WorldWideScience

Sample records for body sodium pathways

  1. Renin secretion and total body sodium: Pathways of integrative control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, Peter; Damkjaer, Mads

    2009-01-01

    Abstract 1. We review mechanisms of sodium balance operating at constant mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), i.e., conditions where MABP does not provide the primary signal to the kidney. 2. Relative constancy of body fluids requires accurate regulation of total body sodium (TBS). Normally, plenty...... of sodium is ingested, and balance achieved by control of renal excretion driven by multiple central nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine, and renal tubular mechanisms. Subtle changes in sodium balance are associated with parallel changes in extracellular volume (due to fast and precise osmoregulation......) proximal tubular reabsorption involving glomerulo-tubular balance (GTB) and neurohumoral control, (iii) macula densa mechanisms influencing TGF and renin secretion, and (iv) distal tubular reabsorption dominated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). 4. The review focuses on the interactive...

  2. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  3. Study on the exchangeable body sodium in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Chatel, Rudolf; Barna, Istvan; Krasznai, Istvan

    1985-01-01

    Ten patients with diabetes mellitus, apperently free of any complications of diabetes and of hypertension, had a significantly (p<0.01) increased exchangeable body sodium compared to 10 sex-matched control subjects of comparable age, body weight and height, and blood pressure. Exchangeable sodium correlated significantly (p<0.01) with supine mean blood pressure in the diabetic patients (r=0.822) but not in the control subjects (r=0.276). It is suggested that the early increase of exchangeable body sodium in diabetes mellitus might play a part in the high incidence of hypertension in such patients. (author)

  4. Fluid and sodium loss in whole-body-irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1987-09-01

    Whole-body and organ fluid compartment sizes and plasma sodium concentrations were measured in conventional, GI decontaminated, bile duct ligated, and choledochostomized rats at different times after various doses of gamma radiation. In addition, sodium excretion was measured in rats receiving lethal intestinal radiation injury. After doses which were sublethal for 3-5 day intestinal death, transient decreases occurred in all the fluid compartments measured (i.e., total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume). No recovery of these fluid compartments was observed in rats destined to die from intestinal radiation injury. The magnitude of the decreases in fluid compartment sizes was dose dependent and correlated temporally with the breakdown and recovery of the intestinal mucosa but was independent of the presence or absence of enteric bacteria or bile acids. Associated with the loss of fluid was an excess excretion of 0.83 meq of sodium between 48 and 84 h postirradiation. This represents approximately 60% of the sodium lost from the extracellular fluid space in these animals during this time. The remaining extracellular sodium loss was due to redistribution of sodium to other spaces. It is concluded that radiation-induced breakdown of the intestinal mucosa results in lethal losses of fluid and sodium as evidenced by significant decreases in total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume, and plasma sodium concentration, with hemoconcentration. These changes are sufficient to reduce tissue perfusion leading to irreversible hypovolemic shock and death.

  5. Nickel container of highly-enriched uranium bodies and sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinn, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel element comprises highly enriched uranium bodies coated with a nonfissionable, corrosion resistant material. A plurality of these bodies are disposed in layers, with sodium filling the interstices therebetween. The entire assembly is enclosed in a fluid-tight container of nickel

  6. Body water, extracellular water, body potassium, and exchangeable sodium in body builders using anabolic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Colt, E.D.W.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Nine competitive male body builders aged 21 to 34 who were determined to take anabolic steroids were studied before and 6 to 10 weeks after a training cycle which included steroid administration. A control group of nine subjects matched in age and duration of competitive career, but using only natural training methods were studied on a single occasion while in training. Total body potassium (TBK) by 40 K, total body water (TBW) by 3 H 2 O dilution, extracellular water (ECW) by 35 SO 4 dilution and zero time extrapolation, and exchangeable sodium by 24 Na dilution were measured before and after training. Intracellular water (ICW) was calculated from TBW - ECW. Initially steroid users had a greater skeletal muscle mass than control subjects, and obtained a further weight gain on steroids, all in skeletal muscle, based on parallel increases in TBK and ICW. Other body composition measurements did not change significantly. A single steroid user became ill taking steroids, decreased potassium by 5%, and increased extracellular water, changes which may represent the effects of hepatic dysfunction which occurred while on anabolic steroids

  7. Rapid removal of sodium isotopes from the body following accidental internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    The extensive use of liquid sodium as the primary coolant for fast breeder reactors presents human safety hazards from both the chemical toxicity of the sodium oxide and the radioactive toxicity of the large quantities of 24 Na and 22 Na in case of a rupture in the liquid sodium piping. Although the effects of the chemical toxicity are expected to be very immediate and more severe, the radioactive toxicity is also of significant concern. Other sources of radioactive sodium contamination exist in the nuclear industry. This paper describes some procedures which can significantly reduce the radiation dose to the body from 24 Na and 22 Na which might be accidentally inhaled or ingested. Studies with rats indicate that the retention time of the sodium isotopes which have exchanged with the body sodium pool can be reduced by a factor of 10 by ingestion of high levels of stable sodium. In addition, the ingestion of a sodium salt at the time or immediately after the inhalation incident could result in at least 60 percent or more of the inhaled radioactive sodium to be excreted before it exchanges with the body sodium pool. The combined effects of both immediate and sustained sodium ingestion in rats can result in a radiation dose from 22 Na of only 4 percent or less of that which would result if no additional salt is administered. The dose reduction for 24 Na would not be as much as that for 22 Na but would be significant. The tolerance for high levels of stable sodium intake in humans will be discussed and optimum intakes will be suggested which will provide the maximum radioactive sodium excretion with minimum harm to the physiological processes of the body

  8. Dry body weight: water and sodium removal targets in PD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krediet, Raymond T.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiovascular mortality is high in peritoneal dialysis patients. This may be due to the presence of hypertension and fluid overload. Dietary intake of water and sodium are likely to be important, especially in anuric patients. METHODS: A review of the literature on assessment of

  9. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work ...

  10. Decreased body mass index during treatment with sodium oxybate in narcolepsy type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkelshoek, Mink S; Smolders, Isabelle M; Donjacour, Claire E H M; van der Meijden, Wisse P; van Zwet, Erik W; Fronczek, Rolf; Lammers, Gert Jan

    2018-01-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 is characterised by an increase in body weight after disease onset, frequently leading to obesity. It was suggested that this weight gain may be counteracted by treatment with sodium oxybate. We here provide longitudinal body mass index data of patients with narcolepsy type 1 after

  11. Blood volume, blood pressure and total body sodium: internal signalling and output control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, P

    2009-01-01

    Total body sodium and arterial blood pressure (ABP) are mutually dependent variables regulated by complex control systems. This review addresses the role of ABP in the normal control of sodium excretion (NaEx), and the physiological control of renin secretion. NaEx is a pivotal determinant of ABP......, and under experimental conditions, ABP is a powerful, independent controller of NaEx. Blood volume is a function of dietary salt intake; however, ABP is not, at least not in steady states. A transient increase in ABP after a step-up in sodium intake could provide a causal relationship between ABP...... and the regulation of NaEx via a hypothetical integrative control system. However, recent data show that subtle sodium loading (simulating salty meals) causes robust natriuresis without changes in ABP. Changes in ABP are not necessary for natriuresis. Normal sodium excretion is not regulated by pressure. Plasma...

  12. Refinement of the tripartite influence model for men: dual body image pathways to body change behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L

    2011-06-01

    Although muscularity and body fat concerns are central to conceptualizing men's body image, they have not been examined together within existing structural models. This study refined the tripartite influence model (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999) by including dual body image pathways (muscularity and body fat dissatisfaction) to engagement in muscular enhancement and disordered eating behaviors, respectively, and added dating partners as a source of social influence. Latent variable structural equation modeling analyses supported this quadripartite model in 473 undergraduate men. Nonsignificant paths were trimmed and two unanticipated paths were added. Muscularity dissatisfaction and body fat dissatisfaction represented dual body image pathways to men's engagement in muscularity enhancement behaviors and disordered eating behaviors, respectively. Pressures to be mesomorphic from friends, family, media, and dating partners made unique contributions to the model. Internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction played key meditational roles within the model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adolescent Boys and Body Image: Weight and Muscularity Concerns as Dual Pathways to Body Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.

    2005-01-01

    This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…

  14. Metabolic evidence that serosal sodium does not recycle through the active transepithelial transport pathway of toad bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, M; Labarca, P; Leaf, A

    1976-12-25

    The possibility that sodium from the serosal bathing medium "back diffuses" into the active sodium transport pool within the mucosal epithelial cell of the isolated toad bladder was examined by determining the effect on the metabolism of the tissue of removing sodium from the serosal medium. It was expected that if recycling of serosal sodium did occur through the active transepithelial transport pathway of the isolated toad bladder, removal of sodium from the serosal medium would reduce the rate of CO2 production by the tissue and enhance of stoichiometric ratio of sodium ions transported across the bladder per molecula of sodium transport dependent CO2 produced simultaneously by the bladder (JNa/JCO2). The data revealed no significant change in this ratio (17.19 with serosal sodium and 16.13 after replacing serosal sodium with choline). Further, when transepithelial sodium transport was inhibited (a) by adding amiloride to the mucosal medium, or (b) by removing sodium from the mucosal medium, subsequent removal of sodium from the serosal medium, or (c) addition of ouabain failed to depress the basal rate of CO2 production by the bladder [(a)rate of basal, nontransport related, CO2 production (JbCO2) equals 1.54 +/- 0.52 with serosal sodium and 1.54 +/- 0.37 without serosal sodium; (b) Jb CO2 equals 2.18 +/- 0.21 with serosal sodium and 2.09 +/- 0.21 without serosal sodium; (c) 1.14 +/- 0.26 without ouabain and 1.13 +/- 0.25 with ouabain; unite of JbCO2 are nmoles mg d.w.-1 min-1]. The results support the hypothesis that little, if any, recycling of serosal sodium occurs in the total bladder.

  15. 24h urinary sodium excretion and subsequent change in weight, waist circumference and body composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofus C Larsen

    Full Text Available In the same period as the increasing obesity epidemic, there has been an increased consumption of highly processed foods with a high salt content, and a few studies have suggested that a diet with a high salt content may be associated with obesity.To investigate the association between 24 h urinary sodium excretion and subsequent change in body weight (BW, waist circumference (WC, body fat (BF and fat free mass (FFM among adults.A longitudinal population study based on the Danish part of the MONICA project, with examinations in 1987-1988 and 1993-1994. Complete information on 24 h urinary sodium excretion along with repeated measures of obesity, as well as on potential confounders, was obtained from 215 subjects. Linear regression was used to examine the association between sodium excretion, as a measure of salt consumption, and subsequent changes in BW, WC, BF and FFM, and further evaluated by restricted cubic splines. Stepwise adjustments were made for selected covariates.Neither the crude nor the adjusted models showed any statistically significant associations between sodium excretion and change in BW or WC. Likewise, we found no significant association between sodium excretion and change in BF and FFM in the unadjusted models. However, after adjusting for potential baseline confounders and the concurrent BW change, we found a significant increase in BF of 0.24 kg (P = 0.015, CI: 0.05 to 0.43 per 100 mmol increase in 24 h urinary sodium excretion (equivalent to 6 g of salt, during the 6-year study period. Moreover, during the same period, we found a significant association with FFM of -0.21 kg (P = 0.041, CI: -0.40 to -0.01.These results suggest that a diet with a high salt content may have a negative influence on development in body composition by expanding BF and reducing FFM.

  16. sodium

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les initiatives de réduction de la consommation de sel qui visent l'ensemble de la population et qui ciblent la teneur en sodium des aliments et sensibilisent les consommateurs sont susceptibles de réduire la consommation de sel dans toutes les couches de la population et d'améliorer la santé cardiovasculaire. Ce projet a ...

  17. Structural basis for the transformation pathways of the sodium naproxen anhydrate–hydrate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Andrew D.; Cornett, Claus; Larsen, Flemming H.; Qu, Haiyan; Raijada, Dhara; Rantanen, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Crystal structures are presented for two dihydrate polymorphs (DH-I and DH-II) of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium (S)-naproxen. The structure of DH-I is determined from twinned single crystals obtained by solution crystallization. DH-II is obtained by solid-state routes, and its structure is derived using powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state 13C and 23Na MAS NMR, and molecular modelling. The validity of both structures is supported by dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations. The structures of DH-I and DH-II, and in particular their relationships to the monohydrate (MH) and anhydrate (AH) structures, provide a basis to rationalize the observed transformation pathways in the sodium (S)-naproxen anhydrate–hydrate system. All structures contain Na+/carboxylate/H2O sections, alternating with sections containing the naproxen molecules. The structure of DH-I is essentially identical to MH in the naproxen region, containing face-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings, whereas the structure of DH-II is comparable to AH in the naproxen region, containing edge-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings. This structural similarity permits topotactic transformation between AH and DH-II, and between MH and DH-I, but requires re-organization of the naproxen molecules for transformation between any other pair of structures. The topotactic pathways dominate at room temperature or below, while the non-topotactic pathways become active at higher temperatures. Thermochemical data for the dehydration processes are rationalized in the light of this new structural information. PMID:25295174

  18. Structural basis for the transformation pathways of the sodium naproxen anhydrate–hydrate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Bond

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Crystal structures are presented for two dihydrate polymorphs (DH-I and DH-II of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium (S-naproxen. The structure of DH-I is determined from twinned single crystals obtained by solution crystallization. DH-II is obtained by solid-state routes, and its structure is derived using powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state 13C and 23Na MAS NMR, and molecular modelling. The validity of both structures is supported by dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D calculations. The structures of DH-I and DH-II, and in particular their relationships to the monohydrate (MH and anhydrate (AH structures, provide a basis to rationalize the observed transformation pathways in the sodium (S-naproxen anhydrate–hydrate system. All structures contain Na+/carboxylate/H2O sections, alternating with sections containing the naproxen molecules. The structure of DH-I is essentially identical to MH in the naproxen region, containing face-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings, whereas the structure of DH-II is comparable to AH in the naproxen region, containing edge-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings. This structural similarity permits topotactic transformation between AH and DH-II, and between MH and DH-I, but requires re-organization of the naproxen molecules for transformation between any other pair of structures. The topotactic pathways dominate at room temperature or below, while the non-topotactic pathways become active at higher temperatures. Thermochemical data for the dehydration processes are rationalized in the light of this new structural information.

  19. Structural basis for the transformation pathways of the sodium naproxen anhydrate-hydrate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Andrew D; Cornett, Claus; Larsen, Flemming H; Qu, Haiyan; Raijada, Dhara; Rantanen, Jukka

    2014-09-01

    Crystal structures are presented for two dihydrate polymorphs (DH-I and DH-II) of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium (S)-naproxen. The structure of DH-I is determined from twinned single crystals obtained by solution crystallization. DH-II is obtained by solid-state routes, and its structure is derived using powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state (13)C and (23)Na MAS NMR, and molecular modelling. The validity of both structures is supported by dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations. The structures of DH-I and DH-II, and in particular their relationships to the monohydrate (MH) and anhydrate (AH) structures, provide a basis to rationalize the observed transformation pathways in the sodium (S)-naproxen anhydrate-hydrate system. All structures contain Na(+)/carboxylate/H2O sections, alternating with sections containing the naproxen molecules. The structure of DH-I is essentially identical to MH in the naproxen region, containing face-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings, whereas the structure of DH-II is comparable to AH in the naproxen region, containing edge-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings. This structural similarity permits topotactic transformation between AH and DH-II, and between MH and DH-I, but requires re-organization of the naproxen molecules for transformation between any other pair of structures. The topotactic pathways dominate at room temperature or below, while the non-topotactic pathways become active at higher temperatures. Thermochemical data for the dehydration processes are rationalized in the light of this new structural information.

  20. Sodium kinetics in patients with arterial hypertension and alimentary obesity according to the whole body radiometric data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, M.A.; Gabuniya, R.I.; Kruglova, Z.G.; Bolovin, L.M.; Gorodetskaya, T.M.; Syzgantseva, L.M.; Matveenko, E.G.

    1978-01-01

    The results are presented on the studies of sodium metabolism by the method of the whole body radiometry in patients with hypertension, alimentary obesity complicated by hypertension and without it, and also in patients with symptomatic renal hypertension. The presented results show the advantage of the radiometry method in the study of sodium metabolism against other methods. A supposition has been made that in patients with alimentary obesity complicated by hypertension in tensified sodium reabsorption is observed with normal reabsorption of water

  1. Improvement of bacterial cellulose production by manipulating the metabolic pathways in which ethanol and sodium citrate involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanjing; Tian, Chunjie; Tian, Hua; Zhang, Jiliang; He, Xin; Ping, Wenxiang; Lei, Hong

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays, bacterial cellulose has played more and more important role as new biological material for food industry and medical and industrial products based on its unique properties. However, it is still a difficult task to improve the production of bacterial cellulose, especially a large number of byproducts are produced in the metabolic biosynthesis processes. To improve bacterial cellulose production, ethanol and sodium citrate are added into the medium during the fermentation, and the activities of key enzymes and concentration of extracellular metabolites are measured to assess the changes of the metabolic flux of the hexose monophosphate pathway (HMP), the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMP), and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). Our results indicate that ethanol functions as energy source for ATP generation at the early stage of the fermentation in the HMP pathway and the supplementation of ethanol significantly reduces glycerol generation (a major byproduct). While in the EMP pathway, sodium citrate plays a key role, and its supplementation results in the byproducts (mainly acetic acid and pyruvic acid) entering the gluconeogenesis pathway for cellulose synthesis. Furthermore, by adding ethanol and sodium citrate, the main byproduct citric acid in the TCA cycle is also reduced significantly. It is concluded that bacterial cellulose production can be improved by increasing energy metabolism and reducing the formation of metabolic byproducts through the metabolic regulations of the bypasses.

  2. Exacerbation of lupus nephritis by high sodium chloride related to activation of SGK1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Yao, Genhong; Chen, Weiwei; Tang, Xiaojun; Feng, Xuebing; Sun, Lingyun

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the effects of high salt diet (HSD) on the severity of lupus nephritis (LN) and its mechanism. MRL/lpr mice were randomly divided into two groups, which were fed with normal diet or sodium-rich chow and tap. C57BL/6 mice were selected as control. Spleen Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells were detected by flow cytometry. Serum TGF-β and IL-17 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CD4(+) T cells from Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy donors were treated by NaCl with or without SGK1 inhibitor. Then, Th17 and Treg cells were detected. The HSD MRL/lpr mice had decreased survival rate and increased disease severity. The frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cells increased in HSD treatment group. The ratios of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg in HSD treated MRL/lpr mice significantly increased. Serum TGF-β increased after HSD treatment. In vitro, high salt could up-regulate Th17 cells of CD4(+) T cells. The effects of high salt treatment on CD4(+) T cells were reversed by SGK1 inhibitor. Our findings demonstrated that excessive intake of salt in diet is an aggravating factor for LN. High salt diet may deteriorate LN through SGK1 pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement of the body content of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phophorus and nitrogen with reference to spironolactone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddy, K.

    1978-01-01

    The total body content of sodium, chloride, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus can be measured simultaneously by in vivo activation analysis and at the same time total body potassium can be determined directly by whole body counting. These procedures have been described and compared with methods using isotope dilution. The complementary nature of the techniques, when properly applied, as well as reported disparities have been illustrated by a number of clinical investigations generally involving aldosterone antagonists. The methods should provide a better insight to the complex changes in body conposition and metabolism accociated with hypertension (and other diseases) and their treatment. (Auth.)

  4. Additive effects of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate on upper-body intermittent performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Gabriel; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Artioli, Guilherme Gianinni

    2013-08-01

    We examined the isolated and combined effects of beta-alanine (BA) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) on high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in judo and jiu-jitsu competitors. 37 athletes were assigned to one of four groups: (1) placebo (PL)+PL; (2) BA+PL; (3) PL+SB or (4) BA+SB. BA or dextrose (placebo) (6.4 g day⁻¹) was ingested for 4 weeks and 500 mg kg⁻¹ BM of SB or calcium carbonate (placebo) was ingested for 7 days during the 4th week. Before and after 4 weeks of supplementation, the athletes completed four 30-s upper-body Wingate tests, separated by 3 min. Blood lactate was determined at rest, immediately after and 5 min after the 4th exercise bout, with perceived exertion reported immediately after the 4th bout. BA and SB alone increased the total work done in +7 and 8 %, respectively. The co-ingestion resulted in an additive effect (+14 %, p < 0.05 vs. BA and SB alone). BA alone significantly improved mean power in the 2nd and 3rd bouts and tended to improve the 4th bout. SB alone significantly improved mean power in the 4th bout and tended to improve in the 2nd and 3rd bouts. BA+SB enhanced mean power in all four bouts. PL+PL did not elicit any alteration on mean and peak power. Post-exercise blood lactate increased with all treatments except with PL+PL. Only BA+SB resulted in lower ratings of perceived exertion (p = 0.05). Chronic BA and SB supplementation alone equally enhanced high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in well-trained athletes. Combined BA and SB promoted a clear additive ergogenic effect.

  5. Formation of distinct inclusion bodies by inhibition of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Junho; Yang, Kyu-Hwan; Joe, Cheol O.; Kang, Seok-Seong

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Distinct inclusion bodies are developed by inhibition of UPP and ALP. → The inclusion bodies differ in morphology, localization and formation process. → The inclusion bodies are distinguishable by the localization of TSC2. → Inhibition of both UPP and ALP simultaneously induces those inclusion bodies. -- Abstract: Accumulation of misfolded proteins is caused by the impairment of protein quality control systems, such as ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) and autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP). In this study, the formation of inclusion bodies was examined after the blockade of UPP and/or ALP in A549 cells. UPP inhibition induced a single and large inclusion body localized in microtubule-organizing center. Interestingly, however, ALP inhibition generated dispersed small inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm. Tuberous sclerosis complex 2 was selectively accumulated in the inclusion bodies of UPP-inhibited cells, but not those of ALP-inhibited cells. Blockade of transcription and translation entirely inhibited the formation of inclusion body induced by UPP inhibition, but partially by ALP inhibition. Moreover, the simultaneous inhibition of two protein catabolic pathways independently developed two distinct inclusion bodies within a single cell. These findings clearly demonstrated that dysfunction of each catabolic pathway induced formation and accumulation of unique inclusion bodies on the basis of morphology, localization and formation process in A549 cells.

  6. Particulate matter induces cardiac arrhythmias via dysregulation of carotid body sensitivity and cardiac sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Lang, Gabriel D; Moreno-Vinasco, Liliana; Huang, Yong; Goonewardena, Sascha N; Peng, Ying-Jie; Svensson, Eric C; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Lang, Roberto M; Linares, Jered D; Breysse, Patrick N; Geyh, Alison S; Samet, Jonathan M; Lussier, Yves A; Dudley, Samuel; Prabhakar, Nanduri R; Garcia, Joe G N

    2012-04-01

    The mechanistic links between exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) pollution and the associated increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, particularly in people with congestive heart failure (CHF), have not been identified. To advance understanding of this issue, genetically engineered mice (CREB(A133)) exhibiting severe dilated cardiomyopathic changes were exposed to ambient PM collected in Baltimore. CREB(A133) mice, which display aberrant cardiac physiology and anatomy reminiscent of human CHF, displayed evidence of basal autonomic aberrancies (compared with wild-type mice) with PM exposure via aspiration, producing significantly reduced heart rate variability, respiratory dysynchrony, and increased ventricular arrhythmias. Carotid body afferent nerve responses to hypoxia and hyperoxia-induced respiratory depression were pronounced in PM-challenged CREB(A133) mice, and denervation of the carotid bodies significantly reduced PM-mediated cardiac arrhythmias. Genome-wide expression analyses of CREB(A133) left ventricular tissues demonstrated prominent Na(+) and K(+) channel pathway gene dysregulation. Subsequent PM challenge increased tyrosine phosphorylation and nitration of the voltage-gated type V cardiac muscle α-subunit of the Na(+) channel encoded by SCN5A. Ranolazine, a Na(+) channel modulator that reduces late cardiac Na(+) channel currents, attenuated PM-mediated cardiac arrhythmias and shortened PM-elongated QT intervals in vivo. These observations provide mechanistic insights into the epidemiologic findings in susceptibility of human CHF populations to PM exposure. Our results suggest a multiorgan pathobiology inherent to the CHF phenotype that is exaggerated by PM exposure via heightened carotid body sensitivity and cardiac Na(+) channel dysfunction.

  7. Sex differences in body fluid homeostasis: Sex chromosome complement influences on bradycardic baroreflex response and sodium depletion induced neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, L; Dadam, F M; Caeiro, X E

    2015-12-01

    Clinical and basic findings indicate that angiotensin II (ANG II) differentially modulates hydroelectrolyte and cardiovascular responses in male and female. But are only the activational and organizational hormonal effects to blame for such differences? Males and females not only differ in their sex (males are born with testes and females with ovaries) but also carry different sex chromosome complements and are thus influenced throughout life by different genomes. In this review, we discuss our recent studies in order to evaluate whether sex chromosome complement is in part responsible for gender differences previously observed in ANG II bradycardic-baroreflex response and sodium depletion-induced sodium appetite and neural activity. To test the hypothesis that XX or XY contributes to the dimorphic ANG II bradycardic-baroreflex response, we used the four core genotype mouse model, in which the effects of gonadal sex (testes or ovaries) and sex chromosome complement (XX or XY) are dissociated. The results indicate that ANG II bradycardic-baroreflex sexual dimorphic response may be ascribed to differences in sex chromosomes, indicating an XX-sex chromosome complement facilitatory bradycardic-baroreflex control of heart rate. Furthermore, we evaluated whether genetic differences within the sex chromosome complement may differentially modulate the known sexually dimorphic sodium appetite as well as basal or induced brain activity due to physiological stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system by furosemide and low-sodium treatment. Our studies demonstrate an organizational hormonal effect on sexually dimorphic induced sodium intake in mice, while at the brain level (subfornical organ and area postrema) we showed a sex chromosome complement effect in sodium-depleted mice, suggesting a sex chromosome gene participation in the modulation of neural pathways underlying regulatory response to renin-angiotensin stimulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Calibration of the A.E.E. Winfrith whole body monitor equipment with sodium-24 solution in a polythene man-phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peabody, C.O.; Speight, R.G.; Passant, F.H.

    1964-04-01

    Results are presented for the sensitivity of the existing Winfrith Whole Body Monitor equipment when used for measurement of sodium-24 activity in solution in a polythene man-phantom. The relationship is discussed between these results and those expected for the sodium-24 produced in a human body by accidental neutron irradiation. Estimates are made of the additional contribution of chlorine-38 activity at various times after whole body irradiation. (author)

  9. Pathway for Unfolding of Ubiquitin in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate, Studied by Capillary Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Grégory F.; Shaw, Bryan F.; Lee, Andrew; Carillho, Emanuel; Whitesides, George M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper characterizes the complexes formed by a small protein, ubiquitin (UBI), and a negatively charged surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), using capillary electrophoresis (CE), circular dichroism (CD), and amide hydrogendeuterium exchange (HDX; as monitored by mass spectroscopy, MS). Capillary electrophoresis of complexes of UBI and SDS, at apparent equilibrium, at concentrations of SDS ranging from sub-micellar and sub-denaturing to micellar and denaturing, revealed multiple compl...

  10. Efferent pathways in sodium overload-induced renal vasodilation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia O Amaral

    Full Text Available Hypernatremia stimulates the secretion of oxytocin (OT, but the physiological role of OT remains unclear. The present study sought to determine the involvement of OT and renal nerves in the renal responses to an intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline. Male Wistar rats (280-350 g were anesthetized with sodium thiopental (40 mg. kg(-1, i.v.. A bladder cannula was implanted for collection of urine. Animals were also instrumented for measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP and renal blood flow (RBF. Renal vascular conductance (RVC was calculated as the ratio of RBF by MAP. In anesthetized rats (n = 6, OT infusion (0.03 µg • kg(-1, i.v. induced renal vasodilation. Consistent with this result, ex vivo experiments demonstrated that OT caused renal artery relaxation. Blockade of OT receptors (OXTR reduced these responses to OT, indicating a direct effect of this peptide on OXTR on this artery. Hypertonic saline (3 M NaCl, 1.8 ml • kg(-1 b.wt., i.v. was infused over 60 s. In sham rats (n = 6, hypertonic saline induced renal vasodilation. The OXTR antagonist (AT; atosiban, 40 µg • kg(-1 • h(-1, i.v.; n = 7 and renal denervation (RX reduced the renal vasodilation induced by hypernatremia. The combination of atosiban and renal denervation (RX+AT; n = 7 completely abolished the renal vasodilation induced by sodium overload. Intact rats excreted 51% of the injected sodium within 90 min. Natriuresis was slightly blunted by atosiban and renal denervation (42% and 39% of load, respectively, whereas atosiban with renal denervation reduced sodium excretion to 16% of the load. These results suggest that OT and renal nerves are involved in renal vasodilation and natriuresis induced by acute plasma hypernatremia.

  11. Formation of distinct inclusion bodies by inhibition of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junho; Yang, Kyu-Hwan; Joe, Cheol O; Kang, Seok-Seong

    2011-01-14

    Accumulation of misfolded proteins is caused by the impairment of protein quality control systems, such as ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) and autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP). In this study, the formation of inclusion bodies was examined after the blockade of UPP and/or ALP in A549 cells. UPP inhibition induced a single and large inclusion body localized in microtubule-organizing center. Interestingly, however, ALP inhibition generated dispersed small inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm. Tuberous sclerosis complex 2 was selectively accumulated in the inclusion bodies of UPP-inhibited cells, but not those of ALP-inhibited cells. Blockade of transcription and translation entirely inhibited the formation of inclusion body induced by UPP inhibition, but partially by ALP inhibition. Moreover, the simultaneous inhibition of two protein catabolic pathways independently developed two distinct inclusion bodies within a single cell. These findings clearly demonstrated that dysfunction of each catabolic pathway induced formation and accumulation of unique inclusion bodies on the basis of morphology, localization and formation process in A549 cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. β-Escin sodium inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression via downregulation of the JAK/STAT pathway in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Deng Bo; Xu, Bo; Liu, Jing Tao; Ran, Fu Xiang; Cui, Jing Rong

    2011-12-01

    β-escin, a triterpene saponin, is one of the major active compounds extracted from horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seed. Previous work has found that β-escin sodium has antiinflammatory and antitumor effects. In the present study, we investigated its effect on cell proliferation and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. β-escin sodium (5-40 µg/mL) inhibited cytokine mixture (CM)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in A549 cells by reducing the expression of iNOS. β-escin sodium suppressed phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT1 (Tyr701) and STAT3 (Tyr705) induced by CM but did not affect the activation of c-Jun and NF-κB. β-escin sodium inhibited the activation of protein tyrosine kinase JAK2. Pervanadate treatment reversed the β-escin sodium-induced downregulation of STAT3 and STAT1. β-escin sodium treatment enhanced an activating phosphorylation of the phosphatase SHP2. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of SHP2 inhibited β-escin sodium-induced phospho-STAT dephosphorylation. Moreover β-escin sodium reduced the activation of p38 MAPK. Finally, β-escin sodium inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells, did not change the cell membrane's permeability, nuclear morphology and size and the mitochondria's transmembrane potential of A549 cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that β-escin sodium could downregulate iNOS expression through inhibiting JAK/STAT signaling and p38 MAPK activation in A549 cells. β-escin sodium has a marked antiproliferative effect on A549 cells at least in part by inhibiting the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, but not by a cytotoxic effect. β-escin sodium would be useful as a chemopreventive agent or a therapeutic against inflammatory-associated tumor. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Andrographolide sodium bisulfate-induced apoptosis and autophagy in human proximal tubular endothelial cells is a ROS-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong; Zhang, Xin-Yue; Wang, Yi-Qi; Zheng, Xiao-Liang; Yin-Zhao; Xing, Wen-Min; Zhang, Qin

    2014-03-01

    The nephrotoxic mechanisms of andrographolide sodium bisulfate (ASB) remain largely unknown. This study attempted to explore the mechanism of ASB-induced nephrotoxicity using human proximal tubular endothelial cells (HK-2). For this study HK-2 cells were treated with rising concentrations of ASB. Their survival rate was detected using MTT assay and ultrastructure was observed with electron microscopy. L-Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay was followed by examination of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected using different methods and apoptosis/autophage related proteins were detected using immunoblotting. We found that ASB inhibited HK-2 cell proliferation and decreased cell survival rate in a time and dose-dependent manner (Papoptosis and autophagy were observed. MMP gradually decreased and ROS was induced. The expression of JNK and Beclin-1 increased and activation of the JNK signaling pathway were seen. Apoptosis was induced via the mitochondrial-dependent caspase-3 and caspase-9 pathway, and autophagy related protein Beclin-1 was enhanced by ASB. The data show that ASB induces high levels of ROS generation in HK-2 cells and activates JNK signaling. Furthermore, ASB induces cell apoptosis via the caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway, and induces cellular autophagy, in part by enhancing Beclin-1 protein expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural basis for the transformation pathways of the sodium naproxen anhydrate-hydrate system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Andrew; Cornett, Claus; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann

    2014-01-01

    -I is essentially identical to MH in the naproxen region, containing face-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings, whereas the structure of DH-II is comparable to AH in the naproxen region, containing edge-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings. This structural similarity permits topotactic...... transformation between AH and DH-II, and between MH and DH-I, but requires re-organization of the naproxen molecules for transformation between any other pair of structures. The topotactic pathways dominate at room temperature or below, while the non-topotactic pathways become active at higher temperatures...

  15. Vitamin B12 transport from food to the body's cells--a sophisticated, multistep pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne J; Rasmussen, Mie R; Andersen, Christian B F

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B(12) (B(12); also known as cobalamin) is a cofactor in many metabolic processes; deficiency of this vitamin is associated with megaloblastic anaemia and various neurological disorders. In contrast to many prokaryotes, humans and other mammals are unable to synthesize B(12). Instead...... in the transport pathway are also known culprits of functional B(12) deficiency. Biochemical and genetic approaches have identified novel proteins in the B(12) transport pathway--now known to involve more than 15 gene products--delineating a coherent pathway for B(12) trafficking from food to the body's cells...

  16. Aldosterone modulates thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter abundance via DUSP6-mediated ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiuyan; Zhang, Yiqian; Shao, Ningjun; Wang, Yanhui; Zhuang, Zhizhi; Wu, Ping; Lee, Matthew J; Liu, Yingli; Wang, Xiaonan; Zhuang, Jieqiu; Delpire, Eric; Gu, Dingying; Cai, Hui

    2015-05-15

    Thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) plays an important role in maintaining blood pressure. Aldosterone is known to modulate NCC abundance. Previous studies reported that dietary salts modulated NCC abundance through either WNK4 [with no lysine (k) kinase 4]-SPAK (Ste20-related proline alanine-rich kinase) or WNK4-extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways. To exclude the influence of SPAK signaling pathway on the role of the aldosterone-mediated ERK1/2 pathway in NCC regulation, we investigated the effects of dietary salt changes and aldosterone on NCC abundance in SPAK knockout (KO) mice. We found that in SPAK KO mice low-salt diet significantly increased total NCC abundance while reducing ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas high-salt diet decreased total NCC while increasing ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Importantly, exogenous aldosterone administration increased total NCC abundance in SPAK KO mice while increasing DUSP6 expression, an ERK1/2-specific phosphatase, and led to decreasing ERK1/2 phosphorylation without changing the ratio of phospho-T53-NCC/total NCC. In mouse distal convoluted tubule (mDCT) cells, aldosterone increased DUSP6 expression while reducing ERK1/2 phosphorylation. DUSP6 Knockdown increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation while reducing total NCC expression. Inhibition of DUSP6 by (E)-2-benzylidene-3-(cyclohexylamino)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and reversed the aldosterone-mediated increments of NCC partly by increasing NCC ubiquitination. Therefore, these data suggest that aldosterone modulates NCC abundance via altering NCC ubiquitination through a DUSP6-dependent ERK1/2 signal pathway in SPAK KO mice and part of the effects of dietary salt changes may be mediated by aldosterone in the DCTs.

  17. Curative effect of Sodium hyaluronate and bFGF eye drops after corneal rust foreign body removal operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Xia Li1

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the combined effect of Sodium hyaluronate eye drops and recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor(bFGFeye drops on cornea epithelial repair after corneal rust foreign body extraction. METHODS: Alinety-eight cases(98 eyesof corneal rust foreign body patients were randomly distributed to combined treatment group(49 cases, 49 eyesand control group(49 cases, 49 eyes. Hyaluronate eye drops, recombinant bFGF eye drops and levofloxacin hydrochloride were applied in combined treatment group after corneal foreign body extraction. Recombinant bFGF eye drops and levofloxacin hydrochloride were applied in control group. Corneal fluorescein stain, cornea epithelial repair and local symptoms were examined thrice weekly for 2 weeks. RESULTS: General effective rate of treatment in combined group reach 96%, significantly higher than that in control group(88%, PCONCLUSION: Combined application of sodium hyaluronate eye drops and recombinant bFGF eye drops can prominently improve cornea epithelial repair after corneal lesion with proven effectiveness and safety.

  18. Different pathways are involved in the enhancement of photosynthetic rate by sodium bisulfite and benzyladenine, a case study with strawberry (Fragaria x Ananassa Duch) plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Y.P.; Peng, Y.; Lin, M.L.; Guo, D.P.; Hu, M.J.; Shen, Y.K.; Li, D.Y.; Zheng, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand the pathway involved in the chemical enhancement of photosynthetic rate, sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3) and benzyladenine (BA), a growth regulator, were applied to strawberry plants. The influence of these compounds on gas exchange and millisecond delayed light emission (ms-DLE)

  19. From sodium intake restriction to nitrate supplementation: Different measures with converging mechanistic pathways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, P

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase is at the centre of endothelial physiology producing nitric oxide which dilates blood vessels, inhibits platelet aggregation and smooth muscle cell proliferation and reduces adhesion molecule production. The laminar shear stress is a common test used usually as the flow mediated dilatation test (FMD) which is sensitive to saturated fat, sodium and potassium although with the latter ion it is possible potassium has direct effects on ion channels in the smooth muscle cell as well as the endothelial cell. High blood pressure and blood cholesterol both reduce nitric oxide production, the latter probably by increasing caveolin-1 which binds nitric oxide synthase. Saturated fat reduces nitric oxide by elevating LDL cholesterol and caveolin-1 while insulin stimulates nitric oxide synthase activity by serine phosphorylation. Polyphenols from tea, coffee and cocoa and virgin olive oil enhance FMD and eNOS activity is essential for this activity. Wine polyphenols produce mixed results and it is not clear at present that they are beneficial. Blackberries and other polyphenol-rich fruit also enhance FMD. Dietary nitrate from beetroot and green leafy vegetables is converted to nitrite by salivary microbes and then to nitric oxide and this acts directly on the smooth muscle to lower blood pressure particularly in a low oxygen environment. Dietary nitrate also improves work efficiency and improves flow mediated dilatation. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....

  1. Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells through ROS-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Ngoc, Tam Dan [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Young-Ok [Graduate Center for Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Lim, Shin-Saeng [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Bioactive Material Sciences and Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Xianglin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Kim, Jong-Ghee [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Jung Sun [Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering and Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Youngji [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Young-Mi, E-mail: young@jbnu.ac.kr [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Chae, E-mail: leejc88@jbnu.ac.kr [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate Center for Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Department of Bioactive Material Sciences and Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Sodium fluoride (NaF) is used as a source of fluoride ions in diverse applications. Fluoride salt is an effective prophylactic for dental caries and is an essential element required for bone health. However, fluoride is known to cause cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, no information is available on the effects of NaF on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We investigated the mode of cell death induced by NaF and the mechanisms involved. NaF treatment greater than 1 mM reduced viability and DNA synthesis in mESCs and induced cell cycle arrest in the G{sub 2}/M phase. The addition of NaF induced cell death mainly by apoptosis rather than necrosis. Catalase (CAT) treatment significantly inhibited the NaF-mediated cell death and also suppressed the NaF-mediated increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) levels. Pre-treatment with SP600125 or z-VAD-fmk significantly attenuated the NaF-mediated reduction in cell viability. In contrast, intracellular free calcium chelator, but not of sodium or calcium ion channel blockers, facilitated NaF-induced toxicity in the cells. A JNK specific inhibitor (SP600125) prevented the NaF-induced increase in growth arrest and the DNA damage-inducible protein 45α. Further, NaF-mediated loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was apparently inhibited by pifithrin-α or CAT inhibitor. These findings suggest that NaF affects viability of mESCs in a concentration-dependent manner, where more than 1 mM NaF causes apoptosis through hydroxyl radical-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways. -- Highlights: ► The mode of NaF-induced cell death and the mechanisms involved were examined. ► NaF induced mainly apoptotic death of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). ► NaF induced mitochondrial-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. ► JNK- and p53-mediated pathways are involved in NaF-mediated apoptosis in the cells. ► ROS are the up-stream effector in NaF-mediated activation of JNK and p53 in mESCs.

  2. Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells through ROS-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ngoc, Tam Dan; Son, Young-Ok; Lim, Shin-Saeng; Shi, Xianglin; Kim, Jong-Ghee; Heo, Jung Sun; Choe, Youngji; Jeon, Young-Mi; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2012-01-01

    Sodium fluoride (NaF) is used as a source of fluoride ions in diverse applications. Fluoride salt is an effective prophylactic for dental caries and is an essential element required for bone health. However, fluoride is known to cause cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, no information is available on the effects of NaF on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We investigated the mode of cell death induced by NaF and the mechanisms involved. NaF treatment greater than 1 mM reduced viability and DNA synthesis in mESCs and induced cell cycle arrest in the G 2 /M phase. The addition of NaF induced cell death mainly by apoptosis rather than necrosis. Catalase (CAT) treatment significantly inhibited the NaF-mediated cell death and also suppressed the NaF-mediated increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) levels. Pre-treatment with SP600125 or z-VAD-fmk significantly attenuated the NaF-mediated reduction in cell viability. In contrast, intracellular free calcium chelator, but not of sodium or calcium ion channel blockers, facilitated NaF-induced toxicity in the cells. A JNK specific inhibitor (SP600125) prevented the NaF-induced increase in growth arrest and the DNA damage-inducible protein 45α. Further, NaF-mediated loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was apparently inhibited by pifithrin-α or CAT inhibitor. These findings suggest that NaF affects viability of mESCs in a concentration-dependent manner, where more than 1 mM NaF causes apoptosis through hydroxyl radical-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways. -- Highlights: ► The mode of NaF-induced cell death and the mechanisms involved were examined. ► NaF induced mainly apoptotic death of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). ► NaF induced mitochondrial-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. ► JNK- and p53-mediated pathways are involved in NaF-mediated apoptosis in the cells. ► ROS are the up-stream effector in NaF-mediated activation of JNK and p53 in mESCs.

  3. Retinal Cell Death Caused by Sodium Iodate Involves Multiple Caspase-Dependent and Caspase-Independent Cell-Death Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Balmer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we have investigated retinal cell-death pathways in response to the retina toxin sodium iodate (NaIO3 both in vivo and in vitro. C57/BL6 mice were treated with a single intravenous injection of NaIO3 (35 mg/kg. Morphological changes in the retina post NaIO3 injection in comparison to untreated controls were assessed using electron microscopy. Cell death was determined by TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL staining. The activation of caspases and calpain was measured using immunohistochemistry. Additionally, cytotoxicity and apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells, primary retinal cells, and the cone photoreceptor (PRC cell line 661W were assessed in vitro after NaIO3 treatment using the ApoToxGlo™ assay. The 7-AAD/Annexin-V staining was performed and necrostatin (Nec-1 was administered to the NaIO3-treated cells to confirm the results. In vivo, degenerating RPE cells displayed a rounded shape and retracted microvilli, whereas PRCs featured apoptotic nuclei. Caspase and calpain activity was significantly upregulated in retinal sections and protein samples from NaIO3-treated animals. In vitro, NaIO3 induced necrosis in RPE cells and apoptosis in PRCs. Furthermore, Nec-1 significantly decreased NaIO3-induced RPE cell death, but had no rescue effect on treated PRCs. In summary, several different cell-death pathways are activated in retinal cells as a result of NaIO3.

  4. Fitting of electromagnetic valve cone body, especially designed for operation in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Dubsek, F.; Tomes, V.

    1979-01-01

    A ring guided by at least three segments attached to the valve tube periphery is fitted to each end of the cone body, onto the body outer surface. The outer surfaces of the ring and of the segments are provided with a layer of abrasion-resistant and corrosion-resistant flux-free alloy. (M.S.)

  5. Vitamin B12 transport from food to the body's cells--a sophisticated, multistep pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Marianne J; Rasmussen, Mie R; Andersen, Christian B F; Nexø, Ebba; Moestrup, Søren K

    2012-05-01

    Vitamin B(12) (B(12); also known as cobalamin) is a cofactor in many metabolic processes; deficiency of this vitamin is associated with megaloblastic anaemia and various neurological disorders. In contrast to many prokaryotes, humans and other mammals are unable to synthesize B(12). Instead, a sophisticated pathway for specific uptake and transport of this molecule has evolved. Failure in the gastrointestinal part of this pathway is the most common cause of nondietary-induced B(12) deficiency disease. However, although less frequent, defects in cellular processing and further downstream steps in the transport pathway are also known culprits of functional B(12) deficiency. Biochemical and genetic approaches have identified novel proteins in the B(12) transport pathway--now known to involve more than 15 gene products--delineating a coherent pathway for B(12) trafficking from food to the body's cells. Some of these gene products are specifically dedicated to B(12) transport, whereas others embrace additional roles, which explains the heterogeneity in the clinical picture of the many genetic disorders causing B(12) deficiency. This Review describes basic and clinical features of this multistep pathway with emphasis on gastrointestinal transport of B(12) and its importance in clinical medicine.

  6. Influence of physical activity on the metabolism and the total body content of sodium and potassium in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, J.K.; Yasumura, A.; Aloia, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise (EX) and immobilization (IMB) on the absorption, excretion and total body content of sodium (TBNa) and potassium (TBK). Female Sprague Dawley rats 5 weeks old were divided into four groups: EX; Control (CON); EX with pair feeding to the level equal to the CON (EX-P); IMB by sciatica denervation. The nutritional balance study data was taken 5 weeks into the experimental period and the animals were sacrificed after 5 additional weeks of experimentation. The carcasses were kept frozen and used for total body composition by neutron activation. The results of the total body composition show that EX resulted in an increase, IMB resulted in a decrease, of the TBNa and TBK. There was no significant difference in TBNa of TBK, between the EX and the EX-P groups even though, the food intake was higher in the EX group. The results of the nutritional balance study confirmed the results of the total body composition

  7. A Cajal body-independent pathway for telomerase trafficking in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlinson, Rebecca L.; Li, Jian; Culp, Bradley R.; Terns, Rebecca M., E-mail: rterns@bmb.uga.edu; Terns, Michael P., E-mail: mterns@bmb.uga.edu

    2010-10-15

    The intranuclear trafficking of human telomerase involves a dynamic interplay between multiple nuclear sites, most notably Cajal bodies and telomeres. Cajal bodies are proposed to serve as sites of telomerase maturation, storage, and assembly, as well as to function in the cell cycle-regulated delivery of telomerase to telomeres in human cells. Here, we find that telomerase RNA does not localize to Cajal bodies in mouse cells, and instead resides in separate nuclear foci throughout much of the cell cycle. However, as in humans, mouse telomerase RNA (mTR) localizes to subsets of telomeres specifically during S phase. The localization of mTR to telomeres in mouse cells does not require coilin-containing Cajal bodies, as mTR is found at telomeres at similar frequencies in cells from wild-type and coilin knockout mice. At the same time, we find that human TR localizes to Cajal bodies (as well as telomeres) in mouse cells, indicating that the distinct trafficking of mTR is attributable to an intrinsic property of the RNA (rather than a difference in the mouse cell environment such as the properties of mouse Cajal bodies). We also find that during S phase, mTR foci coalesce into short chains, with at least one of the conjoined mTR foci co-localizing with a telomere. These findings point to a novel, Cajal body-independent pathway for telomerase biogenesis and trafficking in mice.

  8. A Cajal body-independent pathway for telomerase trafficking in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, Rebecca L.; Li, Jian; Culp, Bradley R.; Terns, Rebecca M.; Terns, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    The intranuclear trafficking of human telomerase involves a dynamic interplay between multiple nuclear sites, most notably Cajal bodies and telomeres. Cajal bodies are proposed to serve as sites of telomerase maturation, storage, and assembly, as well as to function in the cell cycle-regulated delivery of telomerase to telomeres in human cells. Here, we find that telomerase RNA does not localize to Cajal bodies in mouse cells, and instead resides in separate nuclear foci throughout much of the cell cycle. However, as in humans, mouse telomerase RNA (mTR) localizes to subsets of telomeres specifically during S phase. The localization of mTR to telomeres in mouse cells does not require coilin-containing Cajal bodies, as mTR is found at telomeres at similar frequencies in cells from wild-type and coilin knockout mice. At the same time, we find that human TR localizes to Cajal bodies (as well as telomeres) in mouse cells, indicating that the distinct trafficking of mTR is attributable to an intrinsic property of the RNA (rather than a difference in the mouse cell environment such as the properties of mouse Cajal bodies). We also find that during S phase, mTR foci coalesce into short chains, with at least one of the conjoined mTR foci co-localizing with a telomere. These findings point to a novel, Cajal body-independent pathway for telomerase biogenesis and trafficking in mice.

  9. Chronic activation of plasma renin is log-linearly related to dietary sodium and eliminates natriuresis in response to a pulse change in total body sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjolby, Mads; Bie, Peter

    2008-01-01

    rate, urine flow, plasma potassium, and plasma renin activity did not change. The results indicate that sodium excretion is controlled by neurohumoral mechanisms that are quite resistant to acute changes in plasma volume and colloid osmotic pressure and are not down-regulated within 2 h. With previous......Cl administration increased PV (+6.3-8.9%) and plasma sodium concentration (~2%) and decreased plasma protein concentration (-6.4-8.1%). Plasma ANG II and aldosterone concentrations decreased transiently. Potassium excretion increased substantially. Sodium excretion, arterial blood pressure, glomerular filtration...

  10. The origins of rimmed vacuoles and granulovacuolar degeneration bodies are associated with the Wnt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata-Shinozaki, Yukari; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Matsubara, Tomoyasu; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Izumi, Yuishin; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2017-01-18

    Inclusion-body myositis (IBM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are biochemically characterized by the presence of aggregated β-amyloid protein and tau protein. In addition, both diseases are pathologically characterized by vacuolar changes, including rimmed vacuoles (RVs) in IBM and granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD) in AD. Previously, we demonstrated that RVs and GVD bodies are associated with a set of common molecules, leading us to speculate that both RVs and GVD bodies originate from similar structures on the plasma membrane of muscle cells and neuronal cells, namely, the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and the postsynaptic spine especially in terms of Wnt signaling pathway. In this study, we investigated the presence of components of NMJ in RVs and/or postsynaptic spine in GVD bodies respectively by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. The antigens probed included the following: (1) dishevelled (Dvl) family proteins (Dvl1, Dvl2 and Dvl3), (2) NMJ-associated proteins (low density lipoprotein-related protein 4 [Lrp4], heat shock protein 70 [Hsp70], β-catenin, phospho-β-catenin, rapsyn, P21-activated kinase 1 [PAK1], adenomatous polyposis coli [APC] and ADP-ribosylation factor 6 [Arf6]), (3) a lipid raft-associated molecule (phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate [PIP2]), and (4) other proteins [prion, glycogen-synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β)]. In all cases of sporadic IBM examined, RVs were immunopositive for Dvl3, Hsp70, β-catenin, PIP2, APC, prion and GSK-3β. In all cases of AD examined, GVD bodies were immunopositive for Dvl3, phospho-β-catenin, rapsyn, APC and PIP2. These findings show that RVs and GVD bodies share common molecules associated with the Wnt signaling pathway, indicating that these structures share a common structural and functional origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Andrographolide derivative CX-10 ameliorates dextran sulphate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis in mice: Involvement of NF-κB and MAPK signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenfang; Yu, Cuicui; Liang, Haiyue; Wang, Xuekai; Liu, Yue; Li, Xin; Ji, Kai; Xu, Hui; Yang, Mingyan; Liu, Ke; Qi, Dong; Fan, Huaying

    2018-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation and leads to an increased risk of colon cancer. There are many studies using phyto-ingredients as a novel approach for the treatment of UC. The plant Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) is a safe and edible vegetable that has been extensively adopted in traditional Chinese medicine for conditions involving inflammation, and the most active phytochemical agent is andrographolide. The andrographolide derivative 3,14,19-triacetyl andrographolide, which is known as CX-10 (a hemi chemical synthesized from andrographolide), has been found to possess strong anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of CX-10 as a complementary and alternative medicine against dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. Our results revealed that CX-10 treatment reduced body weight loss, reduced colon length shortening, decreased colon weight, decreased the spleen index, decreased the disease activity index (DAI), and alleviated histological damage in the colon. The expression of TNF-α and IL-6 and the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in colonic tissues were significantly reduced in CX-10 supplemented mice. It is noteworthy that the efficacy of 200 mg/kg of CX-10 was equivalent to that of the mesalazine positive control (200 mg/kg). Furthermore, western blot analysis revealed that CX-10 treatment reduced the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and p-IκBα, increased the expression of IκBα and down-regulated the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), ERK and JNK. In conclusion, CX-10 treatment attenuated DSS-induced UC in mice through inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways and reducing TNF-α and IL-6 levels, suggesting that CX-10 is a potential therapeutic drug for UC. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Altering the sex determination pathway in Drosophila fat body modifies sex-specific stress responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckameyer, Wendi S.

    2014-01-01

    The stress response in Drosophila melanogaster reveals sex differences in behavior, similar to what has been observed in mammals. However, unlike mammals, the sex determination pathway in Drosophila is well established, making this an ideal system to identify factors involved in the modulation of sex-specific responses to stress. In this study, we show that the Drosophila fat body, which has been shown to be important for energy homeostasis and sex determination, is a dynamic tissue that is altered in response to stress in a sex and time-dependent manner. We manipulated the sex determination pathway in the fat body via targeted expression of transformer and transformer-2 and analyzed these animals for changes in their response to stress. In the majority of cases, manipulation of transformer or transformer-2 was able to change the physiological output in response to starvation and oxidative stress to that of the opposite sex. Our data also uncover the possibility of additional downstream targets for transformer and transformer-2 that are separate from the sex determination pathway and can influence behavioral and physiological responses. PMID:24789992

  13. Children's responses to the rubber-hand illusion reveal dissociable pathways in body representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Dorothy; Makin, Tamar R; Bremner, Andrew J

    2013-05-01

    The bodily self is constructed from multisensory information. However, little is known of the relation between multisensory development and the emerging sense of self. We investigated this question by measuring the strength of the rubber-hand illusion in young children (4 to 9 years old) and adults. Intermanual pointing showed that children were as sensitive as adults to visual-tactile synchrony cues for hand position, which indicates that a visual-tactile pathway to the bodily self matures by at least 4 years of age. However, regardless of synchrony cues, children's perceived hand position was closer to the rubber hand than adults' perceived hand position was. This indicates a second, later-maturing process based on visual-proprioceptive information. Furthermore, explicit feelings of embodiment were related only to the visual-tactile process. These findings demonstrate two dissociable processes underlying body representation in early life, and they call into question current models of body representation and ownership in adulthood.

  14. Pathways through which higher neighborhood crime is longitudinally associated with greater body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrea S; Troxel, Wendy M; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Hunter, Gerald P; Beckman, Robin; Colabianchi, Natalie; Collins, Rebecca L; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2017-11-09

    Although crime and perceived safety are associated with obesity and body mass index (BMI), the pathways are less clear. Two likely pathways by which crime and perceived safety may impact obesity are through distress and physical activity. We examined data from 2013 to 2014 for 644 predominantly African-American adults (mean age 57 years; 77% female) living in low-income Pittsburgh, PA neighborhoods, including self-reported perceptions of safety and emotional distress, interviewer-measured height/weight, and physical activity measured via accelerometry. We used secondary data on neighborhood crime from 2011 to 2013. We built a structural equation model to examine the longitudinal direct and indirect pathways from crime to BMI through perceived safety, distress and physical activity. Long-term exposure to crime was positively associated with lack of perceived safety (β = 0.11, p = 0.005) and lack of perceived safety was positively associated with BMI (β = 0.08, p = 0.03). The beneficial association between physical activity and BMI (β = -0.15, p crime and physical activity (β = -0.09, p = 0.01). Although crime was associated with distress we found no evidence of a path from crime to BMI via distress. Our findings suggest decrements in perceived safety and physical activity are important processes that might explain why neighborhood crime is associated with greater BMI.

  15. Effect of nitric oxide pathway regulation on water/sodium balance and renal function in a rodent model of acute liver and renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracyn, Marek; Ząbkowski, Tomasz; Zdanowski, Robert; Brytan, Marek; Patera, Janusz; Nowak, Zbigniew; Kade, Grzegorz; Wańkowicz, Zofia

    2014-09-27

    The pathomechanism of acute hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), a particular form of acute renal failure that occurs in the course of acute liver injury, is still poorly understood. The aim of our study was to estimate the influence of the activation and inhibition of the nitric oxide pathway on the water/sodium balance and development of acute renal failure in the course of HRS. We used male Sprague-Dawley rats in the acute galactosamine (Ga1N) model of HRS. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors L-NAME and L-arginine were administered intraperitoneally before and after liver damage. HRS developed in all tested groups. L-NAME increased osmotic clearance and urine volume more effectively before liver injury. Furthermore, administration of L-NAME increased creatinine clearance both before and after Ga1N injection. A double dose of L-NAME did not yield further improvement before Ga1N injection, but improved creatinine clearance after Ga1N intoxication. Injection of L-arginine increased sodium excretion and urine volume, but only after liver injury. Moreover, L-arginine injected after Ga1N caused significant improvement of the creatinine clearance in a dose-dependent manner. Our study shows that inhibition of the nitric oxide pathway improves parameters of water and sodium balance and prevents development of acute renal failure in the course of acute liver injury and liver failure. Activation of the nitric oxide system also has a favorable influence on water/sodium balance and renal failure, but only after liver injury.

  16. Evaluation the effects of L-arginine supplementation on exercise performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium in healthy male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanger Karimian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: L- Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that can affect athletic performance. Thus the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of L- arginine supplementation on athletic performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels in male athletes. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial. Participants, 56 male athletes with an average age of 20.85±4.29 years were selected in Isfahan University of Medical Science clubs in the winter of 2014. Athletes received l- arginine supplementation with a dose of 2 g daily for 45 days in the intervention group and the same amount of placebo (maltodextrin in the control group received. At the beginning and end of the study, the level of athletic performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels were measured and data were analysis with using SPSS software version 19. Results: At the end of the study athletic performance in the group receiving supplements of L - arginine significantly improved compared to the control group (P=0.035. However, no significant changes in body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels were observed (P>0.05. Conclusion: Supplementation of L - arginine can improve athletic performance in semi-professional athletes.

  17. Protein-altering variants associated with body mass index implicate pathways that control energy intake and expenditure in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turcot, Valérie; Lu, Yingchang; Highland, Heather M; Schurmann, Claudia; Justice, Anne E.; Fine, Rebecca S; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Esko, Tõnu; Giri, Ayush; Graff, Mariaelisa; Guo, Xiuqing; Hendricks, Audrey E.; Karaderi, Tugce; Lempradl, Adelheid; Locke, Adam E.; Mahajan, Anubha; Marouli, Eirini; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Young, Kristin L; Alfred, Tamuno; Feitosa, Mary F.; Masca, Nicholas G D; Manning, Alisa K.; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Mudgal, Poorva; Ng, Maggie C Y; Reiner, Alex P.; Vedantam, Sailaja; Willems, Sara M; Winkler, Thomas W.; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Aben, Katja K H; Alam, Dewan S.; Alharthi, Sameer E; Allison, Matthew A.; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Auer, Paul L.; Balkau, Beverley; Bang, Lia E; Barroso, Inês; Bastarache, Lisa; Benn, Marianne; Bergmann, Sven; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Blüher, Matthias; Boehnke, Michael; Boeing, Heiner; Boerwinkle, Eric; Böger, Carsten A; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Bots, Michiel L; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bowden, Donald W.; Brandslund, Ivan; Breen, Gerome; Brilliant, Murray H; Broer, Linda; Brumat, Marco; Burt, Amber; Butterworth, Adam S.; Campbell, Peter T.; Cappellani, Stefania; Carey, David J; Catamo, Eulalia; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chambers, John C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Cramer; Chu, Audrey Y; Cocca, Massimiliano; Collins, Francis S.; Cook, James P.; Corley, Janie; Corominas Galbany, Jordi; Cox, Amanda J; Crosslin, David S; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; D'Eustacchio, Angela; Danesh, John; Davies, Gail; De Bakker, Paul I W; de Groot, Mark C H; de Mutsert, Renée; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George; Demerath, Ellen W.; den Heijer, Martin; Den Hollander, Anneke I.; Ruijter, Hester M; Dennis, Joe G; Denny, Josh C; Angelantonio, Emanuele Di; Drenos, Fotios; Du, Mengmeng; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.; Edwards, Todd L.; Ellinghaus, David; Ellinor, Patrick T; Elliott, Paul; Evangelou, Evangelos; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Faul, Jessica D.; Fauser, Sascha; Feng, Shuang; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrieres, Jean; Florez, Jose C; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Franco, Oscar H.; Franke, Andre; Franks, Paul W.; Friedrich, Nele; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Gan, Wei; Gandin, Ilaria; Gasparini, Paolo; Gibson, Jane; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gjesing, Anette P; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Gorski, Mathias; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Grant, Struan F. A.; Grarup, Niels; Griffiths, Helen L; Grove, Megan L.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gustafsson, Stefan; Haessler, Jeff; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hammerschlag, Anke R; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Have, Christian T; Hayward, Caroline; He, Liang; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heid, Iris M.; Helgeland, Øyvind; Hernesniemi, Jussi; Hewitt, Alex W; Holmen, Oddgeir L; Hovingh, G. Kees; Howson, Joanna M M; Hu, Yao; Huang, Paul L; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Ingelsson, Erik; Jackson, Anne U.; Jansson, Jan Håkan; Jarvik, Gail P; Jensen, Gorm B; Jia, Yucheng; Johansson, Stefan; Jørgensen, Marit E; Jørgensen, Torben; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kahali, Bratati; Kahn, René S; Kähönen, Mika; Kamstrup, Pia R; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kaprio, Jaakko; Karaleftheri, Maria; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Karpe, Fredrik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kee, Frank; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kim, Eric; Kitajima, Hidetoshi; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Korhonen, Tellervo; Kovacs, Peter; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Kutalik, Zoltán; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lamparter, David; Lange, Ethan M.; Lange, Leslie A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Larson, Eric B.; Lee, Nanette R.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lewis, Cora E; Li, Huaixing; Li, Jin; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lin, Honghuang; Lin, Keng-Hung; Lin, Li-An; Lin, Xu; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Ching-Ti; Liu, Dajiang J.; Liu, Yongmei; Lo, Ken Sin; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Lotery, Andrew J.; Loukola, Anu; Luan, Jian'an; Lubitz, Steven A.; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Männistö, Satu; Marenne, Gaëlle; Mazul, Angela L; McCarthy, Mark I.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Medland, Sarah E.; Meidtner, Karina; Milani, Lili; Mistry, Vanisha; Mitchell, Paul; Mohlke, Karen L.; Moilanen, Leena; Moitry, Marie; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Moore, Carmel; Mori, Trevor A; Morris, Andrew D.; Morris, Andrew P.; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Munroe, Patricia B.; Nalls, Mike A.; Narisu, Narisu; Nelson, Christopher P.; Neville, Matt; Nielsen, Sune F.; Nikus, Kjell; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nyholt, Dale R.; O'Connel, Jeffrey R.; O'Donoghue, Michelle L; Olde Loohuis, Loes M; Ophoff, Roel A; Owen, Katharine R; Packard, Chris J.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Patel, Aniruddh P; Pattie, Alison; Pedersen, Oluf; Peissig, Peggy L.; Peloso, Gina M.; Pennell, Craig E.; Perola, Markus; Perry, James A; Perry, John R. B.; Pers, Tune H.; Person, Thomas N; Peters, Annette; Petersen, Eva R B; Peyser, Patricia A.; Pirie, Ailith; Polasek, Ozren; Polderman, Tinca J; Puolijoki, Hannu; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rasheed, Asif; Rauramaa, Rainer; Reilly, Dermot F; Renström, Frida; Rheinberger, Myriam; Ridker, Paul M.; Rioux, John D.; Rivas, Manuel A; Roberts, David J; Robertson, Neil R.; Robino, Antonietta; Rolandsson, Olov; Rudan, Igor; Ruth, Katherine S.; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Sapkota, Yadav; Sattar, Naveed; Schoen, Robert E.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Schulze, Matthias B.; Scott, Robert A.; Segura-Lepe, Marcelo P; Shah, Svati H; Sheu, Wayne H. -H.; Sim, Xueling; Slater, Andrew J; Small, Kerrin S; Smith, Albert V.; Southam, Lorraine; Spector, Timothy D; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Starr, John M.; Stefansson, Kari; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen E; Strauch, Konstantin; Stringham, Heather M.; Stumvoll, Michael; Sun, Liang Dan; Surendran, Praveen; Swift, Amy J.; Tada, Hayato; Tansey, Katherine E; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Taylor, Kent D.; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, Deborah J.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbek; Tönjes, Anke; Tromp, Gerard; Trompet, Stella; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Uher, Rudolf; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; Laan, Sander W; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Leeuwen, Nienke; van Setten, Jessica; Vanhala, Mauno; Varbo, Anette; Varga, Tibor V.; Varma, Rohit; Velez Edwards, Digna R; Vermeulen, Sita H H M; Veronesi, Giovanni; Vestergaard, Henrik; Vitart, Veronique; Vogt, Thomas F; Völker, Uwe; Vuckovic, Dragana; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Walker, Mark; Wallentin, Lars; Wang, Feijie; Wang, Carol A.; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yiqin; Ware, Erin B.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Warren, Helen R.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Wessel, Jennifer; White, Harvey D; Willer, Cristen J.; Wilson, James G.; Witte, Daniel R; Wood, Andrew R.; Wu, Ying; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Yao, Jie; Yao, Pang; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Young, Robin; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Wei; Zondervan, Krina T.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Pospisilik, John A; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Frayling, Timothy M.; Lettre, Guillaume; North, Kari E.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >250 loci for body mass index (BMI), implicating pathways related to neuronal biology. Most GWAS loci represent clusters of common, noncoding variants from which pinpointing causal genes remains challenging. Here we combined data from 718,734

  18. Protein-altering variants associated with body mass index implicate pathways that control energy intake and expenditure in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turcot, Valérie; Lu, Yingchang; Highland, Heather M.; Schurmann, Claudia; Justice, Anne E.; Fine, Rebecca S.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Esko, Tõnu; Giri, Ayush; Graff, Mariaelisa; Guo, Xiuqing; Hendricks, Audrey E.; Karaderi, Tugce; Lempradl, Adelheid; Locke, Adam E.; Mahajan, Anubha; Marouli, Eirini; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Young, Kristin L.; Alfred, Tamuno; Feitosa, Mary F.; Masca, Nicholas G. D.; Manning, Alisa K.; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Mudgal, Poorva; Ng, Maggie C. Y.; Reiner, Alex P.; Vedantam, Sailaja; Willems, Sara M.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Aben, Katja K.; Alam, Dewan S.; Alharthi, Sameer E.; Allison, Matthew; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Auer, Paul L.; Balkau, Beverley; Bang, Lia E.; Barroso, Inês; Bastarache, Lisa; Benn, Marianne; Bergmann, Sven; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Blüher, Matthias; Boehnke, Michael; Boeing, Heiner; Boerwinkle, Eric; Böger, Carsten A.; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Bots, Michiel L.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bowden, Donald W.; Brandslund, Ivan; Breen, Gerome; Brilliant, Murray H.; Broer, Linda; Brumat, Marco; Burt, Amber A.; Butterworth, Adam S.; Campbell, Peter T.; Cappellani, Stefania; Carey, David J.; Catamo, Eulalia; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chambers, John C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chen, Yii-der I.; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Cramer; Chu, Audrey Y.; Cocca, Massimiliano; Collins, Francis S.; Cook, James P.; Corley, Janie; Corominas Galbany, Jordi; Cox, Amanda J.; Crosslin, David S.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; D'Eustacchio, Angela; Danesh, John; Davies, Gail; Bakker, Paul I. W.; Groot, Mark C. H.; Mutsert, Renée; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George; Demerath, Ellen W.; Heijer, Martin; Hollander, Anneke I.; Ruijter, Hester M.; Dennis, Joe G.; Denny, Josh C.; Angelantonio, Emanuele; Drenos, Fotios; Du, Mengmeng; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.; Edwards, Todd L.; Ellinghaus, David; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Elliott, Paul; Evangelou, Evangelos; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Faul, Jessica D.; Fauser, Sascha; Feng, Shuang; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrieres, Jean; Florez, Jose C.; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Franco, Oscar H.; Franke, Andre; Franks, Paul W.; Friedrich, Nele; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Gan, Wei; Gandin, Ilaria; Gasparini, Paolo; Gibson, Jane; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gjesing, Anette P.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Gorski, Mathias; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Grant, Struan F. A.; Grarup, Niels; Griffiths, Helen L.; Grove, Megan L.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gustafsson, Stefan; Haessler, Jeff; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hammerschlag, Anke R.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Have, Christian T.; Hayward, Caroline; He, Liang; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heid, Iris M.; Helgeland, Øyvind; Hernesniemi, Jussi; Hewitt, Alex W.; Holmen, Oddgeir L.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Howson, Joanna M. M.; Hu, Yao; Huang, Paul L.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Ingelsson, Erik; Jackson, Anne U.; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Jarvik, Gail P.; Jensen, Gorm B.; Jia, Yucheng; Johansson, Stefan; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Jørgensen, Torben; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kahali, Bratati; Kahn, René S.; Kähönen, Mika; Kamstrup, Pia R.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kaprio, Jaakko; Karaleftheri, Maria; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Karpe, Fredrik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kee, Frank; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kim, Eric; Kitajima, Hidetoshi; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Korhonen, Tellervo; Kovacs, Peter; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Kutalik, Zoltán; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lamparter, David; Lange, Ethan M.; Lange, Leslie A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Larson, Eric B.; Lee, Nanette R.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lewis, Cora E.; Li, Huaixing; Li, Jin; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lin, Honghuang; Lin, Keng-Hung; Lin, Li-An; Lin, Xu; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Ching-Ti; Liu, Dajiang J.; Liu, Yongmei; Lo, Ken S.; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Lotery, Andrew J.; Loukola, Anu; Luan, Jian'an; Lubitz, Steven A.; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Männistö, Satu; Marenne, Gaëlle; Mazul, Angela L.; McCarthy, Mark I.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Medland, Sarah E.; Meidtner, Karina; Milani, Lili; Mistry, Vanisha; Mitchell, Paul; Mohlke, Karen L.; Moilanen, Leena; Moitry, Marie; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Moore, Carmel; Mori, Trevor A.; Morris, Andrew D.; Morris, Andrew P.; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Munroe, Patricia B.; Nalls, Mike A.; Narisu, Narisu; Nelson, Christopher P.; Neville, Matt; Nielsen, Sune F.; Nikus, Kjell; Njølstad, Pål R.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nyholt, Dale R.; O'Connel, Jeffrey R.; O'Donoghue, Michelle L.; Olde Loohuis, Loes M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Owen, Katharine R.; Packard, Chris J.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Patel, Aniruddh P.; Pattie, Alison; Pedersen, Oluf; Peissig, Peggy L.; Peloso, Gina M.; Pennell, Craig E.; Perola, Markus; Perry, James A.; Perry, John R. B.; Pers, Tune H.; Person, Thomas N.; Peters, Annette; Petersen, Eva R. B.; Peyser, Patricia A.; Pirie, Ailith; Polasek, Ozren; Polderman, Tinca J.; Puolijoki, Hannu; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rasheed, Asif; Rauramaa, Rainer; Reilly, Dermot F.; Renström, Frida; Rheinberger, Myriam; Ridker, Paul M.; Rioux, John D.; Rivas, Manuel A.; Roberts, David J.; Robertson, Neil R.; Robino, Antonietta; Rolandsson, Olov; Rudan, Igor; Ruth, Katherine S.; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Sapkota, Yadav; Sattar, Naveed; Schoen, Robert E.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Schulze, Matthias B.; Scott, Robert A.; Segura-Lepe, Marcelo P.; Shah, Svati H.; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Sim, Xueling; Slater, Andrew J.; Small, Kerrin S.; Smith, Albert V.; Southam, Lorraine; Spector, Timothy D.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Starr, John M.; Stefansson, Kari; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen E.; Strauch, Konstantin; Stringham, Heather M.; Stumvoll, Michael; Sun, Liang; Surendran, Praveen; Swift, Amy J.; Tada, Hayato; Tansey, Katherine E.; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Taylor, Kent D.; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, Deborah J.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thuesen, Betina H.; Tönjes, Anke; Tromp, Gerard; Trompet, Stella; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Uher, Rudolf; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; Laan, Sander W.; Duijn, Cornelia M.; Leeuwen, Nienke; van Setten, Jessica; Vanhala, Mauno; Varbo, Anette; Varga, Tibor V.; Varma, Rohit; Velez Edwards, Digna R.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Veronesi, Giovanni; Vestergaard, Henrik; Vitart, Veronique; Vogt, Thomas F.; Völker, Uwe; Vuckovic, Dragana; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Walker, Mark; Wallentin, Lars; Wang, Feijie; Wang, Carol A.; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yiqin; Ware, Erin B.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Warren, Helen R.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Wessel, Jennifer; White, Harvey D.; Willer, Cristen J.; Wilson, James G.; Witte, Daniel R.; Wood, Andrew R.; Wu, Ying; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Yao, Jie; Yao, Pang; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Young, Robin; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Wei; Zondervan, Krina T.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Pospisilik, John A.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Frayling, Timothy M.; Lettre, Guillaume; North, Kari E.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2018-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >250 loci for body mass index (BMI), implicating pathways related to neuronal biology. Most GWAS loci represent clusters of common, noncoding variants from which pinpointing causal genes remains challenging. Here we combined data from 718,734

  19. Electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements of mindfulness-based Triarchic body-pathway relaxation technique: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes S; Han, Yvonne M Y; Cheung, Mei-Chun

    2008-03-01

    The "Triarchic body-pathway relaxation technique" (TBRT) is a form of ancient Chinese mindfulness-based meditation professed to give rise to positive emotions and a specific state of consciousness in which deep relaxation and internalized attention coexist. The purpose of this study was to examine the EEG pattern generated during the practice of this mindfulness exercise, and compare it to music listening which has been shown to induce positive emotions. Nineteen college students (aged 19-22 years) participated in the study. Each participant listened to both the TBRT and music audiotapes while EEG was recorded. The order of presentation was counterbalanced to avoid order effect. Two EEG indicators were used: (1) alpha asymmetry index, an indicator for left-sided anterior activation, as measure of positive emotions, and (2) frontal midline theta activity, as a measure for internalized attention. Increased left-sided activation, a pattern associated with positive emotions, was found during both TBRT exercise and music conditions. However, only TBRT exercise was shown to exhibit greater frontal midline theta power, a pattern associated with internalized attention. These results provided evidence to support that the TBRT gives rise to positive emotional experience, accompanied by focused internalized attention.

  20. 3-Bromopyruvate and sodium citrate induce apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 by inhibiting glycolysis and promoting mitochondria-regulated apoptosis pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xingyu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Tingan; Xian, Shulin; Lu, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells are mainly dependent on glycolysis to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and intermediates required for cell growth and proliferation. Thus, inhibition of glycolysis might be of therapeutic value in antitumor treatment. Our previously studies had found that both 3-bromopyruvate (BP) and sodium citrate (SCT) can inhibit tumor growth and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism involved in the BP and SCT mediated antitumor activity is not entirely clear. In this work, it is demonstrated that BP inhibits the enzyme hexokinase (HK) activity and SCT suppresses the phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity respectively, both the two agents decrease viability, ATP generation and lactate content in the human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803. These effects are directly correlated with blockage of glycolysis. Furthermore, BP and SCT can induce the characteristic manifestations of mitochondria-regulated apoptosis, such as down-regulation of anti-apoptosis proteins Bcl-2 and Survivin, up-regulation of pro-apoptosis protein Bax, activation of caspase-3, as well as leakage of cytochrome c (Cyt-c). In summary, our results provided evidences that BP and SCT inhibit the MGC-803 cells growth and proliferation might be correlated with inhibiting glycolysis and promoting mitochondria-regulated apoptosis. -- Highlights: •Blockage of glycolysis might be a novel way to anticancer. •Both 3-bromopyruvate and sodium citrate could inhibit glycolysis and regulate mitochondrial pathway in cancer cells. •Both 3-bromopyruvate and sodium citrate would be the novel agents on treatment of gastric cancer.

  1. 3-Bromopyruvate and sodium citrate induce apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 by inhibiting glycolysis and promoting mitochondria-regulated apoptosis pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xingyu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Tingan, E-mail: moonsonlife@yahoo.com; Xian, Shulin; Lu, Yunfei, E-mail: doctorlife@126.com

    2016-06-17

    Cancer cells are mainly dependent on glycolysis to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and intermediates required for cell growth and proliferation. Thus, inhibition of glycolysis might be of therapeutic value in antitumor treatment. Our previously studies had found that both 3-bromopyruvate (BP) and sodium citrate (SCT) can inhibit tumor growth and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism involved in the BP and SCT mediated antitumor activity is not entirely clear. In this work, it is demonstrated that BP inhibits the enzyme hexokinase (HK) activity and SCT suppresses the phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity respectively, both the two agents decrease viability, ATP generation and lactate content in the human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803. These effects are directly correlated with blockage of glycolysis. Furthermore, BP and SCT can induce the characteristic manifestations of mitochondria-regulated apoptosis, such as down-regulation of anti-apoptosis proteins Bcl-2 and Survivin, up-regulation of pro-apoptosis protein Bax, activation of caspase-3, as well as leakage of cytochrome c (Cyt-c). In summary, our results provided evidences that BP and SCT inhibit the MGC-803 cells growth and proliferation might be correlated with inhibiting glycolysis and promoting mitochondria-regulated apoptosis. -- Highlights: •Blockage of glycolysis might be a novel way to anticancer. •Both 3-bromopyruvate and sodium citrate could inhibit glycolysis and regulate mitochondrial pathway in cancer cells. •Both 3-bromopyruvate and sodium citrate would be the novel agents on treatment of gastric cancer.

  2. Evidence for a Saponin Biosynthesis Pathway in the Body Wall of the Commercially Significant Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida Akter Mitu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The sea cucumber (phylum Echinodermata body wall is the first line of defense and is well known for its production of secondary metabolites; including vitamins and triterpenoid glycoside saponins that have important ecological functions and potential benefits to human health. The genes involved in the various biosynthetic pathways are unknown. To gain insight into these pathways in an echinoderm, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis and functional annotation of the body wall and the radial nerve of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra; to define genes associated with body wall metabolic functioning and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. We show that genes related to signal transduction mechanisms were more highly represented in the H. scabra body wall, including genes encoding enzymes involved in energy production. Eight of the core triterpenoid biosynthesis enzymes were found, however, the identity of the saponin specific biosynthetic pathway enzymes remains unknown. We confirm the body wall release of at least three different triterpenoid saponins using solid phase extraction followed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry. The resource we have established will help to guide future research to explore secondary metabolite biosynthesis in the sea cucumber.

  3. Dietary sodium content, mortality, and risk for cardiovascular events in older adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki V; Murphy, Rachel A; Newman, Anne B; Bauer, Douglas C; Harris, Tamara B; Yang, Zhou; Applegate, William B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2015-03-01

    Additional information is needed about the role of dietary sodium on health outcomes in older adults. To examine the association between dietary sodium intake and mortality, incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), and incident heart failure (HF) in older adults. We analyzed 10-year follow-up data from 2642 older adults (age range, 71-80 years) participating in a community-based, prospective cohort study (inception between April 1, 1997, and July 31, 1998). Dietary sodium intake at baseline was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. We examined sodium intake as a continuous variable and as a categorical variable at the following levels: less than 1500 mg/d (291 participants [11.0%]), 1500 to 2300 mg/d (779 participants [29.5%]), and greater than 2300 mg/d (1572 participants [59.5%]). Adjudicated death, incident CVD, and incident HF during 10 follow-up years. Analysis of incident CVD was restricted to 1981 participants without prevalent CVD at baseline. The mean (SD) age of participants was 73.6 (2.9) years, 51.2% were female, 61.7% were of white race, and 38.3% were black. After 10 years, 881 participants had died, 572 had developed CVD, and 398 had developed HF. In adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models, sodium intake was not associated with mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 g, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.98-1.09; P = .27). Ten-year mortality was nonsignificantly lower in the group receiving 1500 to 2300 mg/d (30.7%) than in the group receiving less than 1500 mg/d (33.8%) and the group receiving greater than 2300 mg/d (35.2%) (P = .07). Sodium intake of greater than 2300 mg/d was associated with nonsignificantly higher mortality in adjusted models (HR vs 1500-2300 mg/d, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.99-1.35; P = .07). Indexing sodium intake for caloric intake and body mass index did not materially affect the results. Adjusted HRs for mortality were 1.20 (95% CI, 0.93-1.54; P = .16) per milligram per kilocalorie and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.96-1.28; P = .17) per

  4. Application of the Aqueous Porous Pathway Model to Quantify the Effect of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate on Ultrasound-Induced Skin Structural Perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Baris E.; Seto, Jennifer E.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on skin structural perturbation when utilized simultaneously with low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS). Pig full-thickness skin (FTS) and pig split-thickness skin (STS) treated with LFS/SLS and LFS were analyzed in the context of the aqueous porous pathway model to quantify skin perturbation through changes in skin pore radius and porosity-to-tortuosity ratio (ε/τ). In addition, skin treatment times required to attain specific levels of skin electrical resistivity were analyzed to draw conclusions about the effect of SLS on reproducibility and predictability of skin perturbation. We found that LFS/SLS-treated FTS, LFS/SLS-treated STS, and LFS-treated FTS exhibited similar skin perturbation. However, LFS-treated STS exhibited significantly higher skin perturbation, suggesting greater structural changes to the less robust STS induced by the purely physical enhancement mechanism of LFS. Evaluation of ε/τ values revealed that LFS/SLS-treated FTS and STS have similar transport pathways, while LFS-treated FTS and STS have lower ε/τ values. In addition, LFS/SLS treatment times were much shorter than LFS treatment times for both FTS and STS. Moreover, the simultaneous use of SLS and LFS not only results in synergistic enhancement, as reflected in the shorter skin treatment times, but also in more predictable and reproducible skin perturbation. PMID:20963845

  5. Pretreatment with propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate ameliorated concanavalin A-induced liver injury by regulating the PI3K/Akt pathway in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shizan; Wu, Liwei; Zhang, Qinghui; Feng, Jiao; Li, Sainan; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Tong; Mo, Wenhui; Wang, Wenwen; Lu, Xiya; Yu, Qiang; Chen, Kan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Xu, Ling; Zhou, Yingqun; Fan, Xiaoming; Guo, Chuanyong

    2017-09-15

    Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), a sulfated polysaccharide possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the effect of PSS on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced liver injury in mice and examined the underlying mechanisms. Balb/C mice were injected intravenously with Con A (25mg/kg) to generate a model of acute liver injury. PSS (25 or 50mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 1h before the Con A administration. The levels of serum liver enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, and other marker proteins were determined, and liver injury was assessed histopathologically 2, 8, and 24h after Con A injection. Pretreatment with PSS reduced the levels of serum liver enzymes, inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, and attenuated histopathological damage in Con A-induced liver injury in mice. The effects of Con A were mediated by apoptosis and autophagy, as indicated by changes in protein and gene expression of related factors after Con A injection. PSS activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway and showed a protective function against apoptosis and autophagy. PSS ameliorated Con A-induced liver injury by downregulating inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-1β and regulating apoptosis and autophagy via the PI3K/Akt pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of the aqueous porous pathway model to quantify the effect of sodium lauryl sulfate on ultrasound-induced skin structural perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Baris E; Seto, Jennifer E; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on skin structural perturbation when utilized simultaneously with low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS). Pig full-thickness skin (FTS) and pig split-thickness skin (STS) treated with LFS/SLS and LFS were analyzed in the context of the aqueous porous pathway model to quantify skin perturbation through changes in skin pore radius and porosity-to-tortuosity ratio (ε/τ). In addition, skin treatment times required to attain specific levels of skin electrical resistivity were analyzed to draw conclusions about the effect of SLS on reproducibility and predictability of skin perturbation. We found that LFS/SLS-treated FTS, LFS/SLS-treated STS, and LFS-treated FTS exhibited similar skin perturbation. However, LFS-treated STS exhibited significantly higher skin perturbation, suggesting greater structural changes to the less robust STS induced by the purely physical enhancement mechanism of LFS. Evaluation of ε/τ values revealed that LFS/SLS-treated FTS and STS have similar transport pathways, whereas LFS-treated FTS and STS have lower ε/τ values. In addition, LFS/SLS treatment times were much shorter than LFS treatment times for both FTS and STS. Moreover, the simultaneous use of SLS and LFS not only results in synergistic enhancement, as reflected in the shorter skin treatment times, but also in more predictable and reproducible skin perturbation. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Sodium Nitrate Induces Reactive Oxygen Species That Lower the Antioxidant Power, Damage the Membrane, and Alter Pathways of Glucose Metabolism in Human Erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Fariheen Aisha; Mahmood, Riaz

    2015-12-09

    Nitrate salts are widely used as food additives and nitrogenous fertilizers and are present as contaminants in drinking water supplies. The effect of different concentrations (1-15 mM) of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) on human erythrocytes was studied under in vitro conditions. Treatment of erythrocytes with NaNO3 resulted in increases in methemoglobin levels, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation and a decrease in glutathione content. There were changes in the activities of all major antioxidant defense enzymes, and the pathways of glucose metabolism were also affected. Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) took place while the antioxidant power was impaired. The osmotic fragility of cells was increased, and membrane-bound enzymes were greatly inhibited. All changes were statistically significant at a probability level of P < 0.05 at all concentrations of NaNO3 except the lowest (1 mM). Thus, NaNO3 generates ROS that cause significant damage to human erythrocytes and interfere in normal cellular pathways.

  8. Impact of sodium on the secondary phases and current pathway in Cu2(Zn,Sn)Se4 thin film solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yi-Cheng; Lai, Chien-Mu; Hsu, Hung-Ru

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of Na content on secondary phases and current pathway in Cu 2 (Zn,Sn)Se 4 (CZTSe) thin film solar cells with the following structure: Ti/Mo:Na/Mo/CZTSe/CdS/i-ZnO/ZnO:Al/Al. The application of Na-doped Mo target as a source of sodium. Experimental results demonstrate that increasing the Na content leads to an increase in the quantity of secondary phase SnSe 2 on the surface of the absorber layer; however, it did not appear to affect the secondary phases of Cu 2 SnSe 3 (CTSe) or ZnSe. Excessive quantities of Na were shown to have an adverse effect on device efficiency. Our results using conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) revealed that an increase in the quantity of secondary phase SnSe 2 can shift the current pathway on the surface of CZTSe from CZTSe grain boundaries (GBs) to the SnSe 2 grains. The role of secondary phase SnSe 2 of the CZTSe acted as a channel for the current flow, which results in high leakage current and low device efficiency. - Highlights: • Increasing the Na content leads to an increase in the quantity of secondary phase SnSe 2 . • An increase of secondary phase SnSe 2 can shift the current pathway from CZTSe grain boundaries to the SnSe 2 grains. • The secondary phase SnSe 2 acted as a channel for the current flow, which results in high leakage current.

  9. Impact of sodium on the secondary phases and current pathway in Cu{sub 2}(Zn,Sn)Se{sub 4} thin film solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yi-Cheng, E-mail: ielinyc@cc.ncue.edu.tw [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan (China); Lai, Chien-Mu [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Hung-Ru [Green Energy & Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of Na content on secondary phases and current pathway in Cu{sub 2}(Zn,Sn)Se{sub 4} (CZTSe) thin film solar cells with the following structure: Ti/Mo:Na/Mo/CZTSe/CdS/i-ZnO/ZnO:Al/Al. The application of Na-doped Mo target as a source of sodium. Experimental results demonstrate that increasing the Na content leads to an increase in the quantity of secondary phase SnSe{sub 2} on the surface of the absorber layer; however, it did not appear to affect the secondary phases of Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} (CTSe) or ZnSe. Excessive quantities of Na were shown to have an adverse effect on device efficiency. Our results using conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) revealed that an increase in the quantity of secondary phase SnSe{sub 2} can shift the current pathway on the surface of CZTSe from CZTSe grain boundaries (GBs) to the SnSe{sub 2} grains. The role of secondary phase SnSe{sub 2} of the CZTSe acted as a channel for the current flow, which results in high leakage current and low device efficiency. - Highlights: • Increasing the Na content leads to an increase in the quantity of secondary phase SnSe{sub 2}. • An increase of secondary phase SnSe{sub 2} can shift the current pathway from CZTSe grain boundaries to the SnSe{sub 2} grains. • The secondary phase SnSe{sub 2} acted as a channel for the current flow, which results in high leakage current.

  10. The role of Tec kinase signaling pathways in the development of Mallory Denk Bodies in balloon cells in alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifiyan, N; Tillman, B; French, B A; Sweeny, O; Masouminia, M; Samadzadeh, S; French, S W

    2017-10-01

    Several research strategies have been used to study the pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis (AH). These strategies have shown that various signaling pathways are the target of alcohol in liver cells. However, few have provided specific mechanisms associated with Mallory-Denk Bodies (MDBs) formed in Balloon cells in AH. The formation of MDBs in these hepatocytes is an indication that the mechanisms of protein quality control have failed. The MDB is the result of aggregation and accumulation of proteins in the cytoplasm of balloon degenerated liver cells. To understand the mechanisms that failed to degrade and remove proteins in the hepatocyte from patients suffering from alcoholic hepatitis, we investigated the pathways that showed significant up regulation in the AH liver biopsies compared to normal control livers (Liu et al., 2015). Analysis of genomic profiles of AH liver biopsies and control livers by RNA-seq revealed different pathways that were up regulated significantly. In this study, the focus was on Tec kinase signaling pathways and the genes that significantly interrupt this pathway. Quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence staining results, indicated that several genes and proteins are significantly over expressed in the livers of AH patients that affect the Tec kinase signaling to PI3K which leads to activation of Akt and its downstream effectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tumor necrosis factor α modulates sodium-activated potassium channel SLICK in rat dorsal horn neurons via p38 MAPK activation pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang K

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Kun Wang,1 Feng Wang,1 Jun-Ping Bao,2 Zhi-Yang Xie,1 Lu Chen,1 Bao-Yi Zhou,1 Xin-Hui Xie,2 Xiao-Tao Wu1,2 1Medical School of Southeast University, 2Department of Orthopaedics, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The dorsal horn (DH of the spinal cord is the integrative center that processes and transmits pain sensation. Abnormal changes in ion channel expression can enhance the excitability of pain-related DH neurons. Sodium-activated potassium (KNa channels are highly expressed particularly in the central nervous system; however, information about whether rat DH neurons express the SLICK channel protein is lacking, and the direct effects on SLICK in response to inflammation and the potential signaling pathway mediating such effects are yet to be elucidated. Here, using cultured DH neurons, we have shown that tumor necrosis factor-α inhibits the total outward potassium current IK and the KNa current predominantly as well as induces a progressive loss of firing accommodation. However, we found that this change in channel activity is offset by the p38 inhibitor SB202190, thereby suggesting the modulation of SLICK channel activity via the p38 MAPK pathway. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the tumor necrosis factor-α modulation of KNa channels does not occur at the level of SLICK channel gating but arises from possible posttranslational modification. Keywords: p38 MAPK, SLICK channel, neuropathic pain, dorsal horn, TNF-α

  12. Sodium-23 MRI of whole spine at 3 Tesla using a 5-channel receive-only phased-array and a whole-body transmit resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malzacher, Matthias; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Konstandin, Simon; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Haneder, Stefan [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; University Hospital of Cologne, Koeln (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-05-01

    Sodium magnetic resonance imaging ({sup 23}Na MRI) is a unique and non-invasive imaging technique which provides important information on cellular level about the tissue of the human body. Several applications for {sup 23}Na MRI were investigated with regard to the examination of the tissue viability and functionality for example in the brain, the heart or the breast. The {sup 23}Na MRI technique can also be integrated as a potential monitoring instrument after radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The main contribution in this work was the adaptation of {sup 23}Na MRI for spine imaging, which can provide essential information on the integrity of the intervertebral disks with respect to the early detection of disk degeneration. In this work, a transmit-only receive-only dual resonator system was designed and developed to cover the whole human spine using {sup 23}Na MRI and increase the receive sensitivity. The resonator system consisted of an already presented {sup 23}Na whole-body resonator and a newly developed 5-channel receive-only phased-array. The resonator system was first validated using bench top and phantom measurements. A threefold SNR improvement at the depth of the spine (∝7 cm) over the whole-body resonator was achieved using the spine array. {sup 23}Na MR measurements of the human spine using the transmit-only receive-only resonator system were performed on a healthy volunteer within an acquisition time of 10 minutes. A density adapted 3D radial sequence was chosen with 6 mm isotropic resolution, 49 ms repetition time and a short echo time of 540 μs. Furthermore, it was possible to quantify the tissue sodium concentration in the intervertebral discs in the lumbar region (120 ms repetition time) using this setup.

  13. The Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor, Empagliflozin, Protects against Diabetic Cardiomyopathy by Inhibition of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study aimed to determine whether or not the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, empagliflozin (EMPA, can protect against diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM and to elucidate the related mechanism. Methods: Rats were divided into the following four groups: a non-diabetic group; diabetic cardiomyopathy rats without EMPA treatment; and diabetic cardiomyopathy rats with EMPA treatment (low- and high-dose EMPA. Hemodynamic measurements were performed to evaluate left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. The histopathology of the heart was examined with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Expression of glucose-regulated protein (GRP78, enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP, and caspase-12 was detected by Western blot, and the mRNA levels of XBP1, ATF4, and TRAF2 were analysed by real-time PCR. Results: EMPA significantly decreased the blood glucose level when compared with vehicle. EMPA strongly improved cardiac function based on hemodynamic and histopathologic analyses. Moreover, EMPA can significantly down-regulate the expression of GRP78, CHOP, and caspase-12 (P < 0.01. Additionally, the mRNA levels of XBP1, ATF4, and TRAF2 were markedly decreased by administration of EMPA (P < 0.01. Conclusion: EMPA protects against DCM by inactivating the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.

  14. Sodium Tanshinone IIA Sulfonate Ameliorates Bladder Fibrosis in a Rat Model of Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction by Inhibiting the TGF-β/Smad Pathway Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Jiang

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 is known to play a pivotal role in a diverse range of biological systems including modulation of fibrosis in several organs. The precise role of TGF-β/Smad signaling in the progression of bladder fibrosis secondary to partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO is yet to be conclusively. Using a rat PBOO model, we investigated TGF-β1 expression and exaimined whether sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS could inhibit TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway activation and ameliorate bladder fibrosis. Forty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham operation group (n = 16, PBOO operation without STS treatment group (n = 16 and PBOO operation with STS treatment group (n = 16. Thirty-two rats underwent the operative procedure to create PBOO and subsequently received intraperitoneal injections of STS (10 mg/kg/d; n = 16 or vehicle (n = 16 two days after the surgery. Sham surgery was conducted on 16 rats, which received intraperitoneal vehicle injection two days later. In each of the three groups, an equal number of rats were sacrificed at weeks 4 and 8 after the PBOO or sham operation. The TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway was analyzed using western blotting, immunohistochemical staining and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. One-way analysis of variance was conducted to draw statistical inferences. At 4 and 8 weeks, the expression of TGF-β1 and phosphorylated Smad2 and Smad3 in STS-treated PBOO rats was significantly lower than in the PBOO rats not treated with STS. Alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, collagen I and collagen III expression at 4 and 8 weeks post PBOO was lower in STS-treated PBOO rats when compared to that in PBOO rats not treated with STS. Our findings indicate that STS ameliorates bladder fibrosis by inhibiting TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway activation, and may prove to be a potential therapeutic measure for preventing bladder fibrosis secondary to PBOO

  15. Effects of rapid or slow body weight reduction on intramuscular protein degradation pathways during equivalent weight loss on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Y; Urashima, S; Inai, M; Nishimura, S; Higashida, K; Terada, S

    2017-11-24

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of short-term fasting-induced rapid weight loss with those of slower but equivalent body weight loss induced by daily calorie restriction on muscle protein degradation pathways and muscle protein content. Male Fischer rats were subjected to either 30 % calorie restriction for 2 weeks to slowly decrease body weight (Slow) or 3-day fasting to rapidly decrease body weight by a comparable level of that of the Slow group (Rapid). The final body weights were about 15 % lower in both the Slow and Rapid groups than in the Con group (pweight of fast-twitch plantaris muscle, but not slow-twitch soleus muscle, were significantly lower in the Rapid group compared with the control rats fed ad libitum. Substantial increases in the expression ratio of autophagosomal membrane proteins (LC3-II/-I ratio) and polyubiquitinated protein concentration, used as biomarkers of autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome activities, respectively, were observed in the plantaris muscle of the Rapid group. Moreover, the LC3-II/-I ratio and polyubiquitinated protein concentration were negatively correlated with the total protein content and wet weight of plantaris muscle. These results suggest that short-term fasting-induced rapid body weight loss activates autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome systems more strongly than calorie restriction-induced slower weight reduction, resulting in muscular atrophy in fast-twitch muscle.

  16. Hydrogen sulfide prevents hydrogen peroxide-induced activation of epithelial sodium channel through a PTEN/PI(3,4,5P3 dependent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Zhang

    Full Text Available Sodium reabsorption through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC at the distal segment of the kidney plays an important role in salt-sensitive hypertension. We reported previously that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 stimulates ENaC in A6 distal nephron cells via elevation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5P3 in the apical membrane. Here we report that H2S can antagonize H2O2-induced activation of ENaC in A6 cells. Our cell-attached patch-clamp data show that ENaC open probability (PO was significantly increased by exogenous H2O2, which is consistent with our previous finding. The aberrant activation of ENaC induced by exogenous H2O2 was completely abolished by H2S (0.1 mM NaHS. Pre-treatment of A6 cells with H2S slightly decreased ENaC P(O; however, in these cells H2O2 failed to elevate ENaC PO . Confocal microscopy data show that application of exogenous H2O2 to A6 cells significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS level and induced accumulation of PI(3,4,5P3 in the apical compartment of the cell membrane. These effects of exogenous H2O2 on intracellular ROS levels and on apical PI(3,4,5P3 levels were almost completely abolished by treatment of A6 cells with H2S. In addition, H2S significantly inhibited H2O2-induced oxidative inactivation of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN which is a negative regulator of PI(3,4,5P3. Moreover, BPV(pic, a specific inhibitor of PTEN, elevated PI(3,4,5P3 and ENaC activity in a manner similar to that of H2O2 in A6 cells. Our data show, for the first time, that H2S prevents H2O2-induced activation of ENaC through a PTEN-PI(3,4,5P3 dependent pathway.

  17. The effect of body dissatisfaction on eating disorder symptomatology : mediating effects of depression and low self-esteem : a partial test of the Dual-Pathway Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jonstang, Ida Cecilie

    2009-01-01

    Aim. The present study is based on the dual-pathway model (Stice, 2001), specifically testing the negative affect pathway of this model. This study examined whether depression and low self-esteem separately mediate the relationship between body dissatisfaction and general eating disorder symptomatology, focusing primarily on restraint eating and bulimic symptoms. Method. A sample of 113 junior high-school boys and girls completed measures of body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, depression,...

  18. Dietary salt modulates the sodium chloride cotransporter expression likely through an aldosterone-mediated WNK4-ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lingyun; Feng, Xiuyan; Liu, Defeng; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Yiqian; Niu, Bowen; Gu, Yong; Cai, Hui

    2012-03-01

    WNK is a serine/threonine kinase. Mutation in WNK1 or WNK4 kinase results in pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHA II) featuring hypertension, hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis. Sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) is known to be regulated by phosphorylation and trafficking. Dietary salt and hormonal stimulation, such as aldosterone, also affect the regulation of NCC. We have previously reported that WNK4 inhibits NCC protein expression. To determine whether dietary salt affects NCC abundance through WNK4-mediated mechanism, we investigated the effects of dietary salt change with or without aldosterone infusion (1 mg/kg/day) on NCC and WNK4 expression in rats. We found that high-salt (HS, 4% NaCl) diet significantly inhibits NCC mRNA expression and protein abundance while enhancing WNK4 mRNA and protein expression, whereas low-salt (LS, 0.07% NaCl) diet increases NCC mRNA expression and protein abundance while reducing WNK4 expression. We also found that aldosterone infusion in HS-fed rats increases NCC mRNA expression and protein abundance, but decreases WNK4 expression. Administration with spironolactone (0.1 g/kg/day) in LS-fed rats decreases NCC mRNA expression and protein abundance while increasing WNK4 expression. We further showed that ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased in HS-fed rats, but decreased in LS-fed rats. In HEK293 cells, over-expressed WNK4 increases ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas knockdown of WNK4 expression decreases ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Aldosterone treatment for 3 h decreases ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These data suggest that dietary salt change affects NCC protein abundance in an aldosterone-dependent mechanism likely via the WNK4-ERK1/2-mediated pathway.

  19. Hepatoprotective Role of Hydrangea macrophylla against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Mitochondrial-Dependent Oxidative Stress via the Inhibition of MAPK/Caspase-3 Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rashedunnabi Akanda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 has been recognized as a worldwide health concern. Hydrangea macrophylla (HM is used as traditional Chinese medicine possessing antioxidant activities. The study was performed to investigate the therapeutic role and underlying molecular mechanism of HM on NaAsO2-induced toxicity in human liver cancer (HepG2 cells and liver in mice. The hepatoprotective role of HM in HepG2 cells was assessed by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assays. Histopathology, lipid peroxidation, serum biochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR and Western blot analyses were performed to determine the protective role of HM against NaAsO2 intoxication in liver tissue. In this study, we found that co-treatment with HM significantly attenuated the NaAsO2-induced cell viability loss, intracellular ROS, and LDH release in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Hepatic histopathology, lipid peroxidation, and the serum biochemical parameters alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were notably improved by HM. HM effectively downregulated the both gene and protein expression level of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascade. Moreover, HM well-regulated the Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax/B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2 ratio, remarkably suppressed the release of cytochrome c, and blocked the expression of the post-apoptotic transcription factor caspase-3. Therefore, our study provides new insights into the hepatoprotective role of HM through its reduction in apoptosis, which likely involves in the modulation of MAPK/caspase-3 signaling pathways.

  20. Role of spared pathways in locomotor recovery after body-weight-supported treadmill training in contused rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anita; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Murray, Marion; Lemay, Michel; Houle, John

    2011-12-01

    Body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT)-related locomotor recovery has been shown in spinalized animals. Only a few animal studies have demonstrated locomotor recovery after BWSTT in an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) model, such as contusion injury. The contribution of spared descending pathways after BWSTT to behavioral recovery is unclear. Our goal was to evaluate locomotor recovery in contused rats after BWSTT, and to study the role of spared pathways in spinal plasticity after BWSTT. Forty-eight rats received a contusion, a transection, or a contusion followed at 9 weeks by a second transection injury. Half of the animals in the three injury groups were given BWSTT for up to 8 weeks. Kinematics and the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) test assessed behavioral improvements. Changes in Hoffmann-reflex (H-reflex) rate depression property, soleus muscle mass, and sprouting of primary afferent fibers were also evaluated. BWSTT-contused animals showed accelerated locomotor recovery, improved H-reflex properties, reduced muscle atrophy, and decreased sprouting of small caliber afferent fibers. BBB scores were not improved by BWSTT. Untrained contused rats that received a transection exhibited a decrease in kinematic parameters immediately after the transection; in contrast, trained contused rats did not show an immediate decrease in kinematic parameters after transection. This suggests that BWSTT with spared descending pathways leads to neuroplasticity at the lumbar spinal level that is capable of maintaining locomotor activity. Discontinuing training after the transection in the trained contused rats abolished the improved kinematics within 2 weeks and led to a reversal of the improved H-reflex response, increased muscle atrophy, and an increase in primary afferent fiber sprouting. Thus continued training may be required for maintenance of the recovery. Transected animals had no effect of BWSTT, indicating that in the absence of spared pathways this

  1. Duration of U.S. stay and body mass index among Latino and Asian immigrants: A test of theoretical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Annie; Bostean, Georgiana

    2015-11-01

    Studies find that longer-term immigrants have higher body mass index (BMI) than their more recently arrived counterparts. Most interpretations of these health patterns by duration of U.S. residence rely on theories of immigrant integration; they posit that with increasing time in the United States, immigrants incorporate economically, socially, and culturally into aspects of U.S. society, and that these changes impact health. Few studies empirically examine whether these aspects of integration are indeed mediators of the association between duration of U.S. stay and BMI, and if their patterns differ across immigrant subgroups. This study examines data from the National Latino and Asian American Survey, using path analytic methods to simultaneously test six hypothesized mediators between duration and BMI: household income, English language ability, ethnic identity, family cohesion, acculturative stress and discrimination for both Latino and Asian immigrants, stratified by gender. We find little evidence for an association between duration and BMI for either Latino or Asian men. For women, duration and BMI have a significant and positive relationship, although the pathways differ between the two ethnic groups. For Latina women, household income and acculturative stress are significant indirect pathways, although they work in opposing directions. For Asian women, English proficiency and discrimination are significant indirect pathways. Our findings reveal complex pathways between duration and BMI that vary by ethnicity and gender and highlight limitations in the negative acculturation theory, which suggests that exposure to the United States should have a net negative impact on health. In contrast, our findings suggest that not all groups show declining health with longer duration, as measured by BMI, and that integration processes do not always translate into health differences in the expected directions. Future research on duration patterns may need to consider

  2. Relaxation of rabbit corpus cavernosum by selective activators of voltage-gated sodium channels: role of nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes de Oliveira, Juliano; Teixeira, Cleber E; Arantes, Eliane C; de Nucci, Gilberto; Antunes, Edson

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the capacity of voltage-gated Na(+) channel activators such as batrachotoxin, aconitine, veratridine, Ts1 (formerly Tityus gamma-toxin), and brevetoxin-3 to induce relaxation of rabbit isolated corpus cavernosum (RbCC) and the pharmacologic mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. The voltage-gated Na(+) channels of the corpus cavernosum are essential for erectile function. A number of biologic toxins exert their effects by modifying the properties of these channels. Male New Zealand white rabbits were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. Strips of RbCC were transferred to 10-mL organ baths containing oxygenated and warmed Krebs solution. The RbCC strips were connected to force-displacement transducers, and changes in isometric force were recorded using a PowerLab 400 data acquisition system. Corporeal smooth muscle was precontracted submaximally with phenylephrine (10 micromol/L). The binding site-2 (batrachotoxin, aconitine, and veratridine) and binding site-5 (brevetoxin-3) voltage-gated Na(+) channel activators caused slow-onset RbCC relaxations, and the binding site-4 activator Ts1 produced transitory relaxations followed by a return to baseline. The Na(+)channel blockers tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin (0.1 micromol/L each) abolished the relaxations induced by these agonists. Similarly, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (100 micromol/L) markedly reduced the relaxations and l-arginine (1 mmol/L) restored the relaxations. The soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxidiazolo[4,3-alpha] quinoxalin-1-one (10 micromol/L) reduced the relaxations, and the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor sildenafil (100 nmol/L) significantly potentiated the relaxations by all activators. Our results indicate that the relaxations evoked by selective activators of voltage-gated Na(+) channels are mediated by the release of nitric oxide from nitrergic nerves and the activation of the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine

  3. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium oxybate is used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and ... urge to sleep during daily activities, and cataplexy). Sodium oxybate is in a class of medications called ...

  4. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  5. Zanthoxylum bungeanum pericarp extract prevents dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in mice via the regulation of TLR4 and TLR4-related signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zecai; Liu, Jiuxi; Shen, Peng; Cao, Yongguo; Lu, Xiaojie; Gao, Xuejiao; Fu, Yunhe; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2016-12-01

    Zanthoxylum bungeanum, which belongs to the Zanthoxylum genus of the Rutaceae family, is now wildly distributed in most parts of China and some Southeast Asian countries. The pericarp of Zanthoxylum bungeanum has been known to exhibit antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and other important therapeutic activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of Zanthoxylum bungeanum pericarp extract (ZBE) on DSS-induced experimental colitis in mice. The results demonstrated that the major flavonoid composition of ZBE includes rutin (32.36%), quercetin (13.61%) and isoquercitrin (24.89%). ZBE alleviated DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and colonic pathological damage. Furthermore, ZBE inhibited the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-12 via the regulation of TLR4 and TLR4-related pathways in DSS-induced experimental colitis in mice and LPS-triggered inflammation in J774.1 cells. Our findings suggest that ZBE is effective in ameliorating experimental colitis, and further investigation is necessary on the use of ZBE as a new dietary strategy to lower the risk of ulcerative colitis (UC). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Body

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The human body is both the physical form inhabited by an individual “self” and the medium through which an individual engages with society. Hence the body both shapes and is shaped by an individual’s social roles. In contrast to the cognate fields of archaeology, anthropology, and classics, there has been little explicit discussion or theorization of the body in Egyptology. Some recent works, discussed here, constitute an exception to this trend, but there is much more scope for exploring anc...

  7. MASM, a Matrine Derivative, Offers Radioprotection by Modulating Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Multiple Signaling Pathways in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Matrine is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora flavescens Ait and has many biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-fibrosis, and immunosuppressive properties. In our previous studies, the matrine derivative MASM was synthesized and exhibited potent inhibitory activity against liver fibrosis. In this study, we mainly investigated its protection against lethal total-body irradiation (TBI in rats. Administration of MASM reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of rats before or after lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that pretreatment of rats with MASM significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed that pretreatment with MASM had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by TBI. Pretreatment with MASM prevented differential expression of 53% (765 genes of 1445 differentially expressed genes induced by TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 21 pathways, such as metabolic pathways, pathways in cancer, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. Our data indicated that pretreatment of rats with MASM modulated these pathways induced by TBI, suggesting that the pretreatment with MASM might provide the protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways, such as multiple MAPK pathways. Therefore, MASM has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radioprotective agent to minimize irradiation damages and in combination with radiotherapy to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy.

  8. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  9. Transport Pathways and Enhancement Mechanisms within Localized and Non-Localized Transport Regions in Skin Treated with Low-Frequency Sonophoresis and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Polat, Baris E.; Figueroa, Pedro L.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery utilizing low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) have revealed that skin permeability enhancement is not homogenous across the skin surface. Instead, highly perturbed skin regions, known as localized transport regions (LTRs), exist. Despite these findings, little research has been conducted to identify intrinsic properties and formation mechanisms of LTRs and the surrounding less-perturbed non-LTRs. By independently analyz...

  10. The impact of human development on individual health: a causal mediation analysis examining pathways through education and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aolin Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The macro environment we live in projects what we can achieve and how we behave, and in turn, shapes our health in complex ways. Policymaking will benefit from insights into the mechanisms underlying how national socioeconomic context affects health. This study examined the impact of human development on individual health and the possible mediating roles of education and body mass index (BMI. Methods We analyzed World Health Survey data on 109,448 participants aged 25 or older from 42 low- and middle-income countries with augmented human development index (HDI in 1990. We used principal components method to create a health score based on measures from eight health state domains, used years of schooling as education indicator and calculated BMI from self-reported height and weight. We used causal mediation analysis technique with random intercepts to account for the multilevel structure. Results Below a reference HDI level of 0.48, HDI was negatively associated with good health (total effect at HDI of 0.23: b =  − 3.44, 95% CI [−6.39–−0.49] for males and b =  − 5.16, 95% CI [−9.24,–−1.08] for females but was positively associated with good health above this reference level (total effect at HDI of 0.75: b = 4.16, 95% CI [−0.33–8.66] for males and b = 6.62, 95% CI [0.85–12.38] for females. We found a small positive effect of HDI on health via education across reference HDI levels (b ranging from 0.24 to 0.29 for males and 0.40 to 0.49 for females but not via pathways involving BMI only. Conclusion Human development has a non-linear effect on individual health, but the impact appears to be mainly through pathways other than education and BMI.

  11. Pathways analysis of differential gene expression induced by engrafting doses of total body irradiation for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinjian; Wang, Yuanyuan; Li, Qiuxia; Tsai, Schickwann; Thomas, Alun; Shizuru, Judith A; Cao, Thai M

    2013-08-01

    A major challenge in allogeneic bone marrow (BM) transplantation is overcoming engraftment resistance to avoid the clinical problem of graft rejection. Identifying gene pathways that regulate BM engraftment may reveal molecular targets for overcoming engraftment barriers. Previously, we developed a mouse model of BM transplantation that utilizes recipient conditioning with non-myeloablative total body irradiation (TBI). We defined TBI doses that lead to graft rejection, that conversely are permissive for engraftment, and mouse strain variation with regards to the permissive TBI dose. We now report gene expression analysis, using Agilent Mouse 8x60K microarrays, in spleens of mice conditioned with varied TBI doses for correlation to the expected engraftment phenotype. The spleens of mice given engrafting doses of TBI, compared with non-engrafting TBI doses, demonstrated substantially broader gene expression changes, significant at the multiple testing-corrected P change ≥2. Functional analysis revealed significant enrichment for a down-regulated canonical pathway involving B-cell development. Genes enriched in this pathway suggest that suppressing donor antigen processing and presentation may be pivotal effects conferred by TBI to enable engraftment. Regardless of TBI dose and recipient mouse strain, pervasive genomic changes related to inflammation was observed and reflected by significant enrichment for canonical pathways and association with upstream regulators. These gene expression changes suggest that macrophage and complement pathways may be targeted to overcome engraftment barriers. These exploratory results highlight gene pathways that may be important in mediating BM engraftment resistance.

  12. Hydrogen-Rich Saline Attenuates Acute Renal Injury in Sodium Taurocholate-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis by Inhibiting ROS and NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen (H2, a new antioxidant, was reported to reduce •OH and ONOO− selectively and inhibit certain proinflammatory mediators to product, without disturbing metabolic redox reactions or ROS involved in cell signaling. We herein aim to explore its protective effects on acute renal injury in sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis and its possible mechanisms. Rats were injected with hydrogen-rich saline (HRS group or normal saline (SO and SAP group through tail intravenously (6 mL/kg and compensated subcutaneously (20 mL/kg after successful modeling. Results showed that hydrogen-rich saline attenuated the following: (1 serum Cr and BUN, (2 pancreatic and renal pathological injuries, (3 renal MDA, (4 renal MPO, (5 serum IL-1β, IL-6, and renal TNF-α, HMGB1, and (6 tyrosine nitration, IκB degradation, and NF-κB activation in renal tissues. In addition, it increased the level of IL-10 and SOD activity in renal tissues. These results proved that hydrogen-rich saline attenuates acute renal injury in sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis, presumably because of its detoxification activity against excessive ROS, and inhibits the activation of NF-κB by affecting IκB nitration and degradation. Our findings highlight the potential value of hydrogen-rich saline as a new therapeutic method on acute renal injury in severe acute pancreatitis clinically.

  13. Sodium hydrogen exchange 1 (NHE-1) regulates connexin 43 expression in cardiomyocytes via reverse mode sodium calcium exchange and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-dependent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbouly, Seta; Kirshenbaum, Lorrie A; Jones, Douglas L; Karmazyn, Morris

    2008-10-01

    Connexin 43, the major connexin isoform in gap junctions of cardiac ventricular myocytes, undergoes changes in distribution and expression in cardiac diseases. The Na(+)-H(+) exchanger (NHE-1), a key mediator of hypertrophy and heart failure, has been shown to be localized in the cardiomyocyte gap junctional regions; however, whether NHE-1 regulates gap junction proteins in the hypertrophied cardiomyocyte is not known. To address this question, neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were treated with phenylephrine (PE) for 24 h to induce hypertrophy. Increased Cx43 expression observed with PE treatment (132.4 +/- 6.3% compared to control; P isopropyl-3-(methylsulfonyl)benzoyl-guanidine methanesulfonate]. PE-induced hypertrophy was associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 activation, whereas inhibition of JNK1/2 with either SP600125 [anthra(1,9-cd)pyrazol-6(2H)-one 1,9-pyrazoloanthrone] or small interfering RNA significantly increased PE-induced up-regulation of Cx43 protein levels. Inhibition of reverse mode Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange (NCX) with KB-R7943 [2-[2-[4-(4-nitrobenzyloxy)phenyl]ethyl]isothiourea mesylate] partially reversed JNK1/2 activation (195.2 +/- 21.4 versus 143.7 +/- 14.4% with KB-R7943; P < 0.05) and augmented up-regulation of Cx43 protein (121.1 +/- 8.3 versus 215.9 +/- 25.6% with KB-R7943; P < 0.05) in the presence of PE. Our results demonstrate that NHE-1 negatively regulates Cx43 protein expression in PE-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via a JNK1/2-dependent pathway, which is probably activated by reverse mode NCX activity.

  14. Alternate pathways of body shape evolution translate into common patterns of locomotor evolution in two clades of lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Philip J; Irschick, Duncan J

    2010-06-01

    Body shape has a fundamental impact on organismal function, but it is unknown how functional morphology and locomotor performance and kinematics relate across a diverse array of body shapes. We showed that although patterns of body shape evolution differed considerably between lizards of the Phrynosomatinae and Lerista, patterns of locomotor evolution coincided between clades. Specifically, we found that the phrynosomatines evolved a stocky phenotype through body widening and limb shortening, whereas Lerista evolved elongation through body lengthening and limb shortening. In both clades, relative limb length played a key role in locomotor evolution and kinematic strategies, with long-limbed species moving faster and taking longer strides. In Lerista, the body axis also influenced locomotor evolution. Similar patterns of locomotor evolution were likely due to constraints on how the body can move. However, these common patterns of locomotor evolution between the two clades resulted in different kinematic strategies and levels of performance among species because of their morphological differences. Furthermore, we found no evidence that distinct body shapes are adaptations to different substrates, as locomotor kinematics did not change on loose or solid substrates. Our findings illustrate the importance of studying kinematics to understand the mechanisms of locomotor evolution and phenotype-function relationships.

  15. The endocytic pathways of a secretory granule membrane protein in HEK293 cells: PAM and EGF traverse a dynamic multivesicular body network together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, Nils; Kanerva, Kristiina; Kurutihalli, Vishwanatha; Yanik, Andrew; Ikonen, Elina; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

    2017-08-01

    Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) is highly expressed in neurons and endocrine cells, where it catalyzes one of the final steps in the biosynthesis of bioactive peptides. PAM is also expressed in unicellular organisms such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which do not store peptides in secretory granules. As for other granule membrane proteins, PAM is retrieved from the cell surface and returned to the trans-Golgi network. This pathway involves regulated entry of PAM into multivesicular body intralumenal vesicles (ILVs). The aim of this study was defining the endocytic pathways utilized by PAM in cells that do not store secretory products in granules. Using stably transfected HEK293 cells, endocytic trafficking of PAM was compared to that of the mannose 6-phosphate (MPR) and EGF (EGFR) receptors, established markers for the endosome to trans-Golgi network and degradative pathways, respectively. As in neuroendocrine cells, PAM internalized by HEK293 cells accumulated in the trans-Golgi network. Based on surface biotinylation, >70% of the PAM on the cell surface was recovered intact after a 4h chase and soluble, bifunctional PAM was produced. Endosomes containing PAM generally contained both EGFR and MPR and ultrastructural analysis confirmed that all three cargos accumulated in ILVs. PAM containing multivesicular bodies made frequent dynamic tubular contacts with younger and older multivesicular bodies. Frequent dynamic contacts were observed between lysosomes and PAM containing early endosomes and multivesicular bodies. The ancient ability of PAM to localize to ciliary membranes, which release bioactive ectosomes, may be related to its ability to accumulate in ILVs and exosomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Transport pathways and enhancement mechanisms within localized and non-localized transport regions in skin treated with low-frequency sonophoresis and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Baris E; Figueroa, Pedro L; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2011-02-01

    Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery utilizing low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) have revealed that skin permeability enhancement is not homogenous across the skin surface. Instead, highly perturbed skin regions, known as localized transport regions (LTRs), exist. Despite these findings, little research has been conducted to identify intrinsic properties and formation mechanisms of LTRs and the surrounding less-perturbed non-LTRs. By independently analyzing LTR, non-LTR, and total skin samples treated at multiple LFS frequencies, we found that the pore radii (r(pore)) within non-LTRs are frequency-independent, ranging from 18.2 to 18.5 Å, but significantly larger than r(pore) of native skin samples (13.6 Å). Conversely, r(pore) within LTRs increase significantly with decreasing frequency from 161 to 276 Å and to ∞ (>300 Å) for LFS/SLS-treated skin at 60, 40, and 20 kHz, respectively. Our findings suggest that different mechanisms contribute to skin permeability enhancement within each skin region. We propose that the enhancement mechanism within LTRs is the frequency-dependent process of cavitation-induced microjet collapse at the skin surface, whereas the increased r(pore) values in non-LTRs are likely due to SLS perturbation, with enhanced penetration of SLS into the skin resulting from the frequency-independent process of microstreaming. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. 3-Bromopyruvate and sodium citrate induce apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 by inhibiting glycolysis and promoting mitochondria-regulated apoptosis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xingyu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Tingan; Xian, Shulin; Lu, Yunfei

    2016-06-17

    Cancer cells are mainly dependent on glycolysis to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and intermediates required for cell growth and proliferation. Thus, inhibition of glycolysis might be of therapeutic value in antitumor treatment. Our previously studies had found that both 3-bromopyruvate (BP) and sodium citrate (SCT) can inhibit tumor growth and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism involved in the BP and SCT mediated antitumor activity is not entirely clear. In this work, it is demonstrated that BP inhibits the enzyme hexokinase (HK) activity and SCT suppresses the phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity respectively, both the two agents decrease viability, ATP generation and lactate content in the human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803. These effects are directly correlated with blockage of glycolysis. Furthermore, BP and SCT can induce the characteristic manifestations of mitochondria-regulated apoptosis, such as down-regulation of anti-apoptosis proteins Bcl-2 and Survivin, up-regulation of pro-apoptosis protein Bax, activation of caspase-3, as well as leakage of cytochrome c (Cyt-c). In summary, our results provided evidences that BP and SCT inhibit the MGC-803 cells growth and proliferation might be correlated with inhibiting glycolysis and promoting mitochondria-regulated apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Combination of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin with orlistat or sibutramine further improves the body-weight reduction and glucose homeostasis of obese rats fed a cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickers SP

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Steven P Vickers,1 Sharon C Cheetham,1 Katie R Headland,1 Keith Dickinson,1 Rolf Grempler,2 Eric Mayoux,2 Michael Mark,2 Thomas Klein2 1RenaSci, BioCity Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Biberach an der Riss, Germany Abstract: The present study assessed the potential of the sodium glucose-linked transporter (SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin to decrease body weight when administered alone or in combination with the clinically effective weight-loss agents orlistat and sibutramine in obese rats fed a cafeteria diet. Female Wistar rats were exposed to a cafeteria diet to induce obesity. Empagliflozin was dosed once daily (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg for 28 days. Combination studies were subsequently performed using a submaximal empagliflozin dose (10 mg/kg with either sibutramine or orlistat. Body weight, food, and water intake were recorded daily. The effect of drug treatment on glucose tolerance, relevant plasma parameters, and carcass composition was determined. Empagliflozin dose-dependently reduced body weight, plasma leptin, and body fat though increased urinary glucose excretion. The combination of empagliflozin and orlistat significantly reduced body weight compared to animals treated with either drug alone, and significantly improved glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, and leptin compared to vehicle-treated controls. The effect of sibutramine to improve glycemic control in an oral glucose-tolerance test was also significantly increased, with empagliflozin and combination treatment leading to a reduction in carcass fat greater than that observed with either drug alone. These data demonstrate that empagliflozin reduces body weight in cafeteria-fed obese rats. In combination studies, empagliflozin further improved the body-weight or body-fat loss of animals in comparison to orlistat or sibutramine alone. Such studies may indicate improved strategies for the treatment of obese patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. Keywords

  19. Combination of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin with orlistat or sibutramine further improves the body-weight reduction and glucose homeostasis of obese rats fed a cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Steven P; Cheetham, Sharon C; Headland, Katie R; Dickinson, Keith; Grempler, Rolf; Mayoux, Eric; Mark, Michael; Klein, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The present study assessed the potential of the sodium glucose-linked transporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitor empagliflozin to decrease body weight when administered alone or in combination with the clinically effective weight-loss agents orlistat and sibutramine in obese rats fed a cafeteria diet. Female Wistar rats were exposed to a cafeteria diet to induce obesity. Empagliflozin was dosed once daily (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) for 28 days. Combination studies were subsequently performed using a submaximal empagliflozin dose (10 mg/kg) with either sibutramine or orlistat. Body weight, food, and water intake were recorded daily. The effect of drug treatment on glucose tolerance, relevant plasma parameters, and carcass composition was determined. Empagliflozin dose-dependently reduced body weight, plasma leptin, and body fat though increased urinary glucose excretion. The combination of empagliflozin and orlistat significantly reduced body weight compared to animals treated with either drug alone, and significantly improved glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, and leptin compared to vehicle-treated controls. The effect of sibutramine to improve glycemic control in an oral glucose-tolerance test was also significantly increased, with empagliflozin and combination treatment leading to a reduction in carcass fat greater than that observed with either drug alone. These data demonstrate that empagliflozin reduces body weight in cafeteria-fed obese rats. In combination studies, empagliflozin further improved the body-weight or body-fat loss of animals in comparison to orlistat or sibutramine alone. Such studies may indicate improved strategies for the treatment of obese patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes.

  20. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  1. The role of sodium hydrosulfide in attenuating the aging process via PI3K/AKT and CaMKKβ/AMPK pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xubo Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Age-related dysfunction of the central auditory system, known as central presbycusis, is characterized by defects in speech perception and sound localization. It is important to determine the pathogenesis of central presbycusis in order to explore a feasible and effective intervention method. Recent work has provided fascinating insight into the beneficial function of H2S on oxidative stress and stress-related disease. In this study, we investigated the pathogenesis of central presbycusis and tried to explore the mechanism of H2S action on different aspects of aging by utilizing a mimetic aging rat and senescent cellular model. Our results indicate that NaHS decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis levels in an aging model via CaMKKβ and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Moreover, we found that NaHS restored the decreased activity of antioxidants such as GSH, SOD and CAT in the aging model in vivo and in vitro by regulating CaMKKβ and PI3K/AKT. Mitochondria function was preserved by NaHS, as indicated by the following: DNA POLG and OGG-1, the base excision repair enzymes in mitochondrial, were upregulated; OXPHOS activity was downregulated; mitochondrial membrane potential was restored; ATP production was increased; and mtDNA damage, indicated by the common deletion (CD, declined. These effects were also achieved by activating CaMKKβ/AMPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Lastly, protein homeostasis, indicated by HSP90 alpha, was strengthened by NaHS via CaMKKβ and PI3K/AKT. Our findings demonstrate that the ability to resist oxidative stress and mitochondria function are both decreased as aging developed; however, NaHS, a novel free radical scavenger and mitochondrial protective agent, precludes the process of oxidative damage by activating CaMKKβ and PI3K/AKT. This study might provide a therapeutic target for aging and age-related disease. Keywords: Aging, Hydrogen sulfide, ROS, Mitochondria, PI3K/AKT, CaMKKβ/AMPK

  2. Intra- and inter-subject variability for increases in serum ketone bodies in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with the sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, David; Iijima, Hiroaki; Goda, Maki; Maruyama, Nobuko; Inagaki, Nobuya; Crawford, Peter A

    2018-01-17

    Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been associated with increased serum ketone body levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the present analysis we evaluated serum ketone body levels and variability in 1278 Japanese patients with T2DM treated with canagliflozin 100 or 200 mg. Similar mean increases in ketone body concentrations of ~2-fold were seen with both canagliflozin doses. The median (interquartile range) percent change from baseline was 62% (0;180) for acetoacetate and 78% (2;236) for β-hydroxybutyrate. Approximately two-thirds of the variability in each ketone measure was attributed to intra-subject variability. Intra-subject variability was higher for serum ketones than other metabolites. Patients in the lowest response tertile exhibited no increase in ketones. Those in the highest response tertile tended to be male and have higher fasting plasma glucose levels, lower insulin levels, and longer T2DM duration at baseline. Moreover, changes in serum ketones were not fully explained by changes in plasma fatty acids, suggesting downstream effects of SGLT2 inhibition on hepatic metabolism that favour ketogenesis. In summary, increases in serum ketone bodies with canagliflozin were greater and more variable than changes in other metabolic measures in Japanese patients with T2DM. © 2018 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Central infusion of ketone bodies modulates body weight and hepatic insulin sensitivity by modifying hypothalamic leptin and insulin signaling pathways in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Kim, Da Sol; Daily, James W

    2011-07-15

    Although the effects of ketogenic diets on energy and glucose homeostasis have been controversial, elevation of serum ketone levels by subcutaneous injection of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) can improve glucose homeostasis. Ketones may work through the brain; therefore, we evaluated whether the intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of β-hydroxybutyrates would also modulate peripheral energy and glucose homeostasis, and through what mechanisms, in diabetic rats fed a high fat diet in short- and long-term studies. Short-term (3h) central injection of BHB (50 μg/h) improved serum glucose levels and peripheral insulin sensitivity compared to the artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) group among 90% pancreatectomized (Px) diabetic rats, but not in non-diabetic Sham rats. In addition to short-term infusion, long-term (28 days) central infusion of BHB (12 μg/h) elevated serum BHB levels. Long-term infusion of BHB potentiated leptin and insulin signaling in the hypothalamus to slightly decrease body weight in Px rats. Central BHB infusion had a greater effect on peripheral glucose metabolism than overall energy metabolism. Hepatic insulin signaling (tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS2→serine phosphorylation of Akt→reduced expression of PEPCK) was potentiated and hepatic glucose production in the hyperinsulinemic state was suppressed in the diabetic rats. In addition, glucose tolerance was improved by central BHB infusion through enhanced whole body glucose disposal rates, but insulin secretion was not affected in the diabetic rats. In conclusion, mild ketosis by central infusion of ketones improves energy and glucose metabolism through the potentiation of leptin and insulin signaling in the hypothalamus of diabetic rats. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair and oxidative stress pathways may modify the association between body size and postmenopausal breast cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McCullough, L. E.; Eng, S. M.; Bradshaw, P. T.; Cleveland, R. J.; Steck, S. E.; Terry, M. B.; Shen, J.; Crew, K.D.; Rössner ml., Pavel; Ahn, J.; Ambrosone, Ch.B.; Teitelbaum, S. L.; Neugut, A. I.; Santella, R. M.; Gammon, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2015), s. 263-269 ISSN 1047-2797 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : breast cancer * body mass index * oxidative stress * DNA repair * Epidemiology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.335, year: 2015

  5. Atrial natriuretic peptide and cGMP activate sodium transport through PKA-dependent pathway in the urinary bladder of the Japanese tree frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshiki; Matsuda, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Minoru

    2006-03-01

    The effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and cGMP on transepithelial ion transport were examined in the urinary bladder of the Japanese tree frog, Hyla japonica, using Ussing chamber voltage-clamp and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. When the bladders were exposed to 4.4 x 10(-11) to 10(-6) M ANP or 10(-7) to 3 x 10(-4) M 8-Br-cGMP, both the transepithelial potential difference (PD) and the short-circuit current (Isc) were significantly increased in a concentration-response manner. The cGMP-dependent responses were inhibited in a Na+-free bath solution and in the presence of amiloride. The cGMP-dependent increases in Isc were significantly inhibited by specific PKA inhibitors (5 x 10(-7) M KT-5720 and >10(-5) M H-89), but not by a specific PKG inhibitor (5 x 10(-7) M KT-5823). ANP-dependent increases in Isc were also significantly inhibited by KT-5720. In the patch-clamp study, ANP and cGMP significantly increased in inward currents involving Na+ uptake. These results suggest that a cross-talk mechanism exists between cAMP and cGMP signaling pathways, which leads to Na+ transport in the frog urinary bladder. In addition, the cGMP-dependent increases in Isc were partially inhibited by 10(-4) M l-cis-diltiazem, a specific inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels. These results also suggest a relation between CNG channels and the cGMP-dependent increases in Na+ absorption of the frog urinary bladder.

  6. Pathways and impacts of nitrogen in water bodies: establishing a framework for integrated assessment modelling of management benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Kronvang, Brian; Carstensen, Jacob

    Monetization of environmental benefits has become relevant as an element of proportionality tests required for justifications under the EU’s Water Framework Directive article 4 (relating to benefits andcosts of measures). This study extends an impact pathway approach to analysis of aquatic...... the study demonstrates how state-of-the-art environmental modelling can be linked with valuation to provide an adequate cross-media assessment framework relevant to integrated water quality management. The results must be regarded as illustrative and more research is required in several areas to consolidate...

  7. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  8. Whole-body vibration improves the anti-inflammatory status in elderly subjects through toll-like receptor 2 and 4 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Miguelez, Paula; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Collado, Pilar S; Almar, Mar; Martinez-Florez, Susana; de Paz, José A; González-Gallego, Javier; Cuevas, María J

    2015-09-01

    Regular physical exercise has anti-inflammatory effects in elderly subjects. Yet, the inflammatory responses after whole body vibration (WBV) training, a popular exercise paradigm for the elderly, remain to be elucidated. This study assessed the effects of WBV training on the inflammatory response associated with toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling pathways. Twenty-eight subjects were randomized to a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). TG followed an 8-week WBV training program. Blood samples were obtained before and after the training period in both groups. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated, and mRNA and protein levels of makers involved in the TLR2/TLR4 myeloid differentiation primary response gen 88 (MyD88) and TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon (TRIF)-dependent pathways were analyzed. Plasma TNFα and C-reactive protein levels were also assessed. The WBV program reduced protein expression of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, p65, TRIF and heat shock protein (HSP) 60, while HSP70 content increased. IL-10 mRNA level and protein concentration were upregulated, and TNFα protein content decreased, after WBV training. Plasma concentration of C-reactive protein and TNFα decreased in the TG. The current data suggest WBV may improve the anti-inflammatory status of elderly subjects through an attenuation of MyD88- and TRIF-dependent TLRs signaling pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pathways and impacts of nitrogen in water bodies: establishing a framework for integrated assessment modelling of management benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Kronvang, Brian; Carstensen, Jacob

    Monetization of environmental benefits has become relevant as an element of proportionality tests required for justifications under the EU’s Water Framework Directive article 4 (relating to benefits andcosts of measures). This study extends an impact pathway approach to analysis of aquatic...... the study demonstrates how state-of-the-art environmental modelling can be linked with valuation to provide an adequate cross-media assessment framework relevant to integrated water quality management. The results must be regarded as illustrative and more research is required in several areas to consolidate...... relationships relating to exposures. The findings nevertheless suggest the significance of health effects for overall monetary benefits related to ecological quality objectives for water....

  10. Protein-altering variants associated with body mass index implicate pathways that control energy intake and expenditure in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcot, Valérie; Lu, Yingchang; Highland, Heather M

    2018-01-01

    ,734 individuals to discover rare and low-frequency (minor allele frequency (MAF) obesity, 2 variants...... were in genes (MC4R and KSR2) previously observed to be mutated in extreme obesity and 2 variants were in GIPR. The effect sizes of rare variants are ~10 times larger than those of common variants, with the largest effect observed in carriers of an MC4R mutation introducing a stop codon (p.Tyr35Ter......, MAF = 0.01%), who weighed ~7 kg more than non-carriers. Pathway analyses based on the variants associated with BMI confirm enrichment of neuronal genes and provide new evidence for adipocyte and energy expenditure biology, widening the potential of genetically supported therapeutic targets in obesity....

  11. Core Body and Skin Temperature in Type 1 Narcolepsy in Daily Life; Effects of Sodium Oxybate and Prediction of Sleep Attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Astrid; Werth, Esther; Donjacour, Claire E H M; Reijntjes, Robert H A M; Lammers, Gert Jan; Van Someren, Eus J W; Baumann, Christian R; Fronczek, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Previous laboratory studies in narcolepsy patients showed altered core body and skin temperatures, which are hypothesised to be related to a disturbed sleep wake regulation. In this ambulatory study we assessed temperature profiles in normal daily life, and whether sleep attacks

  12. Consumption of dietary salt measured by urinary sodium excretion and its association with body weight status in healthy children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libuda, Lars; Kersting, Mathilde; Alexy, Ute

    2012-03-01

    Highly processed foods such as convenience foods usually have a high salt content and therefore might indirectly act as adipogenic due to an increasing consumption of sugar-containing beverages (SCB). We examined the association between dietary salt and body weight status. We used data on urinary Na excretion as an indicator of dietary salt and BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and percentage body fat (%BF) of children and adolescents participating in the DONALD (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed) Study. Dortmund, Germany. Children and adolescents (n 364) who had at least two 24 h urine samples and two dietary records in the observational period between 2003 and 2009 were considered in our data analysis. Repeated-measures regression models revealed that urinary Na was positively associated with BMI-SDS (+0·202 SDS/g Na excretion at baseline; P consumption and total energy intake. Furthermore, there was a positive trend between baseline Na excretion and the individual change in %BF in the study period (+0·364 increase in %BF/g Na excretion at baseline), which was confirmed after inclusion of SCB consumption or total energy intake. There was no significant association between the change in Na excretion and the concurrent change of either BMI-SDS or %BF in any model. Our results suggest that a high intake of processed salty foods could have a negative impact on body weight status in children and adolescents independently from their consumption of SCB.

  13. The Meckel-Gruber syndrome protein TMEM67 controls basal body positioning and epithelial branching morphogenesis in mice via the non-canonical Wnt pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakia A. Abdelhamed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ciliopathies are a group of developmental disorders that manifest with multi-organ anomalies. Mutations in TMEM67 (MKS3 cause a range of human ciliopathies, including Meckel-Gruber and Joubert syndromes. In this study we describe multi-organ developmental abnormalities in the Tmem67tm1Dgen/H1 knockout mouse that closely resemble those seen in Wnt5a and Ror2 knockout mice. These include pulmonary hypoplasia, ventricular septal defects, shortening of the body longitudinal axis, limb abnormalities, and cochlear hair cell stereociliary bundle orientation and basal body/kinocilium positioning defects. The basal body/kinocilium complex was often uncoupled from the hair bundle, suggesting aberrant basal body migration, although planar cell polarity and apical planar asymmetry in the organ of Corti were normal. TMEM67 (meckelin is essential for phosphorylation of the non-canonical Wnt receptor ROR2 (receptor-tyrosine-kinase-like orphan receptor 2 upon stimulation with Wnt5a-conditioned medium. ROR2 also colocalises and interacts with TMEM67 at the ciliary transition zone. Additionally, the extracellular N-terminal domain of TMEM67 preferentially binds to Wnt5a in an in vitro binding assay. Cultured lungs of Tmem67 mutant mice failed to respond to stimulation of epithelial branching morphogenesis by Wnt5a. Wnt5a also inhibited both the Shh and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathways in wild-type embryonic lung. Pulmonary hypoplasia phenotypes, including loss of correct epithelial branching morphogenesis and cell polarity, were rescued by stimulating the non-canonical Wnt pathway downstream of the Wnt5a-TMEM67-ROR2 axis by activating RhoA. We propose that TMEM67 is a receptor that has a main role in non-canonical Wnt signalling, mediated by Wnt5a and ROR2, and normally represses Shh signalling. Downstream therapeutic targeting of the Wnt5a-TMEM67-ROR2 axis might, therefore, reduce or prevent pulmonary hypoplasia in ciliopathies and other congenital

  14. Dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and the hierarchy of energy metabolic pathways in growing pigs differing in feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondret, F; Louveau, I; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Lagarrigue, S; Gilbert, H; van Milgen, J

    2014-11-01

    The use and partition of feed energy are key elements in productive efficiency of pigs. This study aimed to determine whether dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and tissue biochemical pathways of energy use between pigs differing in feed efficiency. Forty-eight barrows (pure Large White) from two divergent lines selected for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, were compared. From 74 d to 132 ± 0.5 d of age, pigs (n = 12 by line and by diet) were offered diets with equal protein and ME contents. A low fat, low fiber diet (LF) based on cereals and a high fat, high fiber diet (HF) where vegetal oils and wheat straw were used to partially substitute cereals, were compared. Irrespective of diet, gain to feed was 10% better (P Lipid contents in backfat and LM also declined (-5% and -19%, respectively; P lipid content was greater (P lipid and glucose storage in tissues.

  15. Fractional excretion of sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    FE sodium; FENa ... a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Excretion fraction of filtered sodium-blood and urine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ...

  16. Sodium and Food Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Cholesterol High Blood Pressure Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Sodium and Food Sources Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: More ...

  17. The effects of sodium butyrate and inulin supplementation on angiotensin signaling pathway via promotion ofAkkermansia muciniphilaabundance in type 2 diabetes; A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanravan, Neda; Mahdavi, Reza; Alizadeh, Effat; Ghavami, Abed; Rahbar Saadat, Yalda; Mesri Alamdari, Naimeh; Alipour, Shahriar; Dastouri, Mohammad Reza; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Inflammation has a crucial role in the progression of cardiovascular disease in diabetes. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as an inflammatory marker induces angiotensin II (Ang II) related hypertension pathway in diabetic patients. Gut modulation via prebiotics may ameliorate hypertension caused by inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of sodium butyrate (NaBut) and inulin supplements on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: In this clinical trial, 60 overweight and obese diabetic patients were recruited and randomly allocated into four groups. The groups received, respectively, 600 mg/d NaBut (group A), 10 g/d inulin powder (group B), both inulin and NaBut (group C), or placebo (group D) for 45 consecutive days. Blood and stool samples were collected at baseline and after intervention. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Akkermansia muciniphila was done. We assessed the TNF-α mRNA expression and the serum levels of the high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Results: There was a significant increase in A. muciniphila percent change in inulin and butyrate supplemented groups ( P  < 0.05). Furthermore, significant decrease was seen in TNF-α mRNA expression in group A (fold change 0.88 ± 0.16, P < 0.05), group B (fold change 0.75 ± 0.18, P  < 0.05) and group C (fold change 0.91 ± 0.32, P  < 0.05). Also hs-CRP, MDA and diastolic blood pressure levels decreased significantly in these groups ( P  < 0.05). Conclusion: Intervention had significant effects on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters and led to improvement of hypertension. However, further investigations are needed to make concise conclusions.

  18. HDAC9 regulates the alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) pathway via the formation of ALT-associated PML bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamiruddin, Mohd Raeed; Kaitsuka, Taku; Hakim, Farzana; Fujimura, Atsushi; Wei, Fan-Yan; Saitoh, Hisato; Tomizawa, Kazuhito

    2016-12-02

    Cancer cells overcome cellular senescence by activating the telomere maintenance mechanism, which can be either through telomerase or the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Being exclusive to cancer cells, targeting ALT is a more promising route for the development of drugs against cancer. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) family plays significant roles in various cellular processes. In addition to the regulation of gene expression, HDACs are also known to directly interact with many proteins. We focused on this family, and found that HDAC9 was up-regulated in ALT-positive cells. In ALT-positive cells treated with HDAC9 siRNA, there was a decrease in the telomere replicative capacity, which was evident from the C-circles assay. Furthermore, the formation of ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (APBs) was inhibited by HDAC9 knockdown. Based on this study, it is suggested that HDAC9 regulates the formation of APBs and could be a candidate for the target of ALT-cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Correlations between polymorphisms in genes coding elements of dopaminergic pathways and body mass index in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Marcin; Gese, Anna; Czypicki, Ryszard; Gąsior, Marcin; Tretyn, Andrzej; Chojnowski, Jacek; Bieliński, Maciej; Jaracz, Marcin; Kamińska, Anna; Junik, Roman; Borkowska, Alina

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine is considered to be crucial for food craving and intake, drug abuse and electrical brain stimulation. Increased levels of dopamine occur after energy intake in the dorsal striatum. In the ventral tagmental area, dopamine is responsible for motivation. There is a natural synaptic dopamine level, and as a result its activity is controlled by density of receptors, amount of released neurotransmitter, and defectiveness of re-uptake by specific transporters. In our study, we wanted to investigate if there is a correlation between mean BMI values and VNTR polymorphisms in SLC6A3 (rs28363170) and DRD4 genes. Chosen gene fragments were amplified using polymerase chain reaction on the DNA template obtained from 506 women. The products of the reaction were electrophoresed and visualised in 3% agarose gel. The genotyping data was analysed with Kruskal-Wallis tests (p 〈 0.05). In the case of SLC6A3, statistically significant differences in mean BMI were found in the group of obese women (p 〈 0.05) but not for the whole population of women with normal weight or with overweight (p 〉 0.05). The mean BMI was higher for the SS genotype than for combined LL and LS genotypes. The difference in mean BMI values for variants of DRD4 was significant for the whole studied population and in the obese group (p 〉 0.05), and the higher value was correlated with the presence of a variant with seven or more repeats of 48 bp motif. When the two analysed polymorphisms were combined, the spread between the mean BMI values became greater than for single genes. This suggests that the effect on body mass of these two polymorphisms may combine and cause hypo-functionality of the dopaminergic reward system.

  20. Scalloped a member of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway controls mushroom body size in Drosophila brain by non-canonical regulation of neuroblast proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohith, Basavanahalli Nanjundaiah; Shyamala, Baragur Venkatanarayanasetty

    2017-12-15

    Cell proliferation, growth and survival are three different basic processes which converge at determining a fundamental property -the size of an organism. Scalloped (Sd) is the first characterised transcriptional partner to Yorkie (Yki), the downstream effector of the Hippo pathway which is a highly potential and evolutionarily conserved regulator of organ size. Here we have studied the hypomorphic effect of sd on the development of Mushroom Bodies (MBs) in Drosophila brain. We show that, sd non-function results in an increase in the size of MBs. We demonstrate that, sd regulation on MB size operates through multiple routes. Sd expressed in the differentiated MB neurons, imposes non-cell autonomous repression on the proliferation of MB precursor cells, and Sd expression in the MB neuroblasts (NB) cell autonomously represses mushroom body neuroblast (MBNB) proliferation. Further Sd in Kenyon cells (KCs) imparts a cell autonomous restriction on their growth. Our findings are distinctive because, while the classical sd loss of function phenotypes in eye, wing and lymph gland are reported as loss of tissue or reduced organ size, the present study shows that, Sd inactivation in the developing MB, promotes precursor cell proliferation and results in an increase in the organ size. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Salt craving: the psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael J; Na, Elisa S; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-08-06

    Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate--an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors.

  2. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  3. The impact of body mass index in gene expression of reelin pathway mediators in individuals with schizophrenia and mood disorders: A post-mortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brietzke, Elisa; Trevizol, Alisson P; Fries, Gabriel R; Subramaniapillai, Mehala; Kapczinski, Flavio; McIntyre, Roger S; Mansur, Rodrigo B

    2018-04-13

    The objective of this study was to compare the expression of genes involved in the reelin pathway, in the post-mortem brain of individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and mood disorders (MD) with a healthy control (HC) group; and to investigate the role f body mass index (BMI) as a potential mediator. The "Gene Expression in Postmortem dlPFC and Hippocampus from Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders" study holds microarray data on individuals with SZ, MD and HCs (from whom 849 specimens are from the dlPFC and 579 from the hippocampus). mRNA data was obtained using HumanHT-12 v4 BeadChip arrays (Illumina). Multivariate analysis of covariance were used to investigate the main effects of group and relevant covariates on RELNm, NOTCH1, GRIN1m, GRIN3A, CAMK2Gm, CAMK2A, CAMK2Bm, CAMK2N2, GRIN2Bm, GRIN2A, CREBBPm, APOE, LDLR and DAB1 gene expression. In the dlPFC, individuals with SZ had higher expression, relative to HCs, of APOE. Individuals with MD had higher expression, relative to HCs, of CAMK2A, CAMK2N2, and GRIN2Bm. Moreover, individuals with MD had higher expression, relative to SZ patients, of CAMK2N2. There were significant group by BMI effects for expression of RELN, CAMK2A, CAMK2N2, and GRIN2A. In the hippocampus, individuals with MD had lower expression, relative to HCs, of APOE. The results of this study suggest that the expression of genes related to the reelin pathway could be different between individuals with SZ and MD and healthy controls, with a greater vulnerability associated with greater BMI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structure of sodium perbromate monohydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, A.C.; Gallucci, J.C.; Gerkin, R.E.; Reppart, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    NaBrO 4 .H 2 O, M r =184.90, monoclinic, C2/c, a=15.7575(19), b=5.7373(15), c=11.3390(19) A, β=111.193(10)deg. In this structure, there are two inequivalent Na ions, each coordinated by six O atoms. In each of the two types of distorted octahedra, there are three inequivalent Na-O distances; the average Na(1)-O and Na(2)-O distances are 2.379(10) and 2.405(23) A, respectively. The perbromate ion in this structure displays very nearly regular tetrahedral geometry, although it is subject to no symmetry constraints; the average observed Br-O distance is 1.601(4) A, while the average observed O-Br-O angle is 109.5(9)deg. These values agree well with previously reported values. The perbromate ion, but neither of the sodium coordination polyhedra, shows rigid-body behavior. The average rigid-body corrected Br-O distance in the perbromate ion is 1.624(3) A. Refinement of the two inequivalent H atoms permitted detailed analysis of the hydrogen bonding, which is slightly different from that reported for the isomorphic sodium perchlorate monohydrate. Dynamic disordering of the H atoms as detailed by magnetic resonance methods for sodium perchlorate monohydrate is not clearly indicated in our X-ray study of sodium perbromate monohydrate. (orig./GSCH)

  5. Abnormal radioiodine uptake on post-therapy whole body scan and sodium/iodine symporter expression in a dermoid cyst of the ovary: report of a case and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campenni, Alfredo; Baldari, Sergio, E-mail: acampenni@unime.ittalia [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e delle Immagini Morfologiche e Funzionali, Unità di Medicina Nucleare, Università degli Studi di Messina, Messina (Italy); Giovinazzo, Salvatore; Ruggeri, Rosaria M. [Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Unità di Endocrinologia, Università degli Studi di Messina (Italy); Tuccari, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Patologia Umana, Università degli Studi di Messina (Italy); Fogliani, Simone [Unità di Scienze Radiologiche, Ospedale di Milazzo, Messina (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    In patients affected by differentiated thyroid cancer, the whole-body scan (WBS) with 131-radioiodine, especially when performed after a therapeutic activity of {sup 131}I, represents a sensitive procedure for detecting thyroid remnant and/or metastatic disease. Nevertheless, a wide spectrum of potentially pitfalls has been reported. Herein we describe a 63-year-old woman affected by follicular thyroid cancer, who was accidentally found to have an abdominal mass at post-dose WBS (pWBS). pWBS showed abnormal radioiodine uptake in the upper mediastinum, consistent with lymph-node metastases, and a slight radioiodine uptake in an abdominal focal area. Computed tomography revealed an inhomogeneous mass in the pelvis, previously unrecognized. The lesion, surgically removed, was found to be a typical dermoid cyst of the ovary, without any evidence of thyroid tissue. By immunohistochemistry, a moderate expression of the sodium-iodine symporter (NIS) was demonstrated in the epithelial cells, suggesting a NIS-dependent uptake of radioiodine by the cyst. (author)

  6. Synaptically Driven Phosphorylation of Ribosomal Protein S6 Is Differentially Regulated at Active Synapses versus Dendrites and Cell Bodies by MAPK and PI3K/mTOR Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbhoy, Patricia Salgado; Farris, Shannon; Steward, Oswald

    2017-01-01

    High-frequency stimulation of the medial perforant path triggers robust phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) in activated dendritic domains and granule cell bodies. Here we dissect the signaling pathways responsible for synaptically driven rpS6 phosphorylation in the dentate gyrus using pharmacological agents to inhibit PI3-kinase/mTOR…

  7. [Precision of data from models of sodium kinetics in hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenholz, P; Falkenhagen, D; Hähling, D; Klinkmann, H

    1990-08-01

    The 1-pool-model of sodium kinetics during hemodialysis is based upon the assumption of an immediate compensation of osmotic shifts. This assumption is not supported by measurements of plasma sodium, total protein concentration and colloid osmotic pressure kinetics. When a high dialysate sodium concentration is applied, an inflow of sodium into the plasma space occurs, which results in an osmotic suction and thus a plasma dilution. These conditions can be represented by a 2-pool-model taking into consideration capillary filtration. The results indicate that following the first treatment period the sodium kinetics are sufficiently explained by a 1-pool-model with the total body water as distribution volume. Both the plasma sodium concentration and the eliminated sodium at the end of a hemodialysis treatment can be described to an acceptable level by the 1-pool-model. The input of the measured in-vivo sodium dialysance value (or alternatively the urea clearance) is necessary.

  8. Radioprotective effects of sodium tungstate in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kaoru; Ichimasa, Michiko; Suzuki, Saeko; Shiomi, Masae; Ichimasa, Yusuke; Miyahara, Kenzo; Nishimura, Yoshikazu

    2000-01-01

    The radioprotective effects of sodium tungstate on gamma-ray (9.8 Gy) induced decreases in survival rate, and hematocrit value in male and female mice were examined. Daily ingestion of 0.02% sodium tungstate solution (33-36 mg/kg body weight/day) as drinking water from 7 days before and up to 60 days after irradiation significantly mitigated the decrease in hematocrit value, especially at 21 days after irradiation. The increase in survival rate was observed in male and female mice administered sodium tungstate solution. As for its radioprotective effects, no significant sex differences were observed. (author)

  9. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  10. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  11. Naproxen sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  12. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  13. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  14. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  15. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  16. ELTA: Citatrademark: Sodium measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauvais, O.

    2002-01-01

    ELTA is pleased to present its last model of Sodium analyzers: CITA 2340: Automatically controlled sodium meter, integrating more automation and performances results respecting costs and wastes reduction. (authors)

  17. Effects of sodium restriction and energy reduction on erythrocyte sodium transport in obese hypertensive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlitz, H; Fagerberg, B; Jonsson, O; Hedner, T; Andersson, O K; Aurell, M

    1988-01-01

    Twelve moderately obese middle-aged male out-patients with untreated mild hypertension reduced their sodium intake by about 120 mmol/day during 4-6 weeks. The low sodium diet period was followed by a period of energy reduction as well as sodium restriction for 15 weeks. Mean body mass was then reduced by 7.5 +/- 1.0 kg. Intraerythrocyte sodium (IeNa), sodium influx (Na-influx) and sodium efflux rate constant (Na-efflux rate), were measured before intervention, during salt restriction and during salt and energy restriction. Plasma renin activity (PRA) and urinary excretion of aldosterone (U-Aldo) and noradrenaline (U-NA) were also determined during the three observation periods. During sodium restriction there was a significant increase in PRA and U-Aldo, but no change was seen in IeNa, Na-influx or Na-efflux rate constant. During sodium restriction there was a significant positive correlation between PRA and both Na-influx and Na-efflux rate constant. When energy reduction was combined with sodium restriction, PRA and U-NA both diminished significantly. Na-influx and Na-efflux rate also exhibited a significant decrease while IeNa did not change. Sodium restriction caused a significant fall in mean arterial blood pressure and a tendency to a further decrease was seen when energy intake was also reduced. No significant correlation could be found between the fall in blood pressure and changes in cellular sodium transport. These data indicate that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sympathetic activity influence the regulation of erythrocyte sodium turnover during sodium and energy restriction in obese hypertensive men.

  18. Liquid sodium technology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.C.; Lee, Y.W.; Nam, H.Y.; Chun, S.Y.; Kim, J.; Won, S.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the technology of impurity control and measurement of liquid sodium, problems associated with material degradation and change of heat transfer characteristics in liquid sodium, and the conceptual design of multipurpose sodium test loop. Discussion and the subsequent analysis are also made with regard to the test results for the sodium-H 2 0 reaction and its effects on the system. (author)

  19. Sodium sieving in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, E.; Krediet, R.T.; Willems, J.L.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Schroder, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport.

  20. Sodium sieving in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, Esther; Krediet, Raymond T.; Willems, Hans L.; Monnens, Leo A.; Schröder, Cornelis H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport.

  1. Metabolic attributes, yield and stability of milk in Jersey cows fed diets containing sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Tempel Stumpf

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of lactating Jersey cows, and its effects on the metabolic attributes, productivity and stability of milk. We evaluated urinary pH, levels of glucose and urea in blood, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, milk stability (ethanol test, and milk physicochemical properties of 17 cows fed diets containing sodium citrate (100 g per cow per day, sodium bicarbonate (40 g per cow per day or no additives. Assessments were made at the 28th and 44th days. Supply of sodium citrate or bicarbonate has no influence on the metabolic attributes, productivity, body weight, and body condition score of the cows, neither on the composition and stability of milk.

  2. Sodium balance-an integrated physiological model and novel approach

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Santosh

    2009-01-01

    Various physiological mechanisms regulate sodium and water balance in the human body. These processes achieve acute and chronic sodium regulation and the simultaneous or se-quential changes can be explained using a single physiological model. Steady intracellular water and osmolality is necessary for cell membrane integrity and cellular processes. Body fluids protect circulatory blood volume by altering Na + and water balance. This is the most vital homeostatic function of the body. C...

  3. Sodium bicarbonate improves swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, A M; Peyrebrune, M C; Ingham, S A; Bailey, D M; Folland, J P

    2008-06-01

    Sodium bicarbonate ingestion has been shown to improve performance in single-bout, high intensity events, probably due to an increase in buffering capacity, but its influence on single-bout swimming performance has not been investigated. The effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 200 m freestyle swimming performance were investigated in elite male competitors. Following a randomised, double blind counterbalanced design, 9 swimmers completed maximal effort swims on 3 separate occasions: a control trial (C); after ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (SB: NaHCO3 300 mg . kg (-1) body mass); and after ingestion of a placebo (P: CaCO3 200 mg . kg (-1) body mass). The SB and P agents were packed in gelatine capsules and ingested 90 - 60 min prior to each 200 m swim. Mean 200 m performance times were significantly faster for SB than C or P (1 : 52.2 +/- 4.7; 1 : 53.7 +/- 3.8; 1 : 54.0 +/- 3.6 min : ss; p bicarbonate were all elevated pre-exercise in the SB compared to C and P trials (p < 0.05). Post-200 m blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher following the SB trial compared with P and C (p < 0.05). It was concluded that SB supplementation can improve 200 m freestyle performance time in elite male competitors, most likely by increasing buffering capacity.

  4. Effects of dietary sodium on metabolites: the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium Feeding Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, Andriy; Sampson, Joshua; Joseph, Justin; Playdon, Mary C; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z

    2017-10-01

    Background: High sodium intake is known to increase blood pressure and is difficult to measure in epidemiologic studies. Objective: We examined the effect of sodium intake on metabolites within the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial)-Sodium Trial to further our understanding of the biological effects of sodium intake beyond blood pressure. Design: The DASH-Sodium Trial randomly assigned individuals to either the DASH diet (low in fat and high in protein, low-fat dairy, and fruits and vegetables) or a control diet for 12 wk. Participants within each diet arm received, in random order, diets containing high (150 nmol or 3450 mg), medium (100 nmol or 2300 mg), and low (50 nmol or 1150 mg) amounts of sodium for 30 d (crossover design). Fasting blood samples were collected at the end of each sodium intervention. We measured 531 identified plasma metabolites in 73 participants at the end of their high- and low-sodium interventions and in 46 participants at the end of their high- and medium-sodium interventions ( N = 119). We used linear mixed-effects regression to model the relation between each log-transformed metabolite and sodium intake. We also combined the resulting P values with Fisher's method to estimate the association between sodium intake and 38 metabolic pathways or groups. Results: Six pathways were associated with sodium intake at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of 0.0013 (e.g., fatty acid, food component or plant, benzoate, γ-glutamyl amino acid, methionine, and tryptophan). Although 82 metabolites were associated with sodium intake at a false discovery rate ≤0.10, only 4-ethylphenylsufate, a xenobiotic related to benzoate metabolism, was significant at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold ( P Sodium intake is associated with changes in circulating metabolites, including gut microbial, tryptophan, plant component, and γ-glutamyl amino acid-related metabolites. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000608. © 2017

  5. Characterization of sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium citrate dehydrate residues on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurses, M Sadi; Erkey, Can; Kizilel, Seda; Uzun, Alper

    2018-01-01

    Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) and sodium citrate dihydrate (sodium citrate) are the most widely used components in detergent formulations. Here, we characterized these two components on glass surfaces to assess their possible exposures from white spots on dishwasher-washed dishes. Ultraviolet/visible near infrared spectroscopy (UV/Vis-NIR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in the attenuated total reflectance mode (ATR-FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) were utilized to design calibration models for a range of STPP and sodium citrate concentrations 1-8% w/w) precipitated on glass surfaces. STPP and sodium citrate residues on the dishwasher-washed dishes were also determined quantitatively using ATR-FTIR by utilizing these calibration models. In addition, cytotoxicity assays were performed to elucidate the influence of STPP and sodium citrate on human embryonic kidney cell survival. Cell viability results showed a decreasing trend in the number of cells cultured with increasing concentrations and exposure time of STPP and sodium citrate in the medium. Cell survival was minimum on day four when cells were exposed to 84mg/kg of body/day of STPP and sodium citrate separately. This is the first report about detection and quantification of STTP and sodium citrate and assessment of cytotoxicity. Results of this study provide opportunities for the quantification of detergent residues on dishes and assessment of their possible toxicity on live cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sodium safety manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.J.; Gardiner, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The sodium safety manual is based upon more than a decade of experience with liquid sodium at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL). It draws particularly from the expertise and experience developed in the course of research work into sodium fires and sodium water reactions. It draws also on information obtained from the UKAEA and other sodium users. Many of the broad principles will apply to other Establishments but much of the detail is specific to BNL and as a consequence its application at other sites may well be limited. Accidents with sodium are at best unpleasant and at worst lethal in an extremely painful way. The object of this manual is to help prevent sodium accidents. It is not intended to give detailed advice on specific precautions for particular situations, but rather to set out the overall strategy which will ensure that sodium activities will be pursued safely. More detail is generally conveyed to staff by the use of local instructions known as Sodium Working Procedures (SWP's) which are not reproduced in this manual although a list of current SWP's is included. Much attention is properly given to the safe design and operation of larger facilities; nevertheless evidence suggests that sodium accidents most frequently occur in small-scale work particularly in operations associated with sodium cleaning and special care is needed in all such cases. (U.K.)

  7. Report of sodium cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Hitoshi; Shima, Akira; Oba, Toshisaburo; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    1975-01-01

    The damage of components for LMFBRs due to sodium cavitation is serious problem. This report summarizes the following items, (1) mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation, (2) damage due to sodium cavitation, (3) detection method for sodium cavitation, and (4) estimation method for sodium cavitation by the comparison with water cavitation. Materials were collected from the reports on liquid metal cavitation, sodium cavitation and water cavitation published from 1965 to now. The mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation cavitation parameters (mean location, distributed amount or occurrence aspect and stability), experiment of causing cavitation with Venturi tube, and growth of bubbles within superheated sodium. The sodium cavitation damage was caused by magnetostriction vibration method and with Venturi tube. The state of damage was investigated with the cavitation performance of a sodium pump, and the damage was examined in view of the safety of LMFBR plants. Sodium cavitation was detected with acoustic method, radiation method, and electric method. The effect of physical property of liquid on incipient cavitation was studied. These are thermodynamic effect based on quasistatic thermal equilibrium condition and the effect of the physical property of liquid based on bubble dynamics. (Iwase, T.)

  8. Dialysate sodium and sodium gradient in maintenance hemodialysis: a neglected sodium restriction approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Mendoza, Jair; Sun, Sumi; Chertow, Glenn M.; Moran, John; Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Background. A higher sodium gradient (dialysate sodium minus pre-dialysis plasma sodium) during hemodialysis (HD) has been associated with sodium loading; however, its role is not well studied. We hypothesized that a sodium dialysate prescription resulting in a higher sodium gradient is associated with increases in interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), blood pressure (BP) and thirst.

  9. Design of high-performance cathode materials with single-phase pathway for sodium ion batteries: A study on P2-Nax(LiyMn1-y)O2 compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lufeng; Li, Xiang; Ma, Xuetian; Xiong, Shan; Liu, Pan; Tang, Yuanzhi; Cheng, Shuang; Hu, Yan-Yan; Liu, Meilin; Chen, Hailong

    2018-03-01

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are an emerging electrochemical energy storage technology that has high promise for electrical grid level energy storage. High capacity, long cycle life, and low cost cathode materials are very much desired for the development of high performance SIB systems. Sodium manganese oxides with different compositions and crystal structures have attracted much attention because of their high capacity and low cost. Here we report our investigations into a group of promising lithium doped sodium manganese oxide cathode materials with exceptionally high initial capacity of ∼223 mAh g-1 and excellent capacity retentions, attributed primarily to the absence of phase transformation in a wide potential range of electrochemical cycling, as confirmed by in-operando X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rietveld refinement, and high-resolution 7Li solid-state NMR characterizations. The systematic study of structural evolution and the correlation with the electrochemical behavior of the doped cathode materials provides new insights into rational design of high-performance intercalation compounds by tailoring the composition and the crystal structure evolution in electrochemical cycling.

  10. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  11. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

  12. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  13. Sodium outleakage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Effective detection of outleakage from sodium facilities permits timely intervention capable of limiting the consequences of such leakage. Two types of detection systems are described: local and overall detection. The use of two independent systems in sodium facilities is recommended. (author)

  14. Visibility in sodium fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, G.W.; Anderson, N.R.

    1971-01-01

    The appearance of sodium fume of unknown concentration and the effects of short term exposure on unprotected workers is described. The molecular extinction coefficient of sodium fume is calculated from which light transmission data, and a rapid method for the estimation of the fume concentration is proposed. (author)

  15. Energy absorber for sodium-heated heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essebaggers, J.

    1975-12-01

    A heat exchanger is described in which water-carrying tubes are heated by liquid sodium and in which the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes is minimized. An energy absorbing chamber contains a compressible gas and is connected to the body of flowing sodium by a channel so that, in the event of a sodium-water reaction, products of the reaction will partially fill the energy absorbing chamber to attenuate the rise in pressure within the heat exchanger.

  16. Biological behavior of mixed LMFBR-fuel-sodium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlum, D.D.; Hackett, P.L.; Hess, J.O.; Allen, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    Immediately after exposure of rats to mixed aerosols of sodium-LMFBR fuel, about 80 to 90% of the body burden of 239 Pu is in the gastrointestinal tract; 1.5 to 4% is in the lungs. With fuel-only aerosols, less of the body burden was in the GI tract and more in the lung and the head. Blood and urine values suggest an increased absorption of 239 Pu from sodium-fuel than from fuel-only aerosols

  17. Contemporary Topics in Nutrition. Sodium, Cholesterol/Fat, Refined Sugar/Caloric Sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Dairy Council, Rosemont, IL.

    The properties of three critical elements in the human diet are discussed. In the first section, the functions of sodium in the body and in the diet are considered. The relationship between sodium and hypertension is explored, and recommendations from professional health groups on the sodium consumption are presented. In the second section, the…

  18. Sodium-concrete reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadd, P.G.

    1982-09-01

    Reaction products of all the major constituents of commercial concrete with liquid sodium have been identified using X-Ray Powder Diffraction. Eight different aggregate materials were chosen to represent the main rock classes available and Ordinary Portland Cement was used throughout. A Differential Thermal Analysis apparatus which enabled continuous stirring of the reactants was designed to improve contact between the powdered concrete components and the liquid sodium. Heats of reaction were calculated from peak areas, the apparatus having been calibrated using reactions of sodium with simple binary oxides whose heats of reaction were known. The heat evolution from aggregates was rationalised on the basis of their mineralogical composition, thus providing a means of choosing an optimum aggregate for use in the concrete of a LMFBR. The reaction of SiO 2 with liquid sodium was shown to depend on the oxygen concentration of the sodium. Reaction products are identified. The reaction of Al 2 O 3 with sodium has been shown also to depend on the oxygen concentration. Reaction products are identified. The evolution of hydrogen during a sodium-cement reaction has been studied using an electrochemical hydrogen meter and the penetration of the liquid metal into cement blocks was also investigated. (author)

  19. Body image dissatisfaction in pregnant and non-pregnant females is strongly predicted by immune activation and mucosa-derived activation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roomruangwong, Chutima; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Carvalho, André F; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Duleu, Sebastien; Geffard, Michel; Maes, Michael

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to delineate the associations between body image dissatisfaction in pregnant women and immune-inflammatory biomarkers, i.e., C-reactive protein (CRP), zinc and IgA/IgM responses to tryptophan and tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs). We assessed 49 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant females and assessed Body Image Satisfaction (BIS) scores at the end of term (T1), and 2-4 days (T2) and 4-6 weeks (T3) after delivery. Subjects were divided in those with a lowered BIS score (≤ 3) versus those with a higher score. Logistic regression analysis showed that a lowered T1 BIS score was predicted by CRP levels and IgA responses to tryptophan (negative) and TRYCATs (positive), perinatal depression, body mass index (BMI) and age. The sum of quinolinic acid, kynurenine, 3-OH-kynurenine and 3-OH-anthranilic acid (reflecting brain quinolinic acid contents) was the single best predictor. In addition, a large part of the variance in the T1, T2 and T3 BIS scores was explained by IgA responses to tryptophan and TRYCATs, especially quinolinic acid. Body image dissatisfaction is strongly associated with inflammation and mucosa-derived IDO activation independently from depression, pregnancy, BMI and age. IgA responses to peripheral TRYCATs, which determine brain quinolinic acid concentrations, also predict body image dissatisfaction.

  20. SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, E.D.; Weisberg, R.A.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a barrier system for a sodium heavy water reactor capable of insuring absolute separation of the metal and water. Relatively cold D/sub 2/O moderator and reflector is contained in a calandria into which is immersed the fuel containing tubes. The fuel elements are cooled by the sodium which flows within the tubes and surrounds the fuel elements. The fuel containing tubes are surrounded by concentric barrier tubes forming annular spaces through which pass inert gases at substantially atmospheric pressure. Header rooms above and below the calandria are provided for supplying and withdrawing the sodium and inert gases in the calandria region. (AEC)

  1. Multiple pathways from the neighborhood food environment to increased body mass index through dietary behaviors: A structural equation-based analysis in the CARDIA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrea S.; Meyer, Katie A.; Howard, Annie Green; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Shikany, James M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine longitudinal pathways from multiple types of neighborhood restaurants and food stores to BMI, through dietary behaviors. Methods We used data from participants (n=5114) in the United States-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study and a structural equation model to estimate longitudinal (1985–86 to 2005–06) pathways simultaneously from neighborhood fast food restaurants, sit-down restaurants, supermarkets, and convenience stores to BMI through dietary behaviors, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES) and physical activity. Results Higher numbers of neighborhood fast food restaurants and lower numbers of sit-down restaurants were associated with higher consumption of an obesogenic fast food-type diet. The pathways from food stores to BMI through diet were inconsistent in magnitude and statistical significance. Conclusions Efforts to decrease the numbers of neighborhood fast food restaurants and to increase the numbers of sit-down restaurant options could influence diet behaviors. Availability of neighborhood fast food and sit-down restaurants may play comparatively stronger roles than food stores in shaping dietary behaviors and BMI. PMID:26454248

  2. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  3. sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS) showed a marked effect, although there are some reports where cationic (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, CTAB) and neutral (Triton X-100) surfactants have also shown changes in the. *For correspondence ...

  4. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duverger de Cuy, G.

    1979-01-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  5. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can cause choking and serious breathing problems. Symptoms of sodium hypochlorite poisoning may include: Burning, red eyes Chest pain Coma Coughing (from the fumes) Delirium Gagging sensation Low blood pressure Pain in the ...

  6. Skeletal muscle sodium channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Sophie; Fontaine, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    This is an update on skeletal muscle sodium channelopathies since knowledge in the field have dramatically increased in the past years. The relationship between two phenotypes and SCN4A has been confirmed with additional cases that remain extremely rare: severe neonatal episodic laryngospasm mimicking encephalopathy, which should be actively searched for since patients respond well to sodium channel blockers; congenital myasthenic syndromes, which have the particularity to be the first recessive Nav1.4 channelopathy. Deep DNA sequencing suggests the contribution of other ion channels in the clinical expressivity of sodium channelopathies, which may be one of the factors modulating the latter. The increased knowledge of channel molecular structure, the quantity of sodium channel blockers, and the availability of preclinical models would permit a most personalized choice of medication for patients suffering from these debilitating neuromuscular diseases. Advances in the understanding of the molecular structure of voltage-gated sodium channels, as well as availability of preclinical models, would lead to improved medical care of patients suffering from skeletal muscle, as well as other sodium channelopathies.

  7. Cardiac sodium channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ahmad S; Asghari-Roodsari, Alaleh; Tan, Hanno L

    2010-07-01

    Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (INa) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of INa for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of arrhythmias in cardiac sodium channelopathies, i.e., arrhythmogenic diseases in patients with mutations in SCN5A, the gene responsible for the pore-forming ion-conducting alpha-subunit, or in genes that encode the ancillary beta-subunits or regulatory proteins of the cardiac sodium channel. While clinical and genetic studies have laid the foundation for our understanding of cardiac sodium channelopathies by establishing links between arrhythmogenic diseases and mutations in genes that encode various subunits of the cardiac sodium channel, biophysical studies (particularly in heterologous expression systems and transgenic mouse models) have provided insights into the mechanisms by which INa dysfunction causes disease in such channelopathies. It is now recognized that mutations that increase INa delay cardiac repolarization, prolong action potential duration, and cause long QT syndrome, while mutations that reduce INa decrease cardiac excitability, reduce electrical conduction velocity, and induce Brugada syndrome, progressive cardiac conduction disease, sick sinus syndrome, or combinations thereof. Recently, mutation-induced INa dysfunction was also linked to dilated cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, and sudden infant death syndrome. This review describes the structure and function of the cardiac sodium channel and its various subunits, summarizes major cardiac sodium channelopathies and the current knowledge concerning their genetic background and underlying molecular mechanisms, and discusses recent advances in the discovery of mutation-specific therapies in the management of these channelopathies.

  8. Development of sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H. Y.; Choi, Y. D. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, {tau}{sub c} = {delta}{center_dot}g{sup -0.83}{center_dot}10{sup (3570/T{sub Na}-3.34)}, in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics

  9. Development of sodium technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H. Y.; Choi, Y. D.

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, τ c = δ·g -0.83 ·10 (3570/T Na -3.34) , in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics of pressure propagation and gas flow, and

  10. Consumer awareness of salt and sodium reduction and sodium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M K; Lopetcharat, K; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2012-09-01

    Reduction of dietary sodium by reduction of sodium in foods is a current industry target. Quantitative information on consumer knowledge of sodium and reduction of dietary sodium is limited. The objectives of this study were to characterize consumer knowledge and awareness of sodium and salt reduction in foods. Consumers (n = 489) participated in a quantitative internet survey designed to gather knowledge and attitudes towards dietary sodium, sodium in foods, and health. Eating habits and food consumption characteristics, knowledge of salt and sodium, and interest in health and wellness were probed. Saltiness believe and sodium knowledge indices were calculated based on correct responses to salt levels in food products. Kano analysis was conducted to determine the role of nutrition labels and satisfaction/dissatisfaction of foods. Consumers were aware of the presence of sodium in "salty" foods, and that sodium was part of salt. People who had a family history of certain diseases associated with a higher intake of dietary sodium did not necessarily have more knowledge of the relationship between sodium intake and a specific disease compared to consumers with no family history. Sodium content on the food label panel did not influence consumer dissatisfaction; however, sodium content did not necessarily increase consumer product satisfaction either. The addition of a healthy nutrient (that is, whole grain, fiber) into a current food product was appealing to consumers. For nutrient labeling, a "reduced" claim was more appealing to consumers than a "free" claim for "unhealthy" nutrients such as fat, sodium, and sugar. This study demonstrated the current state of consumer knowledge on sodium and salt reduction, and consumer perception of the relationship between diets high in sodium and many chronic diseases. Information that may contribute to consumer satisfaction on nutrition panel labeling was also determined. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. High Dietary Sodium Intake Assessed by Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion Is Associated with NAFLD and Hepatic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Ji Hye; Lee, Kyong Joo; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Park, Hong Jun; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Jae Woo; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Sang Ok; Baik, Soon Koo

    2015-01-01

    Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans. We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010). The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI). BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD. The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR) 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P sodium values. High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.

  12. Sodium fire tests for investigating the sodium leak in Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi

    1996-01-01

    As a part of the work for investigating the sodium leak accident which occurred in Monju on December 8, 1995, three tests, (1) sodium leak test, (2) sodium fire test-I, and (3) sodium fire test-II, were carried out at OEC/PNC. Main objectives of these tests are to confirm leak and burning behavior of sodium from the damaged thermometer, and effects of the sodium fire on integrity of the surrounding structure, etc. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are shown as below. 1) Average sodium leak rate obtained from the sodium leak test was about 50 g/sec. This was equivalent to the value estimated from level change in the sodium overflow tank in the Monju accident. 2) Observation from video cameras in the sodium fire tests revealed that in early stages of sodium leak, sodium dropped down out of the flexible tube of thermometer in drips. This dripping and burning were expanded in range as sodium splashed on the duct. 3) Though, in the sodium fire test-I, there was a decrease of about 1 mm at a thickness of the burning pan in the vicinity in just under in the leak point, there were completely no crack and failure. In the meantime, in the sodium fire test-II the six open holes were found in the floor liner. By this liner failure, the reaction between sodium and concrete might take place. At present, while the detailed evaluation on the sodium fire test-II has been mainly carried out, the investigation for clarifying the cause of the liner failure has been also carried out. (author)

  13. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  14. Allomyrina Dichotoma Larvae Regulate Food Intake and Body Weight in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice Through mTOR and Mapk Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongwan Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has suggested that the Korean horn beetle (Allomyrina dichotoma has anti-hepatofibrotic, anti-neoplastic, and antibiotic effects and is recognized as a traditional medicine. In our previous works, Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL inhibited differentiation of adipocytes both in vitro and in vivo. However, the anorexigenic and endoplasmic reticulum(ER stress-reducing effects of ADL in obesity has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the anorexigenic and ER stress-reducing effects of ADL in the hypothalamus of diet-induced obese (DIO mice. Intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of ethanol extract of ADL (ADE suggested that an antagonizing effect on ghrelin-induced feeding behavior through the mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways. Especially, ADE resulted in strong reduction of ER stress both in vitro and in vivo. These findings strongly suggest that ADE and its constituent bioactive compounds are available and valuable to use for treatment of various diseases driven by prolonged ER stress.

  15. Prostaglandin E1 protects coronary microvascular function via the glycogen synthase kinase 3β-mitochondrial permeability transition pore pathway in rat hearts subjected to sodium laurate-induced coronary microembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Houyong; Ding, Yu; Xu, Xiaoqun; Li, Meiya; Fang, Yangliang; Gao, Beibei; Mao, Hengyi; Tong, Guoxin; Zhou, Liang; Huang, Jinyu

    2017-01-01

    Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) is used as a pretreatment for ischemia reperfusion injury in many biological systems. However, its value as a pretreatment for coronary microembolization (CME) is unknown. The goal of this study was to determine whether PGE1 would protect against CME. In a CME rat model, we observed microthrombi and early myocardial ischemia, with endothelium appearing exfoliated and mitochondria having irregular morphology and decreased internal complexity. The level of fibrinogen-like protein 2 prothrombinase was increased and superoxide dismutase and catalase levels were decreased. Moreover, mitochondria copy number and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening were increased. Pretreatment with PGE1 (1 or 2 μg/kg) significantly improved these cardiological deficits, acting via the glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β)-mPTP pathway. Unexpectedly, the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 decreased in the PGE1 at high dose. Overall, our findings suggested an important role for PGE1 in pretreatment of coronary microvascular dysfunction.

  16. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1979-10-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile may be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments

  17. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1980-06-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass-transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile can be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments. Mass-transfer coefficients ranging upward from 6 x 10 -5 m/s were measured in both packless and packed traps. As much as a fourfold increase in precipitation surface area was observed with increasing amount of NaH deposited. 11 figures, 2 tables

  18. Cardiac sodium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, A.S.; Asghari-Roodsari, A.; Tan, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (I-Na) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of I-Na for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of

  19. Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability

  20. Sodium purification in Rapsodie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, B.

    1968-01-01

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [fr

  1. Thermophysical properties of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harant, M.

    1978-01-01

    Substitution, inverse and substitution inverse relations in form of regression polynomials were used in calculating saturation pressure and density for thermodynamic and transport properties determination of sodium. Program UNISOAUT/A3 was used in calculating regression polynomials coefficients. (J.P.)

  2. Creep in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnock, W.; Cordwell, J.E.

    1978-03-01

    Available information on the creep of austenitic, ferritic and Alloy-800 type steels in liquid sodium is critically reviewed. Creep properties of stainless steels can be affected by element transfer and corrosion. At reactor structural component temperatures environmental effects are likely to be less important than changes due to thermal ageing. At high clad temperatures (700 0 C) decarburisation may cause the loss of strength and ductility in unstabilised steels while cavity formation may cause embrittlement in stabilised steels. The properties of Alloy 800 are, in some experiments, found to deteriorate while in others they are enhanced. This may be a consequence of the metallurgical complexity of the material or arise from the nature of the various techniques employed. Low alloy ferritic steels tend to decarburise in sodium at temperatures greater than 500 0 C and this leads to loss of strength and an increase in ductility. High alloy ferritics are immune to this effect and appear to be able to tolerate a degree of carburisation. Although intergranular cracking may be enhanced in liquid sodium the mechanical consequences are not significant and evidence for the existence of an embrittlement effect not associated with element transfer or corrosion is weak. Stress and strain may enhance element transfer at crack tips. However in real cracks the gettering or supply action of the crack faces conditions the chemistry of the cracks in sodium and protects the crack tip from element transfer. Thus creep crack extension rates should be independent of changes in bulk coolant chemistry. (author)

  3. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable

  4. Enhanced osteoconductivity of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite by system instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang Cho, Jung; Um, Seung-Hoon; Su Yoo, Dong; Chung, Yong-Chae; Hye Chung, Shin; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The effect of substituting sodium for calcium on enhanced osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite was newly investigated. Sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was synthesized by reacting calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid with sodium nitrate followed by sintering. As a control, pure hydroxyapatite was prepared under identical conditions, but without the addition of sodium nitrate. Substitution of calcium with sodium in hydroxyapatite produced the structural vacancies for carbonate ion from phosphate site and hydrogen ion from hydroxide site of hydroxyapatite after sintering. The total system energy of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects calculated by ab initio methods based on quantum mechanics was much higher than that of hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was energetically less stable compared with hydroxyapatite. Indeed, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited higher dissolution behavior of constituent elements of hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-buffered deionized water compared with hydroxyapatite, which directly affected low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity by increasing the degree of apatite supersaturation in SBF. Actually, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited markedly improved low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity in SBF and noticeably higher osteoconductivity 4 weeks after implantation in calvarial defects of New Zealand white rabbits compared with hydroxyapatite. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between hydroxyapatite and sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite on cytotoxicity as determined by BCA assay. Taken together, these results indicate that sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects has promising potential for use as a bone grafting material due to its enhanced osteoconductivity compared with hydroxyapatite. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. FY 2017 Status of Sodium Freezing and Remelting Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Boron, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Momozaki, Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chojnowski, D. B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Reed, C. B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The Sodium Freezing and Remelting experiment facility at Argonne National Laboratory has been significantly modified and improved. The main improvement was replacement of the two original stainless steel test sections that had strain gages limited by their bonds to the stainless steel to maximum temperatures of 350°C with a single new test section with strain gages that can be utilized up to 980°C and a thin wall to enhance measured strains. Wetting of stainless steel by sodium within a practical time of one to a few days is expected to require temperatures of 450°C or greater. Thus, the higher temperature strain gages enable wetting in a short time of a few days. Wetting below 350°C would have required an impractically long time of at least weeks. Other improvements included upgrading of the loop configuration, incorporation of a cold finger to purify sodium, a new data acquisition system, and reinstallation of the many heaters, heater controllers, and thermocouples. After the loop had been heated to 400°C for about two hours, an initial sodium freezing test was conducted. It is thought that the sodium might have at least partially wetted the stainless steel wall under these conditions. The strain gage measurements indicate that an incremental step inward deformation of the test section thin wall occurred as the temperature decreased through the sodium freezing temperature. This behavior is consistent with sodium initially adhering to the stainless steel inner wall but breaking away from the wall as the freezing sodium contracted. Conduct of additional sodium freezing tests under well wetted conditions was prevented as a result of stoppage of all electrical work at Argonne by the Laboratory Director on July 25, 2017. A pathway to resuming electrical work is now in place at Argonne and additional sodium freezing testing will resume next fiscal year.

  6. Modulation of epithelial sodium channel in human alveolar epithelial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulation of epithelial sodium channel in human alveolar epithelial cells by lipoxin A4 through AhR-cAMP-dependent pathway. Bi-Huan Cheng, Li-Wei Pan, Sheng-Rong Zhang, Bin-Yu Ying, Ben-Ji Wang, Guo-Liang Lin, Shi-Fang Ding ...

  7. Protective effects of sodium orthovanadate in diabetic reticulocytes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    not yet well understood in diabetes. Insulin administration improves the diabetic state by normalizing the blood glucose levels in type-1 diabetes and restores the altered metabolic pathways (Baquer et al. 1995). However, sodium orthovanadate (SOV), an insulin mimetic agent, has been shown to be effective in control-.

  8. Slicing sodium from bakery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for sodium reduction in our diet is clear to consumers, dieticians and food manufacturers. As sodium concentration has a strengthening effect on gluten, sodium reduction decreases dough mixing tolerance, dough resistance and induces dough stickiness. In particular, the latter may cause

  9. SODIUM LOSS INDUCED HYPONATREMIA IN THE ELDERLY ON A LOW SODIUM DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Macías Núñez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENLa hiponatremia es un desorden electrolítico que consiste en un aumento relativo a nivel corporal del contenido acuoso respecto del salino.La retención de agua libre o la pérdida de sodio son sus mecanismos causales principales, siendo el primero de ellos el más frecuente. Sin embargo, dado que los ancianos normales poseen un aumento en la excreción urinaria de sodio respecto de los jóvenes, pueden desarrollar hiponatremia secundaria a deplección salina cuando han estado en forma prolongada bajo una dieta hiposódica.En este reporte presentamos un caso de hiponatremia que fue resuelto mediante la restitución de sodio y no mediante la restricción hídrica. Analizamos también la baja confiabilidad de la excreción fraccional de urea en la interpretación de la etiología de la hiponatremia en los ancianos.BSTRACTHyponatremia is an electrolyte disorder which consist of a relative increase in body free water content respect to sodium one. Free water retention or sodium loss are its possible mechanisms, being the former more frequent than the latter. However, since urinary sodium loss is increased in healthy elderly, sodium depletion can be a frequent etiology of hyponatremia in this people when they have been on a low sodium diet for a long period.In this report a case of hyponatremia that solved with sodium restitution instead of water restriction is presented, and the name of senile sodium leakage hyponatremia is proposed for this entity. It is also analyzed the low reliability that fractional excretion of urea seems to have in the evaluation of this syndrome.

  10. Renal tubular NHE3 is required in the maintenance of water and sodium chloride homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Robert A; Poulsen, Søren B; de la Mora Chavez, Samantha; Soleimani, Manoocher; Dominguez Rieg, Jessica A; Rieg, Timo

    2017-08-01

    The sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is expressed in the intestine and the kidney, where it facilitates sodium (re)absorption and proton secretion. The importance of NHE3 in the kidney for sodium chloride homeostasis, relative to the intestine, is unknown. Constitutive tubule-specific NHE3 knockout mice (NHE3 loxloxCre) did not show significant differences compared to control mice in body weight, blood pH or bicarbonate and plasma sodium, potassium, or aldosterone levels. Fluid intake, urinary flow rate, urinary sodium/creatinine, and pH were significantly elevated in NHE3 loxloxCre mice, while urine osmolality and GFR were significantly lower. Water deprivation revealed a small urinary concentrating defect in NHE3 loxloxCre mice on a control diet, exaggerated on low sodium chloride. Ten days of low or high sodium chloride diet did not affect plasma sodium in control mice; however, NHE3 loxloxCre mice were susceptible to low sodium chloride (about -4 mM) or high sodium chloride intake (about +2 mM) versus baseline, effects without differences in plasma aldosterone between groups. Blood pressure was significantly lower in NHE3 loxloxCre mice and was sodium chloride sensitive. In control mice, the expression of the sodium/phosphate co-transporter Npt2c was sodium chloride sensitive. However, lack of tubular NHE3 blunted Npt2c expression. Alterations in the abundances of sodium/chloride cotransporter and its phosphorylation at threonine 58 as well as the abundances of the α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel, and its cleaved form, were also apparent in NHE3 loxloxCre mice. Thus, renal NHE3 is required to maintain blood pressure and steady-state plasma sodium levels when dietary sodium chloride intake is modified. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sodium intake of elementary school children in Bandung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endah Damastuti; Muhayatun Santoso; Natalia Adventini; Katherina Oginawati

    2010-01-01

    Sodium is essential micro nutrient which is needed by human body such as in regulating body fluids balance, maintaining the normal pH of blood, transmitting nerve signal, and helping cells in metabolism of other essential nutrients. The changes of modern life style at the moment, had lead people tend to consume fast foods and processed foods which have high sodium content that apprehensively increasing prevalence of hypertension. In this research, the determination of sodium intake of elementary school children in Bandung and the contribution of street foods to sodium intake was conducted. Food sampling was done by duplicate diet method of 19 elementary school children and 24 kinds of street foods often consumed by children in Bandung. The samples were analysed using neutron activation analysis technique. The results showed that sodium intake of elementary school children was ranging from 228 to 7019 mg/day with approximately 47 % of children have sodium intake above the upper intake level, 2200 mg/day. While the estimation of sodium intake from street foods, assuming that 1 portion of street food consumed in 1 day, was ranging from 53 to 3750 mg/day with average sodium intake contribution was about 65 % of adequate intake value. It could be generally concluded that present dietary pattern of children tends to over consumed of sodium and this matter could apprehensively impact to the increasing of future prevalence of hypertension as well as hypertension probability at age < 20 years old. From this research, it was expected to encourage all societies in giving more attention at dietary pattern and nutrient intake of their children for better quality human resources in the future. (author)

  12. Dietary sodium, adiposity, and inflammation in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haidong; Pollock, Norman K; Kotak, Ishita; Gutin, Bernard; Wang, Xiaoling; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Parikh, Samip; Harshfield, Gregory A; Dong, Yanbin

    2014-03-01

    To determine the relationships of sodium intake with adiposity and inflammation in healthy adolescents. A cross-sectional study involved 766 healthy white and African American adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Dietary sodium intake was estimated by 7-day 24-hour dietary recall. Percent body fat was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Fasting blood samples were measured for leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. The average sodium intake was 3280 mg/day. Ninety-seven percent of our adolescents exceeded the American Heart Association recommendation for sodium intake. Multiple linear regressions revealed that dietary sodium intake was independently associated with body weight (β = 0.23), BMI (β = 0.23), waist circumference (β = 0.23), percent body fat (β = 0.17), fat mass (β = 0.23), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (β = 0.25), leptin (β = 0.20), and tumor necrosis factor-α (β = 0.61; all Ps sodium intake and visceral adipose tissue, skinfold thickness, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, or intercellular adhesion molecule-1. All the significant associations persisted after correction for multiple testing (all false discovery rates sodium consumption of our adolescents is as high as that of adults and more than twice the daily intake recommended by the American Heart Association. High sodium intake is positively associated with adiposity and inflammation independent of total energy intake and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption.

  13. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Kuznetsova, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires

  14. Dietary sodium intake: scientific basis for public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    National and international agencies recommend a reduction in dietary sodium intake. However, some have questioned the wisdom of these policies. The goal of this report was to assess the findings and quality of studies that have examined the relationship between dietary sodium and both blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Literature review of the available observational studies and randomized controlled trials, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses. A large body of evidence from observational studies and clinical trials documents a direct relationship between dietary sodium intake and the level of blood pressure, especially in persons with a higher level of blood pressure, African-Americans, and those who are older or have comorbidity, including chronic kidney disease. A majority of the available observational reports support the presence of a direct relationship between dietary sodium intake and cardiovascular disease but the quality of the evidence according to most studies is poor. The limited information available from clinical trials is consistent with a beneficial effect of reduced sodium intake on incidence of cardiovascular disease. The scientific underpinning for policies to reduce the usual intake of dietary sodium is strong. In the United States and many other countries, addition of sodium during food processing has led to a very high average intake of dietary sodium, with almost everyone exceeding the recommended goals. National programs utilizing voluntary and mandatory approaches have resulted in a successful reduction in sodium intake. Even a small reduction in sodium consumption is likely to yield sizable improvement in population health. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Fast sodium ion conductivity in supertetrahedral phosphidosilicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johrendt, Dirk; Haffner, Arthur; Hatz, Anna Katharina; Moudrakovski, Igor; Lotsch, Bettina Valeska

    2018-04-03

    Fast sodium ion conductors are key components of sodium-based all-solid-state batteries which hold promise as safe systems for large-scale storage of electrical power. Here, we report the synthesis, crystal structure determination and Na+ ion conductivities of six new sodium ion conductors, the phosphidosilicates Na19Si13P25, Na23Si19P33, Na23Si28P45, Na23Si37P57, LT-NaSi2P3 and HT-NaSi2P3, which are entirely based on earth-abundant elements. The new structures exhibit SiP4 tetrahedra assembling interpenetrating networks of T3 to T5 supertetrahedral clusters which can be hierarchically assigned to sphalerite- or diamond-type structures. 23Na solid-state NMR spectra and geometrical pathway analysis indicate Na+ ion mobility between the supertetrahedral cluster networks. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed Na+ ion conductivities up to σ (Na+) = 4 ∙ 10-4 Scm-1 with an activation energy of Ea = 0.25 eV in HT-NaSi2P3 at 25 °C. The conductivities increase with the size of the supertetrahedral clusters due to the dilution of Na+ ions as the charge density of the anionic supertetrahedral networks decreases. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A study on sodium-concrete reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jae Heum; Min, Byong Hun [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    A small sodium-concrete reaction facility was designed, manufactured and installed. this facility has been operated under inert gas(N{sub 2}) with different experimental variables such as sodium injection temperature, injection amount of sodium, aging period of concrete, sodium reservoir temperature. As a result, it was found that sodium injection temperature and injected amount of sodium has little effect on sodium-concrete reaction. However, sodium reservoir temperature and aging period of concrete has relatively high impact on sodium-concrete reaction. Sodium-concrete reaction model has also been developed and compared with experimental results. (Author) 51 refs., 16 tabs., 64 figs.

  17. Sodium diffusion in boroaluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, John C.

    2011-01-01

    of isothermal sodium diffusion in BAS glasses by ion exchange, inward diffusion, and tracer diffusion experiments. By varying the [SiO2]/[Al2O3] ratio of the glasses, different structural regimes of sodium behavior are accessed. We show that the mobility of the sodium ions decreases with increasing [SiO2]/[Al2O......3] ratio, revealing that sodium is more mobile when it acts as a charge compensator to stabilize network formers than when it acts as a creator of non-bridging oxygens on tetrahedrally-coordinated silicon and trigonal boron. The impacts of both the addition of iron and its redox state on the sodium...... be attributed to the fact that for sodium inward diffusion, the charge compensation for electron holes is a rather slow process that limits the rate of diffusion. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Physical properties of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi Primicia, J.; Martinez Piquer, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    The molten sodium has been the more accepted coolant for the first generation of FBR, by this reason the knowledge of its technology is needed for the development of the next LMFBR. A series of necessary data for designing sodium liquid systems are given. Tables and graphics about the most important physical sodium properties between 1200-1400 degC are gathered. The results have been obtained from equations that relate the properties with temperature using a Fortran IV program. (author) [es

  19. Sodium bicarbonate: basically useless therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschner, Judy L; Poland, Ronald L

    2008-10-01

    Common clinical practices often are unsupported by experimental evidence. One example is the administration of sodium bicarbonate to neonates. Despite a long history of widespread use, objective evidence that administration of sodium bicarbonate improves outcomes for patients in cardiopulmonary arrest or with metabolic acidosis is lacking. Indeed, there is evidence that this therapy is detrimental. This review examines the history of sodium bicarbonate use in neonatology and the evidence that refutes the clinical practice of administering sodium bicarbonate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation or to treat metabolic acidosis in the NICU.

  20. Servo-control of water and sodium homeostasis during renal clearance measurements in conscious rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Klaus; Shirley, David G

    2007-01-01

    Servo-controlled fluid and sodium replacement during clearance studies is used in order to prevent loss of body fluid and sodium following diuretic/natriuretic procedures. However, even under control conditions, the use of this technique is sometimes associated with increases in proximal tubular...

  1. Thermal, FT–IR and dielectric studies of gel grown sodium oxalate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. Oxalic acid metabolism is important in humans, animals and plants. The effect of oxalic acid sodium salt is widely studied in living body. The growth of sodium oxalate single crystals by gel growth is reported, which can be used to mimic the growth of crystals in vivo. The grown single crystals are colourless, ...

  2. A hot topic: temperature sensitive sodium channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egri, Csilla; Ruben, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    Perturbations to body temperature affect almost all cellular processes and, within certain limits, results in minimal effects on overall physiology. Genetic mutations to ion channels, or channelopathies, can shift the fine homeostatic balance resulting in a decreased threshold to temperature induced disturbances. This review summarizes the functional consequences of currently identified voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channelopathies that lead to disorders with a temperature sensitive phenotype. A comprehensive knowledge of the relationships between genotype and environment is not only important for understanding the etiology of disease, but also for developing safe and effective treatment paradigms.

  3. Contribution of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium lauric acid in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Contribution of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium lauric acid in the one-pot synthesis of intercalated ... chain length but different anion groups were used together as intercalates to prepare intercalated ZnAl–layered double hydroxides ... assembly method, LDHs layers and surfactants are closely interconnected.

  4. Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride ...

  5. Contribution of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium lauric acid in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Anion surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and sodium lauric acid (SLA), with almost the same chain length but different anion groups were used together as intercalates to prepare intercalated ZnAl–layered double hydroxides (ZnAl–LDHs). Their composition, structure and morphology were characterized ...

  6. 21 CFR 522.144 - Arsenamide sodium aqueous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsenamide sodium aqueous injection. 522.144 Section 522.144 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... evidence of reduced liver function, a more conservative dosage schedule of 0.1 milliliter per pound of body...

  7. Sodium waste technology: A summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, C.S.; Witbeck, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Sodium Waste Technology (SWT) Program was established to resolve long-standing issues regarding disposal of sodium-bearing waste and equipment. Comprehensive SWT research programs investigated a variety of approaches for either removing sodium from sodium-bearing items, or disposal of items containing sodium residuals. The most successful of these programs was the design, test, and the production operation of the Sodium Process Demonstration Facility at ANL-W. The technology used was a series of melt-drain-evaporate operations to remove nonradioactive sodium from sodium-bearing items and then converting the sodium to storable compounds

  8. High Dietary Sodium Intake Assessed by Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion Is Associated with NAFLD and Hepatic Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Huh

    Full Text Available Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans.We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010. The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI and fatty liver index (FLI. BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD.The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P < 0.001. Further, subjects with hepatic fibrosis as assessed by BARD score and FIB-4 in NAFLD patients had higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium values.High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.

  9. Cavitation erosion in sodium flow, sodium cavitation tunnel testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbiere, Pierre.

    1981-04-01

    The high-volume sodium flows present in fast neutron reactors are liable to induce cavitation phenomena in various portion of the sodium lines and pumps. The absence of sufficient data in this area led the C.E.A. to undertake an erosion research program in cavitating sodium flow. This paper discusses the considerations leading to the definition and execution of sodium cavitation erosion tests, and reviews the tests run with 400 0 C sodium on various steel grades: 316, 316 L, 316 Ti (Z8CNDT17-12), Poral (Z3CND18-12), 304 L and LN2 - clad 316 L (Ni coating-clad 316 L). Acoustic detection and signal processing methods were used with an instrument package designed and implemented at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Center

  10. Biological Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Biological Pathways Fact Sheet Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features ...

  11. Behavioral responses and fluid regulation in male rats after combined dietary sodium deficiency and water deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Kimberly J; Curtis, Kathleen S

    2018-02-01

    Most investigators use a single treatment such as water deprivation or dietary sodium deficiency to evaluate thirst or sodium appetite, which underlie behavioral responses to body fluid challenges. The goal of the present experiments was to assess the effects of combined treatments in driving behaviors. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of combined overnight water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency on water intake and salt intake by adult male rats in 2-bottle (0.5M NaCl and water) tests. Overnight water deprivation alone increased water intake, and 10days of dietary sodium deficiency increased 0.5M NaCl intake, with a secondary increase in water intake. During combined water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency, water intake was enhanced and 0.5M NaCl was reduced, but not eliminated, suggesting that physiologically relevant behavioral responses persist. Nonetheless, the pattern of fluid intake was altered by the combined treatments. We also assessed the effect of these behaviors on induced deficits in body sodium and fluid volume during combined treatments and found that, regardless of treatment, fluid ingestion partially repleted the induced deficits. Finally, we examined urine volume and sodium excretion during dietary sodium deficiency with or without overnight water deprivation and found that, whether or not rats were water deprived, and regardless of water consumption, sodium excretion was minimal. Thus, the combination of water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency appears to arouse drives that stimulate compensatory behavioral responses. These behaviors, in conjunction with physiological adaptations to the treatments, underlie body sodium and volume repletion in the face of combined water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sodium as a reactor coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, S.B.G.

    1989-01-01

    This work is related to the use of sodium as a reactor coolant, to the advantages and problems related to its use, its mechanical, thermophysics, eletronical, magnetic and nuclear properties. It is mainly a bibliographic review, with the aim of gathering the necessary information to persons initiating in the study of sodium and also as reference source. (author) [pt

  13. Techniques for extinguishing sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, Chander; Kale, R.D.

    1979-02-01

    The experimental work done to evaluate the performance of commercially available fire extinguishants and powders for sodium fires is described. Dry chemical powder with sodium bicarbonate base was found very effective. Another effective method of extinghishing fire by using perforated covered tray is also discussed. (auth.)

  14. Sodium sampling and impurities determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docekal, J.; Kovar, C.; Stuchlik, S.

    1980-01-01

    Samples may be obtained from tubes in-built in the sodium facility and further processed or they are taken into crucibles, stored and processed later. Another sampling method is a method involving vacuum distillation of sodium, thus concentrating impurities. Oxygen is determined by malgamation, distillation or vanadium balance methods. Hydrogen is determined by the metal diaphragm extraction, direct extraction or amalgamation methods. Carbon is determined using dry techniques involving burning a sodium sample at 1100 degC or using wet techniques by dissolving the sample with an acid. Trace amounts of metal impurities are determined after dissolving sodium in ethanol. The trace metals are concentrated and sodium excess is removed. (M.S.)

  15. Friction and wear in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, N.J.; Droher, J.J.

    1973-01-01

    In the design of a safe and reliable sodium-cooled reactor one of the more important problem areas is that of friction and wear of components immersed in liquid sodium or exposed to sodium vapor. Sodium coolant at elevated temperatures may severely affect most oxide-bearing surface layers which provide corrosion resistance and, to some extent, lubrication and surface hardness. Consequently, accelerated deterioration may be experienced on engaged-motion contact surfaces, which could result in unexpected reactor shutdown from component malfunction or failure due to galling and seizure. An overall view of the friction and wear phenomena encountered during oscillatory rubbing of surfaces in high-temperature, liquid-sodium environments is presented. Specific data generated at the Liquid Metal Engineering Center (LMEC) on this subject is also presented. (U.S.)

  16. Sodium ionization detector and sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrizo, J.; Bauerle, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Work conducted on a basic technology development effort with the Westinghouse Sodium Ionization Detector (SID) sensor is reported. Included are results obtained for three task areas: (1) On-line operational response testing - in-situ calibration techniques; (2) Performance-reliability characteristics of aged filaments; and (3) Evaluation of chemical interference effects. The results showed that a calibrator filament coated with a sodium compound, when activated, does supply the necessary sodium atoms to provide a valid operational in-situ test. The life time of new Cr 2 0 3 -protected SID sensor filaments can be extended by operating at a reduced temperature. However, there also is a reduction in the sensitivity. Non-sodium species, such as products from a smoldering fire and organic aerosols, produce an interference response from the sensor comparable to a typical sodium response

  17. Dietary Potassium: a Key Mediator of the Cardiovascular Response to Dietary Sodium Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Kanbay, Mehmet; Bayram, Yeter; Solak, Yalcin; Sanders, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Potassium and sodium share a yin/yang relationship in the regulation of blood pressure (BP). BP is directly associated with the total body sodium and negatively correlated with the total body potassium. Epidemiologic, experimental, and clinical studies have demonstrated that potassium is a significant regulator of BP and further improves cardiovascular outcomes. Hypertensive cardiovascular damage, stroke and stroke-related death are accelerated by salt intake but could be prevented by increas...

  18. Low sodium diet in pregnancy: effects on maternal nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maten, G D

    1995-07-01

    In the present study, besides the effect on blood pressure, the effects of a low sodium diet in pregnancy on maternal energy and nutrient intake, calcium metabolism, zinc and magnesium status, weight gain and body fat storage were investigated. No effect of the low sodium diet in pregnancy on the course of blood pressure and the incidence of hypertensive disorders was observed. The reduction in sodium intake also caused a significant reduction in the intake of energy, protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, zinc, magnesium, iron and cholesterol. The reduced intake of calcium, zinc and magnesium in the women on the low sodium diet did not result in significant changes in circulating total calcium, ionized calcium, parathyroid hormone, zinc, alkaline phosphatase or magnesium, probably because of homeostatic adaptations by the kidneys. In the women on the low sodium diet non-significant reductions in weight gain (1.5 kg) and fat mass gain (0.9 kg) over pregnancy were observed. These reductions in weight and fat mass gain were more pronounced (3.4 kg (P = 0.003) and 1.3 kg (P = 0.15), respectively) when only the data of the women with good compliance were analyzed. The use of a low sodium diet in pregnancy did not have significant effects on infant birth weight, placental weight or other pregnancy outcome variables.

  19. Stakeholder discussion to reduce population-wide sodium intake and decrease sodium in the food supply: a conference report from the American Heart Association Sodium Conference 2013 Planning Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Elliott M; Appel, Lawrence J; Balentine, Douglas; Johnson, Rachel K; Steffen, Lyn M; Miller, Emily Ann; Pappas, Antigoni; Stitzel, Kimberly F; Vafiadis, Dorothea K; Whitsel, Laurie

    2014-06-24

    A 2-day interactive forum was convened to discuss the current status and future implications of reducing sodium in the food supply and to identify opportunities for stakeholder collaboration. Participants included 128 stakeholders engaged in food research and development, food manufacturing and retail, restaurant and food service operations, regulatory and legislative activities, public health initiatives, healthcare, academia and scientific research, and data monitoring and surveillance. Presentation topics included scientific evidence for sodium reduction and public health policy recommendations; consumer sodium intakes, attitudes, and behaviors; food technologies and solutions for sodium reduction and sensory implications; experiences of the food and dining industries; and translation and implementation of sodium intake recommendations. Facilitated breakout sessions were conducted to allow for sharing of current practices, insights, and expertise. A well-established body of scientific research shows that there is a strong relationship between excess sodium intake and high blood pressure and other adverse health outcomes. With Americans getting >75% of their sodium from processed and restaurant food, this evidence creates mounting pressure for less sodium in the food supply. The reduction of sodium in the food supply is a complex issue that involves multiple stakeholders. The success of new technological approaches for reducing sodium will depend on product availability, health effects (both intended and unintended), research and development investments, quality and taste of reformulated foods, supply chain management, operational modifications, consumer acceptance, and cost. The conference facilitated an exchange of ideas and set the stage for potential collaboration opportunities among stakeholders with mutual interest in reducing sodium in the food supply and in Americans' diets. Population-wide sodium reduction remains a critically important component of

  20. Targeting sodium channels in cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for proper electrical conduction in the heart. During acquired pathological conditions and inherited sodium channelopathies, altered sodium channel function causes conduction disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias. Although the clinical,

  1. Effect of maternal excessive sodium intake on postnatal brain development in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-a; Ahn, Young-mo; Lee, Hye-ah; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Young-ju; Lee, Hwa-young

    2015-04-01

    Postnatal brain development is affected by the in utero environment. Modern people usually have a high sodium intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium hyperingestion during pregnancy on the postnatal brain development of rat offspring. The sodium-overloaded rats received 1.8% NaCl in their drinking water for 7 days during the last week of gestation. Their body weight, urine, and blood levels of sodium and other parameters were measured. Some rats were sacrificed at pregnancy day 22 and the weight and length of the placenta and foetus were measured. The cerebral cortex and hippocampus were obtained from their offspring at postnatal day 1 and at postnatal weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8. Western blot analyses were conducted with brain tissue lysates. The sodium-overloaded animals had decreased weight gain in the last week of gestation as well as decreased food intake, increased water intake, urine volume, urine sodium, and serum sodium. There were no differences in placental weight and length. The foetuses of sodium-overloaded rats showed decreased body weight and size, and this difference was maintained postnatally for 2 weeks. In the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the offspring, the protein levels of myelin basic protein, calmodulin/calcium-dependent protein kinase II, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were decreased or aberrantly expressed. The present data suggest that increased sodium intake during pregnancy affects the brain development of the offspring.

  2. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  3. Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

  4. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su-Chen; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and food animals. Recently it has been isolated from retail foods with prevalences up to 42%, prompting concern that contaminated foods may be one of the reasons for increased community-acquired C. difficile infection (CA-CDI). A number of studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in raw meats and fresh vegetables; however, fewer studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in ready-to-eat meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 C. difficile isolates of food animal and retail food origins to food preservatives commonly used in ready-to-eat meats. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite against C. difficile. Checkerboard assays were used to investigate the combined effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, commonly used in combination in meats. Modal MIC values for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite were 250 μg/ml, >4000 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, respectively. No bactericidal activity was observed for all three food preservatives. The checkerboard assays showed indifferent interaction between sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This study demonstrated that C. difficile can survive in the presence of food preservatives at concentrations higher than the current maximum permitted levels allowed in ready-to-eat meats. The possibility of retail ready-to-eat meats contaminated with C. difficile acting as a source of CDI needs to be investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine Terra

    2014-01-01

    that 45% of deaths in the developed world are linked to fibrotic disease. Fibrosis and cancer are known to be inextricably linked; however, we are only just beginning to understand the common and overlapping molecular pathways between the two. Here, we discuss what is known about the intersection...... of fibrosis and cancer, with a focus on cancer metastasis, and highlight some of the exciting new potential clinical targets that are emerging from analysis of the molecular pathways associated with these two devastating diseases. Clin Cancer Res; 20(14); 3637-43. ©2014 AACR....

  6. Modulation of epithelial sodium channel in human alveolar epithelial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulation of epithelial sodium channel in human alveolar epithelial cells by lipoxin A4 through AhR-cAMP-dependent pathway. Bi-Huan Cheng1,2, Li-Wei Pan2, Sheng-Rong Zhang3, Bin-Yu Ying2, Ben-Ji. Wang2, Guo-Liang Lin2 and Shi-Fang Ding1*. 1Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong ...

  7. Sodium-cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthoud, Georges; Ducros, Gerard; Feron, Damien; Guerin, Yannick; Latge, Christian; Limoge, Yves; Santarini, Gerard; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Vernaz, Etienne; Guidez, Joel; Andrieux, Catherine; Baque, Francois; Bonin, Bernard; Boullis, Bernard; Cabet, Celine; Carre, Frank; Dufour, Philippe; Gauche, Francois; Grouiller, Jean-Paul; Jeannot, Jean-Philippe; Le Flem, Marion; Le Coz, Pierre; Martin, Laurent; Masson, Michel; Mathonniere, Gilles; Nokhamzon, Jean-Guy; Pelletier, Michel; Rodriguez, Gilles; Saez, Manuel; Seran, Jean-Louis; Varaine, Frederic; Zaetta, Alain; Behar, Christophe; Provitina, Olivier; Lecomte, Michael; Forestier, Alain; Bender, Alexandra; Parisot, Jean-Francois; Finot, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This book first explains the choice of sodium-cooled reactors by outlining the reasons of the choice of fast neutron reactors (fast neutrons instead of thermal neutrons, recycling opportunity for plutonium, full use of natural uranium, nuclear waste optimization, flexibility of fast neutron reactors in nuclear material management, fast neutron reactors as complements of water-cooled reactors), and by outlining the reasons for the choice of sodium as heat-transfer material. Physical, chemical, and neutron properties of sodium are presented. The second part of the book first presents the main design principles for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors and their core. The third part proposes an historical overview and an assessment of previously operated sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (French reactors from Rapsodie to Superphenix, other reactors in the world), and an assessment of the main incidents which occurred in these reactors. It also reports the experience and lessons learned from the dismantling of various sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors in the world. The next chapter addresses safety issues (technical and safety aspects related to the use of sodium) and environmental issues (dosimetry, gaseous and liquid releases, solid wastes, and cooling water). Then, various technological aspects of these reactors are addressed: the energy conversion system, main components, sodium chemistry, sodium-related technology, advances in in-service inspection, materials used in reactors and their behaviour, and fuel system. The next chapter addresses the fuel cycle in these reactors: its integrated specific character, report of the French experience in fast neutron reactor fuel processing, description of the transmutation of minor actinides in these reactors. The last chapter proposes an overview of reactors currently projected or under construction in the world, presents the Astrid project, and gives an assessment of the economy of these reactors. A glossary and an index

  8. Restricting dietary sodium reduces plasma sodium response to exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenders, E E; Franken, C P G; Cotter, J D; Thornton, S N; Rehrer, N J

    2017-11-01

    Exercise-associated hyponatremia can be life-threatening. Excessive hypotonic fluid ingestion is the primary etiological factor but does not explain all variability. Possible effects of chronic sodium intake are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary sodium affects plasma sodium concentration [Na + ] during exercise in the heat, when water intake nearly matches mass loss. Endurance-trained men (n = 9) participated in this crossover experiment. Each followed a low-sodium (lowNa) or high-sodium (highNa) diet for 9 days with 24-h fluid intakes and urine outputs measured before experimental trials (day 10). The trials were ≥2 week apart. Trials comprised 3 h (or if not possible to complete, to exhaustion) cycling (55% VO 2max ; 34 °C, 65% RH) with water intake approximating mass loss. Plasma [Na + ], hematocrit, sweat and urine [Na + ], heart rate, core temperature, and subjective perceptions were monitored. Urine [Na + ] was lower on lowNa 24 h prior to (31 ± 24, 76 ± 30 mmol/L, P = 0.027) and during trials (10 ± 10, 52 ± 32 mmol/L, P = 0.004). Body mass was lower on lowNa (79.6 ± 8.5, 80.5 ± 8.9, P = 0.03). Plasma [Na + ] was lower on lowNa before (137 ± 2, 140 ± 3, P = 0.007) and throughout exercise (P = 0.001). Sweat [Na + ] was unaffected by diet (54.5 ± 40, 54.5 ± 23 mmol/L, P = 0.99). Heart rate and core temperature were higher on lowNa (P ≤ 0.001). Despite decreased urinary sodium losses, plasma sodium was lower on lowNa, with decreased mass indicating (extracellular) water may have been less, explaining greater heart rate and core temperature. General population health recommendations to lower salt intake may not be appropriate for endurance athletes, particularly those training in the heat. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Emerging Disparities in Dietary Sodium Intake from Snacking in the US Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Elizabeth K; Poti, Jennifer M; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-06-17

    The US population consumes dietary sodium well in excess of recommended levels. It is unknown how the contribution of snack foods to sodium intake has changed over time, and whether disparities exist within specific subgroups of the US population. To examine short and long term trends in the contribution of snack food sources to dietary sodium intake for US adults and children over a 37-year period from 1977 to 2014. We used data collected from eight nationally representative surveys of food intake in 50,052 US children aged 2-18 years, and 73,179 adults aged 19+ years between 1977 and 2014. Overall, patterns of snack food consumption, trends in sodium intake from snack food sources and trends in food and beverage sources of sodium from snack foods across race-ethnic, age, gender, body mass index, household education and income groups were examined. In all socio-demographic subgroups there was a significant increase in both per capita sodium intake, and the proportion of sodium intake derived from snacks from 1977-1978 to 2011-2014 ( p sodium intake from snacks. While in 1977-1978 Non-Hispanic Blacks had a lower sodium intake from snacks compared to Non-Hispanic Whites ( p sodium intake from snack sources in Non-Hispanic Blacks. Our findings have implications for future policy interventions targeting specific US population subgroups.

  10. Metallic sodium as a coolant of high speed nuclear reactors, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atsumo, Hideo

    1975-01-01

    Tables are given on all the sodium loops in Japan and most of the sodium loops all over the world. Name and purpose of the loops, time of establishment, highest temperature, amount of sodium, flow rate, the materials used for the construction of the loops, and the diameter of the main pipings are given. Also, the problems related with these loops are discussed. For example, the high temperature sodium facility at HEDL-WADCO was made for the FFTF component test and instrument test, and uses 50,000 gallons of metallic sodium. The highest temperature is 590 0 C. The sodium flows at the rate of 60 g/m. The body is made of Type 304 stainless steel. Main data of existing sodium-cooled reactors in the world are also tabulated. The data include thermal output, electric output, the structure of the reactor cores, the dimensions of the cores, fuel used, the highest temperature in the reactors, the temperature of sodium at the inlet and outlet, the rate of multiplication, the amount of sodium used, number of control rods, number of heat exchangers, and the pressure of steam. The Monju type nuclear reactor in Japan uses 1,800 ton of sodium. (Fukutomi, T.)

  11. Iodide Binding in Sodium-Coupled Cotransporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Jaque, Ariela; Fong, Peying; Comer, Jeffrey

    2017-12-26

    Several apical iodide translocation pathways have been proposed for iodide efflux out of thyroid follicular cells, including a pathway mediated by the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter 1 (SMCT1), which remains controversial. Herein, we evaluate structural and functional similarities between SMCT1 and the well-studied sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) that mediates the first step of iodide entry into the thyroid. Free-energy calculations using a force field with electronic polarizability verify the presence of a conserved iodide-binding pocket between the TM2, TM3, and TM7 segments in hNIS, where iodide is coordinated by Phe67, Gln72, Cys91, and Gln94. We demonstrate the mutation of residue Gly93 of hNIS to a larger amino acid expels the side chain of a critical tryptophan residue (Trp255) into the interior of the binding pocket, partially occluding the iodide binding site and reducing iodide affinity, which is consistent with previous reports associating mutation of this residue with iodide uptake deficiency and hypothyroidism. Furthermore, we find that the position of Trp255 in this hNIS mutant mirrors that of Trp253 in wild-type hSMCT1, where a threonine (Thr91) occupies the position homologous to that occupied by glycine in wild-type hNIS (Gly93). Correspondingly, mutation of Thr91 to glycine in hSMCT1 makes the pocket structure more like that of wild-type hNIS, increasing its iodide affinity. These results suggest that wild-type hSMCT1 in the inward-facing conformation may bind iodide only very weakly, which may have implications for its ability to transport iodide.

  12. In situ Microscopic Observation of Sodium Deposition/Dissolution on Sodium Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhki Yui; Masahiko Hayashi; Jiro Nakamura

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical sodium deposition/dissolution behaviors in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte solution were observed by means of in situ light microscopy. First, granular sodium was deposited at pits in a sodium electrode in the cathodic process. Then, the sodium particles grew linearly from the electrode surface, becoming needle-like in shape. In the subsequent anodic process, the sodium dissolved near the base of the needles on the sodium electrode and the so-called ?dead sodium? broke a...

  13. CALANDRIA TYPE SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R.M.; Mahlmeister, J.E.; Vaughn, N.E.; Sanders, W.J.; Williams, A.C.

    1964-02-11

    A sodium graphite power reactor in which the unclad graphite moderator and fuel elements are contained within a core tank is described. The core tank is submersed in sodium within the reactor vessel. Extending longitudinally through the core thnk are process tubes with fuel elements positioned therein. A bellows sealing means allows axial expansion and construction of the tubes. Within the core tank, a leakage plenum is located below the graphite, and above the graphite is a gas space. A vent line regulates the gas pressure in the space, and another line removes sodium from the plenum. The sodium coolant flows from the lower reactor vessel through the annular space between the fuel elements and process tubes and out into the reactor vessel space above the core tank. From there, the heated coolant is drawn off through an outlet line and sent to the heat exchange. (AEC)

  14. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaHann, T.

    1995-01-01

    ISU's Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents

  15. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubeigt, E. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Gobillot, G. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  16. Lipid modulation of intravascular and cellular sodium handling: mechanistic insights and potential clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Andre C K B; Sposito, Andrei C

    2006-10-01

    Lipid metabolism can modulate structural and functional characteristics of the vascular system. Recent studies suggested that dyslipidemia may also affect the hemodynamic response to salt intake through the impairment of intravascular volume regulation and cellular sodium handling. Indeed, dyslipidemia may affect sodium homeostasis through several pathways, including defective nitric oxide and eicosanoid production, enhanced renin-angiotensin system activity and increased sympathetic response. Moreover, dyslipidemia directly affects cellular membrane viscosity and modifies membrane ion transport activity. In line with this evidence, attenuation of the above mentioned mechanisms has been demonstrated after lipid-lowering treatment. From the clinical point of view, such interaction between plasma lipids and sodium homeostasis may adversely affect the clinical presentation of diseases such as salt-sensitive hypertension, congestive heart failure, renal diseases with proteinuria or sodium retention. This review considers the interplay between plasma lipids and sodium homeostasis and its potential clinical implication.

  17. Dietary Sodium/Potassium Intake Does Not Affect Cognitive Function or Brain Imaging Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Kristen L; Fried, Linda; Jovanovich, Anna; Ix, Joachim; Yaffe, Kristine; You, Zhiying; Chonchol, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Dietary sodium may influence cognitive function through its effects on cerebrovascular function and cerebral blood flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dietary sodium intake with cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults. We also evaluated the associations of dietary potassium and sodium:potassium intake with cognitive decline, and associations of these nutrients with micro- and macro-structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices. In all, 1,194 participants in the Health Aging and Body Composition study with measurements of dietary sodium intake (food frequency questionnaire [FFQ]) and change in the modified Mini Mental State Exam (3MS) were included. The age of participants was 74 ± 3 years with a mean dietary sodium intake of 2,677 ± 1,060 mg/day. During follow-up (6.9 ± 0.1 years), 340 (28%) had a clinically significant decline in 3MS score (≥1.5 SD of mean decline). After adjustment, dietary sodium intake was not associated with odds of cognitive decline (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.50-1.84 per doubling of sodium). Similarly, potassium was not associated with cognitive decline; however, higher sodium:potassium intake was associated with increased odds of cognitive decline (OR 2.02 [95% CI 1.01-4.03] per unit increase). Neither sodium or potassium alone nor sodium:potassium were associated with micro- or macro-structural brain MRI indices. These results are limited by the use of FFQ. In community-dwelling older adults, higher sodium:potassium, but not sodium or potassium intake alone, was associated with decline in cognitive function, with no associations observed with micro- and macro-structural brain MRI indices. These findings do not support reduction dietary sodium/increased potassium intake to prevent cognitive decline with aging. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Dietary sodium and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Andrew; O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-06-01

    Although an essential nutrient, higher sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure (BP), forming the basis for current population-wide sodium restriction guidelines. While short-term clinical trials have achieved low intake (6 months). Guidelines assume that low sodium intake will reduce BP and reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to moderate intake. However, current observational evidence suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and CVD; the lowest risks observed with 3-5 g/day but higher risk with 5 g/day) and increased risk of CVD. Although lower intake may reduce BP, this may be offset by marked increases in neurohormones and other adverse effects which may paradoxically be adverse. Large randomised clinical trials with sufficient follow-up are required to provide robust data on the long-term effects of sodium reduction on CVD incidence. Until such trials are completed, current evidence suggests that moderate sodium intake for the general population (3-5 g/day) is likely the optimum range for CVD prevention.

  19. Sodium voiding analysis in Kalimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Won-Pyo; Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Hahn, Dohee

    2001-01-01

    A sodium boiling model has been developed for calculations of the void reactivity feedback as well as the fuel and cladding temperatures in the KALIMER core after onset of sodium boiling. The sodium boiling in liquid metal reactors using sodium as coolant should be modeled because of phenomenon difference observed from that in light water reactor systems. The developed model is a multiple -bubble slug ejection model. It allows a finite number of bubbles in a channel at any time. Voiding is assumed to result from formation of bubbles that fill the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for liquid film left on the cladding surface. The vapor pressure, currently, is assumed to be uniform within a bubble. The present study is focused on not only demonstration of the sodium voiding behavior predicted by the developed model, but also confirmation on qualitative acceptance for the model. In results, the model catches important phenomena for sodium boiling, while further effort should be made for the complete analysis. (author)

  20. A Markov State-based Quantitative Kinetic Model of Sodium Release from the Dopamine Transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Asghar M.; Khelashvili, George; Weinstein, Harel

    2017-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) belongs to the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) family of membrane proteins that are responsible for reuptake of neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft to terminate a neuronal signal and enable subsequent neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic neuron. The release of one sodium ion from the crystallographically determined sodium binding site Na2 had been identified as an initial step in the transport cycle which prepares the transporter for substrate translocation by stabilizing an inward-open conformation. We have constructed Markov State Models (MSMs) from extensive molecular dynamics simulations of human DAT (hDAT) to explore the mechanism of this sodium release. Our results quantify the release process triggered by hydration of the Na2 site that occurs concomitantly with a conformational transition from an outward-facing to an inward-facing state of the transporter. The kinetics of the release process are computed from the MSM, and transition path theory is used to identify the most probable sodium release pathways. An intermediate state is discovered on the sodium release pathway, and the results reveal the importance of various modes of interaction of the N-terminus of hDAT in controlling the pathways of release.

  1. Sodium channel activators: model of binding inside the pore and a possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Denis B; Zhorov, Boris S

    2005-08-15

    Sodium channel activators, batrachotoxin and veratridine, cause sodium channels to activate easier and stay open longer than normal channels. Traditionally, this was explained by an allosteric mechanism. However, increasing evidence suggests that activators can bind inside the pore. Here, we model the open sodium channel with activators and propose a novel mechanism of their action. The activator-bound channel retains a hydrophilic pathway for ions between the ligand and conserved asparagine in segment S6 of repeat II. One end of the activator approaches the selectivity filter, decreasing the channel conductance and selectivity. The opposite end reaches the gate stabilizing it in the open state.

  2. 21 CFR 522.460 - Cloprostenol sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cloprostenol sodium. 522.460 Section 522.460 Food... Cloprostenol sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of the aqueous solution contains 263 micrograms of cloprostenol sodium (equivalent to 250 micrograms of cloprostenol) in a sodium citrate, anhydrous citric acid...

  3. Local anesthetics: comparison of effects on batrachotoxin-elicited sodium flux and phosphoinositide breakdown in guinea pig cerebral cortical synaptoneurosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Y; Gusovsky, F; Daly, J W

    1988-11-01

    Local anesthetics inhibited the sodium influx and the inositol phosphate accumulation elicited by the sodium channel activator batrachotoxin in guinea pig cortical synaptoneurosomes. Inhibitory effects of local anesthetics on sodium influx correlated with inhibitory effects on binding of a tritiated batrachotoxin analog to sodium channels in synaptoneurosomes. There was also a correlation between inhibitory effects on sodium influx and on inositol phosphate accumulation; most local anesthetics inhibited sodium influx at concentrations similar to those required for inhibition of inositol phosphate accumulation. Indeed, euprocin, bupivacaine, lidocaine, and certain analogs were nearly equipotent with respect to inhibition of sodium influx and inositol phosphate accumulation. Local anesthetics also inhibited inositol phosphate accumulation that was induced by carbamylcholine through both a tetrodotoxin-sensitive and tetrodotoxin-insensitive pathway. Certain local anesthetics, such as dibucaine, inhibited the tetrodotoxin-sensitive pathway with higher potency than for the tetrodotoxin-insensitive pathway, while others, such as quinacrine, inhibited tetrodotoxin-sensitive and tetrodotoxin-insensitive pathways with equal potency. Diphenhydramine and chlorpromazine appeared to inhibit carbamylcholine-elicited phosphoinositide breakdown through blockade of muscarinic cholinergic receptors rather than because of local anesthetic activity of inhibitory effects on phospholipase C.

  4. The dismantling of fast reactors: sodium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Berte, M.; Serpante, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Fast reactors require a coolant that does not slow down neutrons so water can not be used. Metallic sodium has been chosen because of its outstanding neutronic and thermal properties but sodium reacts easily with air and water and this implies that sodium-smeary components can not be considered as usual nuclear wastes. A stage of sodium neutralizing is necessary in the processing of wastes from fast reactors. Metallic sodium is turned into a chemically stable compound: soda, carbonates or sodium salts. This article presents several methods used by Framatome in an industrial way when dismantling sodium-cooled reactors. (A.C.)

  5. Water and sodium balance in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drummer, C; Norsk, P; Heer, M

    2001-01-01

    in the past, is not a consequence of the variable microG. The handling of sodium, however, is considerably affected by microG. Sodium-retaining endocrine systems, such as renin-aldosterone and catecholamines, are much more activated during microG than on Earth. Despite a comparable oral sodium supply, urinary...... sodium excretion is diminished and a considerable amount of sodium is retained-without accumulating in the intravascular space. An enormous storage capacity for sodium in the extravascular space and a mechanism that allows the dissociation between water and sodium handling likely contribute to the fluid...

  6. Foreign Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SearchingPediatrics.com Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Foreign Body Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... I call the doctor? What is a foreign body? A foreign body is when an object is ...

  7. Insect sodium channels and insecticide resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Ke

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials (i.e., electrical impulses) in excitable cells. Although most of our knowledge about sodium channels is derived from decades of studies of mammalian isoforms, research on insect sodium channels is revealing both common and unique aspects of sodium channel biology. In particular, our understanding of the molecular dynamics and pharmacology of insect sodium channels has advanced greatly in recent...

  8. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  9. Determinants of water and sodium intake and output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhewicz, Anna E; Kenney, W Larry

    2015-09-01

    Physiological regulation of sodium and water intake and output is required for the maintenance of homeostasis. The behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms that govern fluid and salt balance are highly interdependent, with acute and chronic alterations in renal output tightly balanced by appropriate changes in thirst and, to a lesser extent in humans, sodium appetite. In healthy individuals, these tightly coupled mechanisms maintain extracellular fluid volume and body tonicity within a narrow homeostatic range by initiating ingestive behaviors and the release of hormones necessary to conserve water and sodium within the body. In this review, the factors that determine output of sodium and fluid and those that determine "normal" input (i.e., matched to output) are addressed. For output, individual variability accompanied by dysregulation of homeostatic mechanisms may contribute to acute and/or chronic disease. To illustrate that point, the specific condition of salt-sensitive hypertension is discussed. For input, physical characteristics, physiological phenotypes, genetic and developmental influences, and cultural and environmental factors combine to result in a wide range of individual variability that, in humans, is compensated for by alterations in excretion. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Selective Ionic Transport Pathways in Phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Anmin; Cheng, Yingchun; Ning, Shoucong; Foroozan, Tara; Yasaei, Poya; Li, Wen; Song, Boao; Yuan, Yifei; Chen, Lin; Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Mashayek, Farzad; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza

    2016-04-13

    Despite many theoretical predictions indicating exceptionally low energy barriers of ionic transport in phosphorene, the ionic transport pathways in this two-dimensional (2D) material has not been experimentally demonstrated. Here, using in situ aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and density functional theory, we studied sodium ion transport in phosphorene. Our high-resolution TEM imaging complemented by electron energy loss spectroscopy demonstrates a precise description of anisotropic sodium ions migration along the [100] direction in phosphorene. This work also provides new insight into the effect of surface and the edge sites on the transport properties of phosphorene. According to our observation, the sodium ion transport is preferred in zigzag edge rather than the armchair edge. The use of this highly selective ionic transport property may endow phosphorene with new functionalities for novel chemical device applications.

  11. Some techniques for sodium removal in CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Waimai; Ding Dejun; Guo Huanfang; Hong Shuzhang; Zhou Shuxia; Shen Fenyang; Yang Zhongmin; Xu Yongxing

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the experiment and application on sodium removal and sodium disposal are presented. Steam-nitrogen process was used in CIAE for cleaning cold traps, sodium vapor traps, a sodium tank. Atomized water-nitrogen process was used for cleaning dummy fuel assembly for CEFR and a sintered stainless steel filter. Sprinkle process was used for cleaning some tubes. Bultylcellosolve was used for cleaning sintered stainless steel filter and sodium flow measurement device. Ethanol alcohol was used for cleaning electromagnetic pump. Paraffin, transformer-oil or their mixture was used for cleaning sodium valves, a sodium vapor trap and sodium-potassium alloy absorber. A small sintered stainless steel filter was distillated in vacuum. A simple sodium disposal device has been served for several years in CIA.E. It can dispose about 10 Kg sodium each time and the disposal process is no-aerosol. It operates in open air for non-radioactive sodium. In recent years a small sodium cleaning plant has been built. It can use atomized water, steam or organic alcohol to removal of sodium. The LAVEL cleaning plant and SLAPSO cleaning plant were introduced from Italy. And CEFR preliminary design on sodium cleaning for spent fuel assembly and on sodium removal-decontamination for large reactor components is introduced. Vapour-nitrogen process is planned to use in them. (author)

  12. Old drug, new indication: Olsalazine sodium reduced serum uric acid levels in mice via inhibiting xanthine oxidoreductase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfen Niu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hyperuricemia, a long-term purine metabolic disorder, is a well-known risk factor for gout, hypertension and diabetes. In maintaining normal whole-body purine levels, xanthine oxidase (XOD is a key enzyme in the purine metabolic pathway, as it catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and finally to uric acid. Here we used the protein-ligand docking software idock to virtually screen potential XOD inhibitors from 3167 approved small compounds/drugs. The inhibitory activities of the ten compounds with the highest scores were tested on XOD in vitro. Interestingly, all the ten compounds inhibited the activity of XOD at certain degrees. Particularly, the anti-ulcerative-colitis drug olsalazine sodium demonstrated a great inhibitory activity for XOD (IC50 = 3.4 mg/L. Enzymatic kinetic studies revealed that the drug was a hybrid-type inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. Furthermore, the drug strikingly decreased serum urate levels, serum/hepatic activities of XOD at a dose-dependent manner in vivo. Thus, we demonstrated a successful hunting process of compounds/drugs for hyperuricemia through virtual screening, supporting a potential usage of olsalazine sodium in the treatment of hyperuricemia.

  13. Compton profile of polycrystalline sodium chloride and sodium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Shivaramu; Rajasekaran, L.; Ramamurthy, N.; Ford, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    We present here the Compton profile (CP) of polycrystalline sodium chloride and sodium fluoride. Our results consists of spherical average Compton profile based on measurements and calculation of spherical average Compton profile, directional Compton profile and their anisotropic effect using self-consistent Hartree-Fock wave functions employed on the linear combination of atomic orbital (HF-LCAO) approximation. The experimental results are compared with the HF-LCAO spherical average Compton profile and with tabulated Hartree-Fock free atom results. For both compounds the experimental results are found to be in good agreement with the HF-LCAO results and in qualitative agreement with Hartree-Fock free atom values

  14. Association between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and obesity in Korean adults: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Seon Mee; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Heo, Young-Ran; Hyun, Tai-Sun; Lyu, Eun-Soon; Oh, Se-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Ro, Hee-Kyong; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Yeon Kyung

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between sodium intake, as assessed by 24-h urinary sodium excretion, and various obesity parameters among South Korean adults. The associations of 24-h urinary sodium excretion and sodium intake calculated from the dietary questionnaire with obesity parameters also were compared. This multicenter, cross-sectional study analyzed data of 640 healthy adults from eight provinces in South Korea. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Mean 24-h urinary sodium excretion was calculated from repeatedly collected 24-h urine samples. Participants' dietary intake was assessed by 24-h dietary recall interview on the days before 24-h urine collection. In both sexes, the means of all anthropometric measurements tended to increase proportionally with 24-h urinary sodium excretion quartiles, regardless of adjustment. Men in the highest quartile (Q4) of 24-h urinary sodium excretion had increased odds of obesity (as assessed by BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR) compared with men in the three lower quartiles (Q1-Q3) of 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Women in Q4 of 24-h urinary sodium excretion exhibited a higher chance of general obesity and abdominal obesity. Sodium intake calculated from the dietary questionnaire was not significantly associated with obesity in either sex. In Korean adults, there was a positive association between higher sodium intake as assessed by 24-h urinary sodium excretion and obesity independent of energy intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Use of Gene Ontology Term and KEGG Pathway Enrichment for Analysis of Drug Half-Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hang Zhang

    Full Text Available A drug's biological half-life is defined as the time required for the human body to metabolize or eliminate 50% of the initial drug dosage. Correctly measuring the half-life of a given drug is helpful for the safe and accurate usage of the drug. In this study, we investigated which gene ontology (GO terms and biological pathways were highly related to the determination of drug half-life. The investigated drugs, with known half-lives, were analyzed based on their enrichment scores for associated GO terms and KEGG pathways. These scores indicate which GO terms or KEGG pathways the drug targets. The feature selection method, minimum redundancy maximum relevance, was used to analyze these GO terms and KEGG pathways and to identify important GO terms and pathways, such as sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity (GO:0015347, monoamine transmembrane transporter activity (GO:0008504, negative regulation of synaptic transmission (GO:0050805, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction (hsa04080, serotonergic synapse (hsa04726, and linoleic acid metabolism (hsa00591, among others. This analysis confirmed our results and may show evidence for a new method in studying drug half-lives and building effective computational methods for the prediction of drug half-lives.

  16. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H

    2008-06-15

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described.

  17. Inhibitin: a specific inhibitor of sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, K; Brown, R C; Spurlock, G; Southgate, K; Mir, M A

    1986-01-01

    An inhibitor of ouabain-insensitive sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes has been isolated from leukemic promyelocytes. To explore the specific effects of this inhibitor, named inhibitin, sodium transport experiments were carried out in human erythrocytes. Inhibitin reduced ouabain-insensitive bidirectional sodium transport. It did not change net sodium fluxes, had no significant effect on rubidium influx, and did not inhibit sodium-potassium-ATPase activity. The inhibitory effect of inhibi...

  18. Hemodynamic and neuroendocrine responses to changes in sodium intake in compensated heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Morten; Norsk, Peter; Gustafsson, Finn

    2005-01-01

    inhibitors and beta-adrenoreceptor blockers. Therefore, we determined the hemodynamic and neuroendocrine responses to 1 wk of a low-sodium diet (70 mmol/day) and 1 wk of a high-sodium diet (250 mmol/day) in 12 HF patients and 12 age-matched controls in a randomized, balanced fashion. During steady......Patients with untreated heart failure (HF) exhibit a blunted hemodynamic and neuroendocrine response to a high sodium intake, leading to excessive sodium and water retention. However, it is not known whether this is the case for patients with compensated HF receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme......-state conditions, hemodynamic and neuroendocrine examinations were performed at rest and during bicycle exercise. In seated HF patients, high sodium intake increased body weight (1.6 +/- 0.4%), plasma volume (9 +/- 2%), cardiac index (14 +/- 6%), and stroke volume index (21 +/- 5%), whereas mean arterial pressure...

  19. Agranulocytosis after Metamizole Sodium Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Cagan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Metamizole sodium (Novalgine is commonly used as an antipyretic, analgesic, and spasmolytic agent in some parts of the world and our country; however, it is banned in developed countries because of severe side effects. Here we present a case of a three-years- four- months-old girl who developed life-threatening agranulocytosis in his bone marrow after metamizole sodium use for fever, which resolved with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 580-583

  20. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  1. Effect of sodium deoxycholate and sodium cholate on DPPC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 119; Issue 2. Effect of sodium deoxycholate and ... NaDC induced significant changes in the membrane well below its CMC (6 mM). Even at 4 mM, which is still ... Being more hydrophilic NaC does not interact with the membrane efficiently. Complete solubilisation of ...

  2. Sodium-rich carbonated natural mineral water ingestion and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alejandro; Martins, Maria João; Guimarães, João Tiago; Severo, Milton; Azevedo, Isabel

    2010-02-01

    There is a strong positive correlation between sodium chloride intake and hypertension. In industrialized countries the ingestion of carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water is an important source of calorie-free fluids. The mineral content of these waters varies greatly, with many brands containing high levels of sodium. However, some mineral waters contain greater amounts of bicarbonate instead of chloride as the anion associated with the sodium cation. This is relevant because it is well established that the effect of sodium on blood pressure depends on the corresponding anion. Additionally the pressor effect of sodium bicarbonate is much lower than that of equivalent amounts of sodium chloride. The aim of our work was to evaluate the effect of ingesting a sodium-rich carbonated mineral water (Agua das Pedras) on blood pressure values in normotensive individuals. This crossover, non-blinded study evaluated 17 individuals (9 female and 8 male), aged 24-53 years, median body mass index (BMI) Agua das Pedras or Agua Vitalis. Each arm of the study lasted 7 weeks, with 6 weeks of washout between them. Twenty-four hour urinary samples were collected at the beginning and end of each arm to determine pH and sodium and potassium excretion. Blood pressure and body weight were measured weekly throughout the study. A mixed-effects model was used to compare groups (p Agua das Pedras had no effect on blood pressure. A study by Schorr and co-workers found that the ingestion of bicarbonate-rich water (1.5 l/day) had hypotensive effects in an elderly population. However, these results should be verified in hypertensive subjects, who are more likely to be salt sensitive, since in some of these individuals blood pressure rises even when sodium is ingested as sodium bicarbonate.

  3. Natriuretic Hormones, Endogenous Ouabain, and Related Sodium Transport Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eHamlyn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The work of deWardener and colleagues stimulated longstanding interest in natriuretic hormones (NH. In addition to the atrial peptides (APs, the circulation contains unidentified physiologically-relevant NHs. One NH is controlled by the central nervous system (CNS and likely secreted by the pituitary. Its circulating activity is modulated by salt intake and the prevailing sodium concentration of the blood and intracerebroventricular fluid, and contributes to postprandial and dehydration natriuresis. The other NH, mobilized by atrial stretch, promotes natriuresis by increasing the production of intrarenal dopamine and/or nitric oxide. Both NHs have short (<35 minutes circulating half lives, depress renotubular sodium transport, and neither requires the renal nerves. The search for NHs led to endogenous cardiotonic steroids (CTS including ouabain-, digoxin-, and bufadienolide-like materials. These CTS, given acutely in high nanomole to micromole amounts into the general or renal circulations, inhibit sodium pumps and are natriuretic. Among these CTS, only bufalin is cleared sufficiently rapidly to qualify for an NH-like role. Ouabain-like CTS are cleared slowly, and when given chronically in low daily nanomole amounts, promote sodium retention, augment arterial myogenic tone, reduce renal blood flow and glomerular filtration, suppress nitric oxide in the renal vasa recta, and increase sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure. Moreover, lowering total body sodium raises circulating endogenous ouabain. Thus, ouabain-like CTS have physiological actions that, like aldosterone, support renal sodium retention and blood pressure. In conclusion, the mammalian circulation contains two non-AP NHs. Identification of the CNS NH should be a priority.

  4. Quantum chemical investigation of the primary thermal pyrolysis reactions of the sodium carboxylate group in a brown coal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Baisheng; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Yan, Kefeng; Kang, Lixun

    2014-12-01

    The primary pyrolysis mechanisms of the sodium carboxylate group in sodium benzoate-used as a model compound of brown coal-were studied by performing quantum chemical computations using B3LYP and the CBS method. Various possible reaction pathways involving reactions such as unimolecular and bimolecular decarboxylation and decarbonylation, crosslinking, and radical attack in the brown coal matrix were explored. Without the participation of reactive radicals, unimolecular decarboxylation to release CO2 was calculated to be the most energetically favorable primary reaction pathway at the B3LYP/6-311+G (d, p) level of theory, and was also found to be more energetically favorable than decarboxylation of an carboxylic acid group. When CBS-QBS results were included, crosslinking between the sodium carboxylate group and the carboxylic acid and the decarboxylation of the sodium carboxylate group (catalyzed by the phenolic hydroxyl group) were found to be possible; this pathway competes with unimolecular decarboxylation of the sodium carboxylate group. Provided that H and CH3 radicals are present in the brown coal matrix and can access the sodium carboxylate group, accelerated pyrolysis of the sodium carboxylate group becomes feasible, leading to the release of an Na atom or an NaCO2 radical at the B3LYP/6-311+G (d, p) or CBS-QB3 level of theory, respectively.

  5. Reducing dietary sodium intake: the Canadian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Susan I

    2010-02-01

    Sodium is a required nutrient; Adequate Intakes for adults range from 1200 to 1500 mg*day(-1), depending on age. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for sodium is 2300 mg*day(-1) for adults, based on the relationship between sodium intake and increased blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure, which is prevalent among Canadians, is, in turn, a major risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. Sodium intake is not the only determinant of blood pressure; other modifiable risk factors include relative mass, physical activity, overall dietary quality, and alcohol consumption. However, because >90% of adult Canadian men and two thirds of Canadian women have sodium intakes above the UL, Health Canada's Working Group on Dietary Sodium Reduction has been charged with developing, implementing, and overseeing a strategy to reduce Canadians' sodium intakes. It is estimated that approximately 75% of dietary sodium is added during food processing; in addition to taste and palatability, sodium also has functional roles in food manufacturing and preservation, although the amounts used often exceed those required. Because of the central role of processed foods in sodium intake, the strategy proposed by Health Canada's Working Group includes voluntary reduction of sodium in processed foods and foods sold in food service establishments. It will also include an education and awareness campaign, and research and surveillance. Initiatives to reduce sodium in other parts of the world have demonstrated that it will be challenging to reduce sodium intake to the recommended range and will likely require many years to accomplish.

  6. Effects of dietary sodium chloride on health parameters in mature cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Laflamme, Dorothy P L; Long, Grace L

    2009-06-01

    High sodium diets have been shown to enhance water intake and urine output, a potential benefit in the management of lower urinary tract diseases. However, one study suggested that high salt (sodium chloride) diets might have adverse effects on the kidneys [Kirk CA, Jewell DE, Lowry SR. Effects of sodium chloride on selected parameters in cats. Vet Ther 2006; 7: 333-46]. Therefore, the objective of this controlled, prospective study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different salt content (1.11% sodium and 1.78% chloride versus 0.55% sodium and 1.02% chloride, dry matter (dm)) when fed to mature cats (mean age 7.0 years; 12 cats per group) over a 6-month period. Food intake, body weight, bone mineral content, total body hydration status, blood pressure, and markers of renal function were unaffected by salt intake, and no adverse effects were observed. When a subset of cats (n=9) with an initial serum creatinine > or =1.6mg/dl was evaluated separately, there remained no evidence of adverse effects associated with increased salt intake. These results are consistent with the majority of other studies evaluating sodium intake in cats, as well as with the National Research Council's assessment, all of which indicate that sodium at 1.5% of the diet dm is not harmful to healthy cats.

  7. The density broadening in a sodium F=2 condensate detected by a pulse train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Han

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The dipole-blockaded sodium clock transition has been detected by high resolution microwave spectroscopy, the multiple-pulse spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique has been first used to detect the density broadening and shifting in a Sodium Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC by probing the sodium clock-transition. Moreover, by narrowing the pulse-width of the pulses, some of the broadening mechanisms can be partially reduced. The results reported here are essential steps toward the ground-state quantum computing, few-body spectroscopy, spin squeezing and quantum metrology.

  8. Unsteady aspects of sodium-water reaction. Water clearing of sodium containing equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnevali, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Sodium fast Reactor (FSR) is one of the most promising nuclear reactor concepts in the frame of Generation IV Systems to be commercialised in the next decades. One important safety issue about this technology is the highly exothermal chemical reaction of sodium when brought in contact with liquid water. This situation is likely, in particular during decommissioning, when sodium needs to be firstly converted ('destroyed') into non-reactive species. This is achieved by water washing: the major products are then gaseous hydrogen and corrosive soda. Today, such operations are performed in confined chambers to mitigate the consequences of any possible abnormal conditions. It has for long been believed that the main safety problem was the combustion of hydrogen in the surrounding air despite some pioneering works suggested that even without air the reaction could be explosive. It is extremely important to clarify the phenomenology of sodium-water interactions since available knowledge does not allow a robust extrapolation of existing data/model to full scale plants. The primary objective of this work is to identify and assess the details of the phenomenology, especially at the sodium/water interface, to isolate the leading mechanisms and to propose a robust and innovative modelling approach. A large body of yet unreleased experimental data extracted from the files of the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) was collated and analysed on the basis of 'explosion' physics. Some additional experiments were also performed to fill some gaps, especially about the kinetics of the reaction. The results strongly suggest that the fast expansion of gas producing a blast wave in certain conditions is a kind of vapour explosion. It also appears that any potential hydrogen-air explosion should be strongly mitigated by the large quantity of water vapour emanating also from the reaction zone. The limitations of existing modelling approaches are clearly

  9. Comparison of sodium aerosol codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, I.H.; Fermandjian, J.; Bunz, H.; L'homme, A.; Lhiaubet, G.; Himeno, Y.; Kirby, C.R.; Mitsutsuka, N.

    1984-01-01

    Although hypothetical fast reactor accidents leading to severe core damage are very low probability events, their consequences are to be assessed. During such accidents, one can envisage the ejection of sodium, mixed with fuel and fission products, from the primary circuit into the secondary containment. Aerosols can be formed either by mechanical dispersion of the molten material or as a result of combustion of the sodium in the mixture. Therefore considerable effort has been devoted to study the different sodium aerosol phenomena. To ensure that the problems of describing the physical behaviour of sodium aerosols were adequately understood, a comparison of the codes being developed to describe their behaviour was undertaken. The comparison consists of two parts. The first is a comparative study of the computer codes used to predict aerosol behaviour during a hypothetical accident. It is a critical review of documentation available. The second part is an exercise in which code users have run their own codes with a pre-arranged input. For the critical comparative review of the computer models, documentation has been made available on the following codes: AEROSIM (UK), MAEROS (USA), HAARM-3 (USA), AEROSOLS/A2 (France), AEROSOLS/B1 (France), and PARDISEKO-IIIb (FRG)

  10. Cavitation problems in sodium valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elie, X.

    1976-01-01

    Cavitation poses few problems for sodium valves, in spite of the fact that the loops are not pressurized. This is no doubt due to the low flow velocities in the pipes. For auxiliary loop valves we are attempting to standardize performances with respect to cavitation. For economic reasons cavitation thresholds are approached with large diameter valves. (author)

  11. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Queiroz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium. Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830 mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0% and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%. The mean (standard deviation urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778 mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4. Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  12. Precipitation of lysozyme with sodium succinate, sodium tartrate and sodium citrate: Solubility and osmotic second virial coefficient data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López Vélez, José Sebastián; Azzoni, Adriano Rodrigues; Pessoa Filho, Pedro de Alcantara

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubility of lysozyme in biodegradable salt solutions was investigated. • Studied biodegradable salts: sodium succinate, sodium tartrate and sodium citrate. • Sodium succinate and sodium tartrate are promising salting-out agents. • Osmotic second virial coefficient (B 22 ) of lysozyme was also investigated. • Values of B 22 indicate that crystallization may be achieved using these salts. - Abstract: Precipitation and crystallization are unit operations widely used to concentrate and purify proteins in biotechnology industry. In this work, the potential use of the biodegradable salts sodium succinate, sodium tartrate and sodium citrate to reduce the solubility of proteins is investigated. Lysozyme was studied as a model protein. The solubility of lysozyme in aqueous solutions of sodium succinate, sodium tartrate and sodium citrate was experimentally determined as a function of the ionic strength and pH at 298.2 K. All these salts induce the precipitation of lysozyme, being sodium succinate the most effective one to reduce the solubility of this protein. The osmotic second virial coefficient of lysozyme as a function of the ionic strength was also determined using self-interaction chromatography at 298.2 K and pH 8.5. The experimental data show that the value of the second virial coefficient is negative at the investigated conditions and lies mostly within or close to the crystallization slot, i.e., the range of values of this coefficient for which the formation of crystals is favored.

  13. Sodium Balance During Extra Corporeal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locatelli Francesco

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce intradialytic and interdialytic morbidity, it is important to obtain a zero sodium balance at the end of each dialysis session. This can be achieved by matching exactly the interdialytic sodium and water intake with the intradialytic sodium and water removal. A positive sodium balance can be obtained by using hypernatric dialysis or "sodium ramping" or convective techniques. While reducing the intradialytic side effects (hypotension, cramps, nausea, vomiting, these methods may increase the interdialytic side effects (thirst, weight gain, hypertension and pulmonary edema. Given the highly variable amounts of sodium introduced during the interdialytic periods, the use of sodium-conductivity kinetic models allows removing exactly the amount of sodium accumulated in the interdialytic period. This strategy may be advantageous towards cardiovascular stability in patients prone to dialysis hypotension.

  14. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium polyacrylate (CAS...

  16. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. Effects of phlorizin on glucose, water and sodium handling by the rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J H; Elegbe, R; Green, R; Thomas, S

    1978-02-01

    1. The effect of phlorizin on glucose, water and sodium handling by the kidney in anaesthetized rats was investigated, using clearance techniques, during infusion of saline (200 microliter min-1) or saline to which either low (0.1 mumole kg body weight-1 ml.-1) doses of phlorizin had been added. 2. Phlorizin increased the absolute and fractional excretion of glucose, urine osmolality and negative free water clearance; and reduced urine flow rate, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), absolute and fractional excretion of sodium, absolute excretion of sodium, absolute excretion of potassium and absolute and fractional rates of glucose reabsorption. 3. The data indicate that phlorizin has sites of action and effects additional to those on glucose transport in the proximal tubule. 4. Within each series there was a positive correlation between sodium and glucose reabsorption; but the rate of glucose reabsorption was different between each series even though the sodium reabsorption was not. 5. It is suggested that since both sodium and glucose reabsorption correlate with GFR, they may be related via GFR. 6. The data indicate that for the whole kidney any effect of glucose on sodium transport is small relative to total renal handling of sodium.

  18. Licensing Procedures for Sodium Experiment Facility using Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Minhwan; Jeong, Jiyoung; Lee, Jewhan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR is utilized in various fields and yet there has been no record of handling and storing sodium exceeding designated quantity, which is a quantity that serves as the lowest level permitted for construction. The difficulty in achieving the license for sodium experiment facilities and equipment has been the main issue since the first time of sodium-related plan. Sodium is under regulation of four kinds of laws including the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act and it is under categorized as Class 3(pyrophoric material and water-prohibiting substance). The objective of this study is to investigate the procedure of installing a sodium-related facility and achieving the license from the fire agency of government. In this work, the licensing procedure for a sodium experiment facility was investigated under the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act. For the construction of the PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium cooled Fast Reactor), the described procedure should be reviewed and prepared carefully in accordance with the fire safety regulatory body.

  19. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect body image Pre-baby body Pregnancy and eating disorders Looking for information on mental health conditions? Visit ... Mental health section. Fact sheets Anorexia nervosa Binge eating disorder Bulimia nervosa Cosmetics and your health Depression during ...

  20. High temperature sodium-concrete interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasanov, M.G.; Staahl, G.E. Sr.

    1977-01-01

    Concrete specimens were immersed in sodium at 500 0 C, and the sodium-concrete interactions were studied. At this temperature the important reaction between CO 2 , produced by the limestone aggregate concrete, and sodium is 4Na+CO 2 → 2Na 2 O+C. This reaction is of interest for reactor safety analysis as it could act as a means of reducing gas pressures arising from CO 2 release by the concrete, in sodium cooled reactors. (B.D.)

  1. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  2. Quick calculation for sodium imbalances correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rincón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium is the most abundant extracellular cation and has a normal serum concentration of 135 to 145 meq/L. Normal homeostatic mechanisms keep the serum sodium concentration and serum osmolality within narrow therapeutic ranges. Sodium imbalances are common in inbed patients, and caution must be exercised to avoid inappropriate correction, which could result in further complications, morbidity, and death. A quick formula is proposed for simplification of the calculations for correction or sodium imbalances.

  3. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  4. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on specified... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite. 172.175 Section 172.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  5. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food containing meat and... as a preservative and color fixative in canned pet food containing fish, meat, and fish and meat... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and...

  6. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at 0.1...

  7. Clinical impact of nonosmotic sodium storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Engberink, R.H.G.

    2017-01-01

    High sodium intake is associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular and renal risk. In this thesis we assessed whether these negative effects of sodium can be neutralised by glycosaminoglycans in the endothelial surface layer (i.e. nonosmotic sodium storage). Also, we investigate the

  8. 21 CFR 558.60 - Arsanilate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsanilate sodium. 558.60 Section 558.60 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.60 Arsanilate sodium. (a) Appprovals. Type A medicated articles: 20, 50, or 100...) Arsanilate sodium may be used in accordance with the provisions of this section in the combinations provided...

  9. 21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hyaluronate sodium. 522.1145 Section 522.1145 Food... Hyaluronate sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c). (3) Conditions of use—(i) Amount...

  10. 21 CFR 526.365 - Cephapirin sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cephapirin sodium. 526.365 Section 526.365 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS INTRAMAMMARY DOSAGE FORMS § 526.365 Cephapirin sodium. (a) Specifications. Each 10-milliliter dose contains 200 milligrams of cephapirin sodium activity in a peanut-oil gel...

  11. Sodium Fire Demonstration Facility Design and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Youngil; Kim, Jong-Man; Lee, Jewhan; Hong, Jonggan; Yeom, Sujin; Cho, Chungho; Jung, Min-Hwan; Gam, Da-Young; Jeong, Ji-Young

    2014-01-01

    Although sodium has good characteristics such as high heat transfer rate and stable nuclear property, it is difficult to manage because of high reactivity. Sodium is solid at the room temperature and it easily reacts with oxygen resulting in fire due to the reaction heat. Thus, sodium must be stored in a chemically stable place, i.e., an inert gas-sealed or oil filled vessel. When a sodium fire occurs, the Na 2 O of white fume is formed. It is mainly composed of Na 2 O 2 , NaOH, and Na 2 CO 3 , ranging from 0.1 to several tens of micrometers in size. It is known that the particle size increases by aggregation during floating in air. Thus, the protection method is important and should be considered in the design and operation of a sodium system. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics are described, and the demonstration utility of outbreak of sodium fire and its extinguishing is introduced. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics and a demonstration facility are described. The introduced sodium fire demonstration facility is the only training device used to observe a sodium fire and extinguish it domestically. Furthermore, the type of sodium fire will be diversified with the enhancement of the utility. It is expected that this utility will contribute to experience in the safe treatment of sodium by the handlers

  12. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. Mixed Solvent Reactive Recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaertner, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of the reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate (soda) in a mixed solvent led to the design of several alternative, less energy consumptive, economically very attractive process routes for the production of soda from all

  16. Sodium Bicarbonate mouth rinse: An Uncommon Complication

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Mehmet Coskunses

    2012-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a natural buffer that maintains a healthy pH in mouth to promote a clean and fresh oral environment. Sodium-bicarbonate rinse is empirically suggested to patients by dentist and people around, and may prove to be harmful. In this short communication, we present chemical burn of oral mucosa because of sodium-bicarbonate rinse after misfit dental impression.

  17. Extracting Silicon From Sodium-Process Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, V.; Sanjurjo, A.; Sancier, K. M.; Nanis, L.

    1982-01-01

    New acid leaching process purifies silicon produced in reaction between silicon fluoride and sodium. Concentration of sodium fluoride and other impurities and byproducts remaining in silicon are within acceptable ranges for semi-conductor devices. Leaching process makes sodium reduction process more attractive for making large quantities of silicon for solar cells.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of sodium alkoxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These compounds were characterized using X-ray diffraction technique and IR spectroscopy. The elemental analysis was carried out by CHNS analyser and atomic emission spectroscopy. Normal chain sodium alkoxides were found to exhibit tetragonal crystal structure. Crystal structures of sodium ethoxide and sodium ...

  19. Eagle-Picher Industries Sodium Sulfur Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvey, Ronald L.

    1993-02-01

    Viewgraphs of the sodium sulfur program are presented. Sodium sulfur low earth orbit (LEO) cells are described. Topics covered include cell sizes, areas of improvement, and NaS cell testing. Sodium sulfur cell and battery designs continue to evolve with significant improvement demonstrated in resistance, rechargeability, cycle life, energy density, and electrolyte characterization.

  20. Gastrointestinal osmoreceptors and renal sodium excretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L J; Skram, Thomas Ulrik; Bestle, M H

    2000-01-01

    The hypothesis that natriuresis can be induced by stimulation of gastrointestinal osmoreceptors was tested in eight supine subjects on constant sodium intake (150 mmol NaCl/day). A sodium load equivalent to the amount contained in 10% of measured extracellular volume was administered...... by a nasogastric tube as isotonic or hypertonic saline (850 mM). In additional experiments, salt loading was replaced by oral water loading (3.5% of total body water). Plasma sodium concentration increased after hypertonic saline (+3.1 +/- 0.7 mM), decreased after water loading (-3.8 +/- 0.8 mM), and remained...... unchanged after isotonic saline. Oncotic pressure decreased by 9.4 +/- 1.2, 3.7 +/- 1.2, and 10.7 +/- 1.3%, respectively. Isotonic saline induced an increase in renal sodium excretion (104 +/- 15 to 406 +/- 39 micromol/min) that was larger than seen with hypertonic saline (85 +/- 15 to 325 +/- 39 micromol...

  1. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a...

  2. 77 FR 71006 - Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment of... against unapproved injectable drug products containing sodium nitrite labeled for the treatment of cyanide poisoning and unapproved injectable drug products containing sodium thiosulfate labeled for the treatment of...

  3. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444b Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection. (a... pentobarbital sterile powder for dilution with sterile water for injection. (b) Sponsor. See No. 061623 in § 510...

  4. Behavior of Alloy 800 in sodium contaminated by sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelaere, M.; Dixmier, J.; Sannier, J.; Coriou, H.

    1977-01-01

    The behavior of various metallic materials in NaOH-contaminated sodium was studied in the temperature range 475-550 0 C. It was observed that the presence of NaOH in sodium induced a generalized corrosion of ferritic steels while austenitic material were subjected to intergranular penetrations even without stress. In a second part, alloy 800 was specially investigated, since it was chosen as a standard material for Superphenix steam generators. Parametric tests were carried out under tensile stress to study susceptibility to cracking of this alloy. A device for introducing NaOH into sodium at the experiment temperature was specially designed. The results show that, for high concentration of NaOH (8 weight % and more), there is a real risk of stress cracking. So ruptures are observed in samples which show or not welded areas after 20 hours with 16% of NaOH under 130 N.mm -2 stress. On the other hand, for low initial concentrations (about 1%) and with the same stress conditions, no cracking occurs after 100 hours. Finally surface condition of material has an effect on the formation of the oxided surface layer but this parameter has no significant influence on the sample life-time [fr

  5. [Effect of IV hydration with sodium bicarbonate on high-dose methotrexate disposition kinetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, N; Goto, M; Konishi, H; Yamashina, H

    1984-04-01

    Following two-compartment kinetic analysis, the effect of loading of transfusion with sodium bicarbonate on methotrexate disposition was investigated in 13 cases with malignant tumor, being treated with high-dose methotrexate. The mean values of total body clearance, when administered at doses 50 mg and 100 mg per kg body weight, were 0.369 and 0.402 (l/h) per kg, respectively. No significant relationship was observed between alpha value and total amount of transfusion, of urine or dosage of sodium bicarbonate. The other kinetic parameters on elimination, beta value, K10 and total body clearance, did not also correlate with those values described above. These results suggest that the elimination profile of methotrexate show linear kinetics, and that massive administration of transfusion with sodium bicarbonate be not necessary if pH value of urine exceeds 7.0.

  6. Relation of Dietary Sodium (Salt) to Blood Pressure and Its Possible Modulation by Other Dietary Factors: The INTERMAP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamler, Jeremiah; Chan, Queenie; Daviglus, Martha L; Dyer, Alan R; Van Horn, Linda; Garside, Daniel B; Miura, Katsuyuki; Wu, Yangfeng; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Zhao, Liancheng; Elliott, Paul

    2018-04-01

    Available data indicate that dietary sodium (as salt) relates directly to blood pressure (BP). Most of these findings are from studies lacking dietary data; hence, it is unclear whether this sodium-BP relationship is modulated by other dietary factors. With control for multiple nondietary factors, but not body mass index, there were direct relations to BP of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and the urinary sodium/potassium ratio among 4680 men and women 40 to 59 years of age (17 population samples in China, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States) in the INTERMAP (International Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure), and among its 2195 American participants, for example, 2 SD higher 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (118.7 mmol) associated with systolic BP 3.7 mm Hg higher. These sodium-BP relations persisted with control for 13 macronutrients, 12 vitamins, 7 minerals, and 18 amino acids, for both sex, older and younger, blacks, Hispanics, whites, and socioeconomic strata. With control for body mass index, sodium-BP-but not sodium/potassium-BP-relations were attenuated. Normal weight and obese participants manifested significant positive relations to BP of urinary sodium; relations were weaker for overweight people. At lower but not higher levels of 24-hour sodium excretion, potassium intake blunted the sodium-BP relation. The adverse association of dietary sodium with BP is minimally attenuated by other dietary constituents; these findings underscore the importance of reducing salt intake for the prevention and control of prehypertension and hypertension. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00005271. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Transformation of sodium from the Rapsodie fast breeder reactor into sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger, J.; Latge, C.; Rodriguez, G.

    1994-01-01

    One of the major problems raised by decommissioning a fast breeder reactor (FBR) concerns the disposal of the sodium coolant. The Desora operation was undertaken to eliminate the Rapsodie primary sodium as part of the partial decommissioning program, and to develop an operational sodium treatment unit for other needs. The process involves reacting small quantities of sodium in water inside a closed vessel, producing aqueous sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. It is described in this work. (O.L.). 4 figs

  8. Sodium-concrete reaction model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.H.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Postma, A.K.

    1982-07-01

    Major observations have been formulated after reviewing test results for over 100 sodium-concrete reaction tests. The observations form the basis for developing a mechanistic model to predict the transient behavior of sodium-concrete reactions. The major observations are listed. Mechanisms associated with sodium and water transport to the reaction zone are identified, and represented by appropriate mathematical expressions. The model attempts to explain large-scale, long-term (100 h) test results were sodium-concrete reactions terminated even in the presence of unreacted sodium and concrete

  9. Sodium vapor charge exchange cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddleston, H.R.; Fasolo, J.A.; Minette, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Frederick, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational sequential charge-exchange ion source yielding a 50 MeV H - current of approximately 8 mA is planned for use with the Argonne 500 MeV booster synchrotron. Progress is reported on the development of a sodium vapor charge-exchange cell as part of that planned effort. Design, fabrication, and operating results to date are presented and discussed

  10. Sodium vapor charge exchange cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddleston, H.R.; Fasolo, J.A.; Minette, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Frederick, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational sequential charge-exchange ion source yielding a 50 MeV H - current of approximately 8 mA is planned for use with the Argonne 500 MeV booster synchrotron. We report on the progress for development of a sodium vapor charge-exchange cell as part of that planned effort. Design, fabrication, and operating results to date are presented and discussed. (author)

  11. C-Scan Performance Test of Under-Sodium ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor in Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young Sang; Bae, Jin Ho; Kim, Jong Bum

    2011-01-01

    Reactor core and in-vessel structures of a sodium-cooled fast (SFR) are submerged in opaque liquid sodium in the reactor vessel. The ultrasonic inspection techniques should be applied for observing the in-vessel structures under hot liquid sodium. Ultrasonic sensors such as immersion sensors and rod-type waveguide sensors have developed in order to apply under-sodium viewing of the in-vessel structures of SFR. Recently the novel plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been developed for the versatile application of under-sodium viewing in SFR. In previous studies, the ultrasonic waveguide sensor module was designed and manufactured, and the feasibility study of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor was performed. To improve the performance of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor in the under-sodium application, a new concept of ultrasonic waveguide sensors with a Be coated SS304 plate is suggested for the effective generation of a leaky wave in liquid sodium and the non-dispersive propagation of A 0 -mode Lamb wave in an ultrasonic waveguide sensor. In this study, the C-scan performance of the under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium has been investigated by the experimental test in sodium. The under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor and the sodium test facility with a glove box system and a sodium tank are designed and manufactured to carry out the performance test of under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium environment condition

  12. On conduction in a bacterial sodium channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Furini

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated Na⁺-channels are transmembrane proteins that are responsible for the fast depolarizing phase of the action potential in nerve and muscular cells. Selective permeability of Na⁺ over Ca²⁺ or K⁺ ions is essential for the biological function of Na⁺-channels. After the emergence of the first high-resolution structure of a Na⁺-channel, an anionic coordination site was proposed to confer Na⁺ selectivity through partial dehydration of Na⁺ via its direct interaction with conserved glutamate side chains. By combining molecular dynamics simulations and free-energy calculations, a low-energy permeation pathway for Na⁺ ion translocation through the selectivity filter of the recently determined crystal structure of a prokaryotic sodium channel from Arcobacter butzleri is characterised. The picture that emerges is that of a pore preferentially occupied by two ions, which can switch between different configurations by crossing low free-energy barriers. In contrast to K⁺-channels, the movements of the ions appear to be weakly coupled in Na⁺-channels. When the free-energy maps for Na⁺ and K⁺ ions are compared, a selective site is characterised in the narrowest region of the filter, where a hydrated Na⁺ ion, and not a hydrated K⁺ ion, is energetically stable.

  13. Sodium fires in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzenhauer, P.

    1974-01-01

    The work deals with the behaviour of liquid sodium when it comes into contact with air, especially in the course of fires in technical plants. The most important fire procedures are constructed as realistically as possible, that is to say that the fires were not only carried out on a laboratory scale but with quantities of up to 200 kg sodium at temperatures of up to 800 0 C. The following was investigated: 1) the course of the fire in rooms, 2) restriction of the fire, 3) removal of the burnt remains, 4) protection measures. The fire was varied in its most important physical appearance such as surface fire, spurt fire and fire on isolated pipe lines. The fires were checked by precautionary, contructive measures - it was not necessary to place persons at the site of the fire - and by active measures such as for example by covering with extinguishing powder. All important test phases were captured in film and slides series. Visible material is thus available for the operation team of sodium plants and fire brigades who might possibly be called upon. (orig./LH) [de

  14. Combustion suppressing device for leaked sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooto, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the atmospheric temperature to secure the building safety and shorten the recovery time after the leakage in a chamber for containing sodium leaked from coolant circuit equipments or pipeways of LMFBR type rector by suppressing the combustion of sodium contained in the chamber. Constitution: To the inner wall of a chamber for containing sodium handling equipments, are vertically disposed a panel having a coolant supply port at the upper portion and a coolant discharge port at the lower portion thereof and defined with a coolant flowing channel and a panel for sucking the coolant discharged from the abovementioned panel and exhausting the same externally. Further, a corrugated combustion suppressing plate having apertures for draining the condensated leaked sodium is disposed near the sodium handling equipments. If ruptures are resulted to the sodium handling equipments or pipeway, leaked sodium is passed through the drain apertures in the suppressing plate and stored at the bottom of the containing chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  15. Development of the immersed sodium flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daolong

    1994-09-01

    An immersed sodium flowmeter of the range 3 m 3 /h is developed. It is a flowmeter of entire-sealed construction, it can be operated in sodium. Its construction, the theoretical calculation of the calibration characteristic and the pressure loss, the test facility and the calibration test are presented in detail. It analytical expression of the calibration characteristic in the temperature limit 200∼600 degree C and the error analysis are given. The basic error of this immersed sodium flowmeter is below +-2.3% of the measuring range. The immersed sodium flowmeter can be used to resolve the sodium flowrate measuring problems of the in-reactor component of LMFBR, for example, the flowrate measuring of the in-reactor sodium purification loop, the flowrate measuring of the immersed sodium pump and the flowrate measuring of the in-reactor test component

  16. Estimated dietary sodium intake in haemodialysis patients using food frequency questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkza, Anastasia; Davenport, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    In clinical practice, dietary sodium assessment requires reliable and rapid screening tools. We wished to evaluate the usefulness of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in estimating dietary sodium intakes in haemodialysis patients. We used the Derby Salt Questionnaire (DSQ), and Scored Sodium Questionnaire (SSQ) to estimate sodium intake. Body composition was determined by bioimpedance. In total, 139 haemodialysis patients (95 men) completed the FFQs, with mean ± standard deviation age 67 ± 15 years. The mean FFQ scores were DSQ 3.5 ± 2.0 and SSQ 68.4 ± 24.5. Men had higher estimated dietary sodium intakes [DSQ median (range) 3.6 (0.6-10.1) versus female 2.2 (0.5-9.1), P = 0.007)]. Younger patients and those aged >75 years had the higher SSQ dietary sodium scores; 70.7 ± 27.8 and 76.8 ± 24.6 versus those aged 55-75 years, 61.8 ± 22.3, P = 0.04. Patients with greater estimated sodium intake had higher extracellular water (ECW) to intracellular water (ICW) ratios pre-dialysis [75.1 ±12.5 versus 67.7 ± 4.8, P sodium group (0.9 ± 13.7% versus 6.5 ± 14.1%, P = 0.04). Both questionnaires were acceptable to patients and identified higher estimated dietary sodium intake for men, those with greater ECW and, somewhat surprisingly, we found that older patients had a greater dietary sodium intake than expected. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  17. Sodium setpoint and gradient in bicarbonate hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Carlo; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Vernaglione, Luigi; Casucci, Francesco; Losurdo, Nicola; Teutonico, Annalisa; Lomonte, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The demonstration of an individual osmolar setpoint in hemodialysis (HD) is crucial to individualize dialysate sodium concentrations. Furthermore, the diffusive gradient between plasma and dialysate sodium is important in the "fine tuning" of the intradialytic sodium mass balance (MB). The design of this study included part A: a retrospective analysis of predialysis plasma sodium concentrations extracted from a 6-year database in our HD population (147 prevalent white anuric patients); and part B: study of intradialytic sodium kinetics in 48 patients undergoing one 4-hour bicarbonate HD session. Direct potentiometry with an ion-selective electrode was used for sodium measurements. Study part A: the mean number of plasma sodium measurements per patient was 16.06 ± 14.03 over a mean follow-up of 3.55 ± 1.76 years. The mean of the averaged plasma sodium concentrations was 136.7 ± 2.1 mmol/L, with a low mean intraindividual coefficient of variation (1.39 ± 0.4). Study part B: mean predialysis and postdialysis plasma sodium concentrations were 135.8 ± 0.9 and 138.0 ± 0.9 mmol/L (p<0.001). Mean inlet dialyzer sodium concentration was 138.7 ± 1.1 mmol/L; the hourly diffusion concentration gradients showed a statistically significant transfer from dialysate to plasma (Wilks ? <0.0001). A statistically significant relationship was found between sodium MB and diffusion gradient (p<0.02), and between sodium MB and ultrafiltration volume (p<0.01). A relatively "fixed" and individual osmolar setpoint in HD patients was shown for the first time in a long-term follow-up. A dialysate sodium concentration of 140 mmol/L determined a dialysate to plasma sodium gradient.

  18. Intelligent type sodium instrumentations for LMFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daolong Chen

    1996-01-01

    The constructions and their performances of a lot of newly developed intelligent type sodium instrumentations that consist of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type immersed sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type sodium manometer and the intelligent type sodium level gauge are described. The graduation characteristic equations for corresponding transducer using the medium temperature as the parameter are given. Because the operating temperature limit of measured medium (sodium) is wide, so the on-line compensation of the temperature effect of their graduation characteristics much be considered. The tests show that these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of good linearity. The accurate sodium process parameter (flowrate, pressure and level) measurement data can be obtained by means of their on-line compensation function of the temperature effect. Moreover, these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of the self-inspection, the electric shutoff protection, the setting of full-scale, the setting of alarm limits (two upper limits and two lower limits alarms), the thermocouple breaking alarm, each other isolative the 0-10V direct-current analogue output and CENTRONICS standard digital output, and the alarm relay contact output. These intelligent type sodium instrumentations are suitable particularly for the instrument, control and protective systems of LMFR by means of these excellent functions based on microprocessor. The basic error of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, immersed sodium flowmeter, sodium manometer and sodium level gauge is respectively ±2%, ±2.3%, ±0.3% and ±1.9% of measuring range. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs

  19. Pathways of lateral spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, U; Schanzer, S; Weigmann, H-J; Patzelt, A; Vergou, T; Sterry, W; Lademann, J

    2011-01-01

    In the case of topically applied substances, usually both lateral spreading and competitive penetration into the skin occur in parallel. In the present study, the pathways of lateral spreading were studied quantitatively and visually. The local distribution and lateral spreading of the UV filter substance butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane applied in an o/w emulsion was studied on the forearm and the back. The tape stripping procedure was used to determine the recovery rates inside and outside the area of application. The skin characteristics of transepidermal water loss, pH value, hydration of the stratum corneum and sebum rate were determined at both anatomic sites. Photography and laser scanning microscopy were used to visually investigate the lateral spreading of topically applied dyes. On the back, a preferred direction of lateral spreading parallel to the body axis was observed. This result was caused by differences in the network of furrows. The furrows functioned as a pathway for lateral spreading, whereas the follicles formed a reservoir for the topically applied substance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. A study of atomic interaction between suspended nanoparticles and sodium atoms in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Jun-ichi; Ara, Kuniaki

    2010-01-01

    A feasibility study of suppression of the chemical reactivity of sodium itself using an atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium atoms has been carried out. We expected that the atomic interaction strengthens when the nanoparticle metal is the transition element which has a major difference in electronegativity from sodium. We also calculated the atomic interaction between nanoparticle and sodium atoms. It became clear that the atomic bond between the nanoparticle atom and the sodium atom is larger than that between sodium atoms, and the charge transfer takes place to the nanoparticle atom from the sodium atom. Using sodium with suspended nanoparticles, the fundamental physical properties related to the atomic interaction were investigated to verify the atomic bond. The surface tension of sodium with suspended nanoparticles increased, and the evaporation rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles also decreased compared with that of sodium. Therefore the presence of the atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium was verified from these experiments. Because the fundamental physical property changes by the atomic interaction, we expected changes in the chemical reactivity characteristics. The chemical reaction properties of sodium with suspended nanoparticles with water were investigated experimentally. The released reaction heat and the reaction rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles were reduced than those of sodium. The influence of the charge state of nanoparticle on the chemical process with water was theoretically investigated to speculate on the cause of reaction suppression. The potential energy in both primary and side reactions changed by the charge transfer, and the free energy of activation of the reaction with water increased. Accordingly, the reaction barrier also increased. This suggests there is a possibility of the reduction in the reaction of sodium by the suspension of nanoparticles. Consequently the possibility of the

  1. Impaired sodium excretion and salt-sensitive hypertension in corin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shen, Jianzhong; Cui, Yujie; Jiang, Jingjing; Chen, Shenghan; Peng, Jianhao; Wu, Qingyu

    2012-07-01

    Corin is a protease that activates atrial natriuretic peptide, a cardiac hormone important in the control of blood pressure and salt-water balance. Here we examined the role of corin in regulating blood pressure and sodium homeostasis upon dietary salt challenge. Radiotelemetry-tracked blood pressure in corin knockout mice on a high-salt diet (4% sodium chloride) was significantly increased; however, there was no such change in similarly treated wild-type mice. In the knockout mice on the high-salt diet there was an impairment of urinary sodium excretion and an increase in body weight, but no elevation of plasma renin or serum aldosterone levels. When the knockout mice on the high-salt diet were treated with amiloride, an epithelial sodium channel blocker that inhibits renal sodium reabsorption, the impaired urinary sodium excretion and increased body weight were normalized. Amiloride treatment also reduced high blood pressure caused by the high-salt diet in these mice. Thus, the lack of corin in mice impairs their adaptive renal response to high dietary salt, suggesting that corin deficiency may represent an important mechanism underlying salt-sensitive hypertension.

  2. Curcumin Inhibits The Adverse Effects of Sodium Arsenite in Mouse Epididymal Sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Hamid Reza; Eskandari, Najmeh

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of curcumin on epididy- mal sperm parameters in adult male Navel Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice ex- posed to sodium arsenite. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we divided the animals into four groups: control, sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg), curcumin (100 mg/kg) and curcumin+sodium arsenite. Exposures were performed by intraperitoneal injections for a 5-week period. After the exposure period, we recorded the animals’ body and left testes weights. The left caudal epididymis was used to count the sperm number and analyze motility, viability, morphological abnormalities, acrosome reaction, DNA integrity, and histone-protamine replacement in the spermatozoa. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey’s test was used to assess the statistical significance of the data with SPSS 16.0. Pcurcumin+sodium arsenite group, curcumin significantly reversed these adverse effects to the point where they approximated the control. In addition, the application of curcumin alone had no significant difference in these parameters compared to the control and curcumin+sodium arsenite groups. However, we observed no significant differences in the body and the testis weight as well as the DNA integrity and histone-protamine replacement in the spermatozoa of the four groups. Conclusion Curcumin compensated for the toxic effects of sodium arsenite on a number of sperm parameters in adult mice. PMID:27441059

  3. Sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Masaru.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium vapour and sodium mist in the cover gas of a sodium system of a fast breeder reactor cause various problems. In this report, with the results of measurements of sodium mist concentration, the distribution of sodium mist diameter in cover gas was analytically obtained. The analysis was made by using the different nucleus model B. The measurement of the concentration of sodium mist was carried out with a sodium mist pot designed by the author. The experiment was done at the sodium temperature of 400 and 500 degree centigrade. The relations among sodium temperature, upper wall temperature, and the sodium mist concentration in cover gas were obtained. Evaluation of effective condensed nuclear radius in the cover gas was made by the comparison of analysis and experimental results. The results of this evaluation shows the following conclusions. It is impossible to express the distribution of sodium mist diameter by normal distribution or logarithmic normal distribution. Drop of sodium temperature results in the decrease of weight mean radius of generated sodium mist. Drop of upper wall temperature causes the decrease of weight mean radius, and increases sodium mist concentration. (Kato, T.)

  4. Cleaning of Sodium in the Cold Trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high- oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium.

  5. Cleaning of Sodium in the Cold Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high- oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  6. Containment Sodium Chemistry Models in MELCOR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Humphries, Larry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Denman, Matthew R [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-01

    To meet regulatory needs for sodium fast reactors’ future development, including licensing requirements, Sandia National Laboratories is modernizing MELCOR, a severe accident analysis computer code developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Specifically, Sandia is modernizing MELCOR to include the capability to model sodium reactors. However, Sandia’s modernization effort primarily focuses on the containment response aspects of the sodium reactor accidents. Sandia began modernizing MELCOR in 2013 to allow a sodium coolant, rather than water, for conventional light water reactors. In the past three years, Sandia has been implementing the sodium chemistry containment models in CONTAIN-LMR, a legacy NRC code, into MELCOR. These chemistry models include spray fire, pool fire and atmosphere chemistry models. Only the first two chemistry models have been implemented though it is intended to implement all these models into MELCOR. A new package called “NAC” has been created to manage the sodium chemistry model more efficiently. In 2017 Sandia began validating the implemented models in MELCOR by simulating available experiments. The CONTAIN-LMR sodium models include sodium atmosphere chemistry and sodium-concrete interaction models. This paper presents sodium property models, the implemented models, implementation issues, and a path towards validation against existing experimental data.

  7. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...... with an analysis of the embodied meaning of men‘s bodybuilding....

  8. Brain nuclear receptors and body weight regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essent...

  9. Manipulations to the Alcohol and Sodium Content of Beer for Postexercise Rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbrow, Ben; Cecchin, Danielle; Jones, Ashleigh; Grant, Gary; Irwin, Chris; Leveritt, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The addition of 25 mmol·L(-1) sodium to low alcohol (2.3% ABV) beer has been shown to enhance post exercise fluid retention compared with full strength (4.8% ABV) beer with and without electrolyte modification. This investigation explored the effect of further manipulations to the alcohol and sodium content of beer on fluid restoration following exercise. Twelve male volunteers lost 2.03 ± 0.19% body mass (mean ± SD) using cycling-based exercise. Participants were then randomly allocated a different beer to consume on four separate occasions. Drinks included low alcohol beer with 25 mmol·L-1 of added sodium [LightBeer+25], low alcohol beer with 50 mmol·L(-1) of added sodium [LightBeer+50], midstrength beer (3.5% ABV) [Mid] or midstrength beer with 25 mmol·L(-1) of added sodium [Mid+25]. Total drink volumes in each trial were equivalent to 150% of body mass loss during exercise, consumed over a 1h period. Body mass, urine samples and regulatory hormones were obtained before and 4 hr after beverage consumption. Total urine output was significantly lower in the LightBeer+50 trial (1450 ± 183 ml) compared with the LightBeer+25 (1796 ± 284 ml), Mid+25 (1786 ± 373 ml) and Mid (1986 ± 304 ml) trials (all p beer appears to have more significant impact on post exercise fluid retention than small changes in alcohol content.

  10. Apparatus for detecting leakage of liquid sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting the leakage of liquid sodium includes a cable-like sensor adapted to be secured to a wall of piping or other equipment having sodium on the opposite side of the wall, and the sensor includes a core wire electrically connected to the wall through a leak current detector and a power source. An accidental leakage of the liquid sodium causes the corrosion of a metallic layer and an insulative layer of the sensor by products resulted from a reaction of sodium with water or oxygen in the atmospheric air so as to decrease the resistance between the core wire and the wall. Thus, the leakage is detected as an increase in the leaking electrical current. The apparatus is especially adapted for use in detecting the leakage of liquid sodium from sodium-conveying pipes or equipment in a fast breeder reactor.

  11. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p sodium reduction...

  12. Sodium balance-an integrated physiological model and novel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Santosh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Various physiological mechanisms regulate sodium and water balance in the human body. These processes achieve acute and chronic sodium regulation and the simultaneous or se-quential changes can be explained using a single physiological model. Steady intracellular water and osmolality is necessary for cell membrane integrity and cellular processes. Body fluids protect circulatory blood volume by altering Na + and water balance. This is the most vital homeostatic function of the body. Changes in ECF volume are sensed by various cardinal sensors. Physio-logically, the main aim of Na + and water balance is to permit variable salt and water intake without large fluctuations in blood pressure or volume status. Homeostatic processes act in an integrated fashion to protect against any perturbations. Characteristically, these mechanisms are sequential as well as parallel. These may be synergistic or antagonistic to each other. Rapidity, sensitivity and potency of these powerful feedback systems differ. Various physiological and pathological insults determine the magnitude of response of these systems.

  13. Deletion of PDK1 causes cardiac sodium current reduction in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglin Han

    Full Text Available The AGC protein kinase family regulates multiple cellular functions. 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1 is involved in the pathogenesis of arrhythmia, and its downstream factor, Forkhead box O1 (Foxo1, negatively regulates the expression of the cardiac sodium channel, Nav1.5. Mice are known to die suddenly after PDK1 deletion within 11 weeks, but the underlying electrophysiological bases are unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential mechanisms between PDK1 signaling pathway and cardiac sodium current.Using patch clamp and western blotting techniques, we investigated the role of the PDK1-Foxo1 pathway in PDK1 knockout mice and cultured cardiomyocytes. We found that PDK1 knockout mice undergo slower heart rate, prolonged QRS and QTc intervals and abnormal conduction within the first few weeks of birth. Furthermore, the peak sodium current is decreased by 33% in cells lacking PDK1. The phosphorylation of Akt (308T and Foxo1 (24T and the expression of Nav1.5 in the myocardium of PDK1-knockout mice are decreased, while the nuclear localization of Foxo1 is increased. The role of the PDK1-Foxo1 pathway in regulating Nav1.5 levels and sodium current density was verified using selective PDK1, Akt and Foxo1 inhibitors and isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.These results indicate that PDK1 participates in the dysregulation of electrophysiological basis by regulating the PDK1-Foxo1 pathway, which in turn regulates the expression of Nav1.5 and cardiac sodium channel function.

  14. Signifying Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of biosemiosis connect signifying bodies with their natural surroundings, cultural activities and subjective experiences. Health stretches all the way from the ecosocial surroundings, through the skin and into the self-organizing processes of every living cell. Signifying Bodies lays out a new approach to health...... and health care. Eschewing all forms of dualism, the authors emphasise the interdependency of how we act, think, feel and function. They advocate a relational turn in health care, in which bodies live and learn from suffering and care. In this view, health is inseparable from both living beings...

  15. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), covering the period from 1972 to 1978, are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). The facilities are described and the experimental results summarized. Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related information on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-38 aerosol behaviour computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m 3 CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking. (author)

  16. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillard, R.K.

    1978-10-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related informaion on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-3B aerosol behavior computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m 3 CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking

  17. Neurotransmitter: Sodium Symporters: Caught in the Act!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinauskaite, Lina

    The neurotransmitter: sodium symporters in the neurons. Communication between neurons is mediated by the release of molecules called neurotransmitters (blue dots) from first neuron and sensed by receptors on the surface of the second (purple sphere). The signal is ended by active reuptake...... of these neurotransmitters by a family of proteins called neurotransmitter: sodium symporters (NSS), which are driven using the large concentration difference of sodium (orange dots) between the outside and the inside of the cell...

  18. Cosmic ray produced sodium and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves Barbosa, A.

    1981-07-01

    The following topics were presented: calculations of the theoretical production rate of sodium-22 in the atmosphere in order to estimate its activity in rain water; description of the method of chemical separation of sodium and of counting of various radionuclide samples; results obtained for 22 Na, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 7 Be and 210 Pb and seasonal variations of these radionuclides in rain and river waters; seasonal variations of natural elements, sodium, potassium and uranium in rain and river waters [fr

  19. Interaction of oil and paraffin with sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Zagorulko, Yu.I.; Kovalev, Yu.P.; Lamykin, E.V.; Alekseev, V.V.; Sergeev, G.P.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the investigation results on the kinetics of a gaseous oil pyrolysis product composition change in the presence of sodium under static conditions at 350 deg. C, 550 deg. C and 700 deg. C as well as the behaviour of oil and paraffin within the sodium circulating loops. The calculated estimations of the critical oil physical state parameters in sodium flows are given. (author)

  20. Dissolution of LMFBR fuel-sodium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Moss, O.R.

    1979-01-01

    Plutonium dioxide, normally insoluble in biological fluids, becomes much more soluble when mixed with sodium as the aerosol is formed. Sodium-fuel aerosols are approximately 20 times less soluble in simulated lung fluid than in distilled water. Solubility of sodium-fuel aerosols increases when Na 2 CO 3 are added to the distilled-water dissolution fluid. Mixed-oxide fuel aerosols without sodium present are relatively insoluble in distilled water, simulated lung fluid, and distilled water with Na 2 CO 3 and NaHCO 3 added

  1. Experience on sodium removal from various components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, M.; Kanbe, M.; Yagisawa, H.; Sasaki, S.; Kataoka, H.; Fukada, T.; Ishii, Y.; Saito, R.; Mimoto, Y.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1970, OEC (O-arai Engineering Center) has been Investigating the following methods for removal of sodium from the components of sodium plants: steam cleaning for the 50 MW Steam Generator, secondary proto-type pump of 'JOYO' and Dummy fuel assembly of 'JOYO', alcohol cleaning for Sector Model of Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of 'JOYO', a sector model of Sodium-to-Air cooler of 'JOYO' and a proto-type isolation valve of 'JOYO' and cleaning by vacuumization at high temperature for Regenerative Heat Exchanger. This report describes the outline of the Sodium Disposal Facility and experience of sodium removal processing on the 50 MW Steam Generator, the crevices of the experimental sub-assemblies, the Fuel Handling Machine of 'MONJU' and the Regenerative Heat Exchanger of the Sodium Flow Test Facility. Through these experiences it was noted that, (1) Removal of sodium from crevices such as in bolted joints are very difficult. (2) Consideration is needed in the removal process where material damage might occur from the generation of hydro-oxides. (3) Some detection device to tell the completion of sodium removal as well as the end of reaction is required. (4) Requalification rules should be clarified. Efforts in this direction have been made in the case of a 'JOYO' prototype pump by reinstalling it after sodium removal five times. (author)

  2. Intelligent type sodium instrumentations for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daolong

    1996-07-01

    The constructions and performances of lots of newly developed intelligent type sodium instrumentations are described. The graduation characteristic equations for corresponding transducer using the medium temperature as the parameter are given. These intelligent type sodium instrumentations are possessed of good linearity. The accurate measurement data of sodium process parameters (flowrate, pressure and level) can be obtained by means of their on-line compensation function of the temperature effect. Moreover, these intelligent type sodium instrumentations are possessed of the self-inspection, the electric shutoff protection, the setting of full-scale, the setting of alarm limits (two upper limits and two lower limits alarms), the thermocouple breaking alarm, mutual isolative the 0∼10 V direct-current analogue output and the CENTRONICS standard digital output, and the alarm relay contact output. Theses intelligent type sodium instrumentations are suitable particularly for the instrument, control and protective systems of LMFBR by means of these excellent functions based on microprocessor. The basic errors of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, immersed sodium flowmeter, sodium manometer and sodium level gauge are +-2%, +-2.3%, +-0.3% and +-1.9% of measuring ranges respectively. (9 figs.)

  3. Association between blood cholesterol and sodium intake in hypertensive women with excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Bruna Merten; Ferreira, Raphaela Costa; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Tassitano, Rafael Miranda; Holanda, Lidiana de Souza; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; Cabral, Poliana Coelho

    2018-04-01

    Restricted sodium intake has been recommended for more than 1 century for the treatment of hypertension. However, restriction seems to increase blood cholesterol. In women with excess weight, blood cholesterol may increase even more because of insulin resistance and the high lipolytic activity of adipose tissue.The aim of this study was to assess the association between blood cholesterol and sodium intake in hypertensive women with and without excess weight.This was a cross-sectional study with hypertensive and nondiabetic women aged 20 to 59 years, recruited at the primary healthcare units of Maceio, Alagoas, Brazilian Northeast. Excess weight was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥25.0 kg/m. Sodium intake was estimated by the 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium. Blood cholesterol was the primary outcome investigated by this study, and its relationship with sodium intake and other variables was assessed by Pearson correlation and multivariate linear regression using a significance level of 5%.This study included 165 hypertensive women. Of these, 135 (81.8%) were with excess weight. The mean sodium intake was 3.7 g (±1.9) and 3.4 g (±2.4) in hypertensive women with and without excess weight, respectively. The multiple normal linear regression models fitted to the "blood cholesterol" in the 2 groups reveal that for the group of hypertensive women without excess weight only 1 independent variable "age" is statistically significant to explain the variability of the blood cholesterol levels. However, for the group of hypertensive women with excess weight, 2 independent variables, age and sodium intake, can statistically explain variations of the blood cholesterol levels.Blood cholesterol is statistically inversely related to sodium intake for hypertensive women with excess weight, but it is not statistically related to sodium intake for hypertensive women without excess weight.

  4. Effect of beta-alanine, with and without sodium bicarbonate, on 2000-m rowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Ruth M; Harris, Roger C; Martin, Dan; Smith, Perry; Macklin, Ben; Gualano, Bruno; Sale, Craig

    2013-10-01

    To examine the effect of beta-alanine only and beta-alanine with sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 2,000-m rowing performance. Twenty well-trained rowers (age 23 ± 4 y; height 1.85 ± 0.08 m; body mass 82.5 ± 8.9 kg) were assigned to either a placebo or beta-alanine (6.4 g · d(-1) for 4 weeks) group. A 2,000-m rowing time trial (TT) was performed before supplementation (Baseline) and after 28 and 30 days of supplementation. The post supplementation trials involved supplementation with either maltodextrin or sodium bicarbonate in a double-blind, crossover design, creating four study conditions (placebo with maltodextrin; placebo with sodium bicarbonate; beta-alanine with maltodextrin; beta-alanine with sodium bicarbonate). Blood lactate, pH, bicarbonate, and base excess were measured pre-TT, immediately post-TT and at TT+5 min. Performance data were analyzed using magnitude based inferences. Beta-alanine supplementation was very likely to be beneficial to 2,000-m rowing performance (6.4 ± 8.1 s effect compared with placebo), with the effect of sodium bicarbonate having a likely benefit (3.2 ± 8.8 s). There was a small (1.1 ± 5.6 s) but possibly beneficial additional effect when combining chronic beta-alanine supplementation with acute sodium bicarbonate supplementation compared with chronic beta-alanine supplementation alone. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion led to increases in plasma pH, base excess, bicarbonate, and lactate concentrations. Both chronic beta-alanine and acute sodium bicarbonate supplementation alone had positive effects on 2,000-m rowing performance. The addition of acute sodium bicarbonate to chronic beta-alanine supplementation may further enhance rowing performance.

  5. The effect of water sodium on the chick requirement for dietary sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, E

    1979-05-01

    Two strains of broiler chicks fed a basal wheat-soybean diet designed to be complete in all known nutrients failed to achieve optimal growth at 3 weeks of age. Increments of dietary sodium resulted in increased growth responses and improved feed efficiencies (P less than .05) which were not related to genotype. The sodium requirements for optimum weight gain was found to be greater than the NRC (1971) requirement when the water sodium level was 3 ppm. The addition of 50 ppm of sodium to the drinking water improved growth and feed efficiency (P less than .05) of birds fed the basal diet. When 100 ppm of sodium was added to the drinking water, a further increase in growth was obtained equivalent to that of birds receiving the basal diet to which increments of sodium were added up to .15%. Sodium in the drinking water was shown to be utilized more effectively than was sodium in the feed.

  6. Body Piercing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Body Piercing Posted under Health Guides . Updated 1 August 2017. + ... medical reasons why I should not get a piercing? Yes. There are medical conditions (see the list ...

  7. Sodium Carbonate is Saltier Than Sodium Chloride to Sodium-Depleted Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Steven J; McBrayer, Anya M; Krauskopf, Erin E

    2017-10-01

    In a series of behavioral experiments in the 1960s, G.R. Morrison identified several unique features of the taste of Na2CO3 to rats; namely, it is 1) considerably more intense than NaCl at isomolar concentrations, 2) avoided at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl to thirsty rats, 3) preferred at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl in sodium-depleted rats. He also demonstrated its qualitatively similarity to NaCl. In Experiment 1, we confirmed and extended many of Morrison's observations. Rats were injected with furosemide on 3 occasions to stimulate a sodium appetite. After each depletion, rats were given a brief-access taste test in a lickometer presenting, in random order, water and 7 concentrations of salt. One test used NaCl (0.028-0.89 M, quarter log steps), another used Na2CO3, and the third used Na2CO3, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (0.0028-0.089 M). Rats licked NaCl in an inverted-U shaped concentration-response function peaking at 0.158-0.281 M. As Morrison's results predicted, rats licked Na2CO3 in nearly identical fashion, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (peak at 0.0158-0.028 M). In a second experiment, furosemide-treated rats were repeatedly tested with the lower Na2CO3 range but mixed in the epithelial sodium channel blocker amiloride at various concentrations (3-300 μM, half log steps). Amiloride reduced licking for Na2CO3 and shifted the peak response rightward up to about half a log unit. Thus, this "super-saltiness" of Na2CO3 to rats is at least partly amiloride-dependent. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Energy Balance After Sodium?Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrannini, Giulia; Hach, Thomas; Crowe, Susanne; Sanghvi, Arjun; Hall, Kevin D.; Ferrannini, Ele

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Sodium?glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors cause substantially less weight loss than expected from the energy excreted via glycosuria. Our aim was to analyze this phenomenon quantitatively. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eighty-six patients with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c 7.8 ? 0.8% [62 ? 9 mmol/mol], estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 89 ? 19 mL ? min?1 ? 1.73 m?2) received empagliflozin (25 mg/day) for 90 weeks with frequent (n = 11) assessments of body weight, eGFR, and ...

  9. Operating experience with sodium valves in the TNO-sodium test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasselt, M.L.G. van

    1974-01-01

    The development of sodium components for the SNR-300 in Holland has reached the stage where full scale testing in sodium has almost been finished and construction is at its height. It is against this background that a review is given of the weaknesses in one area or the other of the commercially available types of sodium valves used in TNO's smaller test facilities at Apeldoorn and TNO's 50 MW sodium components test facility at Hengelo. (U.S.)

  10. Sodium ordering and the control of magnetism in sodium cobaltate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.J.P.; Roger, M.; Tennant, D.A.; Goff, J.P.; Gutmann, M.J.; Hoffmann, J.-U.; Prabhakaran, D.; Shannon, N.; Lake, B.; Deen, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    The long-range three-dimensional ordering of Na + ions was studied in a sample of composition Na 0.75 CoO 2 using single-crystal neutron diffraction. Large-scale numerical simulations reveal the ordering principle for this system, the formation of multi-vacancy charged droplets then order long range, and the structure factors from these defect clusters are in good agreement with the observed neutron diffraction intensities. The electrostatic potential is found to be the dominant factor in determining the sodium ordering and its associated distortion field. The superstructures induce a periodic potential in the CoO 2 , giving potential wells that are larger than the single-particle hopping frequency and so able to localize holes. The results readily explain many of the observed electrical and magnetic properties, including the three dimensionality of the magnetic excitations

  11. Hypertension: salt restriction, sodium homeostasis, and other ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neeru; Jani, Kishan Kumar; Gupta, Nivedita

    2011-03-01

    Salt is composed of Sodium Chloride (NaCl) which in body water becomes essential electrolytes, viz., Sodium (Na⁺) and Chloride (Cl⁻) ions, including in the blood and other extracellular fluids (ECF). Na⁺ ions are necessary cations in muscle contractions and their depletion will effect all the muscles in body including smooth muscle contraction of blood vessels, a fact which is utilized in lowering the blood pressure. Na⁺ ions also hold water with them in the ECF. Na⁺ homeostasis in body is maintained by thirst (water intake), kidneys (urinary excretion) and skin (sweating). In Na⁺ withdrawal, body tries to maintain homeostasis as far as possible. However, in certain conditions (e.g., during exercise, intake of drugs and in disorders causing Syndrome of Inappropriate Anti Diuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH), diuretics, diarrhea) coupled with moderate or severe dietary salt restriction (anorexia nervosa), hyponatremia can get precipitated. Hyponatremia is one end point in the spectrum of disorders caused by severe Na⁺ depletion whereas in moderate depletion it can cause hypohydration (or less total body water) and lower urinary volume (U v ). Moreover, salt sensitivity varies in various populations leading to different responses in relation to dietary Na⁺ intake. Diabetes and Hypertension often co-exist but Na⁺ withdrawal in salt sensitive subjects worsens diabetes though hypertension gets better and reverse occurs in salt loading. Therefore, Na⁺ or salt restriction may be non-physiological. In hypertensive subjects other alternatives to Na⁺ withdrawal could be Potassium (K⁺) and Calcium (Ca⁺²) supplementation. Further studies are required to monitor safety/side effects of salt restriction.

  12. Compared With Usual Sodium Intake, Low- and Excessive-Sodium Diets Are Associated With Increased Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche; Baslund, Bo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of sodium intake on population health remains controversial. The objective was to investigate the incidence of all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiovascular disease events (CVDEs) in populations exposed to dietary intakes of low sodium (<115 mmol), usual sodium (low usual so...

  13. The thiazide sensitive sodium chloride co-transporter NCC is modulated by site-specific ubiquitylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaek, Lena L; Rizzo, Federica; Wu, Qi

    2017-01-01

    The renal sodium chloride cotransporter, NCC, in the distal convoluted tubule is important for maintaining body Na+ and K+ homeostasis. Endogenous NCC is highly ubiquitylated, but the role of individual ubiquitylation sites is not established. Here, we assessed the role of 10 ubiquitylation sites...

  14. Tumorigenicity of sodium ascorbate in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S M; Anderson, T A; de Oliveira, L M; Arnold, L L

    1998-06-15

    Sodium ascorbate, like other sodium salts such as saccharin, glutamate, and bicarbonate, produces urinary alterations when fed at high doses to rats, which results in mild superficial urothelial cytotoxicity and regeneration but not tumors in a standard 2-year bioassay. Sodium saccharin was shown to produce a low incidence of bladder tumors in rats if administered in a two-generation bioassay. In the present study, we evaluated sodium ascorbate in a two-generation bioassay that involved feeding to the male and female parental F344 rats for 4 weeks before mating, feeding the dams during gestation and lactation, and then feeding the weaned (at 28 days of age) male F1 generation rats for the remainder of their lifetime (up to 128 weeks of the experiment). Dietary levels of 1.0, 5.0, and 7.0% sodium ascorbate were tested. At 5.0 and 7.0% sodium ascorbate, there was an increase in urinary bladder urothelial papillary and nodular hyperplasia and the induction of a few papillomas and carcinomas. There was a dose-responsive increase in renal pelvic calcification and hyperplasia and inhibition of the aging nephropathy of rats even at the level of 1% sodium ascorbate. Because the short-term urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate in rats are inhibited by treatments producing urinary acidification to pH sodium ascorbate to evaluate the long-term effects. The combination of 7.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.78% NH4Cl in the diet was toxic, and the group was terminated early during the course of the experiment. The group fed 5.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.04% NH4Cl showed complete inhibition of the urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate and significant inhibition of its renal effects. We also demonstrated the presence of a calcium phosphate-containing urinary precipitate in rats fed sodium ascorbate at all doses, in a dose-responsive manner. The formation of the precipitate was inhibited by coadministration with NH4Cl. The proliferative effects of sodium ascorbate on the male rat

  15. Central control of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis.

  16. Sodium fires. Progress achieved in research and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Duverger de Cuy, G.; Casselman, C.; Charpenel, J.; Natta, M.; Devillers, C.

    1979-08-01

    This paper describes the sodium fire programs undertaken by the CEA's Nuclear Safety Department. Experimental results concerning sodium ignition and combustion, sodium fire suppression, sodium aerosol filtration and sodium-concrete contact reactions are given and the applications of these results in the Super-Phenix reactor is discussed

  17. Body Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sea, Jonghan; Beauregard, Eric

    2017-02-01

    This study explores the body disposal patterns in a sample of 54 Korean homicides that occurred between 2006 and 2012. Based on information collected by the police during their investigation, factors that could influence body disposal patterns were examined, such as homicide classification, intention, whether an accomplice was present, and offender mental disorder. Bivariate analyses showed that the majority of the victims who were disposed of were acquaintances of the offenders. Moreover, several offenders were more likely to dispose of the dead body "within hours" of killing the victim. Dead bodies were usually recovered in agricultural areas, forest/wooded areas, as well as residential areas. It was also noteworthy that, in 47 cases, the offender had knowledge of the geographic area where the body was dumped. In cases of "expressive" homicide, victims were more likely to be disposed of somewhere far away (e.g., over 40 km) from the crime scene, whereas "instrumental" homicide victims appeared to be disposed of somewhere closer (e.g., within 30 km) to the crime scene. Results are discussed in light of their practical implications for homicide investigations.

  18. Atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosol due to a sodium leak in a fast breeder reactor complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punitha, G.; Sudha, A. Jasmin; Kasinathan, N.; Rajan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid sodium at high temperatures (470 K to 825 K) is used as the primary and secondary coolant in Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). In the event of a postulated sodium leak in the Steam Generator Building (SGB) of a LMFBR, sodium readily combusts in the ambient air, especially at temperatures above 523 K. Intense sodium fire results and sodium oxide fumes are released as sodium aerosols. Sodium oxides are readily converted to sodium hydroxide in air due to the presence of moisture in it. Hence, sodium aerosols are invariably in the form of particulate sodium hydroxide. These aerosols damage not only the equipment and instruments due to their corrosive nature but also pose health hazard to humans. Hence, it is essential to estimate the concentration of sodium aerosols within the plant boundary for a sodium leak event. The Gaussian Plume Dispersion Model can obtain the atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosols in an open terrain. However, this model dose not give accurate results for dispersion in spaces close to the point of release and with buildings in between. The velocity field due to the wind is altered to a large extent by the intervening buildings and structures. Therefore, a detailed 3-D estimation of the velocity field and concentration has to be obtained through rigorous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. PHOENICS code has been employed to determine concentration of sodium aerosols at various distances from the point of release. The dispersion studies have been carried out for the release of sodium aerosols at different elevations from the ground and for different wind directions. (author)

  19. Sodium nitrate combustion limit tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    Sodium nitrate is a powerful solid oxidant. Energetically, it is capable of exothermically oxidizing almost any organic material. Rate-controlling variables such as temperature, concentration of oxidant, concentration of fuel, thermal conductivity, moisture content, size, and pressure severely limit the possibility of a self-supported exothermic reaction (combustion). The tests reported in this document were conducted on one-gram samples at atmospheric pressure. Below 380 0 C, NaNO 3 was stable and did not support combustion. At moisture concentrations above 22 wt percent, exothermic reactions did not propagate in even the most energetic and reactive compositions. Fresh resin and paraffin were too volatile to enable a NaNO 2 -supported combustion process to propagate. Concentrations of NaNO 3 above 95 wt percent or below 35 wt percent did not react with enough energy release to support combustion. The influence of sample size and confining pressure, both important factors, was not investigated in this study

  20. Successful treatment of sodium oxalate induced urolithiasis with Helichrysum flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaran, Metin; Orhan, Nilüfer; Farahvash, Amirali; Ekin, Hasya Nazlı; Kocabıyık, Murat; Gönül, İpek Işık; Şen, İlker; Aslan, Mustafa

    2016-06-20

    Helichrysum (Asteraceae) flowers, known as "altın otu, yayla çiçeği, kudama çiçeği" , are widely used to remove kidney stones and for their diuretic properties in Turkey. To determine the curative effect of infusions prepared from capitulums of Helichrysum graveolens (M. Bieb.) Sweet (HG) and H. stoechas ssp. barellieri (Ten.) Nyman (HS) on sodium oxalate induced kidney stones. Infusions prepared from the capitulums of HG and HS were tested for their curative effect on calcium oxalate deposition induced by sodium oxalate (70mg/kg i.p.). Following the injection of sodium oxalate for 5 days, plant extracts were administered to rats at two different doses. Potassium citrate was used as positive control. Water intake, urine volume, body, liver and kidney weights were measured; biochemical and hematological analyses were conducted on urine and blood samples. Additionally, histopathological examinations were done on kidney samples. H. stoechas extract showed prominent effect at 156mg/kg dose (stone formation score: 0.33), whereas number of kidney stones was maximum in sodium oxalate group (stone formation score: 2.33). The reduction in the uric acid and oxalate levels of urine samples and the elevation in the urine citrate levels are significant and promising in extract groups. Some hematological, biochemical and enzymatic markers are also ameliorated by the extracts. This is the first report on the curative effect of immortal flowers. Our preliminary study indicated that Helichrysum extracts may be used for treatment of urolithiasis and Helichrysum extracts are an alternative therapy to potassium citrate for patients suffering from kidney stones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sodium nitrate supplementation does not enhance performance of endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bescós, Raúl; Ferrer-Roca, Ventura; Galilea, Pedro A; Roig, Andreu; Drobnic, Franchek; Sureda, Antoni; Martorell, Miquel; Cordova, Alfredo; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2012-12-01

    Supplementation with inorganic nitrate has been suggested to be an ergogenic aid for athletes as nitric oxide donor. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ingestion of inorganic sodium nitrate benefits well-trained athletes performing a 40-min exercise test in laboratory conditions. In addition, we investigated the effect of this supplement on plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and in nitrated proteins. Thirteen trained athletes participated in this randomized, double-blind, crossover study. They performed a 40-min cycle ergometer distance-trial test after two 3-d periods of dietary supplementation with sodium nitrate (10 mg·kg of body mass) or placebo. Concentration of plasma nitrate (256 ± 35 μM) and nitrite (334 ± 86 nM) increased significantly (P nitrate supplementation compared with placebo (nitrate: 44 ± 11 μM; nitrite: 187 ± 43 nM). In terms of exercise performance, there were no differences in either the mean distance (nitrate: 26.4 ± 1.1 km; placebo: 26.3 ± 1.2 km; P = 0.61) or mean power output (nitrate: 258 ± 28 W; placebo: 257 ± 28 W; P = 0.89) between treatments. Plasma ET-1 increased significantly (P nitrate (4.0 ± 0.8 pg·mL) and placebo (2.4 ± 0.4 pg·mL) conditions. This increase was significantly greater (P nitrate group. Levels of nitrated proteins did not differ between treatments (nitrate: preexercise, 91% ± 23%; postexercise, 81% ± 23%; placebo: preexercise, 95% ± 20%; postexercise, 99% ± 19%). Sodium nitrate supplementation did not improve a 40-min distance-trial performance in endurance athletes. In addition, concentration of plasma ET-1 increased significantly after exercise after supplementation with sodium nitrate.

  2. Sodium Dedecyl Suphate Polyacrilamide Gel Electrophosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium Dedecyl Suphate Polyacrilamide Gel Electrophosis of Campylobacter coli. S.I. Smith, M.M. Ibrahim, V.N. Ezeobi, K.S. Oyedeji, K.A. Akinsinde, A.O Coker. Abstract. Campylobacter coli were characterized using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The isolates were obtained ...

  3. 21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sorbate. 182.3795 Section 182.3795 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795 Sodium...

  4. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium...

  5. The Sodium Tail of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of sodium alkoxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Alcohol route is being adopted for cleaning sodium from sodium-wetted small components of coolant circuits of fast reactors. For better understanding of sodium–alcohol reactions and their energetics, the data on thermo-chemical properties such as heats of sodium–alcohol reactions, heats of dissolution, heat ...

  7. Formulation of Sodium Alginate Nanospheres Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to formulate sodium alginate nanospheres of amphotericin B by controlled gellification method and to evaluate the role of the nanospheres as a “passive carrier” in targeted antifungal therapy. Methods: Sodium alginate nanospheres of amphotericin B were prepared by controlled ...

  8. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. Sodium concentration of water from softeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarows, S A; Fusilier, W E; Weder, A B

    1997-01-27

    To determine whether water is safe for consumption after it has passed through a water softener and whether there are any health and environmental implications of cationic water softeners. Sodium concentration was measured in 59 water samples that had passed through a water softener and was compared with the sodium concentration of 5 samples from 4 different local municipal sources. The mean +/- SD sodium concentration of softened well water was 278 +/- 186 mg/L (range, 46-1219 mg/L). There were 10 (17%) households with sodium levels greater than 400 mg/L. The mean +/- SD sodium concentration of municipal, nonsoftened water was 110 +/- 98 mg/L (range, 0-253 mg/L). Softened well water in our area on average contained a 2.5-times-higher concentration of sodium than local municipal water, comparable with previous reports. It is unlikely that the increased sodium from softened water would have any health risks for most people. This may not be true for people on severely sodium-restricted diets.

  10. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product....

  11. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing practice. ...

  13. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  14. Body Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  15. Pentose pathway in human liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, I.; Chandramouli, V.; Schumann, W.C.; Kumaran, K.; Wahren, J.; Landau, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    [1- 14 C]Ribose and [1- 14 C]glucose were given to normal subjects along with glucose loads (1 g per kg of body weight) after administration of diflunisal and acetaminophen, drugs that are excreted in urine as glucuronides. Distributions of 14 C were determined in the carbons of the excreted glucoronides and in the glucose from blood samples drawn from hepatic veins before and after glucagon administration. Eighty percent or more of the 14 C from [1- 14 C]ribose incorporated into the glucuronic acid moiety of the glucuronides was in carbons 1 and 3, with less than 8% in carbon 2. In glucuronic acid from glucuronide excreted when [2- 14 C]glucose was given, 3.5-8.1% of the 14 C was in carbon 1, 2.5-4.3% in carbon 3, and more than 70% in carbon 2. These distributions are in accord with the glucuronides sampling the glucose unit of the glucose 6-phosphate pool that is a component of the pentose pathway and is intermediate in glycogen formation. It is concluded that the glucuronic acid conjugates of the drugs can serve as a noninvasive means of sampling hepatic glucose 6-phosphate. In human liver, as in animal liver, the classical pentose pathway functions, not the L-type pathway, and only a small percentage of the glucose is metabolized via the pathway

  16. Sodium hypochlorite-induced acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon W Peck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hypochlorite (bleach is commonly used as an irrigant during dental proce-dures as well as a topical antiseptic agent. Although it is generally safe when applied topically, reports of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite into tissue have been reported. Local necrosis, pain and nerve damage have been described as a result of exposure, but sodium hypo-chlorite has never been implicated as a cause of an acute kidney injury (AKI. In this report, we describe the first case of accidental sodium hypochlorite injection into the infraorbital tissue during a dental procedure that precipitated the AKI. We speculate that oxidative species induced by sodium hypochlorite caused AKI secondary to the renal tubular injury, causing mild acute tubular necrosis.

  17. Sodium technology at EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.T.; Smith, C.R.F.; Olson, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    Since the installation of purity monitoring systems in 1967, the control of the purity of the primary and secondary sodium and cover gas systems at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) has been excellent. A rigorous monitoring program is being used to assure that operating limits for more than 25 chemical and radioactive impurities are not exceeded. The program involves the use of sophisticated sampling and analysis techniques and on-line monitors for both sodium and cover gas systems. Sodium purity control is accomplished by essentially continuous cold trapping of a small side stream of the total circulating sodium. The cold traps have been found to be very effective for the removal of the major chemical impurities (oxygen and hydrogen) and tritium but are almost ineffective for 131 I and 137 Cs that enter the sodium from fuel cladding breaks. Purging with pure argon maintains the cover gas purity

  18. Body parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiter, Elif

    2010-01-01

    In this project, the artist wishes to examine corporeality in the virtual realm, through the usage of the (non)-physical body of the avatar. An art installation created in the virtual world of Second Life, which is meant to be accessed with site specific avatars, will provide the creative platform whereby this investigation is undertaken. Thus, "body parts" seeks to challenge the residents of virtual environments into connecting with the virtual manifestations, i.e., avatars of others in an emotionally expressive/intimate manner.

  19. Post-Formation Sodium Loss on the Moon: A Bulk Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, P.; Killen, R. M.; Airapetian, V.; Petro, N. E.; Mandell, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    The Moon and Earth are generally similar in terms of composition, but there exist variations in the abundance of certain elements among the two bodies. These differences are a likely consequence of differing physical evolution of the two bodies over the solar system's history. While previous works have assumed this may be due to conditions during the Moonâ€"TM"s formation, we explore the likelihood that the observed depletion in Sodium in lunar samples may be partially due to post-formation mechanisms. Solar effects, loss from a primordial atmosphere and impacts are some of the dominant post-formation mechanisms that we examine. We describe how our past and current modeling efforts indicate that a significant fraction of the observed depletion of sodium in lunar samples relative to a bulk silicate earth composition may have been due to solar activity, atmospheric loss and impacts. Using profiles of sodium abundances from lunar crustal samples may thus serve as a powerful tool towards exploring conditions on the Moon's surface throughout solar system history. Conditions on the Moon immediately after formation may still be recorded in the lunar crust and may provide a window towards interpreting observations from some of the first rocky exoplanets that will be most amenable to characterization. Potential spatial variation of sodium in the lunar crust may be a relevant consideration for future sample return efforts. Sodium Depletion in the Lunar Crust: Lunar

  20. Ethanol Extracts of Fruiting Bodies of Antrodia cinnamomea Suppress CL1-5 Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells Migration by Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinase-2/9 through ERK, JNK, p38, and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis is a primary cause of cancer death. Antrodia cinnamomea (A. cinnamomea, a medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, has shown antioxidant and anticancer activities. In this study, we first observed that ethanol extract of fruiting bodies of A. cinnamomea (EEAC exerted a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on migration and motility of the highly metastatic CL1-5 cells in the absence of cytotoxicity. The results of a gelatin zymography assay showed that A. cinnamomea suppressed the activities of matrix metalloproteinase-(MMP- 2 and MMP-9 in a concentration-dependent manner. Western blot results demonstrated that treatment with A. cinnamomea decreased the expression of MMP-9 and MMP-2; while the expression of the endogenous inhibitors of these proteins, that is, tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 increased. Further investigation revealed that A. cinnamomea suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK1/2. A. cinnamomea also suppressed the expressions of PI3K and phosphorylation of Akt. Furthermore, treatment of CL1-5 cells with inhibitors specific for PI3K (LY 294002, ERK1/2 (PD98059, JNK (SP600125, and p38 MAPK (SB203580 decreased the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. This is the first paper confirming the antimigration activity of this potentially beneficial mushroom against human lung adenocarcinoma CL1-5 cancer cells.

  1. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Sodium Valproate on Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema in Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mj Khoshnood

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABESTRACT: Introduction & objective: Inflammation is a body defensive response to the endogenous and exogenous stimulators such as chemical, radiation, trauma and invasive microorganism, which result pain and tissue necrosis. There are many natural and synthetic drugs for treatment of inflammation and lot of them are under investigation. Sodium valporate is an antiepileptic drug used particularly in the treatment of primary generalized seizure notably absence, myocolonic seizure, acute manic phase of bipolar disorder and prophylaxis of migraine. The previous observations showed sodium valporate increases level of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA in the central and peripheral nervous system. In acute inflammation, GABA showed a significant attenuation of paw edema and nociception. The aim of this study was evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of sodium valporate. Materials & Methods: In order to evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antiexudative of sodium valporate doses of 200,400 and 600 mg/kg were investigated on rat paw edema that induced by carrageenan. In addition, the plasma leakage in the inflamed tissue was evaluated by application of trypan blue as intravenous injection. Dexamethason was used as positive control. Results: Results showed sodium valporate doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg decreased inflammatory and exudative effect as compared to control group. Conclusion: Although the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of this drug were not evident but we can say sodium valporate in addition to already proved effects has anti-inflammatory effect.

  2. Lateral Parabrachial Nucleus Serotonergic Mechanisms and Salt Appetite Induced by Sodium Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menani, Jose Vanderlei; DeLuca, Laurival Antonio, Jr.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bilateral injections of a serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonist into the lateral parabrachial nucleus on the intake of NaCl and water induced by 24-h water deprivation or by sodium depletion followed by 24 h of sodium deprivation (injection of the diuretic furosemide plus 24 h of d sodium-deficient diet). Rats had stainless steel cannulas implanted bilaterally into the LPBN. Bilateral LPBN injections of the serotonergic 5-HT(1/2) receptor antagonist methysergide (4 micro-g/200 nl at each site) increased hypertonic NaCl intake when tested 24 h after sodium depletion and after 24 h of water deprivation. Water intake also increased after bilateral injections of methysergide into the LPBN. In contrast, the intake of a palatable solution (0.06 M sucrose) under body fluid-replete conditions was not changed after bilateral LPBN methysergide injections. The results show that serotonergic mechanisms in the LPBN modulate water and sodium intake induced by volume depletion and sodium loss. The finding that sucrose intake was not affected by LPBN serotonergic blockade suggests that the effects of the methysergide treatment on the intakes of water and NaCl are not due to a mechanism producing a nonspecific enhancement of all ingestive behaviors.

  3. Adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and sodium-water reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Y.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, background information of sodium fire and sodium-water reaction accidents of LMFBR (liquid metal fast breeder reactor) is mentioned at first. Next, numerical analysis method of GENESYS is described in detail. Next, adiabatic flame temperature and composition of sodium combustion are analyzed, and affect of reactant composition, such oxygen and moisture, is discussed. Finally, adiabatic reaction zone temperature and composition of sodium-water reaction are calculated, and affects of reactant composition, sodium vaporization, and pressure are stated. Chemical equilibrium calculation program for generic chemical system (GENESYS) is developed in this study for the research on adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and adiabatic reaction zone temperature of sodium-water reaction. The maximum flame temperature of the sodium combustion is 1,950 K at the standard atmospheric condition, and is not affected by the existence of moisture. The main reaction product is Na 2 O (l) , and in combustion in moist air, with NaOH (g) . The maximum reaction zone temperature of the sodium-water reaction is 1,600 K, and increases with the system pressure. The main products are NaOH (g) , NaOH (l) and H2 (g) . Sodium evaporation should be considered in the cases of sodium-rich and high pressure above 10 bar

  4. Adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and sodium-water reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, Y.; Yamaguchi, A. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, background information of sodium fire and sodium-water reaction accidents of LMFBR (liquid metal fast breeder reactor) is mentioned at first. Next, numerical analysis method of GENESYS is described in detail. Next, adiabatic flame temperature and composition of sodium combustion are analyzed, and affect of reactant composition, such oxygen and moisture, is discussed. Finally, adiabatic reaction zone temperature and composition of sodium-water reaction are calculated, and affects of reactant composition, sodium vaporization, and pressure are stated. Chemical equilibrium calculation program for generic chemical system (GENESYS) is developed in this study for the research on adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and adiabatic reaction zone temperature of sodium-water reaction. The maximum flame temperature of the sodium combustion is 1,950 K at the standard atmospheric condition, and is not affected by the existence of moisture. The main reaction product is Na{sub 2}O{sub (l)}, and in combustion in moist air, with NaOH{sub (g)}. The maximum reaction zone temperature of the sodium-water reaction is 1,600 K, and increases with the system pressure. The main products are NaOH{sub (g)}, NaOH{sub (l)} and H2{sub (g)}. Sodium evaporation should be considered in the cases of sodium-rich and high pressure above 10 bar.

  5. Sodium-NaK engineering handbook. Volume III. Sodium systems, safety, handling, and instrumentation. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, O J [ed.

    1978-01-01

    The handbook is intended for use by present and future designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Program and by the engineering and scientific community performing other type investigation and exprimentation requiring high-temperature sodium and NaK technology. The arrangement of subject matter progresses from a technological discussion of sodium and sodium--potassium alloy (NaK) to discussions of varius categories and uses of hardware in sodium and NaK systems. Emphasis is placed on sodium and NaK as heat-transport media. Sufficient detail is included for basic understanding of sodium and NaK technology and of technical aspects of sodium and NaK components and instrument systems. Information presented is considered adequate for use in feasibility studies and conceptual design, sizing components and systems, developing preliminary component and system descriptions, identifying technological limitations and problem areas, and defining basic constraints and parameters.

  6. Curcumin Inhibits The Adverse Effects of Sodium Arsenite in Mouse Epididymal Sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momeni Hamid Reza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of curcumin on epididy- mal sperm parameters in adult male Navel Medical Research Institute (NMRI mice ex- posed to sodium arsenite. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we divided the animals into four groups: control, sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg, curcumin (100 mg/kg and curcumin+sodium arsenite. Exposures were performed by intraperitoneal injections for a 5-week period. After the exposure period, we recorded the animals’ body and left testes weights. The left caudal epididymis was used to count the sperm number and analyze motility, viability, morphological abnormalities, acrosome reaction, DNA integrity, and histone-protamine replacement in the spermatozoa. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by the Tukey’s test was used to assess the statistical significance of the data with SPSS 16.0. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results Mice exposed to sodium arsenite showed a significant decrease in the num- ber, motility, viability, normal sperm morphology and acrosome integrity of spermato- zoa compared to the control group. In the curcumin+sodium arsenite group, curcumin significantly reversed these adverse effects to the point where they approximated the control. In addition, the application of curcumin alone had no significant difference in these parameters compared to the control and curcumin+sodium arsenite groups. However, we observed no significant differences in the body and the testis weight as well as the DNA integrity and histone-protamine replacement in the spermatozoa of the four groups. Conclusion Curcumin compensated for the toxic effects of sodium arsenite on a number of sperm parameters in adult mice.

  7. Sodium Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/sodiumbloodtest.html Sodium Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Sodium Blood Test? A sodium blood test measures the ...

  8. Sodium selectivity of semicircular canal duct epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harbidge Donald G

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium absorption by semicircular canal duct (SCCD epithelial cells is thought to contribute to the homeostasis of the volume of vestibular endolymph. It was previously shown that the epithelial cells could absorb Na+ under control of a glucocorticoid hormone (dexamethasone and the absorptive transepithelial current was blocked by amiloride. The most commonly-observed target of amiloride is the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC, comprised of the three subunits α-, β- and γ-ENaC. However, other cation channels have also been observed to be sensitive in a similar concentration range. The aim of this study was to determine whether SCCD epithelial cells absorb only Na+ or also K+ through an amiloride-sensitive pathway. Parasensory K+ absorption could contribute to regulation of the transduction current through hair cells, as found to occur via vestibular transitional cells [S. H. Kim and D. C. Marcus. Regulation of sodium transport in the inner ear. Hear.Res. doi:10.1016/j.heares.2011.05.003, 2011]. Results We determined the molecular and functional expression of candidate cation channels with gene array (GEO GSE6197, whole-cell patch clamp and transepithelial recordings in primary cultures of rat SCCD. α-, β- and γ-ENaC were all previously reported as present. The selectivity of the amiloride-sensitive transepithelial and cell membrane currents was observed in Ussing chamber and whole-cell patch clamp recordings. The cell membrane currents were carried by Na+ but not K+, but the Na+ selectivity disappeared when the cells were cultured on impermeable supports. Transepithelial currents across SCCD were also carried exclusively by Na+. Conclusions These results are consistent with the amiloride-sensitive absorptive flux of SCCD mediated by a highly Na+-selective channel, likely αβγ-ENaC. These epithelial cells therefore absorb only Na+ via the amiloride-sensitive pathway and do not provide a parasensory K+ efflux from the

  9. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    In northern Europe during the Iron Age, many corpses were deposited in bogs. The cold, wet and anaerobic environment leads in many cases to the preservation of soft tissues, so that the bodies, when found and excavated several thousand years later, are remarkably intact. Since the 19th century th...

  10. BODY CONDITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrew Taylor

    Table 1 Seasonal variation in body and kidney weight of adult mountain reedbuck culled at Sterkfontein. Values are ..... This leads to a decrease in nutritional quality of grazing for mountain reedbuck and a loss of condition. .... This would decrease the chances of starvation of those animals left, and allow them to build up ...

  11. Sacralising Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    -sacrifice became central to the mass mobilisation against the monarchy. Once the revolutionary government came into existence, this sacred tradition was regulated to create ‘martyrs’ as a fixed category, in order to consolidate the legacy of the revolution. In this political theatre, the dead body is a site...

  12. Experimental and Numerical Simulation towards Sodium Safety in SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponraju, D.; Rao, Hemanth; Das, Sanjay Kumar; Punitha; Nashine, B.K.; Chellapandi, P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary and future program on sodium fire: Past - Design verification of LCT by experiments; Small scale experiments on sodium resistant concrete; Small sodium spray: - Fire senario; - particle distribution. Current activities - Containment code development; Demonstration of LCT system, effective LCT design; Qualification of extinguishers and sodium resistant contrete; LBB justification; Aerosol distribution. Future - Sodium school; HR development in handing sodium systems; Collaboration with AERB, IRSN, CEA and other International Organizations; Design guidelines

  13. The influence of sodium fires on LMFBRs safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justin, F.

    1979-01-01

    In a sodium cooled reactor, sodium fires are accidental conditions to be taken into account in safety analysis. For the various sodium categories, fire conditions, associated risks, safety analysis objectives and detailed corresponding issues are indicated, An experimental research program can be deduced from these considerations. This report covers the following: safety analysis methodology; primary sodium fires; secondary sodium fires; auxiliary sodium fires, and related experimental research programs

  14. Simulation of sodium boiling experiments with THERMIT sodium version. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, K.Y.

    1982-05-01

    Natural and forced convection experiments (SBTF and French) are simulated with the sodium version of the thermal-hydraulic computer code THERMIT. Simulation is done for the test section with the pressure-velocity boundary condition and subsequently extended to the whole loop. For the test section simulation, a steady-state and transient calculations are performed and compared with experimental data. For the loop simulation, two methods are used, a simulated 1-D loop and an actual 1-D loop. In the simulated 1-D loop analysis, the vapor density is increased by one hundred and two hundred times to avoid the code failure and the results still showed some of the important characteristics of the two-phase flow oscillation in a loop. A mathematical model is suggested for the two-phase flow oscillation. In the actual 1-D loop, only the single phase calculation was performed and turned out to be nearly the same as the simulated 1-D loop single phase results.

  15. Sodium-metal halide and sodium-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seongmin; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Aram; Kim, Youngsik; Lee, Kyu Tae

    2014-07-21

    Impressive developments have been made in the past a few years toward the establishment of Na-ion batteries as next-generation energy-storage devices and replacements for Li-ion batteries. Na-based cells have attracted increasing attention owing to low production costs due to abundant sodium resources. However, applications of Na-ion batteries are limited to large-scale energy-storage systems because of their lower energy density compared to Li-ion batteries and their potential safety problems. Recently, Na-metal cells such as Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries have been considered to be promising for use in electric vehicles owing to good safety and high energy density, although less attention is focused on Na-metal cells than on Na-ion cells. This Minireview provides an overview of the fundamentals and recent progress in the fields of Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries, with the aim of providing a better understanding of new electrochemical systems. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Hydrogen embrittlement of type 410 stainless steel in sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide environments at 90 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Dept. Fisico Quimica Aplicada; Martinez-Villafane, A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales Avanzados Leon Tolstoi, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    1997-06-01

    Susceptibility of martensitic type 410 (UNS S41000) stainless steel (SS) to environmental cracking was evaluated at 90 C in concentrated sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide solutions, all of which are environments related to steam turbine conditions, using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. In NaCl, the effects of solution pH, concentration, and anodic and cathodic polarization were investigated. Tests were supplemented by detailed electron fractography and hydrogen permeation measurements. A clear correlation was found between the degree of embrittlement and the amount of hydrogen permeating the steel, suggesting a hydrogen-induced cracking mechanism.

  17. Survival pathways under stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Survival pathways under stress. Bacteria survive by changing gene expression. pattern. Three important pathways will be discussed: Stringent response. Quorum sensing. Proteins performing function to control oxidative damage.

  18. Pathways Intern Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggett, Daniel James

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) provides a formal training program for prospective employees titled, Pathways Intern Employment. The Pathways program targets graduate and undergraduate students who strive to become an active contributor to NASA's goal of space exploration. The report herein provides an account of Daniel Huggett's Pathways experience for the Spring and Summer 2017 semesters.

  19. Neurophysiology and itch pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    As we all can easily differentiate the sensations of itch and pain, the most straightforward neurophysiologic concept would consist of two specific pathways that independently encode itch and pain. Indeed, a neuronal pathway for histamine-induced itch in the peripheral and central nervous system has been described in animals and humans, and recently several non-histaminergic pathways for itch have been discovered in rodents that support a dichotomous concept differentiated into a pain and an itch pathway, with both pathways being composed of different "flavors." Numerous markers and mediators have been found that are linked to itch processing pathways. Thus, the delineation of neuronal pathways for itch from pain pathways seemingly proves that all sensory aspects of itch are based on an itch-specific neuronal pathway. However, such a concept is incomplete as itch can also be induced by the activation of the pain pathway in particular when the stimulus is applied in a highly localized spatial pattern. These opposite views reflect the old dispute between specificity and pattern theories of itch. Rather than only being of theoretic interest, this conceptual problem has key implication for the strategy to treat chronic itch as key therapeutic targets would be either itch-specific pathways or unspecific nociceptive pathways.

  20. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.

    2012-01-01

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  1. UK position paper on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, G.J.; Glass, D.; Newman, R.N.; Ramsdale, S.A.; Snelling, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    The UK has over several years developed a philosophy for the prevention, mitigation and extinguishment of sodium fires. The systems which were developed for PFR have been continuously revised and modified and from these considerations systems were proposed for CDFR. The latest phases of this development are described with reference to the CDFR plant. The current analytical and experimental work on fires, aerosols and sodium concrete reactions is also discussed. The UK are developing codes to analyse the effects of a sodium fire in a building and to model aerosol behaviour following a fire. Experimental work on small scale fires, aerosol behaviour, filtration devices and sodium concrete reaction is being carried out on a laboratory scale. Techniques for aerosol measurement and characterisation have also been developed and used both In the laboratory and large scale tests. Larger scale tests of sodium fire extinguishment techniques have also been performed. Currently a programme of tests (SOFA) of large scale fires in the open to investigate the chemical and physical changes in the aerosol and its dispersion in the atmosphere are just beginning. The UK studies are intended to both assist in the development of prevention and mitigation systems for design base and beyond design base accidents in any building which contains sodium (or sodium potassium alloy) and also to provide methods for assessing the risks from such accidents. (author)

  2. Installation for the suppression of sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.; Payne, J.F.B.; Lee, C.J.; Rowe, D.M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The basic operating principles are discussed of a passive baffle-catch tray fire suppression system for sodium fires. A new design is described incorporating increased compartmentalization of the collecting and drainage parts of the device. The burning and smoke generation rates from trays with varying aperture sizes were measured. From the experiments it was found that the burning rate and smoke generation rates could be related satisfactorily to the aperture areas. For the smallest aperture size ( 2 ) it was found that the smoke release was considerably less than that from a fire of the same area, because the smoke deposited on the underside of the baffle. A re-ignition problem was found, where pillars of sodium oxide (wicks) grow upward from the surface of the drained sodium and begin to burn when level with the baffle aperature. From a knowledge of the rate of growth of the wicks, trays may be made sufficiently deep to avoid the problem. Self acting valves were developed which allow the passage of sodium through the aperture and close when drainage is complete. These devices were shown to effect complete extinction of the drained sodium. Using the designs proposed it is possible to construct a system that will reduce the smoke emission from the drained sodium by a factor approaching 10 3 , without the use of valves, or with the self acting valves developed, reduce the emission from the drained sodium to approximately zero. (author)

  3. A study on sodium-concrete reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pae, Jae Huem; Min, Byung Hoon; Lee, Joon Sik; Lee, Choong Hui; Chung, Ki Hong; Keum, Choong Ki [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    Sodium is commonly used as a coolant in liquid metal reactor. A large amount of its leakage may be possible in hypothetical accidents, even though the possibility is very low. In case that the leaked hot sodium comes in direct contact with structural concrete of liquid metal reactor, the reactor`s integrity can be challenged by the rupture of structure materials, hydrogen generation and its explosion, and release of radioactive aerosols due to sodium-concrete reaction. The knowledge of sodium-concrete reaction is evaluated to be one of the important and indispensable technologies for the establishment of safety measure in liquid metal reactor. In this study, the experimental facility of sodium-concrete reaction is to be designed, constructed and operated. And the reaction phenomena of sodium-concrete reaction is also to be analyzed through the experimental results. The aim of this study is to establish the measure of safety and protection for sodium-related facilities and to secure one of the fundamental technologies of liquid metal reactor safety. 47 refs., 7 figs., 13 tab.

  4. Emissivity of sodium mist deposited on a stainless-steel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, N.; Furutani, A.; Furukawa, O.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted for measuring the emissivity of sodium mist deposited on a stainless-steel plate in cover-gas space. The total and monochromatic emissivities were measured for specimens, which were established in the cover-gas space filled with sodium vapor/mist. Their values were determined by comparing the radiant energy emitted from a specimen with that emitted from a black body used as reference The results show that the values measured are strongly sensitive to impurities in the cover-gas space. (author)

  5. Copper-Promoted Desulfitative N-Arylation of Sulfonamides and Sulfoximines with Sodium Arylsulfinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yangji; You, Yaping; Dong, Wanrong; Peng, Zhihong; Zhang, Yingjun; An, Delie

    2017-06-02

    A general and direct N-arylation of sulfonamides and NH-sulfoximines by sodium arylsulfinates through a desulfitative pathway was herein demonstrated. The reaction proceeded with catalytic loadings of Cu(II)-catalysts without any external ligands. And the novel arylation protocol featured for high efficiency (up to 93% yields) and good substituent tolerance (up to 53 examples). Moreover, a plausible reaction mechanism was also discussed.

  6. A Global Model of Meteoric Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Daniel R.; Janches, Diego; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M. C.

    2013-01-01

    A global model of sodium in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere has been developed within the framework of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). The standard fully interactive WACCM chemistry module has been augmented with a chemistry scheme that includes nine neutral and ionized sodium species. Meteoric ablation provides the source of sodium in the model and is represented as a combination of a meteoroid input function (MIF) and a parameterized ablation model. The MIF provides the seasonally and latitudinally varying meteoric flux which is modeled taking into consideration the astronomical origins of sporadic meteors and considers variations in particle entry angle, velocity, mass, and the differential ablation of the chemical constituents. WACCM simulations show large variations in the sodium constituents over time scales from days to months. Seasonality of sodium constituents is strongly affected by variations in the MIF and transport via the mean meridional wind. In particular, the summer to winter hemisphere flow leads to the highest sodium species concentrations and loss rates occurring over the winter pole. In the Northern Hemisphere, this winter maximum can be dramatically affected by stratospheric sudden warmings. Simulations of the January 2009 major warming event show that it caused a short-term decrease in the sodium column over the polar cap that was followed by a factor of 3 increase in the following weeks. Overall, the modeled distribution of atomic sodium in WACCM agrees well with both ground-based and satellite observations. Given the strong sensitivity of the sodium layer to dynamical motions, reproducing its variability provides a stringent test of global models and should help to constrain key atmospheric variables in this poorly sampled region of the atmosphere.

  7. Amiloride-insensitive sodium channels are directly regulated by actin cytoskeleton dynamics in human lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarikova, Anastasia V; Tsaplina, Olga A; Chubinskiy-Nadezhdin, Vladislav I; Morachevskaya, Elena A; Negulyaev, Yuri A

    2015-05-22

    Sodium influx mediated by ion channels of plasma membrane underlies fundamental physiological processes in cells of blood origin. However, little is known about the single channel activity and regulatory mechanisms of sodium-specific channels in native cells. In the present work, we used different modes of patch clamp technique to examine ion channels involved in Na-transporting pathway in U937 human lymphoma cells. The activity of native non-voltage-gated sodium (NVGS) channels with unitary conductance of 10 pS was revealed in cell-attached, inside-out and whole-cell configurations. NVGS channel activity is directly controlled by submembranous actin cytoskeleton. Specifically, an activation of sodium channels in U937 cells in response to microfilament disassembly was demonstrated on single-channel and integral current level. Inside-out experiments showed that filament assembly on cytoplasmic membrane surface caused fast inactivation of the channels. Biophysical characteristics of NVGS channels in U937 cells were similar to that of epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs). However, we found that amiloride, a known inhibitor of DEG/ENaC, did not block NVGS channels in U937 cells. Whole-cell current measurements revealed no amiloride-sensitive component of membrane current. Our data show that cortical actin structures represent the main factor that controls the activity of amiloride-insensitive ENaC-like channels in human lymphoma cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Removal of sodium from the component of the sodium purification loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Kyung Chai; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high-oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium.

  9. Electrolyte transport in distal colon of sodium-depleted rats: Effect of sodium repletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnamian, S.G.; Binder, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Dietary sodium depletion increases plasma aldosterone level and, as a result, induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption and electrogenic potassium secretion and stimulates Na + -K + -ATPase activity in rat distal colon, while inhibiting electroneutral sodium chloride absorption. To assess the events that occur as the aldosterone-stimulated colon reverts to normal, unidirectional 22 Na and 36 Cl fluxes were measured under voltage-clamp conditions across isolated distal colonic mucosa of rats that were initially dietary sodium depleted for 7 days and then sodium repleted for varying periods of time before the study. Within 8 h of dietary sodium repletion, plasma aldosterone level and Na + -K + -ATPase activity declined to normal, amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption decreased by >90%, and active electrogenic potassium secretion also decreased markedly. In contrast, electroneutral sodium chloride absorption did not completely return to levels seen in normal animals until ∼64-68 h. These results demonstrate that maintenance of electrogenic sodium absorption and potassium secretion are directly dependent on elevated plasma aldosterone levels. The inhibition of electroneutral sodium absorption, although initiated by excess aldosterone, persists after normalization of the plasma aldosterone level, thereby implying that the inhibition is dependent on additional factor(s)

  10. Potential importance of low-sodium bread and breakfast cereal to a reduced sodium diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugirdas, John T

    2013-01-01

    Purchasing data suggest that bread and cereal products are responsible for approximately 18% of normal daily unrestricted sodium intake; this percentage may be substantially higher in subjects attempting to follow a reduced sodium diet by avoiding added salt and salty sauces and meats. Substituting with low-sodium bread would be expected to result in a sodium intake reduction of 0.6 g/day or higher, depending on the amount of bread normally eaten. Many cold breakfast cereals typically contain 0.2 to 0.3 g of sodium per serving. A number of zero-sodium or low-sodium cold cereal options are commercially available, and many hot cereals are available in forms that contain no sodium. Because bread and breakfast cereals are not commonly thought of as being salty foods, substituting these with low-sodium alternatives might help achieve additional substantial sodium intake reduction without much disruption of the diet. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An investigation of sodium iodide solubility in sodium-stainless steel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, Norihiko; Tashiro, Suguru

    1996-01-01

    Sodium iodide and major constituents of stainless steel in sodium are determined by using the steel capsules to obtain a better understanding on contribution of the constituents to the apparent iodide solubility in sodium. The capsule loaded with 20 g sodium and 0.1 - 0.3 g powder of sodium iodide is heated at its upper part in a furnace and cooled at its bottom on brass plates to establish a large temperature gradient along the capsule tube. After a given period of equilibration, the iodide and constituents are fixed in solidified sodium by quick quenching of the capsules. Sodium samples are taken from the sectioned capsule tube and submitted to sodium dissolution by vaporized water for determination of the iodine and to vacuum distillation for determination of the metal elements. Iron and nickel concentrations are observed to be lower in the samples at higher iodine concentrations. Chromium and manganese concentrations are seen to be insensitive to the iodine concentrations. The observations can be interpreted by a model that sodium oxide combines with metal iodide in sodium to form a complex compound and with consideration that the compound will fall and deposit onto the bottom of the capsule by thermal diffusion. (author)

  12. Removal of sodium from the component of the sodium purification loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Kyung Chai; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high-oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  13. Dynamic thermal baffle on lower head of FBR sodium-sodium intermediate heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonnel, A.; Foussat, C.

    1981-01-01

    The cover head of the heat exchanger is bathed on the one side by the primary sodium of the 'cold' header of the vessel and on the other side by the secondary sodium which feeds the heat exchange tube bank through the lower tubesheet. In the case of transient or permanent operating conditions at partial ratings, there are large temperature differences between the inner sodium (inlet temperature conditions of secondary sodium) and the outer sodium (mean temperature conditions in the primary sodium outlet port), hence the necessity of designing a thermal baffle which protects the head and its connection to the tubesheet. A 'static' thermal baffle consisting of a thick steel plate enclosing static sodium around the head proves inadequate during transient operating conditions. This is why a 'dynamic' thermal baffle is used whose design is based on the fact that the primary sodium in the lower part of the outlet port is always at a temperature close to that of the secondary sodium in the inlet header and the head. The primary sodium is taken from the bottom of the outlet port by a ring deflector and circulates in an annulus created by a double housing and the head. It flows out through openings in the lower part of the housing. (orig./GL)

  14. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2–18 y: NHANES 2005–2008123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. Objective: We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2–18 y. Design: We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005–2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Results: Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake. PMID:23676421

  15. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y: NHANES 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A; Loria, Catherine M

    2013-07-01

    Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y. We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005-2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake.

  16. Painful neuropathies: the emerging role of sodium channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Brigitte A; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Gerrits, Monique M; Waxman, Stephen G; Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Faber, Catharina G

    2014-06-01

    Pain is a frequent debilitating feature reported in peripheral neuropathies with involvement of small nerve (Aδ and C) fibers. Voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for the generation and conduction of action potentials in the peripheral nociceptive neuronal pathway where NaV 1.7, NaV 1.8, and NaV 1.9 sodium channels (encoded by SCN9A, SCN10A, and SCN11A) are preferentially expressed. The human genetic pain conditions inherited erythromelalgia and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder were the first to be linked to gain-of-function SCN9A mutations. Recent studies have expanded this spectrum with gain-of-function SCN9A mutations in patients with small fiber neuropathy and in a new syndrome of pain, dysautonomia, and small hands and small feet (acromesomelia). In addition, painful neuropathies have been recently linked to SCN10A mutations. Patch-clamp studies have shown that the effect of SCN9A mutations is dependent upon the cell-type background. The functional effects of a mutation in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and sympathetic neuron cells may differ per mutation, reflecting the pattern of expression of autonomic symptoms in patients with painful neuropathies who carry the mutation in question. Peripheral neuropathies may not always be length-dependent, as demonstrated in patients with initial facial and scalp pain symptoms with SCN9A mutations showing hyperexcitability in both trigeminal ganglion and DRG neurons. There is some evidence suggesting that gain-of-function SCN9A mutations can lead to degeneration of peripheral axons. This review will focus on the emerging role of sodium channelopathies in painful peripheral neuropathies, which could serve as a basis for novel therapeutic strategies. © 2014 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  17. Interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijo, J.; Yonetani, I.

    1982-03-01

    The interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate was investigated by PMR spectroscopy. The interaction of theobromine with pentadeuterated benzoic acid (benzoic acid-d5) was examined in the same manner but to a lesser degree. Chemical shifts of theobromine protons were determined as a function of sodium benzoate concentration in deuterium oxide at 30 and 15 degrees. Signals of both methyl groups of theobromine underwent significant upfield shifts when sodium benzoate was added to a theobromine solution. This fact suggests that a complex is formed by vertical stacking or plane-to-plane stacking. The same results were obtained for benzoic acid-d5.

  18. Overflow type sodium sampler for FBTR circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidaran, P.; Ganesan, V.; Chandran, K.; Periaswami, G.

    1996-01-01

    Obtaining a representative sample is crucial for getting reliable results in sodium analysis. Sampling liquid sodium reliability is complicated since impurities segregate while cooling. Selective sorption of certain elements calls for use of different crucible materials for various sodium impurities. Sampling methods currently in use such as flow through sampling and dip sampling are not the proper methods as they can not take care of the above problems. An overflow type sampler where the entire sample contained in a crucible can be used for analysis thus obviating problems due to segregation has been developed for use in Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). This report describes the construction and operation of this sampler. (author)

  19. IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 ''Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core'' problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated

  20. Hydrogen meter for service in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.

    1983-11-01

    This standard establishes the requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, quality assurance, examination, and acceptance testing of a hydrogen meter and auxiliary equipment for use in radioactive or nonradioactive liquid sodium service. The meter shall provide a continuous and accurate indication of the hydrogen impurity concentration over the range 0.03 to 10 ppM hydrogen in sodium at temperatures between 800 and 1000 0 F (427 and 538 0 C). The meter may also be used to rapidly monitor changes in hydrogen concentration, over the same concentration range, and, therefore can be used as a sensor for sodium-water reactions in LMFBR steam generators

  1. Conceptural design of multipurpose sodium test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.C.; Lee, Y.W.; Nam, H.Y.; Chun, S.Y.; Kim, J.; Yuh, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the conceptural design of the multipurpose sodium test loop (MSTL). This MSTL consists mainly of impurity control and measurement system, corrosion and masstransfer system and heat transfer system. Problems associated with liquid sodium coolant will be studied and operating experiences will be obtained by the use of this facility. This technology will be used to evaluate safety and reliability of large sodium facility in the future. The total cost excluding the cost of building construction is estimated to 175 thousand dollars. (Author)

  2. Body Weight and Body Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarlane Traci

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs than men, a lower incidence of being overweight and a higher incidence of being underweight. However, women across all weight categories are more dissatisfied with their bodies. Sixty percent of women are inactive, and women with a BMI of 27 or higher are more likely to be inactive than women with lower BMIs. The data show that women are aware of the health benefits of exercise, but there is a gap between knowledge and practice. When asked about barriers to health improvement, 39.7% of women cited lack of time and 39.2% lack of willpower. Data Gaps and Recommendations Weight prejudice must be made unacceptable and positive body image should be encouraged and diversity valued. Health policies should encourage healthy eating and healthy activity. Health curricula for young students should include information about healthy eating, active lifestyle, and self-esteem. Physical activities that mothers can participate in with their families should be encouraged. Research should be funded to elucidate the most effective methods of getting women to become and remain physically active without focusing on appearance.

  3. Diclofenac sodium 3% gel for the management of actinic keratosis: 10+ years of cumulative evidence of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, George M; Stockfleth, Eggert

    2012-05-01

    Diclofenac sodium 3% gel (Solaraze®) gained US approval for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK) more than 10 years ago. Since the publication of the pivotal phase 3 studies, numerous clinical studies have assessed use of this therapy in a variety of body areas, special populations, and novel combinations. To provide a comprehensive update on clinical data and research on the use of diclofenac sodium 3% gel in AK. Review of the literature. Accumulating evidence from preclinical research supports that the proposed mechanism of diclofenac sodium 3% gel may include cyclo-oxgenase 2 (COX-2) inhibition, inhibition of angiogenesis, and induction of apoptosis. A literature review identified 17 publications (beyond the 2 pivotal studies) on the use of diclofenac sodium 3% gel for AK. A phase 4 open-label study reported that 58 percent of patients achieved complete clearance of target lesions at the 30-day post-treatment assessment; among patients who were evaluable at 1-year post-treatment, sustained long-term clearance of AK lesions was observed. Active comparator studies demonstrated comparable efficacy of diclofenac sodium 3% gel with 5-fluorouracil 5% and imiquimod 5%. Publications on the efficacy of diclofenac sodium 3% gel for AK of the lip report complete clearance rates comparable to those reported for other body areas. Diclofenac sodium 3% gel has also demonstrated efficacy for clearing AK lesions in immunosuppressed populations. Sequential use of diclofenac sodium 3% gel with cryosurgery or photodynamic therapy has been investigated and may emerge as a useful approach for some patients. Diclofenac sodium 3% gel has a unique proposed mechanism of action in AK that may involve COX-2 inhibition, inhibition of angiogenesis, and induction of apoptosis. In the past decade, numerous clinical studies have demonstrated this topical therapy to be effective and well tolerated for the treatment of AK.

  4. A method for the manufacture of nuclear-purity sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, Paul; Graff, Willy.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a method for the manufacture of sodium from the amalgam provided by sodium chloride aqueous electrolysis cells, comprising the steps of treating the sodium amalgam by a sodium polysulfide or a mixture of sodium polysulfide in anhydrous alcohol solution, then causing the thus obtained sodium monosulfide to react with a polysulfide or a mixture of polysulfides so as to obtain a mixture of sodium polysulfides with a higher sodium content, and finally separating sodium through the electrolysis of the sodium-rich polysulfides, the electrolysis being carried out in an electrolytic cell with β-alumina solid electrolyte operating at a temperature between 250 and 300 deg C, in which the polysulfide forms the anode compartment and sodium the cathode compartment [fr

  5. Role of the serotoninergic system in the sodium appetite control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís C. Reis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article reviews the role of the serotoninergic system in the regulation of the sodium appetite. Data from the peripheral and icv administration of serotoninergic (5-HTergic agents showed the participation of 5-HT2/3 receptors in the modulation of sodium appetite. These observations were extended with the studies carried out after brain serotonin depletion, lesions of DRN and during blockade of 5-HT2A/2C receptors in lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN. Brain serotonin depletion and lesions of DRN increased the sodium appetite response, in basal conditions, after sodium depletion and hypovolemia or after beta-adrenergic stimulation as well. These observations raised the hypothesis that the suppression of ascending pathways from the DRN, possibly, 5-HTergic fibers, modifies the angiotensinergic or sodium sensing mechanisms of the subfornical organ involved in the control of the sodium appetite. 5-HTergic blockade in LPBN induced to similar results, particularly those regarded to the natriorexigenic response evoked by volume depletion or increase of the hypertonic saline ingestion induced by brain angiotensinergic stimulation. In conclusion, many evidences lead to acceptation of an integrated participation resulting of an interaction, between DRN and LPBN, for the sodium appetite control.Este artigo revisa o papel do sistema serotoninérgico no controle do apetite ao sódio. Dados derivados da administração periférica e icv de agentes serotoninérgicos demonstraram a participação de receptores 5-HT2/3 na modulação do apetite ao sódio. Estas observações foram estendidas com os estudos realizados após a depleção cerebral de serotonina, lesões do NDR e durante o bloqueio 5-HT2A/2C no núcleo parabraquial lateral (NPBL. A depleção cerebral de serotonina e as lesões do NDR aumentaram o apetite ao sódio, em condições basais, após depleção de sódio, durante a hipovolemia ou após a estimulação beta-adrenérgica. Estas

  6. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie

    2013-01-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed...... the utility of casual (spot) urine specimens in estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake in the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure. There were 5,693 participants recruited in 1984-1987 at the ages of 20-59 years from 29 North American...... and European samples. Participants were randomly assigned to test or validation data sets. Equations derived from casual urinary sodium concentration and other variables in the test data were applied to the validation data set. Correlations between observed and estimated 24-hour sodium excretion were 0...

  7. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled diclofenac sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, D.; Richard, J.; Godbillon, J.

    1993-01-01

    Dicolofenac sodium labelled with deuterium in the phenylacetic ring was prepared from [ 2 H 5 ]-bromobenzene in a six-step reaction. It was found to be suitable for use in pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in man. (Author)

  8. Small sodium valve design and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, R.; Elie, X.; Vercasson, M.; Nedelec, J.

    1974-01-01

    Conventionally, valves for sodium pipes smaller than 125 mm in diameter are called ''small sodium valves''. However, this limit should rather be considered as the lower limit o ''large sodium valves''. In fact, both the largest sizes of small valves and the smallest of large valves can be found in the range of 125-300 mm in diameter. Thus what is said about small valves also applies, for a few valve types, above the 125 mm limit. Sodium valves are described here in a general manner, with no manufacturing details except when necessary for understanding valve behavior. Operating experience is pointed out wherever possible. Finally, some information is given about ongoing or proposed development plans. (U.S.)

  9. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing..., CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a white...

  10. fibrin–chitosan–sodium alginate composite sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sodium alginate composite (F–C–SA) in sheet form. F–C–SA composite was prepared and characterized for its physicochemical properties like water absorption capacity, surface morphology, FTIR spectra and mechanical properties.

  11. Antimicrobial efficacy of nanosilver, sodium hypochlorite and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NS), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis. Two tests of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and zone of inhibition were carried out using NS, NaOCl and CHX. 70-fold ...

  12. Sodium: How to Tame Your Salt Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with the transition. After a few weeks of cutting back on salt, you probably won't miss ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/sodium/art-20045479 . ...

  13. Sodium removal from Hallam Reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntsman, L.K.; Meservey, R.H.

    1979-08-01

    This report discussed the removal of sodium from major components of the Hallam Nuclear Power Facility. This facility contained the experimental ractor used to test the feasibility of sodium coolant. The Idaho Operations Office of the Department of Energy assigned EG and G Idaho, Inc., the task of carrying out this decontamination and decommissioning program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Since their shipment to the INEL from Lincoln, Nebraska in 1968, the Hallam Reactor components had been stored in inert nitrogen to prevent the sodium in the components from reacting with moisture in the air. The procedure used to react the sodium in the components and to decontaminate them is discussed. Problems and unusual occurrences in the decontamination and decommissioning process are also reported

  14. Ultrasonic sweep arm for sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrbacher, H.A.; Bartholomay, R.

    1975-05-01

    This report describes experience in the use of a new type of monitoring and testing device to be applied in conjunction with components under sodium. In the method outlined, ultrasonic pulses are used which are emitted into the sodium plenum of fast breeder reactors by newly developed high temperature transducers. The basic work was conducted under out-of-pile conditions in a sodium tank of the sodium tank facility of the Karlsruhe Institute for Reactor Development. The sensor development, which preceded this phase, resulted in the use of soldered lithium niobate crystals whose operating characteristics were improved by the preliminary treatment outlined in the report. Special materials and techniques suitable for sensor fabrication are proposed. An alternative to soldering is suggested for contacting the crystals with their diaphragms, i.e. a contact pressure concept for the range of application up to 2 MHz. (orig.) [de

  15. 27 CFR 21.128 - Sodium (metallic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Bunsen burner until the flame is no longer colored. Moisten the wire loop with hydrochloric acid and dip it into the sample. Hold the wire in the Bunsen flame and note the color. Sodium produces a golden...

  16. Polymerization of sodium methacrylate induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan S, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work has two objectives, first: it is pretended to localize the lines of carbon links in its IR spectra, and second: following the polymerization of sodium methacrylate according to that it is irradiated with gamma rays. (Author)

  17. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  18. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation

  19. Energetics of sodium efflux from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbolla, M.G.; Rosen, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    When energy-starved cells of Escherichia coli were passively loaded with 22 Na+, efflux of sodium could be initiated by addition of a source of metabolic energy. Conditions were established where the source of energy was phosphate bond energy, an electrochemical proton gradient, or both. Only an electrochemical proton gradient was required for efflux from intact cells. These results are consistent with secondary exchange of Na+ for H+ catalyzed by a sodium/proton antiporter

  20. Behaviour of oxygen in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre Cabezas, M. de la

    1975-01-01

    In this work, the vacuum distillation method has been used for the determination of oxygen concentration in liquid sodium. During this investigation, more than 800 analyses have been made and a fluctuation of between 15 and 20$ has been noted in the results. The performance of a cold trap to remove oxygen from sodium has been studied and the corresponding mass transfer coefficient evaluated. The value of this coefficient was in good agreement with those achieved by other workers. (Authors) 69 refs

  1. Light scattering measurement of sodium polyacrylate products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Nisha; Norwood, David; Boone, Steven; Massie-Boyer, Valerie

    2015-03-01

    In the presentation, we will describe the use of a multi-detector HPLC incorporating the DAWN EOS multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector to measure the properties such as molecular weight, RMS radius, contour and persistence length and polydispersity of sodium polyacrylate products. The samples of sodium polyacrylate are used in various industries as thickening agents, coating dispersants, artificial snow, laundry detergent and disposable diapers. Data and results obtained from the experiment will be presented.

  2. Rechargeable Sodium All-Solid-State Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weidong; Li, Yutao; Xin, Sen; Goodenough, John B

    2017-01-25

    A reversible plating/stripping of a dendrite-free metallic-sodium anode with a reduced anode/ceramic interfacial resistance is created by a thin interfacial interlayer formed in situ or by the introduction of a dry polymer film. Wetting of the sodium on the interfacial interlayer suppresses dendrite formation and growth at different discharge/charge C-rates. All-solid-state batteries were obtained with a high cycling stability and Coulombic efficiency at 65 °C.

  3. Urinary calcium, sodium, and bone mass of young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkovic, V; Ilich, J Z; Andon, M B; Hsieh, L C; Tzagournis, M A; Lagger, B J; Goel, P K

    1995-08-01

    Calcium is an important determinant of peak bone mass in young adults because of its influence on skeletal development during growth. Attainment of maximum peak bone mass requires optimal positive balance between calcium intake and obligatory losses of calcium, primarily in urine and feces. Urinary excretion is an important determinant of calcium retention in the body. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of various nutrients on urinary calcium excretion, and to assess their impact on bone mass of young females, aged 8-13 y, during early puberty. The study was conducted in 381 healthy white females in pubertal stage 2. From each participant we collected basic anthropometric measurements, a 3-d food record, blood, a 24-h urine sample, and bone mass measurements of the total body and forearm by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Urinary sodium was found to be one of the most important determinants of urinary calcium excretion: [urinary calcium (mmol/d) = 0.01154 x urinary sodium (mmol/d) + 0.823], whereas calcium intake had relatively little impact: [urinary calcium (mmol/d) = 0.02252 x calcium intake (mmol/d) + 1.5261]. Urinary calcium was much higher at a calcium intake of approximately 37.5 mmol/d (1500 mg/d), supporting the notion that calcium is a threshold nutrient. Calcium intake had a significant positive influence on the bone mineral content and density of the whole body and radius shaft whereas urinary calcium had a negative influence, presumably by reducing calcium accretion into the skeleton.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Central neural pathways for thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Nakamura, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate a homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and to alter body temperature during the inflammatory response. This review summarizes the functional organization of the neural pathways through which cutaneous thermal receptors alter thermoregulatory effectors: the cutaneous circulation for heat loss, the brown adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and heart for thermogenesis and species-dependent mechanisms (sweating, panting and saliva spreading) for evaporative heat loss. These effectors are regulated by parallel but distinct, effector-specific neural pathways that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The thermal afferent circuits include cutaneous thermal receptors, spinal dorsal horn neurons and lateral parabrachial nucleus neurons projecting to the preoptic area to influence warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons which control thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus that project to premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the raphe pallidus, that descend to provide the excitation necessary to drive thermogenic thermal effectors. A distinct population of warm-sensitive preoptic neurons controls heat loss through an inhibitory input to raphe pallidus neurons controlling cutaneous vasoconstriction. PMID:21196160

  5. Impossible body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusero, L

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY This play tells the story of one woman coming to terms with her "poly" identity through a journey into the multiple layers of love, race, sex, appearance and Otherness. The one-woman show Impossible Body was first performed for a reading series sponsored by "Onstage" at the University of Colorado, Boulder, in February 1997. A revised version was developed and staged at the University of Puget Sound in Tacoma, Washington in April 1997. The current script, from which these excerpts are taken, was first presented at the Queer Studies Conference in Boulder, Colorado.

  6. Body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, P.

    1975-01-01

    The paper gives a survey on some applications of the whole body counter in clinical practice and a critical study of its application as a routine testing method. Remarks on the necessary precautions are followed by a more detailed discussion of the determination of the natural potassium content, the iron metabolism, the vitamin B12 test, investigations of the metabolism of the bone using 47 Ca and 85 Sr, investigations with iodine and iodine-labelled substances, clearance investigations (in particular the 51 Cr EDTA clearance test), as well as the possibilities of neutron activation in vivo. (ORU/AK) [de

  7. Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppälä, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(ɛ-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

  8. The unique response of renin and aldosterone to dietary sodium intervention in sodium sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung Joon; Lim, ChiYeon; Oh, Sang Woo; Rhee, Moo-Yong

    2014-06-01

    Sodium sensitivity (SS) is a phenomenon in which significant changes in blood pressure (BP) are observed based on sodium intake. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a critical role in sodium handling and hypertension. We identified the specific responses of renin and aldosterone based on dietary sodium intake and revealed the relationship between these hormonal changes and dietary sodium intake in patients with SS. In total, 61 subjects were available to analyze full data including plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone. Participants were given a low-sodium DASH diet (LSD) for 7 days and a high-sodium DASH diet (HSD) for the following 7 days. SS was found in five (14.71%) in normotensives, and 14 (51.85%) in hypertensives. In sodium-resistant (SR) subjects, both PRA and aldosterone decreased significantly after consuming HSD. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between PRA and aldosterone in SR subjects. In contrast, only hypertensive subjects showed a marked fall in PRA after consuming HSD (1.299 ± 0.904 vs. 0.593 ± 0.479) among SS subjects. This study demonstrated the different responses of renin and aldosterone in SS and SR subjects based on dietary sodium intake whether or not they had hypertension. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Annual report 1974. Sodium technology development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The sodium technology development program comprises a number of separate research programs in the field of designing and testing parts and components for the SNR-300 reactor. Design studies and theoretical studies on cold trapping and the behavior of hydrogen in sodium circuits are reported. A preliminary test program for fighting sodium fires is completed. Results of research done on vibration measurements and counter-current mixing in a dummy tube bundle of a S.N.R. spiralized steam generator with counter-current flow are reported briefly. Research done in the field of heat transfer, pressure drop and bubble dynamics of a straight pipe steam generator are also briefly reported. To determine the influence of spiral diameter of the spiralized pipe on heat transfer in a spiralized pipe heat exchanger, a second testsection will be built in 1975. Research was reported on pump viscoseals, bearing stability, rotordynamics and bearing materials for sodium pumps. Research done on the properties of SNR-construction materials at high temperature and long time exposure and corrosion in sodium are reported. Fundamental research on corrosion accompanied this research. The report closes with results of weldability, mechanized-welding and remote welding of sodium-wetted surfaces

  10. Evaluation of determinative methods for sodium impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, Marcelo; Guido, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose; Ares, Osvaldo

    1988-01-01

    Sodium, universally accepted as heat transfer fluid in fast breeder reactors, requires a special technology for every operation involved in any applicable methodology, due to its well known chemical reactivity. The purpose of this work is: a) to study the sources and effects of chemical species which, as traces, accompany sodium used in the nuclear field; b) to classify, taking into account, the present requirements and resources of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), the procedures found in the literature for determination of the most important impurities which exist in experimental liquid sodium systems and c) to describe the principles of the methods and to evaluate them in order to make a selection. It was concluded the convenience to develop, as a first stage, laboratory procedures to determine carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and non-volatile impurities, which besides serving present needs, will be referential for direct methods with undeferred response. The latter are needed in liquid sodium experimental loops and require, primarily, more complex and extended development. Additionally, a description is made of experimental work performed up-to-now in this laboratory, consisting of a transfer device for sodium sampling and a sodium distillation device, adapted from a previous design, with associated vacuum and inert gas systems. It is intended as a separative technique for indirect determination of oxygen and non-volatile impurities. (Author) [es

  11. Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard; Denning, Richard; Ohno, Shuji; Zeyen, Roland

    2010-09-01

    An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic event Energetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolant Entrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached cladding Rates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodium Surface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclides Thermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphere Reactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

  12. Achieving the WHO sodium target: estimation of reductions required in the sodium content of packaged foods and other sources of dietary sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Helen; Shields, Emma; Webster, Jacqui; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2016-08-01

    Excess sodium intake is one of the top 2 dietary risk factors contributing to the global burden of disease. As such, many countries are now developing national sodium reduction strategies, a key component of which is a sodium reduction model that includes sodium targets for packaged foods and other sources of dietary sodium. We sought to develop a sodium reduction model to determine the reductions required in the sodium content of packaged foods and other dietary sources of sodium to reduce adult population salt intake by ∼30% toward the optimal WHO target of 5 g/d. Nationally representative household food-purchasing data for New Zealand were linked with branded food composition information to determine the mean contribution of major packaged food categories to total population sodium consumption. Discretionary salt use and the contribution of sodium from fresh foods and foods consumed away from the home were estimated with the use of national nutrition survey data. Reductions required in the sodium content of packaged foods and other dietary sources of sodium to achieve a 30% reduction in dietary sodium intakes were estimated. A 36% reduction (1.6 g salt or 628 mg Na) in the sodium content of packaged foods in conjunction with a 40% reduction in discretionary salt use and the sodium content of foods consumed away from the home would reduce total population salt intake in New Zealand by 35% (from 8.4 to 5.5 g/d) and thus meet the WHO 2025 30% relative reduction target. Key reductions required include a decrease of 21% in the sodium content of white bread, 27% for hard cheese, 42% for sausages, and 54% for ready-to-eat breakfast cereals. Achieving the WHO sodium target in New Zealand will take considerable efforts by both food manufacturers and consumers and will likely require a national government-led sodium reduction strategy. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Urinary Excretion of Sodium, Nitrogen, and Sugar Amounts Are Valid Biomarkers of Dietary Sodium, Protein, and High Sugar Intake in Nonobese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lori B; Liu, Sarah V; Halliday, Tanya M; Neilson, Andrew P; Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M

    2017-12-01

    Background: Objective indicators of dietary intake (e.g., biomarkers) are needed to overcome the limitations of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods in adolescents. To our knowledge, no controlled feeding studies to date have evaluated the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, or sugar excretion as dietary biomarkers in adolescents. Objective: This investigation aimed to evaluate the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, and total sugars (TS) excretion as biomarkers for sodium, protein, and added sugars (AS) intake in nonobese adolescents. Methods: In a crossover controlled feeding study design, 33 adolescents [12-18 y of age, 47 ± 25th percentile (mean ± SD) of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) for age] consumed 5% AS [low added sugars (LAS)] and 25% AS [high added sugars (HAS)] isocaloric, macronutrient-matched (55% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 15% protein) diets for 7 d each, in a randomly assigned order, with a 4-wk washout period between diets. On the final 2 d of each diet period, 24-h urine samples were collected. Thirty-two adolescents completed all measurements (97% retention). Results: Urinary sodium was not different from the expected 90% recovery (mean ± SD: 88% ± 18%, P = 0.50). Urinary nitrogen was correlated with protein intake ( r = 0.69, P sodium appears to be a valid biomarker for sodium intake in nonobese adolescents. Urinary nitrogen is associated with protein intake, but nitrogen excretion rates were less than previously reported for adults, possibly owing to adolescent growth rates. TS excretion reflects AS at 25% AS intake and was responsive to the change in AS intake. Thus, urinary biomarkers are promising objective indicators of dietary intake in adolescents, although larger-scale feeding trials are needed to confirm these findings. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02455388. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Body size and body esteem in women: The mediating role of possible self expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, S.E.; Pollet, T.V.; Vidal, J.

    2013-01-01

    We predicted that an expectancy of acquiring a feared fat self and an expectancy of acquiring a hoped-for thin self both mediate the impact of body size on women's body esteem. We also predicted that the mediating pathway through the feared fat self would be stronger than that through the hoped-for

  15. Body size and body esteem in women : The mediating role of possible self expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Pollet, Thomas V.; Vidal, Jose

    We predicted that an expectancy of acquiring a feared fat self and an expectancy of acquiring a hoped-for thin self both mediate the impact of body size on women's body esteem. We also predicted that the mediating pathway through the feared fat self would be stronger than that through the hoped-for

  16. Use of sodium salt electrolysis in the process of continuous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents test results concerning the selection of sodium salt for the technology of continuous modification of the EN AC-AlSi12 alloy, which is based on electrolysis of sodium salts, occurring directly in a crucible with liquid alloy. Sodium ions formed as a result of the sodium salt dissociation and the electrolysis are ...

  17. The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P.; McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal

  18. The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P. McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

    1998-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal.

  19. Process for the production of sodium carbonate anhydrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, H.; Van Rosmalen, G.M.; Witkamp, G.J.; De Graauw, J.

    2000-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the production of sodium carbonate-anhydrate having a bulk density of at least 800 kg/m<3>, said process comprising: providing a suspension of solid sodium carbonate and/or solid sodium bicarbonate and/or solid double salts at least comprising one of sodium

  20. 21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate-urea complex. 176.320 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium... the provisions of this section. (a) Sodium nitrate-urea complex is a clathrate of approximately two...

  1. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium...

  2. Total body Na(+)-depletion without hyponatraemia can trigger overtraining-like symptoms with sleeping disorders and increasing blood pressure: explorative case and literature study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, M C; Bedarf, J R; Russ, M; Grosch-Ott, S; Thiele, S; Unger, J K

    2012-12-01

    Exhausting physical exercise and insufficient nutritional intake impairing immunological and neuro-endocrine pathways are the most discussed issues in research on overtraining syndrome (OTS). Interestingly, depletion of the total body sodium (Na(+))-content which occurs in case of various diseases with completely different aetiologies is associated with a symptom pattern strikingly comparable to overreaching (OR) and/or OTS. The transient dilution based hyponatraemia gained attention due to its impact on reduced performance and the death of various endurance athletes. But the stepwise depletion of the total body (tissue) Na(+)-content is a completely different pathophysiology and is still relatively unknown. That is because depleted tissue Na(+)-content is hard to detect. The complex, dominant mechanisms for the maintenance of plasma homeostasis are concealing the Na(+)-depletion in the tissues quite successfully in a stage when symptoms already may be prominent. Furthermore, we are all programmed to think about sedentary people who are rather at risk to have a salt (Na(+)) intake which is far too high. But either, competitive top athletes and engaged recreational athletes have high losses of electrolytes with sweat and might be prone to a stepwise Na(+)-depletion. All the more because they also try to have a balanced, health sodium reduced diet. One person of our research group who is used to a rather low sodium-nutrition repeatedly experienced OR-(short term-OTS)-symptoms when training loads of recreational sport activities were increasing. Getting aware about identical symptoms between OR and total body Na(+)-depletion in another professional context the decision for a self experiment was settled. Under a given training protocol changing symptoms under low sodium-nutrition were recorded. When OR-like symptoms became prominent the training loads were maintained but stringent Na(+)-substitution was performed instead of the usually recommended resting period. As

  3. Method of processing radioactive metallic sodium with recycling alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko; Mitsuzuka, Norimasa.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To employ high safety alcohol procession and decrease the amount of wastes in the procession of radioactive metallic sodium discharged from LMFBR type reactors. Method: Radioactive metallic sodium containing long half-decay period nuclides such as cesium, strontium, barium, cerium, lanthanum or zirconium is dissolved in an alcohol at about 70% purity. After extracting the sodium alcoholate thus formed, gaseous hydrochloride is blown-in to separate the sodium alcoholate into alcohol and sodium chloride, and regenerated alcohol is used again for dissolving sodium metal. The sodium chloride thus separated is processed into solid wastes. (Furukawa, Y.)

  4. Nephrotoxic effects of lead nitrate exposure in diabetic and nondiabetic rats: Involvement of oxidative stress and the protective role of sodium selenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baş, Hatice; Kalender, Yusuf

    2016-10-01

    Heavy metals are known to be toxic to organisms. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of sodium selenite against lead nitrate (LN)-induced nephrotoxicity in diabetic and nondiabetic rats. Animals were divided into eight groups where the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups were treated with sodium selenite (1 mg/kg b.w.), LN (22.5 mg/kg b.w.) and a combination of LN and sodium selenite and diabetic forms of these groups. Changes in antioxidant enzyme activities, malondialdehide levels, serum urea, uric acid, creatinine levels, body, and kidney weights and histopathological changes were determined after 28 days. LN caused severe histopathological changes, increment in urea, uric acid, creatinine, and MDA levels, also decreasing in antioxidant enzyme activities, body, and kidney weights. In sodium selenite + LN group, we observed the protective effect of sodium selenite on examining parameters. Also diabetes caused alterations on these parameters compared with nondiabetic animals. We found that sodium selenite did not show protective effect on diabetes caused damages. As a result, LN caused nephrotoxicity and sodium selenite alleviated this toxicity but sodium selenite did not protect kidneys against diabetes mediated toxicity. Also, LN caused more harmfull effects in diabetic groups compared with nondiabetic groups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1229-1240, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Autophagy contributes to degradation of Hirano bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Davis, Richard C; Furukawa, Ruth; Fechheimer, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Hirano bodies are actin-rich inclusions reported most frequently in the hippocampus in association with a variety of conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, and aging. We have developed a model system for formation of Hirano bodies in Dictyostelium and cultured mammalian cells to permit detailed studies of the dynamics of these structures in living cells. Model Hirano bodies are frequently observed in membrane-enclosed vesicles in mammalian cells consistent with a role of autophagy in the degradation of these structures. Clearance of Hirano bodies by an exocytotic process is supported by images from electron microscopy showing extracellular release of Hirano bodies, and observation of Hirano bodies in the culture medium of Dictyostelium and mammalian cells. An autophagosome marker protein Atg8-GFP, was co-localized with model Hirano bodies in wild type Dictyostelium cells, but not in atg5(-) or atg1-1 autophagy mutant strains. Induction of model Hirano bodies in Dictyostelium with a high level expression of 34 kDa DeltaEF1 from the inducible discoidin promoter resulted in larger Hirano bodies and a cessation of cell doubling. The degradation of model Hirano bodies still occurred rapidly in autophagy mutant (atg5(-)) Dictyostelium, suggesting that other mechanisms such as the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome pathway could contribute to the degradation of Hirano bodies. Chemical inhibition of the proteasome pathway with lactacystin, significantly decreased the turnover of Hirano bodies in Dictyostelium providing direct evidence that autophagy and the proteasome can both contribute to degradation of Hirano bodies. Short term treatment of mammalian cells with either lactacystin or 3-methyl adenine results in higher levels of Hirano bodies and a lower level of viable cells in the cultures, supporting the conclusion that both autophagy and the proteasome contribute to degradation of Hirano bodies.

  6. Sulfanegen sodium treatment in a rabbit model of sub-lethal cyanide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca; Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water-soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment.

  7. Sulfanegen Sodium Treatment in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca; Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment. PMID:20705081

  8. Sodium butyrate protects against severe burn-induced remote acute lung injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Liang

    Full Text Available High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1, a ubiquitous nuclear protein, drives proinflammatory responses when released extracellularly. It plays a key role as a distal mediator in the development of acute lung injury (ALI. Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, has been demonstrated to inhibit HMGB1 expression. This study investigates the effect of sodium butyrate on burn-induced lung injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: 1 sham group, sham burn treatment; 2 burn group, third-degree burns over 30% total body surface area (TBSA with lactated Ringer's solution for resuscitation; 3 burn plus sodium butyrate group, third-degree burns over 30% TBSA with lactated Ringer's solution containing sodium butyrate for resuscitation. The burned animals were sacrificed at 12, 24, and 48 h after burn injury. Lung injury was assessed in terms of histologic changes and wet weight to dry weight (W/D ratio. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-8 protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and HMGB1 expression in the lung was determined by Western blot analysis. Pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration were measured to reflect neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress in the lung, respectively. As a result, sodium butyrate significantly inhibited the HMGB1 expressions in the lungs, reduced the lung W/D ratio, and improved the pulmonary histologic changes induced by burn trauma. Furthermore, sodium butyrate administration decreased the TNF-α and IL-8 concentrations in BALF and serum, suppressed MPO activity, and reduced the MDA content in the lungs after severe burn. These results suggest that sodium butyrate attenuates inflammatory responses, neutrophil infiltration, and oxidative stress in the lungs, and protects against remote ALI induced by severe burn, which is associated with inhibiting HMGB1

  9. Sodium Butyrate Protects against Severe Burn-Induced Remote Acute Lung Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Guo, Feng; Sun, Li; Wang, Yong-Jie; Sun, Ye-Xiang; Chen, Xu-Lin

    2013-01-01

    High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a ubiquitous nuclear protein, drives proinflammatory responses when released extracellularly. It plays a key role as a distal mediator in the development of acute lung injury (ALI). Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, has been demonstrated to inhibit HMGB1 expression. This study investigates the effect of sodium butyrate on burn-induced lung injury. Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into three groups: 1) sham group, sham burn treatment; 2) burn group, third-degree burns over 30% total body surface area (TBSA) with lactated Ringer’s solution for resuscitation; 3) burn plus sodium butyrate group, third-degree burns over 30% TBSA with lactated Ringer’s solution containing sodium butyrate for resuscitation. The burned animals were sacrificed at 12, 24, and 48 h after burn injury. Lung injury was assessed in terms of histologic changes and wet weight to dry weight (W/D) ratio. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-8 protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and HMGB1 expression in the lung was determined by Western blot analysis. Pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were measured to reflect neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress in the lung, respectively. As a result, sodium butyrate significantly inhibited the HMGB1 expressions in the lungs, reduced the lung W/D ratio, and improved the pulmonary histologic changes induced by burn trauma. Furthermore, sodium butyrate administration decreased the TNF-α and IL-8 concentrations in BALF and serum, suppressed MPO activity, and reduced the MDA content in the lungs after severe burn. These results suggest that sodium butyrate attenuates inflammatory responses, neutrophil infiltration, and oxidative stress in the lungs, and protects against remote ALI induced by severe burn, which is associated with inhibiting HMGB1

  10. No association between dietary sodium intake and the risk of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Marianna; Yuan, Changzheng; Chitnis, Tanuja; Ascherio, Alberto; Munger, Kassandra L

    2017-09-26

    To prospectively investigate the association between dietary sodium intake and multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. In this cohort study, we assessed dietary sodium intake by a validated food frequency questionnaire administered every 4 years to 80,920 nurses in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (1984-2002) and to 94,511 in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII) (1991-2007), and calibrated it using data from a validation study. There were 479 new MS cases during follow-up. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the effect of energy-adjusted dietary sodium on MS risk, adjusting also for age, latitude of residence at age 15, ancestry, body mass index at age 18, supplemental vitamin D intake, cigarette smoking, and total energy intake in each cohort. The results in both cohorts were pooled using fixed effects models. Total dietary intake of sodium at baseline was not associated with MS risk (highest [medians: 3.2 g/d NHS; 3.5 g/d NHSII] vs lowest [medians: 2.5 g/d NHS; 2.8 g/d NHSII] quintile: HR pooled 0.98, 95% CI 0.74-1.30, p for trend = 0.75). Cumulative average sodium intake during follow-up was also not associated with MS risk (highest [medians: 3.3 g/d NHS; 3.4 g/d NHSII] vs lowest [medians: 2.7 g/d NHS; 2.8 g/d NHSII] quintile: HR pooled 1.02, 95% CI 0.76-1.37, p for trend = 0.76). Comparing more extreme sodium intake in deciles yielded similar results ( p for trend = 0.95). Our findings suggest that higher dietary sodium intake does not increase the risk of developing MS. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Cisplatin increases urinary sodium excretion in rats: gender-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakisaitis, Donatas; Dudeniene, Giedre; Jankūnas, Rimas Jonas; Grazeliene, Grazina; Didziapetriene, Janina; Pundziene, Birute

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. There are well-documented reports of cisplatin-associated hyponatremia in the literature, but there are no data on gender-dependent differences. The aim of the present study was to define characteristics of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion in young adult Wistar rats of both genders and to evaluate the gender-related effect of cisplatin. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Twelve control Wistar rats (6 males and 6 females) and 12 cisplatin-treated Wistar rats (6 males and 6 females) after a single and repeated injection of cisplatin (once a day for 3 days) at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight into the caudal vein were examined. The experiment was carried out by measuring 24-h urinary sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, creatinine excretion and pH in the urine of age-matched male and female rats. RESULTS. The 24-h urinary sodium excretion, sodium/chloride ratio, and diuresis showed no gender-related differences in control rats. After a single administration of 2.5 mg/kg cisplatin, 24-h urinary sodium excretion was not significantly higher in cisplatin-treated rats than in gender-matched controls. After repeated cisplatin administration, 24-h urinary sodium excretion was significantly higher in cisplatin-treated male rats as compared to matched controls (Pcisplatin-treated female rats. CONCLUSION. The study data show that cisplatin enhances urinary sodium excretion in male but not in female rats. The mechanism of such a gender-related effect is not yet clear. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the mechanism of this pharmacological effect of cisplatin.

  12. Long-term feeding of sodium saccharin to nonhuman primates: implications for urinary tract cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, S; Sieber, S M; Adamson, R H; Thorgeirsson, U P; Dalgard, D W; Arnold, L L; Cano, M; Eklund, S; Cohen, S M

    1998-01-07

    It was observed in the early 1970s that saccharin produced bladder cancer in rats. However, it has been unclear whether sodium saccharin when consumed by humans poses a substantial carcinogenic hazard. Numerous epidemiologic studies have not shown any evidence of increased urothelial proliferation associated with ingestion of sodium saccharin. Our purpose was to determine the effects of long-term feeding of sodium saccharin to three species of nonhuman primates. Twenty monkeys of three species (six African green, seven rhesus, six cynomolgus, and one hybrid [of rhesus male and cynomolgus female parentage]) were treated with sodium saccharin (25 mg in the diet/kg body weight daily for 5 days a week) beginning within 24 hours after birth and continuing for up to 24 years. Sixteen monkeys (seven rhesus and nine cynomolgus) served as controls. During their last 2 years of life, urine was collected from selected treated and control animals and evaluated for various urinary chemistries and for the presence of calculi, microcrystalluria, and precipitate. Urinary bladders were examined by light microscopy and by scanning electron microscopy. Sodium saccharin treatment had no effect on the urine or urothelium in any of these monkeys. There was no evidence of increased urothelial cell proliferation, and there was no evidence of formation of solid material in the urine. Although the dose of sodium saccharin administered to these monkeys was only five to 10 times the allowable daily intake for humans, the results provide additional evidence that sodium saccharin is without a carcinogenic effect on the primate urinary tract.

  13. Development of sodium leak detectors for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvia, J.I.; Rao, P. Vijayamohana; Babu, B.; Madhusoodanan, K.; Rajan, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sodium leak detection system developed for PFBR using diverse principle. ► Miniature, remotely locatable diverse leak detector developed for Main Vessel. ► Mutual inductance type leak detectors designed and adapted for different locations. ► Sodium Ionisation detectors used for area monitoring. ► Crosswire type leak detector designed, developed and tested. - Abstract: The 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is under advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam near Chennai in India. The wide and high operating temperature, highly chemically active nature of sodium and its reaction with air make the sodium instrumentation complex over the conventional instrumentation. Over the years, traditional instruments such as wire type leak detectors, spark plug type leak detectors were developed and used in different sodium systems. The redundant and diverse leak detection method calls for development of special instrumentation for sodium systems which include sodium ionization (leak) detector for detecting minute sodium leak in addition to those systems based on mutual inductance principle. For detection of sodium leak from reactor Main Vessel (MV), diverse methods are used such as miniature, remotely locatable, Mutual Inductance type Leak Detector(MILD) and specially modified spark plug type leak detector. The design of MILD is suitably modified for detecting leak in double wall pipes and Diverse Safety Rod drive Mechanism (DSRDM). Steam/water leak in steam generator produces hydrogen and leads to high pressure and temperature in the system. Rupture disc is used as a safety device which punctures itself due to sudden pressure rise. To detect the discharge of sodium and its reaction products at the downstream of the rupture disc due to bursting of the rupture disc, cross wire type leak detector has been designed, developed and tested. The selection of the leak detection system depends on the location where leak has to be detected. This paper

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the removal of ... foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the removal of ...

  15. Investigation for the sodium leak in Monju. Sodium leak and fire test-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Koji; Ohno, Shuji; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi

    2000-08-01

    As a part of the work for investigating the sodium leak accident which occurred in the Monju reactor (hereinafter referred to as Monju) on December 8, 1995, three tests, (1) a sodium leak test, (2) a sodium leak and fire test-1, and (3) a sodium leak and fire test-II, were carried out at OEC/PEC. The main objectives of these tests were to confirm the leak and burning behavior of sodium from the damaged thermometer, and the effects of the sodium fire on the integrity of the surrounding structure. This report describes the results of the sodium fire test-I carried out as a preliminary test. The test was performed using the SOLFA-2 (Sodium Leak, Fire and Aerosol) facility on April 8, 1996. In this test, sodium heated to 480degC was leaked for approximately 1.5 hours from a leak simulating apparatus and caused to drop onto a ventilation duct and a grating with the same dimensions and layout as those in Monju. The main conclusions obtained from the test are shown below: 1) Observation from video cameras in the test revealed that in the early stages of the sodium leak, sodium dripped out of the flexible tube of the thermometer. This dripping and burning expanded in range as the sodium splashed on the duct. 2) No damage to the duct itself was detected. However, the aluminum louver frame of the ventilation duct's lower inlet was damaged. Its machine screws came off, leaving half of the grill (on the grating side) detached. 3) No large hole, like the one seen at Monju, was found when the grating was removed from the testing system for inspection, although the area centered on the point were the sodium dripped was damaged in a way indicating the first stages of grating failure. The 5mm square lattice was corroded through in some parts, and numerous blades (originally 3.2 mm thick) had become sharpened like the blade of a knife. 4) The burning pan underside thermocouple near the leak point measured 700degC in within approximately 10 minutes, and for the next hour remained

  16. Effects of sodium ascorbate, sodium saccharin and ammonium chloride on the male rat urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S M; Garland, E M; Cano, M; St John, M K; Khachab, M; Wehner, J M; Arnold, L L

    1995-11-01

    Sodium saccharin administered at high doses to male rats beginning after 5 weeks of age produces mild urothelial hyperplasia but does not result in a significant increase in incidence of bladder cancer unless it is administered after an initiating agent. However, if it is administered in a two-generation bioassay, a significant incidence of bladder tumors is produced. The hyperplastic and tumorigenic effects are inhibited by co-administration with high doses of NH4Cl. The present experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of another sodium salt, sodium ascorbate, administered through the neonatal time period. Sodium saccharin administered as 5% of the diet produced urothelial hyperplasia and increased labeling index, and this was inhibited by co-administration with 1.23% NH4Cl. Four doses of sodium ascorbate was evaluated. The lowest dose, 0.91%, was without effect on the urinary tract. A slight effect (not statistically significant) was observed at a dose of 2.73%, and a significant proliferative response was detected at 4.56 and 6.84%. Recent studies suggest that a calcium phosphate-containing amorphous precipitate forms in the urine of rats fed high doses of sodium saccharin, producing cytotoxicity of the urothelium and consequent regenerative hyperplasia. This precipitate was observed in the present experiment in the rats administered the high dose of sodium saccharin or the higher doses of sodium ascorbate. Formation of this precipitate and induction of urothelial proliferation were inhibited by co-administration of NH4Cl, but somewhat higher doses of ammonium chloride were required for doses of sodium ascorbate compared to sodium saccharin. These results demonstrate that sodium ascorbate administered through the neonatal time period of the male rat produces urothelial hyperplasia in the dose responsive manner, with a no-effect level of 0.91% of the diet. The formation of the calcium phosphate-containing amorphous precipitate and urothelial proliferation

  17. Corrosion behaviors of ceramics against liquid sodium. Sodium corrosion characteristics of sintering additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachi, Yoshiaki; Kano, Shigeki; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Yoshida, Eiichi

    1998-01-01

    It has been progressed as the Frontier Materials Research to research and develop ceramics to apply for several components of fast breeder reactor using liquid sodium as coolant instead of metallic materials. Grain boundary of ceramics has peculiar properties compared with matrix because most of ceramics are produced by hardening and firing their raw powders. Some previous researchers indicated that ceramics were mainly corroded at grain boundaries by liquid sodium, and ceramics could not be used under corrosive environment. Thus, it is the most important for the usage of ceramics in liquid sodium to improve corrosion resistance of grain boundaries. In order to develop the advanced ceramics having good sodium corrosion resistance among fine ceramics, which have recently been progressed in quality and characteristics remarkably, sodium corrosion behaviors of typical sintering additives such as MgO, Y 2 O 3 and AlN etc. have been examined and evaluated. As a result, the followings have been clarified and some useful knowledge about developing advanced ceramics having good corrosion resistance against liquid sodium has been obtained. (1) Sodium corrosion behavior of MgO depended on Si content. Samples containing large amount of Si were corroded severely by liquid sodium, whereas others with low Si contents showed good corrosion resistance. (2) Both Y 2 O 3 and AlN, which contained little Si, showed good sodium corrosion resistance. (3) MgO, Y 2 O 3 and AlN are thought to be corroded by liquid sodium, if they contain some SiO 2 . Therefore, in order to improve sodium corrosion resistance, it is very important for these ceramics to prevent the contamination of matrix with SiO 2 through purity control of their raw powders. (author)

  18. Effect of sodium lactate /sodium diacetate in combination with sodium nitrite on physiochemical, microbial properties and sensory evaluation of cow sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Sedghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium nitrite has been always considered as one of the common additives due to its antibacterial effects on Clostridium botulinum and meat products' color, however it produces cancer creating nitrosamine. Recently, organic acids and their salts such as lactates have been employed as antimicrobial compounds. Lactates also improve organileptic properties including color, texture and taste and antioxidant properties. Sodium lactate causes to more reduction of anaerobic spore former bacteria than nitrite, inhibits botulin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Sodium lactate produces a permanent reddish pink color through reduction of deoxymygloboline and producing deoxymyoglobuline. In this study, the decrease of sodium nitrite amount from 120ppm to 15ppm by adding sodium lactate / sodium diacetate led to achieve an acceptable product. The best results revealed through adding 3.0625% of sodium lactate / sodium diacetate in combination with 30ppm sodium nitrite. Results also exhibited more reduction of pathogens' growth than nitrite, enhanced flavor slightly, but unable to produce reddish pink color as produced by nitrite. Results also exhibited that sodium lactate / diacetate cause to retard in microbial growth, reducing chemical change, enhance sensory properties, partially improvement in taste and texture. Although inappropriate color demonstrated sodium lactate / diacetate's inability in red pink color production in 4th sample (contains 15 ppm nitrite, its synergy effect in combination with sodium nitrite on nitroso myoglobuline production has been proven, led to sodium nitrite reduction in sausages.

  19. Analysis of the action of lidocaine on insect sodium channels

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Weizhong; Silver, Kristopher S.; Du, Yuzhe; Liu, Zhiqi; Dong, Ke

    2010-01-01

    A new class of sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs), which include indoxacarb, its active metabolite, DCJW, and metaflumizone, preferably block inactivated states of both insect and mammalian sodium channels in a manner similar to that by which local anesthetic (LA) drugs block mammalian sodium channels. A recent study showed that two residues in the cockroach sodium channel, F1817 and Y1824, corresponding to two key LA-interacting residues identified in mammalian sodium channels are n...

  20. Policy Options for Reducing Dietary Sodium Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay McLaren

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with soaring health-care costs, Canadian governments should consider creative ways to enable the population to stay healthy — and making it possible for Canadians to reduce their sodium intake is an extremely cost-effective way to do so. Excess sodium consumption is a risk factor for high blood pressure, stroke and heart disease. On average, Canadians consume 3,400 mg of sodium a day (1,100 mg over recommended levels, at least three-quarters of which comes from processed foods. Any attempt at sodium reduction must therefore involve the food industry. This paper surveys sodium reduction efforts in jurisdictions around the globe, as well as past Canadian attempts, to provide provincial and federal policymakers with a comprehensive suite of lessons learned and a host of far-sighted policy recommendations ranging from food procurement to legislation and private sector engagement. Provincial governments, individually or together, must launch multi-pronged efforts involving food service companies, manufacturers, post-secondary institutes and the media to ensure that low-sodium alternatives are readily available, and that consumers are aware of them. They must also support federal action on changing dietary guidelines and introducing restrictions on food advertising to children. The benefits to be had are very real. In light of evidence showing that population-level intervention is superior to clinical intervention in terms of cost-effectiveness, returning up to $11.10 for every dollar spent and generating tens of billions in direct health-care savings, there is a very strong case for investing in population-level sodium reduction interventions that will work. The time for governments to act is now.

  1. Visco-Elastic Properties of Sodium Hyaluronate Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulicke, Werner-Michael; Meyer, Fabian; Bingöl, Ali Ö.; Lohmann, Derek

    2008-07-01

    Sodium Hyaluronate (NaHA) is a member of the glycosaminoglycans and is present in the human organism as part of the synovial fluid and the vitreous body. HA is mainly commercialized as sodium or potassium salt. It can be extracted from cockscombs or can be produced by bacterial fermentation ensuring a low protein content. Because of its natural origin and toxicological harmlessness, NaHA is used to a great extent for pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. In medical applications, NaHA is already being used as a component of flushing and stabilizing fluids in the treatment of eye cataract and as a surrogate for natural synovial fluid. Another growing domain in the commercial utilization of NaHA is the field of skin care products like dermal fillers or moisturizers. In this spectrum, NaHA is used in dilute over semidilute up to concentrated (0

  2. Stresses and elastic constants of crystalline sodium, from molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiferl, S.K.

    1985-02-01

    The stresses and the elastic constants of bcc sodium are calculated by molecular dynamics (MD) for temperatures to T = 340K. The total adiabatic potential of a system of sodium atoms is represented by pseudopotential model. The resulting expression has two terms: a large, strictly volume-dependent potential, plus a sum over ion pairs of a small, volume-dependent two-body potential. The stresses and the elastic constants are given as strain derivatives of the Helmholtz free energy. The resulting expressions involve canonical ensemble averages (and fluctuation averages) of the position and volume derivatives of the potential. An ensemble correction relates the results to MD equilibrium averages. Evaluation of the potential and its derivatives requires the calculation of integrals with infinite upper limits of integration, and integrand singularities. Methods for calculating these integrals and estimating the effects of integration errors are developed. A method is given for choosing initial conditions that relax quickly to a desired equilibrium state. Statistical methods developed earlier for MD data are extended to evaluate uncertainties in fluctuation averages, and to test for symmetry. 45 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Small-angle neutron scattering study of sodium cholate and sodium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements of D2O solutions. (0⋅1 M) of sodium cholate (NaC) and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) were carried out at T = 298 K. Under compositions very much above the critical micelle concentration. (CMC), the bile salt micelle size growths were monitored by adopting ...

  4. Sodium tests on an integrated purification prototype for a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, R.

    1984-04-01

    This paper describes sodium tests performed on the integrated primary sodium purification prototype of the Creys Malville Super Phenix 1 fast breeder reactor. These tests comprised: - hydrostatic test, - thermal tests, - handling tests. They enabled a number of new technological arrangements to be qualified and provided the necessary information for the design and construction of the Super Phenix 1 purification units

  5. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.J.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400¿mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically

  6. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.; Raaij, J.M.A. van

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically

  7. Hemodialysis for near-fatal sodium phosphate toxicity in a child receiving sodium phosphate enemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Smoyer, William E; O'Brien, Nicole F

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate the importance of considering hemodialysis as a treatment option in the management of sodium phosphate toxicity. This is a case report of a 4-year-old who presented to the emergency department with shock, decreased mental status, seizures, and tetany due to sodium phosphate toxicity from sodium phosphate enemas. Traditional management of hyperphosphatemia with aggressive hydration and diuretics was insufficient to reverse the hemodynamic and neurological abnormalities in this child. This is the first report of the use of hemodialysis in a child without preexisting renal failure for the successful management of near-fatal sodium phosphate toxicity. Hemodialysis can safely be used as an adjunctive therapy in sodium phosphate toxicity to rapidly reduce serum phosphate levels and increase serum calcium levels in children not responding to conventional management.

  8. Sorption of radionuclides on sodium sampling vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    Determination of radionuclides in KNK primary sodium yielded different results when ceramic crucibles instead of nickel crucibles were used for sodium sampling. It was shown that adsorption of some radionuclides on nickel crucibles was the reason for this effect. Small cylinders and metal coupons were introduced into the KNK primary sodium sampling station for radionuclide deposition studies. These deposition samples, made of different types of stainless steel, nickel, tantalum, titanium, and molybdenum, were exposed to the contaminated, flowing primary coolant for times up to 24 hours. Gamma spectrometric measurements indicated a strong adsorption of 65 Zn on all nickel samples; the activities of 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 60 Co, and at low temperatures (473 0 K) even of /sup 110m/Ag were higher on nickel samples than on any other material exposed to the primary sodium. These results were confirmed for the adsorption of radionuclides on crucibles of various metals. Consequently, stainless steel crucibles will be used for sampling primary sodium in order to determine radionuclides at KNK-II

  9. Injectable sodium pentobarbital: Stability at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Sydney M; Geisbuhler, Timothy P

    2015-01-01

    Sodium pentobarbital (Nembutal) is a barbiturate used in research as an anesthetic in many animal models. The injectable form of this drug has lately become difficult to procure and prohibitively expensive. Due to this lack of availability, researchers have begun to compound injectable sodium pentobarbital from so-called "nonpharmaceutical" pentobarbital. Some oversight agencies have objected to this practice, claiming a lack of quality control and degradation of the drug. We sought with this study to establish both: 1) a protocol for the preparation of injectable sodium pentobarbital, and 2) standard operating procedures to monitor the quality of the preparation and degradation of the drug over time. Our preparation consists of a mixture of sodium pentobarbital in alkaline aqueous solution, propylene glycol, and ethanol. Pentobarbital content in this preparation was assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). We also assayed pentobarbital content over time in preparations of various ages up to 6 years old. We determined that the drug degraded at a maximum of 0.5% per year in our preparation (alkaline water/propylene glycol/ethanol) when stored in the dark at room temperature. A yellow discoloration developed after about 2 years, which we have arbitrarily determined disqualifies the preparation from use as an anesthetic. Attempts to spectroscopically assay this discoloration were not successful. Pentobarbital sodium (CID: 14075609). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sodium retention and insulin treatment in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1994-01-01

    The hypothesis that total body exchangeable sodium (ENa) is elevated in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with short-duration diabetes and no signs of microangiopathy was tested. Also tested was whether peripheral hyperinsulinaemia, in terms of the amounts of insulin injected subcutane......The hypothesis that total body exchangeable sodium (ENa) is elevated in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with short-duration diabetes and no signs of microangiopathy was tested. Also tested was whether peripheral hyperinsulinaemia, in terms of the amounts of insulin injected...... subcutaneous insulin infusion for improvement of glycaemic control or to remain on conventional insulin treatment. In study 1, ENa was higher in short-duration type 1 diabetic men than in controls (3003 +/- 325 vs 2849 +/- 207 mEq/1.73 m2, P

  11. [Multifaceted body. I. The bodies of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This first article discusses four distinct types of representation of the body within medicine, each related to a specific epistemology and shaping a distinct kind of clinical legitimacy: the body-object of anatomy, the body-machine of physiology, the cybernetic body of biology, the statistical body of epidemiology.

  12. Performance of beef heifers supplemented with sodium lasalocid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Everton Dezordi; Canellas, Leonardo Canali; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Moojen, Fernanda Gomes; Carvalho, Helena Robatini; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted on 78 13-month-old crossbred beef heifers that weighed 215 kg in Southern Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State, Brazil. We evaluated the performance of beef heifers that were reared in a pasture system that received a mineral supplement energy-type protein with added sodium lasalocid (LAS). The heifers were randomly and uniformly divided into 2 groups, with 39 animals in each group. One group of animals received a mineral supplement energy-type protein without sodium lasalocid (CON), and the other group received a mineral supplement energy-type protein with added LAS. The mean feed intake, the body weight (BW), the average daily gain (ADG), the body condition score (BCS), and ovarian cyclicity were recorded, and economic parameters were calculated. No differences in supplement intake were observed between the groups, which ensures adequate intake of the other components of the mineral mixture, which are part of the nutritional requirements for the production process. Similarly, no difference in the ADG was observed between treatments. We observed that the heifers in the LAS group had a higher BW gain (51 kg) that the CON heifers (40 kg; P heifers had a higher BCS (3.53) than CON heifers (3.38) at the end of the experiment (P heifers supplemented with LAS had a higher profitability than the CON heifers, even with the higher cost of the supplement containing LAS; this effect was due to the higher live BW at the end of the study. We concluded that the administration of a mineral supplement energy-type protein with added LAS has beneficial effects on beef heifers in terms of production and economic feasibility.

  13. Renal renin secretion as regulator of body fluid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Isaksson, Gustaf L; Stubbe, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system is essential for body fluid homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. This review focuses on the homeostatic regulation of the secretion of active renin in the kidney, primarily in humans. Under physiological conditions, renin secretion is determined mainly by sodium...

  14. The Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway in Huntington's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Mitra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of mutant protein is a common feature of neurodegenerative disease. In Huntington's disease, a polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin protein triggers neuronal toxicity. Accompanying neuronal death, mutant huntingtin aggregates in large macromolecular structures called inclusion bodies. The function of the machinery for intracellular protein degradation is linked to huntingtin toxicity and components of this machinery colocalize with inclusion bodies. An increasing body of evidence implicates the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the failure of cells to degrade mutant huntingtin. A number of potential mechanisms that link compromised ubiquitin-proteasome pathway function and neurodegeneration have been proposed and may offer opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

  15. Single ion dynamics in molten sodium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, O.; Trullas, J. [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Demmel, F. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-28

    We present a study on the single ion dynamics in the molten alkali halide NaBr. Quasielastic neutron scattering was employed to extract the self-diffusion coefficient of the sodium ions at three temperatures. Molecular dynamics simulations using rigid and polarizable ion models have been performed in parallel to extract the sodium and bromide single dynamics and ionic conductivities. Two methods have been employed to derive the ion diffusion, calculating the mean squared displacements and the velocity autocorrelation functions, as well as analysing the increase of the line widths of the self-dynamic structure factors. The sodium diffusion coefficients show a remarkable good agreement between experiment and simulation utilising the polarisable potential.

  16. Action of sodium deoxycholate on Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Mello, A.; Yotis, W.W.

    1987-01-01

    Sodium deoxycholate is used in a number of bacteriological media for the isolation and classification of gram-negative bacteria from food and the environment. Initial experiments to study the effect of deoxycholate on the growth parameters of Escherichia coli showed an increase in the lag time constant and generation time and a decrease in the growth rate constant total cell yield of this microorganisms. Cell fractionation studies indicated that sodium deoxycholate at levels used in bacteriological media interferes with the incorporation of [U- 14 C]glucose into the cold-trichloroacetic acid-soluble, ethanol-soluble, and trypsin-soluble cellular fractions of E. coli. Finally, sodium deoxycholate interfered with the flagellation and motility of Proteus mirabilis and E. coli. It would appear then that further improvement of the deoxycholate medium may be in order

  17. Sodium sulfur batteries for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degruson, James A.

    1992-02-01

    In 1986, Eagle-Picher Industries was selected by the Air Force to develop sodium sulfur cells for satellite applications. Specifically, the development program was geared toward low earth orbit goals requiring high charge and/or discharge rates. A number of improvements have been made on the cell level and a transition to a complete space battery was initiated at Eagle-Picher. The results of six months of testing a 250 watt/hour sodium sulfur space battery look very promising. With over 1000 LEO cycles conducted on this first battery, the next generation battery is being designed. This next design will focus on achieving greater energy densities associated with the sodium sulfur chemistry.

  18. Acute selenium toxicity in lambs following intramuscular injection of sodium selenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravaggi, C.; Clark, F.L.; Jackson, A.R.B.

    1970-01-01

    The LD50 in lambs from a farm where selenium deficiency has not been recorded was found to be 45..mu..g. of Se/kg. body weight when sodium selenite was administered as a single intramuscular injection. Marked pulmonary congestion and oedema were constantly present with degenerative changes in liver and kidney. A similarity was noted between the autopsy findings of acute selenosis and those described for enterotoxaemia. 13 references, 4 figures.

  19. Effect of space flight on sodium, copper, manganese and magnesium content in the skeletal bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhonchukov, A. A.; Taitsev, V. P.; Shakhunov, B. A.; Zhizhina, V. A.; Kolesnik, A. G.; Komissarova, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Sodium content decreased in the human skeletal bones and rose in the rat bones following space flight. In man copper content rose in the femoral bone and decreased in the vertebral body and the sternum, but was unchanged in the rest of the bones. Magnesium content was decreased in the femoral bone and the sternum, and in the vertebrae, but remained unchanged in the rest of the bones. Possible mechanisms of the changes detected are discussed.

  20. Electroencephalographic Response to Sodium Nitrite May Predict Delayed Cerebral Ischemia After Severe Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, Payashi S; Rowland, Matthew J; Ezra, Martyn; Herigstad, Mari; Hayen, Anja; Sleigh, Jamie W; Westbrook, Jon; Warnaby, Catherine E; Pattinson, Kyle T S

    2016-11-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage often leads to death and poor clinical outcome. Injury occurring during the first 72 hours is termed "early brain injury," with disruption of the nitric oxide pathway playing an important pathophysiologic role in its development. Quantitative electroencephalographic variables, such as α/δ frequency ratio, are surrogate markers of cerebral ischemia. This study assessed the quantitative electroencephalographic response to a cerebral nitric oxide donor (intravenous sodium nitrite) to explore whether this correlates with the eventual development of delayed cerebral ischemia. Unblinded pilot study testing response to drug intervention. Neuroscience ICU, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom. Fourteen World Federation of Neurosurgeons grades 3, 4, and 5 patients (mean age, 52.8 yr [range, 41-69 yr]; 11 women). IV sodium nitrite (10 μg/kg/min) for 1 hour. Continuous electroencephalographic recording for 2 hours. The alpha/delta frequency ratio was measured before and during IV sodium nitrite infusion. Seven of 14 patients developed delayed cerebral ischemia. There was a +30% to +118% (range) increase in the alpha/delta frequency ratio in patients who did not develop delayed cerebral ischemia (p accounting for major confounds). Administration of sodium nitrite after severe subarachnoid hemorrhage differentially influences quantitative electroencephalographic variables depending on the patient's susceptibility to development of delayed cerebral ischemia. With further validation in a larger sample size, this response may be developed as a tool for risk stratification after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.