F.; Tsekoura, I.; Ashouei, M.; Catthoor, F.; Huisken, J.; Stuyt, J.; Dolmans, G.; Penders, J.; Groot, H. de

    2011-01-01

    In order for wireless body area networks to meet widespread adoption, a number of security implications must be explored to promote and maintain fundamental medical ethical principles and social expectations. As a result, integration of security functionality to sensor nodes is required. Integrating

  18. Tomo-PIV measurement of flow around an arbitrarily moving body with surface reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sunghyuk; Jeon, Young Jin; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2015-02-01

    A three-dimensional surface of an arbitrarily moving body in a flow field was reconstructed using the DAISY descriptor and epipolar geometry constraints. The surface shape of a moving body was reconstructed with tomographic PIV flow measurement. Experimental images were captured using the tomographic PIV system, which consisted of four high-speed cameras and a laser. The originally captured images, which contained the shape of the arbitrary moving body and the tracer particles, were separated into the particle and surface images using a Gaussian smoothing filter. The weak contrast of the surface images was enhanced using a local histogram equalization method. The histogram-equalized surface images were used to reconstruct the surface shape of the moving body. The surface reconstruction method required a sufficiently detailed surface pattern to obtain the intensity gradient profile of the local descriptor. The separated particle images were used to reconstruct the particle volume intensity via tomographic reconstruction approaches. Voxels behind the reconstructed body surface were neglected during the tomographic reconstruction and velocity calculation. The three-dimensional three-component flow vectors were calculated based on the cross-correlation functions between the reconstructed particle volumes. Three-dimensional experiments that modeled the flows around a flapping flag, a rotating cylinder, and a flapping robot fish tail were conducted to validate the present technique.

  19. Restudies on Body Surface of Dung Beetle and Application of Its Bionics Flexible Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiurong Sun; Jianqiao Li; Hong Cheng; Zhendong Dai; Luquan Ren

    2004-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope was used to observe the structures of the setae on the surface of a dung beetle Copris ochus, Motschulsky. There are lots of setae on the body surface, especially on the ventral part surface and lateral to the legs which are different in size, arrangement and shape. These setae have different lengths and many thorns on the whole seta. The top ends of these setae stand up without furcations which direct uprightly towards the surface of the touched soil. By the method of removing these setae, getting the insect weight before and after digging into the dung we affirm farther that the setae on the beetle body surface form the anti-stick and non-adherent gentle interface. The soil machines and components made by imitating the gentle body surface of beetles have favorable non-adherent results.

  20. Many-body effects in simple metal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Natschläger, S

    2001-01-01

    equations are used to describe the electromagnetic field of the photon, wherein the electron system enters via the material equations. Using Green's functions, the Schroedinger equation with the perturbing Hamiltonian describing the photon field is solved for the scattering amplitude for various angles of photon penetration and electron emission, yielding the probability that an electron leaves the system. The procedure is self consistent. Since most photoemission experiments use relatively thick films, the infinite half space is used here. weakest. As a surface-mode is strongly localized in the surface, whereas the bulk-mode is extended throughout the film, the type of plasmon can be determined from the shape of the induced density. This determination may become ambiguous in the vicinity of level crossing, and additional information can be obtained from the asymptotic current, the shape of which does not change, when one follows a particular dispersion. In the second part we use a simple classical approach i...

  1. Seismic interferometry of railroad induced ground motions: body and surface wave imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, Diego A.; Brown, Larry D.; Kim, Doyeon

    2016-04-01

    Seismic interferometry applied to 120 hr of railroad traffic recorded by an array of vertical component seismographs along a railway within the Rio Grande rift has recovered surface and body waves characteristic of the geology beneath the railway. Linear and hyperbolic arrivals are retrieved that agree with surface (Rayleigh), direct and reflected P waves observed by nearby conventional seismic surveys. Train-generated Rayleigh waves span a range of frequencies significantly higher than those recovered from typical ambient noise interferometry studies. Direct P-wave arrivals have apparent velocities appropriate for the shallow geology of the survey area. Significant reflected P-wave energy is also present at relatively large offsets. A common midpoint stack produces a reflection image consistent with nearby conventional reflection data. We suggest that for sources at the free surface (e.g. trains) increasing the aperture of the array to record wide angle reflections, in addition to longer recording intervals, might allow the recovery of deeper geological structure from railroad traffic. Frequency-wavenumber analyses of these recordings indicate that the train source is symmetrical (i.e. approaching and receding) and that deeper refracted energy is present although not evident in the time-offset domain. These results confirm that train-generated vibrations represent a practical source of high-resolution subsurface information, with particular relevance to geotechnical and environmental applications.

  2. Coal combustion: correlation between surface area and thermogravimetric analysis data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghetti, P.; De Robertis, U.; D' Antone, S.; Villani, M.; Chiellini, E.

    1985-07-01

    A series of coals of different rank has been characterized by surface area measurements performed by sorption of both nitrogen and carbon dioxide. While the data obtained with nitrogen do not discriminate among the different coal samples, those based on carbon dioxide sorption do give a significant distinction between the samples. This technique has also been applied to the determination of the surface area of coal samples quenched after stepwise combustion in air atmosphere. It has been possible to establish a useful correlation between the latter data and the burning profile measured by derivative thermogravimetry. The aim of the present study was to gain a better understanding of the coal combustion process on a laboratory scale which could reasonably be extended to combustion plants. 19 references.

  3. A comprehensive survey of energy-aware routing protocols in wireless body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effatparvar, Mehdi; Dehghan, Mehdi; Rahmani, Amir Masoud

    2016-09-01

    Wireless body area sensor network is a special purpose wireless sensor network that, employing wireless sensor nodes in, on, or around the human body, makes it possible to measure biological parameters of a person for specific applications. One of the most fundamental concerns in wireless body sensor networks is accurate routing in order to send data promptly and properly, and therefore overcome some of the challenges. Routing protocols for such networks are affected by a large number of factors including energy, topology, temperature, posture, the radio range of sensors, and appropriate quality of service in sensor nodes. Since energy is highly important in wireless body area sensor networks, and increasing the network lifetime results in benefiting greatly from sensor capabilities, improving routing performance with reduced energy consumption presents a major challenge. This paper aims to study wireless body area sensor networks and the related routing methods. It also presents a thorough, comprehensive review of routing methods in wireless body area sensor networks from the perspective of energy. Furthermore, different routing methods affecting the parameter of energy will be classified and compared according to their advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, fundamental concepts of wireless body area sensor networks are provided, and then the advantages and disadvantages of these networks are investigated. Since one of the most fundamental issues in wireless body sensor networks is to perform routing so as to transmit data precisely and promptly, we discuss the same issue. As a result, we propose a classification of the available relevant literature with respect to the key challenge of energy in the routing process. With this end in view, all important papers published between 2000 and 2015 are classified under eight categories including 'Mobility-Aware', 'Thermal-Aware', 'Restriction of Location and Number of Relays', 'Link-aware', 'Cluster- and Tree

  4. Excess Surface Area in Bioelectrochemical Systems Causes ion Transport Limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Timothy D.; Babauta, Jerome T.; Davenport, Emily K.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-05-01

    We investigated ion transport limitations on 3D graphite felt electrodes by growing Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms with advection to eliminate external mass transfer limitations. We characterized ion transport limitations by: (i) showing that serially increasing NaCl concentration up to 200mM increased current linearly up to a total of þ273% vs. 0mM NaCl under advective conditions; (ii) growing the biofilm with a starting concentration of 200mM NaCl, which led to a maximum current increase of 400% vs. current generation without NaCl, and (iii) showing that un-colonized surface area remained even after steadystate current was reached. After accounting for iR effects, we confirmed that the excess surface area existed despite a non-zero overpotential. The fact that the biofilm was constrained from colonizing and producing further current under these conditions confirmed the biofilms under study here were ion transport-limited. Our work demonstrates that the use of high surface area electrodes may not increase current density when the system design allows ion transport limitations to become dominant.

  5. Adsorption of naphthenic acids on high surface area activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranmanesh, Sobhan; Harding, Thomas; Abedi, Jalal; Seyedeyn-Azad, Fakhry; Layzell, David B

    2014-01-01

    In oil sands mining extraction, water is an essential component; however, the processed water becomes contaminated through contact with the bitumen at high temperature, and a portion of it cannot be recycled and ends up in tailing ponds. The removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) from tailing pond water is crucial, as they are corrosive and toxic and provide a substrate for microbial activity that can give rise to methane, which is a potent greenhouse gas. In this study, the conversion of sawdust into an activated carbon (AC) that could be used to remove NAs from tailings water was studied. After producing biochar from sawdust by a slow-pyrolysis process, the biochar was physically activated using carbon dioxide (CO2) over a range of temperatures or prior to producing biochar, and the sawdust was chemically activated using phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The physically activated carbon had a lower surface area per gram than the chemically activated carbon. The physically produced ACs had a lower surface area per gram than chemically produced AC. In the adsorption tests with NAs, up to 35 mg of NAs was removed from the water per gram of AC. The chemically treated ACs showed better uptake, which can be attributed to its higher surface area and increased mesopore size when compared with the physically treated AC. Both the chemically produced and physically produced AC provided better uptake than the commercially AC. PMID:24766592

  6. Facile synthesis of high surface area molybdenum nitride and carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of high surface area γ-Mo2N and α-Mo2C is reported (116 and 120 m2/g) without the temperature programmed reduction of MoO3. γ-Mo2N was prepared in an NH3-free synthesis using forming gas (7 at% H2, N2-balance) as the reactive atmosphere. Three precursors were studied ((NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O, (NH4)2 Mg(MoO4)2, and MgMoO4) along with the sacrificial support method (SSM) as a means of reducing the particle size of Mo2N and Mo2C. In situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were carried out to identify reaction intermediates, the temperature at which various intermediates form, and the average domain size of the Mo2N products. Materials were synthesized in bulk and further characterized by XRD, HRTEM, XPS, and BET. - Highlights: • Facile synthesis of γ-Mo2N and α-Mo2C with surface area exceeding 100 m2/g. • Sacrificial support method was used to achieve these high surface areas. • Materials can serve as catalysts or supports in (electro)chemical processes

  7. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Peter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Body area sensor networks (BANs utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system.

  8. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Steffen; Reddy, Bhanu Pratap; Momtaz, Farshad; Givargis, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Body area sensor networks (BANs) utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system. PMID:27110785

  9. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Steffen; Pratap Reddy, Bhanu; Momtaz, Farshad; Givargis, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Body area sensor networks (BANs) utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system. PMID:27110785

  10. Spectral theory of infinite-area hyperbolic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Borthwick, David

    2016-01-01

    This text introduces geometric spectral theory in the context of infinite-area Riemann surfaces, providing a comprehensive account of the most recent developments in the field. For the second edition the context has been extended to general surfaces with hyperbolic ends, which provides a natural setting for development of the spectral theory while still keeping technical difficulties to a minimum. All of the material from the first edition is included and updated, and new sections have been added. Topics covered include an introduction to the geometry of hyperbolic surfaces, analysis of the resolvent of the Laplacian, scattering theory, resonances and scattering poles, the Selberg zeta function, the Poisson formula, distribution of resonances, the inverse scattering problem, Patterson-Sullivan theory, and the dynamical approach to the zeta function. The new sections cover the latest developments in the field, including the spectral gap, resonance asymptotics near the critical line, and sharp geometric constan...

  11. The Change in Surface Area Properties of Blast Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Blast furnace sludge-BFS is a by-product and waste material of the iron and steel industry. Recently, the adsorption capabilities of blast furnace sludge have been attracting great interest. It is known that materials with modified surface properties can be obtained by different chemical and thermal treatments.The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of chemical treatment by acetic acid and thermal treatment by heating at 700 °C, on the surface properties of blast furnace sludge. Chemical treatment was performed by acetic acid adsorption on BFS.Microscopic observation was conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM method. Changes in examined surface area properties were analyzed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH methods.Increasing of specific surface area, decreasing of pore size and better pore size distribution in BFS samples were registered after the applied experimental procedure. The obtained results revealed that the performed chemical and heat treatment presented the activation of blast furnace sludge.

  12. Energy-efficient hybrid system for Wireless Body Area Network Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ghamari, Mohammad; Janko, Balazs; Sherratt, Simon; Harwin, William

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) consist of a number of miniaturized wearable or implanted sensor nodes that are employed to monitor vital parameters of a patient over long duration of time. These sensors capture physiological data and wirelessly transfer the collected data to a local base station in order to be further processed. Almost all of these body sensors are expected to have low data-rate and to run on a battery. Since recharging or replacing the battery is not a simple task speci...

  13. Resonantly damped surface and body MHD waves in a solar coronal slab with oblique propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Arregui, I; Oliver, R; Ballester, J L

    2007-01-01

    The theory of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in solar coronal slabs in a zero-$\\beta$ configuration and for parallel propagation of waves does not allow the existence of surface waves. When oblique propagation of perturbations is considered both surface and body waves are able to propagate. When the perpendicular wave number is larger than a certain value, the body kink mode becomes a surface wave. In addition, a sausage surface mode is found below the internal cut-off frequency. When non-uniformity in the equilibrium is included, surface and body modes are damped due to resonant absorption. In this paper, first, a normal-mode analysis is performed and the period, the damping rate, and the spatial structure of eigenfunctions are obtained. Then, the time-dependent problem is solved, and the conditions under which one or the other type of mode is excited are investigated.

  14. Visual Scheme Monitoring of Sensors for Fault Tolerance on Wireless Body Area Networks with Cloud Service Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Sik Jeong; Hyun-Woo Kim; Jong Hyuk Park

    2014-01-01

    A wireless body area network (WBAN) refers to a topology of miniaturized embedded systems in and on a human body using wireless communication technology. Using the WBAN, human body data is collected to be used in various areas, including basic health information collection management, improvement of athletics capabilities, and systematic management of patients. To make use of the system in such areas efficiently, a fault or abnormal symptoms monitoring system for the sensors formed in the hum...

  15. Time-Domain Techniques for Transient Scattering from Dielectric Bodies and Sea Surface Governed by Jonswap's Sea Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A time-domain surface integral equation (TDCFIE) approach is utilized to calculate the transient scattering from arbitrarily shaped, three-dimensional dielectric bodies. In conjunction with the marching-on-in-time (MOT) method, the TDCFIE-MOT method is used to derive explicit expressions for the present-time current as a function of the incident field. Sample results showing various geometries are presented and are compared with other numerical techniques. Finally, by an incident Gaussian plane tapered wave, transient scattering from the sea surface governed by Jonswap's sea spectra is computed. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  16. Features of deformation of metal body surfaces under impact of a water jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganin, A. A.; Khismatullina, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a mathematical model and computational results on dynamics of a perfect elastic-plastic body under the load arising during impact of a high-velocity liquid jet with the hemispherical end. The body is simulated by the isotropic linearly-elastic semi-space, its plastic state is described by the von Mises condition. The dependence of features of the body surface deformation on the body material is studied. The problem is considered in the axisymmetric statement. The axis of symmetry is that of the jet. The loaded domain is a circle with its radius rapidly growing from zero to the jet radius. The pressure in the loaded domain is non-uniform both in time and space. Three metal alloys (aluminium, copper-nickel and steel) are considered as the body material. The loading of the body surface in all the cases corresponds to the impact of a water jet with the radius 100 pm and the velocity 300 m/s. It has been shown that under such impact a nanometer pit arises on the body surface at the center of the domain of the jet action. The profile of the pit and its maximal depth depend on the body material.

  17. Influence of spatial heterogeneity of local surface albedo on the area-averaged surface albedo retrieved from airborne irradiance measurements

    OpenAIRE

    E. Jäkel; M. Wendisch; Mayer, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Spectral airborne upward and downward irradiance measurements are used to derive the area-averaged surface albedo. Real surfaces are not homogeneous in their reflectivity. Therefore, this work studies the effects of the heterogeneity of surface reflectivity on the area-averaged surface albedo to quantify how well aircraft measurements can resolve the small-scale variability of the local surface albedo.

  18. Valoration of burned body surface; area in patients of San Vicente de Paúl University Hospital, Medellín, 2004 Evaluación de la superficie corporal quemada en pacientes del Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, Medellín, 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Hoyos Franco; Nora Cecilia Jaramillo González; María Eugenia Molina Díaz; Sonia Valverde Pardo; Carolina Posso Zapata

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The estimation of the burned surface area has a huge importance for the acute management and prognosis of the burn victim It has been revised the different methods available for the assessment of the burn extent and some resuscitation basic concepts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study was made based on the information took from medical records of patients from the burn unit of the San Vicente de Paul University Hospital in Medellín (Col) during 2004. The in...

  19. Design and Implementation of a Wearable Body Area Sensor Network for Distributed FES System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yong-ji; LIU Xiao-xuan; QU Hong-en; LAN Ning

    2014-01-01

    A wearable body area sensor network (WBASN) was designed and implemented to monitor movement information of stroke patients in real time. The sensor system was combined with a previously developed distributed functional electrical stimulation (dFES) system, which is a promising technology for motor rehabilitation of stroke patients. Movement information could be useful in outcome assessment of rehabilitation, or for closed-loop adaptive stimulation during rehabilitation. In addition, a short-latency, low-power communication protocol was developed to meet the clinical requirements of energy efficiency and high rate of data feed-through. The prototype of the WBASN was tested in preliminary human experiments. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed wearable body area sensor network in monitoring arm movements on healthy subjects.

  20. An ECG Compressed Sensing Method of Low Power Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhong Liu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at low power problem in body area network, an ECG compressed sensing method of low power body area network based on the compressed sensing theory was proposed. Random binary matrices were used as the sensing matrix to measure ECG signals on the sensor nodes. After measured value is transmitted to remote monitoring center, ECG signal sparse representation under the discrete cosine transform and block sparse Bayesian learning reconstruction algorithm is used to reconstruct the ECG signals. The simulation results show that the 30% of overall signal can get reconstruction signal which’s SNR is more than 60dB, each numbers in each rank of sensing matrix can be controlled below 5, which reduces the power of sensor node sampling, calculation and transmission. The method has the advantages of low power, high accuracy of signal reconstruction and easy to hardware implementation.  

  1. A Light Weight Protocol to Provide Location Privacy in Wireless Body Area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mana, Mohammed; Bensaber, Boucif Amar; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3201

    2011-01-01

    Location privacy is one of the major security problems in a Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). An eavesdropper can keep track of the place and time devices are communicating. To make things even worse, the attacker does not have to be physically close to the communicating devices, he can use a device with a stronger antenna. The unique hardware address of a mobile device can often be linked to the identity of the user operating the device. This represents a violation of the user's privacy. The user should decide when his/her location is revealed and when not. In this paper, we first categorize the type of eavesdroppers for WBANs, and then we propose a new scheme to provide the location privacy in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs).

  2. Energy Efficient Aggregation and Reliable Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatasubramanian Sivaprasatham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless body area networks (WBAN, the data loss, security and reliability requirements are not handled in the existing literature works. This necessitates the technique that deals with slot allocation scheme, delay and other performance metrics. In order to overcome this issue, in this paper, we propose an energy efficient aggregation and reliable communication for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN. Initially, the aggregator nodes are chosen based on the nodes connectivity. During the data aggregation, the encryption key and the verification key is assigned to the nodes while transmitting data to the data aggregator. In order to enhance the reliability of data during transmission, the network coding methodology is considered. By simulation results, we show that the proposed technique enhances the network performance.

  3. Surface area-dependent second harmonic generation from silver nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Hoang Minh; Luong, Thanh Tuyen; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle

    2016-08-17

    The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of metallic nanoparticles strongly depend on their size and shape. Metallic gold nanorods have already been widely investigated, but other noble metals could also be used for nanorod fabrication towards applications in photonics. Here we report on the synthesis and NLO characterization of silver nanorods (AgNRs) with controllable localized surface plasmon resonance. We have implemented an original, one-step and seedless synthesis method, based on a spontaneous particle growth technique in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent. Colloidal solutions of AgNRs with various aspect ratios (5.0; 6.3; 7.5; 8.2 and 9.7) have been obtained and characterized using Harmonic light scattering (HLS) at 1064 nm, in order to investigate their quadratic NLO properties. From HLS experiments, we demonstrate that hyperpolarizability (β) values of AgNRs display a strong dependence on their surface area. PMID:27498825

  4. Towards using physiological signals as cryptographic keys in body area networks

    OpenAIRE

    Karaoğlan, Duygu; Karaoglan, Duygu; Levi, Albert; Tuzcu, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    Body Area Networks (BANs) are the most important building stone of pervasive healthcare, which enables remote, continuous and real-time health monitoring. Biosensors, constituting the BANs, collect highly sensitive medical information from their hosts and communicate these data. Considering the nature of the wireless medium, the privacy requirements of the individuals and the extreme energy and storage limitations of the biosensors, BANs require a light-weight and secure key management infras...

  5. AID: An Energy Efficient Decoding Scheme for LDPC Codes in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, N.; Rehman, O.; Alrajeh, N.; Khan, Z A; Manzoor, B.; Ahmed, S.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) is to prolong the lifetime of network. Traditional research work focuses on minimizing transmit power, however, in the case of short range communication the consumption power in decoding is significantly larger than transmit power. This paper investigates the minimization of total power consumption by reducing the decoding power consumption. For achieving a desired Bit Error Rate (BER), we introduce some fundamental results on...

  6. A Novel Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Body Area Network in Health Care Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V.P. Sundararajan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Health monitoring, telemedicine, military, interactive entertainment and portable audio/video systems were most promising applications where WBANs can be used. However, designers of such systems face a number of challenging tasks, as they need to address often quite conflicting requirements for size, operating time, precision and reliability. Network security is very important in Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN since the vital human life might be jeopardized, unless managed properly. Approach: This article presented security architecture of a wireless body area network for ambulatory health status monitoring. A novel Intrusion Detection System (IDS inspired by the biological immune system that use Negative Selection Algorithm (NSA was proposed to enhance the performance of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN to operate despite the presence of compromised (misbehaving nodes. Results: The proposed IDS scheme had been implemented using network simulator Qualnet v5.2. The performances of IDS scheme had been analyzed using AODV, DSR and DSDV routing protocols for parameters such as average detection rate and false alarm rate. These negative selection detectors are capable of distinguishing well behaving nodes from compromised nodes with good degree of accuracy. The high false positives rate is also minimized. Conclusion/Recommendations: Wireless Body Area Networks are an enabling technology for mobile health care. The IDS can be implemented on today’s devices as it only requires minimal and low-cost hardware changes. The authors strongly believe that adding sufficient security mechanisms to WBAN will study as a trigger in the acceptance of this technology for health care purposes. Simulation results indicate the non-degradability of network performance when these IDS is incorporated in the routing algorithm for security enhancements.

  7. Development and Evaluation of a Python Telecare System Based on a Bluetooth Body Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. Morón; A. Gómez-Jaime; J. R. Luque; Casilari, E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype of a telemonitoring system, based on a BAN (Body Area Network) that is integrated by a Bluetooth (BT) pulse oximeter, a GPS (Global Positioning System) unit, and a smartphone. The smartphone is the hardware platform for running a Python software that manages the Bluetooth piconet formed by the sensors. Thus the smartphone forwards the data received from the Bluetooth devices, encoded into JSON (JavaScript Object Notation), to a central server. This server prov...

  8. A Beacon Interval Shifting Scheme for Interference Mitigation in Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Seungku Kim; Seokhwan Kim; Jin-Woo Kim; Doo-Seop Eom

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of interference avoidance in body area networks (BANs). IEEE 802.15 Task Group 6 presented several schemes to reduce such interference, but these schemes are still not proper solutions for BANs. We present a novel distributed TDMA-based beacon interval shifting scheme that reduces interference in the BANs. A design goal of the scheme is to avoid the wakeup period of each BAN coinciding with other networks by employing carrier sensing before a beacon transmiss...

  9. BARI+: A Biometric Based Distributed Key Management Approach for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Muhammad Khaliq-ur-Rahman Raazi; Heejo Lee; Sungyoung Lee; Young-Koo Lee

    2010-01-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBAN) consist of resource constrained sensing devices just like other wireless sensor networks (WSN). However, they differ from WSN in topology, scale and security requirements. Due to these differences, key management schemes designed for WSN are inefficient and unnecessarily complex when applied to WBAN. Considering the key management issue, WBAN are also different from WPAN because WBAN can use random biometric measurements as keys. We highlight the differences...

  10. Patient Data Prioritization in the Cross-Layer Designs of Wireless Body Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Fasee Ullah; Abdul Hanan Abdullah; Muhammad Qasim Jan; Kashif Naseer Qureshi

    2015-01-01

    In Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN), various biomedical sensors (BMSs) are deployed to monitor various vital signs of a patient for detecting the abnormality of the vital signs. These BMSs inform the medical staff in advance before the patient’s life goes into a threatening situation. In WBAN, routing layer has the same challenges as generally seen in WSN, but the unique requirements of WBANs need to be addressed by the novel routing mechanisms quite differently from the routing mechanism in...

  11. A wireless body area network of intelligent motion sensors for computer assisted physical rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Otto Chris; Milenkovic Aleksandar; Jovanov Emil; de Groen Piet C

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent technological advances in integrated circuits, wireless communications, and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices. A number of these devices can be integrated into a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN), a new enabling technology for health monitoring. Methods Using off-the-shelf wireless sensors we designed a prototype WBAN which features a standard ZigBee compliant radio and a common set of physiological, ...

  12. A Study of Medium Access Control Protocols for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Sana; Shen, Bin; Islam, S.M. Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2010-01-01

    The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satis...

  13. Wireless Body Area Network in a Ubiquitous Healthcare System for Physiological Signal Monitoring and Health Consulting

    OpenAIRE

    Joonyoung Jung; Kiryong Ha; Jeonwoo Lee; Youngsung Kim; Daeyoung Kim

    2008-01-01

    We developed a ubiquitous healthcare system consisted of aphysiological signal devices, a mobile system, a device provider system, a healthcare service provider system, a physician system, and a healthcare personal system. In this system, wireless body area network (WBAN) such as ZigBee is used to communicate between physiological signal devices and the mobile system. WBAN device needs a specific function for ubiquitous healthcare application. We propose a scanning algorithm, dynamic discover...

  14. A Novel Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Body Area Network in Health Care Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    T.V.P.Sundararajan; Shanmugam, A

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Health monitoring, telemedicine, military, interactive entertainment and portable audio/video systems were most promising applications where WBANs can be used. However, designers of such systems face a number of challenging tasks, as they need to address often quite conflicting requirements for size, operating time, precision and reliability. Network security is very important in Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) since the vital human life might be jeopardized, unless manag...

  15. Interference Mitigation for Cyber-Physical Wireless Body Area Network System Using Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; WANG, HONGGANG; Wang, Chonggang; Fang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) are cyber-physical systems (CPS) that have emerged as a key technology to provide real-time health monitoring and ubiquitous healthcare services. WBANs could operate in dense environments such as in a hospital and lead to a high mutual communication interference in many application scenarios. The excessive interferences will significantly degrade the network performance including depleting the energy of WBAN nodes more quickly, and even eventually jeopardiz...

  16. Ubiquitous HealthCare in Wireless Body Area Networks - A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, N.; Khan, N. A.; Shakir, M.; Khan, M.A.; Bouk, S. H.; Khan, Z. A.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in wireless communication, system on chip and low power sensor nodes allowed realization of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). WBAN comprised of tiny sensors, which collect information of patient's vital signs and provide a real time feedback. In addition, WBAN also supports many applications including Ubiquitous HealthCare (UHC), entertainment, gaming, military, etc. UHC is required by elderly people to facilitate them with instant monitoring anywhere they move around. In this paper...

  17. Towards reliable communication in low-power wireless body area networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hauer, Jan-Hinrich

    2014-01-01

    Es wird zunehmend die Ansicht vertreten, dass tragbare Computer und Sensoren neue Anwendungen in den Bereichen Gesundheitswesen, personalisierte Fitness oder erweiterte Realität ermöglichen werden. Die am Körper getragenen Geräte sind dabei mithilfe eines Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) verbunden, d.h. es wird drahtlose Kommunikation statt eines drahtgebundenen Kanals eingesetzt. Der drahtlose Kanal ist jedoch typischerweise ein eher instabiles Kommunikationsmedium und die Einsatzbedingunge...

  18. Energy Harvesting-Aware Resource Management for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra Ramirez, Ernesto Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The rationale for a telemedicine system is the use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) for the remote transmission of biomedical data and the remote control of biomedical equipment, in order to improve the provided health service. The integration of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) in telemedicine systems does not only achieve significant improvements in the patient’s healthcare, but also enhances their quality of life. However, the potential benefits provided by these netwo...

  19. Geology, alteration, age dating and petrogenesis of intrusive bodies in Halak Abad prospect area, NE Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Maliheh Ghourchi; Mohammad Hassan Karimpour; J. Lang Farmer; Charles Stern

    2014-01-01

    The Halak Abad prospect occurs in the northeastern part of Central Iran zone (Sabzevar structural zone). In this investigation, geochemical evolution, age and source of part of northeastern Iran magmatic arc (intrusive bodies) in Halak Abad area in the Khorasan Razavi province has been studied. The exposed rocks consist of volcanic rocks with andesite and dacite nature, limestone, plutonic rocks mostly diorite, quartz diorite, monzodiorite, quartz monzonite, granodiorite and granite and sedim...

  20. Performance Study of Localization Techniques in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rehman, Obaid Ur; Javaid, Nadeem; Bibi, Ayesha; Khan, Zahoor Ali

    2012-01-01

    One of the major issues in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs) is efficient localization. There are various techniques for indoor and outdoor environments to locate a person. This study evaluating and compares performance of optimization schemes in indoor environments for optimal placement of wireless sensors, where patients can perform their daily activities. In indoor environments, the performance comparison between Distance Vector-Hop algorithm, Ring Overlapping Based on Comparison...

  1. Variance of surface area estimators using spatial grids of lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janáček, Jiří; Kubínová, Lucie

    Vol. 2. Kraków : Polish Society for Stereology, 2005 - (Chrapoński, J.; Cwajna, J.; Wojnar, L.), s. 252-256 ISBN 83-917834-4-8. [European Congress on Stereology and Image Analysis /9./ and International Conference on Stereology and Image Analysis in Materials Science STERMAT /7./. Zakopane (PL), 10.05.2005-13.05.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100110502; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600110507; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0153 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : variance * stereology * surface area Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  2. Metal-organic framework materials with ultrahigh surface areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Wilmer, Christopher E.; Eryazici, Ibrahim; Snurr, Randall Q.; Gomez-Gualdron, Diego A.; Borah, Bhaskarjyoti

    2015-12-22

    A metal organic framework (MOF) material including a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area greater than 7,010 m.sup.2/g. Also a metal organic framework (MOF) material including hexa-carboxylated linkers including alkyne bond. Also a metal organic framework (MOF) material including three types of cuboctahedron cages fused to provide continuous channels. Also a method of making a metal organic framework (MOF) material including saponifying hexaester precursors having alkyne bonds to form a plurality of hexa-carboxylated linkers including alkyne bonds and performing a solvothermal reaction with the plurality of hexa-carboxylated linkers and one or more metal containing compounds to form the MOF material.

  3. Asymptotic variance of grey-scale surface area estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Anne Marie

    Grey-scale local algorithms have been suggested as a fast way of estimating surface area from grey-scale digital images. Their asymptotic mean has already been described. In this paper, the asymptotic behaviour of the variance is studied in isotropic and sufficiently smooth settings, resulting in a...... general asymptotic bound. For compact convex sets with nowhere vanishing Gaussian curvature, the asymptotics can be described more explicitly. As in the case of volume estimators, the variance is decomposed into a lattice sum and an oscillating term of at most the same magnitude....

  4. High surface area graphene-supported metal chalcogenide assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kuntz, Joshua; Orme, Christine A.

    2016-04-19

    A composition comprising at least one graphene-supported assembly, which comprises a three-dimensional network of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds, and at least one metal chalcogenide compound disposed on said graphene sheets, wherein the chalcogen of said metal chalcogenide compound is selected from S, Se and Te. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the graphene-supported assembly, including graphene-supported MoS.sub.2. Monoliths with high surface area and conductivity can be achieved. Lower operating temperatures in some applications can be achieved. Pore size and volume can be tuned.

  5. Optical Body-Surface Profiling with Coded Markers for Medical Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Tzong Jeng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a three-dimensional body-surface optical measurement technique by solving the correspondence problem with the coded markers. The coded markers are printed patterns fixed on the object to be measured. The unique code number of each marker is decoded by using computer-based image processing. Given more than 212 available codes, the three dimensional profile of the torso surface is well approximated with the coded markers. In addition, the focal length and the camera location are found automatically by using the fiducial coded markers at given locations. The proposed body-surface measurement method is suitable for solving the registration problem for non-anatomical medical images such as body-surface potential maps (BSPM and magnetocardiograms (MCG.

  6. Area laws and efficient descriptions of quantum many-body states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yimin; Eisert, Jens

    2016-08-01

    It is commonly believed that area laws for entanglement entropies imply that a quantum many-body state can be faithfully represented by efficient tensor network states—a conjecture frequently stated in the context of numerical simulations and analytical considerations. In this work, we show that this is in general not the case, except in one-dimension. We prove that the set of quantum many-body states that satisfy an area law for all Renyi entropies contains a subspace of exponential dimension. We then show that there are states satisfying area laws for all Renyi entropies but cannot be approximated by states with a classical description of small Kolmogorov complexity, including polynomial projected entangled pair states or states of multi-scale entanglement renormalisation. Not even a quantum computer with post-selection can efficiently prepare all quantum states fulfilling an area law, and we show that not all area law states can be eigenstates of local Hamiltonians. We also prove translationally and rotationally invariant instances of these results, and show a variation with decaying correlations using quantum error-correcting codes.

  7. Energy Efficient Model For Deploying Wireless Body Area Networks Using Multi-Hop Network Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C.Chepkwony

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless body area networks (WBANs offers a lot of application opportunities in the area of health care. Recent developments in sensors and radio communication technologies have motivated many researchers to design WBAN systems for application in healthcare provision. Power consumption is still a limiting factor in realizing a WBAN with a very long lifetime. In order for wireless body area networks to ensure widespread use and adoption, some of the design constraints should be solved to promote uptake and meet social expectations. As a result, design of energy efficient WBANs is required to enhance battery life at the same time ensure that sensor nodes are small enough to be conveniently worn or implanted in the body. Energy consumption in WBANs happens during sensing, processing and communication. This research focused on designing an energy efficient model during communication between sensors. The parameters were simulated and implemented using MATLAB and Simulink simulation software. The sensors are randomly localized on a plane and distance between them calculated. The model uses a relay between the sensors and the coordinator to reduce power consumption by sensors during signal transmission. The relay is dedicated to retransmitting signals onl

  8. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashwath A Meda

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by increased non-social anxiety, sensitivity to sounds and hypersociability. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings with regard to regional brain variation in WS, relying on only one type of morphological measure (usually volume in each study. The present study aims to contribute to this body of literature and perhaps elucidate some of these discrepancies by examining concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between WS subjects and typically-developing (TD controls. High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50 typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus. Additional cortical regions showed between-group differences in one (but not both morphological measures. Subcortical volume was lower in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus in WS versus TD controls. Exploratory correlations revealed that anxiety scores were negatively correlated with gray matter surface area in insula, OFC, rostral middle frontal, superior temporal and lingual gyrus. Our results were consistent with previous reports showing structural alterations in regions supporting the socio-affective and visuospatial impairments in WS. However, we also were able to effectively capture novel and

  9. Energy efficient medium access protocol for wireless medical body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeni, O; Wong, A; Burdett, A J; Toumazou, C

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel energy-efficient MAC Protocol designed specifically for wireless body area sensor networks (WBASN) focused towards pervasive healthcare applications. Wireless body area networks consist of wireless sensor nodes attached to the human body to monitor vital signs such as body temperature, activity or heart-rate. The network adopts a master-slave architecture, where the body-worn slave node periodically sends sensor readings to a central master node. Unlike traditional peer-to-peer wireless sensor networks, the nodes in this biomedical WBASN are not deployed in an ad hoc fashion. Joining a network is centrally managed and all communications are single-hop. To reduce energy consumption, all the sensor nodes are in standby or sleep mode until the centrally assigned time slot. Once a node has joined a network, there is no possibility of collision within a cluster as all communication is initiated by the central node and is addressed uniquely to a slave node. To avoid collisions with nearby transmitters, a clear channel assessment algorithm based on standard listen-before-transmit (LBT) is used. To handle time slot overlaps, the novel concept of a wakeup fallback time is introduced. Using single-hop communication and centrally controlled sleep/wakeup times leads to significant energy reductions for this application compared to more ldquoflexiblerdquo network MAC protocols such as 802.11 or Zigbee. As duty cycle is reduced, the overall power consumption approaches the standby power. The protocol is implemented in hardware as part of the Sensiumtrade system-on-chip WBASN ASIC, in a 0.13- mum CMOS process. PMID:23853128

  10. Numerical simulation of motion and deformation of ring bubble along body surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪宝玉; 张阿漫

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulation for fluid flow over an attached rigid body with a deformable ring bubble is analyzed based on the velocity potential theory together with the boundary element method (BEM). The analysis is focused on the axisymmetric case. The bubble surface is treated as a well defined air-liquid interface and is tracked by a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian method. The points of intersection between the bubble and body are treated, specially in the numerical procedure. The auxiliary function method is adopted to calculate the pressure on the body surface and in the flow field. The convergence study is undertaken to assess the developed numerical method and the computation code. Some case studies are undertaken in which the interactions between the bubble/body and the incoming flow field are simulated. The effects of various physical parameters on the interactions are investigated.

  11. Renal function maturation in children: is normalization to surface area valid?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Gamma camera DTPA renograms were analysed to measure renal function by the rate at which the kidneys took up tracer from the blood. This was expressed either directly as the fractional uptake rate (FUR), which is not related to body size, or it was converted to a camera-based GFR by the formula GFR blood volume x FUR, and this GFR was normalized to a body surface area of 1.73 m2. Most of the patients studied had one completely normal kidney, and one kidney with reflux but normal function and no large scars. The completely normal kidneys contributed, on average, 50% of the total renal function. The results were considered in age bands, to display the effect of age on renal function. The camera-GFR measurements showed the conventional results of poor renal function in early childhood, with a slow rise to near-adult values by the age of 2 years, and somewhat low values throughout childhood. The uptake values showed a different pattern, with renal function rising to adult equivalent values by the age of 4 months, and with children having better renal function than adults throughout most of their childhood. The standard deviations expressed as coefficients of variation (CV) were smaller for the FUR technique than the GFR (Wilcoxon rank test, P < 0.01). These results resemble recent published measurements of absolute DMSA uptake, which are also unrelated to body size and show early renal maturation. The results also suggest that the reason children have lower serum creatinine levels than adults is that they have better renal function. If this were confirmed, it would raise doubts about the usefulness of normalizing renal function to body surface area in children

  12. Surface States and Effective Surface Area on Photoluminescent P-Type Porous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, S. Z.; Porras, A. Ramirez; Resto, O.; Goldstein, Y.; Many, A.; Savir, E.

    1997-01-01

    The present study is motivated by the possibility of utilizing porous silicon for spectral sensors. Pulse measurements on the porous-Si/electrolyte system are employed to determine the surface effective area and the surface-state density at various stages of the anodization process used to produce the porous material. Such measurements were combined with studies of the photoluminescence spectra. These spectra were found to shift progressively to the blue as a function of anodization time. The luminescence intensity increases initially with anodization time, reaches a maximum and then decreases with further anodization. The surface state density, on the other hand, increases with anodization time from an initial value of about 2 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm surface to about 1013 sq cm for the anodized surface. This value is attained already after -2 min anodization and upon further anodization remains fairly constant. In parallel, the effective surface area increases by a factor of 10-30. This behavior is markedly different from the one observed previously for n-type porous Si.

  13. A Survey of MAC Protocols for Cognitive Radio Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2015-01-01

    The advancement in electronics, wireless communications and integrated circuits has enabled the development of small low-power sensors and actuators that can be placed on, in or around the human body. A wireless body area network (WBAN) can be effectively used to deliver the sensory data to a central server, where it can be monitored, stored and analyzed. For more than a decade, cognitive radio (CR) technology has been widely adopted in wireless networks, as it utilizes the available spectra of licensed, as well as unlicensed bands. A cognitive radio body area network (CRBAN) is a CR-enabled WBAN. Unlike other wireless networks, CRBANs have specific requirements, such as being able to automatically sense their environments and to utilize unused, licensed spectra without interfering with licensed users, but existing protocols cannot fulfill them. In particular, the medium access control (MAC) layer plays a key role in cognitive radio functions, such as channel sensing, resource allocation, spectrum mobility and spectrum sharing. To address various application-specific requirements in CRBANs, several MAC protocols have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we survey MAC protocols for CRBANs. We then compare the different MAC protocols with one another and discuss challenging open issues in the relevant research. PMID:25903551

  14. A Survey of MAC Protocols for Cognitive Radio Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabin Bhandari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in electronics, wireless communications and integrated circuits has enabled the development of small low-power sensors and actuators that can be placed on, in or around the human body. A wireless body area network (WBAN can be effectively used to deliver the sensory data to a central server, where it can be monitored, stored and analyzed. For more than a decade, cognitive radio (CR technology has been widely adopted in wireless networks, as it utilizes the available spectra of licensed, as well as unlicensed bands. A cognitive radio body area network (CRBAN is a CR-enabled WBAN. Unlike other wireless networks, CRBANs have specific requirements, such as being able to automatically sense their environments and to utilize unused, licensed spectra without interfering with licensed users, but existing protocols cannot fulfill them. In particular, the medium access control (MAC layer plays a key role in cognitive radio functions, such as channel sensing, resource allocation, spectrum mobility and spectrum sharing. To address various application-specific requirements in CRBANs, several MAC protocols have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we survey MAC protocols for CRBANs. We then compare the different MAC protocols with one another and discuss challenging open issues in the relevant research.

  15. Game Theory Based Security in Wireless Body Area Network with Stackelberg Security Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, M; Sivakumar, R

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is effectively used in healthcare to increase the value of the patient's life and also the value of healthcare services. The biosensor based approach in medical care system makes it difficult to respond to the patients with minimal response time. The medical care unit does not deploy the accessing of ubiquitous broadband connections full time and hence the level of security will not be high always. The security issue also arises in monitoring the user body function records. Most of the systems on the Wireless Body Area Network are not effective in facing the security deployment issues. To access the patient's information with higher security on WBAN, Game Theory with Stackelberg Security Equilibrium (GTSSE) is proposed in this paper. GTSSE mechanism takes all the players into account. The patients are monitored by placing the power position authority initially. The position authority in GTSSE is the organizer and all the other players react to the organizer decision. Based on our proposed approach, experiment has been conducted on factors such as security ratio based on patient's health information, system flexibility level, energy consumption rate, and information loss rate. Stackelberg Security considerably improves the strength of solution with higher security. PMID:26759829

  16. Distribution, Arrangement and Interconnectedness of Cell Surface Receptor sites in the body of an Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utoh-Nedosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell surface receptors have been identified as the sites of disease infectivity in living organisms in a previous study. Drugs used for the treatment or cure of infections have to eliminate infections through attacking infective organisms at the cell surface receptors to which the infective organisms are attached. Problem statement: The present study examines a wide sample of living things to get more information on the relationship of one cell surface receptor to other cell surface receptors in the body of an organism. Approach: The arrangement of cell surface receptors on the external covering of a few samples of fruits, leaves, stems, dry wood of a plant; wall gecko and some parts of the human body, were examined and photographed. Transverse and/or Longitudinal sections of soursop fruit and sycamore fruit were also examined and photographed. The five different coverings of the fleshy part of a coconut were also photographed. The photographs were studied to note the relationship of disease infection attached to cell surface receptors on the external surface of an organ to disease infection on the innermost covering of the same organ. Results: The results of the study showed that all living things had ubiquitous distribution of cell surface receptors which are usually observable with the unaided eye as dots or spots on the external covering of an organ, tissue or cell. The dots or receptor sites of cell surface receptors in the study are arranged in lines which were perpendicular, oblique, transverse or arranged in any other lineal geometrical form. The lineally arranged cell surface receptors were noted to be connected by grooves, channels or pipes which joined other receptor channels or intersected with them. Smaller cell surface receptor channels emptied into bigger channels or continued as small sized channels that ran side by side in a connective tissue bundle. These connective tissue bundles that carried many independent small-sized cell

  17. Influence of spatial heterogeneity of local surface albedo on the area-averaged surface albedo retrieved from airborne irradiance measurements

    OpenAIRE

    E. Jäkel; M. Wendisch; Mayer, B.

    2012-01-01

    Spectral airborne upward and downward irradiance measurements are used to derive the area-averaged surface albedo. Real surfaces are not homogeneous in their reflectivity. Therefore, this work studies the effects of the heterogeneity of surface reflectivity on the area-averaged surface albedo to quantify how well aircraft measurements can resolve the small-scale variability of the local surface albedo. For that purpose spatially heterogeneous surface albedo maps were input into a 3-dimensiona...

  18. Influence of spatial heterogeneity of local surface albedo on the area-averaged surface albedo retrieved from airborne irradiance measurements

    OpenAIRE

    E. Jäkel; M. Wendisch; Mayer, B.

    2013-01-01

    Spectral airborne upward and downward irradiance measurements are used to derive the area-averaged surface albedo. Real surfaces are not homogeneous in their reflectivity. Therefore, this work studies the effects of the heterogeneity of surface reflectivity on the area-averaged surface albedo to quantify how well aircraft measurements can resolve the small-scale variability of the local surface albedo. For that purpose spatially heterogeneous surface albedo maps were inpu...

  19. Estimation of surface area and length with the orientator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeldt, T; Mall, G; Gharehbaghi, H; Möller, P

    1990-09-01

    The orientator is a new technique for the estimation of length and surface density and other stereological parameters using isotropic sections. It is an unbiased, design-based approach to the quantitative study of anisotropic structures such as muscle, myocardium, bone and cartilage. A simple method for the practical generation of such isotropic planes in biological specimens is described. No special technical equipment is necessary. Knowledge of an axis of anisotropy can be exploited to optimize the efficiency. To randomize directions in space, points are selected with uniform probability in a square using various combinations of simple random, stratified random, and systematic random sampling. The point patterns thus produced are mapped onto the surface of a hemisphere. The mapped points define directions of sectional planes in space. The mapping algorithm ensures that these planes are isotropic, hence unbiased estimates of surface and length density can be obtained via the classical stereological formulae. Various implementations of the orientator are outlined: the prototype version, the orientator-generated ortrip, two systematic versions, and the smooth version. Orientator sections can be generated without difficulty in large specimens; we investigated human skeletal muscle, myocardium, placenta, and gut tissue. Slight practical modifications extend the applicability of the method to smaller organs like rat hearts. At the ultrastructural level, a correction procedure for the loss of anisotropic mitochondrial membranes due to oblique orientation relative to the electron beam is suggested. Other potential applications of the orientator in anisotropic structures include the estimation of individual particle surface area with isotropic nucleators, the determination of the connectivity of branching networks with isotropic disectors, and generation of isotropic sections for second-order stereology (three-dimensional pattern analysis). PMID:2243364

  20. DNS of turbulent flow past a bluff body with a compliant tensegrity surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandikar, Anish; Bewley, Thomas

    2007-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to study turbulent incompressible flow past a bluff body with a compliant surface. We use a 3D time-dependent coordinate transformation to account for the motion of the bluff body surface. Spatially, the flow domain is discretized using a dealiased pseudospectral method in the axial and azimuthal directions, while the radial (wall-normal) direction is discretized using a finite difference scheme. The grid is stretched in the azimuthal direction, which is handled spectrally. This leads to a unique challenge when solving the Poisson equation in the fractional step method for the time march, which we address with both multigrid and preconditioned BiCGStab algorithms. We are presently extending this flow code with a model for the compliant bluff body surface based on the ``tensegrity fabric'' paradigm which combines compressive members (bars) and tensile members (tendons) in a stable, flexible network.

  1. A comprehensive survey of Wireless Body Area Networks : on PHY, MAC, and Network layers solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sana; Higgins, Henry; Braem, Bart; Latre, Benoit; Blondia, Chris; Moerman, Ingrid; Saleem, Shahnaz; Rahman, Ziaur; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-06-01

    Recent advances in microelectronics and integrated circuits, system-on-chip design, wireless communication and intelligent low-power sensors have allowed the realization of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN is a collection of low-power, miniaturized, invasive/non-invasive lightweight wireless sensor nodes that monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. In addition, it supports a number of innovative and interesting applications such as ubiquitous healthcare, entertainment, interactive gaming, and military applications. In this paper, the fundamental mechanisms of WBAN including architecture and topology, wireless implant communication, low-power Medium Access Control (MAC) and routing protocols are reviewed. A comprehensive study of the proposed technologies for WBAN at Physical (PHY), MAC, and Network layers is presented and many useful solutions are discussed for each layer. Finally, numerous WBAN applications are highlighted. PMID:20721685

  2. A Study of IEEE 802.15.4 Security Framework for Wireless Body Area Network

    CERN Document Server

    Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup; 10.3390/s110201383

    2011-01-01

    A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a collection of low-power and lightweight wireless sensor nodes that are used to monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. It supports a number of innovative and interesting applications, including ubiquitous healthcare and Consumer Electronics (CE) applications. Since WBAN nodes are used to collect sensitive (life-critical) information and may operate in hostile environments, they require strict security mechanisms to prevent malicious interaction with the system. In this paper, we first highlight major security requirements and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks in WBAN at Physical, Medium Access Control (MAC), Network, and Transport layers. Then we discuss the IEEE 802.15.4 security framework and identify the security vulnerabilities and major attacks in the context of WBAN. Different types of attacks on the Contention Access Period (CAP) and Contention Free Period (CFP) parts of the superframe are analyzed and discussed. It is observed that a sma...

  3. Method for producing high surface area chromia materials for catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gash, Alexander E.; Satcher, Joe; Tillotson, Thomas; Hrubesh, Lawrence; Simpson, Randall

    2007-05-01

    Nanostructured chromium(III)-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing and a synthetic route for producing such materials are disclosed herein. Monolithic aerogels and xerogels having surface areas between 150 m.sup.2/g and 520 m.sup.2/g have been produced. The synthetic method employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-chromium(III) inorganic salts and common solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, t-butanol, 2-ethoxy ethanol, and ethylene glycol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by an addition of a proton scavenger, such as an epoxide, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively.

  4. Core and body surface temperatures of nesting leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Thomas J; McCafferty, Dominic J; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2015-07-01

    Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are the largest species of marine turtle and the fourth most massive extant reptile. In temperate waters they maintain body temperatures higher than surrounding seawater through a combination of insulation, physiological, and behavioural adaptations. Nesting involves physical activity in addition to contact with warm sand and air, potentially presenting thermal challenges in the absence of the cooling effect of water, and data are lacking with which to understand their nesting thermal biology. Using non-contact methods (thermal imaging and infrared thermometry) to avoid any stress-related effects, we investigated core and surface temperature during nesting. The mean±SE core temperature was 31.4±0.05°C (newly emerged eggs) and was not correlated with environmental conditions on the nesting beach. Core temperature of leatherbacks was greater than that of hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) nesting at a nearby colony, 30.0±0.13°C. Body surface temperatures of leatherbacks showed regional variation, the lateral and dorsal regions of the head were warmest while the carapace was the coolest surface. Surface temperature increased during the early nesting phases, then levelled off or decreased during later phases with the rates of change varying between body regions. Body region, behavioural phase of nesting and air temperature were found to be the best predictors of surface temperature. Regional variation in surface temperature were likely due to alterations in blood supply, and temporal changes in local muscular activity of flippers during the different phases of nesting. Heat exchange from the upper surface of the turtle was dominated by radiative heat loss from all body regions and small convective heat gains to the carapace and front flippers. PMID:25965013

  5. Surface water and groundwater interaction in Marala-Khanki area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope hydrological investigations were carried out in a selected sub-catchment of Indus Basin (Marala-Khanki Area) for elucidating various aspects of surface water and groundwater interaction. Groundwater samples were collected on seasonal basis (low and high river discharge periods) while surface water (Chenab River) samples were collected more frequently (weekly or monthly basis). Gamma /sup 18/O values of groundwater along the right bank are generally higher and vary over a narrow range of -3 to -6.5%. These values are close to the rain index. The data points of these samples lie below the local meteoric water line (LMWL) which indicates the evaporation effect. This trend is not altered even in the monsoon season when the river has very high discharge proving that the area receives recharge mainly from the rain and there is no significant contribution of river water. Data points pertaining to groundwater samples collected from the stations along the left bank of the river show large variations in gamma/sup 18/O and the values range from -10.2 to -2.5%. Some samples from this side indicate contribution of the river. Tritium and CFC dating suggest groundwater residence time ranging from >50 years to few years. The data further revealed that isotopic values of the river Chenab at Khanki (average gamma /sup 18/O and gamma /sup 2/H = -7.7% and -46%) are higher than those at Marala (average gamma /sup 18/O and gamma /sup 2/H = -9.4% and -56%). Enrichment of gamma/sup 18/O and gamma 2/H in river water at Khanki during low flow period as compared to Marala indicates the contribution of isotopically enriched base flow. Average base flow contribution in this river section during low flow period calculated by isotope data was about 30%. (orig./A.B.)

  6. Surface ozone in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, R. A. F. D.; Costa, P. S.; Silva, C.; Godoi, R. M.; Martin, S. T.; Tota, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Pauliquevis, T.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Artaxo, P.; Manzi, A. O.; Wolf, S. A.; Cirino, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    When nitrogen oxides from vehicle and industrial emissions mix with volatile organic compounds from trees and plants with exposure to sunlight, a chemical reaction occurs contributing to ground-level ozone pollution. The preliminary results of the surface ozone study in urban area of Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, are presented for the first intensive operating period (IOP1) of the GoAmazon experiment (February/March 2014). Photochemical ozone production was found to be a regular process, with an afternoon maximum of the ozone mixing ratio of lower than 20 ppbv for cloudy days or clear sky weather. Typical ozone concentrations at mid-day were low (about 10 ppb). On the other hand, several high-value ozone episodes with surface ozone mixing ratios up to three times larger were registered during the dry season of 2013 (September/October). At the beginning of the wet season, the ozone concentration in Manaus decreased significantly, but diurnal variations can be found during the days with rainfall and other fast changes of meteorological conditions. Possible explanations of the nature of pulsations are discussed. Photochemical ozone production by local urban plumes of Manaus is named as a first possible source of the ozone concentration and biomass burning or power plant emissions are suggested as an alternative or an additional source.

  7. Mapping ear canal movement using area-based surface matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenness, Malcolm J.; Osborn, Jon; Weller, W. Lee

    2002-02-01

    Movement of the external ear canal, associated with jaw motion, relative to the concha region of the pinna has been studied. Pairs of open-jaw and closed-jaw impressions were taken of 14 ears from 10 subjects. Three-dimensional coordinate data were obtained from the concha and the anterior surface of the canal using a reflex microscope. Proprietary area-based matching software was used to evaluate distortion of the two surfaces between the two jaw positions. The canal data from each pair were placed into the same coordinate system with their respective concha regions aligned. Difference maps of the canal data were used to demonstrate the amount of anterior-posterior (A-P), superior-inferior (S-I), and medial-lateral (M-L) movement, relative to the concha, that occurred between the open- and closed-jaw impressions. The concha regions did not undergo significant deformation. The canal regions underwent varying amounts of deformation with all canals conforming within an rms of 136 μm across the entire surface. The majority of canals underwent significant movement relative to the concha. M-L movement ranged from +2.0 to -3.8 mm; eight canals moved laterally, five moved medially, and two showed no movement. S-I movement ranged from +3.7 to -2.7 mm; nine canals moved inferiorly, two moved superiorly, and three showed no movement. A-P movement ranged between +7.5 and -8.5 mm, with five canals moving anteriorly, three posteriorly, and four in a mixed fashion. This study has shown the variability of canal movement relative to the concha and does not support previous reports that suggest that the ear canal only widens with jaw opening.

  8. Body area networks using IEEE 802156 implementing the ultra wide band physical layer

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Marco; Mucchi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The market of wearable wireless medical sensors is experiencing a rapid growth and the associated telecommunications services for the healthcare sector are forecast to further increase in the next years. Medical body area networks (MBANs) allow the mobility of patients and medical personnel by facilitating the remote monitoring of patients suffering from chronic or risky diseases. Currently, MBANs are being introduced in unlicensed frequency bands, where the risk of mutual interference with other electronic devices radiating in the same band can be high. Thus, coexistence is an issue on which

  9. A Very Low Power MAC (VLPM) Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Niamat; Khan, Pervez; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) consist of a limited number of battery operated nodes that are used to monitor the vital signs of a patient over long periods of time without restricting the patient’s movements. They are an easy and fast way to diagnose the patient’s status and to consult the doctor. Device as well as network lifetime are among the most important factors in a WBAN. Prolonging the lifetime of the WBAN strongly depends on controlling the energy consumption of sensor nodes. T...

  10. Rapidly Deployable Internet-of-Things Body Area Network Platform for Medical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, In Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical devices in the past provided limited capability for the data acquisition and presented the data in the form of user interface for a care provider to observe. Now, what is required for biomedical devices has fundamentally changed. Many devices must now support secure networking and include a network of sensors to enable machine learning-based sensor fusion for accurate inference of the subject’s state.This thesis introduces an Internet-of-Things (IoT) body area network (BAN) platfor...

  11. BARI+: A Biometric Based Distributed Key Management Approach for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Muhammad Khaliq-ur-Rahman Raazi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless body area networks (WBAN consist of resource constrained sensing devices just like other wireless sensor networks (WSN. However, they differ from WSN in topology, scale and security requirements. Due to these differences, key management schemes designed for WSN are inefficient and unnecessarily complex when applied to WBAN. Considering the key management issue, WBAN are also different from WPAN because WBAN can use random biometric measurements as keys. We highlight the differences between WSN and WBAN and propose an efficient key management scheme, which makes use of biometrics and is specifically designed for WBAN domain.

  12. Wireless Body Area Network in a Ubiquitous Healthcare System for Physiological Signal Monitoring and Health Consulting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonyoung Jung

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed a ubiquitous healthcare system consisted of aphysiological signal devices, a mobile system, a device provider system, a healthcare service provider system, a physician system, and a healthcare personal system. In this system, wireless body area network (WBAN such as ZigBee is used to communicate between physiological signal devices and the mobile system. WBAN device needs a specific function for ubiquitous healthcare application. We propose a scanning algorithm, dynamic discovery and installation, reliable data transmission, device access control, and a healthcare profile for ubiquitous healthcare system.

  13. BARI+: a biometric based distributed key management approach for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Khaliq-ur-Rahman Raazi Syed; Lee, Heejo; Lee, Sungyoung; Lee, Young-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBAN) consist of resource constrained sensing devices just like other wireless sensor networks (WSN). However, they differ from WSN in topology, scale and security requirements. Due to these differences, key management schemes designed for WSN are inefficient and unnecessarily complex when applied to WBAN. Considering the key management issue, WBAN are also different from WPAN because WBAN can use random biometric measurements as keys. We highlight the differences between WSN and WBAN and propose an efficient key management scheme, which makes use of biometrics and is specifically designed for WBAN domain. PMID:22319333

  14. Gender differences in knee joint cartilage thickness, volume and articular surface areas: assessment with quantitative three-dimensional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the cartilage thickness, volume, and articular surface areas of the knee joint between young healthy, non-athletic female and male individuals. Subjects and design. MR imaging was performed in 18 healthy subjects without local or systemic joints disease (9 female, age 22.3±2.4 years, and 9 male, age 22.2.±1.9 years), using a fat-suppressed FLASH 3D pulse sequence (TR=41 ms, TE=11 ms, FA=30 ) with sagittal orientation and a spatial resolution of 2x0.31x0.31 mm3. After three-dimensional reconstruction and triangulation of the knee joint cartilage plates, the cartilage thickness (mean and maximal), volume, and size of the articular surface area were quantified, independent of the original section orientation. Results and conclusions: Women displayed smaller cartilage volumes than men, the percentage difference ranging from 19.9% in the patella, to 46.6% in the medial tibia. The gender differences of the cartilage thickness were smaller, ranging from 2.0% in the femoral trochlea to 13.3% in the medial tibia for the mean thickness, and from 4.3% in the medial femoral condyle to 18.3% in the medial tibia for the maximal cartilage thickness. The differences between the cartilage surface areas were similar to those of the volumes, with values ranging from 21.0% in the femur to 33.4% in the lateral tibia. Gender differences could be reduced for cartilage volume and surface area when normalized to body weight and body weight x body height. The study demonstrates significant gender differences in cartilage volume and surface area of men and women, which need to be taken into account when retrospectively estimating articular cartilage loss in patients with symptoms of degenerative joint disease. Differences in cartilage volume are primarily due to differences in joint surface areas (epiphyseal bone size), not to differences in cartilage thickness. (orig.)

  15. Using a Volume Discretization Method to Compute the Surface Gravity of Irregular Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-hui; Hu, Shou-cun; Wang, Su; Ji, Jiang-hui

    2016-01-01

    In the orbit design for small body exploration missions, it is important to take the effect of the gravitation of the small body into consideration. However, the majority of small bodies in the solar system are irregularly shaped with a non-uniform density distribution, this makes it difficult to precisely calculate the gravitational fields of these bodies. This paper proposes a method to model the gravitational field of an irregularly shaped small body, and calculate the corresponding spherical harmonic coefficients. This method is based on the shape of the small body resulted from the observed light curve, and uses finite volume elements to approximate the body shape. The spherical harmonic coefficients can be derived numerically by computing the integrals according to their definitions. A comparison is made with the polyhedron method. Taking the asteroid (433) Eros as an example, the spherical harmonic coefficients calculated by this method are compared with the result derived from the inversion of the NEAR (Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) spacecraft' orbit data, and the comparison shows that the error of C20 is less than 2%. Using this method, we have calculated the gravity field of (1996) FG3 which is a candidate target in our future space exploration mission. Taking (4179) Toutatis, the target body of the Chang'e 2's flyby mission, as an example, the distribution of surface gravitational potential is calculated, in combination with the shape model derived from the radar data, it provides a theoretical basis for analyzing the surface soil distribution and flow direction from the optical images obtained in this mission. This method suits the objects of inhomogeneous density distribution, and can be used to provide the reliable gravitational data of small bodies for the orbit design and landing in future asteroid exploration missions.

  16. FREE-SURFACE WAVES AND FAR WAKES GENERATED BY A FLOATING BODY IN A VISCOUS FLUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Dong-qiang

    2003-01-01

    The free-surface waves and the flow field due to a body moving on the surface of an incompressible viscous fluid of infinite depth were studied analytically. The floating body was modeled as a normal point pressure on the free surface. Based on the Oseen approximation for governing equations and the linearity assumption for boundary conditions, the exact solutions in integral form for the free-surface elevation, the velocities and the pressure were given. By employing Lighthill's two-stage scheme, the asymptotic representations in far field for large Reynolds numbers were derived explicitly. The effect of viscosity on the wave profiles was expressed by an exponential decay factor, which removes the singular behavior predicted by the potential theory.

  17. Reliability Study of the Hitachi H34C Accelerometer in Wireless Body Area Networks for Fall Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Catteeuw, Wim; Hallez, Hans; Boydens, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    A WBAN (Wireless Body Area Network) allows connecting several sensor nodes into one sensor network. Each sensor node can be provided with a dedicated sensor. In case of fall detection, the physical movements of the body, which show characteristic patterns typical for a falling body, are used to generate a warning signal. Physical movements of the body can be measured by accelerometers. Today there is a lot of progress in the area of MEMS accelerometers. They are very small and hence can get i...

  18. Shape-memory surface with dynamically tunable nano-geometry activated by body heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Uto, Koichiro; Idota, Naokazu; Hoffman, John M; Aoyagi, Takao

    2012-01-10

    Shape-memory surfaces with on-demand, tunable nanopatterns are developed to observe time dependent changes in cell alignment using temperature-responsive poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL) films. Temporary grooved nanopatterns are easily programmed on the films and triggered to transition quickly to permanent surface patterns by the application of body heat. A time-dependent cytoskeleton remodeling is also observed under biologically relevant conditions. PMID:21954058

  19. Effect on Groundwater Quality from Proximal Surface Water Bodies and Effect on Arsenic Distribution in Bangladesh: Geochemical Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, S.; Kulkarni, H.; Mladenov, N.; Khan, M. A.; Mahfuz, M.; Ahmed, K. M.; Datta, S.

    2014-12-01

    Matlab is one of the areas in SE Bangladesh highly affected with elevated concentrations of dissolved As in drinking waters. Matlab is stratigraphically composed of thick floodplain deposits of Holocene age overlying Plio-Pleistocene grey fine to coarse sands with considerable clay (Dupi Tila). The dissolved As concentrations in the studied area ranged from bodies, the range of DOC was 2.9-8.1 mg/l. MPN based analyses for both ground and surface waters indicate the frequency of E. coli detection in shallow well waters (MPN= 3.6-74.1) was high as well as in ponds and canals (MPN= 8.5-433.4). Microbial activity in groundwater was lower than in unprotected surface waters. Freshness index (β:α), humification index (HIX), fluorescence source index (FI) values showed that DOM in shallow and surface water bodies was distinct from deep groundwater. Concurrent with the lower DOC in deeper wells, the overall fluorescence intensities decreased with depth. The results thus far point to more humic DOM in shallow groundwaters, which is not expected to be a labile carbon source for microorganisms, but which may be involved in complexation or other biogeochemical reactions that mobilize arsenic.

  20. Surface-based morphometry reveals distinct cortical thickness and surface area profiles in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tamar; Fierro, Kyle C; Raman, Mira M; Saggar, Manish; Sheau, Kristen E; Reiss, Allan L

    2016-04-01

    Morphometric investigations of brain volumes in Williams syndrome (WS) consistently show significant reductions in gray matter volume compared to controls. Cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) are two constituent parts of cortical gray matter volume that are considered genetically distinguishable features of brain morphology. Yet, little is known about the independent contribution of cortical CT and SA to these volumetric differences in WS. Thus, our objectives were: (i) to evaluate whether the microdeletion in chromosome 7 associated with WS has a distinct effect on CT and SA, and (ii) to evaluate age-related variations in CT and SA within WS. We compared CT and SA values in 44 individuals with WS to 49 age- and sex-matched typically developing controls. Between-group differences in CT and SA were evaluated across two age groups: young (age range 6.6-18.9 years), and adults (age range 20.2-51.5 years). Overall, we found contrasting effects of WS on cortical thickness (increases) and surface area (decreases). With respect to brain topography, the between-group pattern of CT differences showed a scattered pattern while the between-group surface area pattern was widely distributed throughout the brain. In the adult subgroup, we observed a cluster of increases in cortical thickness in WS across the brain that was not observed in the young subgroup. Our findings suggest that extensive early reductions in surface area are the driving force for the overall reduction in brain volume in WS. The age-related cortical thickness findings might reflect delayed or even arrested development of specific brain regions in WS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26852730

  1. Visualization of particle flux in the human body on the surface of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a given galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment, information on the particle flux of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions, that varies with respect to the topographical altitude on the Martian surface, are needed for planning exploration missions to Mars. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission with its Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument has been providing precise topographical surface map of the Mars. With this topographical data, the particle flux at the Martian surface level through the CO2 atmospheric shielding for solar minimum and solar maximum conditions are calculated. These particle flux calculations are then transported first through an anticipated shielding of a conceptual shelter with several water equivalent shield values (up to 50 g/cm2 of water in steps of 5 g/cm2) considered to represent a surface habitat, and then into the human body. Model calculations are accomplished utilizing the high Z and energy transport (HZETRN), quantum multiple-scattering theory of nuclear fragmentation(QMSFRG), and SUM-MARS codes. Particle flux calculations for 12 different locations in the human body were considered from skin depth to the internal organs including the blood-forming organs (BFO). Visualization of particle flux in the human body at different altitudes on the Martian surface behind a known shielding is anticipated to provide guidance for assessing radiation environment risk on the Martian surface for future human missions.(author)

  2. Visualization of particle flux in the human body on the surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saganti, Premkumar B.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Schimmerling, Walter

    2002-01-01

    For a given galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment, information on the particle flux of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions, that varies with respect to the topographical altitude on the Martian surface, are needed for planning exploration missions to Mars. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission with its Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument has been providing precise topographical surface map of the Mars. With this topographical data, the particle flux at the Martian surface level through the CO2 atmospheric shielding for solar minimum and solar maximum conditions are calculated. These particle flux calculations are then transported first through an anticipated shielding of a conceptual shelter with several water equivalent shield values (up to 50 g/cm2 of water in steps of 5 g/cm2) considered to represent a surface habitat, and then into the human body. Model calculations are accomplished utilizing the HZETRN, QMSFRG, and SUM-MARS codes. Particle flux calculations for 12 different locations in the human body were considered from skin depth to the internal organs including the blood-forming organs (BFO). Visualization of particle flux in the human body at different altitudes on the Martian surface behind a known shielding is anticipated to provide guidance for assessing radiation environment risk on the Martian surface for future human missions.

  3. Visualization of particle flux in the human body on the surface of Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saganti, P.B.; Cucinotta, F.A. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, TX (United States). Johnson Space Center; Wilson, J.W.; Schimmerling, W. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

    2002-12-01

    For a given galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment, information on the particle flux of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions, that varies with respect to the topographical altitude on the Martian surface, are needed for planning exploration missions to Mars. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission with its Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument has been providing precise topographical surface map of the Mars. With this topographical data, the particle flux at the Martian surface level through the CO{sub 2} atmospheric shielding for solar minimum and solar maximum conditions are calculated. These particle flux calculations are then transported first through an anticipated shielding of a conceptual shelter with several water equivalent shield values (up to 50 g/cm{sup 2} of water in steps of 5 g/cm{sup 2}) considered to represent a surface habitat, and then into the human body. Model calculations are accomplished utilizing the high Z and energy transport (HZETRN), quantum multiple-scattering theory of nuclear fragmentation(QMSFRG), and SUM-MARS codes. Particle flux calculations for 12 different locations in the human body were considered from skin depth to the internal organs including the blood-forming organs (BFO). Visualization of particle flux in the human body at different altitudes on the Martian surface behind a known shielding is anticipated to provide guidance for assessing radiation environment risk on the Martian surface for future human missions.(author)

  4. ATLAS: A Traffic Load Aware Sensor MAC Design for Collaborative Body Area Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Cheol Bang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In collaborative body sensor networks, namely wireless body area networks(WBANs, each of the physical sensor applications is used to collaboratively monitor thehealth status of the human body. The applications of WBANs comprise diverse and dynamictraffic loads such as very low-rate periodic monitoring (i.e., observation data and high-ratetraffic including event-triggered bursts. Therefore, in designing a medium access control(MAC protocol for WBANs, energy conservation should be the primary concern duringlow-traffic periods, whereas a balance between satisfying high-throughput demand andefficient energy usage is necessary during high-traffic times. In this paper, we design atraffic load-aware innovative MAC solution for WBANs, called ATLAS. The design exploitsthe superframe structure of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, and it adaptively uses the contentionaccess period (CAP, contention free period (CFP and inactive period (IP of the superframebased on estimated traffic load, by applying a dynamic “wh” (whenever which is requiredapproach. Unlike earlier work, the proposed MAC design includes load estimation fornetwork load-status awareness and a multi-hop communication pattern in order to preventenergy loss associated with long range transmission. Finally, ATLAS is evaluated throughextensive simulations in ns-2 and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the protocol.

  5. Improved Adaptive Routing for Multihop IEEE 802.15.6 Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariar Imtiaz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Body Area Network has the ability to collect and send data on body measurement to the server through PDA or other device. Nodes (sensors collect vital signs from the body or environmental factor and check them. In IEEE 802.15.6 routing is discussed as a part of the link layer where multihop is not fully considered. Improving network performance, reducing energy consumption, thus extending the network lifetime is the main challenge in BANs. Several studies mention that multihop for BANs helps for achieving network performance, reducing energy consumption and extending network lifetime. One work presents the Adaptive multihop tree-based Routing (AMR protocol that is extensively evaluated in a real testbed deployment. They use fuzzy logic to combine all metrics they use. Another limitation is that they have used Prim's algorithm which is not a realistic approach. So in this work we have improved their multihop tree-based Routing (AMR protocol using Kruskal's algorithm instead of Prim's algorithm. The time complexity of Kruskal's algorithm is way less than prims's algorithm. We have used network simulator 3 (NS3 to simulate and found that our algorithm is better than AMR if many of nodes.

  6. ATLAS: a traffic load aware sensor MAC design for collaborative body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Obaidur; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon; Bang, Young-Cheol

    2011-01-01

    In collaborative body sensor networks, namely wireless body area networks (WBANs), each of the physical sensor applications is used to collaboratively monitor the health status of the human body. The applications of WBANs comprise diverse and dynamic traffic loads such as very low-rate periodic monitoring (i.e., observation) data and high-rate traffic including event-triggered bursts. Therefore, in designing a medium access control (MAC) protocol for WBANs, energy conservation should be the primary concern during low-traffic periods, whereas a balance between satisfying high-throughput demand and efficient energy usage is necessary during high-traffic times. In this paper, we design a traffic load-aware innovative MAC solution for WBANs, called ATLAS. The design exploits the superframe structure of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, and it adaptively uses the contention access period (CAP), contention free period (CFP) and inactive period (IP) of the superframe based on estimated traffic load, by applying a dynamic "wh" (whenever which is required) approach. Unlike earlier work, the proposed MAC design includes load estimation for network load-status awareness and a multi-hop communication pattern in order to prevent energy loss associated with long range transmission. Finally, ATLAS is evaluated through extensive simulations in ns-2 and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the protocol. PMID:22247681

  7. Link-state-estimation-based transmission power control in wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungku; Eom, Doo-Seop

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a novel transmission power control protocol to extend the lifetime of sensor nodes and to increase the link reliability in wireless body area networks (WBANs). We first experimentally investigate the properties of the link states using the received signal strength indicator (RSSI). We then propose a practical transmission power control protocol based on both short- and long-term link-state estimations. Both the short- and long-term link-state estimations enable the transceiver to adapt the transmission power level and target the RSSI threshold range, respectively, to simultaneously satisfy the requirements of energy efficiency and link reliability. Finally, the performance of the proposed protocol is experimentally evaluated in two experimental scenarios-body posture change and dynamic body motion-and compared with the typical WBAN transmission power control protocols, a real-time reactive scheme, and a dynamic postural position inference mechanism. From the experimental results, it is found that the proposed protocol increases the lifetime of the sensor nodes by a maximum of 9.86% and enhances the link reliability by reducing the packet loss by a maximum of 3.02%. PMID:24107988

  8. Wireless body area network node localization using small-scale spatial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Geoffrey; Gonzalez-Valenzuela, Sergio; Leung, Victor C M

    2013-05-01

    We present a new scheme to automatically identify the locations of wearable sensor nodes in a wireless body area network (WBAN). Instantaneous atmospheric air pressure readings are compared to map nodes in physical space. This enhancement enables unassisted sensor node placement, providing a practical solution to obtain and continuously monitor node locations without anchor nodes or beacons. To validate this localization scheme, a statistical analysis is conducted on a set of air pressure sensors and a prototype WBAN to examine the performance and limitations. Based on a 60 cm separation between nodes, indicative of the expected separation between limbs and placement positions along a patient's body, the measurements consistently exceeded p -value reliability within a 95% confidence interval. We also present and experimentally demonstrate an enhancement aiming to reduce false-positive (Type I) errors in conventional accelerometer-based on-body fall detection schemes. Our statistical analysis has shown that by continuously monitoring the patient's limb positions, the WBAN would be better able to discriminate “fall-like” motions from actual falls. PMID:24592472

  9. The impact of built-up surfaces on land surface temperatures in Italian urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Marco; Crisci, Alfonso; Messeri, Alessandro; Orlandini, Simone; Raschi, Antonio; Maracchi, Giampiero; Munafò, Michele

    2016-05-01

    Urban areas are characterized by the very high degree of soil sealing and continuous built-up areas: Italy is one of the European countries with the highest artificial land cover rate, which causes a substantial spatial variation in the land surface temperature (LST), modifying the urban microclimate and contributing to the urban heat island effect. Nevertheless, quantitative data regarding the contribution of different densities of built-up surfaces in determining urban spatial LST changes is currently lacking in Italy. This study, which aimed to provide clear and quantitative city-specific information on annual and seasonal spatial LST modifications resulting from increased urban built-up coverage, was conducted generally throughout the whole year, and specifically in two different periods (cool/cold and warm/hot periods). Four cities (Milan, Rome, Bologna and Florence) were included in the study. The LST layer and the built-up-surface indicator were obtained via use of MODIS remote sensing data products (1km) and a very high-resolution map (5m) of built-up surfaces recently developed by the Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research. The relationships between the dependent (mean daily, daytime and nighttime LST values) and independent (built-up surfaces) variables were investigated through linear regression analyses, and comprehensive built-up-surface-related LST maps were also developed. Statistically significant linear relationships (p<0.001) between built-up surfaces and spatial LST variations were observed in all the cities studied, with a higher impact during the warm/hot period than in the cool/cold ones. Daytime and nighttime LST slope patterns depend on the city size and relative urban morphology. If implemented in the existing city plan, the urban maps of built-up-surface-related LST developed in this study might be able to support more sustainable urban land management practices by identifying the critical areas (Hot

  10. Lung deposited surface area size distributions of particulate matter in different urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuuluvainen, Heino; Rönkkö, Topi; Järvinen, Anssi; Saari, Sampo; Karjalainen, Panu; Lähde, Tero; Pirjola, Liisa; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Hillamo, Risto; Keskinen, Jorma

    2016-07-01

    Lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration is considered as a relevant metric for the negative health effects of aerosol particles. We report for the first time the size distributions of the LDSA measured in urban air. The measurements were carried out in the metropolitan area of Helsinki, including mobile laboratory and stationary measurements in different outdoor environments, such as traffic sites, a park area, the city center and residential areas. The main instrument in this study was an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI), which was calibrated in the field to measure the LDSA concentration. The calibration factor was determined to be 60 μm2/(cm3 pA). In the experiments, the LDSA size distributions were found to form two modes at the traffic sites and in the city center. Both of these traffic related particle modes, the nucleation mode and the soot mode, had a clear contribution to the total LDSA concentration. The average total concentrations varied from 12 to 94 μm2/cm3, measured in the park area and at the traffic site next to a major road, respectively. The LDSA concentration was found to correlate with the mass of fine particles (PM2.5), but the relation of these two metrics varied between different environments, emphasizing the influence of traffic on the LDSA. The results of this study provide valuable information on the total concentrations and size distributions of the LDSA for epidemiological studies. The size distributions are especially important in estimating the contribution of outdoor concentrations on the concentrations inside buildings and vehicles through size-dependent penetration factors.

  11. Water-waves modes trapped in a canal by a body with the rough surface

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, G; Nazarov, S A

    2009-01-01

    The problem about a body in a three dimensional infinite channel is considered in the framework of the theory of linear water-waves. The body has a rough surface characterized by a small parameter $\\epsilon>0$ while the distance of the body to the water surface is also of order $\\epsilon$. Under a certain symmetry assumption, the accumulation effect for trapped mode frequencies is established, namely, it is proved that, for any given $d>0$ and integer $N>0$, there exists $\\epsilon(d,N)>0$ such that the problem has at least $N$ eigenvalues in the interval $(0,d)$ of the continuous spectrum in the case $\\epsilon\\in(0,\\epsilon(d,N)) $. The corresponding eigenfunctions decay exponentially at infinity, have finite energy, and imply trapped modes.

  12. Dipyridamole Body Surface Potential Mapping: Noninvasive Differentiation of Syndrome X from Coronary Artery Disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boudík, F.; Anger, Z.; Aschermann, M.; Vojáček, J.; Tomečková, Marie

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2002), s. 181-191. ISSN 0022-0736 R&D Projects: GA MZd IZ4038 Keywords : body surface potential mapping * dipyridamole * coronary artery disease * syndrome X Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.599, year: 2002

  13. About transmission of thermal light through the surface of a body into the vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedev, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of the change of photon distribution of thermal light passing through the body surface into the vacuum is discussed. It is shown that the usual assumption that each photon passes through the boundary totally independent of others contradicts the expression for the fluctuation of thermal light found by A. Einstein.

  14. The lift-off velocity on the surface of an arbitrary body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van wal, S.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    An expression is developed for the velocity at which a particle, moving tangentially on the surface of a body with an arbitrary shape, rotation, and gravitational field, will lift off from that surface and enter orbit. The osculating departure plane in which this lift-off motion occurs is defined by the net particle acceleration and the desired lift-off direction. The body surface is approximated within this plane, at the departure point, with some radius and center of curvature, allowing for a universal, frame-independent lift-off velocity expression. Applying the geometry of plane-ellipsoid intersections, we perform a validation of the full lift-off velocity expression on a number of rotating ellipsoids. Finally, we derive a limit expression for the case of lift-off from a rotating plane, and compare this with the results on curved bodies. This theory has numerous applications to lander/rover surface mobility operations on asteroids, comets, and small moons, as well as to geophysical processes encountered on these bodies.

  15. Analyzing Delay in Wireless Multi-hop Heterogeneous Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Javaid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With increase in ageing population, health care market keeps growing. There is a need for monitoring of health issues. Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN consists of wireless sensors attached on or inside human body for monitoring vital health related problems e.g., Electro Cardiogram (ECG, Electro Encephalogram (EEG, Electrony Stagmography (ENG etc. Due to life threatening situations, timely sending of data is essential. For data to reach health care center, there must be a proper way of sending data through reliable connection and with minimum delay. In this study transmission delay of different paths, through which data is sent from sensor to health care center over heterogeneous multi-hop wireless channel is analyzed. Data of medical related diseases is sent through three different paths. In all three paths, data from sensors first reaches ZigBee, which is the common link in all three paths. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN, Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX, Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS are connected with ZigBee. Each network (WLAN, WiMAX, UMTS is setup according to environmental conditions, suitability of device and availability of structure for that device. Data from these networks is sent to IP-Cloud, which is further connected to health care center. Delay of data reaching each device is calculated and represented graphically. Main aim of this study is to calculate delay of each link in each path over multi-hop wireless channel.

  16. Human lung volume, alveolar surface area, and capillary length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiebe, B. M.; Laursen, Henning

    1995-01-01

    Cavalieri's principle, length density, morphometry, stereology, surface density, vertical sections, vertical slices......Cavalieri's principle, length density, morphometry, stereology, surface density, vertical sections, vertical slices...

  17. Composition and properties of the surface of oil bodies recovered from Echium plantagineum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Gareth; Lad, Mita; Foster, Tim; Khosla, Amit; Gray, David

    2014-04-01

    Neutral-lipids within oilseeds are most commonly stored in oil bodies, small spherical organelles with oleosin proteins inserted through a phospholipid monolayer. Oil bodies extracted from Echium plantagineum are highly enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and are stable to coalescence and oxidation. This stability has been attributed to the strong association between the phospholipid monolayer and oleosin proteins. To better understand this association the phospholipid fatty acyl groups of E. Plantagineum oil bodies were determined for the first time; a large proportion (≈70%) of saturated fatty acids were present, and this may aid in oleosin anchorage and thus contributes to oil body stability. The effect of oil body washing on surface charge was also observed (using turbidity, zeta and streaming potentials), and dependent on the washing protocol, E. Plantagineum oil bodies had an isoelectric point of pH 4-5. This is significantly different to pI values for oil bodies from a range of other seeds reported in the literature using isoelectric focusing; a possible explanation for this discrepancy is discussed. PMID:24448176

  18. Associations between Area-Level Unemployment, Body Mass Index, and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in an Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Gauvin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD has been linked to "neighbourhood" socioeconomic status (nSES, often operationalized as a composite index of aggregate income, occupation and education within predefined administrative boundaries. The role of specific, non-composite socioeconomic markers has not been clearly explained. It is also unclear whether the relationship between nSES and CVD varies according to sex. We sought to determine whether area-level unemployment (ALU was associated with CVD risk, and whether this association differed by sex. Methods: 342 individuals from the Montreal Neighbourhood Survey of Lifestyle and Health provided self-reported behavioural and socioeconomic information. A nurse collected biochemical and anthropometric data. ALU, a weighted average of the proportion of persons 15-years and older available for but without work, was measured using a Geographic Information System for a 250 m buffer centred on individual residence. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to estimate the associations between ALU, body mass index (BMI and a cumulative score for total cardiometabolic risk (TCR. Results: After confounder adjustments, the mean 4th minus 1st quartile difference in BMI was 3.19 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.39, 3.99, while the prevalence ratio for the 4th relative to 1st quartile for TCR was 2.20 (95 % CI: 1.53, 3.17. Sex interacted with ALU; women relative to men had greater mean 3.97 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.08, 5.85 BMI and greater mean TCR 1.51 (95% CI: 0.78, 2.90, contrasted at mean ALU. Conclusions: Area-level unemployment is associated with greater CVD risk, and this association is stronger for women.

  19. The winds regime of surface in the Colombian coffee area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of the address and gust of wind of the surface winds have been studied in 15 stations of the Colombian coffee area. It was found that the relief plays an important paper in the wind circulation so that during the day (7 a.m. - 7 p.m.) these they blow of the low sector toward the mountain and at night (7 p.m. - 7 a.m.) this situation is invested, that which is consistent with the characteristic pattern of circulation valley-mountain of the mountainous regions. For this fact, in most of the analyzed places a single day and night dominant address that it takes the orientation in that it is the respective hydrographic basin. It was not observed that the Alisios winds of the northeast and southeast modify the address settled down by the local circulation (valley-mountain) on the other hand a remarkable increase of the gust of wind was appreciated in July and August in the Florida and Ospina, stations located to the south of the country, as direct consequence of the Alisios of the southeast. The daily gust of wind in most of the studied places is low and it doesn't exceed of the 10 km/h, reason why it can consider that the Colombian coffee area is free of important damages for the action of the wind. Nevertheless, in some stations as Alban, Maracay and Paraguaicito the daily maximum gust of wind can surpass the 30 km/h and in occasions to cause damage mechanic to cultivations of high behavior and not well anchored facilities

  20. General -Harmonic Blaschke Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yibin Feng; Weidong Wang

    2014-02-01

    Lutwak introduced the harmonic Blaschke combination and the harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. Further, Feng and Wang introduced the concept of the -harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. In this paper, we define the notion of general -harmonic Blaschke bodies and establish some of its properties. In particular, we obtain the extreme values concerning the volume and the -dual geominimal surface area of this new notion.

  1. Estimation of the mass density contrasts and the 3D geometrical shape of the source bodies, in the Yilgarn area, Eastern Goldfields, Western Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strykowski, Gabriel; Boschetti, F.; Papp, G.

    2005-01-01

    available) and only weakly constrained by the seismic information. The result was the reconstruction of the 'rough' 3D geometry of the source bodies and the estimation of a constant mass density contrast to the surroundings. A possible extension of this technique for detailed studies of the geological model....... Firstly, a rough 3D shape of the source is modelled-a model consisting of the vertical mass columns of equal height. The horizontal extension is implied by the surface gravity signal. Subsequently, the shape of each source body is modified to obtain a better fit to the surface gravity data. In each...... seismic profiles that cross-sect the area were measured. Furthermore, an extensive geological modelling for the area has been conducted. The practical goal of this work was to verify the geological interpretation using the potential field data (mainly the gravity data although magnetic data were also...

  2. Use of bionic inspired surfaces for aerodynamic drag reduction on motor vehicle body panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-wen SONG; Guo-geng ZHANG; Yun WANG; Shu-gen HU

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the successful applications of biological non-smoothness,we introduced bionic non-smooth surfaces as appendices into vehicle body design,aiming to further reduce aerodynamic drag.The size range of the non-smooth units with pits and grooves was determined according to our analysis with the mechanisms underlying non-smooth unit mediated aerodynamic drag reduction.The bionic non-smooth units reported here were designed to adapt the structure of a given vehicle body from the point of boundary layer control that reduces the burst and the loss of turbulent kinetic energy.The engine cover lid and vehicle body cap were individually treated with the non-smooth units,and the treated vehicles were subjected to aerodynamic drag coefficient simulation tests using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis method.The simulation results showed that,in comparison with smooth surfaces,properly designed non-smooth surfaces can have greater effects on drag reduction.The mechanism underlying drag reduction mediated by non-smooth surfaces was revealed by further analyses,in which the effects of non-smooth and smooth surfaces were directly compared.

  3. Numerical simulation on drag reduction of revolution body through bionic riblet surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Numerical simulations of flow fields on the bionic riblet and the smooth revolution bodies were performed based on the SST k-ω turbulence model in order to explain the mechanisms of the skin friction drag reduction, base drag reduction on the riblet surface, and flow control behaviors of riblet surface near the wall. The simulation results show that the riblet surface arranged on the rearward of the revolution body can reduce the skin friction drag by 8.27%, the base drag by 9.91% and the total drag by 8.59% at Ma number 0.8. The riblet surface reduces the skin friction drag by reducing the velocity gradient and turbulent intensity, and reduces the base drag by weakening the pumping action on the dead water region which behind the body of revolution caused by the external flow. The flow control behavior on boundary layer shows that the riblet surface can cut the low-speed flow near the wall effectively, and restrain the low-speed flow concentrating in span direction, thus weaken the instability of the low speed steaks produced by turbulent flow bursting.

  4. Modeling surface area to volume effects on borosilicate glass dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We simulated the reaction of SRL-131 glass with equilibrated J-13 water in order to investigate the effects of surface area to volume ratio (SA/V) on glass dissolution. We show that glass-fluid ion exchange causes solution pH to rise to progressively higher values as SA/V increases. Because the ion exchange is rapid relative to the duration of the glass dissolution experiment, the pH effect does not scale with (SA/V)*time. Experiments compared at the same (SA/V)*time value therefore have different pHs, with higher pHs at higher SA/V ratios. Both experimental data and our simulation results show similar trends of increasing reaction rate as a function of SA/V ratio when scaled to (SA/V)*time. Glasses which react in systems of differing SA/V ratio therefore follow different reaction paths and high SA/V ratios cannot be used to generate data which accurately scales to long time periods unless the ion exchange effect is taken into account. We suggest some simple test designs which enable more reliable high. SA/V accelerated tests

  5. Bicontinuous ceramics with high surface area from block copolymer templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Han-Yu; Ho, Rong-Ming

    2012-06-01

    Mesoporous polymers with gyroid nanochannels can be fabricated from the self-assembly of degradable block copolymer, polystyrene-b-poly(L-lactide) (PS-PLLA), followed by hydrolysis of PLLA block. Well-defined polymer/ceramic nanohybrid materials with inorganic gyroid nanostructures in a PS matrix can be obtained by using the mesoporous PS as a template for sol-gel reaction. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) is used as a precursor to give a model system for the fabrication of metal oxide nanostructures from reactive transition metal alkoxides. By controlling the rates of capillary-driven pore filling and sol-gel reaction, the templated synthesis can be well-developed. Also, by taking advantage of calcination, bicontinuous TiO(2) with controlled crystalline phase (i.e., anatase phase) can be fabricated after removal of the PS template and crystallization of TiO(2) by calcination leading to high photocatalytic efficiency. This new approach provides an easy way to fabricate high-surface-area and high-porosity ceramics with self-supporting structure and controlled crystalline phase for practical applications. As a result, a platform technology to fabricate precisely controlled polymer/ceramic nanohybrids and mesoporous ceramic materials can be established. PMID:22530553

  6. Augmentation of blood circulation to the fingers by warming distant body areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscheyev, V. S.; Leon, G. R.; Paul, S.; Tranchida, D.; Linder, I. V.

    2000-01-01

    Future activities in space will require greater periods of time in extreme environments in which the body periphery will be vulnerable to chilling. Maintaining the hands and fingers in comfortable conditions enhances finger flexibility and dexterity, and thus effects better work performance. We have evaluated the efficacy of promoting heat transfer and release by the extremities by increasing the blood flow to the periphery from more distant parts of the body. The experimental garment paradigm developed by the investigators was used to manipulate the temperature of different body areas. Six subjects, two females and four males, were evaluated in a stage-1 baseline condition, with the inlet temperature of the circulating water in the liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG) at 33 degrees C. At stage 2 the total LCWG water inlet temperature was cooled to 8 degrees C, and at stage 3 the inlet water temperature in specific segments of the LCWG was warmed (according to protocol) to 45 degrees C, while the inlet temperature in the rest of the LCWG was maintained at 8 degrees C. The following four body-area-warming conditions were studied in separate sessions: (1) head, (2) upper torso/arm, (3) upper torso/arm/head, and (4) legs/feet. Skin temperature, heat flux and blood perfusion of the fingers, and subjective perception of thermal sensations and overall physical comfort were assessed. Finger temperature (T(fing)) analyses showed a statistically significant condition x stage interaction. Post-hoc comparisons (T(fing)) indicated that at stage 3, the upper torso/arm/head warming condition was significantly different from the head, upper torso/arm and legs/feet conditions, showing an increase in T(fing). There was a significant increase in blood perfusion in the fingers at stage 3 in all conditions. Subjective perception of hand warmth, and overall physical comfort level significantly increased in the stage 3 upper torso/arm/head condition. The findings indicate that

  7. Interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T.; Kuroda, K.; Do Thuan, A.; Tran Thi Viet, N.; Takizawa, S.

    2012-12-01

    the Red river. Groundwater samples were also distributed along the LEL and there was no seasonal change. Thus, groundwater in these communities was mainly recharged by mixing of precipitation/the Red River and evaporated water bodies. Considering the land use in these communities, evaporated water bodies were considered to be not only ponds but also paddy fields. As for solute transport, concentration of dissolved Arsenic (filtered by 0.45μm) of the pond water (3 - 10 μg/L) was slightly higher than the Red River (~ 3 μg/L) and was much lower than that of groundwater (~ 60 μg/L). On the other hand, concentration of dissolved Arsenic in the pore water of sediments (10 - 85 μg/L) was close to groundwater. Also, other metal elements showed the same trend. Therefore, Arsenic and other metal elements recharged to these ponds were considered to be adsorbed by sediments (including organic matters). That is, pond sediments played an important role as a filter of metal elements. The results of this study strongly suggested that the surface water areas such as ponds and paddy fields are one of main groundwater sources. Also, ponds play important role for solute transport of metal elements. Therefore, management of these surface water areas is important to conserve groundwater environment.

  8. Understanding the effects of the impervious surfaces pattern on land surface temperature in an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qin; Xu, Jianhua

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that urban impervious surface (IS) has a warming effect on urban land surface temperature (LST). However, the influence of an IS's structure, components, and spatial distribution on LST has rarely been quantitatively studied within strictly urban areas. Using ETM+ remote sensing images from the downtown area of Shanghai, China in 2010, this study characterized and quantified the influence of the IS spatial pattern on LST by selecting the percent cover of each IS cover feature and ten configuration metrics. The IS fraction was estimated by linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA), and LST was retrieved using a mono-window algorithm. The results indicate that high fraction IS cover features account for the majority of the study area. The high fraction IS cover features are widely distributed and concentrated in groups, which is similar with that of high temperature zones. Both the percent composition and the configuration of IS cover features greatly affect the magnitude of LST, but the percent composition is a more important factor in determining LST than the configuration of those features. The significances and effects of the given configuration variables on LST vary greatly among IS cover features.

  9. Is the surface area of the red cell membrane skeleton locally conserved?

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, T M

    1992-01-01

    The incompressibility of the lipid bilayer keeps the total surface area of the red cell membrane constant. Local conservation of membrane surface area requires that each surface element of the membrane skeleton keeps its area when its aspect ratio is changed. A change in area would require a flow of lipids past the intrinsic proteins to which the skeleton is anchored. in fast red cell deformations, there is no time for such a flow. Consequently, the bilayer provides for local area conservatio...

  10. Determination of surface-accessible acidic hydroxyls and surface area of lignin by cationic dye adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipponen, Mika Henrikki; Pihlajaniemi, Ville; Littunen, Kuisma; Pastinen, Ossi; Laakso, Simo

    2014-10-01

    A new colorimetric method for determining the surface-accessible acidic lignin hydroxyl groups in lignocellulose solid fractions was developed. The method is based on selective adsorption of Azure B, a basic dye, onto acidic hydroxyl groups of lignin. Selectivity of adsorption of Azure B on lignin was demonstrated using lignin and cellulose materials as adsorbents. Adsorption isotherms of Azure B on wheat straw (WS), sugarcane bagasse (SGB), oat husk, and isolated lignin materials were determined. The maximum adsorption capacities predicted by the Langmuir isotherms were used to calculate the amounts of surface-accessible acidic hydroxyl groups. WS contained 1.7-times more acidic hydroxyls (0.21 mmol/g) and higher surface area of lignin (84 m(2)/g) than SGB or oat husk materials. Equations for determining the amount of surface-accessible acidic hydroxyls in solid fractions of the three plant materials by a single point measurement were developed. A method for high-throughput characterization of lignocellulosic materials is now available. PMID:25033327

  11. Mercury Underpotential Deposition to Determine Iridium and Iridium Oxide Electrochemical Surface Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alia, Shaun M.; Hurst, Katherine E.; Kocha, Shyam S.; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2016-06-02

    Determining the surface areas of electrocatalysts is critical for separating the key properties of area-specific activity and electrochemical surface area from mass activity. Hydrogen underpotential deposition and carbon monoxide oxidation are typically used to evaluate iridium (Ir) surface areas, but are ineffective on oxides and can be sensitive to surface oxides formed on Ir metals. Mercury underpotential deposition is presented in this study as an alternative, able to produce reasonable surface areas on Ir and Ir oxide nanoparticles, and able to produce similar surface areas prior to and following characterization in oxygen evolution. Reliable electrochemical surface areas allow for comparative studies of different catalyst types and the characterization of advanced oxygen evolution catalysts. They also enable the study of catalyst degradation in durability testing, both areas of increasing importance within electrolysis and electrocatalysis.

  12. Adaptive Real Time Data Mining Methodology for Wireless Body Area Network Based Healthcare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Durgesh Patil

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the population is growing, the need for high quality and efficient healthcare, both at home and in hospital, is becoming more important. This paper presents the innovative wireless sensor network basedMobile Real-time Health care Monitoring (WMRHM framework which has the capacity of giving health predictions online based on continuously monitored real time vital body signals. Developments in sensors, miniaturization of low-power microelectronics, and wireless networks are becoming a significant opportunity for improving the quality of health care services. Physiological signals like ECG, EEG, SpO2, BP etc. can be monitor through wireless sensor networks and analyzed with the help of data mining techniques. These real-time signals are continuous in nature and abruptly changing hence there is a need to apply an efficient and concept adapting real-time data stream mining techniques for taking intelligent health care decisions online. Because of the high speed and huge volume data set in data streams, the traditional classification technologies are no longer applicable. The most important criteria are to solve the real-time data streams mining problem with ‘concept drift’ efficiently. This paper presents the state-of-the art in this field with growing vitality and introduces the methods for detecting concept drift in data stream, then gives a significant summary of existing approaches to the problem of concept drift. The work is focused on applying these real time stream mining algorithms on vital signals of human body in Wireless Body Area Network( WBAN based health care environment.

  13. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2016-01-01

    In wireless body area networks (WBANs), various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC) protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS) for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC) protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio. PMID:26999162

  14. Power allocation strategies to minimize energy consumption in wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailas, Aravind

    2011-01-01

    The wide scale deployment of wireless body area networks (WBANs) hinges on designing energy efficient communication protocols to support the reliable communication as well as to prolong the network lifetime. Cooperative communications, a relatively new idea in wireless communications, offers the benefits of multi-antenna systems, thereby improving the link reliability and boosting energy efficiency. In this short paper, the advantages of resorting to cooperative communications for WBANs in terms of minimized energy consumption are investigated. Adopting an energy model that encompasses energy consumptions in the transmitter and receiver circuits, and transmitting energy per bit, it is seen that cooperative transmission can improve energy efficiency of the wireless network. In particular, the problem of optimal power allocation is studied with the constraint of targeted outage probability. Two strategies of power allocation are considered: power allocation with and without posture state information. Using analysis and simulation-based results, two key points are demonstrated: (i) allocating power to the on-body sensors making use of the posture information can reduce the total energy consumption of the WBAN; and (ii) when the channel condition is good, it is better to recruit less relays for cooperation to enhance energy efficiency. PMID:22254777

  15. A Secure Cloud-Assisted Wireless Body Area Network in Mobile Emergency Medical Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ta; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Weng, Chi-Yao

    2016-05-01

    Recent advances in medical treatment and emergency applications, the need of integrating wireless body area network (WBAN) with cloud computing can be motivated by providing useful and real time information about patients' health state to the doctors and emergency staffs. WBAN is a set of body sensors carried by the patient to collect and transmit numerous health items to medical clouds via wireless and public communication channels. Therefore, a cloud-assisted WBAN facilitates response in case of emergency which can save patients' lives. Since the patient's data is sensitive and private, it is important to provide strong security and protection on the patient's medical data over public and insecure communication channels. In this paper, we address the challenge of participant authentication in mobile emergency medical care systems for patients supervision and propose a secure cloud-assisted architecture for accessing and monitoring health items collected by WBAN. For ensuring a high level of security and providing a mutual authentication property, chaotic maps based authentication and key agreement mechanisms are designed according to the concept of Diffie-Hellman key exchange, which depends on the CMBDLP and CMBDHP problems. Security and performance analyses show how the proposed system guaranteed the patient privacy and the system confidentiality of sensitive medical data while preserving the low computation property in medical treatment and remote medical monitoring. PMID:27000778

  16. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabin Bhandari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In wireless body area networks (WBANs, various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio.

  17. Lightweight and confidential data discovery and dissemination for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Daojing; Chan, Sammy; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Haomiao

    2014-03-01

    As a special sensor network, a wireless body area network (WBAN) provides an economical solution to real-time monitoring and reporting of patients' physiological data. After a WBAN is deployed, it is sometimes necessary to disseminate data into the network through wireless links to adjust configuration parameters of body sensors or distribute management commands and queries to sensors. A number of such protocols have been proposed recently, but they all focus on how to ensure reliability and overlook security vulnerabilities. Taking into account the unique features and application requirements of a WBAN, this paper presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of a secure, lightweight, confidential, and denial-of-service-resistant data discovery and dissemination protocol for WBANs to ensure the data items disseminated are not altered or tampered. Based on multiple one-way key hash chains, our protocol provides instantaneous authentication and can tolerate node compromise. Besides the theoretical analysis that demonstrates the security and performance of the proposed protocol, this paper also reports the experimental evaluation of our protocol in a network of resource-limited sensor nodes, which shows its efficiency in practice. In particular, extensive security analysis shows that our protocol is provably secure. PMID:24608049

  18. Variable Scheduling to Mitigate Channel Losses in Energy-Efficient Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavy Libman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider a typical body area network (BAN setting in which sensor nodes send data to a common hub regularly on a TDMA basis, as defined by the emerging IEEE 802.15.6 BAN standard. To reduce transmission losses caused by the highly dynamic nature of the wireless channel around the human body, we explore variable TDMA scheduling techniques that allow the order of transmissions within each TDMA round to be decided on the fly, rather than being fixed in advance. Using a simple Markov model of the wireless links, we devise a number of scheduling algorithms that can be performed by the hub, which aim to maximize the expected number of successful transmissions in a TDMA round, and thereby significantly reduce transmission losses as compared with a static TDMA schedule. Importantly, these algorithms do not require a priori knowledge of the statistical properties of the wireless channels, and the reliability improvement is achieved entirely via shuffling the order of transmissions among devices, and does not involve any additional energy consumption (e.g., retransmissions. We evaluate these algorithms directly on an experimental set of traces obtained from devices strapped to human subjects performing regular daily activities, and confirm that the benefits of the proposed variable scheduling algorithms extend to this practical setup as well.

  19. An Evaluation Method of Research on Wearable Wireless Body Area Network in Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwens Gervásio Sene Júnior

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wearable Wireless Body Area Networks (WWBANs are an emergent technology enabling the gathering ofreal-time data, for instance, towards decision making by healthcare professionals in the case of remotemonitoring of vital signs of patients. Recent research, however, does not describe in a straightforward wayhow hardware, software and wireless communication platforms fit together in order to fully support aWWBAN-based healthcare application. In this paper we propose a maturity analysis method of research onWWBANs in healthcare. The goal is to analyze whether a paper contemplates features that a researchproject on WWBAN in healthcare should have to apply it in a real world scenario. As a result of ourmethod, features not addressed might indicate the lack of maturity of research papers, or even suggest openissues on that field

  20. A MAC Protocol for Medical Monitoring Applications of Wireless Body Area Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Minglei; Yuan, Dongfeng; Zhang, Chongqing; Wang, Yinglong; Chen, Changfang

    2015-01-01

    Targeting the medical monitoring applications of wireless body area networks (WBANs), a hybrid medium access control protocol using an interrupt mechanism (I-MAC) is proposed to improve the energy and time slot utilization efficiency and to meet the data delivery delay requirement at the same time. Unlike existing hybrid MAC protocols, a superframe structure with a longer length is adopted to avoid unnecessary beacons. The time slots are mostly allocated to nodes with periodic data sources. Short interruption slots are inserted into the superframe to convey the urgent data and to guarantee the real-time requirements of these data. During these interruption slots, the coordinator can break the running superframe and start a new superframe. A contention access period (CAP) is only activated when there are more data that need to be delivered. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed MAC protocol in WBANs with low urgent traffic. PMID:26046596

  1. An efficient anonymous authentication scheme for wireless body area networks using elliptic curve cryptosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenguo

    2014-02-01

    With the development of wireless networks and medical sensors, wireless body area networks are playing more and more important role in the field of healthcare service. The data transmitted in WBANs is very sensitive since it will be used in clinical diagnoses or measurements. Therefore, security and privacy of communication in WBANs derive increasing attentions from the academia and industry. In this paper, we propose an identity (ID)-based efficient anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs using elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC). Due to the ID-based concept, there is no certificate is needed in the proposed scheme. Moreover, the proposed scheme not only provides mutual authentication between the client and the application provider but also provides client anonymity. Performance analysis shows that improvements of 50.58% and 3.87% in the client side and the application provider side separately. Then the proposed scheme is more suitable for WBANs. PMID:24481718

  2. Dynamic measurement of physical conditions in daily life by body area network sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, S.; Tanaka, T.; Takahashi, N.; Matsuda, Y.; Kariya, K.

    2010-07-01

    This paper shows the measurement system to monitor physical conditions dynamically in dairy life. The measurement system for physical conditions in motion must be wearable and wireless connected. Body area network sensing system (BANSS) is a kind of the system to realize the conditions. BANSS is the system constructed with host system and plural sensing nodes. Sensing node is constructed with sensors, analogue/digital convertor(ADC), peripheral interface component(PIC), memory and near field communication device(NFCD). The NFCD in this system is Zigbee. Zigbee is the most suitable to construct wireless network system easily. BANSS is not only the system to measure physical parameters. BANSS informs current physical conditions and advises to keep suitable physical strength. As an application of BANSS, the system managing heart rate in walking is shown. By using this system, users can exercise in condition of a constant physical strength.

  3. Key Agreement Schemes in Wireless Body Area Networks: Taxonomy and State-of-the-Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aftab; Khan, Farrukh Aslam

    2015-10-01

    Advances in wearable and implantable biosensors have enabled the applicability and usability of wireless body area networks (WBANs). A WBAN allows biosensors to collect and communicate human physiological data using wireless communication. The communication security of the collected data in WBAN is a major concern. Because of the dependability of cryptographic schemes for key management, these have become an important aspect of this security. However, the extremely constrained nature of biosensors has made designing key management schemes a challenging task. For this reason, many lightweight key management schemes have been proposed to overcome these constraints. In this article, we present a review of the state of the art of these solutions. We classify the WBAN schemes into three classes and evaluate them based on adequate metrics for key management in WBAN. PMID:26280322

  4. Secure publish-subscribe protocols for heterogeneous medical wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazo-Sanchez, Pablo; Tapiador, Juan E; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Suarez-Tangil, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Security and privacy issues in medical wireless body area networks (WBANs) constitute a major unsolved concern because of the challenges posed by the scarcity of resources in WBAN devices and the usability restrictions imposed by the healthcare domain. In this paper, we describe a WBAN architecture based on the well-known publish-subscribe paradigm. We present two protocols for publishing data and sending commands to a sensor that guarantee confidentiality and fine-grained access control. Both protocols are based on a recently proposed ciphertext policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) scheme that is lightweight enough to be embedded into wearable sensors. We show how sensors can implement lattice-based access control (LBAC) policies using this scheme, which are highly appropriate for the eHealth domain. We report experimental results with a prototype implementation demonstrating the suitability of our proposed solution. PMID:25460814

  5. A TR-UWB Downconversion Autocorrelation Receiver for Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam SMRiazul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Low power UWB receiver architecture is proposed for a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN. This receiving technology is a synergy of existing downconversion-based narrowband rejection mechanism in RF front end and signal processing in frequency domain. Frequency components of converted and filtered UWB pulses are separated into real and imaginary parts, independently correlated and effectively combined to achieve an improved output Signal to noise ratio (SNR. An extensive mathematical analysis has been performed to formulate the close-form expressions for SNRs in order to compare system performances toward favorable BER under BPSK modulation scheme. Analysis shows that optimal rotation of coordination plays an important role for the enhancement of receiving SNR which is further confirmed by computer simulation. A wide range of link level simulation (LLS urges that the proposed system is more power efficient in higher-order modulation (HOM schemes. Transmitted Reference (TR scheme has been considered as the basis for wideband communication.

  6. Performance evaluation of a Wireless Body Area sensor network for remote patient monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jamil Y; Yuce, Mehmet R; Karami, Farbood

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, interests in the application of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) have grown considerably. A WBAN can be used to develop a patient monitoring system which offers flexibility and mobility to patients. Use of a WBAN will also allow the flexibility of setting up a remote monitoring system via either the internet or an intranet. For such medical systems it is very important that a WBAN can collect and transmit data reliably, and in a timely manner to the monitoring entity. In this paper we examine the performance of an IEEE802.15.4/Zigbee MAC based WBAN operating in different patient monitoring environment. We study the performance of a remote patient monitoring system using an OPNET based simulation model. PMID:19162897

  7. Secure Publish-Subscribe Protocols for Heterogeneous Medical Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Picazo-Sanchez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Security and privacy issues in medical wireless body area networks (WBANs constitute a major unsolved concern because of the challenges posed by the scarcity of resources in WBAN devices and the usability restrictions imposed by the healthcare domain. In this paper, we describe a WBAN architecture based on the well-known publish-subscribe paradigm. We present two protocols for publishing data and sending commands to a sensor that guarantee confidentiality and fine-grained access control. Both protocols are based on a recently proposed ciphertext policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE scheme that is lightweight enough to be embedded into wearable sensors. We show how sensors can implement lattice-based access control (LBAC policies using this scheme, which are highly appropriate for the eHealth domain. We report experimental results with a prototype implementation demonstrating the suitability of our proposed solution.

  8. Wireless Technology and System Integration in Body Area Networks for m-Health Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, Emil

    2005-01-01

    m-Health integrates mobile computing, medical sensor, and communications technologies for mobile health-care applications. Wireless body area networks (WBANs) of intelligent sensors represent an emerging technology for system integration with great potentials for unobtrusive ambulatory health monitoring during extended periods of time. However, system designers will have to resolve a number of issues, such as severe limitations of sensor weight and size necessary to improve user's compliance, sensor resource constraints, intermittent availability of uplink connectivity, reliability of transmission, security, and interoperability of different platforms. We present current and emerging wireless technologies and developments in pervasive and mobile technologies that are vital for implementation of WBAN-based monitors and m-Health system integration. We emphasize the problem of reliable system operation with extremely low power consumption and discontinuous connectivity, which are typical for ambulatory monitoring. PMID:17281927

  9. Les Stratégies de Diffusion dans les Réseaux Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Badreddine, Wafa; Chaudet, Claude; Petruzzi, Federico; Potop-Butucaru, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Les progrés rapides des capteurs et de la communication sans fil à ultra-faible puissance ont permis a une nouvelle génération de réseaux de capteurs sans fil de voir le jour : Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN). Nous commençons d'abord par l'analyse de plusieurs stratégies de diffusion inspirées des réseaux tolérants au délai (DTN : Delay Tolerant Networks). Les stratégies proposées sont ensuite évaluées via le simulateur OMNET++ auquel nous avons intégré un modèle de mobilité réaliste du co...

  10. Cluster Based Failure Detection and Recovery Technique for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.T. Meena Abarna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs, the extremely sensitive data transmission mainly requires fault tolerance and consistent data transmission. In this study, we propose a Cluster Based Failure Detection and Recovery Technique for WBAN which presents a hierarchical architecture. Here, local nodes are connected to their Cluster Heads (CHs. Each CH is interconnected and also connected with a Wireless Local Gateway (WLG. Finally, WLG is connected to Hospital Gateway (HG. Each local sensor collects the fault related information and each node is assigned with priority to measure the fault tolerant level of individual nodes. Nodes with high priority are processed first. Further, node and CH level faulty node detection and recovery schemes are also proposed. Our technique provides both reliability and fault tolerance. The efficiency of our technique is proved through simulation results.

  11. Concentration Levels and Ecological Risks of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Surface Sediments of Tianjin Coastal Area, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxia Lu; Chaoqi Chen; Shu Zhang; Zhen Hou; Junjun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Sediments were sampled from different surface water bodies in Tianjin coastal area, China, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured using GC/MS or GC/ECD. The purposes were to investigate the concentration levels of the POPs and to assess their ecological risks. The results showed that all the 16 priority PAHs were dete...

  12. Geology, alteration, age dating and petrogenesis of intrusive bodies in Halak Abad prospect area, NE Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Ghourchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Halak Abad prospect occurs in the northeastern part of Central Iran zone (Sabzevar structural zone. In this investigation, geochemical evolution, age and source of part of northeastern Iran magmatic arc (intrusive bodies in Halak Abad area in the Khorasan Razavi province has been studied. The exposed rocks consist of volcanic rocks with andesite and dacite nature, limestone, plutonic rocks mostly diorite, quartz diorite, monzodiorite, quartz monzonite, granodiorite and granite and sedimentary rocks such as limestone, sandstone and conglomerate. Magnetic susceptibility of intrusive rocks is >100 × 10-5 SI, so they belong to the magnetite-series (oxidized. This magmatism is mainly low-K (tholeiite series and meta-aluminous. The amounts of Zr, Th, Nb and Ti show depletion compared to N-MORB. Trace elements behavior shows a nearly flat pattern. Age of granodiorite body based on U-Pb zircon dating is 99.7±1.8 Ma (Mid-Cretaceous and 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio is 0.7047. The geochemical signature and 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio in the area suggest volcanic arc magmatism in subduction zone. This magmatism has characteristic such as high Na2O (3-7 %, low K2O (0.12-1 %, high CaO (4-5.7%, low Rb (1-20 ppm, low total REE (<40 ppm, high Ba/Nb, Sm/Yb<2, (La/YbN<5, 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio < 0.7045 and εNd: +4.5 show differences with normal granitoids in subduction zones. Geochemical and petrological characteristics indicate melting in relatively low pressure (shallow depth. The lines of evidence demonstrate that formation of this granitoid needs a suprasubduction zone.

  13. Summertime evolution of snow specific surface area close to the surface on the Antarctic Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libois, Q.; Picard, G.; Arnaud, L.; Dumont, M.; Lafaysse, M.; Morin, S.; Lefebvre, E.

    2015-12-01

    On the Antarctic Plateau, snow specific surface area (SSA) close to the surface shows complex variations at daily to seasonal scales which affect the surface albedo and in turn the surface energy budget of the ice sheet. While snow metamorphism, precipitation and strong wind events are known to drive SSA variations, usually in opposite ways, their relative contributions remain unclear. Here, a comprehensive set of SSA observations at Dome C is analysed with respect to meteorological conditions to assess the respective roles of these factors. The results show an average 2-to-3-fold SSA decrease from October to February in the topmost 10 cm in response to the increase of air temperature and absorption of solar radiation in the snowpack during spring and summer. Surface SSA is also characterized by significant daily to weekly variations due to the deposition of small crystals with SSA up to 100 m2 kg-1 onto the surface during snowfall and blowing snow events. To complement these field observations, the detailed snowpack model Crocus is used to simulate SSA, with the intent to further investigate the previously found correlation between interannual variability of summer SSA decrease and summer precipitation amount. To this end, some Crocus parameterizations have been adapted to Dome C conditions, and the model was forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis. It successfully matches the observations at daily to seasonal timescales, except for the few cases when snowfalls are not captured by the reanalysis. On the contrary, the interannual variability of summer SSA decrease is poorly simulated when compared to 14 years of microwave satellite data sensitive to the near-surface SSA. A simulation with disabled summer precipitation confirms the weak influence in the model of the precipitation on metamorphism, with only 6 % enhancement. However, we found that disabling strong wind events in the model is sufficient to reconciliate the simulations with the observations. This suggests that

  14. Enhanced flyby science with onboard computer vision: Tracking and surface feature detection at small bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Thomas J.; Thompson, David R.; Bue, Brian D.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Chien, Steve A.; Gharibian, Dero; Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2015-10-01

    Spacecraft autonomy is crucial to increase the science return of optical remote sensing observations at distant primitive bodies. To date, most small bodies exploration has involved short timescale flybys that execute prescripted data collection sequences. Light time delay means that the spacecraft must operate completely autonomously without direct control from the ground, but in most cases the physical properties and morphologies of prospective targets are unknown before the flyby. Surface features of interest are highly localized, and successful observations must account for geometry and illumination constraints. Under these circumstances onboard computer vision can improve science yield by responding immediately to collected imagery. It can reacquire bad data or identify features of opportunity for additional targeted measurements. We present a comprehensive framework for onboard computer vision for flyby missions at small bodies. We introduce novel algorithms for target tracking, target segmentation, surface feature detection, and anomaly detection. The performance and generalization power are evaluated in detail using expert annotations on data sets from previous encounters with primitive bodies.

  15. Radiation flaw detector for testing non-uniform surface bodies of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation flaw detector for testing bodies of revolution with non-uniform surface, welded joints, etc., based on spatial filtration and differentiation of ionizing radiation flux has been described. The calculation of the most important unit of flaw detector - integrators - is made. Experimental studies of the sensitivity have shown, that the radiation flaw detector can be used for rapid testing of products with the sensitivity comparable with the sensitivity of radiographic testing of steel

  16. A Distributed Multiagent System Architecture for Body Area Networks Applied to Healthcare Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Felisberto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the area of health monitoring has grown significantly, attracting the attention of both academia and commercial sectors. At the same time, the availability of new biomedical sensors and suitable network protocols has led to the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks, the so-called wireless body area networks. Nowadays, these networks are routinely used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment of people, but the large volume of data generated in different locations represents a major obstacle for the appropriate design, development, and deployment of more elaborated intelligent systems. In this context, we present an open and distributed architecture based on a multiagent system for recognizing human movements, identifying human postures, and detecting harmful activities. The proposed system evolved from a single node for fall detection to a multisensor hardware solution capable of identifying unhampered falls and analyzing the users’ movement. The experiments carried out contemplate two different scenarios and demonstrate the accuracy of our proposal as a real distributed movement monitoring and accident detection system. Moreover, we also characterize its performance, enabling future analyses and comparisons with similar approaches.

  17. RACOON: a multiuser QoS design for mobile wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shihheng; Huang, Chingyao; Tu, Chun Chen

    2011-10-01

    In this study, Random Contention-based Resource Allocation (RACOON) medium access control (MAC) protocol is proposed to support the quality of service (QoS) for multi-user mobile wireless body area networks (WBANs). Different from existing QoS designs that focus on a single WBAN, a multiuser WBAN QoS should further consider both inter-WBAN interference and inter-WBAN priorities. Similar problems have been studied in both overlapped wireless local area networks (WLANs) and Bluetooth piconets that need QoS supports. However, these solutions are designed for non-medical transmissions that do not consider any priority scheme for medical applications. Most importantly, these studies focus on only static or low mobility networks. Network mobility of WBANs will introduce unnecessary inter-network collisions and energy waste, which are not considered by these solutions. The proposed multiuser-QoS protocol, RACOON, simultaneously satisfies the inter WBAN QoS requirements and overcomes the performance degradation caused by WBAN mobility. Simulation results verify that RACOON provides better latency and energy control, as compared with WBAN QoS protocols without considering the inter-WBAN requirements. PMID:21465185

  18. Measuring and comparing brain cortical surface area and other areal quantities

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Anderson M.; Sabuncu, Mert R.; Yeo, B.T. Thomas; Fischl, Bruce; Greve, Douglas N.; Kochunov, Peter; Nichols, Thomas E.; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2012-01-01

    Structural analysis of MRI data on the cortical surface usually focuses on cortical thickness. Cortical surface area, when considered, has been measured only over gross regions or approached indirectly via comparisons with a standard brain. Here we demonstrate that direct measurement and comparison of the surface area of the cerebral cortex at a fine scale is possible using mass conservative interpolation methods. We present a framework for analyses of the cortical surface area, as well as fo...

  19. Effect of cardiac motion on body surface electrocardiographic potentials: an MRI-based simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an electrical model of cardiac ventricles incorporating real geometry and motion. The heart anatomy and its motion through the cardiac cycle are obtained from segmentations of multiple-slice MRI time sequences; the special conduction system is constructed using an automated mapping procedure from an existing static heart model. The heart model is mounted in an anatomically realistic voxel model of the human body. The cardiac electrical source and surface potentials are determined numerically using both a finite-difference scheme and a boundary-element method with the incorporation of the motion of the heart. The electrocardiograms (ECG) and body surface potential maps are calculated and compared to the static simulation in the resting heart. The simulations demonstrate that introducing motion into the cardiac model modifies the ECG signals, with the most obvious change occurring during the T-wave at peak contraction of the ventricles. Body surface potential maps differ in some local positions during the T-wave, which may be of importance to a number of cardiac models, including those incorporating inverse methods

  20. Effect of cardiac motion on body surface electrocardiographic potentials: an MRI-based simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Qing [School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, QLD (Australia); Liu Feng [School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, QLD (Australia); Appleton, Ben [School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, QLD (Australia); Xia Ling [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Liu Nianjun [School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, QLD (Australia); Wilson, Stephen [School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, QLD (Australia); Riley, Robyn [Cardiac MRI Centre, Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Strugnel, Wendy [Cardiac MRI Centre, Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Slaughter, Richard [Cardiac MRI Centre, Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Denman, Russel [Cardiac MRI Centre, Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Crozier, Stuart [School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, QLD (Australia)

    2006-07-21

    This paper describes an electrical model of cardiac ventricles incorporating real geometry and motion. The heart anatomy and its motion through the cardiac cycle are obtained from segmentations of multiple-slice MRI time sequences; the special conduction system is constructed using an automated mapping procedure from an existing static heart model. The heart model is mounted in an anatomically realistic voxel model of the human body. The cardiac electrical source and surface potentials are determined numerically using both a finite-difference scheme and a boundary-element method with the incorporation of the motion of the heart. The electrocardiograms (ECG) and body surface potential maps are calculated and compared to the static simulation in the resting heart. The simulations demonstrate that introducing motion into the cardiac model modifies the ECG signals, with the most obvious change occurring during the T-wave at peak contraction of the ventricles. Body surface potential maps differ in some local positions during the T-wave, which may be of importance to a number of cardiac models, including those incorporating inverse methods.

  1. Exercise body surface potential mapping in single and multiple coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body surface ST integral maps were recorded in 36 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients at: rest; peak, angina-limited exercise; and, 1 and 5 min of recovery. They were compared to maps of 15 CAD patients who exercised to fatigue, without angina, and eight normal subjects. Peak exercise heart rates were similar (NS) in all groups. With exercise angina, patients with two and three vessel CAD had significantly (p less than 0.05) greater decrease in the body surface sum of ST integral values than patients with single vessel CAD. CAD patients with exercise fatigue, in the absence of angina, had decreased ST integrals similar (NS) to patients with single vessel CAD who manifested angina and the normal control subjects. There was, however, considerable overlap among individuals; some patients with single vessel CAD had as much exercise ST integral decrease as patients with three vessel CAD. All CAD patients had persistent ST integral decreases at 5 min of recovery and there was a direct correlation of the recovery and peak exercise ST changes. Exercise ST changes correlated, as well, with quantitative CAD angiographic scores, but not with thallium perfusion scores. These data suggest exercise ST integral body surface mapping allows quantitation of myocardium at ischemic risk in patients with CAD, irrespective of the presence or absence of ischemic symptoms during exercise. A major potential application of this technique is selection of CAD therapy guided by quantitative assessment of ischemic myocardial risk

  2. Effect of cardiac motion on body surface electrocardiographic potentials: an MRI-based simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qing; Liu, Feng; Appleton, Ben; Xia, Ling; Liu, Nianjun; Wilson, Stephen; Riley, Robyn; Strugnel, Wendy; Slaughter, Richard; Denman, Russel; Crozier, Stuart

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes an electrical model of cardiac ventricles incorporating real geometry and motion. The heart anatomy and its motion through the cardiac cycle are obtained from segmentations of multiple-slice MRI time sequences; the special conduction system is constructed using an automated mapping procedure from an existing static heart model. The heart model is mounted in an anatomically realistic voxel model of the human body. The cardiac electrical source and surface potentials are determined numerically using both a finite-difference scheme and a boundary-element method with the incorporation of the motion of the heart. The electrocardiograms (ECG) and body surface potential maps are calculated and compared to the static simulation in the resting heart. The simulations demonstrate that introducing motion into the cardiac model modifies the ECG signals, with the most obvious change occurring during the T-wave at peak contraction of the ventricles. Body surface potential maps differ in some local positions during the T-wave, which may be of importance to a number of cardiac models, including those incorporating inverse methods.

  3. A Multi-Index Approach to Delineate Surface Water Bodies in the Pastoral Regions of Mali Using ASTER Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, H.; Velpuri, N.; Senay, G. B.; Angerer, J.

    2011-12-01

    Information on the location and availability of water resources is a day-to-day challenge for pastoralists in the Sahelian region of Mali. They move seasonally along their migration corridors in search for water and forage. Satellite data can be used to map the spatial and temporal dynamics of these water resources. In this work, ASTER imagery is selected for its high (15 m) spatial resolution and suitable spectral bands for water body identification. Our research indicates that as most of the waterholes of interest in the study area are very shallow and heavily sediment-laden, using only one of those commonly used water identification indices such as the Simple Band Ratio (SBR), or the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) alone does not help in effectively characterizing all the surface water bodies in the region. As a result, we used four different spectral indices to identify surface water features: (i) Simple Band Ratio (SBR), (ii) Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), (iii) Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI), and (iv) the Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) to identify and delineate surface water bodies using 91 ASTER images. Initial results indicate that the SBR method identified 17 waterholes while the NDWI 18, the MNDWI 36, and the MAD method identified 28 waterholes. However, by combining the results from the four aforementioned spectral indices following a multi-index approach, 89 waterholes that were previously unidentified by a single approach alone were identified. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that the SBR and the NDWI methods identify relatively clearer waterholes better (29% of the waterholes), whereas MNDWI and MAD proved to be good indices for identifying sediment-laden waterholes. Identifying the location and spatial distribution of surface water bodies is the first step towards monitoring their seasonal dynamics using a hydrologic modeling system, similar to an existing setup for east Africa (http

  4. Valoration of burned body surface; area in patients of San Vicente de Paúl University Hospital, Medellín, 2004 Evaluación de la superficie corporal quemada en pacientes del Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, Medellín, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Hoyos Franco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The estimation of the burned surface area has a huge importance for the acute management and prognosis of the burn victim It has been revised the different methods available for the assessment of the burn extent and some resuscitation basic concepts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study was made based on the information took from medical records of patients from the burn unit of the San Vicente de Paul University Hospital in Medellín (Col during 2004. The initial diagnosis of the burn extension made by the remittent clinician was compared with the ones made by experience clinicians at the emergency room and by the plastic surgeon at the Burn Unit. The results obtained were processed with the package Statistic 6.0 (Stafsoft Inc and it was considered significant a p value < 0.05. The variables are presented as absolute values and with their respective percentages. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There were 329 attended patients. 60% of them had mistaken or incomplete diagnosis, and 39.3% of the diagnosis made at our emergency room were incomplete or incorrect. We found more frequently overestimation than underestimation of the burn surface area. In most of the cases mistakes were made that modified the burn category (mild, moderate, and severe. It is necessary to improve basic knowledge about burn care in the inexperience clinicians. INTRODUCCIÓN: la evaluación de la superficie corporal quemada tiene gran importancia para el tratamiento inicial y el pronóstico del paciente quemado. Se revisan los diferentes métodos para evaluar la superficie corporal quemada y algunos conceptos básicos de reanimación. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y transversal a partir de las historias clínicas de los pacientes quemados hospitalizados en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl (HUSVP de Medellín durante el año 2004. Se compararon los diagnósticos de extensión quemada emitidos

  5. Left-half-body-irradiation induced mouse bone marrow hematopoietic cells DNA damage in non-irradiation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the DNA damage of mouse bone marrow hematopoietic cells in-non-irradiation area after being irradiated by way of left-half-body. Methods: 6-8 weeks male Kunming strain mice were randomly divided into 4 groups i.e. normal control (NC), total-body-irradiated (TBI), left-half-body-irradiated (LHBI), and total -body-shield-irradiated (TBSI). Half-body-irradiated model were made with two pieces of 5 cm x 8 cm x 16 cm over- lapped lead bricks shielding right-side body and irradiated with 8.0 Gy 60Co γ-ray. The TNF-α, SOD, MDA in mouse serum were measured and the DNA damages of bone marrow hematopoietic cells were observed by comet assay and the frequency of polychromatic erythrocytes micronucleated(fMPCE). Results: In the left-half-body-irradiated condition, The TNF-α and MDA were increased and the SOD was decreased in serum remarkably(compared with NC, P<0.01); In non-irradiation area, the fMPCE and the percentage of bone marrow hematopoietic cells with comet-like tail, were aggravated significantly. Conclusions: Our study suggest that the local irradiation result in the DNA damage of bone marrow hematopoietic cells in non- irradiation area, and the increasing of TNF-α and reactive oxygen or free radicals may play an important role in the damages. (authors)

  6. A Study of IEEE 802.15.4 Security Framework for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Sup Kwak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN is a collection of low-power and lightweight wireless sensor nodes that are used to monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. It supports a number of innovative and interesting applications, including ubiquitous healthcare and Consumer Electronics (CE applications. Since WBAN nodes are used to collect sensitive (life-critical information and may operate in hostile environments, they require strict security mechanisms to prevent malicious interaction with the system. In this paper, we first highlight major security requirements and Denial of Service (DoS attacks in WBAN at Physical, Medium Access Control (MAC, Network, and Transport layers. Then we discuss the IEEE 802.15.4 security framework and identify the security vulnerabilities and major attacks in the context of WBAN. Different types of attacks on the Contention Access Period (CAP and Contention Free Period (CFP parts of the superframe are analyzed and discussed. It is observed that a smart attacker can successfully corrupt an increasing number of GTS slots in the CFP period and can considerably affect the Quality of Service (QoS in WBAN (since most of the data is carried in CFP period. As we increase the number of smart attackers the corrupted GTS slots are eventually increased, which prevents the legitimate nodes to utilize the bandwidth efficiently. This means that the direct adaptation of IEEE 802.15.4 security framework for WBAN is not totally secure for certain WBAN applications. New solutions are required to integrate high level security in WBAN.

  7. A study of IEEE 802.15.4 security framework for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Shahnaz; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-01-01

    A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a collection of low-power and lightweight wireless sensor nodes that are used to monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. It supports a number of innovative and interesting applications, including ubiquitous healthcare and Consumer Electronics (CE) applications. Since WBAN nodes are used to collect sensitive (life-critical) information and may operate in hostile environments, they require strict security mechanisms to prevent malicious interaction with the system. In this paper, we first highlight major security requirements and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks in WBAN at Physical, Medium Access Control (MAC), Network, and Transport layers. Then we discuss the IEEE 802.15.4 security framework and identify the security vulnerabilities and major attacks in the context of WBAN. Different types of attacks on the Contention Access Period (CAP) and Contention Free Period (CFP) parts of the superframe are analyzed and discussed. It is observed that a smart attacker can successfully corrupt an increasing number of GTS slots in the CFP period and can considerably affect the Quality of Service (QoS) in WBAN (since most of the data is carried in CFP period). As we increase the number of smart attackers the corrupted GTS slots are eventually increased, which prevents the legitimate nodes to utilize the bandwidth efficiently. This means that the direct adaptation of IEEE 802.15.4 security framework for WBAN is not totally secure for certain WBAN applications. New solutions are required to integrate high level security in WBAN. PMID:22319358

  8. Physiological variables affecting surface film formation by native lamellar body-like pulmonary surfactant particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobi, Nina; Siber, Gerlinde; Bouzas, Virginia; Ravasio, Andrea; Pérez-Gil, Jesus; Haller, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Pulmonary surfactant (PS) is a surface active complex of lipids and proteins that prevents the alveolar structures from collapsing and reduces the work of breathing by lowering the surface tension at the alveolar air-liquid interface (ALI). Surfactant is synthesized by the alveolar type II (AT II) cells, and it is stored in specialized organelles, the lamellar bodies (LBs), as tightly packed lipid bilayers. Upon secretion into the alveolar lining fluid, a large fraction of these particles retain most of their packed lamellar structure, giving rise to the term lamellar body like-particles (LBPs). Due to their stability in aqueous media, freshly secreted LBPs can be harvested from AT II cell preparations. However, when LBPs get in contact with an ALI, they quickly and spontaneously adsorb into a highly organized surface film. In the present study we investigated the adsorptive capacity of LBPs at an ALI under relevant physiological parameters that characterize the alveolar environment in homeostatic or in pathological conditions. Adsorption of LBPs at an ALI is highly sensitive to pH, temperature and albumin concentration and to a relatively lesser extent to changes in osmolarity or Ca(2+) concentrations in the physiological range. Furthermore, proteolysis of LBPs significantly decreases their adsorptive capacity confirming the important role of surfactant proteins in the formation of surface active films. PMID:24582711

  9. Chemical profiles of body surfaces and nests from six Bornean stingless bee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara Diana; Blüthgen, Nico; Schmitt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) are the most diverse group of Apid bees and represent common pollinators in tropical ecosystems. Like honeybees they live in large eusocial colonies and rely on complex chemical recognition and communication systems. In contrast to honeybees, their ecology and especially their chemical ecology have received only little attention, particularly in the Old World. We previously have analyzed the chemical profiles of six paleotropical stingless bee species from Borneo and revealed the presence of species-specific cuticular terpenes- an environmentally derived compound class so far unique among social insects. Here, we compared the bees' surface profiles to the chemistry of their nest material. Terpenes, alkanes, and alkenes were the dominant compound groups on both body surfaces and nest material. However, bee profiles and nests strongly differed in their chemical composition. Body surfaces thus did not merely mirror nests, rendering a passive compound transfer from nests to bees unlikely. The difference between nests and bees was particularly pronounced when all resin-derived compounds (terpenes) were excluded and only genetically determined compounds were considered. When terpenes were included, bee profiles and nest material still differed, because whole groups of terpenes (e.g., sesquiterpenes) were found in nest material of some species, but missing in their chemical profile, indicating that bees are able to influence the terpene composition both in their nests and on their surfaces. PMID:21165680

  10. Determining eyeball surface area directly exposed to the effects of external factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliszewski, Tadeusz; Kadłuczka, Filip; Kiełbasa, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses determining the surface area of eyeballs of men and women exposed to the direct effects of external factors in the working environment. For one eye, the mean surface is 172-182 mm(2). The determined surface area can be used in formulas for calculating the exposure of eyeballs to harmful chemical substances in workplace air. PMID:26758027

  11. High-surface-area silica nanospheres (KCC-1) with a fibrous morphology

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2010-08-02

    Fibrous nanosilica: A new family of high-surface-area silica nanospheres (KCC-1) have been prepared (see picture). KCC-1 features excellent physical properties, including high surface area, unprecedented fibrous surface morphology, high thermal (up to 950 °C) and hydrothermal stabilities, and high mechanical stability. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Postural adjustments to support surface perturbations during reaching depend upon body-target reference frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilderley, Alicia J; Leonard, Julia A; Green, Andrea; Ouckama, Ryan; Stapley, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether target position relative to the body modifies the postural adjustments produced when reaching movements are perturbed by unexpected displacements of the support surface. Eleven healthy participants reached to a target located at their midline, acromion height and at 130% their outstretched arm length. They stood on two force plates mounted on a moveable platform, capable of delivering horizontal forward ramp-and-hold perturbations. Three types of trial were given: reach only (R), perturbations only (P) and reaching movements during which a perturbation was given at a random delay after reach onset (RP). The target could be mounted either on a frame suspended from the ceiling such that it remained world-fixed (exocentric target, RP/X) or at an equivalent position on the moving platform so that it moved with the body (egocentric target, RP/E). Arm and body 3D kinematics and muscle activity from the right tibialis anterior (rTA) and soleus (rSOL) muscles were recorded. Normalised rTA activity was significantly lower in RP than in P trials. Furthermore, long-latency rTA muscle activity was lower in RP/E than in RP/X conditions when perturbations were given during either the arm deceleration phase of reaching. The rSOL muscle activity was lowest for the RP/E (arm deceleration) condition. When balance is perturbed during reaching, the manner in which the target moves relative to the body determines the muscle activity produced in the lower-limb muscles. Furthermore, a target that moves with the body requires a different regulation of muscle activity compared with one that moves independently of the body. PMID:25294498

  13. Wave-free floating body forms for a shallow sea area; Senkaiiki no naminashi futai keijo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyozuka, Y.; Nariai, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In column footing or semi-submergible type marine structures, a vertical wave force vanishes at a specific period of waves. This phenomenon is called wave-free characteristics. This wave-free characteristics make it possible to design marine structures superior in oscillation performance in waves. Since Bessho`s wave-free theory is useful only for an infinite water depth, this paper studied the wave-free theory for a shallow sea area. On a wave-free singularity and required floating body form, 2-D and 3-D axisymmetric floating body forms were determined, and vertical wave force characteristics of the obtained body forms were calculated and verified experimentally. Since the source term of the wave-free singularity was weaker in a shallow sea area than an infinite deep water area, resulting in the narrow width of the obtained wave-free body forms in a shallow sea area. The wave-free theory for a shallow sea area was verified by both numerical calculation based on a singularity distribution method and model experiment for these floating body forms. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Restoration of eroded surfaces in Serbian ski-areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Ratko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts in Serbian ski areas are very strong, leading to landscape degradation and functionality losses. Construction or improvement works cause serious destruction of topsoil and native vegetation. Some activities enhance erosion production and sediment yield: clear cuttings; trunk transport down the slope; road construction and large excavations. Also, lack of erosion control works in ski areas, especially between April and October, result in various forms of land degradation such as furrows, gullies, landslides, or debris from rock weathering. The consequences of mismanagement in ski areas are noticeable in downstream sections of river beds, causing floods and bed-load deposition. Planning and designing activities, with the application of technical and biotechnical erosion control structures, through the concept of restoration, are necessary measures in the protection of ski areas.

  15. Restoration of eroded surfaces in Serbian ski-areas

    OpenAIRE

    Ristić Ratko; Radić Boris; Vasiljević Nevena

    2009-01-01

    The environmental impacts in Serbian ski areas are very strong, leading to landscape degradation and functionality losses. Construction or improvement works cause serious destruction of topsoil and native vegetation. Some activities enhance erosion production and sediment yield: clear cuttings; trunk transport down the slope; road construction and large excavations. Also, lack of erosion control works in ski areas, especially between April and October, result in various forms of land degradat...

  16. Investigating the Combined Effects of Gravity and Rotation on Small-Body Surface Terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J. E.; Bowling, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    In November 2010, the Deep Impact spacecraft flew by comet Hartley 2 as part of its extended (EPOXI) mission. The flyby revealed a nucleus comprised of two, relatively coarse-terrained lobes connected by a smooth, neck region (A'Hearn et al., Science, 2011). If we assume that this smooth neck formed via some type of fluidized particulate flow, then it should lie roughly coincident with an equipotential surface with respect to the combined forces of gravity and rotation. Utilizing a Hartley 2 shape model and measured rotation state, we tested this idea by varying the model bulk density to find the gravity field wherein the potential variation across the neck region was at a minimum, yielding a best-fit bulk density of 220 (140-520) kg/m^3. Curiously, this same potential variance minimization technique applied to the entire shape model yields a bulk density of 200 (140-350) kg/m^3. At first glance, this similar global result seems to invalidate the regional result. However, the same global exercise performed for asteroids 243 Ida and 433 Eros does yield densities close to the measured densities for those objects. For 433 Eros, the technique yields a best-fit density of 2200 (1400-4000) kg/m^3, within 18% of the measured density of 2670 +/- 30 kg/m^3. For 243 Ida, the technique yields a best-fit density of 2300 (1500-4800) kg/m^3, within 12% of the measured density of 2600 +/- 500 kg/m^3. Clearly, there is some mechanism that causes the topography of some small, rotating bodies to move toward as small a potential energy variance over the surface as possible. We hypothesize that the above phenomena can be explained by the effect that disturbance-driven slope degradation processes have on the topography of a small body, given a mobile regolith layer on its surface. The first key factor in this explanation involves the exponential increase in the downslope flow/creep rate that occurs when the slope is increased toward the critical angle for that material (Roerring, Water

  17. A Wireless Body Area Network System for Monitoring Physical Activities and Health-Status via the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Jaff, Bestoon Hussain

    2009-01-01

    Recent technological advances in wireless communications, mobile computation, and sensor technologies have enabled the development of low-cost, miniature, lightweight,intelligent wireless sensor devices or “motes”. A collection of these devices can beplaced strategically on the key positions of the human body and connected by meansof a wireless network to form a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). WBAN has recently attracted a great deal of attention from researchers both inacademia as well as...

  18. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead.

  19. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwei; Zhang, Lihuan; Sun, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP) is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead. PMID:27213384

  20. Flexible quality of service model for wireless body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yangzhe; Leeson, Mark S; Higgins, Matthew D

    2016-03-01

    Wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs) are becoming an increasingly significant breakthrough technology for smart healthcare systems, enabling improved clinical decision-making in daily medical care. Recently, radio frequency ultra-wideband technology has developed substantially for physiological signal monitoring due to its advantages such as low-power consumption, high transmission data rate, and miniature antenna size. Applications of future ubiquitous healthcare systems offer the prospect of collecting human vital signs, early detection of abnormal medical conditions, real-time healthcare data transmission and remote telemedicine support. However, due to the technical constraints of sensor batteries, the supply of power is a major bottleneck for healthcare system design. Moreover, medium access control (MAC) needs to support reliable transmission links that allow sensors to transmit data safely and stably. In this Letter, the authors provide a flexible quality of service model for ad hoc networks that can support fast data transmission, adaptive schedule MAC control, and energy efficient ubiquitous WBASN networks. Results show that the proposed multi-hop communication ad hoc network model can balance information packet collisions and power consumption. Additionally, wireless communications link in WBASNs can effectively overcome multi-user interference and offer high transmission data rates for healthcare systems. PMID:27222727

  1. The Extrastriate Body Area Computes Desired Goal States during Action Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Marius; Verhagen, Lennart; de Lange, Floris P; Toni, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    How do object perception and action interact at a neural level? Here we test the hypothesis that perceptual features, processed by the ventral visuoperceptual stream, are used as priors by the dorsal visuomotor stream to specify goal-directed grasping actions. We present three main findings, which were obtained by combining time-resolved transcranial magnetic stimulation and kinematic tracking of grasp-and-rotate object manipulations, in a group of healthy human participants (N = 22). First, the extrastriate body area (EBA), in the ventral stream, provides an initial structure to motor plans, based on current and desired states of a grasped object and of the grasping hand. Second, the contributions of EBA are earlier in time than those of a caudal intraparietal region known to specify the action plan. Third, the contributions of EBA are particularly important when desired and current object configurations differ, and multiple courses of actions are possible. These findings specify the temporal and functional characteristics for a mechanism that integrates perceptual processing with motor planning. PMID:27066535

  2. Quality of Service Regulation in Secure Body Area Networks: System Modeling and Adaptation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui FrancisMinhthang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Body area network (BAN has recently emerged as a promising platform for future research and development. The applications are myriad and encompass a wide range of scenarios, including those in not only medicine but also in everyday activities. However, while the applicability and necessity of BAN have been firmly assured, the underlying technological platforms to practically realize these networks are still in the developmental stages, with many outstanding key problems to be addressed. Due to their envisioned domains of applicability, an important problem in BANs is security and user privacy. Providing security in a practical BAN configuration is challenging due to various conflicting resource constraints. In this paper, the focus is to study signal processing methods for delivering secure communications in BANs, particularly when using biometrics. An optimization framework is presented to aggregate various methods, enabling overall quality of service (QoS regulation in an integrated and flexible manner. In particular, this resource allocation approach is shown to be effective in managing security solutions for BANs.

  3. Development and Evaluation of a Python Telecare System Based on a Bluetooth Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morón MJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a prototype of a telemonitoring system, based on a BAN (Body Area Network that is integrated by a Bluetooth (BT pulse oximeter, a GPS (Global Positioning System unit, and a smartphone. The smartphone is the hardware platform for running a Python software that manages the Bluetooth piconet formed by the sensors. Thus the smartphone forwards the data received from the Bluetooth devices, encoded into JSON (JavaScript Object Notation, to a central server. This server provides universal access to the information of the patient's location and health status through a web application based on AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML technology. Additionally, for the described prototype, the study presents some performance analyses about several topics that are of great interest for the applicability of the prototype: (i the technique used to forward the patient's location and health status, (ii the power consumption of the smartphone (which is compared with the measurements of an equivalent software developed for Java Micro Edition platform, and (iii the web browser compatibility of the web application developed for the control and monitoring of the patients.

  4. Design of an Energy Efficient and Delay Tolerant Routing Protocol for Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms.Venkateswari.R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless Body Area Network provide continuous health monitoring and real-time feedback to the medical personnel. The devices used for WBAN have limited energy resources. For most devices it is impossible to recharge or change the batteries. Low power is needed to provide long lifetime to the devices. All devices are equally important and devices are only added when they are needed for an application. The data mostly consists of medical information. Hence, high reliability and low delay is required. Cluster topology and Dynamic Source Routing Protocol provides high packet delivery ratio, low delay and low energy consumption. In this paper, a modification in the DSR routing protocol has been proposed. The modified DSR named as EDSR (Efficient Dynamic Source Routing, reduces the delay by reducing the average end to end delay for the node and reduces the number of packets dropped thereby increasing packet delivery ratio. Energy consumption in EDSR is decreased by 16.73% when compared to DSR. This protocol reduces the energy consumption and delay by reducing the time needed for route discovery process. EDSR achieves high residual battery capacity which eliminates the need for recharging the batteries thereby ensuring long lifetime of the devices.

  5. R2NA: Received Signal Strength (RSS Ratio-Based Node Authentication for Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The body area network (BAN is an emerging branch of wireless sensor networks for personalized applications. The services in BAN usually have a high requirement on security, especially for the medical diagnosis. One of the fundamental directions to ensure security in BAN is how to provide node authentication. Traditional research using cryptography relies on prior secrets shared among nodes, which leads to high resource cost. In addition, most existing non-cryptographic solutions exploit out-of-band (OOB channels, but they need the help of additional hardware support or significant modifications to the system software. To avoid the above problems, this paper presents a proximity-based node authentication scheme, which only uses wireless modules equipped on sensors. With only one sensor and one control unit (CU in BAN, we could detect a unique physical layer characteristic, namely, the difference between the received signal strength (RSS measured on different devices in BAN. Through the above-mentioned particular difference, we can tell whether the sender is close enough to be legitimate. We validate our scheme through both theoretical analysis and experiments, which are conducted on the real Shimmer nodes. The results demonstrate that our proposed scheme has a good security performance.

  6. New Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks Using the Bilinear Pairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunzhi; Zhang, Yanmei

    2015-11-01

    Due to the development of information technologies and network technologies, healthcare systems have been employed in many countries. As an important part of healthcare systems, the wireless body area network (WBAN) could bring convenience to both patients and physicians because it could help physicians to monitor patients' physiological values remotely. It is essential to ensure secure communication in WBANs because patients' physiological values are very sensitive. Recently, Liu et al. proposed an efficient authentication scheme for WBANs. Unfortunately, Zhao pointed out that their scheme suffered from the stolen verifier-table attack. To improve security and efficiency, Zhao proposed an anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs. However, Zhao's scheme cannot provide real anonymity because the users' pseudo identities are constant value and the attack could tract the users. In this paper, we propose a new anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme could overcome weaknesses in previous scheme. We also use the BAN logic to demonstrate the security of the proposed scheme. PMID:26324170

  7. A lightweight security scheme for wireless body area networks: design, energy evaluation and proposed microprocessor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimis, Georgios; Huang, Li; Massé, Fabien; Tsekoura, Ioanna; Ashouei, Maryam; Catthoor, Francky; Huisken, Jos; Stuyt, Jan; Dolmans, Guido; Penders, Julien; De Groot, Harmke

    2011-10-01

    In order for wireless body area networks to meet widespread adoption, a number of security implications must be explored to promote and maintain fundamental medical ethical principles and social expectations. As a result, integration of security functionality to sensor nodes is required. Integrating security functionality to a wireless sensor node increases the size of the stored software program in program memory, the required time that the sensor's microprocessor needs to process the data and the wireless network traffic which is exchanged among sensors. This security overhead has dominant impact on the energy dissipation which is strongly related to the lifetime of the sensor, a critical aspect in wireless sensor network (WSN) technology. Strict definition of the security functionality, complete hardware model (microprocessor and radio), WBAN topology and the structure of the medium access control (MAC) frame are required for an accurate estimation of the energy that security introduces into the WBAN. In this work, we define a lightweight security scheme for WBAN, we estimate the additional energy consumption that the security scheme introduces to WBAN based on commercial available off-the-shelf hardware components (microprocessor and radio), the network topology and the MAC frame. Furthermore, we propose a new microcontroller design in order to reduce the energy consumption of the system. Experimental results and comparisons with other works are given. PMID:21373804

  8. A Study of Medium Access Control Protocols for Wireless Body Area Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Islam, S M Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup; 10.3390/s100100128

    2010-01-01

    The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements.

  9. A wireless body area network of intelligent motion sensors for computer assisted physical rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Chris

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent technological advances in integrated circuits, wireless communications, and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices. A number of these devices can be integrated into a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN, a new enabling technology for health monitoring. Methods Using off-the-shelf wireless sensors we designed a prototype WBAN which features a standard ZigBee compliant radio and a common set of physiological, kinetic, and environmental sensors. Results We introduce a multi-tier telemedicine system and describe how we optimized our prototype WBAN implementation for computer-assisted physical rehabilitation applications and ambulatory monitoring. The system performs real-time analysis of sensors' data, provides guidance and feedback to the user, and can generate warnings based on the user's state, level of activity, and environmental conditions. In addition, all recorded information can be transferred to medical servers via the Internet and seamlessly integrated into the user's electronic medical record and research databases. Conclusion WBANs promise inexpensive, unobtrusive, and unsupervised ambulatory monitoring during normal daily activities for prolonged periods of time. To make this technology ubiquitous and affordable, a number of challenging issues should be resolved, such as system design, configuration and customization, seamless integration, standardization, further utilization of common off-the-shelf components, security and privacy, and social issues.

  10. A wireless body area network of intelligent motion sensors for computer assisted physical rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, Emil; Milenkovic, Aleksandar; Otto, Chris; de Groen, Piet C

    2005-03-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent technological advances in integrated circuits, wireless communications, and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices. A number of these devices can be integrated into a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN), a new enabling technology for health monitoring. METHODS: Using off-the-shelf wireless sensors we designed a prototype WBAN which features a standard ZigBee compliant radio and a common set of physiological, kinetic, and environmental sensors. RESULTS: We introduce a multi-tier telemedicine system and describe how we optimized our prototype WBAN implementation for computer-assisted physical rehabilitation applications and ambulatory monitoring. The system performs real-time analysis of sensors' data, provides guidance and feedback to the user, and can generate warnings based on the user's state, level of activity, and environmental conditions. In addition, all recorded information can be transferred to medical servers via the Internet and seamlessly integrated into the user's electronic medical record and research databases. CONCLUSION: WBANs promise inexpensive, unobtrusive, and unsupervised ambulatory monitoring during normal daily activities for prolonged periods of time. To make this technology ubiquitous and affordable, a number of challenging issues should be resolved, such as system design, configuration and customization, seamless integration, standardization, further utilization of common off-the-shelf components, security and privacy, and social issues. PMID:15740621

  11. Securing While Sampling in Wireless Body Area Networks With Application to Electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautov, Ruslan; Tsouri, Gill R

    2016-01-01

    Stringent resource constraints and broadcast transmission in wireless body area network raise serious security concerns when employed in biomedical applications. Protecting data transmission where any minor alteration is potentially harmful is of significant importance in healthcare. Traditional security methods based on public or private key infrastructure require considerable memory and computational resources, and present an implementation obstacle in compact sensor nodes. This paper proposes a lightweight encryption framework augmenting compressed sensing with wireless physical layer security. Augmenting compressed sensing to secure information is based on the use of the measurement matrix as an encryption key, and allows for incorporating security in addition to compression at the time of sampling an analog signal. The proposed approach eliminates the need for a separate encryption algorithm, as well as the predeployment of a key thereby conserving sensor node's limited resources. The proposed framework is evaluated using analysis, simulation, and experimentation applied to a wireless electrocardiogram setup consisting of a sensor node, an access point, and an eavesdropper performing a proximity attack. Results show that legitimate communication is reliable and secure given that the eavesdropper is located at a reasonable distance from the sensor node and the access point. PMID:25373134

  12. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwei; Zhang, Lihuan; Sun, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP) is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead. PMID:27213384

  13. Fabric-Based Wearable Dry Electrodes for Body Surface Biopotential Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokus, Murat A; Jur, Jesse S

    2016-02-01

    A flexible and conformable dry electrode design on nonwoven fabrics is examined as a sensing platform for biopotential measurements. Due to limitations of commercial wet electrodes (e.g., shelf life, skin irritation), dry electrodes are investigated as the potential candidates for long-term monitoring of ECG signals. Multilayered dry electrodes are fabricated by screen printing of Ag/AgCl conductive inks on flexible nonwoven fabrics. This study focuses on the investigation of skin-electrode interface, form factor design, electrode body placement of printed dry electrodes for a wearable sensing platform. ECG signals obtained with dry and wet electrodes are comparatively studied as a function of body posture and movement. Experimental results show that skin-electrode impedance is influenced by printed electrode area, skin-electrode interface material, and applied pressure. The printed electrode yields comparable ECG signals to wet electrodes, and the QRS peak amplitude of ECG signal is dependent on printed electrode area and electrode on body spacing. Overall, fabric-based printed dry electrodes present an inexpensive health monitoring platform solution for mobile wearable electronics applications by fulfilling user comfort and wearability. PMID:26241969

  14. Qualitative Analysis of RSSI Behavior in Cooperative Wireless Body Area Networks for Mobility Detection and Navigation Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, B; Amiot, Nicolas; Uguen, Bernard; Guizar, A; Goursaud, Claire; Goursaud, C; Ouni, A; Chaudet, C

    2014-01-01

    —In this paper, we account for radio-location exper-iments aiming at both indoor navigation and mobility detection applications for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN). This measurement campaign involved IEEE 802.15.4-compliant inte-grated radio devices organized within a full mesh topology over on-body and off-body links. The latter devices produce peer-to-peer Received Signal Strength Indicators (RSSI) that could feed ranging, positioning or tracking algorithms. An in-depth behavioral analys...

  15. A 40-year-old gossypiboma (foreign body granuloma) mimicking a malignant femoral surface tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakayama, Kenshi; Fujibuchi, Taketsugu; Kidani, Teruki; Miyawaki, Joji; Yamamoto, Haruyasu [Ehime University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ehime (Japan); Sugawara, Yoshifumi [Ehime University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ehime (Japan)

    2005-04-01

    The patient was a 61-year-old man who developed gossypiboma of the left thigh and femur resulting in the imaging appearances of a malignant surface tumor. He had a past history of surgery on the left femur for open fracture 40 years previously. Radiographs and CT showed a soft tissue mass with osteolysis and periosteal thickening of the left femur. On MRI, the mass showed heterogeneous signal intensity with contrast enhancement at the periphery, suggesting a malignancy. {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP bone scintigraphy showed a faint ring-like uptake, but thallium -201 scintigraphy did not show any uptake in the tumor. An extensive intralesional excision was performed. Postoperative histopathological examination showed a fibrous foreign body with reactive changes. There were neither viable cells nor atypical giant cells around the foreign body. No malignant change was evident. Based on surgical and histopathological examinations, the tumor was finally diagnosed as gossypiboma related to a retained surgical sponge. (orig.)

  16. 30 CFR 922.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 922.762 Section 922.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal...

  17. 30 CFR 941.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 941.762 Section 941.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface...

  18. 30 CFR 939.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 939.762 Section 939.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface...

  19. 30 CFR 921.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 921.762 Section 921.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface...

  20. 30 CFR 912.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 912.762 Section 912.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal...

  1. 30 CFR 937.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 937.762 Section 937.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal...

  2. 30 CFR 947.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 947.762 Section 947.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface...

  3. 30 CFR 933.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 933.762 Section 933.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designation Areas Unsuitable for Surface...

  4. 30 CFR 910.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 910.762 Section 910.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal...

  5. 30 CFR 903.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 903.762 Section 903.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal...

  6. 30 CFR 905.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 905.762 Section 905.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface...

  7. Large-area fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces for practical applications: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hua Xue, Shun-Tian Jia, Jing Zhang and Jian-Zhong Ma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the key topics in the field of large-area fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces, concentrating on substrates that have been used in commercial applications. Practical approaches to superhydrophobic surface construction and hydrophobization are discussed. Applications of superhydrophobic surfaces are described and future trends in superhydrophobic surfaces are predicted.

  8. Large-area fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces for practical applications: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review summarizes the key topics in the field of large-area fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces, concentrating on substrates that have been used in commercial applications. Practical approaches to superhydrophobic surface construction and hydrophobization are discussed. Applications of superhydrophobic surfaces are described and future trends in superhydrophobic surfaces are predicted. (topical review)

  9. Large-area fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces for practical applications: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Chao-Hua Xue, Shun-Tian Jia, Jing Zhang and Jian-Zhong Ma

    2010-01-01

    This review summarizes the key topics in the field of large-area fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces, concentrating on substrates that have been used in commercial applications. Practical approaches to superhydrophobic surface construction and hydrophobization are discussed. Applications of superhydrophobic surfaces are described and future trends in superhydrophobic surfaces are predicted.

  10. Three-Body Abrasion Testing Using Lunar Dust Simulants to Evaluate Surface System Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Budinski, Kenneth G.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Klaus, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous unexpected operational issues relating to the abrasive nature of lunar dust, such as scratched visors and spacesuit pressure seal leaks, were encountered during the Apollo missions. To avoid reoccurrence of these unexpected detrimental equipment problems on future missions to the Moon, a series of two- and three-body abrasion tests were developed and conducted in order to begin rigorously characterizing the effect of lunar dust abrasiveness on candidate surface system materials. Two-body scratch tests were initially performed to examine fundamental interactions of a single particle on a flat surface. These simple and robust tests were used to establish standardized measurement techniques for quantifying controlled volumetric wear. Subsequent efforts described in the paper involved three-body abrasion testing designed to be more representative of actual lunar interactions. For these tests, a new tribotester was developed to expose samples to a variety of industrial abrasives and lunar simulants. The work discussed in this paper describes the three-body hardware setup consisting of a rotating rubber wheel that applies a load on a specimen as a loose abrasive is fed into the system. The test methodology is based on ASTM International (ASTM) B611, except it does not mix water with the abrasive. All tests were run under identical conditions. Abraded material specimens included poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), hardened 1045 steel, 6061-T6 aluminum (Al) and 1018 steel. Abrasives included lunar mare simulant JSC- 1A-F (nominal size distribution), sieved JSC-1A-F (materials of aluminum and PMMA. The nominal JSC- 1A-F consistently showed more abrasion wear than the sieved version of the simulant. The lunar dust displayed abrasivity to all of the test materials, which are likely to be used in lunar landing equipment. Based on this test experience and pilot results obtained, recommendations are made for systematic abrasion testing of candidate materials intended for

  11. The Mechanism of Drag Reduction around Bodies of Revolution Using Bionic Non-Smooth Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-mei Tian; Lu-quan Ren; Qing-ping Liu; Zhi-wu Han; Xiao Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Bionic non-smooth surfaces (BNSS) can reduce drag. Much attention has been paid to the mechanism of shear stress reduction by riblets. The mechanism of pressure force reduction by bionic non-smooth surfaces on bodies of revolution has not been, well investigated. In this work CFD simulation has revealed the mechanism of drag reduction by BNSS, which may work in three ways. First, BNSS on bodies of revolution may lower the surface velocity of the medium, which prevents the sudden speed up of air on the cross section. So the bottom pressure of the model would not be disturbed sharply, resulting in less energy loss and drag reduction. Second, the magnitude of vorticity induced by the bionic model becomes smaller because, due to the sculpturing, the growth of tiny air bubbles is avoided. Thus the large moment of inertia induced by large air bubble is reduced. The reduction of the vorticity could reduce the dissipation of the eddy. So the pressure force could also be reduced. Third, the thickness of the momentum layer on the model becomes less which, according to the relationship between the drag coefficient and the momentum thickness, reduces drag.

  12. Surface albedo measurements in Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, T; Mar, B; Longoria, R; Ruiz Suarez, L. G [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morales, L [Instituto de Geografia, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Optical and thermal properties of soils are important input data for the meteorological and photochemical modules of air quality models. As development of these models increase on spatial resolution good albedo data become more important. In this paper measurements of surface albedo of UV (295-385 nm) and visible (450-550 nm) radiation are reported for different urban and rural surfaces in the vicinity of Mexico City. It was found for the downtown zone and average albedo value of 0.05 which is in very good agreement with reported values for urban surfaces. Our albedo values measured in UV region for grey cement and green grass are of 0.10 and 0.009, respectively, and quite similar to those found at the literature of 0.11 and 0.008 for those type of surfaces. [Spanish] Las propiedades opticas y termicas de suelos son datos importantes para los modulos meteorologicos y fotoquimicos de los modelos de calidad del aire. Conforme aumenta la resolucion espacial del modelo se vuelve mas importante contar con buenos datos de albedo. En este articulo se presentan mediciones de albedo superficial de radiacion Ultravioleta (295-385 nm) y visible (450-550 nm) para diferentes superficies urbanas. Los valores medidos de albedo en la region UV para cemento gris y pasto verde son de 0.10 y 0.009, respectivamente, y son muy similares a los reportados en la literatura, 0.11 y 0.008 para este tipo de superficies.

  13. A broadcast-based key agreement scheme using set reconciliation for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aftab; Khan, Farrukh Aslam

    2014-05-01

    Information and communication technologies have thrived over the last few years. Healthcare systems have also benefited from this progression. A wireless body area network (WBAN) consists of small, low-power sensors used to monitor human physiological values remotely, which enables physicians to remotely monitor the health of patients. Communication security in WBANs is essential because it involves human physiological data. Key agreement and authentication are the primary issues in the security of WBANs. To agree upon a common key, the nodes exchange information with each other using wireless communication. This information exchange process must be secure enough or the information exchange should be minimized to a certain level so that if information leak occurs, it does not affect the overall system. Most of the existing solutions for this problem exchange too much information for the sake of key agreement; getting this information is sufficient for an attacker to reproduce the key. Set reconciliation is a technique used to reconcile two similar sets held by two different hosts with minimal communication complexity. This paper presents a broadcast-based key agreement scheme using set reconciliation for secure communication in WBANs. The proposed scheme allows the neighboring nodes to agree upon a common key with the personal server (PS), generated from the electrocardiogram (EKG) feature set of the host body. Minimal information is exchanged in a broadcast manner, and even if every node is missing a different subset, by reconciling these feature sets, the whole network will still agree upon a single common key. Because of the limited information exchange, if an attacker gets the information in any way, he/she will not be able to reproduce the key. The proposed scheme mitigates replay, selective forwarding, and denial of service attacks using a challenge-response authentication mechanism. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme has a great deal of

  14. SOI DEVICE SIMULATION OF AN AREA ‎EFFICIENT BODY CONTACT ‎

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Daghighi; ‎Mohamed A. Osman‎

    2007-01-01

    We have used three-dimensional simulation to investigate application of a new body contact to SOI devices. Performance characteristics of the new body contact on high-voltage SOI devices were studied. Our comparative investigation showed increased current drive, improved cutoff frequency, reduced on-resistance while attaining satisfactory breakdown voltage. The new body contact is applicable to both high and low voltage SOI MOSFETs.

  15. Surface water bodies according to the water framework directive 2000/60/EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Water Frameworks Directive 2000/60/CE establishes quality objectives for water bodies and the monitoring and classification elements, leaving great space for the concrete application of specific criteria and methodologies to EC member States. The Directive gives strong importance to biological parameters, hydro morphological parameters and to chemical parameters, in particular priority and priority hazardous substances. The paper present the monitoring criteria for surface waters with specific reference to biological parameters and defines the shift to the new system, showing results of the monitoring activity already performed in Veneto region

  16. In vitro mineralization of surface-modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated by combination of porogen-leaching and freeze-drying processes. Ice particulates were used as porogen materials. The porous PCL scaffolds were modified by potassium hydroxide solution with concentration of 1 mol/L at room temperature for 8 h, subsequently biomineralized in simulated body fluid for 2 h and 8 h, respectively. The microstructure and characteristics of the PCL scaffolds were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and EDS. The results showed (1) PCL scaffolds had high degree of connectivity and different pore sizes. (2) Plate-like apatite was observed on the surface of the scaffolds after being immersed into SBF for 8 h

  17. Quantification of surface energy fluxes from a small water body using scintillometry and eddy covariance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGloin, Ryan; McGowan, Hamish; McJannet, David;

    2014-01-01

    evaporation measurements and key environmental controls were used to compare the results of the two techniques. Reasonable agreement was shown between the sensible heat flux measurements from eddy covariance and scintillometry, while scintillometer-derived estimates of latent heat flux were approximately 21......Accurate quantification of evaporation from small water storages is essential for water management and planning, particularly in water-scarce regions. In order to ascertain suitable methods for direct measurement of evaporation from small water bodies, this study presents a comparison of eddy...... scintillometry were on the water surface Reasonable agreement was shown between the sensible heat flux measurements Scintillometer estimates of latent heat flux were greater than eddy covariance...

  18. In vitro mineralization of surface-modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning Chengyun [College of Materials Science and Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China)], E-mail: imcyning@scut.edu.cn; Cheng Haimei [College of Materials Science and Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Zhu Wenjun [Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Yin Zhaoyi [College of Materials Science and Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Chen Hao [Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Zheng Huade; Lei Shumei; Yin Shiheng [College of Materials Science and Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Tan Guoxin [Institute of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangdong 510006 (China)

    2008-11-15

    Porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated by combination of porogen-leaching and freeze-drying processes. Ice particulates were used as porogen materials. The porous PCL scaffolds were modified by potassium hydroxide solution with concentration of 1 mol/L at room temperature for 8 h, subsequently biomineralized in simulated body fluid for 2 h and 8 h, respectively. The microstructure and characteristics of the PCL scaffolds were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and EDS. The results showed (1) PCL scaffolds had high degree of connectivity and different pore sizes. (2) Plate-like apatite was observed on the surface of the scaffolds after being immersed into SBF for 8 h.

  19. In vitro mineralization of surface-modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds in simulated body fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Chengyun; Cheng, Haimei; Zhu, Wenjun; Yin, Zhaoyi; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Huade; Lei, Shumei; Yin, Shiheng; Tan, Guoxin

    2008-11-01

    Porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated by combination of porogen-leaching and freeze-drying processes. Ice particulates were used as porogen materials. The porous PCL scaffolds were modified by potassium hydroxide solution with concentration of 1 mol/L at room temperature for 8 h, subsequently biomineralized in simulated body fluid for 2 h and 8 h, respectively. The microstructure and characteristics of the PCL scaffolds were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and EDS. The results showed (1) PCL scaffolds had high degree of connectivity and different pore sizes. (2) Plate-like apatite was observed on the surface of the scaffolds after being immersed into SBF for 8 h.

  20. Surface characterization of stainless steel AISI 316 L in contact with simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium and cobalt alloys, as well as some stainless steels, are often used in orthopedic surgery. In the more developed countries, stainless steel is used only for temporary implants since it does not hold up as well as other alloys to corrosion in a physiological medium. Nevertheless, stainless steel alloys are frequently used for permanent implants in developing countries. Therefore, more knowledge about its reaction to corrosion is needed as well as the characteristics of the surface layer generated in a physiological medium in order to control potential toxicity from the release of metallic ions into the organism. The surface films usually have a different composition and chemical state from the base material. The surface characterization of alloys used in orthopedic surgery should not be underestimated, since it heavily influences the behavior of the implant through the relationship of the surface film-tissue and the possible migration of metallic ions from the base metal to the surrounding tissue. This work presents a study of the surface composition and resistance to the corrosion of stainless steel AISI 316L in simulated body fluid (SBF) aired at pH 7.25 and 37oC. The resistance to the corrosion was studied with an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and anodic polarization curves (CW)

  1. Note on a Lagally formulation for the steady body force attendant to surface-singularity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1922, Lagally presented expressions for the overall loads in response to a steady flow of an inviscid incompressible fluid stream impinging on a shape created by isolated singularities embedded within the extended flow field interior to the body surface. The simple load expressions are a summation of terms containing the product of the local regular fluid speed (defined as the speed excluding contribution from the local singularity) and the singularity strength. In 1981, Guevel and Grekas extended the analysis to a similar case with singularities distributed on a closed surface. In 2006, Ledoux et al gave a straightforward derivation for a source surface distribution and argued that such an approach is 'less prone to numerical inaccuracies'. Herein the straightforward nonlinear formulation appropriate for surface singularities is expanded to include a surface distribution of vortices and/or doublets. Numerical results derived from both the Lagally integral for distributed singularities and the integration of the product of the inviscid pressure and unit normal are shown to have similar convergence tendencies toward exact inviscid results for the computed forces on a class of two-dimensional lifting foils.

  2. Determination of catchment area of surface water in gis for suitable land management

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačič, Primož

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this diploma thesis is defining the catchment areas of surface waters for suitable land management, which is also reflected on water quality. Besides basic concepts, legal backgrounds in Slovenia, which are related to water areas and water management, are introduced. The thesis presents the existing models of catchment areas of waters in Slovenia and it especially exposes the subsistent methodology of defining catchment areas of surface waters on the basis of digital eleva...

  3. Survival times of meter-sized rock boulders on the surface of airless bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.; Horz, F.; Ramsley, K.

    2015-11-01

    Rock boulders are typical features of the surfaces of many airless bodies, so the possibility of estimating their potential survival times may provide insights into the rates of surface-modification processes. As an opening point of this study we employ estimates of the survival times of meter-sized boulders on the surface of the Moon based on analysis of the spatial density of boulders on the rims of small lunar craters of known absolute age (Basilevsky et al., 2013), and apply them, with necessary corrections, to boulders on other bodies. In this approach the major factor of rock destruction is considered to be impacts of meteorites. However another factor of the rock destruction, thermal fatigue due to day-night cycling, does exist and it was claimed by Delbo et al. (2014) as being more important than meteorite impacts. They concluded this on the basis of known presence of fine material on the surface of small asteroids, claiming that due to extremely low gravity on those bodies, the products of meteorite bombardment should leave these bodies, and thus their presence indicates that the process of thermal fatigue should be much more effective there. Delbo et al. (2014) made laboratory experiments on heating-cooling centimeter-sized samples of chondrites and, applying some assumptions and theoretical modeling concluded that, for example, at 1 AU distance from the Sun, the lifetime of 10 cm rock fragments on asteroids with period of rotation from 2.2 to 6 h should be only ~103 to 104 years (that is ~3.5×106 to 1.5×107 thermal cycles) and the larger the rock, the faster it should be destroyed. In response to those conclusions we assessed the results of earlier laboratory experiments, which show that only a part of comminuted material produced by high-velocity impacts into solid rocks is ejected from the crater while another part is not ejected but stays exposed on the target surface and is present in its subsurface. This means that the presence of

  4. Equilibrium Points and Zero Velocity Surfaces in the Restricted Four Body Problem with Solar Wind Drag

    CERN Document Server

    Kumari, Reena

    2012-01-01

    We have analyzed the motion of an infinitesimal mass in the restricted four body problem with solar wind drag. It is assumed that forces which govern the motion are mutual gravitational attractions of the primaries, radiation pressure force and solar wind drag. We have derived the equations of motion and find the Jacobi integral, zero velocity surfaces and particular solutions of the system. It is found that three collinear points are real when radiation factor $0<\\beta<0.1$ whereas only one real point obtained when $0.125<\\beta<0.2$. Again, stability property of the system is examined with the help of Poincar\\'{e} surface of section (PSS) and Lyapunov characteristic exponents (LCEs). It is found that in presence of drag forces LCE is negative for a specific initial condition, hence the corresponding trajectory is regular whereas regular islands in the PSS are expanded.

  5. Atmospheres and surfaces of small bodies and dwarf planets in the Kuiper Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaller E.L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs are icy relics orbiting the sun beyond Neptune left over from the planetary accretion disk. These bodies act as unique tracers of the chemical, thermal, and dynamical history of our solar system. Over 1000 Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs and centaurs (objects with perihelia between the giant planets have been discovered over the past two decades. While the vast majority of these objects are small ( 6-meter telescopes, have allowed for the first detailed studies of their surfaces and atmospheres. Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy of KBOs and centaurs has revealed a great diversity of surface compositions. Only the largest and coldest objects are capable of retaining volatile ices and atmospheres. Knowledge of the dynamics, physical properties, and collisional history of objects in the Kuiper belt is important for understanding solar system formation and evolution.

  6. Towards Reliable and Energy-Efficient Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Sidrah; Javaid, Nadeem; Qasim, Umar; Alrajeh, Nabil; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyse incremental cooperative communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs) with different numbers of relays. Energy efficiency (EE) and the packet error rate (PER) are investigated for different schemes. We propose a new cooperative communication scheme with three-stage relaying and compare it to existing schemes. Our proposed scheme provides reliable communication with less PER at the cost of surplus energy consumption. Analytical expressions for the EE of the proposed three-stage cooperative communication scheme are also derived, taking into account the effect of PER. Later on, the proposed three-stage incremental cooperation is implemented in a network layer protocol; enhanced incremental cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (EInCo-CEStat). Extensive simulations are conducted to validate the proposed scheme. Results of incremental relay-based cooperative communication protocols are compared to two existing cooperative routing protocols: cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (Co-CEStat) and InCo-CEStat. It is observed from the simulation results that incremental relay-based cooperation is more energy efficient than the existing conventional cooperation protocol, Co-CEStat. The results also reveal that EInCo-CEStat proves to be more reliable with less PER and higher throughput than both of the counterpart protocols. However, InCo-CEStat has less throughput with a greater stability period and network lifetime. Due to the availability of more redundant links, EInCo-CEStat achieves a reduced packet drop rate at the cost of increased energy consumption. PMID:26927104

  7. Interference Mitigation for Cyber-Physical Wireless Body Area Network System Using Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Honggang; Wang, Chonggang; Fang, Hua

    2013-06-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) are cyber-physical systems (CPS) that have emerged as a key technology to provide real-time health monitoring and ubiquitous healthcare services. WBANs could operate in dense environments such as in a hospital and lead to a high mutual communication interference in many application scenarios. The excessive interferences will significantly degrade the network performance including depleting the energy of WBAN nodes more quickly, and even eventually jeopardize people's lives due to unreliable (caused by the interference) healthcare data collections. Therefore, It is critical to mitigate the interference among WBANs to increase the reliability of the WBAN system while minimizing the system power consumption. Many existing approaches can deal with communication interference mitigation in general wireless networks but are not suitable for WBANs due to their ignoring the social nature of WBANs. Unlike the previous research, we for the first time propose a power game based approach to mitigate the communication interferences for WBANs based on the people's social interaction information. Our major contributions include: (1) model the inter-WBANs interference, and determine the distance distribution of the interference through both theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulations; (2) develop social interaction detection and prediction algorithms for people carrying WBANs; (3) develop a power control game based on the social interaction information to maximize the system's utility while minimize the energy consumption of WBANs system. The extensive simulation results show the effectiveness of the power control game for inter-WBAN interference mitigation using social interaction information. Our research opens a new research vista of WBANs using social networks. PMID:25436180

  8. Towards Reliable and Energy-Efficient Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidrah Yousaf

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyse incremental cooperative communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs with different numbers of relays. Energy efficiency (EE and the packet error rate (PER are investigated for different schemes. We propose a new cooperative communication scheme with three-stage relaying and compare it to existing schemes. Our proposed scheme provides reliable communication with less PER at the cost of surplus energy consumption. Analytical expressions for the EE of the proposed three-stage cooperative communication scheme are also derived, taking into account the effect of PER. Later on, the proposed three-stage incremental cooperation is implemented in a network layer protocol; enhanced incremental cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (EInCo-CEStat. Extensive simulations are conducted to validate the proposed scheme. Results of incremental relay-based cooperative communication protocols are compared to two existing cooperative routing protocols: cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (Co-CEStat and InCo-CEStat. It is observed from the simulation results that incremental relay-based cooperation is more energy efficient than the existing conventional cooperation protocol, Co-CEStat. The results also reveal that EInCo-CEStat proves to be more reliable with less PER and higher throughput than both of the counterpart protocols. However, InCo-CEStat has less throughput with a greater stability period and network lifetime. Due to the availability of more redundant links, EInCo-CEStat achieves a reduced packet drop rate at the cost of increased energy consumption.

  9. Many-body and quantum effects in the surface tension and surface energy of liquid neon and argon using the Fowler’s approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Fowler’s expression for calculation of the surface tension and energy has been used. ► Quantum corrections considered using the FH and WK approaches for liquid neon. ► Two simple three-body potentials used for a two-body potential of argon. ► Improvement in the results obtained by including the quantum and three-body effects. - Abstract: The Fowler’s expression for calculation of the reduced surface tension and surface energy has been used with Lennard–Jones (LJ) and two-body Hartree–Fock dispersion (HFD)-like potentials for neon and argon, respectively. The required radial distribution functions (RDFs) have been used from two recently determined expressions in the literature and a new equation proposed in this work. Quantum corrections for neon system have been considered using the Feynman–Hibbs (FH) and Wigner–Kirkwood (WK) approaches. To take many-body forces into account for argon system, the simple three-body potentials of Wang and Sadus (2006) and Hauschild and Prausnitz (1993) used with the HFD-like potential without requiring an expensive three-body calculation. The results show that the quantum and three-body effects improve the prediction of the surface tension of liquid neon and argon using the Fowler’s expression.

  10. Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Manzano-Szalai

    Full Text Available In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i milk allergy, ii peanut allergy and iii egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour.

  11. Magnetic fields produced by rotating symmetrical bodies with homogeneous surface charge density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejel-Morales, R.; Murguía-Romero, G.; Calles, A.; Cabrera-Bravo, E.; Morán-López, J. L.

    2016-07-01

    We present a numerical calculation for the stationary magnetic field produced by different rotating bodies with homogeneous and constant surface charge density. The calculation is done by superposing the magnetic field produced by a set of loops of current which mimic the magnetic field produced by belts of current defined by slices of fixed width. We consider the cases of a sphere, ellipsoids, open and closed cylinders and a combination of these in a dumbbell-like shell. We also plot their magnetic field lines using a technique that make use of the Runge–Kutta fourth-order method. Up to our knowledge, the case of closed cylinders was not calculated before. In contrast to previous results, we find that the magnetic field inside finite hollow bodies is homogeneous only in the case of a sphere. This is consequence of the fact that, for the sphere, the surface of any slice taken perpendicularly to the rotation axis, depends only on its thickness, like in the case of an infinite cylinder.

  12. [Exploration of the design of media access control layer of wireless body area network for medical healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuemei; Ge, Baofeng

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes a media access control (MAC) layer design for wireless body area network (WBAN) systems. WBAN is a technology that targets for wireless networking of wearable and implantable body sensors which monitor vital body signs, such as heart-rate, body temperature, blood pressure, etc. It has been receiving attentions from international organizations, e. g. the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), due to its capability of providing efficient healthcare services and clinical management. This paper reviews the standardization procedure of WBAN and summarizes the challenge of the MAC layer design. It also discusses the methods of improving power consumption performance, which is one of the major issues of WBAN systems. PMID:22616194

  13. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing--Multiple Analysis of Skin Surface Temperature Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 吴海燕; 张渭源

    2003-01-01

    A new researching method on clothing comfort perception is developed.By it the skin surface temperature changes and subjective psychological perception of human body sections stimulated by the same cold stimulation are studied.With the multiple comparison analysis method the changing laws of skin temperature of main human body sections is obtained.

  14. Many-body dispersion effects in the binding of adsorbates on metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, Reinhard J. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Ruiz, Victor G.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-09-14

    A correct description of electronic exchange and correlation effects for molecules in contact with extended (metal) surfaces is a challenging task for first-principles modeling. In this work, we demonstrate the importance of collective van der Waals dispersion effects beyond the pairwise approximation for organic–inorganic systems on the example of atoms, molecules, and nanostructures adsorbed on metals. We use the recently developed many-body dispersion (MBD) approach in the context of density-functional theory [Tkatchenko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 236402 (2012) and Ambrosetti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A508 (2014)] and assess its ability to correctly describe the binding of adsorbates on metal surfaces. We briefly review the MBD method and highlight its similarities to quantum-chemical approaches to electron correlation in a quasiparticle picture. In particular, we study the binding properties of xenon, 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic acid, and a graphene sheet adsorbed on the Ag(111) surface. Accounting for MBD effects, we are able to describe changes in the anisotropic polarizability tensor, improve the description of adsorbate vibrations, and correctly capture the adsorbate–surface interaction screening. Comparison to other methods and experiment reveals that inclusion of MBD effects improves adsorption energies and geometries, by reducing the overbinding typically found in pairwise additive dispersion-correction approaches.

  15. Many-body dispersion effects in the binding of adsorbates on metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Reinhard J.; Ruiz, Victor G.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2015-09-01

    A correct description of electronic exchange and correlation effects for molecules in contact with extended (metal) surfaces is a challenging task for first-principles modeling. In this work, we demonstrate the importance of collective van der Waals dispersion effects beyond the pairwise approximation for organic-inorganic systems on the example of atoms, molecules, and nanostructures adsorbed on metals. We use the recently developed many-body dispersion (MBD) approach in the context of density-functional theory [Tkatchenko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 236402 (2012) and Ambrosetti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A508 (2014)] and assess its ability to correctly describe the binding of adsorbates on metal surfaces. We briefly review the MBD method and highlight its similarities to quantum-chemical approaches to electron correlation in a quasiparticle picture. In particular, we study the binding properties of xenon, 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic acid, and a graphene sheet adsorbed on the Ag(111) surface. Accounting for MBD effects, we are able to describe changes in the anisotropic polarizability tensor, improve the description of adsorbate vibrations, and correctly capture the adsorbate-surface interaction screening. Comparison to other methods and experiment reveals that inclusion of MBD effects improves adsorption energies and geometries, by reducing the overbinding typically found in pairwise additive dispersion-correction approaches.

  16. Many-body dispersion effects in the binding of adsorbates on metal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Reinhard J; Ruiz, Victor G; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2015-09-14

    A correct description of electronic exchange and correlation effects for molecules in contact with extended (metal) surfaces is a challenging task for first-principles modeling. In this work, we demonstrate the importance of collective van der Waals dispersion effects beyond the pairwise approximation for organic-inorganic systems on the example of atoms, molecules, and nanostructures adsorbed on metals. We use the recently developed many-body dispersion (MBD) approach in the context of density-functional theory [Tkatchenko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 236402 (2012) and Ambrosetti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A508 (2014)] and assess its ability to correctly describe the binding of adsorbates on metal surfaces. We briefly review the MBD method and highlight its similarities to quantum-chemical approaches to electron correlation in a quasiparticle picture. In particular, we study the binding properties of xenon, 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic acid, and a graphene sheet adsorbed on the Ag(111) surface. Accounting for MBD effects, we are able to describe changes in the anisotropic polarizability tensor, improve the description of adsorbate vibrations, and correctly capture the adsorbate-surface interaction screening. Comparison to other methods and experiment reveals that inclusion of MBD effects improves adsorption energies and geometries, by reducing the overbinding typically found in pairwise additive dispersion-correction approaches. PMID:26374001

  17. 50 CFR Table 21 to Part 679 - Eligible GOA Communities, Halibut IFQ Regulatory Use Areas, and Community Governing Body that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligible GOA Communities, Halibut IFQ..., Table 21 Table 21 to Part 679—Eligible GOA Communities, Halibut IFQ Regulatory Use Areas, and Community Governing Body that Recommends the Community Quota Entity Eligible GOA Community Community Governing...

  18. BLM National Surface Management Agency: Area Polygons, Withdrawal Area Polygons, and Special Public Purpose Withdrawal Area Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Geographic Data Committee — The SMA implementation is comprised of one feature dataset, with several polygon feature classes, rather than a single feature class. SurfaceManagementAgency: The...

  19. Effective reactive surface area: An anisotropic property of physically and chemically heterogeneous porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although transport calculations are often formulated in terms of mass-based isotropic distribution coefficients, it is the abundance of reactive surface areas of subsurface materials that controls contaminant adsorption. In water-saturated homogeneous systems devoid of advective fluxes (e.g., batch experiments), the available reactive surface area is similar to the total surface area (as measured by conventional methods such as BET gas adsorption). However, in physically and chemically heterogeneous systems with advective fluxes, the effective reactive surface area (i.e., the surface area that a packet of advecting water interacts with) is smaller than the laboratory measured surface area and is a complex function of advective velocity and the correlation structures of the physical and chemical heterogeneities. Theoretical derivations for an important but simple type of heterogeneity (fine-scale horizontal layering) suggest that the effective reactive surface area is an anisotropic property of the medium and is inversely correlated with the anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity. The implications of reactive transport anisotropy include the concept that the retardation factor should be treated as a directional property rather than being treated as a constant. Furthermore, because of the inverse relationship between effective reactive surface area and hydraulic conductivity, batch adsorption experiments tend to overestimate the retention of contaminants relative to intact natural materials

  20. Relationship between Mineral Soil Surface Area and the Biological Degradation of Biosolids Added to Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Dongqi Wen; Wenjuan Zhai; Demetrios Moschandreas; Guanglong Tian; Noll, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical and biological processes that operate in the soil matrix and on the soil surface are important to the degradation of biosolids in soil. Due to the large surface area of soils it is assumed that the microbial ecology is associated with mineral soil surface area. The total mineral surface areas were determined for soils from eight different fields selected from a long term study (1972–2006) of annual biosolids application to 41 fields in central Illinois varying in size from 3.6 to ...

  1. Area estimates and rigidity of capillary $H-$surfaces in three-manifolds with boundary

    OpenAIRE

    Espinar, José M.; Rosenberg, Harold

    2015-01-01

    We obtain a bound for the area of a capillary $H-$surface in a three-manifold with umbilic boundary and controlled sectional curvature. We then analyze the geometry when this area bound is realized, and obtain rigidity theorems. As a side product, we obtain existence of totally geodesic embedded surfaces in hyperbolic three-manifolds under the assumption of the existence of a $H-$surface realizing the area bound, in particular, under the existence of a totally umbilic $H-$surface.

  2. Target surface area effects on hot electron dynamics from high intensity laser–plasma interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulick, C.; Raymond, A.; McKelvey, A.; Chvykov, V.; Maksimchuk, A.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Willingale, L.; Yanovsky, V.; Krushelnick, K.

    2016-06-01

    Reduced surface area targets were studied using an ultra-high intensity femtosecond laser in order to determine the effect of electron sheath field confinement on electron dynamics. X-ray emission due to energetic electrons was imaged using a {K}α imaging crystal. Electrons were observed to travel along the surface of wire targets, and were slowed mainly by the induced fields. Targets with reduced surface areas were correlated with increased hot electron densities and proton energies. Hybrid Vlasov–Fokker–Planck simulations demonstrated increased electric sheath field strength in reduced surface area targets.

  3. A method for increasing the surface area of perovskite-type oxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Banerjee; V R Choudhary

    2000-10-01

    A method based on hydrothermal treatments is described for increasing the surface area of sintered ABO3-type perovskite oxides. Influence of hydrothermal treatments, such as water treatment at 125-300°C under autogeneous pressure and steam treatment at 350-800°C, to low surface area (or sintered) LaCoO3 and LaMnO3 perovskite oxides on their surface properties (viz. surface area, crystal size and morphology and surface La/(Co or Mn) ratio) and also catalytic activity in complete combustion of methane at different temperatures (450-600°C) has been thoroughly investigated. The hydrothermal treatments result in the activation of the perovskite oxides by increasing their surface area very markedly.

  4. North American Mantle Heterogeneity from Joint Inversion of Body and Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, X.; Van der Lee, S.

    2011-12-01

    We have developed a Python/Matplotlib tool to measure teleseismic body wave arrival times. A graphic user interface is built to visualize seismograms and facilitate quality control. Seismic data from IRIS PASSCAL arrays and EarthScope's Transportable Array were processed with this tool to get teleseismic P and S relative delay times sampling both western and eastern North America. Distributions of delay times corrected for crustal structures show that the mantle east of the Rocky Mountains is at least as hetergeneous as that west of the Rocky Mountains. To better understand the heterogeneity within active and stable North America, we have simultaneously inverted relative S wave delay times and NA07's regional waveform fitting constraints for a new S velocity model. This joint inversion combines the complementary resolving powers of body and surface waves. The Rocky Mountains is a surface geological boundary separating active western and stable eastern US. But the actual boundary within the mantle does not necessary coincide with the location of the mountain front at the surface. At 150 km depth, high velocity Wyoming craton extends to west of the Rockies while low velocity anomalies in east Colorado and New Mexico extend to east of the Rockies. In western US, a dipping high velocity Juan de Fuca Slab extends continuously to the Transition Zone east of which are possibly older fragments of Farallon Plate. We do see a slab window beneath west central Oregon at about 150 km depth. Along the Snake River Plain, there are strong low velocities of up to 5% above 300 km depth. Low velocity of about 1% resides below 600 km depth, suggesting that the plume conduit beneath Yellowstone is not continuous.

  5. Surface and subsurface conditions in permafrost areas - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a summary of some of the information within existing technical and scientific literature on permafrost. Permafrost is viewed as one of the future climate driven process domains that may exist in Scandinavia, and that may give rise to significantly different surface and subsurface conditions than the present. Except for changes in the biosphere, permafrost may impact hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical subsurface processes and conditions. Permafrost and its influences on the subsurface conditions are thus of interest for the performance and safety assessments of deep geological waste repositories. The definition of permafrost is 'ground that stays at or below 0 deg C for at least two consecutive years'. Permafrost will effect the geological subsurface to some depth. How deep the permafrost may grow is a function of the heat balance, thermal conditions at the surface and within the ground, and the geothermal heat flux from the Earth's inner parts. The main chapters of the report summaries the knowledge on permafrost evolution, occurrence and distribution, and extracts information concerning hydrology and mechanical and chemical impacts due to permafrost related conditions. The results of a literature review are always dependent on the available literature. Concerning permafrost there is some literature available from investigations in the field of long-term repositories and some from mining industries. However, reports of these investigations are few and the bulk of permafrost literature comes from the science departments concerned with surficial processes (e.g. geomorphology, hydrology, agriculture, etc) and from engineering concerns, such as foundation of constructions and pipeline design. This focus within the permafrost research inevitably yields a biased but also an abundant amount of information on localised surficial processes and a limited amount on regional and deep permafrost characteristics. Possible conclusions are that there is

  6. Surface and subsurface conditions in permafrost areas - a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidstrand, Patrik [Bergab, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2003-02-01

    This report contains a summary of some of the information within existing technical and scientific literature on permafrost. Permafrost is viewed as one of the future climate driven process domains that may exist in Scandinavia, and that may give rise to significantly different surface and subsurface conditions than the present. Except for changes in the biosphere, permafrost may impact hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical subsurface processes and conditions. Permafrost and its influences on the subsurface conditions are thus of interest for the performance and safety assessments of deep geological waste repositories. The definition of permafrost is 'ground that stays at or below 0 deg C for at least two consecutive years'. Permafrost will effect the geological subsurface to some depth. How deep the permafrost may grow is a function of the heat balance, thermal conditions at the surface and within the ground, and the geothermal heat flux from the Earth's inner parts. The main chapters of the report summaries the knowledge on permafrost evolution, occurrence and distribution, and extracts information concerning hydrology and mechanical and chemical impacts due to permafrost related conditions. The results of a literature review are always dependent on the available literature. Concerning permafrost there is some literature available from investigations in the field of long-term repositories and some from mining industries. However, reports of these investigations are few and the bulk of permafrost literature comes from the science departments concerned with surficial processes (e.g. geomorphology, hydrology, agriculture, etc) and from engineering concerns, such as foundation of constructions and pipeline design. This focus within the permafrost research inevitably yields a biased but also an abundant amount of information on localised surficial processes and a limited amount on regional and deep permafrost characteristics. Possible conclusions are that

  7. A very low power MAC (VLPM) protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Niamat; Khan, Pervez; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) consist of a limited number of battery operated nodes that are used to monitor the vital signs of a patient over long periods of time without restricting the patient's movements. They are an easy and fast way to diagnose the patient's status and to consult the doctor. Device as well as network lifetime are among the most important factors in a WBAN. Prolonging the lifetime of the WBAN strongly depends on controlling the energy consumption of sensor nodes. To achieve energy efficiency, low duty cycle MAC protocols are used, but for medical applications, especially in the case of pacemakers where data have time-limited relevance, these protocols increase latency which is highly undesirable and leads to system instability. In this paper, we propose a low power MAC protocol (VLPM) based on existing wakeup radio approaches which reduce energy consumption as well as improving the response time of a node. We categorize the traffic into uplink and downlink traffic. The nodes are equipped with both a low power wake-up transmitter and receiver. The low power wake-up receiver monitors the activity on channel all the time with a very low power and keeps the MCU (Micro Controller Unit) along with main radio in sleep mode. When a node [BN or BNC (BAN Coordinator)] wants to communicate with another node, it uses the low-power radio to send a wakeup packet, which will prompt the receiver to power up its primary radio to listen for the message that follows shortly. The wake-up packet contains the desired node's ID along with some other information to let the targeted node to wake-up and take part in communication and let all other nodes to go to sleep mode quickly. The VLPM protocol is proposed for applications having low traffic conditions. For high traffic rates, optimization is needed. Analytical results show that the proposed protocol outperforms both synchronized and unsynchronized MAC protocols like T-MAC, SCP-MAC, B-MAC and X-MAC in terms

  8. A Very Low Power MAC (VLPM Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Sup Kwak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs consist of a limited number of battery operated nodes that are used to monitor the vital signs of a patient over long periods of time without restricting the patient’s movements. They are an easy and fast way to diagnose the patient’s status and to consult the doctor. Device as well as network lifetime are among the most important factors in a WBAN. Prolonging the lifetime of the WBAN strongly depends on controlling the energy consumption of sensor nodes. To achieve energy efficiency, low duty cycle MAC protocols are used, but for medical applications, especially in the case of pacemakers where data have time-limited relevance, these protocols increase latency which is highly undesirable and leads to system instability. In this paper, we propose a low power MAC protocol (VLPM based on existing wakeup radio approaches which reduce energy consumption as well as improving the response time of a node. We categorize the traffic into uplink and downlink traffic. The nodes are equipped with both a low power wake-up transmitter and receiver. The low power wake-up receiver monitors the activity on channel all the time with a very low power and keeps the MCU (Micro Controller Unit along with main radio in sleep mode. When a node [BN or BNC (BAN Coordinator] wants to communicate with another node, it uses the low-power radio to send a wakeup packet, which will prompt the receiver to power up its primary radio to listen for the message that follows shortly. The wake-up packet contains the desired node’s ID along with some other information to let the targeted node to wake-up and take part in communication and let all other nodes to go to sleep mode quickly. The VLPM protocol is proposed for applications having low traffic conditions. For high traffic rates, optimization is needed. Analytical results show that the proposed protocol outperforms both synchronized and unsynchronized MAC protocols like T-MAC, SCP-MAC, B

  9. Origin of solutes in surface waters from high Alpine catchments, Zermatt area (Swiss Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Bucher, Kurt

    2010-05-01

    Research on water-rock interaction quantitatively models geochemical reactions and transport of solutes as coupled phenomena. We studied the chemical evolution of surface waters in Zermatt-Matterhorn area, Switzerland. The chemical characteristics of the surface water have been used to infer the mechanisms of solute acquisition in open system in geologically diverse Alpine catchments. The surface water in study area is predominantly controlled by the interaction of meteoric water with the exposed rocks. Dissolving primary minerals of the predominantly metamorphic rocks contribute to the observed total dissolved solids with leaving behind a residue of newly formed insoluble minerals. A total of 102 water samples were collected mainly from small water bodies located in Zermatt-Matterhorn area representing the geographical and lithological diversity. Altitudes of sampling locations range from 1600m to 3200m. Since water samples were from water bodies at high elevation, water-rock interaction was little affected by anthropogenic or biologic contributions. Temperature, pH, and electric conductivity were measured on site. Total dissolved solids was relatively low and varies from 6 to 244 mg/l. Dominant solutes are Ca, Mg, HCO3, SO4 and minor components are Na, K, NO3, Cl and Si, while F and B occur in traces only. The calculation of saturation states with PHREEQC shows that all surface waters are undersaturated with respect to all relevant minerals. Statistical analysis of the composition data shows that Ca-HCO3-SO4 and Na-K-SiO2 are strongly correlated. Three chemical types of water can be distinguished: Ca-HCO3, Mg-HCO3 and Ca-SO4. A hydro-geochemical inverse model has been set up for interpreting the water-rock interaction that estimated the contributions of the various rock-forming minerals to the composition of the waters. It shows that: 1) Ca-HCO3 water result from interaction of precipitation with mafic schist or calcareous micaschist, the reaction can be

  10. Density and Stability of Soil Organic Carbon beneath Impervious Surfaces in Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Zongqiang; WU, SHAOHUA; Yan, Xiao; Zhou, Shenglu

    2014-01-01

    Installation of impervious surfaces in urban areas has attracted increasing attention due to its potential hazard to urban ecosystems. Urban soils are suggested to have robust carbon (C) sequestration capacity; however, the C stocks and dynamics in the soils covered by impervious surfaces that dominate urban areas are still not well characterized. We compared soil organic C (SOC) densities and their stabilities under impervious surface, determined by a 28-d incubation experiment, with those i...

  11. Contact Area and Temperature of Same-Parameter Fractal Surfaces in Sliding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the ability of fractal parameters for characterizing tribological properties of surfaces, some stable fractal surfaces, which possess the same fractal dimension, scale factor and root-mean-square deviation of surface topography, were synthesized, and then simulated using finite element analysis to calculate the maximum temperature and contact area during sliding process. It was found that for same-parameter fractal surfaces the maximum temperature and contact area fluctuated dramatically. Thus, the tribological properties of surfaces can not be characterized by some simple parameters.

  12. 30 CFR 941.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining by act of Congress. 941.761 Section 941.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act...

  13. 30 CFR 921.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining by Act of Congress. 921.761 Section 921.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act...

  14. 30 CFR 922.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining by act of Congress. 922.761 Section 922.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act...

  15. 30 CFR 905.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining by act of Congress. 905.761 Section 905.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act...

  16. 30 CFR 933.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining by Act of Congress. 933.761 Section 933.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act...

  17. 30 CFR 942.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining by act of Congress. 942.761 Section 942.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act...

  18. 30 CFR 903.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining by act of Congress. 903.761 Section 903.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act...

  19. 30 CFR 912.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining by act of Congress. 912.761 Section 912.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of...

  20. 30 CFR 942.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 942.762 Section 942.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. (a) Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas as Unsuitable for...

  1. 30 CFR 939.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining by Act of Congress. 939.761 Section 939.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act...

  2. 30 CFR 910.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining by Act of Congress. 910.761 Section 910.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act...

  3. 30 CFR 937.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining by Act of Congress. 937.761 Section 937.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of...

  4. 30 CFR 947.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining by act of Congress. 947.761 Section 947.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act...

  5. 30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 912.764 Section 912.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.764...

  6. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA §...

  7. 30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 939.764 Section 939.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND §...

  8. 30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 941.764 Section 941.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA §...

  9. 30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 910.764 Section 910.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.764...

  10. 30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 937.764 Section 937.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.764...

  11. 30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 903.764 Section 903.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.764...

  12. 30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 905.764 Section 905.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA §...

  13. 30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 922.764 Section 922.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN §...

  14. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE §...

  15. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS §...

  16. 30 CFR 947.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 947.764 Section 947.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON §...

  17. Three-year changes of surface albedo of degraded grassland and cropland surfaces in a semiarid area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU HuiZhi; TU Gang; DONG WenJie

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal, seasonal and interannual variations of surface albedo of degraded grassland and cropland surfaces at a semiarid area of Tognyu have been investigated based on the continuous three years observational data from 2003 to 2005. The changes of surface albedo with solar elevation angle and soil moisture have been discussed also. It has been found that surface albedo has almost the same diurnal and seasonal variations on degraded grassland and cropland surfaces in the semiarid area, while sur-face albedo is large in winter and small in summer. The diurnal variation of the surface albedo has re-lationship with the weather condition. The diurnal cycle of the surface albedo likes the "U" shape curve in sunny day, while it is low-high after the rain, and high-low after the snow. The surface albedo has large variation in cloudy day, while it has no any variation in overcast day. The large difference of the surface albedo can be 0.04 in winter between two land surfaces, because the snow has large effects on the surface albedo in winter. The rainfall is an important factor in summer on the surface albedo, while the difference of the surface albedo is 0.01 only between two land surfaces. The differences of the surface aibedo can also be 0.04 in autumn due to vegetation growing. The seasonal-average surface albeo from 2003-2005 is 0.25, 0.22, 0.24, 0.32 respectively in spring, summer, autumn and winter on the degraded grassland surface, while it is 0.25, 0.21,0.22, 0.33 respectively in spring, summer, autumn and winter on the cropland surface. The surface albedo becomes smaller with the increase of solar elevation angle. When the solar elevation angle is greater than 40°, the surface albedo changes very little and tends to be a constant. The surface albedo has negative exponent functions with soil moisture in the growing season.

  18. An Overview of Research Issues in the Modern Healthcare Monitoring System Design using Wireless Body area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Healthcare is recognized various leading edge technologies and new scientific discoveries to enable better cures for diseases and better means to enable early detection of most life threatening diseases. The modern health care focused for optimally reducing the healthcare costs. Approach: The modern healthcare system enables medical professionals to remotely perform real-time monitoring, early diagnosis and treatment for potential risky disease. A mobile patient monitoring system, which integrates current Personal Digital Assistant (PDA technology and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN technology are proposed in the recent year. In addition to this, the medical diagnosis and patient consultations can be delivered via wire/wireless communication networks. Results: This study reviews on the recent research in the field of wireless body area networks and modern health-care systems. Conclusion: This study analyses the design, architecture and implementation of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN based health care system.

  19. Surface and groundwater Nitrate distribution in the area of Vicenza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public aqueducts in the Province of Vicenza (Italy) are supplied entirely by various kinds of water sources: the sub river bed strata of the mountain valleys, water-bearing aquifers of the high plan, pressurized water-bearing aquifers of the middle plain, karstic reservoirs of the mountain massifs and local springs. Progressive increase in nitrate concentration has long been detected in the underground water of many parts of the Vicenza region. The nitrates originate from various sources: human waste, industrial dumping (e.g. the tanning industry) and the use of animal and chemical fertilizers. Nitrate distribution was studied in all wells used for extracting underground water including source waters which replenishing underground aquifers. During the study period ('91-'95), water courses in the recharge areas were found to have nitrate concentrations ranging between 2.0 and 42.0 mg/l. These values remained substantially stable in time. Underground aquifers showed stable nitrate concentration between 5.0 mg/l (mountain karstic aquifers; sub-river bed strata of valley bottom) and 44.0 mg/l (water bearing strata of the high plain of Astico and Brenta rivers). The pressurized flooding aquifers of the middle plain have lower concentrations (6.0-21.0 mg/l) but tend to increase by about 0.5 mg/l per year

  20. Phase contrast imaging reveals low lung volumes and surface areas in the developing marsupial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon J Simpson

    Full Text Available Marsupials are born with immature lungs when compared to eutherian mammals and rely, to various extents, on cutaneous gas exchange in order to meet metabolic requirements. Indeed, the fat-tailed dunnart is born with lungs in the canalicular stage of development and relies almost entirely on the skin for gas exchange at birth; consequently undergoing the majority of lung development in air. Plane radiographs and computed tomography data sets were acquired using phase contrast imaging with a synchrotron radiation source for two marsupial species, the fat-tailed dunnart and the larger tammar wallaby, during the first weeks of postnatal life. Phase contrast imaging revealed that only two lung sacs contain air after the first hour of life in the fat-tailed dunnart. While the lung of the tammar wallaby was comparatively more developed, both species demonstrated massive increases in air sac number and architectural complexity during the postnatal period. In addition, both the tammar wallaby and fat-tailed dunnart had lower lung volumes and parenchymal surface areas than were expected from morphometrically determined allometric equations relating these variables to body mass during the neonatal period. However, lung volume is predicted to scale with mass as expected after the neonatal marsupial reaches a body mass of ∼1 g and no longer relies on the skin for gas exchange. Decreased lung volume in the marsupial neonate further supports the maxim that cutaneous gas exchange occurs in the marsupial neonate because the respiratory apparatus is not yet capable of meeting the gas exchange requirements of the newborn.

  1. A program to compute the area of an irregular polygon on a spheroidal surface

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivakholundu, K.M.; Prabaharan, N.

    - ticularly if the area is large and in the form of an irregular polygon. The area computation of a polygon on a spheroi- dal surface is complicated due to the following fac- tors: (a) The convergence of meridians reduces the area enclosed by a unit latitude... render the computation of area on the spheroidal surface amenable only to some form of integration along the latitude. Analytical solutions are complicated and may not be possible for all shapes of an area. On the other hand the averaging of the scale...

  2. Evaluation of the areas of neuronal cell bodies and nuclei in the myenteric plexus of the duodenum of adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRANDA-NETO MARCILÍO H.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the areas of cell body and nucleus profiles of the myenteric neurons in the antimesenteric and intermediate regions of the duodenum of adult rats. Five male rats were used. The duodenum was removed and dissected to whole-mount preparations, which were stained by the Giemsa technique. The areas of cell body and nucleus profiles of 100 neurons, 50 from each region, of each animal, were assessed with image analyser. Based on the global mean±SD of the areas of cell body profiles, neurons were labelled as small, medium or large. It was observed that the neurons did not differ significantly in size or incidence between the antimesenteric and intermediate regions. However, the nuclei of the small and medium neurons were significantly smaller in the latter region. It is discussed that the smaller nuclear size could be related to the cell bodies being slightly smaller on this region and to a possible smaller biosynthetic activity which would influence nuclear size.

  3. Biomimetic Coating of Modified Titanium Surfaces with Hydroxyapatite Using Simulated Body Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Nazir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the viability of coating commercially pure titanium (CPTi surfaces, modified via sandblasting and acid etching, with hydroxyapatite (HA/tricalcium phosphate coatings using a simulated body fluid (SBF solution. The samples were immersed in SBF from 3 to 7 days. The morphology and the chemistry of the HA/tricalcium phosphate coating were then analysed. Prior to immersion in SBF, the samples were sandblasted and acid etched to mimic the morphology and roughness of commercially available dental implants. The SBF aided in the formation of crystalline HA/tricalcium phosphate coatings on all the samples. The coatings were uniform and had roughness values higher than the underlying substrate. The highest roughness values for the coatings on the surfaces were obtained at 7 days of immersion in SBF with average Sa values of 2.9 ± 0.2 µm. The presence of HA/tricalcium phosphate on the surfaces was confirmed by the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS, the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, and the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR analysis. This study shows that it is possible to obtain an adequate and uniform hydroxyapatite coating on pure titanium substrates in a shorter period of time with characteristics that favour the ultimate goal of implants therapy, that is, osseointegration.

  4. Body and surface wave reconstruction from seismic noise correlations between arrays at Piton de la Fournaise volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Nori; Boué, Pierre; Brenguier, Florent; Roux, Philippe; Ferrazzini, Valérie; Campillo, Michel

    2016-02-01

    Body wave reconstruction from ambient seismic noise correlations is an important step toward improving volcano imaging and monitoring. Here we extract body and surface waves that propagate in Piton de la Fournaise volcano on La Réunion island using ambient noise cross correlation and array-processing techniques. Ambient noise was continuously recorded at three dense arrays, each comprising 49 geophones. To identify and enhance the Green's function from the ambient noise correlation, we apply a double beamforming (DBF) technique between the array pairs. The DBF allows us to separate surface and body waves, direct and reflected waves, and multipathing waves. Based on their azimuths and slownesses, we successfully extract body waves between all the combinations of arrays, including the wave that propagates through the active magmatic system of the volcano. Additionally, we identify the effects of uneven noise source distribution and interpret the surface wave reflections.

  5. A Measurements Based Comparison of New and Classical Models Used to Characterize Fading in Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, Simon L.; Yoo, Seong Ki; Scanlon, William G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we compare a number of the classical models used to characterize fading in body area networks (BANs) with the recently proposed shadowed ț–ȝ fading model. In particular, we focus on BAN channels which are considered to be susceptible to shadowing by the human body. The measurements considered in this study were conducted at 2.45 GHz for hypothetical BAN channels operating in both anechoic and highly reverberant environments while the person was moving. Compared to the Rice, Naka...

  6. Differential reproductive success and body dimensions in Kavango males from urban and rural areas in northern Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, S; Winkler, E M

    1995-04-01

    We investigated differential sex-biased parental investment in relation to social status in 59 Kavango males from Rundu, the administrative and commercial center of the Kavango district in northern Namibia, and in 78 Kavango males from the rural areas around Rundu. Twenty-three body dimensions were used as indicators for the probands' social rank in the groups. The males from Rundu surpassed the males from rural areas in nearly all anthropometric features, but the urban males had significantly less offspring, especially fewer dead offspring. The association between the anthropometric variables and the number and sex of the offspring showed marked differences between the two proband groups. Although in the rural areas robust males had more children than smaller and leaner males, the taller and more robust males from Rundu had fewer offspring than smaller and more slender males. These results indicate that males from rural areas and males from urban areas follow different reproductive strategies. PMID:7729830

  7. Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth's Surface Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental medicine generally addresses environmental factors with a negative impact on human health. However, emerging scientific research has revealed a surprisingly positive and overlooked environmental factor on health: direct physical contact with the vast supply of electrons on the surface of the Earth. Modern lifestyle separates humans from such contact. The research suggests that this disconnect may be a major contributor to physiological dysfunction and un wellness. Reconnection with the Earth's electrons has been found to promote intriguing physiological changes and subjective reports of well-being. Earthing (or grounding) refers to the discovery of benefits including better sleep and reduced pain from walking barefoot outside or sitting, working, or sleeping indoors connected to conductive systems that transfer the Earth's electrons from the ground into the body. This paper reviews the earthing research and the potential of earthing as a simple and easily accessed global modality of significant clinical importance

  8. Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth's Surface Electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaétan Chevalier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental medicine generally addresses environmental factors with a negative impact on human health. However, emerging scientific research has revealed a surprisingly positive and overlooked environmental factor on health: direct physical contact with the vast supply of electrons on the surface of the Earth. Modern lifestyle separates humans from such contact. The research suggests that this disconnect may be a major contributor to physiological dysfunction and unwellness. Reconnection with the Earth's electrons has been found to promote intriguing physiological changes and subjective reports of well-being. Earthing (or grounding refers to the discovery of benefits—including better sleep and reduced pain—from walking barefoot outside or sitting, working, or sleeping indoors connected to conductive systems that transfer the Earth's electrons from the ground into the body. This paper reviews the earthing research and the potential of earthing as a simple and easily accessed global modality of significant clinical importance.

  9. In situ determination of radon in surface water bodies by means of a hydrophobic membrane tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, M. [UFZ-Helmhotz-Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)], E-mail: michael.schubert@ufz.de; Schmidt, A.; Paschke, A. [UFZ-Helmhotz-Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Lopez, A.; Balcazar, M. [ININ-Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico DF 11801 (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    The naturally occurring radioisotope 222-radon is increasingly recognized as a powerful environmental tracer in hydrology. Several studies proved its applicability for the investigation of groundwater migration processes or of interactions between surface waters and groundwater. While the determination of radon-in-water concentrations is generally done in the laboratory by means of liquid scintillation counting, radon-in-water concentrations can also be measured right away in the field by stripping radon from a water sample into a gas volume and measuring the respective radon-in-gas concentration using a portable radon-in-gas monitor. However, one of the major obstacles of such on-site determination is the potential loss of radon during water sampling and sample handling. A much more promising way of representative radon on-site detection is in situ extraction of radon directly from the water body of concern without any water sampling involved. This approach is in particular advantageous if large water bodies with low radon concentrations, such as lakes or rivers, are subject of investigation. The paper discusses results of laboratory and field experiments in which a newly developed portable 'radon extraction module' was used. The module works on the principle of liquid-gas membrane extraction and mainly consists of a coiled-up hydrophobic membrane tubing, which shows a very high permeability with regard to radon. All experimental set-ups and experimental results discussed in the paper are supported by theoretical considerations.

  10. In situ determination of radon in surface water bodies by means of a hydrophobic membrane tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The naturally occurring radioisotope 222-radon is increasingly recognized as a powerful environmental tracer in hydrology. Several studies proved its applicability for the investigation of groundwater migration processes or of interactions between surface waters and groundwater. While the determination of radon-in-water concentrations is generally done in the laboratory by means of liquid scintillation counting, radon-in-water concentrations can also be measured right away in the field by stripping radon from a water sample into a gas volume and measuring the respective radon-in-gas concentration using a portable radon-in-gas monitor. However, one of the major obstacles of such on-site determination is the potential loss of radon during water sampling and sample handling. A much more promising way of representative radon on-site detection is in situ extraction of radon directly from the water body of concern without any water sampling involved. This approach is in particular advantageous if large water bodies with low radon concentrations, such as lakes or rivers, are subject of investigation. The paper discusses results of laboratory and field experiments in which a newly developed portable 'radon extraction module' was used. The module works on the principle of liquid-gas membrane extraction and mainly consists of a coiled-up hydrophobic membrane tubing, which shows a very high permeability with regard to radon. All experimental set-ups and experimental results discussed in the paper are supported by theoretical considerations

  11. Measuring and comparing brain cortical surface area and other areal quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Anderson M; Sabuncu, Mert R; Yeo, B T Thomas; Fischl, Bruce; Greve, Douglas N; Kochunov, Peter; Nichols, Thomas E; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2012-07-16

    Structural analysis of MRI data on the cortical surface usually focuses on cortical thickness. Cortical surface area, when considered, has been measured only over gross regions or approached indirectly via comparisons with a standard brain. Here we demonstrate that direct measurement and comparison of the surface area of the cerebral cortex at a fine scale is possible using mass conservative interpolation methods. We present a framework for analyses of the cortical surface area, as well as for any other measurement distributed across the cortex that is areal by nature. The method consists of the construction of a mesh representation of the cortex, registration to a common coordinate system and, crucially, interpolation using a pycnophylactic method. Statistical analysis of surface area is done with power-transformed data to address lognormality, and inference is done with permutation methods. We introduce the concept of facewise analysis, discuss its interpretation and potential applications. PMID:22446492

  12. Tuneable ultra high specific surface area Mg/Al-CO3 layered double hydroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunping; Wangriya, Aunchana; Buffet, Jean-Charles; O'Hare, Dermot

    2015-10-01

    We report the synthesis of tuneable ultra high specific surface area Aqueous Miscible Organic solvent-Layered Double Hydroxides (AMO-LDHs). We have investigated the effects of different solvent dispersion volumes, dispersion times and the number of re-dispersion cycles specific surface area of AMO-LDHs. In particular, the effects of acetone dispersion on two different morphology AMO-LDHs (Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH flowers and Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH plates) was investigated. It was found that the amount of acetone used in the dispersion step process can significantly affect the specific surface area of Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH flowers while the dispersion time in acetone is critical factor to obtain high specific surface area Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH plates. Optimisation of the acetone washing steps enables Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH to have high specific surface area up to 365 m(2) g(-1) for LDH flowers and 263 m(2) g(-1) for LDH plates. In addition, spray drying was found to be an effective and practical drying method to increase the specific surface area by a factor of 1.75. Our findings now form the basis of an effective general strategy to obtain ultrahigh specific surface area LDHs. PMID:26308729

  13. Research on fiber-based portable large area surface contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large area portable surface contamination monitor is suitable searching the hot point, especially in the situations of large contamination area such as work site radioactive monitoring, nuclear facility decommissioning or nuclear emergency response. This paper focus on beta radioactive surface contamination. Through researching upon the detector which is made of large area plastic scintillation coupled with fibers, the first large area plastic scintillation surface contamination monitor was established. The effective area of detector reaches 1200 cm2. The verifying experiments indicates that the detection efficiency to 90Sr-90Y plate source comes to 7%. The results show this kind of detector is competent for beta radioactive surface contamination. This work laid a foundation for research and development of the relative instrument. (authors)

  14. Estimating the surface area of non-convex particles from central planar sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thórisdóttir, Ólöf; H.Rafati, Ali; Kiderlen, Markus

    this section plane a modification of the area tangent count method is used. The Morse type estimator generalizes Cruz-Orive's pivotal estimator for convex objects to non-convex objects. The advantages of the Morse type estimator over existing local surface area estimators are illustrated in a......In this paper, we present a new surface area estimator in local stereology. This new estimator is called the 'Morse type surface area estimator' and is obtained using a two-stage sampling procedure. First a plane section through a fixed reference point of a three-dimensional structure is taken. In...... simulation study. The Morse type estimator is well suited for computer assisted confocal microscopy and we demonstrate its practicability in a biological application: the surface area estimation of the nuclei of giant-cell glioblastoma from microscopy images. We also present an interactive software that...

  15. Four-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Axial Body Area as Respiratory Surrogate: Initial Patient Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Juan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Cai, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Wang, Hongjun [School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Chang, Zheng; Czito, Brian G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Bashir, Mustafa R. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Yin, Fang-Fang, E-mail: fangfang.yin@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a retrospective binning technique for 4-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) using body area (BA) as a respiratory surrogate. Methods and Materials: Seven patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (4 of 7) or liver metastases (3 of 7) were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved prospective study. All patients were simulated with both computed tomography (CT) and MRI to acquire 3-dimensinal and 4D images for treatment planning. Multiple-slice multiple-phase cine-MR images were acquired in the axial plane for 4D-MRI reconstruction. Image acquisition time per slice was set to 10-15 seconds. Single-slice 2-dimensinal cine-MR images were also acquired across the center of the tumor in orthogonal planes. Tumor motion trajectories from 4D-MRI, cine-MRI, and 4D-CT were analyzed in the superior–inferior (SI), anterior–posterior (AP), and medial–lateral (ML) directions, respectively. Their correlation coefficients (CC) and differences in tumor motion amplitude were determined. Tumor-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured and compared between 4D-CT, 4D-MRI, and conventional T2-weighted fast spin echo MRI. Results: The means (±standard deviations) of CC comparing 4D-MRI with cine-MRI were 0.97 ± 0.03, 0.97 ± 0.02, and 0.99 ± 0.04 in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean differences were 0.61 ± 0.17 mm, 0.32 ± 0.17 mm, and 0.14 ± 0.06 mm in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The means of CC comparing 4D-MRI and 4D-CT were 0.95 ± 0.02, 0.94 ± 0.02, and 0.96 ± 0.02 in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean differences were 0.74 ± 0.02 mm, 0.33 ± 0.13 mm, and 0.18 ± 0.07 mm in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean tumor-to-tissue CNRs were 2.94 ± 1.51, 19.44 ± 14.63, and 39.47 ± 20.81 in 4D-CT, 4D-MRI, and T2-weighted MRI, respectively. Conclusions: The preliminary evaluation of our 4D-MRI technique results in oncologic patients demonstrates its

  16. Four-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Axial Body Area as Respiratory Surrogate: Initial Patient Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a retrospective binning technique for 4-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) using body area (BA) as a respiratory surrogate. Methods and Materials: Seven patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (4 of 7) or liver metastases (3 of 7) were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved prospective study. All patients were simulated with both computed tomography (CT) and MRI to acquire 3-dimensinal and 4D images for treatment planning. Multiple-slice multiple-phase cine-MR images were acquired in the axial plane for 4D-MRI reconstruction. Image acquisition time per slice was set to 10-15 seconds. Single-slice 2-dimensinal cine-MR images were also acquired across the center of the tumor in orthogonal planes. Tumor motion trajectories from 4D-MRI, cine-MRI, and 4D-CT were analyzed in the superior–inferior (SI), anterior–posterior (AP), and medial–lateral (ML) directions, respectively. Their correlation coefficients (CC) and differences in tumor motion amplitude were determined. Tumor-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured and compared between 4D-CT, 4D-MRI, and conventional T2-weighted fast spin echo MRI. Results: The means (±standard deviations) of CC comparing 4D-MRI with cine-MRI were 0.97 ± 0.03, 0.97 ± 0.02, and 0.99 ± 0.04 in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean differences were 0.61 ± 0.17 mm, 0.32 ± 0.17 mm, and 0.14 ± 0.06 mm in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The means of CC comparing 4D-MRI and 4D-CT were 0.95 ± 0.02, 0.94 ± 0.02, and 0.96 ± 0.02 in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean differences were 0.74 ± 0.02 mm, 0.33 ± 0.13 mm, and 0.18 ± 0.07 mm in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean tumor-to-tissue CNRs were 2.94 ± 1.51, 19.44 ± 14.63, and 39.47 ± 20.81 in 4D-CT, 4D-MRI, and T2-weighted MRI, respectively. Conclusions: The preliminary evaluation of our 4D-MRI technique results in oncologic patients demonstrates its

  17. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2016-05-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index (I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  18. High Surface Area of Nano Pores Activated Carbon Derived From Agriculture Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the high surface area of nano pores activated carbon rice husk originated from local biomass was investigated. The comparison in terms of surface area, porosity and behavior in electrochemical analysis with commercial activated carbon was studied in details. The nano pores activated carbon rice husk was synthesis using consecutive of carbonization and activation under purified nitrogen and carbon dioxide purge. Interestingly, the surface area and capacity of the nano pores activated carbon rice indicated higher in comparison to commercial activated carbon. This indicated that the nano pores activated carbon has potential to be developed further as an alternative material in reducing suspension on commercial activated carbon. (author)

  19. ASE-BAN, a Wireless Body Area Network Testbed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Karstoft, Henrik; Hansen, Finn Overgaard;

    2010-01-01

    /actuators attached to the body and a host server application. The gateway uses the BlackFin BF533 processor from Analog Devices, and uses Bluetooth for wireless communication. Two types of sensors are attached to the network: an electro-cardio-gram sensor and an oximeter sensor. The testbed has been successfully...

  20. Stability estimation of a large-sized pool boiling superconductor. Dependence on surface orientation and area fraction of surface treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of the stability analysis of a pool boiling superconductor, many studies on the heat transfer of LHe have been conducted. There are a number of variables that affect heat transfer. It is well-known that to variables are surface orientation and surface treatment. Surface orientation of a superconductor is varied by magnet winding. The change is associated with the variation of gravitational force on the surface, thus causing heat transfer characteristics to change. Usually, the surface of a superconductor is treated to improve heat-transfer characteristics; for example, oxidation. During the winding process, the winding machine may strip off the treatment at some locations. The resulting damage may change the heat-transfer characteristics and degrade the stability of the superconducting magnet. In this study, the heat transfer of polished Cu, oxidized Cu and partially oxidized surfaces were measured as a function of orientation. The critical and minimum heat fluxes depend on the area fraction of oxidation. The calculation method for the heat flux of a partially oxidized surface was established. Heat-transfer measurements of a prototype superconductor with polished surfaces were also conducted to change the surface orientation. The heat-transfer characteristics with the prototype superconductor were degraded as compared with those of the Cu surface. It became clear that heat transfer for a stability analysis must be measured using a prototype superconductor. Next, the recovery current for a large-sized pool boiling superconductor, which is a helical coil superconductor, was calculated according to the experimental results of heat transfer. The dependence of the recovery current on surface orientation and the area fraction of surface treatment was estimated. The calculated results were compared with the measured recovery currents of the short sample. The calculated recovery current agreed well with the experimental result. (author)