WorldWideScience

Sample records for body size

  1. Calculating body frame size (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body frame size is determined by a person's wrist circumference in relation to his height. For example, a man ... would fall into the small-boned category. Determining frame size: To determine the body frame size, measure ...

  2. Variability in human body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The range of variability found among homogeneous groups is described and illustrated. Those trends that show significantly marked differences between sexes and among a number of racial/ethnic groups are also presented. Causes of human-body size variability discussed include genetic endowment, aging, nutrition, protective garments, and occupation. The information is presented to aid design engineers of space flight hardware and equipment.

  3. Height, body size and longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaras TT

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Life expectancy, mortality and longevity data related to height and body size for various US and world population samples are reviewed. Research on energy restriction, smaller body size and longevity is also examined. Information sources include various medical and scientific journals, books and personal communications with researchers. Additional information is presented based on research involving eight populations of the world noted for their health, vigor and longevity. This information includes the findings of one of the authors who led research teams to study these populations. While conflicting findings exist on the cardiovascular death rates for shorter people, many examples of short populations with very little heart disease are described. Most cancer studies indicate that shorter people have significantly lower mortality risk. Considerable data suggest that shorter people generally have greater longevity than taller people, and extensive animal research supports human longevity findings. Tall populations with low mortality rates are also described. Shorter stature and smaller body weight appear to promote better health and longevity in the absence of malnutrition and infectious diseases. Several theoretical reasons for this greater longevity potential are covered. Also discussed, is the role of socioeconomic status, diet, relative weight, environment and other factors in increasing or decreasing the longevity of individuals, regardless of their heights and weights.

  4. Sauropod dinosaurs evolved moderately sized genomes unrelated to body size

    OpenAIRE

    Organ, Chris L.; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Stein, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Sauropodomorph dinosaurs include the largest land animals to have ever lived, some reaching up to 10 times the mass of an African elephant. Despite their status defining the upper range for body size in land animals, it remains unknown whether sauropodomorphs evolved larger-sized genomes than non-avian theropods, their sister taxon, or whether a relationship exists between genome size and body size in dinosaurs, two questions critical for understanding broad patterns of genome evolution in di...

  5. Ovarian cancer and body size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Berit Jul

    2012-01-01

    Only about half the studies that have collected information on the relevance of women's height and body mass index to their risk of developing ovarian cancer have published their results, and findings are inconsistent. Here, we bring together the worldwide evidence, published and unpublished, and...

  6. Minority mothers' perceptions of children's body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study is to investigate African-American and Hispanic mothers' perceptions of their children's body size using a scale with child figure silhouettes and compare those perceptions with their children's actual body mass index. A set of child figure silhouettes was developed depic...

  7. Brachiopod Body Size Through the Stratigraphic Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, C.; Payne, J.

    2011-12-01

    There have been five major mass extinction events in the history of animal life. These events are known from their effects on biodiversity, but their influences on other aspects of organism and ecosystem function remain incompletely understood. For example, larger organisms are often assumed to be at a higher risk of extinction than their smaller relatives. However, the effects of mass extinction events on body size evolution remain poorly documented. There are no systematic studies examining size change within one animal group across all major mass extinction events. In this study, we use brachiopods, a group of marine animals with an extensive fossil record, to examine the relationship between mass extinction events and body size evolution. We chose to study brachiopods for two reasons. First, this group involves more than 4,000 genera. Secondly, it is present in every time period since the Cambrian.

  8. Intraspecific body size frequency distributions of insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Jeanne Gouws

    Full Text Available Although interspecific body size frequency distributions are well documented for many taxa, including the insects, intraspecific body size frequency distributions (IaBSFDs are more poorly known, and their variation among mass-based and linear estimates of size has not been widely explored. Here we provide IaBSFDs for 16 species of insects based on both mass and linear estimates and large sample sizes (n ≥ 100. In addition, we review the published IaBSFDs for insects, though doing so is complicated by their under-emphasis in the literature. The form of IaBSFDs can differ substantially between mass-based and linear measures. Nonetheless, in non-social insects they tend to be normally distributed (18 of 27 species or in fewer instances positively skewed. Negatively skewed distributions are infrequently reported and log transformation readily removes the positive skew. Sexual size dimorphism does not generally cause bimodality in IaBSFDs. The available information on IaBSFDs in the social insects suggests that these distributions are usually positively skewed or bimodal (24 of 30 species. However, only c. 15% of ant genera are polymorphic, suggesting that normal distributions are probably more common, but less frequently investigated. Although only 57 species, representing seven of the 29 orders of insects, have been considered here, it appears that whilst IaBSFDs are usually normal, other distribution shapes can be found in several species, though most notably among the social insects. By contrast, the interspecific body size frequency distribution is typically right-skewed in insects and in most other taxa.

  9. Intraspecific body size frequency distributions of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouws, E Jeanne; Gaston, Kevin J; Chown, Steven L

    2011-01-01

    Although interspecific body size frequency distributions are well documented for many taxa, including the insects, intraspecific body size frequency distributions (IaBSFDs) are more poorly known, and their variation among mass-based and linear estimates of size has not been widely explored. Here we provide IaBSFDs for 16 species of insects based on both mass and linear estimates and large sample sizes (n ≥ 100). In addition, we review the published IaBSFDs for insects, though doing so is complicated by their under-emphasis in the literature. The form of IaBSFDs can differ substantially between mass-based and linear measures. Nonetheless, in non-social insects they tend to be normally distributed (18 of 27 species) or in fewer instances positively skewed. Negatively skewed distributions are infrequently reported and log transformation readily removes the positive skew. Sexual size dimorphism does not generally cause bimodality in IaBSFDs. The available information on IaBSFDs in the social insects suggests that these distributions are usually positively skewed or bimodal (24 of 30 species). However, only c. 15% of ant genera are polymorphic, suggesting that normal distributions are probably more common, but less frequently investigated. Although only 57 species, representing seven of the 29 orders of insects, have been considered here, it appears that whilst IaBSFDs are usually normal, other distribution shapes can be found in several species, though most notably among the social insects. By contrast, the interspecific body size frequency distribution is typically right-skewed in insects and in most other taxa. PMID:21479214

  10. Artificial fish schools : Collective effects of school size, body size, and body form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, H.; Hemelrijk, C.K.

    2003-01-01

    Individual-based models of schooling in fish have demonstrated that, via processes of self-organization. artificial fish may school in the absence of a leader or external stimuli, using local information only. We study for the first time how body size and body form of artificial fish affect school f

  11. Evolution of body size in Galapagos marine iguanas

    OpenAIRE

    Wikelski, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Body size is one of the most important traits of organisms and allows predictions of an individual's morphology, physiology, behaviour and life history. However, explaining the evolution of complex traits such as body size is difficult because a plethora of other traits influence body size. Here I review what we know about the evolution of body size in a group of island reptiles and try to generalize about the mechanisms that shape body size. Galapagos marine iguanas occupy all 13 larger isla...

  12. College athletics, body size, and cancer mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polednak, A.P.

    1976-07-01

    Data are presented on mortality from neoplasms as determined from death certificates in a cohort of 8393 college men, according to athletic status in college. Major athletes (lettermen) died significantly more often from neoplasms than nonathletes. Mean age at death from neoplasms (underlying cause) was significantly lower in major athletes than in both minor athletes and nonathletes. After matching major athletes with nonathletes of comparable body size (height and weight), differences in proportional mortality and mean age at death from neoplasms persisted, although not statistically significant for the smaller samples. Correlation coefficients (Pearson r) and partial r's between weight in college and age at death from neoplasms were negative but of low magnitude. Some possible explanations for the differences between major athletes and nonathletes are discussed.

  13. Body size prediction from juvenile skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    There are currently no methods for predicting body mass from juvenile skeletal remains and only a very limited number for predicting stature. In this study, stature and body mass prediction equations are generated for each year from 1 to 17 years of age using a subset of the Denver Growth Study sample, followed longitudinally (n = 20 individuals, 340 observations). Radiographic measurements of femoral distal metaphyseal and head breadth are used to predict body mass and long bone lengths are used to predict stature. In addition, pelvic bi-iliac breadth and long bone lengths are used to predict body mass in older adolescents. Relative prediction errors are equal to or smaller than those associated with similar adult estimation formulae. Body proportions change continuously throughout growth, necessitating age-specific formulae. Adult formulae overestimate stature and body mass in younger juveniles, but work well in 17-year-olds from the sample, indicating that in terms of body proportions they are representative of the general population. To illustrate use of the techniques, they are applied to the juvenile Homo erectus (ergaster) KNM-WT 15000 skeleton. New body mass and stature estimates for this specimen are similar to previous estimates derived using other methods. Body mass estimates range from 50 to 53 kg, and stature was probably slightly under 157 cm, although a precise stature estimate is difficult to determine due to differences in linear body proportions between KNM-WT 15000 and the Denver reference sample. PMID:17295297

  14. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Kubo

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade, yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. According to a large dataset presented in this study, the body sizes of all nonplantigrades (including nonvolant dinosaurs, nonvolant terrestrial birds, extant mammals, and extinct Nearctic mammals are above 500 g, except for macroscelid mammals (i.e., elephant shrew, a few alvarezsauroid dinosaurs, and nondinosaur ornithodirans (i.e., the immediate ancestors of dinosaurs. When nonplantigrade tetrapods evolved from plantigrade ancestors, lineages with nonplantigrade foot posture exhibited a steady increase in body size following Cope's rule. In contrast, contemporaneous plantigrade lineages exhibited no trend in body size evolution and were largely constrained to small body sizes. This evolutionary pattern of body size specific to foot posture occurred repeatedly during both the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic eras. Although disturbed by the end-Cretaceous extinction, species of mid to large body size have predominantly been nonplantigrade animals from the Jurassic until the present; conversely, species with small body size have been exclusively composed of plantigrades in the nonvolant terrestrial tetrapod fauna.

  15. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Tai; Kubo, Mugino O

    2016-01-01

    Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade), yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. According to a large dataset presented in this study, the body sizes of all nonplantigrades (including nonvolant dinosaurs, nonvolant terrestrial birds, extant mammals, and extinct Nearctic mammals) are above 500 g, except for macroscelid mammals (i.e., elephant shrew), a few alvarezsauroid dinosaurs, and nondinosaur ornithodirans (i.e., the immediate ancestors of dinosaurs). When nonplantigrade tetrapods evolved from plantigrade ancestors, lineages with nonplantigrade foot posture exhibited a steady increase in body size following Cope's rule. In contrast, contemporaneous plantigrade lineages exhibited no trend in body size evolution and were largely constrained to small body sizes. This evolutionary pattern of body size specific to foot posture occurred repeatedly during both the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic eras. Although disturbed by the end-Cretaceous extinction, species of mid to large body size have predominantly been nonplantigrade animals from the Jurassic until the present; conversely, species with small body size have been exclusively composed of plantigrades in the nonvolant terrestrial tetrapod fauna. PMID:26790003

  16. Size variation in small-bodied humans from palau, micronesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gallagher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent discoveries on Palau are claimed to represent the remains of small-bodied humans that may display evidence insular size reduction. This claim has yet to be statistically validated METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Published postcranial specimens (n = 16 from Palau were assessed relative to recent small-bodied comparative samples. Resampling statistical approaches were employed to test specific hypotheses relating to body size in the Palau sample. Results confirm that the Palau postcranial sample is indisputably small-bodied. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A single, homogenous body size morph is represented in early prehistoric postcrania from Palau. Small body size in early Palauans is an ancestral characteristic and was likely not a consequence of in-situ size reduction. Specimens from Palau have little bearing upon hypothesised insular size reduction in the ancestral lineage of Homo floresiensis.

  17. Effects of childhood body size on breast cancer tumour characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Eriksson, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Hall, Per

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Although a role of childhood body size in postmenopausal breast cancer risk has been established, less is known about its influence on tumour characteristics. Methods We studied the relationships between childhood body size and tumour characteristics in a Swedish population-based case-control study consisting of 2,818 breast cancer cases and 3,111 controls. Our classification of childhood body size was derived from a nine-level somatotype. Relative risks were estimated by odds ra...

  18. Influence of body size on coexistence of bird species

    OpenAIRE

    Leyequien Abarca, E.; Boer; Cleef, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Theory suggests that body size is an important factor in determining interspecific competition and, ultimately, in structuring ecological communities. However, there is a lack of pragmatic studies linking body size and interspecific competition to patterns in ecological communities. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of body size (mass) on competitive interactions between bird pairs and to investigate the influence of food guilds. Point-counts were carried out in n...

  19. Spatial and temporal variation of body size among early Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Manuel; Stock, Jay T

    2015-05-01

    The estimation of body size among the earliest members of the genus Homo (2.4-1.5Myr [millions of years ago]) is central to interpretations of their biology. It is widely accepted that Homo ergaster possessed increased body size compared with Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis, and that this may have been a factor involved with the dispersal of Homo out of Africa. The study of taxonomic differences in body size, however, is problematic. Postcranial remains are rarely associated with craniodental fossils, and taxonomic attributions frequently rest upon the size of skeletal elements. Previous body size estimates have been based upon well-preserved specimens with a more reliable species assessment. Since these samples are small (n Homo. We investigate temporal and spatial variation in body size among fossils of early Homo using a 'taxon-free' approach, considering evidence for size variation from isolated and fragmentary postcranial remains (n = 39). To render the size of disparate fossil elements comparable, we derived new regression equations for common parameters of body size from a globally representative sample of hunter-gatherers and applied them to available postcranial measurements from the fossils. The results demonstrate chronological and spatial variation but no simple temporal or geographical trends for the evolution of body size among early Homo. Pronounced body size increases within Africa take place only after hominin populations were established at Dmanisi, suggesting that migrations into Eurasia were not contingent on larger body sizes. The primary evidence for these marked changes among early Homo is based upon material from Koobi Fora after 1.7Myr, indicating regional size variation. The significant body size differences between specimens from Koobi Fora and Olduvai support the cranial evidence for at least two co-existing morphotypes in the Early Pleistocene of eastern Africa. PMID:25818180

  20. Body Size, Fecundity, and Sexual Size Dimorphism in the Neotropical Cricket Macroanaxipha macilenta (Saussure) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva Del Castillo, R

    2015-04-01

    Body size is directly or indirectly correlated with fitness. Body size, which conveys maximal fitness, often differs between sexes. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) evolves because body size tends to be related to reproductive success through different pathways in males and females. In general, female insects are larger than males, suggesting that natural selection for high female fecundity could be stronger than sexual selection in males. I assessed the role of body size and fecundity in SSD in the Neotropical cricket Macroanaxipha macilenta (Saussure). This species shows a SSD bias toward males. Females did not present a correlation between number of eggs and body size. Nonetheless, there were fluctuations in the number of eggs carried by females during the sampling period, and the size of females that were collected carrying eggs was larger than that of females collected with no eggs. Since mating induces vitellogenesis in some cricket species, differences in female body size might suggest male mate choice. Sexual selection in the body size of males of M. macilenta may possibly be stronger than the selection of female fecundity. Even so, no mating behavior was observed during the field observations, including audible male calling or courtship songs, yet males may produce ultrasonic calls due to their size. If female body size in M. macilenta is not directly related to fecundity, the lack of a correlated response to selection on female body size could represent an alternate evolutionary pathway in the evolution of body size and SSD in insects. PMID:26013128

  1. Body size, body proportions, and mobility in the Tyrolean "Iceman"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ruff, C. B.; Holt, B. M.; Sládek, Vladimír; Berner, M.; Murphy, W. A.; zur Nedden, D.; Seidler, H.; Recheis, W.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2006), s. 91-101. ISSN 0047-2484 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/01/D018 Grant ostatní: National Science Foundation(US) SBR 9530828 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : European prehistory * biomechanics * body mass Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 3.267, year: 2006

  2. Public decisions on animal species : does body size matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, Edo; van der Windt, Henny J.; Schoot Uiterkamp, Anton J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Systematic knowledge about factors affecting the willingness of societies to conserve biodiversity is still scarce. This study investigates the role of body size in national decisions on wild animal species by analysing the average body sizes of the animal species subject to species-specific legisla

  3. Size Variation in Small-Bodied Humans from Palau, Micronesia

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent discoveries on Palau are claimed to represent the remains of small-bodied humans that may display evidence insular size reduction. This claim has yet to be statistically validated Methodology/Principal Findings Published postcranial specimens (n = 16) from Palau were assessed relative to recent small-bodied comparative samples. Resampling statistical approaches were employed to test specific hypotheses relating to body size in the Palau sample. Results confirm that the Palau...

  4. Perceived current and ideal body size in female undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Lillian P; Best, Lisa A

    2015-08-01

    Body image dissatisfaction and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors are pervasive problems in Western society, particularly for females. The female "thin-ideal" is a potent contributor to the growing discontent with the female body and research has shown that even females who are normal or underweight, perceive themselves as overweight. The goal of the current study was to examine correlates of body image satisfaction and the perception of the female body. One hundred and sixty six female undergraduates (Mean Age=21.40 years) completed self-report measures pertaining to disordered eating (EAT-26) and body dissatisfaction (BIQ and ABS). Body image perception and satisfaction were measured using ratings of female bodies on a weight perception scale (PFRS). Overall, disordered eating was related to a lower ideal body size and greater body dissatisfaction. In support of previous research, the most common ideal female body had a BMI categorized as underweight. Although females in the current sample reported an ideal that was smaller than their current size, participants underestimated their current body size, which, given the amount of dieting and weight pressure in present Western society, seems counterintuitive. It is possible that thin ideal portrayed in the media is increasingly different from and at odds with the average female body. PMID:25955887

  5. How does abundance scale with body size in coupled size-structured food webs?

    OpenAIRE

    Julia L Blanchard; Jennings, Simon; Law, Richard; Castle, Matthew D.; Mccloghrie, Paul; Rochet, Marie-joelle; Benoit, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Widely observed macro-ecological patterns in log abundance vs. log body mass of organisms can be explained by simple scaling theory based on food (energy) availability across a spectrum of body sizes. The theory predicts that when food availability falls with body size (as in most aquatic food webs where larger predators eat smaller prey), the scaling between log N vs. log m is steeper than when organisms of different sizes compete for a shared unstructured resource (e.g. autotrophs, herbivor...

  6. Being Barbie: the size of one's own body determines the perceived size of the world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn van der Hoort

    Full Text Available A classical question in philosophy and psychology is if the sense of one's body influences how one visually perceives the world. Several theoreticians have suggested that our own body serves as a fundamental reference in visual perception of sizes and distances, although compelling experimental evidence for this hypothesis is lacking. In contrast, modern textbooks typically explain the perception of object size and distance by the combination of information from different visual cues. Here, we describe full body illusions in which subjects experience the ownership of a doll's body (80 cm or 30 cm and a giant's body (400 cm and use these as tools to demonstrate that the size of one's sensed own body directly influences the perception of object size and distance. These effects were quantified in ten separate experiments with complementary verbal, questionnaire, manual, walking, and physiological measures. When participants experienced the tiny body as their own, they perceived objects to be larger and farther away, and when they experienced the large-body illusion, they perceived objects to be smaller and nearer. Importantly, despite identical retinal input, this "body size effect" was greater when the participants experienced a sense of ownership of the artificial bodies compared to a control condition in which ownership was disrupted. These findings are fundamentally important as they suggest a causal relationship between the representations of body space and external space. Thus, our own body size affects how we perceive the world.

  7. Being Barbie: the size of one's own body determines the perceived size of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoort, Björn; Guterstam, Arvid; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2011-01-01

    A classical question in philosophy and psychology is if the sense of one's body influences how one visually perceives the world. Several theoreticians have suggested that our own body serves as a fundamental reference in visual perception of sizes and distances, although compelling experimental evidence for this hypothesis is lacking. In contrast, modern textbooks typically explain the perception of object size and distance by the combination of information from different visual cues. Here, we describe full body illusions in which subjects experience the ownership of a doll's body (80 cm or 30 cm) and a giant's body (400 cm) and use these as tools to demonstrate that the size of one's sensed own body directly influences the perception of object size and distance. These effects were quantified in ten separate experiments with complementary verbal, questionnaire, manual, walking, and physiological measures. When participants experienced the tiny body as their own, they perceived objects to be larger and farther away, and when they experienced the large-body illusion, they perceived objects to be smaller and nearer. Importantly, despite identical retinal input, this "body size effect" was greater when the participants experienced a sense of ownership of the artificial bodies compared to a control condition in which ownership was disrupted. These findings are fundamentally important as they suggest a causal relationship between the representations of body space and external space. Thus, our own body size affects how we perceive the world. PMID:21633503

  8. Body size evolution in insular speckled rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalus mitchellii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Meik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Speckled rattlesnakes (Crotalus mitchellii inhabit multiple islands off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Two of the 14 known insular populations have been recognized as subspecies based primarily on body size divergence from putative mainland ancestral populations; however, a survey of body size variation from other islands occupied by these snakes has not been previously reported. We examined body size variation between island and mainland speckled rattlesnakes, and the relationship between body size and various island physical variables among 12 island populations. We also examined relative head size among giant, dwarfed, and mainland speckled rattlesnakes to determine whether allometric differences conformed to predictions of gape size (and indirectly body size evolving in response to shifts in prey size. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Insular speckled rattlesnakes show considerable variation in body size when compared to mainland source subspecies. In addition to previously known instances of gigantism on Angel de la Guarda and dwarfism on El Muerto, various degrees of body size decrease have occurred frequently in this taxon, with dwarfed rattlesnakes occurring mostly on small, recently isolated, land-bridge islands. Regression models using the Akaike information criterion (AIC showed that mean SVL of insular populations was most strongly correlated with island area, suggesting the influence of selection for different body size optima for islands of different size. Allometric differences in head size of giant and dwarf rattlesnakes revealed patterns consistent with shifts to larger and smaller prey, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data provide the first example of a clear relationship between body size and island area in a squamate reptile species; among vertebrates this pattern has been previously documented in few insular mammals. This finding suggests that selection for body size is influenced by changes in

  9. Can blind persons accurately assess body size from the voice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    Vocal tract resonances provide reliable information about a speaker's body size that human listeners use for biosocial judgements as well as speech recognition. Although humans can accurately assess men's relative body size from the voice alone, how this ability is acquired remains unknown. In this study, we test the prediction that accurate voice-based size estimation is possible without prior audiovisual experience linking low frequencies to large bodies. Ninety-one healthy congenitally or early blind, late blind and sighted adults (aged 20-65) participated in the study. On the basis of vowel sounds alone, participants assessed the relative body sizes of male pairs of varying heights. Accuracy of voice-based body size assessments significantly exceeded chance and did not differ among participants who were sighted, or congenitally blind or who had lost their sight later in life. Accuracy increased significantly with relative differences in physical height between men, suggesting that both blind and sighted participants used reliable vocal cues to size (i.e. vocal tract resonances). Our findings demonstrate that prior visual experience is not necessary for accurate body size estimation. This capacity, integral to both nonverbal communication and speech perception, may be present at birth or may generalize from broader cross-modal correspondences. PMID:27095264

  10. Efficiency of whole-body counter for various body size calculated by MCNP5 software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of a whole-body counter for 137Cs and 40K was calculated using the MCNP5 code. The ORNL phantoms of a human body of different body sizes were applied in a sitting position in front of a detector. The aim was to investigate the dependence of efficiency on the body size (age) and the detector position with respect to the body and to estimate the accuracy of real measurements. The calculation work presented here is related to the NaI detector, which is available in the Serbian Whole-body Counter facility in Vinca Inst.. (authors)

  11. Gender, Body Size and Social Relations in American High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Frank, Kenneth; Mueller, Anna Strassmann

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the role of body size in social networks, this study estimated cross-nested multilevel network models (p2) with longitudinal data from the 16 saturated schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. As body mass index increased, the likelihood of being nominated by schoolmates as friends--but not the likelihood of…

  12. Song repertoire size correlates with measures of body size in Eurasian blackbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesler, Nana; Mundry, Roger; Sacher, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    organisation. Here we investigated whether repertoire size in Eurasian blackbirds correlates with measures of body size, namely length of wing, 8th primary, beak and tarsus. So far, very few studies have investigated species with large repertoires and a flexible song organisation in this context. We found...... positive correlations, meaning that larger males had larger repertoires. Larger males may have better fighting abilities and, thus, advantages in territorial defence. Larger structural body size may also reflect better conditions during early development. Therefore, under the assumption that body size is...

  13. Scaling of number, size, and metabolic rate of cells with body size in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, M; Allen, Andrew P.; Brown, James H.; Gillooly, James F; Herman, Alexander B.; Woodruff, William H.; West, Geoffrey B.

    2007-01-01

    The size and metabolic rate of cells affect processes from the molecular to the organismal level. We present a quantitative, theoretical framework for studying relationships among cell volume, cellular metabolic rate, body size, and whole-organism metabolic rate that helps reveal the feedback between these levels of organization. We use this framework to show that average cell volume and average cellular metabolic rate cannot both remain constant with changes in body size because of the well ...

  14. Ostracod Body Size Change Across Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, L.; Llarena, L. A.; Saux, J.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    Many factors drive evolution, although it is not always clear which factors are more influential. Miller et al. (2009) found that there is a change in geographic disparity in diversity in marine biotas over time. We tested if there was also geographic disparity in body size during different epochs. We used marine ostracods, which are tiny crustaceans, as a study group for this analysis. We also studied which factor is more influential in body size change: distance or time. We compared the mean body size from different geologic time intervals as well as the mean body size from different locations for each epoch. We grouped ostracod occurrences from the Paleobiology Database into 10º x 10º grid cells on a paleogeographic map. Then we calculated the difference in mean size and the distance between the grid cells containing specimens. Our size data came from the Ellis & Messina"Catalogue of Ostracod" as well as the"Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology". Sizes were calculated by applying the formula for the volume of an ellipsoid to three linear dimensions of the ostracod carapace (anteroposterior, dorsoventral, and right-left lengths). Throughout this analysis we have come to the realization that there is a trend in ostracods towards smaller size over time. Therefore there is also a trend through time of decreasing difference in size between occurrences in different grid cells. However, if time is not taken into account, there is no correlation between size and geographic distance. This may be attributed to the fact that one might not expect a big size difference between locations that are far apart but still at a similar latitude (for example, at the equator). This analysis suggests that distance alone is not the main factor in driving changes in ostracod size over time.

  15. Self body-size perception in an insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Nun, Amir; Guershon, Moshe; Ayali, Amir

    2013-05-01

    Animals negotiating complex environments encounter a wide range of obstacles of different shapes and sizes. It is greatly beneficial for the animal to react to such obstacles in a precise, context-specific manner, in order to avoid harm or even simply to minimize energy expenditure. An essential key challenge is, therefore, an estimation of the animal's own physical characteristics, such as body size. A further important aspect of self body-size perception (or SBSP) is the need to update it in accordance with changes in the animal's size and proportions. Despite the major role of SBSP in functional behavior, little is known about if and how it is mediated. Here, we demonstrate that insects are also capable of self perception of body size and that this is a vital factor in allowing them to adjust their behavior following the sudden and dramatic growth associated with periodic molting. We reveal that locusts' SBSP is strongly correlated with their body size. However, we show that the dramatic change in size accompanying adult emergence is not sufficient to create a new and updated SBSP. Rather, this is created and then consolidated only following the individuals' experience and interaction with the physical environment. Behavioral or pharmacological manipulations can both result in maintenance of the old larval SBSP. Our results emphasize the importance of learning and memory-related processes in the development and update of SBSP, and highlight the advantage of insects as good models for a detailed study on the neurobiological and molecular aspects of SBSP.

  16. Increase in human brain size a key to increase in body size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P.Singh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lucy, considered to be the ancestor to all humanity was a very short creature about three and a half feet tall, weighing some 60 to 65 pounds and lived around 3.2 million years ago in Ethiopia. Perhaps the growth period among the australopithecines was much shorter than that of the modern day humans and hence simply by this yardstick, there has to be a lot of difference in body size between them. The longer the growth period the larger the body size and this is what seemed to happen to the humans during evolutionary history. Recently Mark Grabowski, a researcher at American Museum of Natural History, New York,observed in his research paper that "Bigger brains led to bigger bodies... as over the last four million years, brain size and body size increased substantially in our human ancestors" (Current Anthropology, Vol. 57, 174-196, April 2016. These observations were not new and were clearly understood by the scientific community earlier also. However, numerous hypotheses put forth had emphasized the role of natural selection on different traits independently. But none of them had gone in the direction of a correlated response to natural selection in favour of enlarging the brain size and the body size together. These viewpoints had concluded that increase in brain size and body size were the products of separate natural selection forces. However, Mark Grabowski states that "some genes cause variation in both brain and body size, with the result that selection on either trait can lead to a correlated response in the unselected trait." This is a new explanation to the problem. It highlights the role of correlated outcomes of the natural selection phenomena occurring to one trait but affecting the other trait even if that is not selected for. It is similar to saying that as the brain size increased from Lucy to Homo erectus so did the body size as if the animal pulled itself up and increased in size proportionately as well to keep pace with the

  17. Perception of biological motion from size-invariant body representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eLappe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The visual recognition of action is one of the socially most important and computationally demanding capacities of the human visual system. It combines visual shape recognition with complex non-rigid motion perception. Action presented as a point-light animation is a striking visual experience for anyone who sees it for the first time. Information about the shape and posture of the human body is sparse in point-light animations, but it is essential for action recognition. In the posturo-temporal filter model of biological motion perception posture information is picked up by visual neurons tuned to the form of the human body before body motion is calculated. We tested whether point-light stimuli are processed through posture recognition of the human body form by using a typical feature of form recognition, namely size invariance. We constructed a point-light stimulus that can only be perceived through a size-invariant mechanism. This stimulus changes rapidly in size from one image to the next. It thus disrupts continuity of early visuo-spatial properties but maintains continuity of the body posture representation. Despite this massive manipulation at the visuo-spatial level, size-changing point-light figures are spontaneously recognized by naive observers, and support discrimination of human body motion.

  18. Modeling body size evolution in Felidae under alternative phylogenetic hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of phylogenetic comparative methods in ecological research has advanced during the last twenty years, mainly due to accurate phylogenetic reconstructions based on molecular data and computational and statistical advances. We used phylogenetic correlograms and phylogenetic eigenvector regression (PVR to model body size evolution in 35 worldwide Felidae (Mammalia, Carnivora species using two alternative phylogenies and published body size data. The purpose was not to contrast the phylogenetic hypotheses but to evaluate how analyses of body size evolution patterns can be affected by the phylogeny used for comparative analyses (CA. Both phylogenies produced a strong phylogenetic pattern, with closely related species having similar body sizes and the similarity decreasing with increasing distances in time. The PVR explained 65% to 67% of body size variation and all Moran's I values for the PVR residuals were non-significant, indicating that both these models explained phylogenetic structures in trait variation. Even though our results did not suggest that any phylogeny can be used for CA with the same power, or that “good” phylogenies are unnecessary for the correct interpretation of the evolutionary dynamics of ecological, biogeographical, physiological or behavioral patterns, it does suggest that developments in CA can, and indeed should, proceed without waiting for perfect and fully resolved phylogenies.

  19. Normal variance in renal size in relation to body habitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner S Harmse

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Renal length determination is common in everyday radiology practice. However, a normal range of kidney sizes may not apply to people of all body habitus. This study investigates this relationship in order to determine normal ranges in relation to body habitus. A secondary aim was to evaluate the relationship of renal size to gender and race. Methods. Kidney lengths were measured on oblique coronal reformatted CT images of 514 patients who received routine abdominal CT scans for conditions unrelated to renal pathology. The patients had normal serum creatinine levels, no history of renal disease, no renal masses, and normal-appearing kidneys on CT. Weight, height, race and gender of the patients were recorded. Results. The mean renal length was 108 mm with a standard deviation of 9.82 mm. Statistical analysis demonstrated a relationship between kidney size and body weight and height, both individually and collectively. The most accurate prediction model was ‘kidney size = 49.18 + 0.21 x weight + 0.27 x height’, with a R2-value of 0.32. Additionally, kidneys were generally larger in the white population than in the black, and also in males than females. Conclusion. Normal renal size varies according to patients' body habitus. This variation can be expressed as a function of body weight and height, which can be represented by a nomogram and used as an easy reference in clinical practice.

  20. Environmental influences on the evolution of body size in Ammonoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, S.; Khong, C.; Pelagio, M.; Seixas, G.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    A major debate in evolutionary biology and paleobiology focuses on the relative importance of ecological interactions between species versus changes in the physical environment in governing large-scale evolutionary patterns. Body size is among the most important traits of any organism, and so identifying the factors that influence size evolution can shed light on both the causes and consequences of many major evolutionary trends. However, the extent to which body size evolution over time can be explained by changes in the physical versus ecological context remains unknown. In this study, we examined body size evolution in ammonoids, an extinct group of marine cephalopods. We collected a representative body size for each genus from illustrated specimens in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. We then examined relative statistical support for six models of size evolution: random walk, directional trend, stasis, and environmental control by oxygen availability, temperature, and global sea level. No model is unambiguously supported over all others. Unbiased random walk was the best supported model (34%) and environmental control by atmospheric pO2 was the second best supported model (22%). Stasis received the least support (extinction events.

  1. Oocyte size, egg index, and body lipid content in relation to body size in the solitary bee Megachile rotundata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. O’Neill

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Females of solitary, nest-provisioning bees have relatively low fecundity, but produce large eggs as part of their overall strategy of investing substantially in each offspring. In intraspecific comparisons of several species of solitary, nest-provisioning bees and wasps, the size of the mature eggs produced increases with female body size. We further examined oocyte size–body size correlations in the solitary bee Megachile rotundata (F., an important crop pollinator. We hypothesized that larger females carry larger basal oocytes (i.e., those next in line to be oviposited but that body size–oocyte size correlations would be absent soon after emergence, before their first eggs fully matured. Because egg production is likely affected by the quantity of stored lipids carried over from the bees’ immature stages, we also tested the hypothesis that female body size is correlated with the body lipid content at adult emergence, the time during which oocyte growth accelerates. We found significant correlations of body size with oocyte size variables chosen to reflect: (1 the magnitude of the investment in the next egg to be laid (i.e., the length and volume of the basal oocyte and (2 the longer term potential to produce mature oocytes (i.e., the summed lengths and volumes of the three largest oocytes in each female. Positive correlations existed throughout the nesting season, even during the first week following adult emergence. The ability to produce and carry larger oocytes may be linked to larger females starting the nesting season with greater lipid stores (which we document here or to greater space within the abdomen of larger females. Compared to other species of solitary bees, M. rotundata appears to have (1 smaller oocytes than solitary nest-provisioning bees in general, (2 comparable oocyte sizes relative to congeners, and (3 larger oocytes than related brood parasitic megachilids.

  2. Ethnic and Racial Differences in Body Size Perception and Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Kronenfeld, Lauren W.; Reba-Harreleson, Lauren; Von Holle, Ann; Reyes, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction in women in the United States is common. We explored how women from various racial and ethnic groups used figural stimuli by exploring differences in current and preferred silhouette, and their discrepancy. We surveyed 4,023 women ages 25-45 in an on-line investigation. Participants were identified using a national quota-sampling procedure. Asian women chose a smaller silhouette to represent their current body size, which did not remain significant after adjusting for sel...

  3. Multivariate indices as estimates of dry body weight for comparative study of body size in Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique García-Barros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on the size of adult Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies frequently rely on single linear estimates of body size, namely of forewing length or wingspan. As the shape of the wings of these insects – in fact, of all body parts – differs from one taxon to another, such estimates of body mass may not be adequate for comparisons across a wide taxonomic range. Using the length and width of the forewing, thorax and abdomen, as well as the wing area of 375 species and their correlations with dry body weight, several composite indices were determined that might be used in different circumstances. As the coefficients of determination from the multivariate regression models were rather high (R2>0.96, the results are believed to be reliable. A critical re-evaluation of the results indicates that important variations in the regression slopes described here would be expected, if at all, only from species with unusual body shapes. Incidentally, the bivariate relationships are in agreement with former comparative work on Lepidoptera and other terrestrial insects in that the relationship between body weight and single linear measurements follows a slightly negatively allometric trend, implying comparatively lighter bodies at the largest body sizes and relatively heavier ones at the shortest body sizes.

  4. Detectable Blood Lead Level and Body Size in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Havstad, Suzanne; Basu, Niladri; Ownby, David R; Park, Sung Kyun; Ownby, Dennis R; Johnson, Christine Cole; Wegienka, Ganesa

    2016-05-01

    Rates of childhood obesity have risen at the same time rates of high blood lead levels (BLLs) have fallen. Recent studies suggest that higher BLL is inversely associated with body size in older children (ages 3-19 years). No contemporaneous studies have examined if having a detectable BLL is associated with body size in very early childhood. We examined if detectable BLL is associated with body size in early childhood. A total of 299 birth cohort participants completed a study visit at ages 2-3 years with weight and height measurements; prior to this clinic visit, a BLL was drawn as part of routine clinical care. Body mass index (BMI) percentile and Z-score were calculated; children with BMI ≥85th percentile were considered overweight/obese at age of 2 years. Detectable BLL was defined as BLL ≥1 μg/dL. A total of 131 (43.8 %) children had a detectable BLL measured at mean aged 15.4 ± 5.5 months. Mean age at body size assessment was 2.2 ± 0.3 years (53.2 % male, 68.6 % African-American). After adjusting for race, sex, and birth weight, children with a detectable BLL had a 43 % lower risk of BMI ≥85th percentile (P = 0.041) and a 0.35-unit lower BMI Z-score (P = 0.008) compared to children without a detectable BLL. Neither race nor sex modified this association (all interactions P > 0.21). Consistent with recent studies in older children, having a detectable BLL was associated with smaller body size at ages 2-3 years. Additional research on the mechanism of this association is needed but may include mechanisms of appetite suppression via lead. PMID:26358768

  5. A phylogenetic analysis of egg size, clutch size, spawning mode, adult body size, and latitude in reef fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimatis, Katja; Riginos, Cynthia

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical treatments of egg size in fishes suggest that constraints on reproductive output should create trade-offs between the size and number of eggs produced per spawn. For marine reef fishes, the observation of distinct reproductive care strategies (demersal guarding, egg scattering, and pelagic spawning) has additionally prompted speculation that these strategies reflect alternative fitness optima with selection on egg size differing by reproductive mode and perhaps latitude. Here, we aggregate data from 278 reef fish species and test whether clutch size, reproductive care, adult body size, and latitudinal bands (i.e., tropical, subtropical, and temperate) predict egg size, using a statistically unified framework that accounts for phylogenetic correlations among traits. We find no inverse relationship between species egg size and clutch size, but rather that egg size differs by reproductive mode (mean volume for demersal eggs = 1.22 mm3, scattered eggs = 0.18 mm3, pelagic eggs = 0.52 mm3) and that clutch size is strongly correlated with adult body size. Larger eggs were found in temperate species compared with tropical species in both demersal guarders and pelagic spawners, but this difference was not strong when accounting for phylogenetic correlations, suggesting that differences in species composition underlies regional differences in egg size. In summary, demersal guarders are generally small fishes with small clutch sizes that produce large eggs. Pelagic spawners and egg scatterers are variable in adult and clutch size. Although pelagic spawned eggs are variable in size, those of scatterers are consistently small.

  6. Human vocal attractiveness as signaled by body size projection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xu

    Full Text Available Voice, as a secondary sexual characteristic, is known to affect the perceived attractiveness of human individuals. But the underlying mechanism of vocal attractiveness has remained unclear. Here, we presented human listeners with acoustically altered natural sentences and fully synthetic sentences with systematically manipulated pitch, formants and voice quality based on a principle of body size projection reported for animal calls and emotional human vocal expressions. The results show that male listeners preferred a female voice that signals a small body size, with relatively high pitch, wide formant dispersion and breathy voice, while female listeners preferred a male voice that signals a large body size with low pitch and narrow formant dispersion. Interestingly, however, male vocal attractiveness was also enhanced by breathiness, which presumably softened the aggressiveness associated with a large body size. These results, together with the additional finding that the same vocal dimensions also affect emotion judgment, indicate that humans still employ a vocal interaction strategy used in animal calls despite the development of complex language.

  7. Diabetes Awareness and Body Size Perceptions of Cree Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willows, Noreen D.; Marshall, Dru; Raine, Kim; Ridley, Denise C.

    2009-01-01

    Native American Indians and First Nations are predisposed to obesity and diabetes. A study was done to understand Cree schoolchildren's diabetes awareness and body size perceptions in two communities that had diabetes awareness-raising activities in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Children (N = 203) in grades 4-6 were classified into weight…

  8. Childhood body size and associations with prostate and endometrial cancer risks and adult body size (Ph.D)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Dansk: Prostata og livmoder carcinogenese er relateret til tidlig kropsstørrelse, hvilket indikerer, at disse sygdomme kunne opstå tidligt i livet. Selvom disse sammenhænge kunne forklares via tracking, er det ikke sandsynligt, at kropsstørrelse i voksenlivet fuldstændigt forklarer disse resultat...... of later prostate and endometrial cancer, childhood may be the period of time that mechanistic investigations should focus on in their search for links between body size and the risk of these cancer forms....... barndommen en periode hvor mekanistiske undersøgelser af disse sammenhænge skal fokusere. Engelsk: Prostate and endometrial cardinogenesis is linked to early life body size, suggesting that these diseases have early origins. Even though these associations may operate through adult body size, it is not likely...... that adult size entirely explains these findings. Overweight children have a high risk of being overweightas adults, however, these associations are weak at late adulthood, when most cancer forms emerge. Taken together, these findings highlight that, in addition to childhood body size indicating a risk...

  9. Mass extinctions show selective patterns in crinoid body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, A.; Tang, C.; Pelagio, M.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    There have been five major extinctions on planet Earth: the end of the Ordovician, late Devonian, late Permian, late Triassic and the late Cretaceous and through all of these, Crinoids have still managed to prosper. Our project attempts to find a correlation between these five mass extinctions and the body size of Crinoids. Past research has shown that bigger animals are more prone to extinction compared to smaller sized ones because of their complex environmental niches. We hypothesized that small-sized Crinoids would have a higher possibility of survival compared to the larger-sized Crinoids. We first graphed Crinoids' maximum body size and the five major extinctions throughout time for any visual correlation between them. We then used t-tests as our statistical analyses to find any differences between the size of survivors and. There was no mean difference between the mean size of victims and survivors with the exception of the end of the Triassic extinction. There are many possible explanations for this difference in the end of the Triassic such as 1) a rise in atmospheric CO2, 2) a combination was volcanic CO2 and catastrophic dissociation of gas hydrate, and/or 3) a cooling in temperature and oceanic changes occurred.

  10. Increase in human brain size a key to increase in body size

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Lucy, considered to be the ancestor to all humanity was a very short creature about three and a half feet tall, weighing some 60 to 65 pounds and lived around 3.2 million years ago in Ethiopia. Perhaps the growth period among the australopithecines was much shorter than that of the modern day humans and hence simply by this yardstick, there has to be a lot of difference in body size between them. The longer the growth period the larger the body size and this is what seemed to happen to the hu...

  11. Linking species abundance distributions and body size in monogenean communities

    OpenAIRE

    Poulin, R.; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2008-01-01

    Parasite communities are characterised by one or a few numerically dominant species and many rare species. Although this pattern is well recognised, its underlying causes remain unknown. In this study, we tested whether variation in abundance among species within parasite communities can be explained by interspecific variation in body size. We used data on nine fish species (families Serranidae and Lethrinidae) from New Caledonia, each harbouring strictly host-specific diplectanid monogenean ...

  12. Body size evolution of ammonoids shows limited correlation with diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelagio, M.; Khong, C.; Heines, S.; Seixas, G.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Although many studies have been conducted on patterns of size evolution in marine and terrestrial species, there is not a concrete answer as to what are the most important controlling factors are in different taxa. In this study, we collected body size data from the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology volumes on ammonoids. Ammonoids are an extinct group of marine mollusks that lived from the Devonian to the late Cretaceous periods. In this study, we tested three models for size evolution: general random walk, unbiased random walk and forcing by diversity. The mean size of the ammonoids increased from a 4.60 to a 5.07 log10 mm3 from the time they appeared to their extinction. At the same time, the maximum size increased gradually with the biggest number in late Cretaceous, just before the last species disappeared. The results were more favorable to diversity forcing followed by unbiased random walk leaving general random walk last. Based on these results, we conclude that the evolution in size depends on the diversity of a species. However, because of the great possibility of an unbiased random walk for the data, further research should be done to find the interplay between different models of size evolution of the ammonoids.

  13. Estimation of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements and Body Condition Scores in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width, and...... body condition score were consistently associated with BW. The coefficients of multiple determination varied from 80 to 89%. The number of significant terms and the parameter estimates of the models differed markedly among groups of cows. Apparently, these differences were due to breed and feeding...... regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes...

  14. Spatial variation in egg size of a top predator: Interplay of body size and environmental factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzao, Maite; Igual, José M.; Genovart, Meritxell; Forero, Manuela G.; Hobson, Keith A.; Oro, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    It is expected that nearby populations are constrained by the same ecological features shaping in turn similarity in their ecological traits. Here, we studied the spatio-temporal variability in egg size among local populations of the critically endangered Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus, a top marine predator endemic to the western Mediterranean region. Specifically we assessed whether this trait was influenced by maternal body size, as an indicator of a genetic component, and feeding ecology (through stable-carbon and nitrogen-isotope measurements), as an indicator of environmental factors. We found that egg size varied among local populations, an unexpected result at such a small spatial scale. Body size differences at the local population level only partially explained such differences. Blood isotope measurements also differed among local populations. Values of δ 15N suggested inter-population differences in trophic level, showing a similar general pattern with egg size, and suggesting a nutritional link between them whereby egg size was affected by differences in feeding resources and/or behaviour. Values of δ 13C suggested that local populations did not differ in foraging habits with respect to benthic- vs. pelagic-based food-webs. Egg size did not vary among years as did breeding performance, suggesting that a differential temporal window could affect both breeding parameters in relation to food availability. The absence of a relationship between breeding performance and egg size suggested that larger eggs might only confer an advantage during harsh conditions. Alternatively parental quality could greatly affect breeding performance. We showed that inter-population differences in egg size could be influenced by both body size and environmental factors.

  15. Body Size as a Driver of Scavenging in Theropod Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Adam; Healy, Kevin; Ruxton, Graeme D; Jackson, Andrew L

    2016-06-01

    Theropod dinosaurs dominated Earth's terrestrial ecosystem as a diverse group of predators for more than 160 million years, yet little is known about their foraging ecology. Maintaining a balanced energy budget presented a major challenge for therapods, which ranged from the chicken-sized Microraptor up to the whale-sized Giganotosaurus, in the face of intense competition and the demands of ontogenetic growth. Facultative scavenging, a behavior present in almost all modern predators, may have been important in supplementing energetically expensive lifestyles. By using agent-based models based on the allometric relationship between size and foraging behaviors, we show that theropods between 27 and 1,044 kg would have gained a significant energetic advantage over individuals at both the small and large extremes of theropod body mass through their scavenging efficiency. These results were robust to rate of competition, primary productivity, and detection distance. Our models demonstrate the potential importance of facultative scavenging in theropods and the role of body size in defining its prevalence in Mesozoic terrestrial systems. PMID:27172591

  16. Effects of body size and change in body size from infancy through childhood on body mass index in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, L G; Rasmussen, K M; Michaelsen, K F;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight and weight gain throughout infancy are related to later obesity, but whether the strength of the associations varies during the infancy period is uncertain.Aims:Our aims were to identify the period of infancy when change in body weight has the strongest association with adult b...... first month of life.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 19 June 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.108....

  17. Sexual Size Dimorphism and Body Condition in the Australasian Gannet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Lauren P.; Wells, Melanie R.; Rodríguez-Malagón, Marlenne A.; Tew, Emma; Speakman, John R.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism is widespread throughout seabird taxa and several drivers leading to its evolution have been hypothesised. While the Australasian Gannet (Morus serrator) has previously been considered nominally monomorphic, recent studies have documented sexual segregation in diet and foraging areas, traits often associated with size dimorphism. The present study investigated the sex differences in body mass and structural size of this species at two colonies (Pope’s Eye, PE; Point Danger, PD) in northern Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia. Females were found to be 3.1% and 7.3% heavier (2.74 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.67 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) than males (2.66 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.48 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) at PE and PD, respectively. Females were also larger in wing ulna length (0.8% both colonies) but smaller in bill depth (PE: 2.2%; PD: 1.7%) than males. Despite this dimorphism, a discriminant function provided only mild accuracy in determining sex. A similar degree of dimorphism was also found within breeding pairs, however assortative mating was not apparent at either colony (R2 < 0.04). Using hydrogen isotope dilution, a body condition index was developed from morphometrics to estimate total body fat (TBF) stores, where TBF(%) = 24.43+1.94*(body mass/wing ulna length) – 0.58*tarsus length (r2 = 0.84, n = 15). This index was used to estimate body composition in all sampled individuals. There was no significant difference in TBF(%) between the sexes for any stage of breeding or in any year of the study at either colony suggesting that, despite a greater body mass, females were not in a better condition than males. While the driving mechanism for sexual dimorphism in this species is currently unknown, studies of other Sulids indicate segregation in foraging behaviour, habitat and diet may be a contributing factor. PMID:26637116

  18. Size matters: plasticity in metabolic scaling shows body-size may modulate responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nicholas; Sigwart, Julia D

    2014-08-01

    Variability in metabolic scaling in animals, the relationship between metabolic rate ( R: ) and body mass ( M: ), has been a source of debate and controversy for decades. R: is proportional to MB: , the precise value of B: much debated, but historically considered equal in all organisms. Recent metabolic theory, however, predicts B: to vary among species with ecology and metabolic level, and may also vary within species under different abiotic conditions. Under climate change, most species will experience increased temperatures, and marine organisms will experience the additional stressor of decreased seawater pH ('ocean acidification'). Responses to these environmental changes are modulated by myriad species-specific factors. Body-size is a fundamental biological parameter, but its modulating role is relatively unexplored. Here, we show that changes to metabolic scaling reveal asymmetric responses to stressors across body-size ranges; B: is systematically decreased under increasing temperature in three grazing molluscs, indicating smaller individuals were more responsive to warming. Larger individuals were, however, more responsive to reduced seawater pH in low temperatures. These alterations to the allometry of metabolism highlight abiotic control of metabolic scaling, and indicate that responses to climate warming and ocean acidification may be modulated by body-size. PMID:25122741

  19. Estimation of African apes' body size from postcranial dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Markku; Junno, Juho-Antti

    2009-07-01

    We examine how African apes' postcranial skeletal dimensions and their combinations are related to body size, as represented by trunk volume, within sex-specific samples of a total of 39 central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and 34 western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). We examine this relationship by determining the strength of the correlation between selected skeletal dimensions and trunk volume. The findings indicate that sex should be taken into account when possible. Most two-predictor models perform better than most single-predictor models. Interspecific regressions based on log-transformed variables and sex/species-specific regression based on raw variables perform about equally well. PMID:19221857

  20. Ontogeny of body size variation in African apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, S R; Shea, B T

    1996-01-01

    Size variation in African apes (Gorilla gorilla [gorilla], Pan paniscus [pygmy chimpanzee], and Pan troglodytes ["common" chimpanzee]) is substantial, both within and between species. We investigate the possible evolutionary significance of this variation through an analysis of the ontogeny of size variation in this group. In addition, we highlight possible areas of future endocrinological research, and evaluate recently proposed alternative models that attempt to account for ontogenetic variation in apes. The present study shows that intergeneric variation in size is largely a consequence of differences among species in the rate of body weight growth. Interspecific size variation in Pan is a product of both rate and duration differences in growth. The ontogenetic bases of sexual dimorphism vary in this group. Dimorphism is largely a result of sex differences in the duration of body weight growth in gorillas and pygmy chimpanzees, but results from differences in the rate of growth in common chimpanzees. Ontogenetic analyses largely confirm earlier interpretations, but with better data and methods. The great degree of ontogenetic variation within and among these species, especially in the timing and magnitude of "pubertal" growth spurts, implies that studies of endocrine growth control in African apes could be a productive line of future research. We also suggest that ontogenetic variation can be understood with respect to ecological risks. Growth rates seem to be negatively correlated with ecological risk in African apes, suggesting links between ontogenetic patterns and social and ecological variables. High growth rates in gorillas compared to Pan are most consistent with this model. Variation between chimpanzees and pygmy chimpanzees (especially females) also seem to fit predictions of this model. PMID:8928723

  1. Body Size and Reproductive Tactics in Varanid lizards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu DU; Longhui LIN; Yuntao YAO; Chixian LIN; Xiang JI

    2014-01-01

    Body size and female reproduction in the water monitor lizard(Varanus salvator) were studied. Forty-two adult females larger than 500 mm SVL and 32 adult males larger than 400 mm SVL were donated by local people in Ledong, Hainan under permit to our laboratory in Hainan in 2013 and 2014. The largest male and female measured 745 and 755 mm SVL, respectively. The mean SVL was greater in adult females than in adult males. Males had larger heads (head width) than females of the same SVL. The smallest reproductive female in our sample was 565 mm SVL. Females produced a single clutch of 17.1 (10−23) pliable-shelled eggs per breeding season stretching from mid-June and mid-September. Clutch size and clutch mass were all positively related to female SVL. However, there was no signiifcant linear relationship between egg mass and female SVL. Larger females generally produced more eggs, and thus heavier clutches than did smaller ones. There was no signiifcant linear relationship between relative clutch mass and female SVL. Phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) analysis, accounting for phylogenetic relationships, showed that clutch size was positively correlated with mean maternal SVL in varanid lizards. PGLS analysis showed that phylogenetic relationships did not affect clutch (or/and egg) mass and the SVL although there were significant linear relationship between clutch (or/and egg) mass and mean maternal SVL. Therefore, we could draw some general conclusions about the body size and reproductive tactics in varanid lizards that larger females generally produced more eggs, larger eggs and thus heavier clutches than did smaller ones.

  2. Evaluating the Relationship between Body Size and Body Shape with the Risk of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Ebrahimzadeh Zagami

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to determine the relationship between body size and body shape with the risk of breast cancer.Methods: In this case control study, 480 women participated (240 women with breast cancer in case group and 240 healthy women in control group. After completing the interview form, the weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference and breast size, were measured. The data were analyzed using statistical test by SPSS11.5.Results: The present study showed that the mean of hip circumference were significantly different in both groups (p=0.036. The size of the breast was statistically significant between the two groups. Thyroid type, one of the body shapes, was more seen in the case group than control group (p<0.001.Conclusion: This study revealed that the risk of breast cancer increases with increased hip circumference. In addition, the results indicate that body shape may be a useful predictor in determining the risk of breast cancer. More studies should be designed to address this subject.

  3. Grasping in wonderland: altering the visual size of the body recalibrates the body schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, N F; Marino, B F; Maravita, A; Castelnuovo, G; Tebano, R; Bricolo, E

    2013-05-01

    Can viewing our own body modified in size reshape the bodily representation employed for interacting with the environment? This question was addressed here by exposing participants to either an enlarged, a shrunken, or an unmodified view of their own hand in a reach-to-grasp task toward a target of fixed dimensions. When presented with a visually larger hand, participants modified the kinematics of their grasping movement by reducing maximum grip aperture. This adjustment was carried over even when the hand was rendered invisible in subsequent trials, suggesting a stable modification of the bodily representation employed for the action. The effect was specific for the size of the grip aperture, leaving the other features of the reach-to-grasp movement unaffected. Reducing the visual size of the hand did not induce the opposite effect, although individual differences were found, which possibly depended on the degree of subject's reliance on visual input. A control experiment suggested that the effect exerted by the vision of the enlarged hand could not be merely explained by simple global visual rescaling. Overall, our results suggest that visual information pertaining to the size of the body is accessed by the body schema and is prioritized over the proprioceptive input for motor control. PMID:23515625

  4. Evolution and plasticity of body size of Drosophila in response to temperature.

    OpenAIRE

    Calboli, F. C. F.

    2004-01-01

    Ectotherm body size is positively correlated with latitude, giving rise to body size clines, found in different continents. Ectotherm body size also shows a developmental response to temperature, increasing at lower developmental temperatures. To investigate the effects of temperature in the evolution and plasticity of body size dines, I used two species of the genus Drosophila as model organisms. To investigate the cellular mechanism underlying the evolution of wing size clines the two newly...

  5. On being the right size: increased body size is associated with reduced telomere length under natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringsby, Thor Harald; Jensen, Henrik; Pärn, Henrik; Kvalnes, Thomas; Boner, Winnie; Gillespie, Robert; Holand, Håkon; Hagen, Ingerid Julie; Rønning, Bernt; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-12-01

    Evolution of body size is likely to involve trade-offs between body size, growth rate and longevity. Within species, larger body size is associated with faster growth and ageing, and reduced longevity, but the cellular processes driving these relationships are poorly understood. One mechanism that might play a key role in determining optimal body size is the relationship between body size and telomere dynamics. However, we know little about how telomere length is affected when selection for larger size is imposed in natural populations. We report here on the relationship between structural body size and telomere length in wild house sparrows at the beginning and end of a selection regime for larger parent size that was imposed for 4 years in an isolated population of house sparrows. A negative relationship between fledgling size and telomere length was present at the start of the selection; this was extended when fledgling size increased under the selection regime, demonstrating a persistent covariance between structural size and telomere length. Changes in telomere dynamics, either as a correlated trait or a consequence of larger size, could reduce potential longevity and the consequent trade-offs could thereby play an important role in the evolution of optimal body size. PMID:26631569

  6. How does abundance scale with body size in coupled size-structured food webs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Julia L; Jennings, Simon; Law, Richard; Castle, Matthew D; McCloghrie, Paul; Rochet, Marie-Joëlle; Benoît, Eric

    2009-01-01

    1. Widely observed macro-ecological patterns in log abundance vs. log body mass of organisms can be explained by simple scaling theory based on food (energy) availability across a spectrum of body sizes. The theory predicts that when food availability falls with body size (as in most aquatic food webs where larger predators eat smaller prey), the scaling between log N vs. log m is steeper than when organisms of different sizes compete for a shared unstructured resource (e.g. autotrophs, herbivores and detritivores; hereafter dubbed 'detritivores'). 2. In real communities, the mix of feeding characteristics gives rise to complex food webs. Such complexities make empirical tests of scaling predictions prone to error if: (i) the data are not disaggregated in accordance with the assumptions of the theory being tested, or (ii) the theory does not account for all of the trophic interactions within and across the communities sampled. 3. We disaggregated whole community data collected in the North Sea into predator and detritivore components and report slopes of log abundance vs. log body mass relationships. Observed slopes for fish and epifaunal predator communities (-1.2 to -2.25) were significantly steeper than those for infaunal detritivore communities (-0.56 to -0.87). 4. We present a model describing the dynamics of coupled size spectra, to explain how coupling of predator and detritivore communities affects the scaling of log N vs. log m. The model captures the trophic interactions and recycling of material that occur in many aquatic ecosystems. 5. Our simulations demonstrate that the biological processes underlying growth and mortality in the two distinct size spectra lead to patterns consistent with data. Slopes of log N vs. log m were steeper and growth rates faster for predators compared to detritivores. Size spectra were truncated when primary production was too low for predators and when detritivores experienced predation pressure. 6. The approach also allows

  7. The Relationship of Body Size and Adiposity to Source of Self-Esteem in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncur, Breckann; Bailey, Bruce W.; Lockhart, Barbara D.; LeCheminant, James D.; Perkins, Annette E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies looking at self-esteem and body size or adiposity generally demonstrate a negative relationship. However, the relationship between the source of self-esteem and body size has not been examined in college women. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of body size and adiposity to source of…

  8. Examining predator-prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marlee A; Rogers, Tracey L

    2014-12-22

    Predator-prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator-prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator-prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator-prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. PMID:25377460

  9. Body fatness, relative weight and frame size in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baecke, J.A.H.; Burema, J.; Deurenberg, P.

    1982-01-01

    1. Body-weight, body height, knee width, wrist width and skinfold measurements were made on males (n 139) and females (n 167) in three age-groups (20–22, 25–27 and 30–32 years). Percentage of body fal was calculated from skinfold thicknesses using regression equations according to Durnin & Womersley

  10. The evolution of island gigantism and body size variation in tortoises and turtles

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffe, Alexander L.; Slater, Graham J.; Alfaro, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Extant chelonians (turtles and tortoises) span almost four orders of magnitude of body size, including the startling examples of gigantism seen in the tortoises of the Galapagos and Seychelles islands. However, the evolutionary determinants of size diversity in chelonians are poorly understood. We present a comparative analysis of body size evolution in turtles and tortoises within a phylogenetic framework. Our results reveal a pronounced relationship between habitat and optimal body size in ...

  11. Impact of ancestry and body size on sonographic ulnar nerve dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact that geographic ancestry and body size have on ultrasonographic measurements of the ulnar nerve size measured at the elbow. Materials and methods: We performed anthropometric measurements of body size and ultrasonographic measurements of the ulnar nerve at the elbow on 13 Vietnamese and 24 European participants. Regression analysis was used to determine the effect of body size and geographic ancestry on ulnar nerve size. Results: BMI had the greatest impact on ulnar nerve size. The short axis diameter was least resilient, and the long axis diameter was the most resilient to the effects of body size and geographic ancestry. Discussion: The long axis diameter has an apparent immunity to the influences of overall body size, arm size, or geographic ancestry and has the most potential as a sensitive discriminator between normal nerves and nerves affected by ulnar neuropathy at the elbow.

  12. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Thomas W; Justice, Anne E; Graff, Mariaelisa;

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially b...

  13. Size effect in nuclide leachability of plastic solidified bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In medium to low level radioactive solid wastes from nuclear power plants, the experiment on nuclide leachability has been usually made by solid size of about 100 cm3. The results are taken as the nuclide leachability for the solids of actual size (about 200 liters). It has been studied how the leachability of nuclides varies with the size of solids. Therefore, diffusion coefficient was measured for the plastic solids of different sizes from 5 cm3 to 235 cm3 in order to examine the size effect. In the range of size measured, the effect of solid size upon the diffusion coefficient was little observed; the values were about 10-5 cm2/day in all cases. The thermosetting resin used for plastic solidification was unsaturated polyester plus sodium sulfate (40/60). About 0.2 μCi of 137Cs per 10 g of solid was contained in each plastic solid. (Mori, K.)

  14. Low Temperature and Polyploidy Result in Larger Cell and Body Size in an Ectothermic Vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermaniuk, Adam; Rybacki, Mariusz; Taylor, Jan R E

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported that low temperatures result in increases in both cell size and body size in ectotherms that may explain patterns of geographic variation of their body size across latitudinal ranges. Also, polyploidy showed the same effect on body size in invertebrates. In vertebrates, despite their having larger cells, no clear effect of polyploidy on body size has been found. This article presents the relationship between temperature, cell size, growth rate, and body size in diploid and polyploid hybridogenetic frog Pelophylax esculentus reared as tadpoles at 19° and 24°C. The size of cells was larger in both diploid and triploid tadpoles at 19°C, and triploids had larger cells at both temperatures. In diploid and triploid froglets, the temperature in which they developed as tadpoles did not affect the size of their cells, but triploids still had larger cells. Triploid tadpoles grew faster than diploids at 19°C and had larger body mass; there was no clear difference between ploidies in growth rate at 24°C. This indicates better adaptation of triploid tadpoles to cold environment. This is the first report on the increase of body mass of a polyploid vertebrate caused by low temperature, and we showed relationship between increase in cell size and increased body mass. The large body mass of triploids may provide a selective advantage, especially in colder environments, and this may explain the prevalence of triploids in the northern parts of the geographic range of P. esculentus. PMID:27082722

  15. Being Barbie: The Size of One’s Own Body Determines the Perceived Size of the World

    OpenAIRE

    van der Hoort, Björn; Guterstam, Arvid; Ehrsson, H. Henrik

    2011-01-01

    A classical question in philosophy and psychology is if the sense of one's body influences how one visually perceives the world. Several theoreticians have suggested that our own body serves as a fundamental reference in visual perception of sizes and distances, although compelling experimental evidence for this hypothesis is lacking. In contrast, modern textbooks typically explain the perception of object size and distance by the combination of information from different visual cues. Here, w...

  16. Body Size at Birth Is Associated with Food and Nutrient Intake in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Perala, Mia-Maria; Mannisto, Satu; Kaartinen, Niina E.; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J.P.; Liisa M Valsta; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small body size at birth is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Dietary habits are tightly linked with these disorders, but the association between body size at birth and adult diet has been little studied. We examined the association between body size at birth and intake of foods and macronutrients in adulthood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 1797 participants, aged 56 to 70, of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, whose bi...

  17. Environmental correlates of body size distribution in Cyprinidae (Actinopterygians) depend on phylogenetic scale

    OpenAIRE

    Denys, G. P. J.; Tedesco, Pablo; Oberdorff, Thierry; Gaubert, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of increasing species body size with increasing latitude has been noticed in different groups of animals. Here, we used seven key environmental factors and independent contrasts to assess body size latitudinal clines in Cyprinidae at two phylogenetic levels (inter- and intragenera), which were defined using a genus-level supertree. Model selection procedures revealed that environmental factors shaping body size variation in Cyprinidae differed according to the phylogenetic scale c...

  18. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size.

    OpenAIRE

    Rideout, Elizabeth J; Narsaiya, Marcus S.; Grewal, Savraj S.

    2015-01-01

    Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra) in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expre...

  19. The Effect of Abiotic Factors on Marine Animal Body Size Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. F.; Wong, W.; Heim, N.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    While there is evidence of a general increase in body size over time, there has been no comprehensive attempt to determine the influence of abiotic factors on body size. Although an increase in maximum body size has been observed during and after the Precambrian oxidation events in the Late Archean and at the onset of the Cambrian, these observations took into account the appearance of eukaryotic life and multicellular life respectively. Using a database of marine animal body sizes spanning the Phanerozoic, we conducted a series of Pearson product-moment correlation tests with igneous rock weathering (Strontium-87: Strontium-86), rate of carbon cycle (δ13C), temperature (δ18O), CO2 concentration, sulfate mineral weathering (δ34S), atmospheric oxygen concentration, and sea level as independent variables, and mean body size as the dependent variable. Our test yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.81 between δ18O and body size, and -0.78 between rCO2 and body size; since δ18O is inversely correlated with temperature, these results indicate that both temperature and CO2 have strong inverse relationships with body size. Atmospheric oxygen yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.09, demonstrating that it ceased to play an influential role in shaping body sizes following the start of the Phanerozoic.

  20. Size counts: evolutionary perspectives on physical activity and body size from early hominids to modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William R

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines the evolutionary origins of human dietary and activity patterns, and their implications for understanding modern health problems. Humans have evolved distinctive nutritional characteristics associated the high metabolic costs of our large brains. The evolution of larger hominid brain size necessitated the adoption of foraging strategies that both provided high quality foods, and required larger ranges and activity budgets. Over time, human subsistence strategies have become ever more efficient in obtaining energy with minimal time and effort. Today, populations of the industrialized world live in environments characterized by low levels of energy expenditure and abundant food supplies contributing to growing rates of obesity. Analyses of trends in dietary intake and body weight in the US over the last 50 years indicate that the dramatic rise in obesity cannot be explained solely by increased energy consumption. Rather, declines in activity are also important. Further, we find that recent recommendations on physical activity have the potential to bring daily energy expenditure levels of industrialized societies surprisingly close to those observed among subsistence-level populations. These findings highlight the importance of physical activity in promoting nutritional health and show the utility of evolutionary approaches for developing public health recommendations. PMID:21116013

  1. Body sizes of hosts and parasitoids in individual feeding relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Joel E. Cohen; Jonsson, Tomas; Müller, Christine B.; Godfray, H. C. J.; Savage, M

    2005-01-01

    In a natural community of 49 species (12 species of aphids and 37 species of their parasitoids), body lengths of 2,151 parasitoid individuals were, to an excellent approximation, related to the body lengths of their individual aphid hosts by a power law with an exponent close to 3/4. Two alternative models predict this exponent. One is based on surface area to volume relationships. The other is based on recent developments in metabolic ecology. Both models require a changing ratio (in both ho...

  2. Fractal geometry predicts varying body size scaling relationships for mammal and bird home ranges

    OpenAIRE

    Haskell, John P.; Ritchie, Mark E.; Olff, Han

    2002-01-01

    Scaling laws that describe complex interactions between organisms and their environment as a function of body size offer exciting potential for synthesis in biology. Home range size, or the area used by individual organisms, is a critical ecological variable that integrates behaviour, physiology and population density and strongly depends on organism size. Here we present a new model of home range–body size scaling based on fractal resource distributions, in which resource encounter rates are...

  3. Somatotype, size and body composition of competitive female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malousaris, Grigoris G; Bergeles, Nikolaos K; Barzouka, Karolina G; Bayios, Ioannis A; Nassis, George P; Koskolou, Maria D

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the morphological characteristics of competitive female volleyball players. For this purpose, body weight and height, breadths and girths as well as skinfold thickness at various body sites were assessed in 163 elite female volleyball players (age: 23.8+/-4.7 years, years of playing: 11.5+/-4.2, hours of training per week: 11.9+/-2.9, means+/-S.D.). Seventy-nine of these players were from the A1 division and the rest from the A2 division of the Greek National League. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the differences in these characteristics between competition level and playing position. Body height ranged from 161cm to 194cm, and the mean value (177.1+/-6.5cm) was not inferior to that of international players of similar calibre. Adiposity of these players (sum of 5 skinfolds: 51.8+/-10.2mm, percent body fat: 23.4+/-2.8) was higher than that reported in other studies in which, however, different methodology was used. Volleyball athletes of this study were mainly balanced endomorphs (3.4-2.7-2.9). The A1 division players were taller and slightly leaner with greater fat-free mass than their A2 counterparts. Significant differences were found among athletes of different playing positions which are interpreted by their varying roles and physical demands during a volleyball game. The volleyball players who play as opposites were the only subgroup of players differing between divisions; the A2 opposites had more body fat than A1 opposites. These data could be added in the international literature related to the anthropometric characteristics of competitive female volleyball players. PMID:17697797

  4. Body ownership affects visual perception of object size by rescaling the visual representation of external space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoort, Björn; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2014-07-01

    Size perception is most often explained by a combination of cues derived from the visual system. However, this traditional cue approach neglects the role of the observer's body beyond mere visual comparison. In a previous study, we used a full-body illusion to show that objects appear larger and farther away when participants experience a small artificial body as their own and that objects appear smaller and closer when they assume ownership of a large artificial body ("Barbie-doll illusion"; van der Hoort, Guterstam, & Ehrsson, PLoS ONE, 6(5), e20195, 2011). The first aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that this own-body-size effect is distinct from the role of the seen body as a direct familiar-size cue. To this end, we developed a novel setup that allowed for occlusion of the artificial body during the presentation of test objects. Our results demonstrate that the feeling of ownership of an artificial body can alter the perceived sizes of objects without the need for a visible body. Second, we demonstrate that fixation shifts do not contribute to the own-body-size effect. Third, we show that the effect exists in both peri-personal space and distant extra-personal space. Finally, through a meta-analysis, we demonstrate that the own-body-size effect is independent of and adds to the classical visual familiar-size cue effect. Our results suggest that, by changing body size, the entire spatial layout rescales and new objects are now perceived according to this rescaling, without the need to see the body. PMID:24806404

  5. Geographical variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism in an Australian lizard, Boulenger's Skink (Morethia boulengeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian R Michael

    Full Text Available Ecogeographical rules help explain spatial and temporal patterns in intraspecific body size. However, many of these rules, when applied to ectothermic organisms such as reptiles, are controversial and require further investigation. To explore factors that influence body size in reptiles, we performed a heuristic study to examine body size variation in an Australian lizard, Boulenger's Skink Morethia boulengeri from agricultural landscapes in southern New South Wales, south-eastern Australia. We collected tissue and morphological data on 337 adult lizards across a broad elevation and climate gradient. We used a model-selection procedure to determine if environmental or ecological variables best explained body size variation. We explored the relationship between morphology and phylogenetic structure before modeling candidate variables from four broad domains: (1 geography (latitude, longitude and elevation, (2 climate (temperature and rainfall, (3 habitat (vegetation type, number of logs and ground cover attributes, and (4 management (land use and grazing history. Broad phylogenetic structure was evident, but on a scale larger than our study area. Lizards were sexually dimorphic, whereby females had longer snout-vent length than males, providing support for the fecundity selection hypothesis. Body size variation in M. boulengeri was correlated with temperature and rainfall, a pattern consistent with larger individuals occupying cooler and more productive parts of the landscape. Climate change forecasts, which predict warmer temperature and increased aridity, may result in reduced lizard biomass and decoupling of trophic interactions with potential implications for community organization and ecosystem function.

  6. Geographical variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism in an Australian lizard, Boulenger's Skink (Morethia boulengeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Damian R; Banks, Sam C; Piggott, Maxine P; Cunningham, Ross B; Crane, Mason; MacGregor, Christopher; McBurney, Lachlan; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-01-01

    Ecogeographical rules help explain spatial and temporal patterns in intraspecific body size. However, many of these rules, when applied to ectothermic organisms such as reptiles, are controversial and require further investigation. To explore factors that influence body size in reptiles, we performed a heuristic study to examine body size variation in an Australian lizard, Boulenger's Skink Morethia boulengeri from agricultural landscapes in southern New South Wales, south-eastern Australia. We collected tissue and morphological data on 337 adult lizards across a broad elevation and climate gradient. We used a model-selection procedure to determine if environmental or ecological variables best explained body size variation. We explored the relationship between morphology and phylogenetic structure before modeling candidate variables from four broad domains: (1) geography (latitude, longitude and elevation), (2) climate (temperature and rainfall), (3) habitat (vegetation type, number of logs and ground cover attributes), and (4) management (land use and grazing history). Broad phylogenetic structure was evident, but on a scale larger than our study area. Lizards were sexually dimorphic, whereby females had longer snout-vent length than males, providing support for the fecundity selection hypothesis. Body size variation in M. boulengeri was correlated with temperature and rainfall, a pattern consistent with larger individuals occupying cooler and more productive parts of the landscape. Climate change forecasts, which predict warmer temperature and increased aridity, may result in reduced lizard biomass and decoupling of trophic interactions with potential implications for community organization and ecosystem function. PMID:25337999

  7. Correlates of self worth and body size dissatisfaction among obese Latino youth

    OpenAIRE

    Mirza, Nazrat M; Mackey, Eleanor Race; Armstrong, Bridget; JARAMILLO, ANA; Palmer, Matilde M

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined self-worth and body size dissatisfaction, and their association with maternal acculturation among obese Latino youth enrolled in a community-based obesity intervention program. Upon entry to the program, a sample of 113 participants reported global self-worth comparable to general population norms, but lower athletic competence and perception of physical appearance. Interestingly, body size dissatisfaction was more prevalent among younger respondents. Youth body siz...

  8. Incongruence between the sexes in preferences for body and dorsal fin size in Xiphophorus variatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, R David; Fontaine, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Female preference for male fin enhancements in poeciliid fishes may be driven by a preexisting perceptual bias for increased male lateral projection area (LPA). This hypothesis suggests that a male with enlarged body and/or fin size projects a larger image onto the female's retina at a given viewing distance, eliciting a greater sensory and thus behavioral response out of the female than a smaller male. Given the shared sensory/neural systems of opposite sex conspecifics, we might expect the LPA bias to also be present in males of at least some poeciliid species. However, we need not expect congruence between the sexes in the state of the bias over evolutionary time. To examine whether the sexes share a bias for sailfin-like dorsal fins, a trait not present in their evolutionary history, the bias favoring increased dorsal fin size and LPA observed in female Xiphophorus variatus, among other poeciliids, was investigated by testing male preference for dummy females varying in dorsal fin size, body size, and dorsal fin:body size ratio. In three sets of simultaneous choice experiments, males preferred females of larger body size when fin size was held constant and when total LPA was held constant, but showed no preference for larger fins when body size was held constant. The LPA bias is therefore less permissive in males than females with selection favoring a male's ability to discriminate between female body size - an indicator of fertility/fecundity - and fin size, which offers no known fitness benefits. PMID:23137586

  9. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Elizabeth J; Narsaiya, Marcus S; Grewal, Savraj S

    2015-12-01

    Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra) in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expression in males increases body size. Although we find that Tra exerts autonomous effects on cell size, we also discovered that Tra expression in the fat body augments female body size in a non cell-autonomous manner. These effects of Tra do not require its only known targets doublesex and fruitless. Instead, Tra expression in the female fat body promotes growth by stimulating the secretion of insulin-like peptides from insulin producing cells in the brain. Our data suggest a model of sex-specific growth in which body size is regulated by a previously unrecognized branch of the sex determination pathway, and identify Tra as a novel link between sex and the conserved insulin signaling pathway. PMID:26710087

  10. ZResponse to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2012-03-01

    To quantify the response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei, the body weight (BW), total length (TL), body length (BL), first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD), first abdominal segment width (FASW), and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspnng were measured by calculating seven body measunngs of offspnng produced by a nested mating design. Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L. vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire, and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis. The results show that hentabilities among vanous traits were high: 0.515±0.030 for body weight and 0.394±0.030 for total length. After one generation of selection. the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth. In the 5th month, the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspnng generation. Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable. The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied dunng breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly, simultaneously with increased production.

  11. Some like it hot... : the evolution and genetics of temperature dependent body size in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Bochdanovits, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Body size is one of the most obvious and most important characteristic of any organism. A thorough understanding of how and why a certain individual obtains a specific body size, given its evolutionary history and ecological context, is a fundamental question in biology. One special case of variation in size is clinal variation: individuals of the same species indigenous to higher latitudes are on average larger than their conspecifics inhabiting regions at lower latitudes (closer to the equa...

  12. Bergmann's rule near the equator: latitudinal clines in body size of an Andean passerine bird.

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, G R

    1991-01-01

    Critical correlative support for Bergmann's ecogeographic rule is provided by symmetrical patterns of size variation in Diglossa carbonaria, a tropical passerine bird whose geographic range in the Andes Mountains of South America straddles the equator. Body size is positively correlated with latitude both north and south of the equator. Moreover, parapatric taxa that exhibit either partial (north-western Bolivia) or complete (northern Peru) reproductive isolation converge in body size. Relati...

  13. A longitudinal study of the relationships between the Big Five personality traits and body size perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated the longitudinal development of body size perception in relation to different personality traits. A sample of Swiss adults (N=2905, 47% men), randomly selected from the telephone book, completed a questionnaire on two consecutive years (2012, 2013). Body size perception was assessed with the Contour Drawing Rating Scale and personality traits were assessed with a short version of the Big Five Inventory. Longitudinal analysis of change indicated that men and women scoring higher on conscientiousness perceived themselves as thinner one year later. In contrast, women scoring higher on neuroticism perceived their body size as larger one year later. No significant effect was observed for men scoring higher on neuroticism. These results were independent of weight changes, body mass index, age, and education. Our findings suggest that personality traits contribute to body size perception among adults. PMID:25900399

  14. Body Size Extinction and Origination Selectivity: A Case Study of Marine Gastropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, E.; Seixas, G.; Faerber, M.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Body size has received exceptional interest in evolutionary biology because of its correlation with many ecological and physiological traits. Because large size is typically associated with long generation time and small population size, it has been widely assumed that extinction risk is positively correlated with body size. Data from Pleistocene and Holocene terrestrial mammals and birds support this inference. However, there have been few studies on size bias of marine invertebrate animals, so the true extent of this pattern remains unknown. For this study, we compiled genus-level body size data for marine gastropods spanning the entire Phanerozoic. We use this dataset to examine the statistical evidence for size bias in both origination and extinction of marine gastropods. We perform logistic regression analyses on the data from each Phanerozoic stage to determine the association of body size with origination and extinction. Contrary to previous studies on terrestrial vertebrates, we observe no strong or persistent association between body size and the probability that a genus either originated or went extinct during that stage. Hence, our findings indicate that size bias in extinction risk may reflect particular aspects of mammalian biology or anthropogenic environmental change rather than a general pattern of animal evolution.

  15. Characteristics of Women with Body Size Satisfaction at Midlife: Results of the Gender and Body Image Study (GABI)

    OpenAIRE

    Runfola, Cristin D.; von Holle, Ann; Peat, Christine M.; Gagne, Danielle A.; Brownley, Kimberly A.; Hofmeier, Sara M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes the profile of women (N = 1,789) ages 50 and over who report body size satisfaction on a figure rating scale. Satisfied women (12.2%) had a lower body mass index and reported fewer eating disorder symptoms, dieting behaviors, and weight and appearance dissatisfaction. Interestingly, satisfied women exercised more than dissatisfied women and weight and shape still played a primary role in their self-evaluation. Weight monitoring and appearance altering behaviors did no...

  16. Triglycerides in the human kidney cortex: relationship with body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Alexandru Bobulescu

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with increased risk for kidney disease and uric acid nephrolithiasis, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning these associations are incompletely understood. Animal experiments have suggested that renal lipid accumulation and lipotoxicity may play a role, but whether lipid accumulation occurs in humans with increasing body mass index (BMI is unknown. The association between obesity and abnormal triglyceride accumulation in non-adipose tissues (steatosis has been described in the liver, heart, skeletal muscle and pancreas, but not in the human kidney. We used a quantitative biochemical assay to quantify triglyceride in normal kidney cortex samples from 54 patients undergoing nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma. In subsets of the study population we evaluated the localization of lipid droplets by Oil Red O staining and measured 16 common ceramide species by mass spectrometry. There was a positive correlation between kidney cortex trigyceride content and BMI (Spearman R = 0.27, P = 0.04. Lipid droplets detectable by optical microscopy had a sporadic distribution but were generally more prevalent in individuals with higher BMI, with predominant localization in proximal tubule cells and to a lesser extent in glomeruli. Total ceramide content was inversely correlated with triglycerides. We postulate that obesity is associated with abnormal triglyceride accumulation (steatosis in the human kidney. In turn, steatosis and lipotoxicity may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated kidney disease and nephrolithiasis.

  17. Larger body size at metamorphosis enhances survival, growth and performance of young cane toads (Rhinella marina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cabrera-Guzmán

    Full Text Available Body size at metamorphosis is a key trait in species (such as many anurans with biphasic life-histories. Experimental studies have shown that metamorph size is highly plastic, depending upon larval density and environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food supply, water quality, chemical cues from conspecifics, predators and competitors. To test the hypothesis that this developmental plasticity is adaptive, or to determine if inducing plasticity can be used to control an invasive species, we need to know whether or not a metamorphosing anuran's body size influences its subsequent viability. For logistical reasons, there are few data on this topic under field conditions. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina within their invasive Australian range. Metamorph body size is highly plastic in this species, and our laboratory studies showed that larger metamorphs had better locomotor performance (both on land and in the water, and were more adept at catching and consuming prey. In mark-recapture trials in outdoor enclosures, larger body size enhanced metamorph survival and growth rate under some seasonal conditions. Larger metamorphs maintained their size advantage over smaller siblings for at least a month. Our data support the critical but rarely-tested assumption that all else being equal, larger body size at metamorphosis is likely to enhance an individual's long term viability. Thus, manipulations to reduce body size at metamorphosis in cane toads may help to reduce the ecological impact of this invasive species.

  18. Illusory changes in body size modulate body satisfaction in a way that is related to non-clinical eating disorder psychopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Preston

    Full Text Available Historically, body size overestimation has been linked to abnormal levels of body dissatisfaction found in eating disorders. However, recently this relationship has been called into question. Indeed, despite a link between how we perceive and how we feel about our body seeming intuitive, until now lack of an experimental method to manipulate body size has meant that a causal link, even in healthy participants, has remained elusive. Recent developments in body perception research demonstrate that the perceptual experience of the body can be readily manipulated using multisensory illusions. The current study exploits such illusions to modulate perceived body size in an attempt to influence body satisfaction. Participants were presented with stereoscopic video images of slimmer and wider mannequin bodies viewed through head-mounted displays from first person perspective. Illusory ownership was induced by synchronously stroking the seen mannequin body with the unseen real body. Pre and post-illusion affective and perceptual measures captured changes in perceived body size and body satisfaction. Illusory ownership of a slimmer body resulted in participants perceiving their actual body as slimmer and giving higher ratings of body satisfaction demonstrating a direct link between perceptual and affective body representations. Change in body satisfaction following illusory ownership of a wider body, however, was related to degree of (non-clinical eating disorder psychopathology, which can be linked to fluctuating body representations found in clinical samples. The results suggest that body perception is linked to body satisfaction and may be of importance for eating disorder symptomology.

  19. Illusory changes in body size modulate body satisfaction in a way that is related to non-clinical eating disorder psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Catherine; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Historically, body size overestimation has been linked to abnormal levels of body dissatisfaction found in eating disorders. However, recently this relationship has been called into question. Indeed, despite a link between how we perceive and how we feel about our body seeming intuitive, until now lack of an experimental method to manipulate body size has meant that a causal link, even in healthy participants, has remained elusive. Recent developments in body perception research demonstrate that the perceptual experience of the body can be readily manipulated using multisensory illusions. The current study exploits such illusions to modulate perceived body size in an attempt to influence body satisfaction. Participants were presented with stereoscopic video images of slimmer and wider mannequin bodies viewed through head-mounted displays from first person perspective. Illusory ownership was induced by synchronously stroking the seen mannequin body with the unseen real body. Pre and post-illusion affective and perceptual measures captured changes in perceived body size and body satisfaction. Illusory ownership of a slimmer body resulted in participants perceiving their actual body as slimmer and giving higher ratings of body satisfaction demonstrating a direct link between perceptual and affective body representations. Change in body satisfaction following illusory ownership of a wider body, however, was related to degree of (non-clinical) eating disorder psychopathology, which can be linked to fluctuating body representations found in clinical samples. The results suggest that body perception is linked to body satisfaction and may be of importance for eating disorder symptomology. PMID:24465698

  20. Exploring the genetic signature of body size in Yucatan miniature pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongmin Kim

    Full Text Available Since being domesticated about 10,000-12,000 years ago, domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus have been selected for traits of economic importance, in particular large body size. However, Yucatan miniature pigs have been selected for small body size to withstand high temperature environment and for laboratory use. This renders the Yucatan miniature pig a valuable model for understanding the evolution of body size. We investigate the genetic signature for selection of body size in the Yucatan miniature pig. Phylogenetic distance of Yucatan miniature pig was compared to other large swine breeds (Yorkshire, Landrace, Duroc and wild boar. By estimating the XP-EHH statistic using re-sequencing data derived from 70 pigs, we were able to unravel the signatures of selection of body size. We found that both selections at the level of organism, and at the cellular level have occurred. Selection at the higher levels include feed intake, regulation of body weight and increase in mass while selection at the molecular level includes cell cycle and cell proliferation. Positively selected genes probed by XP-EHH may provide insight into the docile character and innate immunity as well as body size of Yucatan miniature pig.

  1. Predictive equations for the estimation of body size in seals and sea lions (Carnivora: Pinnipedia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Morgan; Clementz, Mark T; Kohno, Naoki

    2014-08-01

    Body size plays an important role in pinniped ecology and life history. However, body size data is often absent for historical, archaeological, and fossil specimens. To estimate the body size of pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) for today and the past, we used 14 commonly preserved cranial measurements to develop sets of single variable and multivariate predictive equations for pinniped body mass and total length. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to test whether separate family specific regressions were more appropriate than single predictive equations for Pinnipedia. The influence of phylogeny was tested with phylogenetic independent contrasts (PIC). The accuracy of these regressions was then assessed using a combination of coefficient of determination, percent prediction error, and standard error of estimation. Three different methods of multivariate analysis were examined: bidirectional stepwise model selection using Akaike information criteria; all-subsets model selection using Bayesian information criteria (BIC); and partial least squares regression. The PCA showed clear discrimination between Otariidae (fur seals and sea lions) and Phocidae (earless seals) for the 14 measurements, indicating the need for family-specific regression equations. The PIC analysis found that phylogeny had a minor influence on relationship between morphological variables and body size. The regressions for total length were more accurate than those for body mass, and equations specific to Otariidae were more accurate than those for Phocidae. Of the three multivariate methods, the all-subsets approach required the fewest number of variables to estimate body size accurately. We then used the single variable predictive equations and the all-subsets approach to estimate the body size of two recently extinct pinniped taxa, the Caribbean monk seal (Monachus tropicalis) and the Japanese sea lion (Zalophus japonicus). Body size estimates using single variable regressions

  2. Body Size Shifts in Philippine Reef Fishes: Interfamilial Variation in Responses to Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Y. Fidler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of intense fishing pressure, fished populations experience reduced population sizes and shifts in body size toward the predominance of smaller and early maturing individuals. Small, early-maturing fish exhibit significantly reduced reproductive output and, ultimately, reduced fitness. As part of resource management and biodiversity conservation programs worldwide, no-take marine protected areas (MPAs are expected to ameliorate the adverse effects of fishing pressure. In an attempt to advance our understanding of how coral reef MPAs meet their long-term goals, this study used visual census data from 23 MPAs and fished reefs in the Philippines to address three questions: (1 Do MPAs promote shifts in fish body size frequency distribution towards larger body sizes when compared to fished reefs? (2 Do MPA size and (3 age contribute to the efficacy of MPAs in promoting such shifts? This study revealed that across all MPAs surveyed, the distribution of fishes between MPAs and fished reefs were similar; however, large-bodied fish were more abundant within MPAs, along with small, young-of-the-year individuals. Additionally, there was a significant shift in body size frequency distribution towards larger body sizes in 12 of 23 individual reef sites surveyed. Of 22 fish families, eleven demonstrated significantly different body size frequency distributions between MPAs and fished reefs, indicating that shifts in the size spectrum of fishes in response to protection are family-specific. Family-level shifts demonstrated a significant, positive correlation with MPA age, indicating that MPAs become more effective at increasing the density of large-bodied fish within their boundaries over time.

  3. Body size distributions of the pale grass blue butterfly in Japan: Size rules and the status of the Fukushima population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Wataru; Iwasaki, Mayo; Otaki, Joji M.

    2015-07-01

    The body size of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, has been used as an environmental indicator of radioactive pollution caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident. However, geographical and temporal size distributions in Japan and temperature effects on size have not been established in this species. Here, we examined the geographical, temporal, and temperature-dependent changes of the forewing size of Z. maha argia in Japan. Butterflies collected in 2012 and 2013 from multiple prefectures throughout Japan demonstrated an inverse relationship of latitude and forewing size, which is the reverse of Bergmann’s cline. The Fukushima population was significantly larger than the Aomori and Miyagi populations and exhibited no difference from most of the other prefectural populations. When monitored at a single geographic locality every other month, forewing sizes were the largest in April and the smallest in August. Rearing larvae at a constant temperature demonstrated that forewing size followed the temperature-size rule. Therefore, the converse Bergmann’s rule and the temperature-size rule coexist in this multivoltine species. Our study establishes this species as a useful environmental indicator and supports the idea that the size reduction observed only in Fukushima Prefecture in 2011 was caused by the environmental stress of radioactive pollution.

  4. The role of body size in predator recognition by untrained birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beránková, Jana; Veselý, Petr; Fuchs, Roman

    2015-11-01

    It is supposed that body size serves as an important cue in the recognition of relevant stimuli in nature. As predators of varying body size pose differing levels of threat, their potential prey should be able to discriminate between them. We tested the reaction of great tits (Parus major) to the dummies of their common predator (the European sparrowhawk-Accipiter nisus) in natural and reduced body sizes under laboratory conditions. All of the tested dummies possessed local raptor-specific features (hooked beak, claws with talons, and conspicuous eyes), but differed in global species-specific features: body size (large - the size of a sparrowhawk, small - the size of a great tit) and colouration (sparrowhawk, great tit, robin, and pigeon). The sparrowhawk-coloured dummies evoked fear regardless of their size while both great tit- and pigeon-coloured dummies evoked no fear reaction. The body size was used as the cue only for the discrimination of the robin-coloured dummies. The differences in reactions to the dummies with robin colouration (species unimportant to the great tits) could be explained as that the tits are able to recognize these birds in nature, but not so undoubtedly as the predator or the conspecific. PMID:26449315

  5. Body size and mating success in Drosophila willistoni are uncorrelated under laboratory conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L. Basso Da Silva; V. L. S. Valente

    2001-08-01

    Mating activity and wing length were investigated in the F1 progeny of Drosophila willistoni females collected in the field to examine any possible relationship between body size and mating success. The flies were observed in a mating chamber under laboratory conditions. No significant differences in wing length were observed between copulating and noncopulating flies, and there was no significant correlation between wing length and copulation latency for both males and females. These results therefore suggest that the commonly accepted view that large body size is positively correlated with mating success in Drosophila does not always hold true. The results support the view that the extent of environmentally induced variation in body size may be an important factor in determining whether an association between body size and mating success is observed in Drosophila species.

  6. Influence of alumina granule size on microstructure of uniaxially pressed green bodies and strength characteristics of sintered bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large pores as defects, which are produced in green bodies during forming process, cannot be removed by sintering and have an effect on the strength reliability of the sintered bodies of ceramics. In this study, alumina granules are separated into four ranks of size (A : 106-125 μm B : 75-90 μm C : 53-63 μm D : 38-45 μm) by sieves, and the influence of alumina granule size on microstructure of uniaxially pressed green bodies and strength characteristics of sintered bodies are discussed. As the result of structure observation, sintered bodies prepared from granule A have low average bending strength and high Weibull's coefficient, because they have many crescent-shaped defects. However, since sintered bodies prepared from granule D have irregularly distributed large pores (i.e. about 20 μm) and dense parts in microstructure, their Weibull's coefficient is decreased. Copyright (1998) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  7. Relationship between echolocation frequency and body size in two species of hipposiderid bats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Frequencies of echolocation calls with maximum power of Himalayan leaf-nosed bats and Horsfield's leaf-nosed bats during searching phase were 74.1 and 92.1 kHz, respectively. Head-body length, forearm length and body mass of Himalayan leaf-nosed bats were 82.9 mm, 89.7 mm and 59.1 g, respectively; and the corresponding values of Horsfield's leaf-nosed bats were 68.4 mm, 61.3 mm and 19.7 g, respectively. Echolocation frequency and the three parameters of body size, head-body length, forearm length and body mass, were all negatively correlated, and the correlation coefficients were -0.86, -1.58 and -2.19, respectively. This study thereby proved that echolocation frequency and body size were negatively correlated in the two species of hipposiderid bats.

  8. Effects of body size and lifestyle on evolution of mammal life histories

    OpenAIRE

    Sibly, Richard M; Brown, James H

    2007-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that life-history evolution is subject to a fundamental size-dependent constraint. This constraint limits the rate at which biomass can be produced so that production per unit of body mass is inevitably slower in larger organisms than in smaller ones. Here we derive predictions for how changes in body size and production rates evolve in different lifestyles subject to this constraint. Predictions are tested by using data on the mass of neonate tissue produced per...

  9. Consistent size-independent harvest selection on fish body shape in two recreationally exploited marine species

    OpenAIRE

    Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Linde-Medina, Marta; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting wild animals may exert size-independent selection pressures on a range of morphological, life history, and behavioral traits. Most work so far has focused on selection pressures on life history traits and body size as morphological trait. We studied here how recreational fishing selects for morphological traits related to body shape, which may correlate with underlying swimming behavior. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we found consistent recreational fishing-induced ...

  10. Obesity Bias in Children: The Role of Actual and Perceived Body Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilaki, Ekaterina N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how children perceive their body size and whether their actual or perceived body size can explain their anti-fat views. Four hundred and fourteen 5-6, 7-8 and 9-10-year-old children were read short vignettes depicting two characters, one possessing a positive and the other a negative quality. Following each…

  11. Can foraging ecology drive the evolution of body size in a diving endotherm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothée R Cook

    Full Text Available Within a single animal species, different morphs can allow for differential exploitation of foraging niches between populations, while sexual size dimorphism can provide each sex with access to different resources. Despite being potentially important agents of evolution, resource polymorphisms, and the way they operate in wild populations, remain poorly understood. In this study, we examine how trophic factors can select for different body sizes between populations and sexes in a diving endotherm. Dive depth and duration are positively related to body size in diving birds and mammals, a relationship explained by a lower mass-specific metabolic rate and greater oxygen stores in larger individuals. Based on this allometry, we predict that selection for exploiting resources situated at different depths can drive the evolution of body size in species of diving endotherms at the population and sexual level. To test this prediction, we studied the foraging ecology of Blue-eyed Shags, a group of cormorants with male-biased sexual size dimorphism from across the Southern Ocean. We found that mean body mass and relative difference in body mass between sexes varied by up to 77% and 107% between neighbouring colonies, respectively. Birds from colonies with larger individuals dived deeper than birds from colonies with smaller individuals, when accounting for sex. In parallel, males dived further offshore and deeper than females and the sexual difference in dive depth reflected the level of sexual size dimorphism at each colony. We argue that body size in this group of birds is under intense selection for diving to depths of profitable benthic prey patches and that, locally, sexual niche divergence selection can exaggerate the sexual size dimorphism of Blue-eyed Shags initially set up by sexual selection. Our findings suggest that trophic resources can select for important geographic micro-variability in body size between populations and sexes.

  12. Effects of seed predators of different body size on seed mortality in Bornean logged forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Hautier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Janzen-Connell hypothesis proposes that seed and seedling enemies play a major role in maintaining high levels of tree diversity in tropical forests. However, human disturbance may alter guilds of seed predators including their body size distribution. These changes have the potential to affect seedling survival in logged forest and may alter forest composition and diversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We manipulated seed density in plots beneath con- and heterospecific adult trees within a logged forest and excluded vertebrate predators of different body sizes using cages. We show that small and large-bodied predators differed in their effect on con- and heterospecific seedling mortality. In combination small and large-bodied predators dramatically decreased both con- and heterospecific seedling survival. In contrast, when larger-bodied predators were excluded small-bodied predators reduced conspecific seed survival leaving seeds coming from the distant tree of a different species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that seed survival is affected differently by vertebrate predators according to their body size. Therefore, changes in the body size structure of the seed predator community in logged forests may change patterns of seed mortality and potentially affect recruitment and community composition.

  13. The effect of the media on body satisfaction: the role of gender and size,

    OpenAIRE

    Ogden, JE; Mundray, K

    1996-01-01

    Media images of stereotypically attractive women are often cited as contributory factors in body size distortion and body dissatisfaction. In fact, recent research suggests that acute exposure to such images may exacerbate body distortion in women with eating disorders. The present study examined the effects of acute exposure to images of stereotypical attraction (thin pictures) compared to images of overweight individuals (fat pictures) in both men and women. Twenty men and 20 women complete...

  14. Body image and body type preferences in St. Kitts, Caribbean: a cross- cultural comparison with U.S. samples regarding attitudes towards muscularity, body fat, and breast size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; Frederick, David A

    2012-01-01

    We investigated body image in St. Kitts, a Caribbean island where tourism, international media, and relatively high levels of body fat are common. Participants were men and women recruited from St. Kitts (n = 39) and, for comparison, U.S. samples from universities (n = 618) and the Internet (n = 438). Participants were shown computer generated images varying in apparent body fat level and muscularity or breast size and they indicated their body type preferences and attitudes. Overall, there were only modest differences in body type preferences between St. Kitts and the Internet sample, with the St. Kitts participants being somewhat more likely to value heavier women. Notably, however, men and women from St. Kitts were more likely to idealize smaller breasts than participants in the U.S. samples. Attitudes regarding muscularity were generally similar across samples. This study provides one of the few investigations of body preferences in the Caribbean. PMID:22995446

  15. Oxygen no longer plays a major role in Body Size Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, H.; Sachson, W.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    When observing the long-term relationship between atmospheric oxygen and the maximum size in organisms across the Geozoic (~3.8 Ga - present), it appears that as oxygen increases, organism size grows. However, during the Phanerozoic (541 Ma - Present) oxygen levels varied, so we set out to test the hypothesis that oxygen levels drive patterns marine animal body size evolution. Expected decreases in maximum size due to a lack of oxygen do not occur, and instead, body size continues to increase regardless. In the oxygen data, a relatively low atmospheric oxygen percentage can support increasing body size, so our research tries to determine whether lifestyle affects body size in marine organisms. The genera in the data set were organized based on their tiering, motility, and feeding, such as a pelagic, fully-motile, predator. When organisms fill a certain ecological niche to take advantage of resources, they will have certain life modes, rather than randomly selected traits. For example, even in terrestrial environments, large animals have to constantly feed themselves to support their expensive terrestrial lifestyle which involves fairly consistent movement, and the structural support necessary for that movement. Only organisms with access to high energy food sources or large amounts of food can support themselves, and that is before they expend energy elsewhere. Organisms that expend energy frugally when active or have slower metabolisms in comparison to body size have a more efficient lifestyle and are generally able to grow larger, while those who have higher energy demands like predators are limited to comparatively smaller sizes. Therefore, in respect to the fossil record and modern measurements of animals, the metabolism and lifestyle of an organism dictate its body size in general. With this further clarification on the patterns of evolution, it will be easier to observe and understand the reasons for the ecological traits of organisms today.

  16. A prospective Swedish study on body size, body composition, diabetes, and prostate cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Wallström, P; Bjartell, A; Gullberg, B.; Olsson, H; Wirfält, E

    2009-01-01

    Obesity may be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa). According to one hypothesis, obesity could lower the risk of non-aggressive tumours, while simultaneously increasing the risk of aggressive cancer. Furthermore, central adiposity may be independently associated with PCa risk; it is also associated with diabetes, which itself may influence risk of PCa. We studied the associations between height, body composition, and fat distribution, diabetes prevalence and risk of total,...

  17. The effect of body size on prey choice by Rivulus luelingi Seegers 1984 (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Filho, P de S

    1997-11-01

    The effect of body size of Rivulus luelingi (10-15, 20-25, 30-35, 40-45, 46-50 mm length classes) on predation of three size class combinations of Culex sp larvae (small-medium, small-large, medium-large) was studied in the laboratory by means of analyses of preference, specific overlap, and actual number of prey eaten. The smallest experimental R. luelingi size class (10-15 mm) was gape limited. Experimental diets were affected by prey choice and morphological constraint. Preference for the smaller prey, in each prey type combination, was negatively correlated with predator body size, and the converse was true for the larger prey. Preference for any prey size depended on the available prey distribution. There was a correlation between the number of each prey size eaten and predator size in each prey size combination, except for the small prey in the small-medium combination. Specific overlap analysis revealed asymmetries in diet overlap. Feeding success increased non-linearly with R. luelingi body length for two prey size distributions; longer individuals had a disproportionally high feeding success. Preference analysis was more accurate than either specific overlap or actual number of prey eaten. The three kinds of analysis resulted in blocks of contiguous size classes with similar resource utilization, which were considered to have a high chance of interacting competitively. PMID:9440355

  18. A critical evaluation of the insect body size model and causes of metamorphosis in solitary bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    The insect body size model posits that adult size is determined by growth rate and the duration of growth during the larval stage of development. Within the model, growth rate is regulated by many mechanistic elements that are influenced by both internal and external factors. However, the duration o...

  19. Fractal geometry predicts varying body size scaling relationships for mammal and bird home ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haskell, J.P.; Ritchie, M.E.; Olff, H.

    2002-01-01

    Scaling laws that describe complex interactions between organisms and their environment as a function of body size offer exciting potential for synthesis in biology(1-4). Home range size, or the area used by individual organisms, is a critical ecological variable that integrates behaviour, physiolog

  20. Fractal geometry predicts varying body size scaling relationships for mammal and bird home ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haskell, John P.; Ritchie, Mark E.; Olff, Han

    2002-01-01

    Scaling laws that describe complex interactions between organisms and their environment as a function of body size offer exciting potential for synthesis in biology. Home range size, or the area used by individual organisms, is a critical ecological variable that integrates behaviour, physiology and

  1. Illusory changes in body size modulate body satisfaction in a way that is related to non-clinical eating disorder psychopathology.

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Preston; Henrik Ehrsson, H.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, body size overestimation has been linked to abnormal levels of body dissatisfaction found in eating disorders. However, recently this relationship has been called into question. Indeed, despite a link between how we perceive and how we feel about our body seeming intuitive, until now lack of an experimental method to manipulate body size has meant that a causal link, even in healthy participants, has remained elusive. Recent developments in body perception research demonstrate t...

  2. Body size-based trophic structure of a deep marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Romero, Sonia; Molina-Ramírez, Axayacatl; Hofer, Juan; Luis Acuña, José

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ15N) and body size were used to describe the size-based trophic structure of a deep-sea ecosystem, the Avilés submarine Canyon (Cantabrian Sea, Southern Bay of Biscay). We analyzed δ15N of specimens collected on a seasonal basis (March 2012, October 2012, and May 2013), from a variety of zones (benthic, pelagic), taxa (from zooplankton through invertebrates and fishes to giant squids and cetaceans), or depths (from surface to 4700 m) that spanned nine orders of magnitude in body mass. Our data reveal a strong linear dependence of trophic level on body size when data were considered either individually, aggregated into taxonomical categories, or binned into size classes. The three approaches render similar results that were not significantly different and yielded predator:prey body mass ratios (PPMR) of 1156:1, 3792:1 and 2718:1, respectively. Thus, our data represent unequivocal evidence of interspecific, size-based trophic structure of a whole ecosystem based on taxonomic/functional categories. We studied the variability in δ15N not explained by body mass (W) using linear mixed modeling and found that the δ15N vs. log10 W relationship holds for both pelagic and benthic systems, with benthic organisms isotopically enriched relative to pelagic organisms of the same size. However there is a marked seasonal variation potentially related to the recycling state of the system. PMID:27008786

  3. Waif goodbye! Average-size female models promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2011-10-01

    Despite consensus that exposure to media images of thin fashion models is associated with poor body image and disordered eating behaviours, few attempts have been made to enact change in the media. This study sought to investigate an effective alternative to current media imagery, by exploring the advertising effectiveness of average-size female fashion models, and their impact on the body image of both women and men. A sample of 171 women and 120 men were assigned to one of three advertisement conditions: no models, thin models and average-size models. Women and men rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as thin and no models. For women with average and high levels of internalisation of cultural beauty ideals, exposure to average-size female models was associated with a significantly more positive body image state in comparison to exposure to thin models and no models. For men reporting high levels of internalisation, exposure to average-size models was also associated with a more positive body image state in comparison to viewing thin models. These findings suggest that average-size female models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers. PMID:21500105

  4. Reduced body size and cub recruitment in polar bears associated with sea ice decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, K.D.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Regehr, E.V.

    2010-01-01

    Rates of reproduction and survival are dependent upon adequate body size and condition of individuals. Declines in size and condition have provided early indicators of population decline in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) near the southern extreme of their range. We tested whether patterns in body size, condition, and cub recruitment of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea of Alaska were related to the availability of preferred sea ice habitats and whether these measures and habitat availability exhibited trends over time, between 1982 and 2006. The mean skull size and body length of all polar bears over three years of age declined over time, corresponding with long-term declines in the spatial and temporal availability of sea ice habitat. Body size of young, growing bears declined over time and was smaller after years when sea ice availability was reduced. Reduced litter mass and numbers of yearlings per female following years with lower availability of optimal sea ice habitat, suggest reduced reproductive output and juvenile survival. These results, based on analysis of a longterm data set, suggest that declining sea ice is associated with nutritional limitations that reduced body size and reproduction in this population. ?? 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. Habitat traits and species interactions differentially affect abundance and body size in pond-breeding amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousterhout, Brittany H; Anderson, Thomas L; Drake, Dana L; Peterman, William E; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2015-07-01

    In recent studies, habitat traits have emerged as stronger predictors of species occupancy, abundance, richness and diversity than competition. However, in many cases, it remains unclear whether habitat also mediates processes more subtle than competitive exclusion, such as growth, or whether intra- and interspecific interactions among individuals of different species may be better predictors of size. To test whether habitat traits are a stronger predictor of abundance and body size than intra- and interspecific interactions, we measured the density and body size of three species of larval salamanders in 192 ponds across a landscape. We found that the density of larvae was best predicted by models that included habitat features, while models incorporating interactions among individuals of different species best explained the body size of larvae. Additionally, we found a positive relationship between focal species density and congener density, while focal species body size was negatively related to congener density. We posit that salamander larvae may not experience competitive exclusion and thus reduced densities, but instead compensate for increased competition behaviourally (e.g. reduced foraging), resulting in decreased growth. The discrepancy between larval density and body size, a strong predictor of fitness in this system, also highlights a potential shortcoming in using density or abundance as a metric of habitat quality or population health. PMID:25643605

  6. Intraspecific Variation in Maximum Ingested Food Size and Body Mass in Varecia rubra and Propithecus coquereli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hartstone-Rose

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a recent study, we quantified the scaling of ingested food size (Vb—the maximum size at which an animal consistently ingests food whole—and found that Vb scaled isometrically between species of captive strepsirrhines. The current study examines the relationship between Vb and body size within species with a focus on the frugivorous Varecia rubra and the folivorous Propithecus coquereli. We found no overlap in Vb between the species (all V. rubra ingested larger pieces of food relative to those eaten by P. coquereli, and least-squares regression of Vb and three different measures of body mass showed no scaling relationship within each species. We believe that this lack of relationship results from the relatively narrow intraspecific body size variation and seemingly patternless individual variation in Vb within species and take this study as further evidence that general scaling questions are best examined interspecifically rather than intraspecifically.

  7. Body-size reduction in vertebrates following the end-Devonian mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallan, Lauren; Galimberti, Andrew K

    2015-11-13

    Following the end-Devonian mass extinction (359 million years ago), vertebrates experienced persistent reductions in body size for at least 36 million years. Global shrinkage was not related to oxygen or temperature, which suggests that ecological drivers played a key role in determining the length and direction of size trends. Small, fast-breeding ray-finned fishes, sharks, and tetrapods, most under 1 meter in length from snout to tail, radiated to dominate postextinction ecosystems and vertebrae biodiversity. The few large-bodied, slow-breeding survivors failed to diversify, facing extinction despite earlier evolutionary success. Thus, the recovery interval resembled modern ecological successions in terms of active selection on size and related life histories. Disruption of global vertebrate, and particularly fish, biotas may commonly lead to widespread, long-term reduction in body size, structuring future biodiversity. PMID:26564854

  8. Effects of body size on sex-related migration vary between two closely related gull species with similar size dimorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Bosman, D.S.; Vercruijsse, H. J. P.; Stienen, E.W.M.; Vincx, M.; L. Neve; Lens, L.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of migration have revealed multiple trade-offs with other life-history traits that may underlie observed variation in migratory properties among ages and sexes. To assess whether, and to what extent, body size and/or sex-specific differences in competition for resources (e.g. breeding territories or winter food) may shape variation in migration distance and timing of arrival in ecologically and phylogenetically related species, we combined over 30 000 sightings of individually marked,...

  9. Bigger Is Not Always Better: Females Prefer Males of Mean Body Size in Philautus odontotarsus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bicheng; Wang, Jichao; Zhao, Longhui; Sun, Zhixin; Brauth, Steven E; Tang, Yezhong; Cui, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Most species are believed to evolve larger body sizes over evolutionary time. Previous studies have suggested that sexual selection, through male-male competition and female choice, favors larger males. However, there is little evidence of selection against large size. The female serrate-legged small treefrogs (Philautus odontotarsus) must carry passive males from leks to breeding grounds over relatively long distances after amplexus to find a suitable place to lay eggs. The costs of large male size may therefore decrease mating success due to reduced agility and/or higher energy requirements. Thus, we hypothesized that selection would not favor larger males in P. odontotarsus. Females can assess male body size on the basis of the dominant frequency of male calls in frogs. To assess female P. odontotarsus preferences for a potential mate's body size, male calls of high, average and low dominant frequency were played back to the females in phonotaxis experiments. Results showed that most females prefer the advertisement call with average dominant frequency. In addition, we compared the body mass distribution of amplectant males with that of single males in nature. The body masses of amplectant males are more narrowly distributed in the intermediate range than that of single males. The phonotaxis results and the data of actual female preferences in the field show that females strongly prefer potential mates of mean body sizes, consistent with the view that, in this species at least, larger males are not always perceived as better by females. In the present study, P. odontotarsus provides an example of an amphibian species in which large size does not have an advantage in mating success for males. Instead, our results provide evidences that stabilizing selection favors the optimal intermediate size of males. PMID:26901766

  10. Relationship between channel morphology and foraging habitat for stream salmonids: Effects of body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienciala, P.; Hassan, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Channel morphology and dynamics strongly influence fish populations in running waters by defining habitat template for movement, spawning, incubation, and foraging. In this research we adopted a modeling approach to investigate how body size controls the relationship between salmonid fish and their foraging habitat in streams. Body size is a fundamental ecological parameter which affects resource acquisition, locomotory costs, metabolic rates, and competitive abilities. We focus on two specific questions. First, we examined how distinct types of channel morphology and associated flow fields shape specific growth potential for different body size classes of trout. Second, we modeled these fish-habitat relationships in a size-structured population in the presence of intraspecific competition. In the latter scenario, fish may not be able to occupy energetically optimal foraging habitat and the predicted specific growth potential may differ from the intrinsic habitat quality. To address the research questions, we linked a 2D hydrodynamic model with a bioenergetic foraging model for drift-feeding trout. Net energy intake, simulated for four study reaches with different channel morphology, was converted into maps of specific growth rate potential. We extended this model by including a component that enabled us to estimate territory size for fish of a given body size and account for the effects of competition on spatial distribution of fish. The predictions that emerge from our simulations highlight that fish body size is an important factor that determines the relationship between channel morphology and the quality of foraging habitat. The results also indicate that distinct types of channel morphology may give rise to different energetic conditions for different body size classes of drift-feeding salmonids.

  11. Variation and Sexual Dimorphism of Body Size in the Plateau Brown Frog along an Altitudinal Gradient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueyun FENG; Wei CHEN; Junhua HU; Jianping JIANG

    2015-01-01

    Variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) can have important consequences for animal ecology, behavior, population dynamics and the evolution of life-history traits. Organisms are expected to be larger in colder climate (i.e., Bergmann’s rule) and SSD varies with body size (i.e., Rensch’s rule). However, the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. The plateau brown frog (Rana kukunoris), a medium-sized anuran species with female-biased SSD, is endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). From 1797 m (Maoxiang’ping) to 3453 m (Heihe’qiao) in the eastern margin of the QTP, we surveyed 10 populations of R. kukunoris and collected phalanges and snout vent length (SVL) data for 258 adult individuals (199 males versus 59 females). Based on these data, we explored how body size and SSD varying along the altitudinal gradient and examined the corresponding effects of temperature. We found body size to be larger at higher altitude for males but not for females, with likely effects from the temperature on the variation in male body size. Sex differences in growth rates may be the main cause of the variation in SSD. Our results suggested that only males follow the Bergmann’s rule and variation in SSD of R. kukunoris do not support the Rensch’s rule and its inverse. Therefore, the variations of body size can be different between sexes and the applicability of both Bergmann’s rule and Rensch’s rule should depend on species and environment where they live.

  12. Antler and Body Size in Black-Tailed Deer: An Analysis of Cohort Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C. Thalmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For long-lived species, environmental factors experienced early in life can have lasting effects persisting into adulthood. Large herbivores can be susceptible to cohort-wide declines in fitness as a result of decreases in forage availability, because of extrinsic factors, including extreme climate or high population densities. To examine effects of cohort-specific extrinsic factors on size of adults, we performed a retrospective analysis on harvest data of 450 male black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus over 19 years in central California, USA. We determined that population density of females had a more dominant effect than did precipitation on body size of males. Harvest of female deer resulted in increases in the overall size of males, even though a 6-year drought occurred during that treatment period. Body size was most influenced by female population density early in life, while antler size was highly affected by both weather early in life and the year directly before harvest. This study provides insights that improve our understanding of the role of cohort effects in body and antler size by cervids; and, in particular, that reduction in female population density can have a profound effect on the body and antler size of male deer.

  13. Reliability of body size measurements obtained at autopsy: impact on the pathologic assessment of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Carmen A; Lo Gullo, Roberto; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Louissaint, Abner; Stone, James R

    2016-06-01

    Purpose Assessment of body size at autopsy is important for interpreting organ weight measurements and in some cases body identification. The reliability of post-mortem body size measurements, the causes for perturbations in these measurements from their corresponding pre-mortem values, and the impact of such perturbations on heart weight interpretation have not been fully explored. Methods Autopsy body length and weight measurements and pre-mortem height and body weight measurements were compared in 132 autopsies. Clinical records were evaluated for peripheral edema and serum albumin levels. Causes of death, body cavity fluid collections, and heart weights were obtained from the autopsy reports. A subset of patients underwent quantitative post-mortem computed tomography assessment of anasarca. Results At autopsy, body weight differed from the pre-mortem value by 11 ± 1 %, compared with -0.2 ± 0.3 % for body length (P edema (14 ± 2 % vs. 7 ± 2 %, P = 0.01), serum albumin edema/anasarca. Alterations in body weight at autopsy can confound the interpretation of organ weight measurements. PMID:27020890

  14. Relationship between self-discrepancy and worries about penis size in men with body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Bramley, Sally; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2016-06-01

    We explored self-discrepancy in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerned about penis size, men without BDD but anxious about penis size, and controls. Men with BDD (n=26) were compared to those with small penis anxiety (SPA; n=31) and controls (n=33), objectively (by measuring) and investigating self-discrepancy: actual size, ideal size, and size they felt they should be according to self and other. Most men under-estimated their penis size, with the BDD group showing the greatest discrepancy between perceived and ideal size. The SPA group showed a larger discrepancy than controls. This was replicated for the perceptions of others, suggesting the BDD group internalised the belief that they should have a larger penis size. There was a significant correlation between symptoms of BDD and this discrepancy. This self-actual and self-ideal/self-should discrepancy and the role of comparing could be targeted in therapy. PMID:26952016

  15. The impact of psychological stress on men's judgements of female body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Swami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous work has suggested that the experience of psychological stress may influence physical attractiveness ideals, but most evidence in favour of this hypothesis remains archival. The objective of this study was to experimentally investigate the impact of stress on men's judgements of female body size. METHODS: Men were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, in which they took part in a task that heightened stress (experimental group, n = 41 or in which they did not take part in such a task (control group, n = 40. Both groups rated the attractiveness of female bodies varying in size from emaciated to obese, completed a measure of appetite sensation, and had their body mass indices (BMIs measured. RESULTS: Between-groups analyses showed that the experimental group was matched with the control group in terms of mean age, BMI, and appetite sensation. Further analyses showed that men in the experimental group rated a significantly heavier female body size as maximally attractive than the control group. Men in the experimental group also rated heavier female bodies as more attractive and idealised a wider range of female figures than did the control group. CONCLUSION: This study found that the experience of stress was associated with a preference among men for heavier female body sizes. These results indicate that human attractiveness judgements are sensitive to variations in local ecologies and reflect adaptive strategies for dealing with changing environmental conditions.

  16. Tradeoffs in the evolution of caste and body size in the hyperdiverse ant genus Pheidole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence P McGlynn

    Full Text Available The efficient investment of resources is often the route to ecological success, and the adaptability of resource investment may play a critical role in promoting biodiversity. The ants of the "hyperdiverse" genus Pheidole produce two discrete sterile castes, soldiers and minor workers. Within Pheidole, there is tremendous interspecific variation in proportion of soldiers. The causes and correlates of caste ratio variation among species of Pheidole remain enigmatic. Here we test whether a body size threshold model accounts for interspecific variation in caste ratio in Pheidole, such that species with larger body sizes produce relatively fewer soldiers within their colonies. We evaluated the caste ratio of 26 species of Pheidole and found that the body size of workers accounts for interspecific variation in the production of soldiers as we predicted. Twelve species sampled from one forest in Costa Rica yielded the same relationship as found in previously published data from many localities. We conclude that production of soldiers in the most species-rich group of ants is regulated by a body size threshold mechanism, and that the great variation in body size and caste ratio in Pheidole plays a role in niche divergence in this rapidly evolving taxon.

  17. Regulation of Caenorhabditis elegans body size and male tail development by the novel gene lon-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korswagen Hendrik C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In C. elegans and other nematode species, body size is determined by the composition of the extracellular cuticle as well as by the nuclear DNA content of the underlying hypodermis. Mutants that are defective in these processes can exhibit either a short or a long body size phenotype. Several mutations that give a long body size (Lon phenotype have been characterized and found to be regulated by the DBL-1/TGF-β pathway, that controls post-embryonic growth and male tail development. Results Here we characterize a novel gene affecting body size. lon-8 encodes a secreted product of the hypodermis that is highly conserved in Rhabditid nematodes. lon-8 regulates larval elongation as well as male tail development. In both processes, lon-8 appears to function independently of the Sma/Mab pathway. Rather, lon-8 genetically interacts with dpy-11 and dpy-18, which encode cuticle collagen modifying enzymes. Conclusion The novel gene lon-8 encodes a secreted product of the hypodermis that controls body size and male ray morphology in C. elegans. lon-8 genetically interacts with enzymes that affect the composition of the cuticle.

  18. Body Size Evolution in Conodonts from the Cambrian through the Triassic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, E. K.; Morgan, D. J.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    The size of an organism exercises tremendous control over its physiology, life history, and ecology, yet the factors that influence body size evolution remain poorly understood. One major limitation is the lack of appropriate datasets spanning long intervals of evolutionary time. Here, we document size trends in conodonts (tooth-like microfossils from marine chordates) because they evolved rapidly and are known to change size during intervals of environmental change. By measuring photographs from the Catalogue of Conodonts (Ziegler 1982), we compiled a database of conodont P1 element measurements for 575 species and subspecies from the Cambrian through Triassic periods. Because tooth size correlates with body size in conodont animals and their extant relatives, conodont element length can serve as a proxy for the size of the conodont animal. We find that mean and maximum size across species increased during the early Paleozoic, peaked during the Devonian-Mississippian, and then generally decreased until conodonts went extinct at the end of the Triassic. We used regression analyses to compare conodont mean size trends to potential environmental predictors, such as changing atmospheric pO2, atmospheric pCO2, and sea level. Conodont size exhibited poor correlation with these environmental factors, suggesting that conodont evolution may have been more strongly influenced by other environmental covariates or ecological variables such as predation and competition.

  19. Population Variation Reveals Independent Selection toward Small Body Size in Chinese Debao Pony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Adiljan; Li, Yan; Dong, Kunzhe; Irwin, David M; Zhao, Qianjun; He, Xiaohong; Liu, Jianfeng; Pu, Yabin; Gorkhali, Neena Amatya; Liu, Xuexue; Jiang, Lin; Li, Xiangchen; Guan, Weijun; Zhang, Yaping; Wu, Dong-Dong; Ma, Yuehui

    2016-01-01

    Body size, one of the most important quantitative traits under evolutionary scrutiny, varies considerably among species and among populations within species. Revealing the genetic basis underlying this variation is very important, particularly in humans where there is a close relationship with diseases and in domestic animals as the selective patterns are associated with improvements in production traits. The Debao pony is a horse breed with small body size that is unique to China; however, it is unknown whether the size-related candidate genes identified in Western breeds also account for the small body size of the Debao pony. Here, we compared individual horses from the Debao population with other two Chinese horse populations using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified with the Equine SNP 65 Bead Chip. The previously reported size-related candidate gene HMGA2 showed a significant signature for selection, consistent with its role observed in human populations. More interestingly, we found a candidate gene TBX3, which had not been observed in previous studies on horse body size that displayed the highest differentiation and most significant association, and thus likely is the dominating factor for the small stature of the Debao pony. Further comparison between the Debao pony and other breeds of horses from around the world demonstrated that TBX3 was selected independently in the Debao pony, suggesting that there were multiple origins of small stature in the horse. PMID:26637467

  20. Growth-Blocking Peptides As Nutrition-Sensitive Signals for Insulin Secretion and Body Size Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Takashi; Mirth, Christen K

    2016-02-01

    In Drosophila, the fat body, functionally equivalent to the mammalian liver and adipocytes, plays a central role in regulating systemic growth in response to nutrition. The fat body senses intracellular amino acids through Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling, and produces an unidentified humoral factor(s) to regulate insulin-like peptide (ILP) synthesis and/or secretion in the insulin-producing cells. Here, we find that two peptides, Growth-Blocking Peptide (GBP1) and CG11395 (GBP2), are produced in the fat body in response to amino acids and TOR signaling. Reducing the expression of GBP1 and GBP2 (GBPs) specifically in the fat body results in smaller body size due to reduced growth rate. In addition, we found that GBPs stimulate ILP secretion from the insulin-producing cells, either directly or indirectly, thereby increasing insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling activity throughout the body. Our findings fill an important gap in our understanding of how the fat body transmits nutritional information to the insulin producing cells to control body size. PMID:26928023

  1. Sperm numbers in drone honeybees (Apis mellifera) depend on body size

    OpenAIRE

    Schlüns, Helge; Schlüns, Ellen; Van Praagh, Job; Moritz, Robin

    2003-01-01

    International audience The effect of drone honeybee's body size on semen production was evaluated. In the same colonies, drones were either reared in drone cells (large drones) or in worker cells (small drones). Wing lengths (size indicator) and sperm numbers of small and large drones were compared. Small drones (~13% reduced wing size) produce significantly fewer spermatozoa ($7.5 \\pm 0.5$ million) than normally sized drones ($11.9 \\pm 1.0$ million spermatozoa). There is a significant pos...

  2. Scaling of Measured Glomerular Filtration Rate in Kidney Donor Candidates by Anthropometric Estimates of Body Surface Area, Body Water, Metabolic Rate, or Liver Size

    OpenAIRE

    Daugirdas, John T.; Meyer, Kathryn; Greene, Tom; Butler, Robert S.; Poggio, Emilio D.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: GFR is scaled to body surface area (S), whereas hemodialysis dosage is scaled to total body water (V). Scaling to metabolic rate (M) or liver size (L) has also been proposed.

  3. Effects of Dietary Calcium on Body Weight, Carcass Fat Content and Adipocyte Size in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    J Malekzadeh; SA Keshavarz; F Siassi; M Kadkhodaei; Eshraghian MR; AR Dorosti Motlagh; A Aliehpoor; M Chamari

    2006-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Calcium is a micronutrient and now receiving much attention for its doubtful effects on weight and body fatness. A few mechanisms has been suggested for calcium effects on body fatness and the most emphasized one is the reducing of lipolysis and increasing lipogenesis via reducing parathyroid hormone levels. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of nondairy dietary calcium on adipogenesis and adipocyte size in male Sprague dawley rats. Materials ...

  4. Avian pectoral muscle size rapidly tracks body mass changes during flight, fasting and fuelling

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstrom, A; Kvist, A.; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; Dietz, MW; Lindström, Åke

    2000-01-01

    We used ultrasonic imaging to monitor short-term changes in the pectoral muscle size of captive red knots Calidris canutus. Pectoral muscle thickness changed rapidly and consistently in parallel with body mass changes caused by flight, fasting;and fuelling. Four knots hew repeatedly for 10h periods in a wind tunnel. Over this period, pectoral muscle thickness decreased in parallel with the decrease in body mass. The change in pectoral muscle thickness during flight wats indistinguishable from...

  5. Integrating body and organ size in Drosophila: recent advances and outstanding problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChristenKerryMirth

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, fundamental strides in physiology and genetics have allowed us to finally grasp the developmental mechanisms regulating body size, primarily in one model organism: the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In Drosophila, as in all animals, final body size is regulated by the rate and duration of growth. These studies have identified important roles for the insulin and the target of rapamycin (TOR signaling pathways in regulating the growth rate of the larva, the stage that determines final adult size. Furthermore, they have shown that the insulin/TOR pathway interacts with hormonal systems, like ecdysone and juvenile hormone, to regulate the timing of development and hence the duration of growth. This interaction allows the growing larvae to integrate cues from the environment with environmentally-sensitive developmental windows to ensure that optimal size and proportions are reached given the larval rearing conditions. Results from this work has opened up new avenues of studies, including how environmental cues are integrated to regulate developmental time and how organs maintain proportional growth. Other researchers interested in the evolution of body size are beginning to apply these results to studies of body size evolution and the generation of allometry. With these new findings, and with the developments to come, the field of size control finds itself in the fortunate position of finally being able to tackle century old questions of how organisms achieve final adult size and proportions. This review discusses the state of the art of size control from a Drosophila perspective, and outlines an approach to resolving outstanding issues.

  6. Body Size Preference of Marine Animals in Relation to Extinction Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, A.; Idgunji, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    Our project encompasses an extremely specific aspect in relation to the five mass extinctions in geologic history. We asked ourselves whether larger or smaller body sizes would be better suited for surviving a mass extinction. To conduct research for our project, we used the body sizes of 17,172 marine animal genera as our primary data. These animals include echinoderms, arthropods, chordates, mollusks, and brachiopods. These creatures are perfect model organisms in terms of finding data on them because they have an excellent fossil record, and are well documented. We focused on the mean body size of these animals before and after each of the five mass extinctions (end-Ordovician, Late Devonian, end-Permian, end-Triassic, and end-Cretaceous). Our hypothesis was that the average biovolume of animals increased after each of the extinctions, with the mean size being greater after than it was before. Our size data is from the Ellis & Messina Catalogue of Ostracoda and the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. We obtained stratigraphic range data The Treatise and Sepkoski (2002). In our analyses, we compared the mean size of the different animal genera before and after each extinction event. We further partitioned size change across mass extinction boundaries into three categories: the surviving genera, the extinct genera, and the newly originating genera that came about after the extinction. According to our analyses, the mean sizes did not change significantly from the genera living during the stages before the extinctions and after the extinctions. From our results, we can assume that there were not enough major increases in the overall volume of the organisms to warrant a definite conclusion that extinctions lead to larger body sizes. Further support for our findings came from the T-tests in our R code. Only the Cretaceous period showed true evidence for size changing because of the extinction; in this case, the mean size decreased. T-tests for the Cretaceous

  7. Effect of environmental variables on body size evolution of crinoids between periods of mass extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, T.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Body size plays a major role in determining whether or not an organism can sustain in its local environment. The ecosystem of an animal has a major effect on the fitness of organisms, and it would be interesting to note the degree to which various environmental factors alter body size. In my project, I identify three environmental factors that seem to affect body size of crinoids, marine invertebrates from phylum Echinodermata, and explore how these variables play out in the intervals between the five mass extinctions. The particular factors I study include atmospheric CO2 concentration (proxy for temperature), O2 concentration, and sea level. Although the r and p values for all of these factors were statistically insignificant to definitively make any correlation, there was a visual correlation. For O2, I noted a generally positive correlation with body size over time. CO2 trends suggested a negative correlation until the K-T boundary, but a positive correlation afterwards. Correlation with sea level was a little more complicated: correlation was positive from the start of the Phanerozoic to the Permian extinction; it turned negative until the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary; afterwards, it again became positive. However, for all three variables, statistical values are too low to say definitively mark any correlation. Out of all three factors, CO2 levels had the highest correlation and lowest p-values in the most time intervals: from the start of the Phanerozoic to Ordovician-Silurian Extinction, from the Late Devonian to the Permian Extinction, and from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary to the present. When considering first differences, CO2 levels also had the highest correlation from the Permian Extinction to Triassic-Jurassic Extinction and from the Triassic-Jurassic Extinction to Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction. Using PaleoTS, I found that body size evolution patterns either seemed to follow either an unbiased random walk (URW) or stasis in the intervals between

  8. On showy dwarfs and sober giants: body size as a constraint for the evolution of bird plumage colouration

    OpenAIRE

    Galván, Ismael; Negro, Juan J.; Rodríguez, Airam; Carrascal de la Puente, Luis María

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of bird plumage colouration may be explained by a wide range of selective pressures, includ- ing both defensive and advertising needs. However, the relationship between plumage colouration and body size has never been investigated in detail. Here we hypothesize that body size represents a constraint for the evolution of plumage colour heterogeneity because the relative number of body feathers was suggested to increase as body size decreases, and in the case of carote...

  9. The Growth of Body Size and Somatotype of Javanese Children Age 4 to 20 Years

    OpenAIRE

    TETRI WIDIYANI; BAMBANG SURYOBROTO; SRI BUDIARTI; ALEX HARTANA

    2011-01-01

    Growth of body size (body height and body weight) and somatotype in 363 girls and 299 boys aged 4 to 20 years of ethnic Javanese lived in Magelang Regency Indonesia were studied cross-sectionally. Over half of them were categorized in the well-off family, therefore underweight or underfat prevalence in our subjects was low (14.3%) but overweight and obesity prevalence was also low (14%). They were shorter and lighter than reference children from U.S., Japan and Yogyakarta but they improved wh...

  10. Salient cues from faces, bodies and scenes influence observers’ face expressions, fixations and pupil size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska Esther Kret

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We receive emotional signals from different sources, including the face, the whole body and the natural scene. Previous research has shown the importance of context provided by the whole body and the scene context on the recognition of facial expressions. This study measured physiological responses to face-body-scene combinations. Participants viewed emotionally (incongruent face-body and body-scene pairs whilst eye fixations, pupil-size and electromyography (EMG responses were recorded. Participants focused more on angry and fearful vs. happy or neutral cues, independent of the source and relatively independent from emotional incongruence. Moreover, angry faces combined with angry bodies and angry bodies viewed in an aggressive social scene context elicited greatest pupil dilation. Participants' face expressions matched the valence of the stimuli but when face-body compounds were shown, the observed facial expression influenced EMG responses more than the postures. Our results show that threatening signals from faces, bodies and scenes attract attention, induce arousal, and evoke congruent facial reactions.

  11. The control of cell growth and body size in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Simon

    2014-02-01

    One of the most important ways in which animal species vary is in their size. Individuals of the largest animal ever thought to have lived, the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus), can reach a weight of 190 t and a length of over 30 m. At the other extreme, among the smallest multicellular animals are males of the parasitic wasp, Dicopomorpha echmepterygis, which even as adults are just 140 μm in length. In terms of volume, these species differ by more than 14 orders of magnitude. Since size has such profound effects on an organism's ecology, anatomy and physiology, an important task for evolutionary biology and ecology is to account for why organisms grow to their characteristic sizes. Equally, a full description of an organism's development must include an explanation of how its growth and body size are regulated. Here I review research on how these processes are controlled in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. Analyses of small and long mutants have revealed that in the worm, DBL-1, a ligand in the TGFβ superfamily family, promotes growth in a dose-dependent manner. DBL-1 signaling affects body size by stimulating the growth of syncytial hypodermal cells rather than controlling cell division. Signals from chemosensory neurons and from the gonad also modulate body size, in part, independently of DBL-1-mediated signaling. Organismal size and morphology is heavily influenced by the cuticle, which acts as the exoskeleton. Finally, I summarize research on several genes that appear to regulate body size by cell autonomously regulating cell growth throughout the worm. PMID:24262077

  12. Environmental and biotic controls on the evolutionary history of insect body size

    OpenAIRE

    Clapham, Matthew E.; Karr, Jered A.

    2012-01-01

    Giant insects, with wingspans as large as 70 cm, ruled the Carboniferous and Permian skies. Gigantism has been linked to hyperoxic conditions because oxygen concentration is a key physiological control on body size, particularly in groups like flying insects that have high metabolic oxygen demands. Here we show, using a dataset of more than 10,500 fossil insect wing lengths, that size tracked atmospheric oxygen concentrations only for the first 150 Myr of insect evolution. The data are best e...

  13. Gender based disruptive selection maintains body size polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaya Handa; K T Chandrashekara; Khushboo Kashyap; Geetanjali Sageena; Mallikarjun N Shakarad

    2014-09-01

    Darwinian fitness in holometabolous insects like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is reported to be positively correlated with body size. If large individuals in a population have higher fitness, then one would expect directional selection to operate leading to uniformly large individuals. However, size polymorphism persists in nature and needs further probing. We assessed the effect of body size on some of the fitness and fitness-related traits in replicate populations of genotypically large, genotypically small and phenotypically small D. melanogaster flies. In this study, the time taken to attain reproductive maturity and copulation duration were independent of fly size. Fecundity and longevity of large females were significantly higher when they partnered genotypically small males than when they were with genotypically larger or phenotypically small males. The increased female longevity when in association with genotypically small males was not due to selective early death of males that would release the female partner from presumed cost of persistent courtship. On the contrary, the genotypically as well as phenotypically small males had significantly higher longevity than large males. The virility of the genotypically small males was not significantly different from that of genotypically large males. Our results clearly show that selection on body size operates in the opposite direction (disruptive selection) for the two genders, thus explaining the persistence of size polymorphisms in the holometabolous insect, Drosophila melanogaster.

  14. Determination of cosmic bodies size-velocity distribution by observation of current impacts on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemchinov, I. V.; Perelomova, A. A.; Shuvalov, V. V.

    1993-01-01

    Collisions of cosmic bodies with terrestrial planets involve many physical processes such as deceleration and ablation during their flight through an atmosphere, the impact at a surface accompanied by cratering, melting and evaporation of surface material, generation of shock waves, etc. If body velocity is high enough then a thermal radiation is very important. All these processes on Mars proceed differently than on the other planets because of the low density of its atmosphere. In particular, this leads to the fact that smaller bodies of sizes of the order of 0.1-10 m strike the planet surface without being decelerated and perform some effects which may be detected by equipment placed on a board of artificial satellites, by a network of stations at the surface of Mars and even from the Earth. These observations can be used to determine size-velocity distribution of such bodies in the Solar System. Numerical simulation of the impacts at the surface of Mars have been carried out using two-dimensional gas dynamic code with detailed consideration of the thermal radiative transfer. This work is an extension of our previous paper. We have expanded a range of projectile sizes up to r sub 0 = 100 m. For such a large-scale body, the initial stage of the impact, involving crate ring and ejection of surface material, is very important. Thus, these effects have been taken into account.

  15. Effects of body size and lifestyle on evolution of mammal life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibly, Richard M; Brown, James H

    2007-11-01

    It has recently been proposed that life-history evolution is subject to a fundamental size-dependent constraint. This constraint limits the rate at which biomass can be produced so that production per unit of body mass is inevitably slower in larger organisms than in smaller ones. Here we derive predictions for how changes in body size and production rates evolve in different lifestyles subject to this constraint. Predictions are tested by using data on the mass of neonate tissue produced per adult per year in 637 placental mammal species and are generally supported. Compared with terrestrial insectivores with generalized primitive traits, mammals that have evolved more specialized lifestyles have divergent mass-specific production rates: (i) increased in groups that specialize on abundant and reliable foods: grazing and browsing herbivores (artiodactyls, lagomorphs, perissodactyls, and folivorous rodents) and flesh-eating marine mammals (pinnipeds, cetaceans); and (ii) decreased in groups that have lifestyles with reduced death rates: bats, primates, arboreal, fossorial, and desert rodents, bears, elephants, and rhinos. Convergent evolution of groups with similar lifestyles is common, so patterns of productivity across mammalian taxa reflect both ecology and phylogeny. The overall result is that groups with different lifestyles have parallel but offset relationships between production rate and body size. These results shed light on the evolution of the fast-slow life-history continuum, suggesting that variation occurs along two axes corresponding to body size and lifestyle. PMID:17940028

  16. Avian pectoral muscle size rapidly tracks body mass changes during flight, fasting and fuelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindstrom, A; Kvist, A; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; Dietz, MW; Lindström, Åke

    2000-01-01

    We used ultrasonic imaging to monitor short-term changes in the pectoral muscle size of captive red knots Calidris canutus. Pectoral muscle thickness changed rapidly and consistently in parallel with body mass changes caused by flight, fasting;and fuelling. Four knots hew repeatedly for 10h periods

  17. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis exposure effects on foraging efficiencies and body size in anuran tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Shane M; Lynch, Kyle J; Kerby, Jake; Parris, Matthew J

    2015-01-15

    Chytridiomycosis, the amphibian disease caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is fatal to adults of many species. Bd is largely sublethal to amphibian larvae; however, it is known to reduce larval (i.e. tadpole) growth rates, with possible long-term effects on population dynamics and fitness. We conducted an experiment to test how Bd altered southern leopard frog Lithobates sphenocephalus tadpole mouthpart damage, percentage of food ingested, and subsequent body size. We examined our results using path analyses. We hypothesized that Bd would increase mouthpart damage, causing less food to be ingested, and ultimately reduce body size. In our model, both Bd exposure and increased mouthpart damage significantly reduced food ingested and subsequent body size. However, our study provides evidence against the long-standing hypothesis of mouthpart damage as a pathway for Bd-induced reductions in larval group. Here we provide evidence for reduced foraging efficiency (percentage of food ingested) as a mechanism for Bd-induced reductions in body size. This work highlights the importance of studying the sublethal effects of Bd on larval amphibians. PMID:25590774

  18. Does the experience of ownership over a rubber hand change body size perception in anorexia nervosa patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, Anouk; Smeets, Monique A M; Postma, Albert; van Elburg, Annemarie; Dijkerman, H. Chris

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) patients show disturbances in body size experience. Here, malleability of body representation was assessed by inducing the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI). Specifically the impact of the illusion on body size estimation was investigated.Thirty AN patients and thirty healthy females

  19. Beauty, body size and wages: Evidence from a unique data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreffice, Sonia; Quintana-Domeque, Climent

    2016-09-01

    We analyze how attractiveness rated at the start of the interview in the German General Social Survey is related to weight, height, and body mass index (BMI), separately by gender and accounting for interviewers' characteristics or fixed effects. We show that height, weight, and BMI all strongly contribute to male and female attractiveness when attractiveness is rated by opposite-sex interviewers, and that anthropometric characteristics are irrelevant to male interviewers when assessing male attractiveness. We also estimate whether, controlling for beauty, body size measures are related to hourly wages. We find that anthropometric attributes play a significant role in wage regressions in addition to attractiveness, showing that body size cannot be dismissed as a simple component of beauty. Our findings are robust to controlling for health status and accounting for selection into working. PMID:27015611

  20. Physical growth of St. Lawrence Island Eskimos: body size, proportion, and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, F E; Laughlin, W S; Harper, A B; Ensroth, A E

    1982-08-01

    Growth patterns of body size, proportion, and composition were analyzed in 57 male and 56 female Eskimos from St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea, ranging in age from 1.23 through 19.82 years. Age-groups means for whites and blacks of the U.S. Health Examination Survey served as reference data. Relative to HES data, the Eskimo sample were shorter with lower values for leg length, while there were no differences from the reference values for sitting height. The Eskimos also had higher values of Quetelet's Index, the sitting height/height ratio, and the upper arm muscle circumference, while there were no differences in body weight or triceps skinfold thickness. Differences from the reference data were more pronounced in males than in females. The growth patterns for size and body proportion are in conformity with known relationships between morphology and climate. PMID:7124933

  1. The interaction between early-life body size and physical activity on risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hannah; Boeke, Caroline E; Tamimi, Rulla M; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Wang, Molin; Willett, Walter C; Eliassen, A Heather

    2015-08-01

    While early-life body leanness is associated with increased breast cancer risk, early-life physical activity may protect against breast cancer. We examined whether the excess risk among lean girls is modified by their levels of prior, concurrent, or future physical activity. We conducted an analysis among 74,723 women in the Nurses' Health Study II (follow-up 1997-2011). Participants recalled their body size at ages 5, 10 and 20 years in 1989 using a 9-level pictogram (Level 1 most lean). In 1997, they reported adolescent levels of physical activity (ages 12-13 and 14-17 years). Cox proportional hazards models estimated the overall association of body size with breast cancer risk and assessed interactions of adolescent physical activity with body size at three different age periods (5-10, 10-20 and 20 years), adjusting for early-life and adult risk factors for breast cancer. Regardless of levels of adolescent physical activity, early-life body leanness (level 1-2 vs. 4.5+) was significantly associated with higher breast cancer risk. The association was slightly attenuated among those who were active (60+ MET-hr/wk) during adolescence compared to those who were inactive (confidence interval = 1.04-1.81 vs. 1.66, 1.29-2.12), but the interaction was not significant (p = 0.72). The results were similar for body size at three different age periods. Being lean during early life is a risk factor for breast cancer among both inactive and active girls. Adolescent physical activity did not significantly modify the association, although some interaction cannot be excluded. PMID:25335465

  2. Study on Body Form and Garment Size Series of the Middle Age and Aged People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑜; 郁进明

    2003-01-01

    This paper was designed to analyze on the data,which was obtained from "National Physique Fitness Investigation Report (2000)".In order to get the typical body form and figure type of the middle age and aged people,it was focused on the body form data of this group (age 4060)[1].After calculation and analyzing,the distinguishing feature of body form and the distribution of figure type were deduced.Finally,the re-classification of body form for Chinese middle age and aged people was suggested.It as also suggested that a new garment size series especially for the middle age and aged should be built to fit for these people.This conclusion would be useful and significant to design and production for clothing company,especially that who take the aged people as their target consumer.

  3. Twin study of genetic and environmental influences on adult body size, shape, and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, K; Visscher, P M; Erbas, B;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the genetic and environmental influences on adult body size, shape, and composition in women and men, and to assess the impact of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 325 female and 299 male like-sex healthy twin pairs, on average 38 y old (18-67 y......), we determined zygosity by DNA similarity, and performed anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition. The contribution to the total phenotypic variance of genetic, common environment, and individual environment was estimated in multivariate analysis using the FISHER program....... Further, these variance components were analysed as linear functions of age. RESULTS: In both women and men genetic contributions were significant for all phenotypes. Heritability for body mass index was 0.58 and 0.63; for body fat%, 0.59 and 0.63; for total skinfolds, 0.61 and 0.65; for extremity...

  4. Ancestral state reconstruction of body size in the Caniformia (Carnivora, Mammalia): the effects of incorporating data from the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finarelli, John A; Flynn, John J

    2006-04-01

    A recent molecular phylogeny of the mammalian order Carnivora implied large body size as the ancestral condition for the caniform subclade Arctoidea using the distribution of species mean body sizes among living taxa. "Extant taxa-only" approaches such as these discount character state observations for fossil members of living clades and completely ignore data from extinct lineages. To more rigorously reconstruct body sizes of ancestral forms within the Caniformia, body size and first appearance data were collected for 149 extant and 367 extinct taxa. Body sizes were reconstructed for four ancestral nodes using weighted squared-change parsimony on log-transformed body mass data. Reconstructions based on extant taxa alone favored large body sizes (on the order of 10 to 50 kg) for the last common ancestors of both the Caniformia and Arctoidea. In contrast, reconstructions incorporating fossil data support small body sizes (fossil data was discarded, body size reconstructions became ambiguous, demonstrating that incorporating both character state and temporal information from fossil taxa unambiguously supports a small ancestral body size, thereby falsifying hypotheses derived from extant taxa alone. Body size reconstructions for Caniformia, Arctoidea, and Musteloidea were not sensitive to potential errors introduced by uncertainty in the position of extinct lineages relative to the molecular topology, or to missing body size data for extinct members of an entire major clade (the aquatic Pinnipedia). Incorporating character state observations and temporal information from the fossil record into hypothesis testing has a significant impact on the ability to reconstruct ancestral characters and constrains the range of potential hypotheses of character evolution. Fossil data here provide the evidence to reliably document trends of both increasing and decreasing body size in several caniform clades. More generally, including fossils in such analyses incorporates evidence of

  5. Prolificacy and Its Relationship with Age, Body Weight, Parity, Previous Litter Size and Body Linear Type Traits in Meat-type Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Haldar, Avijit; Pal, Prasenjit; Datta, M.; Paul, Rajesh; Pal, Saumen K.; Majumdar, Debasis; Biswas, Chanchal K.; Pan, Subhransu

    2014-01-01

    Data on age and body weight at breeding, parity, previous litter size, days open and some descriptive body linear traits from 389 meat-type, prolific Black Bengal goats in Tripura State of India, were collected for 3 and 1/2 years (2007 to 2010) and analyzed using logistic regression model. The objectives of the study were i) to evaluate the effect of age and body weight at breeding, parity, previous litter size and days open on litter size of does; and ii) to investigate if body linear type ...

  6. Identifying the ideal body size and shape characteristics associated with children's physical performance tests in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante Valdivia, A; Maia, J; Nevill, A

    2015-04-01

    We used allometric models to identify the optimal body size/shape characteristics associated with physical and motor performance tests in Peruvian schoolchildren. The sample consisted of 3624 subjects (1669 boys and 1955 girls) aged 11-17 years from 31 public schools belonging to four cities located in the three natural regions in central Peru. Motor performance included 12-min run, standing long jump, grip strength, curl-ups, shuttle run, and sit and reach. The reciprocal Ponderal index (RPI), a characteristic sometimes referred to as the somatotype "ectomorphy," was found to be the most suitable body shape indicator associated with 12-min run, standing long jump, curl-up, and shuttle run performance. A positive maturation offset parameter was also associated with greater standing long jump, grip strength, shuttle run, and sit-and-reach performances. With the exception of the sit-and-reach flexibility, sex differences are pervasive in all tests favoring boys. Rainforest schoolchildren are best performers in the power and flexibility tests, whereas those from high altitude were superior in the 12-min endurance test even after taking their much lighter body size characteristics into account. This latter finding suggests that living at high altitude in Peru benefits children's endurance performance both before and even after controlling for differences in the confounding variable of body size/shape. PMID:24779794

  7. It's tough to be small: dependence of burrowing kinematics on body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, James; Dorgan, Kelly M

    2010-04-01

    Burrowing marine infauna are morphologically diverse and range in size over several orders of magnitude. Whilst effects of ontogenetic and morphological differences on running, flying and swimming are relatively well understood, similar analyses of burrowing mechanics and kinematics are lacking. The polychaete Nereis virens Sars extends its burrow by fracture, using an eversible pharynx to exert force on the walls of the burrow. The resulting stress is amplified at the anterior tip of the burrow, which extends when the stress exceeds the fracture toughness of the material. Here we show that the polychaete Cirriformia moorei extends its burrow by a similar mechanism, but by using its hydrostatic skeleton rather than an eversible pharynx. Based on the dimensionless wedge number, which relates work of fracture to work to maintain body shape against the elasticity of sediment, we predicted that smaller worms would exhibit behaviors characteristic of tougher sediments and that scaling of kinematics would reflect decreasing difficulty in fracturing sediment with increasing body size. We found that smaller worms were relatively blunter and thicker, and had a greater variation of thickness than larger worms as they burrowed. Although these kinematic differences increase the stress amplification at the crack tip, smaller worms still generate lower stress intensity factors. The greater relative body thickness and shape changes of smaller worms are consistent with ontogenetic changes in forces exerted by earthworms, and are likely driven by the challenge of exerting enough stress to extend a crack with a small body size. PMID:20348335

  8. Ecogeographical variation of body size in the newt Triturus carnifex: comparing the hypotheses using an information-theoretic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Scali, Stefano; Denoël, Mathieu; Montinaro, Gianpaolo; Vukov, Tanja D.; Marco A.L. Zuffi; Padoa-Schioppa, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Aim. Ecogeographical body size variation in vertebrates (e.g., Bergmann’s rule) has long been recognized. However, the patterns and causes of intraspecific ecogeographical body size variation in ectotherms, and in amphibians in particular, are strongly debated. We identified the relationship between bioclimatic variables and body size predicted a priori by alternative hypotheses (heat balance; endurance, seasonality, starvation resistance, water availability; primary productivity, parental in...

  9. The Role of Body Size and Shape in Understanding Competitive Interactions within a Community of Neotropical Dung Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Malva I. M.; Monteiro, Leandro R; Mario E. FAVILA

    2011-01-01

    Geometric morphometrics is helpful for understanding how body size and body shape influence the strength of inter-specific competitive interactions in a community. Dung beetles, characterized by their use of decomposing organic material, provide a useful model for understanding the structuring of ecological communities and the role of competition based on their size and morphology. The relationship between body size and shape in a dung beetle community from the Atlantic Forest in Serra do Jap...

  10. Balancing the dilution and oddity effects: decisions depend on body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolen M Rodgers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Grouping behaviour, common across the animal kingdom, is known to reduce an individual's risk of predation; particularly through dilution of individual risk and predator confusion (predator inability to single out an individual for attack. Theory predicts greater risk of predation to individuals more conspicuous to predators by difference in appearance from the group (the 'oddity' effect. Thus, animals should choose group mates close in appearance to themselves (eg. similar size, whilst also choosing a large group. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata, a well known model species of group-living freshwater fish, in a series of binary choice trials investigating the outcome of conflict between preferences for large and phenotypically matched groups along a predation risk gradient. We found body-size dependent differences in the resultant social decisions. Large fish preferred shoaling with size-matched individuals, while small fish demonstrated no preference. There was a trend towards reduced preferences for the matched shoal under increased predation risk. Small fish were more active than large fish, moving between shoals more frequently. Activity levels increased as predation risk decreased. We found no effect of unmatched shoal size on preferences or activity. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that predation risk and individual body size act together to influence shoaling decisions. Oddity was more important for large than small fish, reducing in importance at higher predation risks. Dilution was potentially of limited importance at these shoal sizes. Activity levels may relate to how much sampling of each shoal was needed by the test fish during decision making. Predation pressure may select for better decision makers to survive to larger size, or that older, larger fish have learned to make shoaling decisions more efficiently, and this, combined with their size

  11. Correlated responses to artificial body size selection in growth, development, phenotypic plasticity and juvenile viability in yellow dung flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuschl, Y; Reim, C; Blanckenhorn, W U

    2007-01-01

    Most life history traits are positively influenced by body size, whereas disadvantages of large body size are poorly documented. To investigate presumed intrinsic costs of large size in the yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria; Diptera: Scathophagidae), we established two replicates each of three body size laboratory selection lines (small, control and large; selection on males only), and subjected flies of the resulting extended body size range to various abiotic stresses. Response to selection was symmetrical in the small and large lines (realized h(2) = 0.16-0.18). After 24 generations of selection body size had changed by roughly 10%. Female size showed a correlated response to selection on male size, whereas sexual size dimorphism did not change. Development time also showed a correlated response as, similar to food limited flies, small line flies emerged earlier at smaller body size. At the lowest larval food limit possible, flies of all lines emerged at the same small body size after roughly the same development time; so overall phenotypic plasticity in body size and development time strongly increased following selection. Juvenile mortality increased markedly when food was extremely limited, large line flies showing highest mortality. Winter frost disproportionately killed large (line) flies because of their longer development times. Mortality at high temperatures was high but size-selective effects were inconsistent. In all environments the larger males suffered more. Initial growth rate was higher for males and at unlimited food. Small line individuals of both sexes grew slowest at unlimited larval food but fastest at limited larval food, suggesting a physiological cost of fast growth. Overall, extension of the natural body size range by artificial selection revealed some otherwise cryptic intrinsic juvenile viability costs of large size, mediated by longer development or faster growth, but only in stressful environments. PMID:17210003

  12. Systematic analysis of embryonic stem cell differentiation in hydrodynamic environments with controlled embryoid body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Melissa A.; Saeed, Rabbia; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity of stem cells to environmental perturbations has prompted many studies which aim to characterize the influence of mechanical factors on stem cell morphogenesis and differentiation. Hydrodynamic cultures, often employed for large scale bioprocessing applications, impart complex fluid shear and transport profiles, and influence cell fate as a result of changes in media mixing conditions. However, previous studies of hydrodynamic cultures have been limited in their ability to distinguish confounding factors that may affect differentiation, including modulation of embryoid body size in response to changes in the hydrodynamic environment. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to control and maintain embryoid body (EB) size using a combination of forced aggregation formation and rotary orbital suspension culture, in order to assess the impact of hydrodynamic cultures on ESC differentiation, independent of EB size. Size-controlled EBs maintained at different rotary orbital speeds exhibited similar morphological features and gene expression profiles, consistent with ESC differentiation. The similar differentiation of ESCs across a range of hydrodynamic conditions suggests that controlling EB formation and resultant size may be important for scalable bioprocessing applications, in order to standardize EB morphogenesis. However, perturbations in the hydrodynamic environment also led to subtle changes in differentiation toward certain lineages, including temporal modulation of gene expression, as well changes in the relative efficiencies of differentiated phenotypes, thereby highlighting important tissue engineering principles that should be considered for implementation in bioreactor design, as well as for directed ESC differentiation. PMID:22609810

  13. Expression Levels of LCORL Are Associated with Body Size in Horses

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger, Julia; Schrimpf, Rahel; Philipp, Ute; Distl, Ottmar

    2013-01-01

    Body size is an important characteristic for horses of various breeds and essential for the classification of ponies concerning the limit value of 148 cm (58.27 inches) height at the withers. Genome-wide association analyses revealed the highest associated quantitative trait locus for height at the withers on horse chromosome (ECA) 3 upstream of the candidate gene LCORL. Using 214 Hanoverian horses genotyped on the Illumina equine SNP50 BeadChip and 42 different horse breeds across all size r...

  14. Prepubescents' ventilatory responses to exercise with reference to sex and body size

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, AM; Armstrong, N; Kirby, BJ; Welsman, JR

    1997-01-01

    Study objectives: To examine the ventilatory responses of prepubescent children to submaximal and peak exercise using appropriate allometric modeling to control for differences in body size. Design: Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of children. Setting: Middle schools (8 to 11 years) in Exeter, UK. Participants: We studied 101 boys and 76 girls aged 11.1 (0.4) years and classified Tanner stage 1 for pubic hair (no true pubic hair). Measurements: At rest: stature, mass, sum of ...

  15. Scale Effects between Body Size and Limb Design in Quadrupedal Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Brandon M. Kilbourne; Hoffman, Louwrens C.

    2013-01-01

    Recently the metabolic cost of swinging the limbs has been found to be much greater than previously thought, raising the possibility that limb rotational inertia influences the energetics of locomotion. Larger mammals have a lower mass-specific cost of transport than smaller mammals. The scaling of the mass-specific cost of transport is partly explained by decreasing stride frequency with increasing body size; however, it is unknown if limb rotational inertia also influences the mass-specific...

  16. Body size at birth is associated with food and nutrient intake in adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia-Maria Perälä

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small body size at birth is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Dietary habits are tightly linked with these disorders, but the association between body size at birth and adult diet has been little studied. We examined the association between body size at birth and intake of foods and macronutrients in adulthood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 1797 participants, aged 56 to 70, of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, whose birth weight and length were recorded. Preterm births were excluded. During a clinical study, diet was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. A linear regression model adjusted for potential confounders was used to assess the associations. Intake of fruits and berries was 13.26 g (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56, 25.96 higher per 1 kg/m(3 increase in ponderal index (PI at birth, and 83.16 g (95% CI: 17.76, 148.56 higher per 1 kg higher birth weight. One unit higher PI at birth was associated with 0.14% of energy (E% lower intake of fat (95% CI: -0.26, -0.03 and 0.18 E% higher intake of carbohydrates (95% CI: 0.04, 0.32 as well as 0.08 E% higher sucrose (95% CI: 0.00, 0.15, 0.05 E% higher fructose (95% CI: 0.01, 0.09, and 0.18 g higher fiber (95% CI: 0.02, 0.34 intake in adulthood. Similar associations were observed between birth weight and macronutrient intake. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal growth may modify later life food and macronutrient intake. Altered dietary habits could potentially explain an increased risk of chronic disease in individuals born with small body size.

  17. Time-resolved Tomographic PIV Measurements of Water Flea Hopping: Body Size Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, A. N.; Murphy, D. W.; Webster, D. R.; Yen, J.

    2014-11-01

    The flow field of the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna is quantified with time-resolved tomographic PIV. In the current work, we compare body kinematics and flow disturbance between organisms of small (body length = 1.8 mm) versus medium (2.3 mm) versus large (2.65 mm) size. These plankters are equipped with a pair of antennae that are biramous such that the protopodite splits or branches into an exopodite and an endopodite. They beat the antennae pair synchronously to impulsively propel themselves, or `hop,' through the water. The stroke cycle of Daphnia magna is roughly 80 ms in duration and this period is evenly split between the power and recovery strokes. A typical hop carries the daphniid one body length forward and is followed by a period of sinking. Unlike copepod escape motion, no body vortex is observed in front of the animal. Rather, the flow induced by each antennae consists of a viscous vortex ring that demonstrates a slow decay. The time-record of velocity (peak of 40 mm/s for the medium specimen) and hop acceleration (1.8 m/s2 for the medium specimen) are compared, as well as the strength, size, and decay of the induced viscous vortex rings. The viscous vortex ring analysis will be presented in the context of a double Stokeslet model consisting of two impulsively applied point forces separated by the animal width.

  18. Body size but not warning signal luminance influences predation risk in recently metamorphosed poison frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Eric E; Stevens, Martin; Moore, Allen J; Rowland, Hannah M; Blount, Jonathan D

    2015-10-01

    During early development, many aposematic species have bright and conspicuous warning appearance, but have yet to acquire chemical defenses, a phenotypic state which presumably makes them vulnerable to predation. Body size and signal luminance in particular are known to be sensitive to variation in early nutrition. However, the relative importance of these traits as determinants of predation risk in juveniles is not known. To address this question, we utilized computer-assisted design (CAD) and information on putative predator visual sensitivities to produce artificial models of postmetamorphic froglets that varied in terms of body size and signal luminance. We then deployed the artificial models in the field and measured rates of attack by birds and unknown predators. Our results indicate that body size was a significant predictor of artificial prey survival. Rates of attack by bird predators were significantly higher on smaller models. However, predation by birds did not differ between artificial models of varying signal luminance. This suggests that at the completion of metamorphosis, smaller froglets may be at a selective disadvantage, potentially because predators can discern they have relatively low levels of chemical defense compared to larger froglets. There is likely to be a premium on efficient foraging, giving rise to rapid growth and the acquisition of toxins from dietary sources in juvenile poison frogs. PMID:26668726

  19. Body size and meta-community structure: the allometric scaling of parasitic worm communities in their mammalian hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Leo, Giulio A; Dobson, Andrew P; Gatto, Marino

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we derive from first principles the expected body sizes of the parasite communities that can coexist in a mammal of given body size. We use a mixture of mathematical models and known allometric relationships to examine whether host and parasite life histories constrain the diversity of parasite species that can coexist in the population of any host species. The model consists of one differential equation for each parasite species and a single density-dependent nonlinear equation for the affected host under the assumption of exploitation competition. We derive threshold conditions for the coexistence and competitive exclusion of parasite species using invasion criteria and stability analysis of the resulting equilibria. These results are then used to evaluate the range of parasites species that can invade and establish in a target host and identify the 'optimal' size of a parasite species for a host of a given body size; 'optimal' is defined as the body size of a parasite species that cannot be outcompeted by any other parasite species. The expected distributions of parasites body sizes in hosts of different sizes are then compared with those observed in empirical studies. Our analysis predicts the relative abundance of parasites of different size that establish in the host and suggests that increasing the ratio of parasite body size to host body size above a minimum threshold increases the persistence of the parasite population. PMID:27001526

  20. Freshwater fishes in Greek lakes: Species richness and body size patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi Oikonomou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater ecosystems are widely recognised as hotspots of biodiversity and endemism; thus they are of great value for conservation biogeography. Amongst the taxa found in freshwater ecosystems, fish are the ideal biological model for testing biogeographical patterns and have often been used in large-scale ecological and biogeographical analyses. Lakes of Greece provide a unique opportunity to test biogeographical theories, however, biogeographical studies in Greece at broader, regional, scales, based on the distribution of freshwater species, species richness and endemism, are scarce. The aim of the current study is to test the effect of key environmental factors and spatial variables on species richness of lacustrine fishes and to test their effect on species’ size distributions. We assembled datasets of species richness and body size and environmental (predictor factors for 13 Greek lakes. Model selection procedures revealed that fish species richness increased with ecosystem area and decreased with altitude. In addition, our results showed that latitude per se is a good predictor of body size. Indeed, the mean size of lacustrine communities in the northern and southern lake ecosystems differed significantly. These patterns reflect the biogeographical history of these areas and highlight the crucial role connectivity plays in communities’ species composition.

  1. Effects of Dietary Calcium on Body Weight, Carcass Fat Content and Adipocyte Size in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Malekzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Calcium is a micronutrient and now receiving much attention for its doubtful effects on weight and body fatness. A few mechanisms has been suggested for calcium effects on body fatness and the most emphasized one is the reducing of lipolysis and increasing lipogenesis via reducing parathyroid hormone levels. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of nondairy dietary calcium on adipogenesis and adipocyte size in male Sprague dawley rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was done from November to September of 2005 at Tehran school of health, nutrition department. 48 male Spragu-Dawley rats from Damgostar Company were used in three randomly selected groups. The rats were fed low (0.2% W/W, usual (0.5% W/W and high (1.2% W/W dietary calcium based on AIN-93M purified diet. Rats were housed in 12 hours light-dark cycle, 22-25°C room temperature with free access to their respective diets. At the end of the experiment, rats were decapitated and carcass fat content, carcass ash content and mean adipocyte size in testis, peritoneal and subcutaneous fat pads were compared in three groups. The SPSS 11.5 was used as statistical software, running analysis of variance for comparing the effects. Results: weight gain, carcass fat content and adipocyte size, in groups were not significantly different, while serum parathyroid hormone concentrations in high calcium group was significantly lower than low calcium group (p<0.05 and insignificantly lower than usual calcium group [12.36, 23.57 and 42.2 pg/dl respectively]. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol were also insignificantly lower in high calcium group. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that physiological concentration of dietary calcium is not effective on weight gain, body fatness and adipocyte size. Relatively equal fat content beside significant difference in serum parathyroid hormone levels is against the parathyroid theory of calcium

  2. Studying the Relative Strengths of Environmental Factors that Influence Echinoderm Body Size Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, A.; Randhawa, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Body size is often a useful metric in observing how a clade responds to environmental changes. Previous research has uncovered how environmental factors such as carbon dioxide and oxygen levels influence body size evolution. However, we wanted to look into how these natural factors interact and which factors seem to have a stronger relative influence on echinoderm body size. We analyzed carbon dioxide levels, a proxy for paleotemperature, oxygen levels, and sea level. Our research process involved measuring and calculating the volume of Phanerozoic echinoderm fossils recorded in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, plotting their mean volumes over various natural factors, and using statistical tools such as correlation tests and the PaleoTS statistical analysis software to compare the relative strengths of these factors. Furthermore, we divided our data into the following three subsets to uncover more specific relationships: 1) A set that included all data of the phylum Echinodermata 2) A set that focused on the two classes with the most recorded data, Echinoidea and Crinoidea 3) A set that focused on the crinoid specimens that originated in the Paleozoic and in the post-Paleozoic. In the first subset, echinoderms had the strongest correlation with carbon dioxide, a proxy for temperature, and possessed a weaker correlation with oxygen. In the second subset, we discovered that the echinoid data also possessed a strong correlation with carbon dioxide and a weaker correlation with oxygen. For crinoids, we found that the class as a whole showed no strong correlation with any measured environmental factors. However, when we divided the crinoids based on age, we found that both Paleozoic and post-Paleozoic crinoids individually correlated strongly with sea level. However, some uncertainty with this correlation arose as the comparison of the environmental correlate models suggested that an unbiased random walk was the best fit for the data. This stands as a sharp

  3. Insights into bioassessment of marine pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates based on a modified trait hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-06-15

    Based on a modified trait hierarchy of body-size units, the feasibility for bioassessment of water pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates was studied in a semi-enclosed bay, northern China. An annual dataset was collected at five sampling stations within a gradient of heavy metal contaminants. Results showed that: (1) in terms of probability density, the body-size spectra of the ciliates represented significant differences among the five stations; (2) bootstrap average analysis demonstrated a spatial variation in body-size rank patterns in response to pollution stress due to heavy metals; and (3) the average body-size distinctness (Δz(+)) and variation in body-size distinctness (Λz(+)), based on the modified trait hierarchy, revealed a clear departure pattern from the expected body-size spectra in areas with pollutants. These results suggest that the body-size diversity measures based on the modified trait hierarchy of the ciliates may be used as a potential indicator of marine pollution. PMID:27105728

  4. Humidity and seasonality drives body size patterns in males of the bush cricket Isophya rizeensis Sevgili, 2003 (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cağlar, Selim S; Karacaoğlu, Cağaşan; Kuyucu, A Cem; Sağlam, Ismail K

    2014-04-01

    Two primary patterns of body size variation have been recorded in ectotherms in relation to latitudinal/altitudinal shifts. In some, body size increases with increasing latitude/altitude whereas, in others, body size decreases with increasing latitude/altitude. This clinal variation is generally assumed to be caused by local adaptation to environmental conditions however the selective variable(s) (temperature, humidity, diet quality, etc.) is still heavily debated. Here we investigate geographic variation in body size of dark and pale color morphs of males of the bush-cricket Isophya rizeensis collected from 15 locations along an elevation gradient ranging from 350 to 2 500 m. Using an information theoretical approach we evaluate the relative support of four different hypotheses (the temperature size rule, the moisture gradient hypothesis, the seasonal constraint hypothesis, and the primary productivity hypothesis) explaining body size variation along the altitudinal gradient. Body size variation in pale color morphs showed a curvilinear relationship with altitude while dark color morphs showed no variation in body size. Body size variation in pale color morphs was highly correlated with precipitation and temperature seasonality values thus giving strong support for the moisture gradient and seasonal constraint hypothesis. Our results reinforce the importance of gradients in humidity and seasonality over temperature in the creation of altitudinal body size clines and the role of selection for resistance to stress factors in the establishment of these clines. Whether a body size cline is observed or not might also depend on the phenotypic properties of the individuals, like coloration. PMID:23956203

  5. Mammalian collection on Noah's Ark: the effects of beauty, brain and body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Frynta

    Full Text Available The importance of today's zoological gardens as the so-called "Noah's Ark" grows as the natural habitat of many species quickly diminishes. Their potential to shelter a large amount of individuals from many species gives us the opportunity to reintroduce a species that disappeared in nature. However, the selection of animals to be kept in zoos worldwide is highly selective and depends on human decisions driven by both ecological criteria such as population size or vulnerability and audience-driven criteria such as aesthetic preferences. Thus we focused our study on the most commonly kept and bred animal class, the mammals, and we asked which factors affect various aspects of the mammalian collection of zoos. We analyzed the presence/absence, population size, and frequency per species of each of the 123 mammalian families kept in the worldwide zoo collection. Our aim was to explain these data using the human-perceived attractiveness of mammalian families, their body weight, relative brain size and species richness of the family. In agreement with various previous studies, we found that the body size and the attractiveness of mammals significantly affect all studied components of the mammalian collection of zoos. There is a higher probability of the large and attractive families to be kept. Once kept, these animals are presented in larger numbers in more zoos. On the contrary, the relative mean brain size only affects the primary selection whether to keep the family or not. It does not affect the zoo population size or the number of zoos that keep the family.

  6. Change in body size and mortality: results from the Melbourne collaborative cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Karahalios

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between change in weight or body mass index, and mortality is widely reported, however, both measures fail to account for fat distribution. Change in waist circumference, a measure of central adiposity, in relation to mortality has not been studied extensively. METHODS: We investigated the association between mortality and changes in directly measured waist circumference, hips circumference and weight from baseline (1990-1994 to wave 2 (2003-2007 in a prospective cohort study of people aged 40-69 years at baseline. Cox regression, with age as the time metric and follow-up starting at wave 2, adjusted for confounding variables, was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for change in body size in relation to mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. RESULTS: There were 1465 deaths (109 cancer, 242 cardiovascular disease identified during an average 7.7 years of follow-up from 21 298 participants. Compared to minimal increase in body size, loss of waist circumference (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.09-1.47, weight (1.80; 1.54-2.11, or hips circumference (1.35; 1.15-1.57 were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, particularly for older adults. Weight loss was associated with cardiovascular disease mortality (2.40; 1.57-3.65 but change in body size was not associated with obesity-related cancer mortality. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the association between weight loss and increased mortality from all-causes for older adults. Based on evidence from observational cohort studies, weight stability may be the recommended option for most adults, especially older adults.

  7. DNA methylation patterns in cord blood DNA and body size in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L Relton

    Full Text Available Epigenetic markings acquired in early life may have phenotypic consequences later in development through their role in transcriptional regulation with relevance to the developmental origins of diseases including obesity. The goal of this study was to investigate whether DNA methylation levels at birth are associated with body size later in childhood.A study design involving two birth cohorts was used to conduct transcription profiling followed by DNA methylation analysis in peripheral blood. Gene expression analysis was undertaken in 24 individuals whose biological samples and clinical data were collected at a mean ± standard deviation (SD age of 12.35 (0.95 years, the upper and lower tertiles of body mass index (BMI were compared with a mean (SD BMI difference of 9.86 (2.37 kg/m(2. This generated a panel of differentially expressed genes for DNA methylation analysis which was then undertaken in cord blood DNA in 178 individuals with body composition data prospectively collected at a mean (SD age of 9.83 (0.23 years. Twenty-nine differentially expressed genes (>1.2-fold and p<10(-4 were analysed to determine DNA methylation levels at 1-3 sites per gene. Five genes were unmethylated and DNA methylation in the remaining 24 genes was analysed using linear regression with bootstrapping. Methylation in 9 of the 24 (37.5% genes studied was associated with at least one index of body composition (BMI, fat mass, lean mass, height at age 9 years, although only one of these associations remained after correction for multiple testing (ALPL with height, p(Corrected = 0.017.DNA methylation patterns in cord blood show some association with altered gene expression, body size and composition in childhood. The observed relationship is correlative and despite suggestion of a mechanistic epigenetic link between in utero life and later phenotype, further investigation is required to establish causality.

  8. An integrated analysis of phenotypic selection on insect body size and development time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Daniel J; Shaw, Ruth G; Geyer, Charles J; Kingsolver, Joel G

    2015-09-01

    Most studies of phenotypic selection do not estimate selection or fitness surfaces for multiple components of fitness within a unified statistical framework. This makes it difficult or impossible to assess how selection operates on traits through variation in multiple components of fitness. We describe a new generation of aster models that can evaluate phenotypic selection by accounting for timing of life-history transitions and their effect on population growth rate, in addition to survival and reproductive output. We use this approach to estimate selection on body size and development time for a field population of the herbivorous insect, Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Estimated fitness surfaces revealed strong and significant directional selection favoring both larger adult size (via effects on egg counts) and more rapid rates of early larval development (via effects on larval survival). Incorporating the timing of reproduction and its influence on population growth rate into the analysis resulted in larger values for size in early larval development at which fitness is maximized, and weaker selection on size in early larval development. These results illustrate how the interplay of different components of fitness can influence selection on size and development time. This integrated modeling framework can be readily applied to studies of phenotypic selection via multiple fitness components in other systems. PMID:26257167

  9. Patterns in estuarine macrofauna body size distributions: The role of habitat and disturbance impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbeth, Marina; Raffaelli, Dave; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo

    2014-01-01

    Schwinghamer's (1981) habitat architecture hypothesis for body mass spectra in marine sediments predicts a single macrofauna mode in response to the bulk nature of the sediment. This proposition was examined for intertidal macrofauna from a well-studied estuarine system, using kernel density estimation to define modality and the locations of peaks and troughs. Three sedimentary environments and habitats were examined along a disturbance gradient related to eutrophication. Our results indicate that bimodality is likely to occur within the macrofauna size range, which weakens the habitat architecture model and casts doubts on the mechanisms behind other modes in benthic size spectra. The location of the modes and intervening trough were not conservative and not apparently related to sediment grain size or habitat structure, but somewhat dependent on the presence of particular species: the presence or absence of large numbers of individuals of Hydrobia ulvae and larger-bodied taxa such as Scrobicularia plana and Hediste diversicolor. Alternative competing hypotheses are explored for the observed results, including Warwick's (1984) phylogenetic explanation, but taking into consideration both species composition and disturbance impact, it seems most likely Holling's (1992) textural discontinuity hypothesis, as a measure of resilience, could be a plausible explanation.

  10. Ecological and evolutionary influences on body size and shape in the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Ylenia; Glaberman, Scott; Tarroso, Pedro; Caccone, Adalgisa; Claude, Julien

    2016-07-01

    Oceanic islands are often inhabited by endemic species that have undergone substantial morphological evolutionary change due to processes of multiple colonizations from various source populations, dispersal, and local adaptation. Galápagos marine iguanas are an example of an island endemic exhibiting high morphological diversity, including substantial body size variation among populations and sexes, but the causes and magnitude of this variation are not well understood. We obtained morphological measurements from marine iguanas throughout their distribution range. These data were combined with genetic and local environmental data from each population to investigate the effects of evolutionary history and environmental conditions on body size and shape variation and sexual dimorphism. Our results indicate that body size and shape are highly variable among populations. Sea surface temperature and island perimeter, but not evolutionary history as depicted by phylogeographic patterns in this species, explain variation in body size among populations. Conversely, evolutionary history, but not environmental parameters or island size, was found to influence variation in body shape among populations. Finally, in all populations except one, we found strong sexual dimorphism in body size and shape in which males are larger, with higher heads than females, while females have longer heads than males. Differences among populations suggest that plasticity and/or genetic adaptation may shape body size and shape variation in marine iguanas. This study will help target future investigations to address the contribution of plasticity versus genetic adaptation on size and shape variation in marine iguanas. PMID:27041683

  11. Quantitative Genetics of Body Size and Timing of Maturation in Two Nine-Spined Stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Shimada, Yukinori; Shikano, Takahito; Kuparinen, Anna; Gonda, Abigél; Leinonen, Tuomas; Merilä, Juha

    2011-01-01

    Due to its influence on body size, timing of maturation is an important life-history trait in ectotherms with indeterminate growth. Comparison of patterns of growth and maturation within and between two populations (giant vs. normal sized) of nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius) in a breeding experiment revealed that the difference in mean adult body size between the populations is caused by differences in timing of maturation, and not by differential growth rates. The fish in small...

  12. Erratum to: Response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farafidy ANDRIANTAHINA; LIU Xiaolin; HUANG Hao; XIANG Jianhai

    2012-01-01

    The original version of the title of this article unfortunately contained a mistake.The spelling of the [ZResponese]was incorrect.The title should read:Response to selection,heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp,Litopenaeus vannamei.The publishing companies apologize to the authors.

  13. Generating size-controlled embryoid bodies using laser direct-write

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the potential to self-renew and differentiate into any specialized cell type. One common method to differentiate ESCs in vitro is through embryoid bodies (EBs), three-dimensional cellular aggregates that spontaneously self-assemble and generally express markers for the three germ layers, endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm. It has been previously shown that both EB size and 2D colony size each influence differentiation. We hypothesized that we could control the size of the EB formed by mouse ESCs (mESCs) by using a cell printing method, laser direct-write (LDW), to control both the size of the initial printed colony and the local cell density in printed colonies. After printing mESCs at various printed colony sizes and printing densities, two-way ANOVAs indicated that the EB diameter was influenced by printing density after three days (p = 0.0002), while there was no effect of the printed colony diameter on the EB diameter at the same timepoint (p = 0.74). There was no significant interaction between these two factors. Tukey's honestly significant difference test showed that high-density colonies formed significantly larger EBs, suggesting that printed mESCs quickly aggregate with nearby cells. Thus, EBs can be engineered to a desired size by controlling printing density, which will influence the design of future differentiation studies. Herein, we highlight the capacity of LDW to control the local cell density and colony size independently, at prescribed spatial locations, potentially leading to better stem cell maintenance and directed differentiation. (paper)

  14. Month-of-birth effect on further body size in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kościński, K; Kozłowska-Rajewicz, A; Górecki, M T; Kamyczek, M; Rózycki, M

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies unanimously confirmed the existence of a dependence of human body size on the month of birth. The cause of the phenomenon has not been identified yet, although some possible causes were proposed e.g. seasonal changes of climatic and nutritional conditions. This study explored the issue in an animal model of 20,513 pigs. We found that body weights of 6-month-old pigs were the highest for subjects born in February, but for 2-month-old pigs the peak fell in May. Any statistical correlation between the month of birth and later body weight may be induced by (1) a long-term effect of the month of birth on further growth potential (LTE), or by (2) a short-term effect of seasonal factors differentiating the growth rate (STE), so we developed a mathematical method to separate the effects. The analysis proved that (1) the observed correlations resulted only from the STE, with May-June being the months of the highest growth tempo, and that (2) there was no significant LTE. The short-term effect was responsible for differences between patterns of weight for 2- and 6-month-old animals by the month of birth: since a pig monthly gain of weight increases with age, it is favorable for it to be born in February to attain the greatest weight at the age of 6 months, whereas 2-month-old piglets are heaviest when born a month or two before the May/June optimum for growth. The lack of a long-term effect of the month of birth on pigs' weight supports the hypothesis of the cultural character of factor(s) responsible for the relationship between the month of birth and later body size in humans. PMID:19162263

  15. Quantitative genetics of body size and timing of maturation in two nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinori Shimada

    Full Text Available Due to its influence on body size, timing of maturation is an important life-history trait in ectotherms with indeterminate growth. Comparison of patterns of growth and maturation within and between two populations (giant vs. normal sized of nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius in a breeding experiment revealed that the difference in mean adult body size between the populations is caused by differences in timing of maturation, and not by differential growth rates. The fish in small-sized population matured earlier than those from large-sized population, and maturation was accompanied by a reduction in growth rate in the small-sized population. Males matured earlier and at smaller size than females, and the fish that were immature at the end of the experiment were larger than those that had already matured. Throughout the experimental period, body size in both populations was heritable (h(2 = 0.10-0.64, as was the timing of maturation in the small-sized population (h(2 = 0.13-0.16. There was a significant positive genetic correlation between body size and timing of maturation at 140 DAH, but not earlier (at 80 or 110 DAH. Comparison of observed body size divergence between the populations revealed that Q(ST exceeded F(ST at older ages, indicating adaptive basis for the observed divergence. Hence, the results suggest that the body size differences within and between populations reflect heritable genetic differences in the timing of maturation, and that the observed body size divergence is adaptive.

  16. Quantitative Genetics of Body Size and Timing of Maturation in Two Nine-Spined Stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yukinori; Shikano, Takahito; Kuparinen, Anna; Gonda, Abigél; Leinonen, Tuomas; Merilä, Juha

    2011-01-01

    Due to its influence on body size, timing of maturation is an important life-history trait in ectotherms with indeterminate growth. Comparison of patterns of growth and maturation within and between two populations (giant vs. normal sized) of nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius) in a breeding experiment revealed that the difference in mean adult body size between the populations is caused by differences in timing of maturation, and not by differential growth rates. The fish in small-sized population matured earlier than those from large-sized population, and maturation was accompanied by a reduction in growth rate in the small-sized population. Males matured earlier and at smaller size than females, and the fish that were immature at the end of the experiment were larger than those that had already matured. Throughout the experimental period, body size in both populations was heritable (h2 = 0.10–0.64), as was the timing of maturation in the small-sized population (h2 = 0.13–0.16). There was a significant positive genetic correlation between body size and timing of maturation at 140 DAH, but not earlier (at 80 or 110 DAH). Comparison of observed body size divergence between the populations revealed that QST exceeded FST at older ages, indicating adaptive basis for the observed divergence. Hence, the results suggest that the body size differences within and between populations reflect heritable genetic differences in the timing of maturation, and that the observed body size divergence is adaptive. PMID:22194929

  17. Body-size influence on defensive behavior of Amazonlan moths: an ecophysiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, F B

    2005-02-01

    Ectotherm locomotion is restricted by low temperatures, and many species, such as some flying insects, need to achieve thermal thresholds before taking off. Body size influences heat exchange between an animal and the environment. Therefore, larger animals have higher thermal inertia, and necessarily spend more time in pre-flight warming up, a critical period when they remain exposed and more susceptible to predators. Thus, one could expect larger animals, along their evolutionary history, to have developed a more diversified repertoire of defensive behaviors when compared to their smaller counterparts. Moths are an interesting model for testing this hypothesis, as they exhibit considerable variation in body size and many species present pre-flight warming up by muscle shivering, an evidence of thermal restriction on locomotion. I registered the responses of 76 moths immediately after simulating the attack of a predator and then associated behavioral response to body size. I conducted the experiments at 20 and 25 degrees C to check for possible thermal restrictions on behavior, and identified animals to the family level to check for the effects of a common phylogenetic history. When disturbed at 25 degrees C, smaller moths tend to fly, while larger ones tend to run. At 20 degreedC almost all moths ran, including the smaller ones, indicating a possible thermal restriction on flight. Corroborating the proposed hypothesis, a more diversified repertoire of defensive behaviors was registered among larger moths. An alternative interpretation would be that common behaviors among related moths could be explained by common phylogenetic histories. However, two facts support the physiological restriction hypothesis: (1) the analysis within Sphingidae and Geometridae (not closely related families) showed similar results to those of the overall analysis, and (2) a more diverse repertoire of defensive behaviors was associated to the lower, and therefore more restrictive to

  18. Effects of diet and body size on phosphorus utilization of Liza haematocheila T.& S.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Bin; XIAN Weiwei; WU Yunfei

    2008-01-01

    A 21-d laboratory experiment was conducted to study,the phosphorus (P) utilization of two different diets by redlip mullet Liza haematocheila T.& S.Sand-filtered water in salinity 30 and temperature 25℃ was used.Twenty-nine fish individuals were divided into three groups:11 to group 1 (G1) fed on diet l,11 to group 2 (G2) fed on diet 2,and 7 to contrast group.Diet 1 was a commercial feed,more valuable in nutrition than diet 2 that similar to natural detritus.The results show the intake phosphorus (IP) of G1 was significantly higher than that of G2,and both increased linearly with body size at a certain amount of diet.The retention phosphorus (RP) in fish of G1 was lower than G2.The relationship between retention phosphorus and body size was positive and stronger in G2.Significant difference in faecal phosphorus (FP) was found between G1 and G2.Body size significantly impacted the excretion phosphorus (EP) in G1 but G2.The loss of intake phosphorus in G1 was 10.83-20.27mg per g fish weight gain,higher than that in G2 for 6.63-9.56.Of the phosphorus,about 10% was allocated into growth,50% in faeces,and the rest lost in excretion.The main part of phosphorus was lost in faeces but excretion.The phosphorus budget of the fish could be described as 100IP=7.40RP+47.39FP+36.63EP (Diet 1) or 100IP=11.93RP+56.64FP+21.76EP (Diet 2).

  19. The calculation of a size correction factor for a whole-body counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinou, E.; Koukouliou, V.; Budayova, M.; Potiriadis, C.; Kamenopoulou, V.

    2007-09-01

    Whole-Body counting techniques use radiation detectors in order to evaluate the internal exposure from radionuclides. The Whole-Body Counter (WBC) of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is used for in vivo measurements of workers for routine purposes as well as for the public in case of an emergency. The system has been calibrated using the phantom provided by CANBERRA (RMC phantom) in combination with solid and point sources. Furthermore, four bottle phantoms of different sizes have been used to calibrate the system to measure potassium, 40K, for different sized workers. However, the use of different phantoms in combination with different sources is time consuming and expensive. Moreover, the purchase and construction of the reference standards need specific knowledge. An alternative option would be the use of Monte Carlo simulation. In this study, the Monte Carlo technique has been firstly validated using the 40K measurements of the four phantoms. After the validation of the methodology, the Monte Carlo code, MCNP, has been used with the same simulated geometries (phantom detector) and different sources in order to calculate the efficiency of the system for different photon energies in the four phantoms. The simulation energies correspond to the following radionuclides: 131I, 137Cs, 60Co, and 88Y. A size correction calibration factor has been defined in order to correct the efficiency of the system for the different phantoms and energies for uniform distribution. The factors vary from 0.64 to 1.51 depending on the phantom size and photon energy.

  20. Scale effects between body size and limb design in quadrupedal mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Brandon M; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2013-01-01

    Recently the metabolic cost of swinging the limbs has been found to be much greater than previously thought, raising the possibility that limb rotational inertia influences the energetics of locomotion. Larger mammals have a lower mass-specific cost of transport than smaller mammals. The scaling of the mass-specific cost of transport is partly explained by decreasing stride frequency with increasing body size; however, it is unknown if limb rotational inertia also influences the mass-specific cost of transport. Limb length and inertial properties--limb mass, center of mass (COM) position, moment of inertia, radius of gyration, and natural frequency--were measured in 44 species of terrestrial mammals, spanning eight taxonomic orders. Limb length increases disproportionately with body mass via positive allometry (length ∝ body mass(0.40)); the positive allometry of limb length may help explain the scaling of the metabolic cost of transport. When scaled against body mass, forelimb inertial properties, apart from mass, scale with positive allometry. Fore- and hindlimb mass scale according to geometric similarity (limb mass ∝ body mass(1.0)), as do the remaining hindlimb inertial properties. The positive allometry of limb length is largely the result of absolute differences in limb inertial properties between mammalian subgroups. Though likely detrimental to locomotor costs in large mammals, scale effects in limb inertial properties appear to be concomitant with scale effects in sensorimotor control and locomotor ability in terrestrial mammals. Across mammals, the forelimb's potential for angular acceleration scales according to geometric similarity, whereas the hindlimb's potential for angular acceleration scales with positive allometry. PMID:24260117

  1. Scale effects between body size and limb design in quadrupedal mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon M Kilbourne

    Full Text Available Recently the metabolic cost of swinging the limbs has been found to be much greater than previously thought, raising the possibility that limb rotational inertia influences the energetics of locomotion. Larger mammals have a lower mass-specific cost of transport than smaller mammals. The scaling of the mass-specific cost of transport is partly explained by decreasing stride frequency with increasing body size; however, it is unknown if limb rotational inertia also influences the mass-specific cost of transport. Limb length and inertial properties--limb mass, center of mass (COM position, moment of inertia, radius of gyration, and natural frequency--were measured in 44 species of terrestrial mammals, spanning eight taxonomic orders. Limb length increases disproportionately with body mass via positive allometry (length ∝ body mass(0.40; the positive allometry of limb length may help explain the scaling of the metabolic cost of transport. When scaled against body mass, forelimb inertial properties, apart from mass, scale with positive allometry. Fore- and hindlimb mass scale according to geometric similarity (limb mass ∝ body mass(1.0, as do the remaining hindlimb inertial properties. The positive allometry of limb length is largely the result of absolute differences in limb inertial properties between mammalian subgroups. Though likely detrimental to locomotor costs in large mammals, scale effects in limb inertial properties appear to be concomitant with scale effects in sensorimotor control and locomotor ability in terrestrial mammals. Across mammals, the forelimb's potential for angular acceleration scales according to geometric similarity, whereas the hindlimb's potential for angular acceleration scales with positive allometry.

  2. Zebrafish response to 3D printed shoals of conspecifics: the effect of body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Tiziana; Mwaffo, Violet; Showler, Ashleigh; Macrì, Simone; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has enabled rapid prototyping of complex models at a limited cost. Virtually every research laboratory has access to a 3D printer, which can assist in the design and implementation of hypothesis-driven studies on animal behavior. In this study, we explore the possibility of using 3D printing technology to understand the role of body size in the social behavior of the zebrafish model organism. In a dichotomous preference test, we study the behavioral response of zebrafish to shoals of 3D printed replicas of varying size. We systematically vary the size of each replica without altering the coloration, aspect ratio, and stripe patterns, which are all selected to closely mimic zebrafish morphophysiology. The replicas are actuated through a robotic manipulator, mimicking the natural motion of live subjects. Zebrafish preference is assessed by scoring the time spent in the vicinity of the shoal of replicas, and the information theoretic construct of transfer entropy is used to further elucidate the influence of the replicas on zebrafish motion. Our results demonstrate that zebrafish adjust their behavior in response to variations in the size of the replicas. Subjects exhibit an avoidance reaction for larger replicas, and they are attracted toward and influenced by smaller replicas. The approach presented in this study, integrating 3D printing technology, robotics, and information theory, is expected to significantly aid preclinical research on zebrafish behavior. PMID:26891476

  3. The influence of tested body size upon longitudinal ultrasonic pulse velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low ultrasonic frequencies are used in nondestructive testing of heterogeneous materials,such as concrete,rocks and timber.When frequencies are low enough,size and shape of tested bodies may influence measured longitudinal pulse velocities(geometric dispersion).A simplified mathematical model is developed from known experimental and theoretical results obtained for elastic wave propagation in rods of uniform circular cross section.Wave propagation is described by a spatial averaged dilatational field in an approach which is named quasi fluid.A formula is obtained which relates group velocity with an effective lateral size of the body,with transducers a frequency,with a non-dimensional parameter and with asymptotic P-wave velocity.In principle it can be applied to bars of any uniform cross section.The limitations of this formula are discussed in relation to path length,threshold of detection,patterns of radiation and reception and other variables.A more general formula is proposed.Practical application of this formula is briefly exemplified using some experimental data obtained by the author.The problem of longitudinal pulse propagation in reinforcing steel bars embedded in concrete is briefly considered

  4. Atrazine exposure affects longevity, development time and body size in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Sarah R; Fiumera, Anthony C

    2016-01-01

    Atrazine is the one of the most widely used herbicides in the United States and non-target organisms may encounter it in the environment. Atrazine is known to affect male reproduction in both vertebrates and invertebrates but less is known about its effects on other fitness traits. Here we assessed the effects of five different chronic exposure levels on a variety of fitness traits in Drosophila melanogaster. We measured male and female longevity, development time, proportion pupated, proportion emerged, body size, female mating rate, fertility and fecundity. Atrazine exposure decreased the proportion pupated, the proportion emerged and adult survival. Development time was also affected by atrazine and exposed flies pupated and emerged earlier than controls. Although development time was accelerated, body size was actually larger in some of the exposures. Atrazine exposure had no effect on female mating rate and the effects on female fertility and fecundity were only observed in one of the two independent experimental blocks. Many of the traits showed non-monotonic dose response curves, where the intermediate concentrations showed the largest effects. Overall this study shows that atrazine influences a variety of life history traits in the model genetic system, D. melanogaster, and future studies should aim to identify the molecular mechanisms of toxicity. PMID:27317622

  5. Shift in a large river fish assemblage: body-size and trophic structure dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J Broadway

    Full Text Available As the intensity and speed of environmental change increase at both local and global scales it is imperative that we gain a better understanding of the ecological implications of community shifts. While there has been substantial progress toward understanding the drivers and subsequent responses of community change (e.g. lake trophic state, the ecological impacts of food web changes are far less understood. We analyzed Wabash River fish assemblage data collected from 1974-2008, to evaluate temporal variation in body-size structure and functional group composition. Two parameters derived from annual community size-spectra were our major response variables: (1 the regression slope is an index of ecological efficiency and predator-prey biomass ratios, and (2 spectral elevation (regression midpoint height is a proxy for food web capacity. We detected a large assemblage shift, over at least a seven year period, defined by dramatic changes in abundance (measured as catch-per-unit-effort of the dominant functional feeding groups among two time periods; from an assemblage dominated by planktivore-omnivores to benthic invertivores. There was a concurrent increase in ecological efficiency (slopes increased over time following the shift associated with an increase in large-bodied low trophic level fish. Food web capacity remained relatively stable with no clear temporal trends. Thus, increased ecological efficiency occurred simultaneous to a compensatory response that shifted biomass among functional feeding groups.

  6. Genetic parameters for carcass traits and body size in sheep for meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo Filho, Luiz Antonio Silva; Do Ó, Alan Oliveira; Sarmento, José Lindenberg Rocha; Santos, Natanael Pereira Da Silva; Torres, Tatiana Saraiva

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to estimate the covariance components and genetic parameters of carcass traits and body size of meat sheep by employing animal models for single and multi-trait analyses. Data were collected from herds of adult Santa Ines sheep. The ribeye area, subcutaneous fat thickness, and rump fat thickness, evaluated in vivo by ultrasound images of the carcass; and morphometric traits: fat depth, rump height, chest circumference, chest depth, body length, and rump length were measured. The covariance components and genetic parameters for these traits were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood methodology, considering the random additive direct-genetic effects of the animal and errors associated with each observation, and the fixed effects of the contemporary group, the type of birth, and the age of the animal classes. Heritability estimates for carcass traits and animal size were higher in the three-trait analyses than in the single-trait analyses. The magnitudes of the values obtained indicate that genetic progress can be achieved by selection based on the traits studied. PMID:26462933

  7. Gender differences in body size dissatisfaction among individuals with low, medium, or high levels of body focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokken, Kristine; Ferraro, F Richard; Kirchner, Tara; Bowling, Margo

    2003-07-01

    The authors designed the present study to test whether women reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction than did men even when the 2 genders were matched on a measure of degree of body focus. Sixty undergraduates (30 men, 30 women) were screened on attention-to-body-shape scores and divided into high, medium, and low body-shape-focus groups. The participants also completed questionnaires that provided information on age, education, vocabulary ability, levels of depression, and body-image assessment. The groups did not differ (ps > .05) on age, education, vocabulary ability, or levels of depression. However, women in all 3 body-shape-focus categories indicated a larger discrepancy between their real vs. ideal body images (p < .01) than did the men. In the high-body-focus group, there was an 11:1ratio between women's and men's reported real-ideal body-shape discrepancies. Women showed greater body dissatisfaction than did men, even when the genders were matched on a measure of body focus. PMID:12926515

  8. Contrasting food web factor and body size relationships with Hg and Se concentrations in marine biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Roxanne; Frisk, Michael; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2013-01-01

    Marine fish and shellfish are primary sources of human exposure to mercury, a potentially toxic metal, and selenium, an essential element that may protect against mercury bioaccumulation and toxicity. Yet we lack a thorough understanding of Hg and Se patterns in common marine taxa, particularly those that are commercially important, and how food web and body size factors differ in their influence on Hg and Se patterns. We compared Hg and Se content among marine fish and invertebrate taxa collected from Long Island, NY, and examined associations between Hg, Se, body length, trophic level (measured by δ(15)N) and degree of pelagic feeding (measured by δ(13)C). Finfish, particularly shark, had high Hg content whereas bivalves generally had high Se content. Both taxonomic differences and variability were larger for Hg than Se, and Hg content explained most of the variation in Hg:Se molar ratios among taxa. Finally, Hg was more strongly associated with length and trophic level across taxa than Se, consistent with a greater degree of Hg bioaccumulation in the body over time, and biomagnification through the food web, respectively. Overall, our findings indicate distinct taxonomic and ecological Hg and Se patterns in commercially important marine biota, and these patterns have nutritional and toxicological implications for seafood-consuming wildlife and humans. PMID:24019976

  9. Contrasting food web factor and body size relationships with Hg and Se concentrations in marine biota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Karimi

    Full Text Available Marine fish and shellfish are primary sources of human exposure to mercury, a potentially toxic metal, and selenium, an essential element that may protect against mercury bioaccumulation and toxicity. Yet we lack a thorough understanding of Hg and Se patterns in common marine taxa, particularly those that are commercially important, and how food web and body size factors differ in their influence on Hg and Se patterns. We compared Hg and Se content among marine fish and invertebrate taxa collected from Long Island, NY, and examined associations between Hg, Se, body length, trophic level (measured by δ(15N and degree of pelagic feeding (measured by δ(13C. Finfish, particularly shark, had high Hg content whereas bivalves generally had high Se content. Both taxonomic differences and variability were larger for Hg than Se, and Hg content explained most of the variation in Hg:Se molar ratios among taxa. Finally, Hg was more strongly associated with length and trophic level across taxa than Se, consistent with a greater degree of Hg bioaccumulation in the body over time, and biomagnification through the food web, respectively. Overall, our findings indicate distinct taxonomic and ecological Hg and Se patterns in commercially important marine biota, and these patterns have nutritional and toxicological implications for seafood-consuming wildlife and humans.

  10. Factors associated with the modulation of pain by visual distortion of body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro eOsumi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of pain using visual distortion of body size (VDBS has been the subject of various reports. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of VDBS on pain has been less often studied. In the present study, factors associated with modulation of pain threshold by VDBS were investigated. Visual feedback in the form of a magnified image of the hand was provided to 44 healthy adults to examine changes in pain. In participants with a higher pain threshold when visual feedback of a magnified image of the hand was provided, the two-point discrimination threshold decreased. In contrast, participants with a lower pain threshold with visual feedback of a magnified image of the hand experienced unpleasant emotions toward the magnified image of the hand. Interestingly, this emotional reaction was strongly associated with negative body consciousness in several subjects. These data suggested an analgesic effect of visual feedback in the form of a magnified image of the hand is only when tactile perception is vivid and the emotional reaction toward the magnified image is moderate. The results also suggested that negative body consciousness is important for the modulation of pain using VDBS.

  11. Factors associated with the modulation of pain by visual distortion of body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Michihiro; Imai, Ryota; Ueta, Kozo; Nakano, Hideki; Nobusako, Satoshi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of pain using visual distortion of body size (VDBS) has been the subject of various reports. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of VDBS on pain has been less often studied. In the present study, factors associated with modulation of pain threshold by VDBS were investigated. Visual feedback in the form of a magnified image of the hand was provided to 44 healthy adults to examine changes in pain. In participants with a higher pain threshold when visual feedback of a magnified image of the hand was provided, the two-point discrimination threshold decreased. In contrast, participants with a lower pain threshold with visual feedback of a magnified image of the hand experienced unpleasant emotions toward the magnified image of the hand. Interestingly, this emotional reaction was strongly associated with negative body consciousness in several subjects. These data suggested an analgesic effect of visual feedback in the form of a magnified image of the hand is only when tactile perception is vivid and the emotional reaction toward the magnified image is moderate. The results also suggested that negative body consciousness is important for the modulation of pain using VDBS. PMID:24688463

  12. The effect of fast created inbreeding on litter size and body weights in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuwissen Theo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed to reveal any differences in effects of fast created versus total inbreeding on reproduction and body weights in mice. A line selected for large litter size for 124 generations (H and a control line (K maintained without selection for the same number of generations were crossed (HK and used as a basis for the experiment. Within the HK cross, full sib, cousin or random mating were practised for two generations in order to create new inbreeding (IBF at a fast rate. In the first generation of systematic mating, old inbreeding was regenerated in addition to creation of new inbreeding from the mating design giving total inbreeding (IBT. The number of pups born alive (NBA and body weights of the animals were then analysed by a model including both IBT and IBF. The IBT of the dam was in the present study found to reduce the mean NBA with -0.48 (± 0.22 (p F was -0.42 (± 0.27. For the trait NBA per female mated, the effect of IBT was estimated to be -0.45 (± 0.29 per 10% increase in the inbreeding coefficient and the effect of IBF was -0.90 (± 0.37 (p F of the dam could be found on sex-ratio and body weights at three and six weeks of age in a population already adjusted for IBT.

  13. The Growth of Body Size and Somatotype of Javanese Children Age 4 to 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TETRI WIDIYANI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of body size (body height and body weight and somatotype in 363 girls and 299 boys aged 4 to 20 years of ethnic Javanese lived in Magelang Regency Indonesia were studied cross-sectionally. Over half of them were categorized in the well-off family, therefore underweight or underfat prevalence in our subjects was low (14.3% but overweight and obesity prevalence was also low (14%. They were shorter and lighter than reference children from U.S., Japan and Yogyakarta but they improved when compared with those of the same ethnic of Bantul and with the different ethnic of rural India. There was a clear age-related change of their somatotype. At age 4 years, the physique of children subjects in both sexes is found to be mesomorph-endomorph. Thereafter it is transformed into ectomorphic-endomorph in girls and to mesomorph-ectomorph in boys at the age of 20 years. In girl subjects, the onset of puberty was characterized by an acceleration of endomorphy component at age 8 years. While in our boys it was characterized by an acceleration of ectomorphy since age 9 years. The different growth pattern of somatotype components showed that the use of BMI as an indicator of fatness in children should be reassessed.

  14. Clinical correlation of radiological spinal stenosis after standardization for vertebral body size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To determine the relationship between the degree of radiographic lumbar spinal stenosis, adjusted with an internal control for vertebral body size, and disability from lumbar stenosis. Materials and methods: one hundred and twenty-three consecutive patients with clinical and radiological confirmation of neural impingement secondary to lumbar stenosis were enrolled prospectively. Thecal sac anteroposterior (AP) diameter (TSD) and cross-sectional area (CSA), and vertebral body AP dimension (VBD) were determined. These parameters were then correlated with patients' symptoms using the modified Roland-Morris questionnaire (RMQ) disability score. Results: No statistically significant inverse correlation was found between the TSD and RMQ score (p = 0.433), between the CSA and RMQ score (p = 0.124), or between the TSD:VBD ratio and RMQ score (p = 0.109). There was a significant positive correlation between the CSA:VBD ratio and RMQ score (p = .036), and therefore, there was no statistical support for an inverse relationship between the two. There was a significant difference in mean RMQ scores when the patients were divided into those with CSA greater than or equal to 70 mm2 and those less than 70 mm2, with T = -2.104 and p = 0.038. Conclusion: The degree of radiographic lumbar spinal stenosis, even with the use of an internal control of vertebral body size and standardized disability questionnaires, does not correlate with clinical symptoms. However, patients with more severe stenosis below a CSA critical threshold of 70 mm2, have significantly greater functional disability

  15. Body and major organ sizes of young mature microminipigs determined by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasu, Masaki; Tsuji, Eriko; Imaeda, Noriaki; Matsubara, Tatsuya; Maeda, Masami; Ito, Yusuke; Shibata, Sanae; Ando, Asako; Nishii, Naohito; Yamazoe, Kazuaki; Kitagawa, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    To understand the anatomical characteristics of microminipigs, one of the smallest miniature pigs, as a large animal model, we measured the body and organ sizes of four-, five-, six-, and seven-month-old microminipigs (n = 4, females) using computed tomography. In addition, the results were compared with those of young mature beagles (10 months old, two males and three females), which have been widely used as a large animal model. The microminipigs at 4-6 months of age were much smaller than the beagles. However, when the microminipigs reached seven months of age, their overall size was similar to that of the beagles. The thoracic cavity volume of the seven-month-old microminipigs was less than half that of the beagles, and the cavity was largely filled by the heart. The liver size of the seven-month-old microminipigs was approximately half of that of the beagles. Moreover, the spleen of the seven-month-old microminipigs was different in morphology, but not different in size from that of the beagles. In addition, although their volumes were the same, the kidneys of the seven-month-old microminipigs, unlike those of the beagles, were flattened in shape. Collectively, the major abdominal organs of the seven-month-old microminipigs were either the same size or smaller than those of the beagles, but the abdominal cavity volume of the seven-month-old microminipigs was larger than that of the beagles. Thus, the abdominal cavity of microminipigs is assumed to be filled with the gastrointestinal tract. The anatomical characteristics of the young mature microminipigs revealed in our study suggest that microminipigs could have great potential as a large animal model for biomedical research. PMID:25341543

  16. Early discrimination of Atlantic salmon smolt age: Time course of the relative effectiveness of body size and shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlstein, J.H.; Letcher, B.H.; Obedzinski, M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the relative effectiveness of morphological measurements and body size in predicting the smolt age of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and to determine the time course of body size and shape differences between smolt ages. Analyses were conducted on age-0 to age-2 fish that were stocked as fry in the West Brook, Massachusetts and on laboratory-raised age-0 to age-1 fish. Using both body size and shape, we could partition the age-0 fish collected during fall into future early or late smolts, although the predictive ability of body shape was somewhat weaker than that of body size, especially in the laboratory. Classification success averaged 81% (size) and 79% (shape) in the field and 85% (size) and 73% (shape) in the laboratory. Despite differences in smolt age between the field and the laboratory, the relative timing of growth rate differences between future early and late smolts was similar in the field and the laboratory and peaked at 50-60% of development from fry to smolt. While body shape differed between early and late smolts well before smoltification, it did not improve classification based on size alone.

  17. [VARIABILITY AND DETERMINING FACTORS OF THE BODY SIZE STRUCTURE OF THE INFRAPOPULATION OF COSMOCERCA ORNATA (NEMATODA: COSMOCERCIDAE) IN MARSH FROGS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, A A; Kirillova, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    Variability of the body size in females of the Cosmocerca ornata (Dujardin, 1845), a parasite of marsh frogs, is studied. The influence of both biotic (age, sex and a phenotype of the host, density of the parasite population) and abiotic (a season of the year, water temperature) factors on the formation of the body size structure in the C. ornata hemipopulation (infrapopulation) is demonstrated. The body size structure of the C. ornata hemipopulation is characterized by the low level of individual variability as within certain subpopulation groups of amphibians (sex, age and phenotype), so within the population of marsh frogs as a whole. The more distinct are the differences in biology and ecology of these host subpopulations, the more pronounced is the variability in the body size of C ornata. PMID:26314157

  18. Rates and modes of body size evolution in early carnivores and herbivores: a case study from Captorhinidae

    OpenAIRE

    Brocklehurst, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Body size is an extremely important characteristic, impacting on a variety of ecological and life-history traits. It is therefore important to understand the factors which may affect its evolution, and diet has attracted much interest in this context. A recent study which examined the evolution of the earliest terrestrial herbivores in the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian concluded that in the four herbivorous clades examined there was a trend towards increased body size, and that this in...

  19. Differences in the thermal physiology of adult Yarrow's spiny lizards (Sceloporus jarrovii) in relation to sex and body size

    OpenAIRE

    Beal, Martin S; Lattanzio, Matthew S.; Miles, Donald B.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is often assumed to reflect the phenotypic consequences of differential selection operating on each sex. Species that exhibit SSD may also show intersexual differences in other traits, including field-active body temperatures, preferred temperatures, and locomotor performance. For these traits, differences may be correlated with differences in body size or reflect sex-specific trait optima. Male and female Yarrow's spiny lizards, Sceloporus jarrovii, in a populati...

  20. Herbivory and Body Size: Allometries of Diet Quality and Gastrointestinal Physiology, and Implications for Herbivore Ecology and Dinosaur Gigantism

    OpenAIRE

    Clauss, Marcus; Steuer, Patrick; Müller, Dennis W. H.; Codron, Daryl; Hummel, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology has played a prominent role in explanations for terrestrial herbivore body size evolution and size-driven diversification and niche differ- entiation. This is based on the association of increasing body mass (BM) with diets of lower quality, and with putative mechanisms by which a higher BM could translate into a higher digestive efficiency. Such concepts, however, often do not match empirical data. Here, we review concepts and data on terrestrial herbivore BM, diet quali...

  1. Kinetics of uranium uptake in soft water and the effect of body size, bioaccumulation and toxicity to Hyalella azteca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, L.C. [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Borgmann, U. [Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Dixon, D.G., E-mail: dgdixon@uwaterloo.c [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    The kinetics of uptake and the effect of body size on uranium (U) bioaccumulation and toxicity to Hyalella azteca exposed to water-only U concentrations in soft water were evaluated. The effect of body size on U bioaccumulation was significant with a slope of -0.35 between log body concentration and log body mass. A saturation kinetic model was satisfactory to describe the uptake rate, elimination rate and the effect of gut-clearance on size-corrected U bioaccumulation in H. azteca. The one-week lethal water concentrations causing 50% mortality for juvenile and adult H. azteca were 1100 and 4000 nmol U/L, respectively. The one-week lethal body concentration causing 50% mortality was 140 nmol U/g for juvenile H. azteca and 220 nmol U/g for adult H. azteca. One-week bioaccumulation studies that properly account for body-size and gut-clearance times can provide valuable data on U bioavailability and toxicity in the environment. - Uranium accumulation by Hyalella azteca approaches steady state after one week but is strongly dependent on body size.

  2. Comparative biology of the crab Goniopsis cruentata: geographic variation of body size, sexual maturity, and allometric growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lira, José Jonathas Pereira Rodrigues; Calado, Tereza Cristina dos Santos; Rezende, Carla Ferreira; Silva, José Roberto Feitosa

    2015-12-01

    Geographic variation of phenotypic traits is common across species and is often associated with variation in environmental conditions. Here, we found larger bodies and larger size at maturity in a northward, lower latitude population of the crab Goniopsis cruentata, which inhabits a hotter, drier environment in comparison with a southward, higher latitude population. Furthermore, the juvenile male gonopods grow more relative to body size in the population characterized by maturation at a smaller size. In contrast, the female abdomen widens at a higher rate among the late maturing population. These results provide further evidence that local environmental conditions play a role in phenotypic variation between populations inhabiting different latitudes. Moreover, they also show that variation in size at maturity and body size can lead to divergent allometric patterns of sexual characteristics that can have a sex-specific response.

  3. Variations in leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) skull morphology and body size: sexual and geographic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicuro, Fernando L; Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion B

    2015-01-01

    foot of male leopard cats is the main feature of sexual dimorphism among P. b. bengalensis (and probably among P. b. horsfieldii too). External body measurements also indicated the absence of sexual dimorphism among individuals of P. b. borneoensis. Inter-subspecific skull comparisons provided a morphometric basis for differentiating some subspecies. Prionailurus b. horsfieldii and P. b. bengalensis were distinguished only by a subtle difference in PM(4) size, indicating that overall skull morphology does not appear to support their separate taxonomical status, in spite of the marked differences reported in their coat patterns. Geological events affecting the Sunda Shelf connection between the Sunda Islands and the mainland during the Last Glacial Maximum seem to have influenced directly the morphological pattern shown by leopard cat subspecies nowadays. PMID:26500818

  4. Offspring body size and metabolic profile - effects of lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, Mette; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    2014-01-01

    disturbances in the offspring. Pregnancy offers the opportunity to modify the intrauterine environment, and maternal lifestyle changes during gestation may confer health benefits to the child. The overall aim with this PhD thesis was to study the effects of maternal obesity on offspring body size and metabolic...... RCT offspring were similar, and no differences were detected between the RCT offspring and the external reference group of offspring of lean mothers. Lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women has the potential to modify the intrauterine environment and confer long-term benefits to the child. In......Worldwide, the prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions. In Denmark one third of all pregnant women are overweight and 12 % are obese. Perhaps even more concerning, a dramatic rise in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has also been evident over recent decades. The...

  5. Effects of bluff-body burner and coal particle size on NOx emissions and burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, L.S.; Cheng, J.F.; Zeng, H.C. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). National Coal Combustion Lab.

    1999-12-01

    Investigations on air staging have been carried out using various coals with different degrees of fineness and a variety of burners with a 92.9 kw h{sup -1} tunnel furnace burning pulverized coal. It has been observed that using the bluff-body burner can reduce both the unburned carbon in fly ash and NOx emissions in the case of air staging. The experimental results show that air-staging combustion has a more remarkable effect on NOx reduction for higher-volatile coal than for lower-volatile coal. The results also show that there is a strong influence of coal particle size on NOx emissions and unburned carbon in the fly ash in the case of air staging. 13 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1–5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts. PMID:27224476

  7. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Garzke

    Full Text Available Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1-5 and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts.

  8. Milk lacking α-casein leads to permanent reduction in body size in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas F Kolb

    Full Text Available The major physiological function of milk is the transport of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids and minerals to mammalian offspring. Caseins, the major milk proteins, are secreted in the form of a micelle consisting of protein and calcium-phosphate.We have analysed the role of the milk protein α-casein by inactivating the corresponding gene in mice. Absence of α-casein protein significantly curtails secretion of other milk proteins and calcium-phosphate, suggesting a role for α-casein in the establishment of casein micelles. In contrast, secretion of albumin, which is not synthesized in the mammary epithelium, into milk is not reduced. The absence of α-casein also significantly inhibits transcription of the other casein genes. α-Casein deficiency severely delays pup growth during lactation and results in a life-long body size reduction compared to control animals, but has only transient effects on physical and behavioural development of the pups. The data support a critical role for α-casein in casein micelle assembly. The results also confirm lactation as a critical window of metabolic programming and suggest milk protein concentration as a decisive factor in determining adult body weight.

  9. Longer Food Chains in Pelagic Ecosystems: Trophic Energetics of Animal Body Size and Metabolic Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Richard; Dowling, Natalie; Cohen, Joel E

    2016-07-01

    Factors constraining the structure of food webs can be investigated by comparing classes of ecosystems. We find that pelagic ecosystems, those based on one-celled primary producers, have longer food chains than terrestrial ecosystems. Yet pelagic ecosystems have lower primary productivity, contrary to the hypothesis that greater energy flows permit higher trophic levels. We hypothesize that longer food chain length in pelagic ecosystems, compared with terrestrial ecosystems, is associated with smaller pelagic animal body size permitting more rapid trophic energy transfer. Assuming negative allometric dependence of biomass production rate on body mass at each trophic level, the lowest three pelagic animal trophic levels are estimated to add biomass more rapidly than their terrestrial counterparts by factors of 12, 4.8, and 2.6. Pelagic animals consequently transport primary production to a fifth trophic level 50-190 times more rapidly than animals in terrestrial webs. This difference overcomes the approximately fivefold slower pelagic basal productivity, energetically explaining longer pelagic food chains. In addition, ectotherms, dominant at lower pelagic animal trophic levels, have high metabolic efficiency, also favoring higher rates of trophic energy transfer in pelagic ecosystems. These two animal trophic flow mechanisms imply longer pelagic food chains, reestablishing an important role for energetics in food web structure. PMID:27322123

  10. Intraspecific scaling in frog calls: the interplay of temperature, body size and metabolic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Lucia; Arim, Matías; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Understanding physiological and environmental determinants of strategies of reproductive allocation is a pivotal aim in biology. Because of their high metabolic cost, properties of sexual acoustic signals may correlate with body size, temperature, and an individual's energetic state. A quantitative theory of acoustic communication, based on the metabolic scaling with temperature and mass, was recently proposed, adding to the well-reported empirical patterns. It provides quantitative predictions for frequencies, call rate, and durations. Here, we analysed the mass, temperature, and body condition scaling of spectral and temporal attributes of the advertisement call of the treefrog Hypsiboas pulchellus. Mass dependence of call frequency followed metabolic expectations (f~M (-0.25), where f is frequency and M is mass) although non-metabolic allometry could also account for the observed pattern. Temporal variables scaled inversely with mass contradicting metabolic expectations (d~M (0.25), where d is duration), supporting instead empirical patterns reported to date. Temperature was positively associated with call rate and negatively with temporal variables, which is congruent with metabolic predictions. We found no significant association between temperature and frequencies, adding to the bulk of empirical evidence. Finally, a result of particular relevance was that body condition consistently determined call characteristics, in interaction with temperature or mass. Our intraspecific study highlights that even if proximate determinants of call variability are rather well understood, the mechanisms through which they operate are proving to be more complex than previously thought. The determinants of call characteristics emerge as a key topic of research in behavioural and physiological biology, with several clear points under debate which need to be analysed on theoretical and empirical grounds. PMID:26552381

  11. Climate change impacts on body size and food web structure on mountain ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurgi, Miguel; López, Bernat C; Montoya, José M

    2012-11-01

    The current distribution of climatic conditions will be rearranged on the globe. To survive, species will have to keep pace with climates as they move. Mountains are among the most affected regions owing to both climate and land-use change. Here, we explore the effects of climate change in the vertebrate food web of the Pyrenees. We investigate elevation range expansions between two time-periods illustrative of warming conditions, to assess: (i) the taxonomic composition of range expanders; (ii) changes in food web properties such as the distribution of links per species and community size-structure; and (iii) what are the specific traits of range expanders that set them apart from the other species in the community-in particular, body mass, diet generalism, vulnerability and trophic position within the food web. We found an upward expansion of species at all elevations, which was not even for all taxonomic groups and trophic positions. At low and intermediate elevations, predator : prey mass ratios were significantly reduced. Expanders were larger, had fewer predators and were, in general, more specialists. Our study shows that elevation range expansions as climate warms have important and predictable impacts on the structure and size distribution of food webs across space. PMID:23007094

  12. Relationship between lizard home range and body size: A reanalysis of the data. [Uta stansburiana, Conolophus pallidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, K.A.; Waldschmidt, S.

    1984-01-01

    The authors reanalyzed the relationship between range and lizard body size. Their analysis includes home ranges estimated with the convex polygon technique and a recently proposed method for eliminating sample size bias. When analyzed separately, neither insectivorous, carnivorous nor female herbivorous lizards had a significant regression of home range size against body mass; male herbivores had a marginally significant regression. Combining data for the different foraging types resulted in significant regressions for both males and females; the regression for the pooled data set (males plus females) was also significant. These regression equations differ significantly from previously published equations derived from home range estimates adjusted for sample size bias. Except for the intercepts of the female regressions, the equations do not differ significantly from earlier equations derived from unadjusted home range estimates. The analysis showed that home range size for the side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana, could be accurately determined, without sample size bias, with an average of 13 resightings per lizard.

  13. Multiple mating reveals complex patterns of assortative mating by personality and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Wey, Tina W; Chang, Ann T; Fogarty, Sean; Sih, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Understanding patterns of non-random mating is central to predicting the consequences of sexual selection. Most studies quantifying assortative mating focus on testing for correlations among partners' phenotypes in mated pairs. Few studies have distinguished between assortative mating arising from preferences for similar partners (expressed by all or a subset of the population) vs. from phenotypic segregation in the environment. Also, few studies have assessed the robustness of assortative mating against temporal changes in social conditions. We tracked multiple matings by stream water striders (Aquarius remigis) across variable social conditions to investigate mating patterns by both body size and behavioural type (personality). We documented temporal changes in partner availability and used a mixed model approach to analyse individual behaviours and changes in mating status recorded on an hourly basis. We assessed whether all or only a subset of individuals in the population expressed a tendency to mate with similar phenotypes. Our analyses took into account variation in the level of competition and in the phenotypes of available partners. Males and females exhibited significant assortative mating by body size: the largest males and females, and the smallest males and females mated together more often than random. However, individuals of intermediate size were equally likely to mate with small, intermediate or large partners. Individuals also displayed two contrasting patterns of assortative mating by personality (activity level). Individuals generally mated preferentially with partners of similar activity level. However, beyond that general trend, individuals with more extreme personalities tended to exhibit disassortative mating: the most active males mated disproportionately with less active females and the least active males tended to mate with more active females. Our analyses thus revealed multiple, distinct patterns of nonrandom mating. These mating

  14. Population-based resequencing of experimentally evolved populations reveals the genetic basis of body size variation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L Turner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Body size is a classic quantitative trait with evolutionarily significant variation within many species. Locating the alleles responsible for this variation would help understand the maintenance of variation in body size in particular, as well as quantitative traits in general. However, successful genome-wide association of genotype and phenotype may require very large sample sizes if alleles have low population frequencies or modest effects. As a complementary approach, we propose that population-based resequencing of experimentally evolved populations allows for considerable power to map functional variation. Here, we use this technique to investigate the genetic basis of natural variation in body size in Drosophila melanogaster. Significant differentiation of hundreds of loci in replicate selection populations supports the hypothesis that the genetic basis of body size variation is very polygenic in D. melanogaster. Significantly differentiated variants are limited to single genes at some loci, allowing precise hypotheses to be formed regarding causal polymorphisms, while other significant regions are large and contain many genes. By using significantly associated polymorphisms as a priori candidates in follow-up studies, these data are expected to provide considerable power to determine the genetic basis of natural variation in body size.

  15. Craniofacial variation, body size and ecological factors in aboriginal populations from central Patagonia (2000-200 years B.P.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Valeria; Béguelin, Marien; Gordón, Florencia; Cobos, Virginia A; Gonzalez, Paula N; Lotto, Federico P

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that ecological factors had a significant role in shaping the patterns of craniofacial variation among South American populations. Here, we evaluate whether temperature and diet contributed to facial diversification in small geographic areas. Facial size and shape of 9 osteological samples from central Patagonia (Argentina) were described using 2D landmarks and semilandmarks. Data on mean annual temperature, diet composition (δ(13)C and δ(15)N values) and femoral head maximum breadth, used as a proxy of body mass, were obtained for each sample. We then tested the association of body mass and the ecological variables with facial morphology using spatial regression techniques and a model selection approach. Akaike Information Criterion produced disparate results for both components of facial morphology. The best model for facial size included temperature and body mass proxy, and accounted for more than 80% of variation in size. Lower temperatures were related to larger facial sizes. Body mass was negatively associated with facial size and showed no relationship with the temperature. This suggests a relatively independent variation of cranial traits and body mass at the spatial scale studied here. Facial shape was not associated with the temperature or diet composition, contrasting with the patterns observed at larger spatial scales. Our results point out that the effect of climatic variables on cranial traits might be a source of morphological differentiation not only at large scales but also in small geographic areas, and that size and shape display a differential preservation of environmental signals. PMID:24462195

  16. Relative foot size and shape to general body size in Javanese, Filipinas and Japanese with special reference to habitual footwear types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashizawa, K; Kumakura, C; Kusumoto, A; Narasaki, S

    1997-01-01

    Stature, body weight, left foot length and breadth were measured on East Javanese, Filipinas in Northern Luzon, and Japanese in Tokyo. No footwear is used by the Javanese, rubber sandals are used by the Filipinas, and sneakers or leather shoes by the Japanese group. Regression lines regardless of age were obtained among these four measurements, body mass index (BMI), and relative foot breadth to foot length. The relationships between general body size and foot size/shape were examined with regard to footwear. The results can be summarized as follows: (1) in either sex, compared with the Japanese, the East Javanese have a longer foot for the same stature and body weight, and a wider foot for the same BMI and the same foot length; (2) the relationship between BMI and foot shape (breadth/length) is nearly the same in the Filipinas and the Japanese females, (3) sexual dimorphism of the foot is greater among the East Javanese than among the Japanese; (4) as body size/weight increases sexual dimorphism diminishes among the East Javanese, whereas it is more emphasized among the Japanese; (5) the appropriateness of the regression equation obtained from measurements of present-day barefoot peoples for estimation of the stature of prehistoric humans is supported. PMID:9074748

  17. The evolutionary conserved oil body associated protein OBAP1 participates in the regulation of oil body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ribera, Ignacio; La Paz, José Luis; Repiso, Carlos; García, Nora; Miquel, Mercè; Hernández, María Luisa; Martínez-Rivas, José Manuel; Vicient, Carlos M

    2014-03-01

    A transcriptomic approach has been used to identify genes predominantly expressed in maize (Zea mays) scutellum during maturation. One of the identified genes is oil body associated protein1 (obap1), which is transcribed during seed maturation predominantly in the scutellum, and its expression decreases rapidly after germination. Proteins similar to OBAP1 are present in all plants, including primitive plants and mosses, and in some fungi and bacteria. In plants, obap genes are divided in two subfamilies. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome contains five genes coding for OBAP proteins. Arabidopsis OBAP1a protein is accumulated during seed maturation and disappears after germination. Agroinfiltration of tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) epidermal leaf cells with fusions of OBAP1 to yellow fluorescent protein and immunogold labeling of embryo transmission electron microscopy sections showed that OBAP1 protein is mainly localized in the surface of the oil bodies. OBAP1 protein was detected in the oil body cellular fraction of Arabidopsis embryos. Deletion analyses demonstrate that the most hydrophilic part of the protein is responsible for the oil body localization, which suggests an indirect interaction of OBAP1 with other proteins in the oil body surface. An Arabidopsis mutant with a transfer DNA inserted in the second exon of the obap1a gene and an RNA interference line against the same gene showed a decrease in the germination rate, a decrease in seed oil content, and changes in fatty acid composition, and their embryos have few, big, and irregular oil bodies compared with the wild type. Taken together, our findings suggest that OBAP1 protein is involved in the stability of oil bodies. PMID:24406791

  18. Sexual Functioning and Behavior of Men with Body Dysmorphic Disorder Concerning Penis Size Compared with Men Anxious about Penis Size and with Controls: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Troglia, Andrea; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the sexual functioning and behavior of men anxious about the size of their penis and the means that they might use to try to alter the size of their penis.AIM: To compare sexual functioning and behavior in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerning penis size and in men with small penis anxiety (SPA without BDD) and in a control group of men who do not have any concerns.METHODS: An opportunistic sample of 90 men from the community were recruited and...

  19. Self-concept and perceptions of attractiveness and body size among Mexican-American mothers and daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S K; Cousins, J H; Power, T G

    1991-09-01

    The socialization of physical attractiveness stereotypes and its relationship to self-concept among parent/child dyads has not been previously examined. This study examined the relationship between mothers' and daughters' judgements of body size and the impact of size on subjects' judgements of attractiveness. Mexican-American mothers and their 7-12-year-old daughters completed attractiveness ratings of five figures of girls varying in body size and indicated which of these figures were closest to the perceived and ideal sizes of the daughter. One-half of the mothers were obese and had participated in a behavioral weight loss program, while the other half served as normal weight controls. Self-concept measures were also completed by all subjects. Daughters tended to prefer a thinner figure than did mothers. The control mothers indicated almost no preference for body size, with nearly uniform rankings for obese, normal and thin figures. The daughters ranked their own ideal figures as thinner than their perceived figures, but mothers' rankings of their daughters' ideal and actual sizes were congruent. Daughter's overall self-concept was predicted by age, their own size and their mother's size. Control but not intervention mothers' self-concept was negatively correlated with their size. PMID:1960008

  20. Survival times of meter-sized rock boulders on the surface of airless bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.; Horz, F.; Ramsley, K.

    2015-11-01

    Rock boulders are typical features of the surfaces of many airless bodies, so the possibility of estimating their potential survival times may provide insights into the rates of surface-modification processes. As an opening point of this study we employ estimates of the survival times of meter-sized boulders on the surface of the Moon based on analysis of the spatial density of boulders on the rims of small lunar craters of known absolute age (Basilevsky et al., 2013), and apply them, with necessary corrections, to boulders on other bodies. In this approach the major factor of rock destruction is considered to be impacts of meteorites. However another factor of the rock destruction, thermal fatigue due to day-night cycling, does exist and it was claimed by Delbo et al. (2014) as being more important than meteorite impacts. They concluded this on the basis of known presence of fine material on the surface of small asteroids, claiming that due to extremely low gravity on those bodies, the products of meteorite bombardment should leave these bodies, and thus their presence indicates that the process of thermal fatigue should be much more effective there. Delbo et al. (2014) made laboratory experiments on heating-cooling centimeter-sized samples of chondrites and, applying some assumptions and theoretical modeling concluded that, for example, at 1 AU distance from the Sun, the lifetime of 10 cm rock fragments on asteroids with period of rotation from 2.2 to 6 h should be only ~103 to 104 years (that is ~3.5×106 to 1.5×107 thermal cycles) and the larger the rock, the faster it should be destroyed. In response to those conclusions we assessed the results of earlier laboratory experiments, which show that only a part of comminuted material produced by high-velocity impacts into solid rocks is ejected from the crater while another part is not ejected but stays exposed on the target surface and is present in its subsurface. This means that the presence of

  1. Dietary protein content affects evolution for body size, body fat and viability in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes; Loeschcke, Volker;

    2011-01-01

    The ability to use different food sources is likely to be under strong selection if organisms are faced with natural variation in macro-nutrient (protein, carbohydrate and lipid) availabilities. Here, we use experimental evolution to study how variable dietary protein content affects adult body...... composition and developmental success in Drosophila melanogaster. We reared flies on either a standard diet or a protein-enriched diet for 17 generations before testing them on both diet types. Flies from lines selected on protein-rich diet produced phenotypes with higher total body mass and relative lipid...

  2. The physiological basis of reaction norms: the interaction among growth rate, the duration of growth and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidowitz, Goggy; Nijhout, H Frederik

    2004-12-01

    The general effects of temperature and nutritional quality on growth rate and body size are well known. We know little, however, about the physiological mechanisms by which an organism translates variation in diet and temperature into reaction norms of body size or development time. We outline an endocrine-based physiological mechanism that helps explain how this translation occurs in the holometabolous insect Manduca sexta (Sphingidae). Body size and development time are controlled by three factors: (i) growth rate, (ii) the timing of the cessation of juvenile hormone secretion (measured by the critical weight) and (iii) the timing of ecdysteroid secretion leading to pupation (the interval to cessation of growth [ICG] after reaching the critical weight). Thermal reaction norms of body size and development time are a function of how these three factors interact with temperature. Body size is smaller at higher temperatures, because the higher growth rate decreases the ICG, thereby reducing the amount of mass that can accumulate. Development time is shorter at higher temperatures because the higher growth rate decreases the time required to attain the critical weight and, independently, controls the duration of the ICG. Life history evolution along altitudinal, latitudinal and seasonal gradients may occur through differential selection on growth rate and the duration of the two independently controlled determinants of the growth period. PMID:21676730

  3. Effects of within-colony competition on body size asymmetries and reproductive skew in a social spider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Lena; Bilde, Trine

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive partitioning is a key component of social organization in groups of cooperative organisms. In colonies of permanently social spiders of the genus Stegodyphus less than half of the females reproduce, while all females, including nonreproducers, perform suicidal allo-maternal care. Some...... theoretical models suggest that reproductive skew is a result of contest competition within colonies, leading to size hierarchies where only the largest females become reproducers. We investigated the effect of competition on within-group body size variation over six months in S. dumicola, by manipulating...... food level and colony size. We found no evidence that competition leads to increased size asymmetry within colonies, suggesting that contest competition may not be the proximate explanation for reproductive skew. Within-colony body size variation was high already in the juvenile stage, and did not...

  4. Radiographic analysis of vocal tract length and its relation to overall body size in two canid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotsky, K; Rendall, D; Riede, T; Chase, K

    2013-09-01

    Body size is an important determinant of resource and mate competition in many species. Competition is often mediated by conspicuous vocal displays, which may help to intimidate rivals and attract mates by providing honest cues to signaler size. Fitch proposed that vocal tract resonances (or formants) should provide particularly good, or honest, acoustic cues to signaler size because they are determined by the length of the vocal tract, which in turn, is hypothesized to scale reliably with overall body size. There is some empirical support for this hypothesis, but to date, many of the effects have been either mixed for males compared with females, weaker than expected in one or the other sex, or complicated by sampling issues. In this paper, we undertake a direct test of Fitch's hypothesis in two canid species using large samples that control for age- and sex-related variation. The samples involved radiographic images of 120 Portuguese water dogs Canis lupus familiaris and 121 Russian silver foxes Vulpes vulpes. Direct measurements were made of vocal tract length from X-ray images and compared against independent measures of body size. In adults of both species, and within both sexes, overall vocal tract length was strongly and significantly correlated with body size. Effects were strongest for the oral component of the vocal tract. By contrast, the length of the pharyngeal component was not as consistently related to body size. These outcomes are some of the clearest evidence to date in support of Fitch's hypothesis. At the same time, they highlight the potential for elements of both honest and deceptive body signaling to occur simultaneously via differential acoustic cues provided by the oral versus pharyngeal components of the vocal tract. PMID:24363497

  5. Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 fragment size estimates: How big was the parent body?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    The impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter in July, 1994, was the largest, most energetic impact event on a planet ever witnessed. Because it broke up during a close encounter with Jupiter in 1992, it was bright enough to be discovered more than a year prior to impact, allowing the scientific community an unprecedented opportunity to assess the effects such an event would have. Many excellent observations were made from Earth-based telescopes, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Galileo spacecraft en route to Jupiter. In this paper, these observations are used in conjunction with computational simulations performed with the CTH shock-physics hydrocode to determine the sizes of the fifteen fragments that made discernible impact features on the planet. To do this, CTH was equipped with a radiative ablation model and a post-processing radiative ray-trace capability that enabled light-flux predictions (often called the impact flash) for the viewing geometries of Galileo and ground-based observers. The five events recorded by Galileo were calibrated to give fragment size estimates. Compared against ground-based and HST observations, these estimates were extended using a least-squares analysis to assess the impacts of the remaining ten fragments. Some of the largest impacts (L, G and K) were greater that 1 km in diameter but the density of the fragments was low, about 0.25 g/cm{sup 3}. The volume of the combined fifteen fragments would make a sphere 1.8 km in diameter. Assuming a pre-breakup density of 0.5 g/cm{sup 3}, the parent body of Shoemaker-Levy 9 had a probable diameter of 1.4 km. The total kinetic energy of all the impacts was equivalent to the explosive yield of 300 Gigatons of TNT.

  6. Newborn Size and Body Composition as Predictors of Insulin Resistance and Diabetes in the Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Sargoor R.; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Fall, Caroline H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We aimed to examine detailed neonatal measurements as predictors of later diabetes in both parents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Babies (n = 617) born to nondiabetic parents in Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India, were measured at birth for weight; crown-to-heel length (CHL), crown-to-rump length (CRL), and leg length; skinfolds (triceps and subscapular); and circumferences (head, abdomen, and mid–upper-arm circumference [MUAC]). Nine and a half years later, glucose tolerance and fasting insulin were measured in their parents (469 mothers and 398 fathers). RESULTS Sixty-two (15.6%) fathers and 22 (4.7%) mothers had developed diabetes. There were linear inverse associations of the children’s birth weight, CHL, CRL, MUAC, and skinfolds with paternal diabetes and insulin resistance (P < 0.05 for all). Offspring birth weight and adiposity (MUAC, abdominal circumference, and skinfolds) showed U-shaped associations with maternal diabetes (P for quadratic association <0.05 for all). These associations persisted after adjusting for the parents’ current adiposity and maternal glucose concentrations and adiposity during pregnancy. Newborn adiposity was positively related to maternal insulin resistance; this association was nonsignificant after adjusting for maternal current adiposity. CONCLUSIONS Newborn size is a window into the future health of the parents. Small newborn size (especially soft-tissue body components) predicts an increased risk of later diabetes in both parents, suggesting a genetic or epigenetic link between parents’ diabetes risk and reduced fetal growth in their children. The association of higher birth weight and newborn adiposity with later maternal diabetes suggests effects on fetal adiposity of the intrauterine environment in prediabetic mothers. PMID:22751963

  7. Evaluating δ(15)N-body size relationships across taxonomic levels using hierarchical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reum, Jonathan C P; Marshall, Kristin N

    2013-12-01

    Ecologists routinely set out to estimate the trophic position of individuals, populations, and species composing food webs, and nitrogen stable isotopes (δ(15)N) are a widely used proxy for trophic position. Although δ(15)N values are often sampled at the level of individuals, estimates and confidence intervals are frequently sought for aggregations of individuals. If individual δ(15)N values are correlated as an artifact of sampling design (e.g., clustering of samples in space or time) or due to intrinsic groupings (e.g., life history stages, social groups, taxonomy), such estimates may be biased and exhibit overly optimistic confidence intervals. However, these issues can be accommodated using hierarchical modeling methods. Here, we demonstrate how hierarchical models offer an additional quantitative tool for investigating δ(15)N variability and we explicitly evaluate how δ(15)N varies with body size at successively higher levels of taxonomic aggregation in a diverse fish assemblage. The models take advantage of all available data, better account for uncertainty in parameters estimates, may improve inferences on coefficients corresponding to groups with small to moderate sample sizes, and partition variation across model levels, which provides convenient summaries of the 'importance' of each level in terms of unexplained heterogeneity in the data. These methods can easily be applied to diet-based studies of trophic position. Although hierarchical models are well-understood and established tools, their benefits have yet to be fully reaped by stable isotope and food web ecologists. We suggest that hierarchical models can provide a robust framework for conceptualizing and statistically modeling trophic position at multiple levels of aggregation. PMID:23812110

  8. Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 Fragment Size Estimates: How Big was the Parent Body?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, David A.

    1997-01-01

    The impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter in July, 1994 was the largest, most energetic impact event on a planet ever witnessed. Because it broke up during a close encounter with Jupiter in 1992, it was bright enough to be discovered more than a year prior to impact, allowing the scientific community an unprecedented opportunity to assess the effects such an event would have. Many excellent observations were made from Earth-based telescopes, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and the Galileo spacecraft en route to Jupiter. In this paper, these observations are used in conjunction with computational simulations performed with the CTH shock-physics hydrocode to determine the sizes of the fifteen fragments that made discernible impact features on the planet. To do this, CTH was equipped with a radiative ablation model and a postprocessing radiative ray-trace capability that enabled light-flux predictions (often called the impact flash) for the viewing geometries of Galileo and ground-based observers. The five events recorded by Galileo were calibrated to give fragment size estimates. Compared against ground-based and HST observations, these estimates were extended using a least-squares analysis to assess the impacts of the remaining ten fragments. Some of the largest impacts (L, G, and K) were greater that 1 km in diameter, but the density of the fragments was low, about 0.25 g/cm(exp 3). The volume of the combined fifteen fragments would make a sphere 1.8 km in diameter. Assuming a prebreakup density of 0.5 g/cm(exp 3), the parent body of Shoemaker-Levy 9 had a probable diameter of 1.4 km. The total kinetic energy of all the impacts was equivalent to the explosive yield of 300 Gigatons of TNT.

  9. Speciation in little: the role of range and body size in the diversification of Malagasy mantellid frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vences Miguel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate and mode of lineage diversification might be shaped by clade-specific traits. In Madagascar, many groups of organisms are characterized by tiny distribution ranges and small body sizes, and this high degree of microendemism and miniaturization parallels a high species diversity in some of these groups. We here investigate the geographic patterns characterizing the radiation of the frog family Mantellidae that is virtually endemic to Madagascar. We integrate a newly reconstructed near-complete species-level timetree of the Mantellidae with georeferenced distribution records and maximum male body size data to infer the influence of these life-history traits on each other and on mantellid diversification. Results We reconstructed a molecular phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA for 257 species and candidate species of the mantellid frog radiation. Based on this phylogeny we identified 53 well-supported pairs of sister species that we used for phylogenetic comparative analyses, along with whole tree-based phylogenetic comparative methods. Sister species within the Mantellidae diverged at 0.2-14.4 million years ago and more recently diverged sister species had geographical range centroids more proximate to each other, independently of their current sympatric or allopatric occurrence. The largest number of sister species pairs had non-overlapping ranges, but several examples of young microendemic sister species occurring in full sympatry suggest the possibility of non-allopatric speciation. Range sizes of species included in the sister species comparisons increased with evolutionary age, as did range size differences between sister species, which rejects peripatric speciation. For the majority of mantellid sister species and the whole mantellid radiation, range and body sizes were associated with each other and small body sizes were linked to higher mitochondrial nucleotide substitution rates and higher clade

  10. Racial differences in the influence of female adolescents' body size on dating and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mir M; Rizzo, John A; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Heiland, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of body size on dating and sexual experiences of white (non-Hispanic) and African American (non-Hispanic) female adolescents. Using data from Add-Health, we estimate the effects of obesity and BMI z-score on the probability of having been involved in a romantic relationship, having ever been touched in the genital area in a sexual way, and having ever engaged in sexual intercourse. We find that obese white teenage girls are less likely to have been in a romantic relationship compared to their non-obese counterparts. In addition, obese white girls are less likely to ever have had sex (intercourse) or to ever have been intimate. There are no systematic differences in relationship experiences and sexual behaviors between obese and non-obese black girls. Overall, the estimated relationships are very robust to common environmental influences at the school-level and to the inclusion of proxies for low self-esteem, attitudes toward sex and interviewer assessment of appearance and personality. Instrumental variables estimates and estimates from models with lagged weight status confirm the overall patterns. PMID:24361085

  11. Short versus long range interactions and the size of two-body weakly bound objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very weakly bound systems may manifest intriguing 'universal' properties, independent of the specific interaction which keeps the system bound. An interesting example is given by relations between the size of the system and the separation energy, or scaling laws. So far, scaling laws have been investigated for short-range and long-range (repulsive) potentials. We report here on scaling laws for weakly bound two-body systems valid for a larger class of potentials, i.e. short-range potentials having a repulsive core and long-range attractive potentials. We emphasize analogies and differences between the short- and the long-range case. In particular, we show that the emergence of halos is a threshold phenomenon which can arise when the system is bound not only by short-range interactions but also by long-range ones, and this for any value of the orbital angular momentum l. These results enlarge the image of halo systems we are accustomed to. (authors)

  12. Body size and condition influence migration timing of juvenile Arctic grayling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Kurt C.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew S.; Seitz, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes utilising seasonally available habitats within annual migratory circuits time movements out of such habitats with changing hydrology, although individual attributes of fish may also mediate the behavioural response to environmental conditions. We tagged juvenile Arctic grayling in a seasonally flowing stream on the Arctic Coastal Plain in Alaska and recorded migration timing towards overwintering habitat. We examined the relationship between individual migration date, and fork length (FL) and body condition index (BCI) for fish tagged in June, July and August in three separate models. Larger fish migrated earlier; however, only the August model suggested a significant relationship with BCI. In this model, 42% of variability in migration timing was explained by FL and BCI, and fish in better condition were predicted to migrate earlier than those in poor condition. Here, the majority (33%) of variability was captured by FL with an additional 9% attributable to BCI. We also noted strong seasonal trends in BCI reflecting overwinter mass loss and subsequent growth within the study area. These results are interpreted in the context of size and energetic state-specific risks of overwinter starvation and mortality (which can be very high in the Arctic), which may influence individuals at greater risk to extend summer foraging in a risky, yet prey rich, habitat. Our research provides further evidence that heterogeneity among individuals within a population can influence migratory behaviour and identifies potential risks to late season migrants in Arctic beaded stream habitats influenced by climate change and petroleum development.

  13. Short versus long range interactions and the size of two-body weakly bound objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very weakly bound systems may manifest intriguing ''universal'' properties, independent of the specific interaction which keeps the system bound. An interesting example is given by relations between the size of the system and the separation energy, or scaling laws. So far, scaling laws have been investigated for short-range and long-range (repulsive) potentials. We report here on scaling laws for weakly bound two-body systems valid for a larger class of potentials, i.e. short-range potentials having a repulsive core and long-range attractive potentials. We emphasize analogies and differences between the short- and the long-range case. In particular, we show that the emergence of halos is a threshold phenomenon which can arise when the system is bound not only by short-range interactions but also by long-range ones, and this for any value of the orbital angular momentum l. These results enlarge the image of halo systems we are accustomed to. (orig.)

  14. Mechanisms of temperature-dependent swimming: the importance of physics, physiology and body size in determining protist swimming speed

    OpenAIRE

    Beveridge, Oliver S; Petchey, Owen L; Humphries, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Body temperatures and thus physiological rates of poikilothermic organisms are determined by environmental temperature. The power an organism has available for swimming is largely dependent on physiological rates and thus body temperature. However, retarding forces such as drag are contingent on the temperature-dependent physical properties of water and on an organism’s size. Consequently, the swimming ability of poikilotherms is highly temperature dependent. The importance of the te...

  15. Is vector body size the key to reduced malaria transmission in the irrigated region of Niono, Mali?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukis, Nicholas C; Touré, Mahamoudou B; Sissoko, Ibrahim; Doumbia, Seydou; Traoré, Sekou F; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A; Taylor, Charles E

    2006-09-01

    Malaria vectors can reach very high densities in villages near irrigated rice fields in Africa, leading to the expectation that malaria should be especially prevalent there. Surprisingly, this is not always the case. In Niono, Mali, villages from nonirrigated areas have higher malaria prevalence than those within the irrigated regions, which suffer from higher mosquito numbers. One hypothesis explaining this observation is that mosquitoes from irrigated fields with high densities are inefficient vectors. This could occur if higher larval densities lead to smaller mosquitoes that suffer elevated mortality. Three predictions of the hypothesis were studied. First, the effect of larval density on larval body size was measured for both Anopheles gambiae Giles and Anopheles funestus Giles. Second, the relationship between larval and adult body size was tested. Third, evidence of an effect of adult size on survivorship in both irrigated and nonirrigated villages during the wet and dry seasons was sought. There was a modest positive relationship between densities of immatures and larval size, and a strong relationship between larval and adult size. Furthermore, adult survivorship was higher in nonirrigated areas. However, there was no effect of size on survivorship between comparable samples from both the irrigated and nonirrigated zones. Although density may have a causal relationship with reduced transmission in the irrigated areas of Niono, it is unlikely to be because higher density leads to smaller body size and lower survivorship. PMID:17017214

  16. The influence of body size, condition index and tidal exposure on the variability in metal bioaccumulation in Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussels are commonly used to monitor metal pollution despite high inter-individual variability in tissue concentrations. In this study, influences of body size, condition index and tidal height on concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were investigated. Body weight was inversely related to metal concentrations and for Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn the regression was affected by tidal height. Except for As, Fe and Mn metal concentrations were inversely related to physiological status though no differences between essential and non-essential metals were obvious. After correcting for body size, tidal height was related positively to As, Cd and Zn, negatively related to Cu, Fe and Mn while Co, Cr, Ni and Pb were independent of tidal height. The study recommends stringent measures during sampling for biomonitoring or metal concentrations at each location must be normalized to a common body size, CI and tidal height. - Body size, condition index and shore height can modify metal concentrations in mussels and if not taken into account, can lead to wrong interpretation of monitoring data

  17. The influence of body size, condition index and tidal exposure on the variability in metal bioaccumulation in Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubiana, Valentine K. [Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: kayawevalentine.mubiana@ua.ac.be; Vercauteren, Kathleen [Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2006-11-15

    Mussels are commonly used to monitor metal pollution despite high inter-individual variability in tissue concentrations. In this study, influences of body size, condition index and tidal height on concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were investigated. Body weight was inversely related to metal concentrations and for Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn the regression was affected by tidal height. Except for As, Fe and Mn metal concentrations were inversely related to physiological status though no differences between essential and non-essential metals were obvious. After correcting for body size, tidal height was related positively to As, Cd and Zn, negatively related to Cu, Fe and Mn while Co, Cr, Ni and Pb were independent of tidal height. The study recommends stringent measures during sampling for biomonitoring or metal concentrations at each location must be normalized to a common body size, CI and tidal height. - Body size, condition index and shore height can modify metal concentrations in mussels and if not taken into account, can lead to wrong interpretation of monitoring data.

  18. Variation in male body size and reproductive allocation in the leafcutter ant Atta colombica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stürup, M.; den Boer, S. P. A.; Nash, David Richard;

    2011-01-01

    Remarkably little is known about the traits that determine reproductive success of males in eusocial insects. Their window for mate choice decisions is very short, the actual mating process is very difficult to observe, and their small body sizes have likely prevented systematic studies in many...... species. In 2008 and 2009, we revisited a Panamanian population of Atta colombica leafcutter ants to partially repeat and complement a study of more than 15 years ago. We compared within- and between-colony variation in male body size (mass and width of head, mesosoma and gaster) and sperm characteristics...

  19. The effects of food shortage during larval development on adult body size, body mass, physiology and developmental time in a tropical damselfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Cortés, J Guillermo; Serrano-Meneses, Martín Alejandro; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex

    2012-03-01

    Few studies have looked jointly at the effects of larval stressors on life history and physiology across metamorphosis, especially in tropical insects. Here we investigated how the variation of food availability during the larval stage of the tropical and territorial American rubyspot damselfly (Hetaerina americana) affects adult body size and body mass, and two physiological indicators of condition--phenoloxidase activity (an indicator of immune ability) and protein concentration. We also investigated whether larval developmental time is prolonged when food is scarce, an expected situation for tropical species whose larval time is less constrained, compared to temperate species. Second instar larvae were collected from their natural environments and reared in one of two diet regimes: (i) "rich" provided with five Artemia salina prey every day, and (ii) "poor" provided with two A. salina prey every day. In order to compare how distinct our treatments were from natural conditions, a second set of last-instar larvae were also collected and allowed to emerge. Only body size and phenoloxidase increased in the rich regime, possibly to prioritize investment on sexually selected traits (which increase mating opportunities), and immune ability, given pathogen pressure. The sexes did not differ in body size in relation to food regimes but they did differ in body mass and protein concentration; this can be explained on the basis of the energetically demanding territorial activities by males (for the case of body mass), and female allocation to egg production (for the case of protein). Finally, animals delayed larval development when food was scarce, which is coherent for tropical environments. These findings provide key insights in the role of food availability in a tropical species. PMID:22085821

  20. Neighbourhood built environment associations with body size in adults: mediating effects of activity and sedentariness in a cross-sectional study of New Zealand adults

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Melody; Witten, Karen; Blakely, Tony; Parker, Karl; Badland, Hannah; Schofield, Grant; Ivory, Vivienne; Pearce, Jamie; Mavoa, Suzanne; Hinckson, Erica; Sweetsur, Paul; Kearns, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the associations between body size and built environment walkability variables, as well as the mediating role of physical activity and sedentary behaviours with body size. Methods Objective environment, body size (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC)), and sedentary time and physical activity data were collected from a random selection of 2033 adults aged 20–65 years living in 48 neighbourhoods across four New Zealand cities. Multil...

  1. Body attributes of both parents jointly affect offspring sex allocation in a socially monogamous, size-monomorphic passerine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin LU; Xianhai ZENG; Bo DU

    2013-01-01

    Theory predicts that because males are more variable in reproductive success than females,a mother should produce more sons to maximize fitness return from the sex allocation if she is of high-quality (the female quality hypothesis) or mates with a high-quality male (the male quality hypothesis).While most previous studies have looked at each hypothesis,we tested both of them simultaneously in the white-rumped snowfinch Montifringilla taczanowskii,a socially monogamous,sexually monomorphic passerine where body size is a potential indicator of individual quality in intrasexual competition and territory defense.Brood sex ratios at the population level did not deviate from random expectation.Among individual broods,the proportion of sons did not depend on body size of either male or female parent,but on interaction of this trait of both parents.Further analyses revealed that brood sex ratios were independent of body size of male or female parents when their mates were smaller,but positively related with body size of male or female parents when their mates were larger.These results suggest that mechanisms underlying the two hypotheses may act jointly on offspring sex allocation.The mechanisms are expected to evolve through size-assortative mating which is often reached by sexual selection.

  2. Sexual Functioning and Behavior of Men with Body Dysmorphic Disorder Concerning Penis Size Compared with Men Anxious about Penis Size and with Controls: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Veale, MD, FRCPsych

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Men with BDD are more likely to have erectile dysfunction and less satisfaction with intercourse than controls but maintain their libido. Further research is required to develop and evaluate a psychological intervention for such men with adequate outcome measures. Veale D, Miles S, Read J, Troglia A, Wylie K, and Muir G. Sexual functioning and behavior of men with body dysmorphic disorder concerning penis size compared with men anxious about penis size and with controls: A cohort study. Sex Med 2015;3:147–155.

  3. Ultrasonography assessment of renal size and its correlation with body mass index in adults without known renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many conditions affect renal size. To evaluate abnormalities in renal size, knowledge of standardised values for normal renal dimensions is essential as it shows variability in the values of normal renal size depending on body size, age and ethnicity. Ultrasound, being an easily available, non-invasive, safe and less expensive modality, is widely used for evaluation of renal dimensions and repeated follow-ups. The objectives of this study were to determine renal size by ultrasound in adults without any known renal disease, and to determine the relationship of renal size with body mass index. Methods: Study was conducted in the Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Shifa International Hospital and PIMS Islamabad. Renal size was assessed by ultrasound in 4,035 adult subjects with normal serum creatinine and without any known renal disease, between November 2002 and December 2010. Renal length, width, thickness and volume were obtained and mean renal length and volume were correlated with body mass index and other factors like age, side, gender, weight and height of the subjects. Results: Mean renal length on right side was 101.6+-8.9 mm, renal width 42.7+-7.1 mm, and parenchymal thickness 14.4+-2.9 mm. On left side, mean renal length was 102.7+-9.2 mm, width 47.6+-7.0 mm, and parenchymal thickness 15.1+-3.1 mm. Mean renal volume on right was 99.8+-37.2 cm/sup 3/ and on left was 124.4+-41.3 cm/sup 3/. Left renal size was significantly larger than right in both genders. Relationship of mean renal length was significant when correlated with age, side, gender, height and weight, and body mass index. Renal volumes also showed a similar relationship with side, gender, height and weight, and body mass index; but with age such a relationship was seen only for left kidney. Conclusion: Pakistani population has mean renal size smaller than reference values available in international literature. Renal length and volume have a direct relationship with body mass index. Mean renal

  4. DETERMINATION OF PREDICTION EQUATIONS TO ESTIMATE BODY CONDITION SCORE FROM BODY SIZE AND TESTICULAR TRAITS OF YANKASA RAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yakubu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to develop prediction models using stepwise multiple linear regressionanalysis for estimating the body condition score (BCS from the body weight (BW, testicular length(TL, testicular diameter (TD and scrotal circumference (SC of indigenous Yankasa rams. Data wereobtained from 120 randomly selected rams with approximately two and half years of age, from differentextensively managed herds in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Although pairwise phenotypic correlationsindicated strong association (P<0.01 among the measured variables, there was collinearity problembetween BW and SC as revealed by the variance inflation factors (VIF and tolerance valves (T. TheVIT was higher than 10 (VIF = 19.45 and 16.65 for BW and SC, respectively. The Twas smaller than0.1 (T = 0.05 and 0.06 in BW and SC, respectively. BW was retained among the collinear variables, andwas singly accounted for 83.7% of the variation in BCS. However, a slight improvement was obtainedfrom the prediction of BCS from BW and TL [coefficient of determination (R2, adjusted R2 and rootmean squares error (RMSE were 85.3%, 85.1% and 0.305, respectively]. The prediction of the BCS ofYankasa rams from BW and testicular measurements could therefore be a potential tool for sustainableproduction and improvement of small ruminants in Nigeria.

  5. Determinants of spatial distribution in a bee community: nesting resources, flower resources, and body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Torné-Noguera

    Full Text Available Understanding biodiversity distribution is a primary goal of community ecology. At a landscape scale, bee communities are affected by habitat composition, anthropogenic land use, and fragmentation. However, little information is available on local-scale spatial distribution of bee communities within habitats that are uniform at the landscape scale. We studied a bee community along with floral and nesting resources over a 32 km2 area of uninterrupted Mediterranean scrubland. Our objectives were (i to analyze floral and nesting resource composition at the habitat scale. We ask whether these resources follow a geographical pattern across the scrubland at bee-foraging relevant distances; (ii to analyze the distribution of bee composition across the scrubland. Bees being highly mobile organisms, we ask whether bee composition shows a homogeneous distribution or else varies spatially. If so, we ask whether this variation is irregular or follows a geographical pattern and whether bees respond primarily to flower or to nesting resources; and (iii to establish whether body size influences the response to local resource availability and ultimately spatial distribution. We obtained 6580 specimens belonging to 98 species. Despite bee mobility and the absence of environmental barriers, our bee community shows a clear geographical pattern. This pattern is mostly attributable to heterogeneous distribution of small (<55 mg species (with presumed smaller foraging ranges, and is mostly explained by flower resources rather than nesting substrates. Even then, a large proportion (54.8% of spatial variability remains unexplained by flower or nesting resources. We conclude that bee communities are strongly conditioned by local effects and may exhibit spatial heterogeneity patterns at a scale as low as 500-1000 m in patches of homogeneous habitat. These results have important implications for local pollination dynamics and spatial variation of plant-pollinator networks.

  6. Trophic phylogenetics: evolutionary influences on body size, feeding, and species associations in grassland arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Eric M; Vincent, John B; Weiblen, George D; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Borer, Elizabeth T

    2015-04-01

    Contemporary animal-plant interactions such as herbivory are widely understood to be shaped by evolutionary history. Yet questions remain about the role of plant phylogenetic diversity in generating and maintaining herbivore diversity, and whether evolutionary relatedness of producers might predict the composition of consumer communities. We tested for evidence of evolutionary associations among arthropods and the plants on which they were found, using phylogenetic analysis of naturally occurring arthropod assemblages sampled from a plant-diversity manipulation experiment. Considering phylogenetic relationships among more than 900 arthropod consumer taxa and 29 plant species in the experiment, we addressed several interrelated questions. First, our results support the hypothesis that arthropod functional traits such as body size and trophic role are phylogenetically conserved in community ecological samples. Second, herbivores tended to cooccur with closer phylogenetic relatives than would be expected at random, whereas predators and parasitoids did not show phylogenetic association patterns. Consumer specialization, as measured by association through time with monocultures of particular host plant species, showed significant phylogenetic signal, although the. strength of this association varied among plant species. Polycultures of phylogenetically dissimilar plant species supported more phylogenetically dissimilar consumer communities than did phylogenetically similar polycultures. Finally, we separated the effects of plant species richness and relatedness in predicting the phylogenetic distribution of the arthropod assemblages in this experiment. The phylogenetic diversity of plant communities predicted the phylogenetic diversity of herbivore communities even after accounting for plant species richness. The phylogenetic diversity of secondary consumers differed by guild, with predator phylogenetic diversity responding to herbivore relatedness, while parasitoid

  7. Road Impacts on Abundance, Call Traits, and Body Size of Rainforest Frogs in Northeast Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam W. Goosem

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Frogs are potentially sensitive indicators of road impacts, with studies indicating particular susceptibility to road mortality. Calling, i.e., breeding, behavior could also be affected by traffic noise. We investigated effects on frog abundance and calling behavior where a busy highway crosses rainforest stream breeding habitat in northeast Australia. Frog abundance was repeatedly surveyed along five stream transects during a summer breeding season. Abundance of two species, Litoria rheocola and Austrochaperina pluvialis, increased significantly with perpendicular distance from the road along two transects. No trends in abundance were detected for A. pluvialis on two other transects where it was common, or for Litoria serrata on one transect where abundance was sufficient for analysis. Both species with lowered abundance near the road, L. rheocola and A. pluvialis, are rare in road kill statistics along this highway, suggesting road mortality is not the cause of reduced frog abundance near the road. We postulate that lowered abundance may reflect traffic noise effects. We analyzed calls of the International Union for Conservation of Nature endangered species L. rheocola along the one stream transect on which it was common. We found significant trends in two call traits over a very fine scale: both call rate and dominant frequency were significantly higher closer to the road. Furthermore, males were significantly smaller closer to the road. These call and body size trends most likely reflect road impacts, but resolving these is complicated by correlations between traits. Potential mechanisms, effects on fitness, and management recommendations to mitigate the impacts of roads on frogs are outlined.

  8. Linking mean body size of pelagic Cladocera to environmental variables in Precambrian Shield lakes: A paleolimnological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. SMOL

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia and Bosmina fragments were identified and measured in the surface sediments of 42 lakes in the Muskoka-Haliburton region of Ontario, Canada, in an attempt to identify environmental factors that may influence cladoceran body size. Specifically, pecten length on Daphnia post-abdominal claws, antennule length on Bosmina headshields, and carapace and mucro lengths of Bosmina carapaces were measured. These measurements were then compared to limnological variables previously identified as possibly influencing cladoceran size, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC, total phosphorus (TP, pH, calcium (Ca, Chaoborus density, and fish presence/absence. Cladoceran size displayed a linear relationship to TP, with larger Bosmina and Daphnia present in lakes with lower nutrient levels. We suspect that, as larger individuals are more efficient grazers, they may competitively exclude smaller individuals when nutrients are limiting in these lakes. Bosmina mucro length and cladoceran community size structure displayed a step response to DOC, with mean size significantly smaller when DOC concentrations were higher than 5.89 mg L-1. Daphnia pecten length displayed a negative linear relationship to DOC above a concentration of 4.90 mg l-1. Reduced predation pressure from gape-limited macroinvertebrate predators, such as Chaoborus, may have influenced these relationships. DOC was also highly correlated to TP in these lakes, and size trends might be responding to the TP gradient rather than the DOC gradient. Mean cladoceran body size in acidic lakes (pH 6.0. There was no relationship between size structure and Ca concentrations, attributed to a narrow Ca gradient in these lakes. Predation effects were examined using limited Chaoborus density and fish presence/absence data. Although there were no significant relationships between cladoceran size and Chaoborus density, some significant relationships between size variables and fish predation were identified. The

  9. Beyond body size: muscle biochemistry and body shape explain ontogenetic variation of anti-predatory behaviour in the lizard Salvator merianae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Fábio Cury; de Carvalho, José Eduardo; Abe, Augusto Shinya; Kohlsdorf, Tiana

    2016-06-01

    Anti-predatory behaviour evolves under the strong action of natural selection because the success of individuals avoiding predation essentially defines their fitness. Choice of anti-predatory strategies is defined by prey characteristics as well as environmental temperature. An additional dimension often relegated in this multilevel equation is the ontogenetic component. In the tegu Salvator merianae, adults run away from predators at high temperatures but prefer fighting when it is cold, whereas juveniles exhibit the same flight strategy within a wide thermal range. Here, we integrate physiology and morphology to understand ontogenetic variation in the temperature-dependent shift of anti-predatory behaviour in these lizards. We compiled data for body shape and size, and quantified enzyme activity in hindlimb and head muscles, testing the hypothesis that morphophysiological models explain ontogenetic variation in behavioural associations. Our prediction is that juveniles exhibit body shape and muscle biochemistry that enhance flight strategies. We identified biochemical differences between muscles mainly in the LDH:CS ratio, whereby hindlimb muscles were more glycolytic than the jaw musculature. Juveniles, which often use evasive strategies to avoid predation, have more glycolytic hindlimb muscles and are much smaller when compared with adults 1-2 years old. Ontogenetic differences in body shape were identified but marginally contributed to behavioural variation between juvenile and adult tegus, and variation in anti-predatory behaviour in these lizards resides mainly in associations between body size and muscle biochemistry. Our results are discussed in the ecological context of predator avoidance by individuals differing in body size living at temperature-variable environments, where restrictions imposed by the cold could be compensated by specific phenotypes. PMID:26994181

  10. Estimating the size of European rabbits consumed by predators: Relationship between body mass and tooth dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada, Javier; Haydon, Daniel T; Palomares, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    A method for estimating body mass of European rabbits Oryctolagus cunicnlus (Linnaeus, 1758) based on tooth dimensions is proposed. Regression models identified significant relationships between the body mass of 87 rabbits and individual tooth length, breadth, product of tooth length and breadth, and whether or not the individual was infected with myxomatosis. Dimensions of 10 of 14 different teeth explained over 80% of variation in body mass, and those teeth were ...

  11. Body size dissatisfaction among young adults from the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Mintem, G C; Horta, B L; Domingues, M. R.; Gigante, D P

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with body dissatisfaction. Subjects/Methods: Birth cohort study investigating 4100 subjects (2187 men and 1913 women) aged between 22 and 23 years who answered questionnaires, including the body satisfaction Stunkard Scale were included in the study; they were weighed and measured. Multinomial logistic regression was used in the crude and adjusted analyses. Results: The prevalence of body dissatisfaction was 64% (95% CI,...

  12. Rates of ecological divergence and body size evolution are correlated with species diversification in scaly tree ferns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Barahona, Santiago; Barrera-Redondo, Josué; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2016-07-13

    Variation in species richness across regions and between different groups of organisms is a major feature of evolution. Several factors have been proposed to explain these differences, including heterogeneity in the rates of species diversification and the age of clades. It has been frequently assumed that rapid rates of diversification are coupled to high rates of ecological and morphological evolution, leading to a prediction that remains poorly explored for most species: the positive association between ecological niche divergence, morphological evolution and species diversification. We combined a time-calibrated phylogeny with distribution, ecological and body size data for scaly tree ferns (Cyatheaceae) to test whether rates of species diversification are predicted by the rates at which clades have evolved distinct ecological niches and body sizes. We found that rates of species diversification are positively correlated with rates of ecological and morphological evolution, with rapidly diversifying clades also showing rapidly evolving ecological niches and body sizes. Our results show that rapid diversification of scaly tree ferns is associated with the evolution of species with comparable morphologies that diversified into similar, yet distinct, environments. This suggests parallel evolutionary pathways opening in different tropical regions whenever ecological and geographical opportunities arise. Accordingly, rates of ecological niche and body size evolution are relevant to explain the current patterns of species richness in this 'ancient' fern lineage across the tropics. PMID:27412279

  13. Distribution and linkage disequilibrium analysis of polymorphisms of GH1 gene in different populations of pigs associated with body size

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yunyun Cheng; Songcai Liu; Dan Su; Chao Lu; Xin Zhang; Qingyan Wu; Siming Li; Haoyu Fu; Hao Yu; Linlin Hao

    2016-03-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has been considered as a candidate gene for growth and body size in pigs. In this study, polymorphisms of the GH1 gene were evaluated for associations with body size traits in 190 pig individuals. Seventeen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in GH1 gene of the large pig breeds and miniature pig breeds using direct sequencing and genotyped by allele-specific PCR approach. Notably, six (.237A>G, .283T>C, .309A>G, .318A>G, .540A>G and .544A>G) of them were significantly associated with body size, of which three loci (.283T>C, .309A>G, .318A>G) located in the signal-peptide coding region of GH1 gene compose a CGG haplotype for large pigs and TAA haplotype for miniature pigs ( < 0.001), two loci (.540A>G and .544A>G) located in the second intron of GH1 gene compose a GG haplotype for large pigs and AA haplotype for miniature pigs (P < 0.001). Our results demonstrate that these SNPs in GH1 gene are associated with the body size of pigs providing genetic basis for pig breeding with the improved economic benefits.

  14. Inequalities Between Size and Charge for Bodies and the Existence of Black Holes Due to Concentration of Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Khuri, Marcus A

    2015-01-01

    A universal inequality that bounds the charge of a body by its size is presented, and is proven as a consequence of the Einstein equations in the context of initial data sets which satisfy an appropriate energy condition. We also present a general sufficient condition for the formation of black holes due to concentration of charge, and discuss the physical relevance of these results.

  15. Asymmetric competition, body size, and foraging tactics: testing the ideal free distribution in two competing fish species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berec, M.; Křivan, Vlastimil; Berec, Luděk

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2006), s. 929-942. ISSN 1522-0613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6007303; GA AV ČR IAA100070601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : allopatric species * asymmetric competititon * body size Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.785, year: 2006

  16. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape : A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, Thomas W.; Justice, Anne E.; Graff, Mariaelisa; Barata, Llilda; Feitosa, Mary F.; Chu, Su; Czajkowski, Jacek; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kilpelainen, Tuomas O.; Lu, Yingchang; Magi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Pers, Tune H.; Rueeger, Sina; Teumer, Alexander; Ehret, Georg B.; Ferreira, Teresa; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Karjalainen, Juha; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mahajan, Anubha; Neinast, Michael D.; Prokopenko, Inga; Simino, Jeannette; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Jansen, Rick; Westra, Harm-Jan; White, Charles C.; Absher, Devin; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Ahmad, Shafqat; Albrecht, Eva; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Bis, Joshua C.; Bonnefond, Amelie; Boucher, Gabrielle; Cadby, Gemma; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Delgado, Graciela; Demirkan, Ayse; Dueker, Nicole; Eklund, Niina; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Joel; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fischer, Krista; Frau, Francesca; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Geller, Frank; Goel, Anuj; Gorski, Mathias; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Haitjema, Saskia; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Johansson, Asa; Kaakinen, Marika; Kleber, Marcus E.; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lehne, Benjamin; Liu, Youfang; Lo, Ken Sin; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luan, Jian'an; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Monda, Keri L.; Montasser, May E.; Mueller, Gabriele; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Rizzi, Federica; Rose, Lynda M.; Ryan, Kathy A.; Salo, Perttu; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Southam, Lorraine; Stancakova, Alena; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sung, Yun Ju; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Trompet, Stella; Pervjakova, Natalia; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van der Laan, Sander W.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Setten, Jessica; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Verweij, Niek; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wang, Sophie R.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wild, Sarah H.; Willenborg, Christina; Wilson, James F.; Wong, Andrew; Yang, Jian; Yengo, Loic; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andersson, Ehm A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Baldassarre, Damiano; Banasik, Karina; Barcella, Matteo; Barlassina, Cristina; Bellis, Claire; Benaglio, Paola; Blangero, John; Blueher, Matthias; Bonnet, Fabrice; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Boyd, Heather A.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buchman, Aron S.; Campbell, Harry; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cole, John; Collins, Francis S.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Dimitriou, Maria; Duan, Jubao; Enroth, Stefan; Eury, Elodie; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Forouhi, Nita G.; Friedrich, Nele; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gigante, Bruna; Glorioso, Nicola; Go, Alan S.; Gottesman, Omri; Graessler, Juergen; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Gu, Yu-Mei; Broer, Linda; Ham, Annelies C.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hastie, Nicholas; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hui, Jennie; Husemoen, Lise L.; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Hysi, Pirro G.; Illig, Thomas; De Jager, Philip L.; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; Jorgensen, Torben; Jukema, J. Wouter; Juonala, Markus; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karaleftheri, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kinnunen, Leena; Kittner, Steven J.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Krarup, Nikolaj T.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Krueger, Janine; Kuh, Diana; Kumari, Meena; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Langenberg, Claudia; Lannfelt, Lars; Lanzani, Chiara; Lotay, Vaneet; Launer, Lenore J.; Leander, Karin; Lindstrom, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yan-Ping; Lobbens, Stephane; Luben, Robert; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Mannisto, Satu; Magnusson, Patrik K.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Andrew P.; Narisu, Narisu; Nelis, Mari; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Perusse, Louis; Pichler, Irene; Pilia, Maria G.; Pouta, Anneli; Rheinberger, Myriam; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Richards, Marcus; Rice, Kenneth M.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivolta, Carlo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Scholtens, Salome; Scott, Robert A.; Scott, William R.; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengupta, Sebanti; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Silveira, Angela; Slagboom, P. Eline; Smit, Jan H.; Sparso, Thomas H.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P.; Stringham, Heather M.; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorand, Barbara; Toenjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; van der Most, Peter J.; Voelker, Uwe; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Vonk, Judith M.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Walker, Ryan W.; Wennauer, Roman; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wright, Alan F.; Zillikens, M. Carola; van Dijk, Suzanne C.; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Beilby, John; Bennett, David A.; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Boeger, Carsten A.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bouchard, Claude; Chambers, John C.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Dedoussis, George; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; de Faire, Ulf; Farrall, Martin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ford, Ian; Franke, Lude; Franks, Paul W.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Gronberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Per; Hamsten, Anders; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Heliovaara, Markku; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Hveem, Kristian; James, Alan L.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kaehoenen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.; Kivimaki, Mika; Knekt, Paul B.; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kuusisto, Johanna; Maerz, Winfried; Martin, Nicholas G.; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lettre, Guillaume; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lind, Lars; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Mantyselka, Pekka; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Moll, Frans L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Musk, Arthur W.; Nieminen, Markku S.; Njolstad, Inger; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Pankow, James S.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Pedersen, Oluf; Penninx, Brenda W.; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Qi, Lu; Quertermous, Thomas; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rauramaa, Rainer; Ridker, Paul M.; Rioux, John D.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudan, Igor; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Saltevo, Juha; Sattar, Naveed; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sinisalo, Juha; Snieder, Harold; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Spector, Tim D.; Staessen, Jan A.; Stefania, Bandinelli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Uusitupa, Matti; Verbeek, Andre L. M.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Voelzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Clegg, Deborah J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Jaquish, Cashell E.; Rao, D. C.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Ines; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Groop, Leif C.; Hunter, David J.; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert C.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Heid, Iris M.; North, Kari E.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially betw

  17. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, T.W.; Justice, A.E.; Graff, M.; Barata, L.; Feitosa, M.F.; Chu, S.; Czajkowski, J.; Esko, T.; Fall, T.; Kilpelainen, T.O.; Lu, Y.; Magi, R.; Mihailov, E.; Pers, T.H.; Rueger, S.; Teumer, A.; Ehret, G.B.; Ferreira, T.; Heard-Costa, N.L.; Karjalainen, J.; Lagou, V.; Mahajan, A.; Neinast, M.D.; Prokopenko, I.; Simino, J.; Teslovich, T.M.; Jansen, R.; Westra, H.J.; White, C.C.; Absher, D.; Ahluwalia, T.S.; Ahmad, S.; Albrecht, E.; Ferreira Alves, A.C.; Bragg-Gresham, J.L.; Craen, A.J. de; Bis, J.C.; Bonnefond, A.; Boucher, G.; Cadby, G.; Cheng, Y.C.; Chiang, C.W.; Delgado, G.; Demirkan, A.; Dueker, N.; Eklund, N.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Eriksson, J.; Feenstra, B.; Fischer, K.; Frau, F.; Galesloot, T.E.; Geller, F.; Goel, A.; Gorski, M.; Grammer, T.B.; Gustafsson, S.; Haitjema, S.; Hottenga, J.J.; Huffman, J.E.; Jackson, A.U.; Jacobs, K.B.; Johansson, A; Kaakinen, M.; Kleber, M.E.; Lahti, J.; Leach, I.M.; Lehne, B.; Liu, Y.; Lo, K.S.; Lorentzon, M.; Luan, J.; Madden, P.A.F.; Mangino, M.; McKnight, B.; Medina-Gomez, C.; Monda, K.L.; Montasser, M.E.; Muller, G.; Muller-Nurasyid, M.; Nolte, I.M.; Panoutsopoulou, K.; Pascoe, L.; Paternoster, L.; Rayner, N.W.; Renstrom, F.; Rizzi, F.; Rose, L.M.; Ryan, K.A.; Salo, P.; Sanna, S.; Scharnagl, H.; Shi, J.; Smith, A.V.; Southam, L.; Stancakova, A.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Strawbridge, R.J.; Sung, Y.J.; Tachmazidou, I.; Kiemeney, B.; Vermeulen, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially betw

  18. Body-size stigmatization by preschool girls: in a doll's world, it is good to be "Barbie".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobey, John; Worobey, Harriet S

    2014-03-01

    A number of studies have measured body size stigmatization, that is, the assigning of negative characteristics to individuals who are considered fat, in samples of children as young as preschool-age. The results of such studies are fairly consistent, but may be criticized for the abstract nature of the line drawings typically used as test stimuli. In the present study the utility of using toy dolls to gauge young girls' views toward different body shapes was assessed. Forty girls ages 3½-5½ were asked to assign various traits to one of three dolls (thin, average, and fat). As with previous work, responses fell out in a stereotypical pattern, with the positive characteristics attributed most often to the thin or average doll and all of the negative characteristics most often to the fat doll. The strengths and weaknesses of this doll paradigm in studies of body-size stigmatization by young children are discussed. PMID:24394637

  19. Rates and modes of body size evolution in early carnivores and herbivores: a case study from Captorhinidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Body size is an extremely important characteristic, impacting on a variety of ecological and life-history traits. It is therefore important to understand the factors which may affect its evolution, and diet has attracted much interest in this context. A recent study which examined the evolution of the earliest terrestrial herbivores in the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian concluded that in the four herbivorous clades examined there was a trend towards increased body size, and that this increase was more substantial than that observed in closely related carnivorous clades. However, this hypothesis was not based on quantitative examination, and phylogenetic comparative methods provide a more robust means of testing such hypotheses. Here, the evolution of body size within different dietary regimes is examined in Captorhinidae, the most diverse and longest lived of these earliest high fibre herbivores. Evolutionary models were fit to their phylogeny to test for variation in rate and mode of evolution between the carnivorous and herbivorous members of this clade, and an analysis of rate variation throughout the tree was carried out. Estimates of ancestral body sizes were calculated in order to compare the rates and direction of evolution of lineages with different dietary regimes. Support for the idea that the high fibre herbivores within captorhinids are being drawn to a higher adaptive peak in body size than the carnivorous members of this clade is weak. A shift in rates of body size evolution is identified, but this does not coincide with the evolution of high-fibre herbivory, instead occurring earlier in time and at a more basal node. Herbivorous lineages which show an increase in size are not found to evolve at a faster rate than those which show a decrease; in fact, it is those which experience a size decrease which evolve at higher rates. It is possible the shift in rates of evolution is related to the improved food processing ability of the more derived

  20. Caterpillars selected for large body size and short development time are more susceptible to oxygen-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jon F; Cease, Arianne J; Vandenbrooks, John M; Albert, Todd; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that higher growth rates may be associated with reduced capacities for stress tolerance and increased accumulated damage due to reactive oxygen species. We tested the response of Manduca sexta (Sphingidae) lines selected for large or small body size and short development time to hypoxia (10 kPa) and hyperoxia (25, 33, and 40 kPa); both hypoxia and hyperoxia reduce reproduction and oxygen levels over 33 kPa have been shown to increase oxidative damage in insects. Under normoxic (21 kPa) conditions, individuals from the large-selected (big-fast) line were larger and had faster growth rates, slightly longer developmental times, and reduced survival rates compared to individuals from a line selected for small size (small-fast) or an unselected control line. Individuals from the big-fast line exhibited greater negative responses to hyperoxia with greater reductions in juvenile and adult mass, growth rate, and survival than the other two lines. Hypoxia generally negatively affected survival and growth/size, but the lines responded similarly. These results are mostly consistent with the hypothesis that simultaneous acquisition of large body sizes and short development times leads to reduced capacities for coping with stressful conditions including oxidative damage. This result is of particular importance in that natural selection tends to decrease development time and increase body size. PMID:23762517

  1. Body size affects the predatory interactions between introduced American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and native anurans in China: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Guo, Z.; Pearl, C.A.; Li, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Introduced American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) have established breeding populations in several provinces in China since their introduction in 1959. Although Bullfrogs are viewed as a potentially important predator of Chinese native anurans, their impacts in the field are difficult to quantify. We used two experiments to examine factors likely to mediate Bullfrog predation on native anurans. First, we examined effects of Bullfrog size and sex on daily consumption of a common Chinese native (Rana limnocharis). Second, we examined whether Bullfrogs consumed similar proportions of four Chinese natives: Black-Spotted Pond Frog (Rana nigromaculata), Green Pond Frog (Rana plancyi plancyi), Rice Frog (R. limnocharis), and Zhoushan Toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans). We found that larger Rana catesbeiana consumed more R. limnocharis per day than did smaller R. catesbeiana, and that daily consumption of R. limnocharis was positively related to R. catesbeiana body size. When provided with adults of four anurans that differed significantly in body size, R. catesbeiana consumed more individuals of the smallest species (R. limnocharis). However, when provided with similarly sized juveniles of the same four species, R. catesbeiana did not consume any species more than expected by chance. Our results suggest that body size plays an important role in the predatory interactions between R. catesbeiana and Chinese native anurans and that, other things being equal, smaller species and individuals are at greater risk of predation by R. catesbeiana. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  2. Size-appropriate radiation doses in pediatric body CT: a study of regional community adoption in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade, there has been a movement in the United States toward utilizing size-appropriate radiation doses for pediatric body CT, with smaller doses given to smaller patients. This study assesses community adoption of size-appropriate pediatric CT techniques. Size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) in pediatric body scans are compared between community facilities and a university children's hospital that tailors CT protocols to patient size as advocated by Image Gently. We compared 164 pediatric body scans done at community facilities (group X) with 466 children's hospital scans. Children's hospital scans were divided into two groups: A, 250 performed with established pediatric weight-based protocols and filtered back projection; B, 216 performed with addition of iterative reconstruction technique and a 60% reduction in volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). SSDE was calculated and differences among groups were compared by regression analysis. Mean SSDE was 1.6 and 3.9 times higher in group X than in groups A and B and 2.5 times higher for group A than group B. A model adjusting for confounders confirmed significant differences between group pairs. Regional community hospitals and imaging centers have not universally adopted child-sized pediatric CT practices. More education and accountability may be necessary to achieve widespread implementation. Since even lower radiation doses are possible with iterative reconstruction technique than with filtered back projection alone, further exploration of the former is encouraged. (orig.)

  3. Emotional signals from faces, bodies and scenes influence observers' face expressions, fixations and pupil-size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Kret; K. Roelofs; J.J. Stekelenburg; B. de Gelder

    2013-01-01

    We receive emotional signals from different sources, including the face, the whole body, and the natural scene. Previous research has shown the importance of context provided by the whole body and the scene on the recognition of facial expressions. This study measured physiological responses to face

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations on size dependent tensile deformation behaviour of [110] oriented body centred cubic iron nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tensile deformation behaviour of 〈110〉/{111} oriented body centred cubic (BCC) iron nanowires has been examined using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at 10 K. MD simulations were performed on nanowires with cross section width in the range 1.42–24.27 nm. The results indicated that the deformation behaviour in BCC Fe nanowires is governed by full dislocation slip irrespective of nanowire size. The initiation of plastic deformation occurred by the collective emission of dislocation loops originating from the corner of the nanowires. Following yielding, accumulation of straight screw dislocations with increasing plastic deformation has been observed. Presence of curved slip steps observed in the surface morphology suggested the occurrence of cross slip in large size nanowires. Evidence of cross slip was not noticed in small size nanowires. The variations of Young’s modulus, yield strength and flow stress with nanowire size displaying strong size effects in BCC Fe nanowires have been presented

  5. Phylogenetic correlograms and the evolution of body size in South American owls (Strigiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years, many models have been proposed to link microevolutionary processes to macroevolutionary patterns, defined by comparative data analysis. Among these, Brownian motion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U processes have been used to model, respectively, genetic drift or directional selection and stabilizing selection. These models produce different curves of pairwise variance between species against time since divergence, in such a way that different profiles appear in phylogenetic correlograms. We analyzed variation in body length among 19 species of South American owls, by means of phylogenetic correlograms constructed using Moran's I coefficient in four distance classes. Phylogeny among species was based on DNA hybridization. The observed correlogram was then compared with 500 correlograms obtained by simulations of Brownian motion and O-U over the same phylogeny, using discriminant analysis. The observed correlogram indicates a phylogenetic gradient up to 45 mya, when coefficients tend to stabilize, and it is similar to the correlograms produced by the O-U process. This is expected when we consider that body size of organisms is correlated with many ecological and life-history traits and subjected to many constraints that can be modeled by the O-U process, which has been used to describe evolution under stabilizing selection.Nos últimos anos diversos modelos têm sido propostos a fim de realizar inferências sobre processos microevolutivos com base em padrões macroevolutivos obtidos a partir de dados comparativos. Dentre esses, o movimento Browniano e o processo Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U têm sido utilizados para modelar principalmente deriva genética e seleção estabilizadora, respectivamente. Esses modelos produzem curvas diferentes de relação entre variância interespecífica e distância no tempo, de modo que eles podem ser distingüidos com base em correlogramas filogenéticos. Neste trabalho, nós analisamos a varia

  6. Reference man and woman more fully characterized: Variations on the basis of body size, age, sex, and race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total body neutron activation analysis, prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis, and whole body counting have been used to determine the elemental composition of the human body. The total body elements measured were potassium, nitrogen, calcium, sodium, chlorine, and phosphorus. Total body water was also determined by the dilution principle using tritiated water. Observations were made in an adult US population that totaled 1374 and ranged in age from 20 to 90 yr. The dataset for the white population consisted of 175 males and 1134 females observations; for the black population, it consisted of 30 male and 35 female observations. The variation in the elemental composition of both males and females in any 5-yr age group was large and ranged up to 20% (SD). Age-, race-, sex-, and size-specific differences were evident. When equations were developed that predicted the elemental composition of the adult on the basis of age, weight, and height, the variation in the age groups was reduced approximately in half. Age-specific mean values for the 20- to 29-yr-old white population were also compared with values for the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)-23 Reference Man. The open-quotes averageclose quotes young adult male was larger than Reference Man; the in vivo data also indicated a larger skeletal mass, more lean tissues and body water, but lower body sodium. When in vivo prediction equations were used to adjust for size differences, good agreement was found between the expected values and those for Reference Man. The ICRP-23 does not contain elemental data for Reference Woman; therefore, the in vivo data in the present study provide the first estimates of body composition for Reference Woman

  7. Big cat, small cat: reconstructing body size evolution in living and extinct Felidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuff, A R; Randau, M; Head, J; Hutchinson, J R; Pierce, S E; Goswami, A

    2015-08-01

    The evolution of body mass is a fundamental topic in evolutionary biology, because it is closely linked to manifold life history and ecological traits and is readily estimable for many extinct taxa. In this study, we examine patterns of body mass evolution in Felidae (Placentalia, Carnivora) to assess the effects of phylogeny, mode of evolution, and the relationship between body mass and prey choice in this charismatic mammalian clade. Our data set includes 39 extant and 26 extinct taxa, with published body mass data supplemented by estimates based on condylobasal length. These data were run through 'SURFACE' and 'bayou' to test for patterns of body mass evolution and convergence between taxa. Body masses of felids are significantly different among prey choice groupings (small, mixed and large). We find that body mass evolution in cats is strongly influenced by phylogeny, but different patterns emerged depending on inclusion of extinct taxa and assumptions about branch lengths. A single Ornstein-Uhlenbeck optimum best explains the distribution of body masses when first-occurrence data were used for the fossil taxa. However, when mean occurrence dates or last known occurrence dates were used, two selective optima for felid body mass were recovered in most analyses: a small optimum around 5 kg and a large one around 100 kg. Across living and extinct cats, we infer repeated evolutionary convergences towards both of these optima, but, likely due to biased extinction of large taxa, our results shift to supporting a Brownian motion model when only extant taxa are included in analyses. PMID:26075837

  8. Correlation Analysis between Body Size and Slaughter Performance in F-1 Hybrid Offspring of Princess Chicken and Kirin Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Naibin; Du; Bingwang; Yang; Fenxia; Tao; Lin; Chen; Jiebo

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the meat development value of princess chicken,the body size traits and slaughter performance of 12-week-old F1 hybrid offspring of princess chicken(♂) and kirin chicken(♀) were measured and the correlations between different traits were analyzed. The results showed that body length,keel length and shank length of male F1 hybrid offspring were significantly higher than those of female chickens(P < 0. 05). The live weight,carcass weight,semi-eviscerated weight,semi-eviscerated ratio,eviscerated weight,chest muscle weight,the leg muscle weight and heart weight of male chickens were extremely significantly higher than that of female chickens(P < 0. 01),and the leg muscle ratio and wings weight were significantly higher than that of female chickens(P < 0. 05),but sebum thickness of male chickens was extremely significantly lower than that of female chickens(P < 0. 01). Other indicators failed to reach the significant difference level. There were extremely significant or significant correlations between the slaughter performance and body size in F1 hybrid offspring. The regression equations between different indicators were identified and developed. The results provided a certain theoretical reference to predict slaughter performance indicators through a living body size measurement,and revealed an improved production performance of F1 hybrid offspring.

  9. Growth-Blocking Peptides As Nutrition-Sensitive Signals for Insulin Secretion and Body Size Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Koyama, Takashi; Mirth, Christen K.

    2016-01-01

    In Drosophila, the fat body, functionally equivalent to the mammalian liver and adipocytes, plays a central role in regulating systemic growth in response to nutrition. The fat body senses intracellular amino acids through Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling, and produces an unidentified humoral factor(s) to regulate insulin-like peptide (ILP) synthesis and/or secretion in the insulin-producing cells. Here, we find that two peptides, Growth-Blocking Peptide (GBP1) and CG11395 (GBP2), are prod...

  10. Disentangling the effect of body size and phylogenetic distances on zooplankton top-down control of algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianuca, Andros T; Pantel, Jelena H; De Meester, Luc

    2016-04-13

    A negative consequence of biodiversity loss is reduced rates of ecosystem functions. Phylogenetic-based biodiversity indices have been claimed to provide more accurate predictions of ecosystem functioning than species diversity alone. This approach assumes that the most relevant traits for ecosystem functioning present a phylogenetic signal. Yet, traits-mediating niche partitioning and resource uptake efficiency in animals can be labile. To assess the relative power of a key trait (body size) and phylogeny to predict zooplankton top-down control on phytoplankton, we manipulated trait and phylogenetic distances independently in microcosms while holding species richness constant. We found that body size provided strong predictions of top-down control. In contrast, phylogeny was a poor predictor of grazing rates. Size-related grazing efficiency asymmetry was mechanistically more important than niche differences in mediating ecosystem function in our experimental settings. Our study demonstrates a strong link between a single functional trait (i.e. body size) in zooplankton and trophic interactions, and urges for a cautionary use of phylogenetic information and taxonomic diversity as substitutes for trait information to predict and understand ecosystem functions. PMID:27075258

  11. BODY SIZE REDUCTION AND TOOTH AGENESIS IN LATE PLEISTOCENE MELES MELES (CARNIVORA, MAMMALIA FROM INGARANO (SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAWID ADAM IURINO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In mammals combined factors such as body size reduction and loss of peripheral teeth are often associated with endemism phenomena. This condition is particularly evident in insular contexts where is a complete geographic isolation. During the Pleistocene there have been several glacial stages, which changed the physiognomy of the Italian peninsula strongly influencing the distribution and morphology of mammalian faunas. Several genetic studies have shown that some Southern Italian areas have particular endemic species of small and medium size mammals. During Pleistocene these areas have been characterized by particular climatic/environmental conditions, and are generally called "glacial refugia". They represent geographically isolated areas over time, where the origin of faunas with peculiar features is favoured. In this study, the occurrence of Meles meles from the Late Pleistocene site of Ingarano (Apulia, Southern Italy is documented for the first time. This taxon is represented only by a partial skull (splancnocranum that, despite the relative completeness, includes peculiar and well-preserved dental features that could be related to a partial endemic condition. The fossil shows a reduced body size and the agenesis of peripheral teeth, both conditions that are typical of the extant badgers from Crete, Rhodes and Japan. To test this hypothesis, tomographic analysis have been provided to establish the dental agenesis, and, in order to understand the magnitude of the body size reduction, biometric analyses have been carried on. The obtained data have been compared to measures of the extant Eurasian badgers.SHORT NOTE

  12. Latitudinal clines in Drosophila melanogaster: body size, allozyme frequencies, inversion frequencies, and the insulin-signalling pathway

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gerdien De Jong; Zoltán Bochdanovits

    2003-12-01

    Many latitudinal clines exist in Drosophila melanogaster: in adult body size, in allele frequency at allozyme loci, and in frequencies of common cosmopolitan inversions. The question is raised whether these latitudinal clines are causally related. This review aims to connect data from two very different fields of study, evolutionary biology and cell biology, in explaining such natural genetic variation in D. melanogaster body size and development time. It is argued that adult body size clines, inversion frequency clines, and clines in allele frequency at loci involved in glycolysis and glycogen storage are part of the same adaptive strategy. Selection pressure is expected to differ at opposite ends of the clines. At high latitudes, selection on D. melanogaster would favour high larval growth rate at low temperatures, and resource storage in adults to survive winter. At low latitudes selection would favour lower larval critical size to survive crowding, and increased male activity leading to high male reproductive success. Studies of the insulin-signalling pathway in D. melanogaster point to the involvement of this pathway in metabolism and adult body size. The genes involved in the insulin-signalling pathway are associated with common cosmopolitan inversions that show latitudinal clines. Each chromosome region connected with a large common cosmopolitan inversion possesses a gene of the insulin transmembrane complex, a gene of the intermediate pathway and a gene of the TOR branch. The hypothesis is presented that temperate D. melanogaster populations have a higher frequency of a ‘thrifty’ genotype corresponding to high insulin level or high signal level, while tropical populations possess a more ‘spendthrift’ genotype corresponding to low insulin or low signal level.

  13. Inertial orientation tracker having automatic drift compensation for tracking human head and other similarly sized body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxlin, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A self contained sensor apparatus generates a signal that corresponds to at least two of the three orientational aspects of yaw, pitch and roll of a human-scale body, relative to an external reference frame. A sensor generates first sensor signals that correspond to rotational accelerations or rates of the body about certain body axes. The sensor may be mounted to the body. Coupled to the sensor is a signal processor for generating orientation signals relative to the external reference frame that correspond to the angular rate or acceleration signals. The first sensor signals are impervious to interference from electromagnetic, acoustic, optical and mechanical sources. The sensors may be rate sensors. An integrator may integrate the rate signal over time. A drift compensator is coupled to the rate sensors and the integrator. The drift compensator may include a gravitational tilt sensor or a magnetic field sensor or both. A verifier periodically measures the orientation of the body by a means different from the drift sensitive rate sensors. The verifier may take into account characteristic features of human motion, such as stillness periods. The drift compensator may be, in part, a Kalman filter, which may utilize statistical data about human head motion.

  14. Effect of the abrasive size and transformability degree on the two body abrasive wear of polycrystalline zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was analyzed the two-body abrasive wear behavior of tetragonal zirconia polycrystals with different transformability degrees. The analyze was carried out in pin-on disk tests, by using different abrasive sizes and was complemented by monitoring the friction coefficient. The wear rate increased with the increasing of the abrasive size. The lowest transformability degree underwent the worst behavior on wear, probably associated with its low fracture toughness and the intermediate transformability presented the best behavior. The correlation between wear rate and friction coefficient characterized the presence of two distinct behaviors. (author). 14 refs., 3 figs

  15. Blastoid Body Size - Changes from the Carboniferous to the End-Permian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L.; Tolosa, R.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate, known for affecting biodiversity within genera of animal species, is often addressed as a major variable of geological systems. The Mississippian subperiod of the Carboniferous was noted for its lush, tropical climate that sustained a variety of biological life. In contrast, the Permian era was marked primarily by an ice age that had started earlier during the Pennsylvanian. The blastoids, a class of the Echinodermata phylum, were in existence from the Silurian (443.4 Ma) to the end of the Permian (252.28 Ma). This study focused on whether climate affected blastoid theca size over the span of those one hundred million years between the Mississippian and the Permian or if was simply a negligible factor. We analyzed size data from the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology and correlated it to both Cope's Rule, which states that size increases with geologic time, and Bergmann's Rule, which states that latitude and temperature are catalysts for size change. CO2 levels from known records served as a proxy for global temperature. Our results indicated that the blastoids increased in size by 59% over geologic time. The size of the blastoids increased over geologic time, following Cope's Rule. According to our graphs in R, there was an inverse relationship between volume and climate. Size decreased as temperature increased, which follows Bergmann's Rule. However, we also wanted to observe spatial factors regarding Bergmann's Rule such as paleolatitude and paleolongitude. This info was taken from the Paleobiology Database and showed that a majority of the blastoids were found near the equator, which, according to the other part of Bergmann's Rule, suggests that they would therefore increase in size. Further tests implied strong correlations between temperature, volume, and paleolocation. We ultimately believe that although Cope's Rule is in effect, Bergmann's mechanisms for size may not apply to the blastoids due to the environments that the blastoids lived in or

  16. A Paleozoological Perspective on White-Tailed Deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) Population Density and Body Size in Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Steve; Kennedy, James H.; Cornelius, John D.

    2007-04-01

    Archaeological and paleontological datasets are used in conservation to add time-depth to ecology. In central Texas, several top carnivores including prehistoric Native American hunters have been extirpated or have had their historic ranges restricted, which has resulted in pest-level white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) populations in some areas. Differences in body size of deer between prehistory and modernity are expected, given that a lack of predation likely has increased intraspecific competition for forage among deer, resulting in smaller body size today. In fact, modern deer from settings without harvest pressure are significantly smaller than those from harvested areas and from prehistoric deer. From a natural history perspective, this research highlights potential evolutionary causes and effects of top-predator removal on deer populations and related components of biological communities in central Texas.

  17. Body size, reproductive biology and abundance of the rare pseudoboini snakes genera Clelia and Boiruna (Serpentes, Colubridae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lígia Pizzatto

    2005-01-01

    Pseudoboini snakes of the genera Clelia and Boiruna are apparently rare in nature and certainly rare in collections. This work presents data on body size, reproduction and abundance of five Brazilian species of these genera, in the largest collection of snakes in Latin America, the Instituto Butantan. Despite scarcity of data, follicular cycle seems to be continuous in most species, except Clelia rustica, which occurs in highlands. Females are largerthan males in all species, and fecundity is...

  18. Non-stringent tissue-source requirements for BMP ligand expression in regulation of body size in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Savage-Dunn, Cathy; Yu, Ling; Gill, Kwesi; Awan, Muhammad; Fernando, Thilini

    2011-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)-related ligand Dpp- and BMP-like-1 (DBL-1) regulates body size by promoting the larval and adult growth of the large epidermal syncytium hyp7 without affecting cell division. This system provides an excellent model for dissecting the growth-promoting activities of BMP ligands, since in this context the growth and differentiation functions of DBL-1 are naturally uncoupled. dbl-1 is expressed primarily in neurons and the DBL-1 liga...

  19. Analysis of copy number variants by three detection algorithms and their association with body size in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger, Julia; Philipp, Ute; Lopes, Maria Susana; da Camara Machado, Artur; Felicetti, Michela; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Distl, Ottmar

    2013-01-01

    Background Copy number variants (CNVs) have been shown to play an important role in genetic diversity of mammals and in the development of many complex phenotypic traits. The aim of this study was to perform a standard comparative evaluation of CNVs in horses using three different CNV detection programs and to identify genomic regions associated with body size in horses. Results Analysis was performed using the Illumina Equine SNP50 genotyping beadchip for 854 horses. CNVs were detected by th...

  20. Effect of Ascaridia galli infection on histopathologic description, size of small intestines villi surface and body weight change in starters

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Nematode Ascaridia galli is an important parasitic disease in poultry and is responsible for considerable economic losses in retarded growth and lowered egg production. The effects of A. galli infection based on histopathologic description, size of small intestines villi surface and body weight change in starters was investigated. One hundred and thirty five day old chicks (DOC) were divided into three groups for three levels of infection dose rate (0,800 and 8000 infective eggs) with 3 repli...

  1. Maturity Status Does Not Exert Effects on Aerobic Fitness in Soccer Players After Appropriate Normalization for Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Giovani Santos; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Geremia, Jean Marcel; Leites, Gabriela T; Baptista, Rafael Reimann; Lopes, André Luiz; Reischak-Oliveira, Álvaro

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated the effects of pubertal status on peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), respiratory compensation point (RCP), and ventilatory threshold (VT) in young soccer players using different body size descriptors. Seventy-nine soccer players (14 prepubescent, 38 pubescent and 27 postpubescent) participated in this study. A maximal exercise test was performed to determine the VO2peak, RCP, and VT. Ultrasonography was used to measure lower limb muscle volume (LLMV). LLMV (mL-b) was rated as the most effective body size descriptor to normalize VO2peak (mLO2·mL-0.43·min-1), RCP (mLO2·mL-0.48·min-1), and VT (mLO2·mL- 0.40·min-1). The values of VO2peak, RCP, and VT relative to allometric exponents derived by LLMV were similar among groups (p > .05; 0.025 51.8 ± 5.3, 54.8 ± 4.7, and 57.3 ± 5.8 mLO2·mL-0.48·min-1; and 75.7 ± 7.1, 79.4 ± 7.0, and 80.9 ± 8.3 mLO2·mL- 0.40·min-1 for prepubertal, pubertal, and postpubertal groups, respectively. Maturity status showed no positive effect on VO2peak, RCP, and VT when the data were properly normalized by LLMV in young soccer players. Allometric normalization using muscle volume as a body size descriptor should be used to compare aerobic fitness between soccer players heterogeneous in chronological age, maturity status, and body size. PMID:26694739

  2. Effects of Abiotic Factors on the Geographic Distribution of Body Size Variation and Chromosomal Polymorphisms in Two Neotropical Grasshopper Species (Dichroplus: Melanoplinae: Acrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio J. Bidau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the effects of abiotic factors on body size in two grasshopper species with large geographical distributions: Dichroplus pratensis and D. vittatus, inhabiting Argentina in diverse natural habitats. Geographical spans for both species provide an opportunity to study the effects of changes in abiotic factors on body size. The analyses of body size distribution in both species revealed a converse Bergmannian pattern: body size is positively correlated with latitude, altitude, and seasonality that influences time available for development and growth. Allen’s rule is also inverted. Morphological variability increases towards the ends of the Bergmannian clines and, in D. pratensis, is related with a central-marginal distribution of chromosomal variants that influence recombination. The converse Bergmannian patterns influence sexual size dimorphism in both species but in different fashions. Body size variation at a microspatial scale in D. pratensis is extremely sensitive to microclimatic clines. We finally compare our results with those for other Orthopteran species.

  3. Whole body counter calibration using Monte Carlo modeling with an array of phantom sizes based on national anthropometric reference data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During construction of the whole body counter (WBC) at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), efficiency calibration was needed to translate acquired counts of 40K to actual grams of potassium for measurement of total body potassium (TBK) in a diverse subject population. The MCNP Monte Carlo n-particle simulation program was used to describe the WBC (54 detectors plus shielding), test individual detector counting response, and create a series of virtual anthropomorphic phantoms based on national reference anthropometric data. Each phantom included an outer layer of adipose tissue and an inner core of lean tissue. Phantoms were designed for both genders representing ages 3.5 to 18.5 years with body sizes from the 5th to the 95th percentile based on body weight. In addition, a spherical surface source surrounding the WBC was modeled in order to measure the effects of subject mass on room background interference. Individual detector measurements showed good agreement with the MCNP model. The background source model came close to agreement with empirical measurements, but showed a trend deviating from unity with increasing subject size. Results from the MCNP simulation of the CNRC WBC agreed well with empirical measurements using BOMAB phantoms. Individual detector efficiency corrections were used to improve the accuracy of the model. Nonlinear multiple regression efficiency calibration equations were derived for each gender. Room background correction is critical in improving the accuracy of the WBC calibration.

  4. Whole body counter calibration using Monte Carlo modeling with an array of phantom sizes based on national anthropometric reference data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shypailo, R. J.; Ellis, K. J.

    2011-05-01

    During construction of the whole body counter (WBC) at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), efficiency calibration was needed to translate acquired counts of 40K to actual grams of potassium for measurement of total body potassium (TBK) in a diverse subject population. The MCNP Monte Carlo n-particle simulation program was used to describe the WBC (54 detectors plus shielding), test individual detector counting response, and create a series of virtual anthropomorphic phantoms based on national reference anthropometric data. Each phantom included an outer layer of adipose tissue and an inner core of lean tissue. Phantoms were designed for both genders representing ages 3.5 to 18.5 years with body sizes from the 5th to the 95th percentile based on body weight. In addition, a spherical surface source surrounding the WBC was modeled in order to measure the effects of subject mass on room background interference. Individual detector measurements showed good agreement with the MCNP model. The background source model came close to agreement with empirical measurements, but showed a trend deviating from unity with increasing subject size. Results from the MCNP simulation of the CNRC WBC agreed well with empirical measurements using BOMAB phantoms. Individual detector efficiency corrections were used to improve the accuracy of the model. Nonlinear multiple regression efficiency calibration equations were derived for each gender. Room background correction is critical in improving the accuracy of the WBC calibration.

  5. The probabilistic niche model reveals the niche structure and role of body size in a complex food web.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Williams

    Full Text Available The niche model has been widely used to model the structure of complex food webs, and yet the ecological meaning of the single niche dimension has not been explored. In the niche model, each species has three traits, niche position, diet position and feeding range. Here, a new probabilistic niche model, which allows the maximum likelihood set of trait values to be estimated for each species, is applied to the food web of the Benguela fishery. We also developed the allometric niche model, in which body size is used as the niche dimension. About 80% of the links in the empirical data are predicted by the probabilistic niche model, a significant improvement over recent models. As in the niche model, species are uniformly distributed on the niche axis. Feeding ranges are exponentially distributed, but diet positions are not uniformly distributed below the predator. Species traits are strongly correlated with body size, but the allometric niche model performs significantly worse than the probabilistic niche model. The best-fit parameter set provides a significantly better model of the structure of the Benguela food web than was previously available. The methodology allows the identification of a number of taxa that stand out as outliers either in the model's poor performance at predicting their predators or prey or in their parameter values. While important, body size alone does not explain the structure of the one-dimensional niche.

  6. Relationship between body size and homing ability in the genus Osmia (Hymenoptera; Megachilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maximum homing ability of female bees, that is, their capacity to return to the nest after being displaced a certain distance, is considered an estimate of their maximum foraging distance. We provide data on homing ability and body weight for Osmia lignaria and combine it with data for 5 other ...

  7. Phylogenetic diversity does not capture body size variation at risk in the world's mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz, Susanne A; Purvis, Andy

    2010-01-01

    Mammals contribute to important ecosystem processes and services, but many mammalian species are threatened with extinction. We compare how global patterns in three measures of mammalian diversity--species richness, phylogenetic diversity (PD) and body mass variance (BMV)--would change if all cur...

  8. Impact of maternal thyroperoxidase status on fetal body and brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Roneé E; Salihu, Hamisu M; Groer, Maureen W; Dagne, Getachew; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Mbah, Alfred K

    2014-01-01

    The obstetric consequences of abnormal thyroid function during pregnancy have been established. Less understood is the influence of maternal thyroid autoantibodies on infant outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of maternal thyroperoxidase (TPO) status on fetal/infant brain and body growth. Six-hundred thirty-one (631) euthyroid pregnant women were recruited from prenatal clinics in Tampa Bay, Florida, and the surrounding area between November 2007 and December 2010. TPO status was determined during pregnancy and fetal/infant brain and body growth variables were assessed at delivery. Regression analysis revealed maternal that TPO positivity was significantly associated with smaller head circumference, reduced brain weight, and lower brain-to-body ratio among infants born to TPO+ white, non-Hispanic mothers only, distinguishing race/ethnicity as an effect modifier in the relationship. No significant differences were noted in body growth measurements among infants born to TPO positive mothers of any racial/ethnic group. Currently, TPO antibody status is not assessed as part of the standard prenatal care laboratory work-up, but findings from this study suggest that fetal brain growth may be impaired by TPO positivity among certain populations; therefore autoantibody screening among high-risk subgroups may be useful for clinicians to determine whether prenatal thyroid treatment is warranted. PMID:24624307

  9. Impact of Maternal Thyroperoxidase Status on Fetal Body and Brain Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roneé E. Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The obstetric consequences of abnormal thyroid function during pregnancy have been established. Less understood is the influence of maternal thyroid autoantibodies on infant outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of maternal thyroperoxidase (TPO status on fetal/infant brain and body growth. Six-hundred thirty-one (631 euthyroid pregnant women were recruited from prenatal clinics in Tampa Bay, Florida, and the surrounding area between November 2007 and December 2010. TPO status was determined during pregnancy and fetal/infant brain and body growth variables were assessed at delivery. Regression analysis revealed maternal that TPO positivity was significantly associated with smaller head circumference, reduced brain weight, and lower brain-to-body ratio among infants born to TPO+ white, non-Hispanic mothers only, distinguishing race/ethnicity as an effect modifier in the relationship. No significant differences were noted in body growth measurements among infants born to TPO positive mothers of any racial/ethnic group. Currently, TPO antibody status is not assessed as part of the standard prenatal care laboratory work-up, but findings from this study suggest that fetal brain growth may be impaired by TPO positivity among certain populations; therefore autoantibody screening among high-risk subgroups may be useful for clinicians to determine whether prenatal thyroid treatment is warranted.

  10. Socializing Young Readers: A Content Analysis of Body Size Images in Caldecott Medal Winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedwick, Linda; Latham, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have examined gender issues in children's literature, but a review of the literature reveals that few studies have examined the instances of fatness in the images. Studying the fat representation in the images of children's literature is important because exposure to a variety of body types may slow the rate of children's body…

  11. GEOGRAPHIC BODY SIZE AND SHAPE VARIATION IN A MAINLAND Anolis (SQUAMATA: DACTYLOIDAE FROM NORTHWESTERN SOUTH AMERICA (COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lucia Calderón- Espinosa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO JA X-NONE Anolis auratus is a widely distributed species, from Costa Rica in Central America, through northern South America, includingColombia, Venezuela, northern Brazil, Surinam and the Guyanas. In Colombia, its widespread distribution across different life zones suggests that these lizards occupy different environments and exhibit different microhabitat use in different geographic areas. On the other hand, some observations suggest that this species prefers open areas, selecting grasslands over brushy areas, and thus, an alternative hypothesis is that microhabitat use is similar among different populations. In Anolis, body variables related to locomotion (body size and shape define structural microhabitat use, so two distinct patterns could be expected in this species: conservative or highly variable body size and shape throughout the species distribution. To test thesepredictions, we characterized geographic variation in morphometric traits of this species in Colombia. Females and males were similar in body size, but exhibited differences in some variables related to body shape. These characteristics also varied among males and females from different regions, suggesting heterogeneous use of structural microhabitat, between sexes and among populations. As an alternative, phylogenetic divergence among populations could also account for the observed differences. Absence of ecological and phylogenetic data limits our ability to identify the underlying causes of this pattern. However, we provide a general framework to explore hypotheses about evolution of body size and shape in this species.Variación geográfica en tamaño y forma corporalen un Anolis (Squamata: Dactyloidae continentaldel noroeste de Suramérica (ColombiaRESUMENAnolis auratus se distribuye desde Costa Rica en Centro América, el norte de Sur América, incluyendo Colombia, Venezuela, norte de Brasil, Surinam y las Guyanas. En

  12. Ideal Body Size as a Mediator for the Gender-Specific Association between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index: Evidence from an Upper-Middle-Income Country in the African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Maryam; Maurer, Jürgen; Stringhini, Silvia; Viswanathan, Barathi; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background: While obesity continues to rise globally, the associations between body size, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) seem to vary in different populations, and little is known on the contribution of perceived ideal body size in the social disparity of obesity in African countries. Purpose: We examined the gender and socioeconomic…

  13. Effects of body and organ size on absorbed dose: there is no standard patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of estimating the absorbed dose to organs and tissues of the human body due to the presence of a radiopharmaceutical in one or more organs is discussed. Complications are introduced by the fact that the body is not homogeneous and in many cases the organ shapes are not regular. Publications of the MIRD Committee have provided a direct means of estimating the absorbed dose (or absorbed fraction) for a number of radioisotopes. These estimates are based on Monte Carlo calculations for monoenergetic photons distributed uniformly in organs of an adult phantom. The medical physicist finds that his patient does not resemble the adult phantom. In addition, the absorbed fractions for the adult are not reasonable values for the child. This paper examines how these absorbed fraction estimates apply to a nonstandard patient

  14. The Super Size of America: An Economic Estimation of Body Mass Index and Obesity in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Inas Rashad; Michael Grossman; Shin-Yi Chou

    2005-01-01

    The increased prevalence of obesity in the United States stresses the pressing need for answers as to why this rapid rise has occurred. This paper employs micro-level data from the First, Second, and Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys to determine the effects that various state-level variables have on body mass index and obesity. These variables, which include the per capita number of restaurants, the gasoline tax, the cigarette tax, and clean indoor air laws, display man...

  15. Genetic parameters of body size in purebred and crossbred dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, O W; Kelly, M G; McDaniel, B T; McDowell, R E

    1980-11-01

    Breed additive, breed maternal, and heterozygotic effects on body weight, height at withers, depth of fore-chest, girth of fore-chest, length from withers to pins, length from withers to hips, and length from hips to pins at 6, 12, 18, and 30 mo of age were estimated from linear regression analyses. Data were available on 87 purebred Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Holstein, and 213 two-way, three-way, and five-eights crosses. Birth year, birth month, and age of dam were significant environmental effects. Ayrshire additive effects were smaller than Holstein for all traits at all ages except length from hips to pins at 6 and 12 mo of age. Additive effects for Brown Swiss were smaller than for Holstein for body weight at 12 mo, height at withers at all ages, depth of fore-chest and girth of fore-chest at 6, 12, and 18 mo, length from withers to pins and length from withers to hips at 12 and 30 mo, and length from hips to pins at 18 mo. Breed maternal effects were not significant for any trait at any age. Means of crossbreds generally exceeded means of parental breeds, especially body weight. Average heterosis for body weight was 3.0% at 6 mo, 4.6% at 12 mo, 5.0% at 18 mo, and 3.5% at 30 mo of age. Heterosis for weight increased with age through 18 mo and declined by 30 mo of age. Heterosis for other traits was generally 1 to 2% with no trend with age. PMID:7440820

  16. Decline in top predator body size and changing climate alter trophic structure in an oceanic ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy L Shackell; Frank, Kenneth T.; Fisher, Jonathan A. D.; Petrie, Brian; Leggett, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Globally, overfishing large-bodied groundfish populations has resulted in substantial increases in their prey populations. Where it has been examined, the effects of overfishing have cascaded down the food chain. In an intensively fished area on the western Scotian Shelf, Northwest Atlantic, the biomass of prey species increased exponentially (doubling time of 11 years) even though the aggregate biomass of their predators remained stable over 38 years. Concomitant reductions in herbivorous zo...

  17. Impact of Glucose Tolerance Status, Sex, and Body Size on Glucose Absorption Patterns During OGTTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K.; Pacini, G.; Nolan, J. J.;

    2013-01-01

    .RESULTSMore rapid glucose absorption (P 0.036) and reduced late glucose absorption (P 0.039) were observed in the i-IFG group relative to NGT and i-IGT groups. Women with i-IGT had a lower early glucose absorption than did men with i-IGT (P = 0.041); however, this difference did not persist when differences in body...

  18. Reproductive characteristics of characid fish species (Teleostei, Characiformes) and their relationship with body size and phylogeny

    OpenAIRE

    Marco A. Azevedo

    2010-01-01

    In this study, I investigated the reproductive biology of fish species from the family Characidae of the order Characiformes. I also investigated the relationship between reproductive biology and body weight and interpreted this relationship in a phylogenetic context. The results of the present study contribute to the understanding of the evolution of the reproductive strategies present in the species of this family. Most larger characid species and other characiforms exhibit a reproductive p...

  19. Allometric scaling relationship between frequency of intestinal contraction and body size in rodents and rabbits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hossein-Ali Arab; Samad Muhammadnejad; Saeideh Naeimi; Attieh Arab

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to establish an allometric scaling relationship between the frequency of intestinal contractions and body mass of different mammalian species. The frequency of intestinal contractions of rabbit, guinea pig, rat and mouse were measured using an isolated organ system. The isolated rings were prepared from proximal segments of jejunums and the frequency of contractions was recorded by an isometric force procedure. The coefficients of the obtained allometric equation were ascertained by computation of least squares after logarithmic transformation of both body mass and frequency. Significant differences ( <0.001) were shown in the frequency of contractions between different species. The highest frequency that corresponded to the mice was 57.7 min−1 and the 95% confidence interval (CI) ranged from 45.4 to 70, while rabbits showed the lowest frequency (12.71 min−1, CI: 8.6–16.8). Logarithms of frequency were statistically proportional to logarithms of body mass (r=0.99; < 0.001). The data fitted an equation = 18:51 -0.31 and the 95% confidence interval of the exponent ranged from −0.30 to −0.32. The results of this study suggest that it is probably possible to extrapolate the intestinal contraction frequency of other mammalian species by the means of allometry scaling.

  20. Allometric scaling relationship between frequency of intestinal contraction and body size in rodents and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Hossein-Ali; Muhammadnejad, Samad; Naeimi, Saeideh; Arab, Attieh

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to establish an allometric scaling relationship between the frequency of intestinal contractions and body mass of different mammalian species. The frequency of intestinal contractions of rabbit, guinea pig, rat and mouse were measured using an isolated organ system. The isolated rings were prepared from proximal segments of jejunums and the frequency of contractions was recorded by an isometric force procedure. The coefficients of the obtained allometric equation were ascertained by computation of least squares after logarithmic transformation of both body mass and frequency. Significant differences (p less than 0.001) were shown in the frequency of contractions between different species. The highest frequency that corresponded to the mice was 57.7 min-1 and the 95 percent confidence interval (CI) ranged from 45.4 to 70, while rabbits showed the lowest frequency (12.71 min-1, CI: 8.6-16.8). Logarithms of frequency were statistically proportional to logarithms of body mass (r00.99; p less than 0.001). The data fitted an equation F 1/4 18:51B 0:31 and the 95 percent confidence interval of the exponent ranged from -0.30 to -0.32. The results of this study suggest that it is probably possible to extrapolate the intestinal contraction frequency of other mammalian species by the means of allometry scaling. PMID:23660674

  1. The influence of body size on the intermittent locomotion of a pelagic schooling fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Takuji; Fujioka, Ko; Fukuda, Hiromu; Mitamura, Hiromichi; Ichikawa, Kotaro; Arai, Nobuaki

    2016-06-15

    There is a potential trade-off between grouping and the optimizing of the energetic efficiency of individual locomotion. Although intermittent locomotion, e.g. glide and upward swimming (GAU), can reduce the cost of locomotion at the individual level, the link between the optimization of individual intermittent locomotion and the behavioural synchronization in a group, especially among members with different sizes, is unknown. Here, we continuously monitored the schooling behaviour of a negatively buoyant fish, Pacific bluefin tuna (N = 10; 21.0 ∼ 24.5 cm), for 24 h in an open-sea net cage using accelerometry. All the fish repeated GAU during the recording periods. Although the GAU synchrony was maintained at high levels (overall mean = 0.62 for the cross-correlation coefficient of the GAU timings), larger fish glided for a longer duration per glide and more frequently than smaller fish. Similar-sized pairs showed significantly higher GAU synchrony than differently sized pairs. Our accelerometry results and the simulation based on hydrodynamic theory indicated that the advantage of intermittent locomotion in energy savings may not be fully optimized for smaller animals in a group when faced with the maintenance of group cohesion, suggesting that size assortative shoaling would be advantageous. PMID:27252017

  2. Shrinkage of body size of small insects: A possible link to global warming?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jihuan [College of Science, Donghua University, 1882 Yan' an Xilu Road, Shanghai 200051 (China)]. E-mail: jhhe@dhu.edu.cn

    2007-11-15

    The increase of global mean surface temperature leads to the increase of metabolic rate. This might lead to an unexpected threat from the small insect world. Global warming shrinks cell size, shorten lifespan, and accelerate evolution. The present note speculates on possible connections between allometry and E-infinity theory.

  3. Shrinkage of body size of small insects: A possible link to global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase of global mean surface temperature leads to the increase of metabolic rate. This might lead to an unexpected threat from the small insect world. Global warming shrinks cell size, shorten lifespan, and accelerate evolution. The present note speculates on possible connections between allometry and E-infinity theory

  4. The Influence of Body Size and Food Preparation Practices on the Uptake and Loss of Radionuclides in Cumbrian Winkles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that larger winkles may show higher concentrations of radioactivity and that critical group members, when providing MAFF with sub-samples of winkles they have collected, retain the largest organisms for consumption. If both these hypotheses are true, this could imply higher doses than typically estimated. Conversely, it is assumed that winkles are consumed immediately following collection, without gut clearance, which may overestimate the consumption dose. Results obtained in this study indicate the following. (1) Inverse correlations are observed between concentration and body size for 106Ru and 241Am. A positive relationship is observed for 60Co. Although concentrations of 137Cs decrease with increasing body size the negative correlation is not significant, while 110Agm concentration is independent of body size. (2) There is no evidence that critical group consumers retain larger organisms. In any case, consuming larger or smaller winkles, over the size range tested, probably does not affect dose uptake by more than 10%. (3) Concentrations of plutonium and americium decline to 50% of original by soaking winkles for 18 h. Concentrations of caesium are also reduced. (4) Concentrations of 106Ru, 110Agm and 60Co are not reduced by soaking. Overall, current approaches to deriving consumption doses are not likely to suffer from selection bias. Overnight soaking of winkles in saline solution could decrease radiation doses to consumers by a factor of nearly 2; provided that the fractional gut transfer of activity remaining is unaffected. This last assumption, however is questionable and the current approach should provide a 'reasonably conservative' dose estimate appropriate to critical group studies. (author)

  5. Mechanisms of temperature-dependent swimming: the importance of physics, physiology and body size in determining protist swimming speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Oliver S; Petchey, Owen L; Humphries, Stuart

    2010-12-15

    Body temperatures and thus physiological rates of poikilothermic organisms are determined by environmental temperature. The power an organism has available for swimming is largely dependent on physiological rates and thus body temperature. However, retarding forces such as drag are contingent on the temperature-dependent physical properties of water and on an organism's size. Consequently, the swimming ability of poikilotherms is highly temperature dependent. The importance of the temperature-dependent physical properties of water (e.g. viscosity) in determining swimming speed is poorly understood. Here we propose a semi-mechanistic model to describe how biological rates, size and the physics of the environment contribute to the temperature dependency of microbial swimming speed. Data on the swimming speed and size of a predatory protist and its protist prey were collected and used to test our model. Data were collected by manipulating both the temperature and the viscosity (independently of temperature) of the organism's environment. Protists were either cultured in their test environment (for several generations) or rapidly exposed to their test environment to assess their ability to adapt or acclimate to treatments. Both biological rates and the physics of the environment were predicted to and observed to contribute to the swimming speed of protists. Body size was not temperature dependent, and protists expressed some ability to acclimate to changes in either temperature or viscosity. Overall, using our parameter estimates and novel model, we are able to suggest that 30 to 40% (depending on species) of the response in swimming speed associated with a reduction in temperature from 20 to 5°C is due to viscosity. Because encounter rates between protist predators and their prey are determined by swimming speed, temperature- and viscosity-dependent swimming speeds are likely to result in temperature- and viscosity-dependent trophic interactions. PMID:21113003

  6. Perception of body size among Mexican teachers and parents Percepción del tamaño corporal en profesores y padres mexicanos

    OpenAIRE

    A. Jiménez-Cruz; M. Bacardí-Gascón; Castellón-Zaragoza, A.; J. L. García-Gallardo; M. Hovell

    2007-01-01

    Obesity in Mexico has reached epidemic proportions; and body image and body satisfaction might be culturally related. Body dissatisfaction has been related to low self-esteem. The aim of this study was to assess the range of perception among Mexican teachers and parents of the ideal body size of adults, boys and girls. Two-hundred and five teachers and eighty parents from Tijuana and Tecate schools participated in the study. Participants were asked to indicate the ideal body size for each gro...

  7. The evolution of body size under environmental gradients in ectotherms: why should Bergmann's rule apply to lizards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tregenza Tom

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of environmental gradients on the evolution of life history traits is a central issue in macroecology and evolutionary biology. A number of hypotheses have been formulated to explain factors shaping patterns of variation in animal mass. One such example is Bergmann's rule, which predicts that body size will be positively correlated with latitude and elevation, and hence, with decreasing environmental temperatures. A generally accepted explanation for this phenotypic response is that as body mass increases, body surface area gets proportionally smaller, which contributes to reduced rates of heat-loss. Phylogenetic and non-phylogenetic evidence reveals that endotherms follow Bergmann's rule. In contrast, while previous non-phylogenetic studies supported this prediction in up to 75% of ectotherms, recent phylogenetic comparative analyses suggest that its validity for these organisms is controversial and less understood. Moreover, little attention has been paid to why some ectotherms conform to this rule, while others do not. Here, we investigate Bergmann's rule in the six main clades forming the Liolaemus genus, one of the largest and most environmentally diverse genera of terrestrial vertebrates. A recent study conducted on some species belonging to four of these six clades concluded that Liolaemus species follow Bergmann's rule, representing the only known phylogenetic support for this model in lizards. However, a later reassessment of this evidence, performed on one of the four analysed clades, produced contrasting conclusions. Results Our results fail to support Bergmann's rule in Liolaemus lizards. Non-phylogenetic and phylogenetic analyses showed that none of the studied clades experience increasing body size with increasing latitude and elevation. Conclusion Most physiological and behavioural processes in ectotherms depend directly upon their body temperature. In cold environments, adaptations to gain heat

  8. Modification effects of physical activity and protein intake on heritability of body size and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Lallukka, Tea;

    2009-01-01

    Mx statistical package (Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA). RESULTS: High physical activity was associated with lower mean values, and a high proportion of protein in the diet was associated with higher mean BMI, waist...... circumference, and percentage body fat and a reduction in genetic and environmental variances. Genetic modification by physical activity was statistically significant for BMI (-0.18; 95% CI: -0.31, -0.05) and waist circumference (-0.14; 95% CI: -0.22, -0.05) in the merged data. A high proportion of protein in...

  9. Body size and the risk of biliary tract cancer: a population-based study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hsing, A W; Sakoda, L C; Rashid, A; Chen, J.; Shen, M. C.; Han, T Q; Wang, B. S.; Gao, Y.T. (Yu-Tang)

    2008-01-01

    Though obesity is an established risk factor for gall bladder cancer, its role in cancers of the extrahepatic bile ducts and ampulla of Vater is less clear, as also is the role of abdominal obesity. In a population-based case–control study of biliary tract cancer in Shanghai, China, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for biliary tract cancer in relation to anthropometric measures, including body mass index (BMI) at various ages and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), a...

  10. Trap geometry in three giant montane pitcher plant species from Borneo is a function of tree shrew body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lijin; Moran, Jonathan A; Clarke, Charles

    2010-04-01

    *Three Bornean pitcher plant species, Nepenthes lowii, N. rajah and N. macrophylla, produce modified pitchers that 'capture' tree shrew faeces for nutritional benefit. Tree shrews (Tupaia montana) feed on exudates produced by glands on the inner surfaces of the pitcher lids and defecate into the pitchers. *Here, we tested the hypothesis that pitcher geometry in these species is related to tree shrew body size by comparing the pitcher characteristics with those of five other 'typical' (arthropod-trapping) Nepenthes species. *We found that only pitchers with large orifices and lids that are concave, elongated and oriented approximately at right angles to the orifice capture faeces. The distance from the tree shrews' food source (that is, the lid nectar glands) to the front of the pitcher orifice precisely matches the head plus body length of T. montana in the faeces-trapping species, and is a function of orifice size and the angle of lid reflexion. *Substantial changes to nutrient acquisition strategies in carnivorous plants may occur through simple modifications to trap geometry. This extraordinary plant-animal interaction adds to a growing body of evidence that Nepenthes represents a candidate model for adaptive radiation with regard to nitrogen sequestration strategies. PMID:20100203

  11. Effect of Ascaridia galli infection on histopathologic description, size of small intestines villi surface and body weight change in starters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Zalizar

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Nematode Ascaridia galli is an important parasitic disease in poultry and is responsible for considerable economic losses in retarded growth and lowered egg production. The effects of A. galli infection based on histopathologic description, size of small intestines villi surface and body weight change in starters was investigated. One hundred and thirty five day old chicks (DOC were divided into three groups for three levels of infection dose rate (0,800 and 8000 infective eggs with 3 replications of 45 DOC each. Infections were carried out every week respectively from week 2th until week 5th. Results showed that the infection of A. galli caused degeneration and necroses in villi ephitelial cells and crypts of small intestine and infiltration of leucocytes. In the heavy infection group some epithelial cells were replaced by fibrocytes. A. galli infection decreased daily body weight gain of starter lower (5.5% in light and 13.4% in heavy dosage infection compared to that of the non infected group. After six weeks of heavy infection the size of small intestine villi surface was decreasing to 20.0%, while the daily body weight gain was decreasing to 12.3% compared to that of the non infection group.

  12. Penis size interacts with body shape and height to influence male attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Mautz, Brian S.; Wong, Bob B M; Peters, Richard A.; Jennions, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Compelling evidence from many animal taxa indicates that male genitalia are often under postcopulatory sexual selection for characteristics that increase a male’s relative fertilization success. There could, however, also be direct precopulatory female mate choice based on male genital traits. Before clothing, the nonretractable human penis would have been conspicuous to potential mates. This observation has generated suggestions that human penis size partly evolved because of female choice. ...

  13. Body size, swimming speed, or thermal sensitivity? Predator-imposed selection on amphibian larvae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gvoždík, Lumír; Smolinský, Radovan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 238 (2015), s. 238. ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2170; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-07140S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Antipredator strategies * Ichthyosaura * Newts * Performance- fitness * Predator–prey interaction * Predator–prey size ratio * Selection differential * Selection experiment * Viability selection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.368, year: 2014

  14. Behavioural Syndrome in a Solitary Predator Is Independent of Body Size and Growth Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Nyqvist, Marina J.; Gozlan, Rodolphe E.; Cucherousset, Julien; Britton, J. Robert

    2012-01-01

    Models explaining behavioural syndromes often focus on state-dependency, linking behavioural variation to individual differences in other phenotypic features. Empirical studies are, however, rare. Here, we tested for a size and growth-dependent stable behavioural syndrome in the juvenile-stages of a solitary apex predator (pike, Esox lucius), shown as repeatable foraging behaviour across risk. Pike swimming activity, latency to prey attack, number of successful and unsuccessful prey attacks w...

  15. Mammalian Collection on Noah's Ark: The Effects of Beauty, Brain and Body Size

    OpenAIRE

    Frynta, Daniel; Šimková, Olga; Lišková, Silvie; Landová, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The importance of today's zoological gardens as the so-called “Noah's Ark” grows as the natural habitat of many species quickly diminishes. Their potential to shelter a large amount of individuals from many species gives us the opportunity to reintroduce a species that disappeared in nature. However, the selection of animals to be kept in zoos worldwide is highly selective and depends on human decisions driven by both ecological criteria such as population size or vulnerability and audience-d...

  16. Estimating animal populations and body sizes from burrows: Marine ecologists have their heads buried in the sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Lucrezi, Serena; Peterson, Charles H.; Connolly, Rod M.; Olds, Andrew D.; Althaus, Franziska; Hyndes, Glenn A.; Maslo, Brooke; Gilby, Ben L.; Leon, Javier X.; Weston, Michael A.; Lastra, Mariano; Williams, Alan; Schoeman, David S.

    2016-06-01

    Most ecological studies require knowledge of animal abundance, but it can be challenging and destructive of habitat to obtain accurate density estimates for cryptic species, such as crustaceans that tunnel deeply into the seafloor, beaches, or mudflats. Such fossorial species are, however, widely used in environmental impact assessments, requiring sampling techniques that are reliable, efficient, and environmentally benign for these species and environments. Counting and measuring the entrances of burrows made by cryptic species is commonly employed to index population and body sizes of individuals. The fundamental premise is that burrow metrics consistently predict density and size. Here we review the evidence for this premise. We also review criteria for selecting among sampling methods: burrow counts, visual censuses, and physical collections. A simple 1:1 correspondence between the number of holes and population size cannot be assumed. Occupancy rates, indexed by the slope of regression models, vary widely between species and among sites for the same species. Thus, 'average' or 'typical' occupancy rates should not be extrapolated from site- or species specific field validations and then be used as conversion factors in other situations. Predictions of organism density made from burrow counts often have large uncertainty, being double to half of the predicted mean value. Whether such prediction uncertainty is 'acceptable' depends on investigators' judgements regarding the desired detectable effect sizes. Regression models predicting body size from burrow entrance dimensions are more precise, but parameter estimates of most models are specific to species and subject to site-to-site variation within species. These results emphasise the need to undertake thorough field validations of indirect census techniques that include tests of how sensitive predictive models are to changes in habitat conditions or human impacts. In addition, new technologies (e.g. drones

  17. Body Size Regression Formulae, Proximate Composition and Energy Density of Eastern Bering Sea Mesopelagic Fish and Squid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth H Sinclair

    Full Text Available The ecological significance of fish and squid of the mesopelagic zone (200 m-1000 m is evident by their pervasiveness in the diets of a broad spectrum of upper pelagic predators including other fishes and squids, seabirds and marine mammals. As diel vertical migrators, mesopelagic micronekton are recognized as an important trophic link between the deep scattering layer and upper surface waters, yet fundamental aspects of the life history and energetic contribution to the food web for most are undescribed. Here, we present newly derived regression equations for 32 species of mesopelagic fish and squid based on the relationship between body size and the size of hard parts typically used to identify prey species in predator diet studies. We describe the proximate composition and energy density of 31 species collected in the eastern Bering Sea during May 1999 and 2000. Energy values are categorized by body size as a proxy for relative age and can be cross-referenced with the derived regression equations. Data are tabularized to facilitate direct application to predator diet studies and food web models.

  18. Changes in body weight and eye size in female European eel kept in fresh and salt water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Nowosad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The eel is a catadromous fish which spends most of its life in freshwater and adults swim to the Sargasso Sea region to spawn. While preparing for the reproductive process, eels undergo a metamorphosis to become what is called silver eel; a process involving changes in the colour and weight of the body and an increase in the eye size. These are indicators of fish maturity and they facilitate the selection of fish for reproduction under controlled conditions. During this study, changes in the body weight (BW and eye size in female European eel were observed while being given weekly hormonal injections of 20 mg kg–1 carp pituitary homogenate and kept in 15°C freshwater and in 15°C saltwater with a salinity of 32-33‰. Fish kept in saltwater but not subjected to hormonal stimulation were used as a control group. Furthermore, after the experiment was finished, females in the control group were kept for next 5 months, with the same environmental parameters maintained. Differences between the treated groups were observed as early as week 4 of the experiment. An increase in fish BW was observed in fish kept both in salt and freshwater which were subjected to hormonal stimulation. On the other hand, changes in eye size were observed in the fish kept in saltwater, both in those hormonally stimulated and otherwise. The eye diameter in the fish kept in fresh after hormonal stimulation did not change significantly.

  19. Development of Dietary Patterns Spanning Infancy and Toddlerhood: Relation to Body Size, Composition and Metabolic Risk Markers at Three Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B. B.; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher;

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the development of dietary patterns during toddlerhood and the relation to growth and health. The study objective was to characterise the development of dietary patterns from 9-36 mo of age and investigate the association to body size, body composition and metabolic risk...... markers at 36 mo. Food records were filled out at 9, 18 and 36 mo of age (n = 229). Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis (PCA). Three dietary patterns were identified: Transition Food, Healthy Food and Traditional Food. The course of development in dietary patterns from 9-36 mo...... indicated tracking for a relatively large group of participants in the three patterns. Transition Food and Healthy Food were associated with some of the investigated outcomes. Children with lower adherence to the Transition Food pattern than average at 18 and 36 mo irrespectively of intake at 9 mo had...

  20. Systemic exposure to inhaled beclometasone/formoterol DPI is age and body size dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, B L; Govoni, M; Kreiner-Møller, E;

    2014-01-01

    normalization for the BDP/formoterol dose in the three populations the AUC and peak concentration (C(max)) correlated inversely with age and body surface area of the patients (r ≤ -0.53; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The systemic exposure to the active ingredients of BDP/formoterol administered as DPI correlates......AIM: Prescription of inhaled corticosteroids to children with asthma is recommended at half the nominal dose of adults in order to reduce the risk of systemic side effects. However, there is a lack of pharmacokinetic trials supporting such dose reduction regimens. Therefore, we aimed to compare the...... systemic exposure to the active ingredients of a fixed dose combination of beclometasone-dipropionate (BDP) and formoterol after dry powder inhaler (DPI) administration in children, adolescents and adults. METHODS: The pharmacokinetic profiles of formoterol and beclometasone-17-monopropionate (B17MP...

  1. Sex-specific divergence for body size and desiccation-related traits in Drosophila hydei from the western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Bhawna; Parkash, Ravi

    2014-11-01

    Sex-specific-differences are a widespread source of genetic variation in various Drosophila species. In the present study, we have examined desiccation survival in males and females of Drosophila hydei from colder and drier montane conditions of the western Himalayas (altitudinal populations; 600-2202 m). In contrast with most other studies in drosophilids, D. hydei males exhibited comparatively higher desiccation resistance despite smaller body size compared to females. Accordingly, we tested the physiological basis of such adaptations in both sexes of D. hydei. Body size traits (wing length, wet weight and dry weight) were ~1.2 fold higher in females than males. However, desiccation resistance was 10 to 13 h higher in males than females. These differences matched enhanced storage of trehalose content (~1.2 fold), higher hemolymph content (~1.2 fold) and enhanced cuticular lipid mass (~1.5 fold) in males than females. Water loss before succumbing to death (dehydration tolerance) was much higher in males (~81%) than females (~64%). A greater loss of hemolymph water until death under desiccation stress was associated with higher desiccation resistance in males. Further, there were lacks of differences in the rate of water loss, rate of trehalose utilization and rate of hemolymph depletion between the sexes in D. hydei. Therefore, sex-specific differences in desiccation resistance of D. hydei were independent of body size as well as the exhaustion of metabolite reserves and rather were caused by the higher dehydration tolerance as well as higher acquisition of hemolymph and trehalose contents. PMID:25045840

  2. Caterpillars selected for large body size and short development time are more susceptible to oxygen-related stress

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Jon F.; Cease, Arianne J.; VandenBrooks, John M.; Albert, Todd; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that higher growth rates may be associated with reduced capacities for stress tolerance and increased accumulated damage due to reactive oxygen species. We tested the response of Manduca sexta (Sphingidae) lines selected for large or small body size and short development time to hypoxia (10 kPa) and hyperoxia (25, 33, and 40 kPa); both hypoxia and hyperoxia reduce reproduction and oxygen levels over 33 kPa have been shown to increase oxidative damage in insects. Under n...

  3. Effects of the Size of Cosmological N-body Simulations on Physical Quantities – II: Halo Formation and Destruction Rate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jayanti Prasad

    2007-06-01

    In this study we show how errors due to finite box size affect formation and the destruction rate for haloes in cosmological N-body simulations. In an earlier study we gave an analytic prescription of finding the corrections in the mass function. Following the same approach, in this paper we give analytical expressions for corrections in the formation rate, destruction rate and the rate of change in comoving number density, and compute their expected values for the power law ( = -2) and LCDM models.

  4. Phenotypic plasticity of body size in a temperate population of Drosophila melanogaster: when the temperature–size rule does not apply

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jean R. David; Hélène Legout; Brigitte Moreteau

    2006-04-01

    A natural population of Drosophila melanogaster in southern France was sampled in three different years and 10 isofemale lines were investigated from each sample. Two size-related traits, wing and thorax length, were measured and the wing/thorax ratio was also calculated. Phenotypic plasticity was analysed after development at seven different constant temperatures, ranging from 12°C to 31°C. The three year samples exhibited similar reaction norms, suggesting a stable genetic architecture in the natural population. The whole sample (30 lines) was used to determine precisely the shape of each reaction norm, using a derivative analysis. The practical conclusion was that polynomial adjustments could be used in all cases, but with different degrees: linear for the wing/thorax ratio, quadratic for thorax length, and cubic for wing length. Both wing and thorax length exhibited concave reaction norms, with a maximum within the viable thermal range. The temperatures of the maxima were, however, quite different, around 15°C for the wing and 19.5°C for the thorax. Assuming that thorax length is a better estimate of body size, it is not possible to state that increasing the temperature results in monotonically decreasing size (the temperature–size rule), although this is often seen to be the case for genetic variations in latitudinal clines. The variability of the traits was investigated at two levels—within and between lines—and expressed as a coefficient of variation. The within-line (environmental) variability revealed a regular, quadratic convex reaction norm for the three traits, with a minimum around 21°C. This temperature of minimum variability may be considered as a physiological optimum, while extreme temperatures are stressful. The between-line (genetic) variability could also be adjusted to quadratic polynomials, but the curvature parameters were not significant. Our results show that the mean values of the traits and their variance are both plastic, but

  5. Prediagnostic body size and breast cancer survival in the E3N cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    His, Mathilde; Fagherazzi, Guy; Mesrine, Sylvie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure

    2016-09-01

    Obesity has been associated with poor breast cancer prognosis, however most studies have focused on body mass index (BMI) and few have considered the distribution of adipose tissue. We investigated associations between prediagnostic adiposity and breast cancer survival, considering BMI, waist and hip circumferences (WC and HC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Analyses included 3,006 women from the French E3N prospective cohort study diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer between 1995 and 2008. We investigated overall, breast cancer-specific, and disease-free survival, overall and according to stage, menopausal and hormonal status and year of diagnosis, using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for tumor characteristics and lifestyle risk factors. Women with a prediagnostic HC > 100 cm were at increased risk of death from all causes (hazard ratio (HR)>100 vs breast cancer (HR>100 vs cancer event (HR>100 vs survival after breast cancer. Our study underlines the importance of going beyond BMI when studying the association between adiposity and breast cancer survival. Further studies should be conducted to confirm our results on hip circumference. PMID:27106037

  6. Monte Carlo simulation of a scanning detector whole body counter and the effect of BOMAB phantom size on the calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gary H; Burns, Linda C; Guerriere, Steven

    2002-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulation has been used to model the Human Monitoring Laboratory's scanning detector whole body counter. This paper has also shown that a scanning detector counting system can be satisfactorily simulated by putting the detector in different places relative to the phantom and averaging the results. This technique was verified by experimental work that obtained an agreement of 96% between scanning and averaging. The BOMAB phantom family in use at the Human Monitoring Laboratory was also modeled so that both counting efficiency and size correction factors could be estimated. It was found that the size correction factors lie in the region of 2.4 to 0.66 depending on phantom size and photon energy. The efficiency results from the MCNP scanning simulations were 97% of the measured scanning efficiency. A single function that fits counting efficiency, size, and photon energy was also developed. The function gives predicted efficiencies that are in the range of +10% to -8% of the true value. PMID:12240728

  7. A comparison of larval density and low dose rate irradiation effects on amphibian body size at metamorphosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amphibian larvae undergo substantial morphological and physiological changes as they metamorphose into adults. This period of rapid change and enhanced cell division could increase their sensitivity to external stressors. In this study, we were interested in possible differences between natural and anthropogenic stressor effects during the period just prior to metamorphosis. We studied this by exposing late-stage Scaphiopus holbrookii tadpoles in different larval densities to four irradiation dose rates (0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1) from 137Cs. Life history traits important for population dynamics, such as body size at metamorphosis and development rate, were measured. Results suggest that the ecological factor larval density had a much more profound effect on juvenile body size at metamorphosis than low-dose rate radiation. The development rate measured as age at metamorphosis was not effected by the two stressors. Radiation had no impact on the endpoints we measured; giving credence to the IAEA guidance that a dose rate smaller than 10 mGy d-1 is protective of aquatic biota. (author)(tk)

  8. A comparison of larval density and low dose rate irradiation effects on amphibian body size at metamorphosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, K.; Scott, D.E.; Tsyusko, O.; Coughlin, D.P.; Hinton, T.G.

    2008-07-01

    Amphibian larvae undergo substantial morphological and physiological changes as they metamorphose into adults. This period of rapid change and enhanced cell division could increase their sensitivity to external stressors. In this study, we were interested in possible differences between natural and anthropogenic stressor effects during the period just prior to metamorphosis. We studied this by exposing late-stage Scaphiopus holbrookii tadpoles in different larval densities to four irradiation dose rates (0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1) from 137Cs. Life history traits important for population dynamics, such as body size at metamorphosis and development rate, were measured. Results suggest that the ecological factor larval density had a much more profound effect on juvenile body size at metamorphosis than low-dose rate radiation. The development rate measured as age at metamorphosis was not effected by the two stressors. Radiation had no impact on the endpoints we measured; giving credence to the IAEA guidance that a dose rate smaller than 10 mGy d-1 is protective of aquatic biota. (author)(tk)

  9. Adaptive divergence in body size overrides the effects of plasticity across natural habitats in the brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogell, Björn; Dannewitz, Johan; Palm, Stefan; Dahl, Jonas; Petersson, Erik; Laurila, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    The evolution of life-history traits is characterized by trade-offs between different selection pressures, as well as plasticity across environmental conditions. Yet, studies on local adaptation are often performed under artificial conditions, leaving two issues unexplored: (i) how consistent are laboratory inferred local adaptations under natural conditions and (ii) how much phenotypic variation is attributed to phenotypic plasticity and to adaptive evolution, respectively, across environmental conditions? We reared fish from six locally adapted (domesticated and wild) populations of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta) in one semi-natural and three natural streams and recorded a key life-history trait (body size at the end of first growth season). We found that population-specific reaction norms were close to parallel across different streams and Q ST was similar - and larger than F ST - within all streams, indicating a consistency of local adaptation in body size across natural environments. The amount of variation explained by population origin exceeded the variation across stream environments, indicating that genetic effects derived from adaptive processes have a stronger effect on phenotypic variation than plasticity induced by environmental conditions. These results suggest that plasticity does not "swamp" the phenotypic variation, and that selection may thus be efficient in generating genetic change. PMID:23919140

  10. Herbivory and body size: allometries of diet quality and gastrointestinal physiology, and implications for herbivore ecology and dinosaur gigantism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Clauss

    Full Text Available Digestive physiology has played a prominent role in explanations for terrestrial herbivore body size evolution and size-driven diversification and niche differentiation. This is based on the association of increasing body mass (BM with diets of lower quality, and with putative mechanisms by which a higher BM could translate into a higher digestive efficiency. Such concepts, however, often do not match empirical data. Here, we review concepts and data on terrestrial herbivore BM, diet quality, digestive physiology and metabolism, and in doing so give examples for problems in using allometric analyses and extrapolations. A digestive advantage of larger BM is not corroborated by conceptual or empirical approaches. We suggest that explanatory models should shift from physiological to ecological scenarios based on the association of forage quality and biomass availability, and the association between BM and feeding selectivity. These associations mostly (but not exclusively allow large herbivores to use low quality forage only, whereas they allow small herbivores the use of any forage they can physically manage. Examples of small herbivores able to subsist on lower quality diets are rare but exist. We speculate that this could be explained by evolutionary adaptations to the ecological opportunity of selective feeding in smaller animals, rather than by a physiologic or metabolic necessity linked to BM. For gigantic herbivores such as sauropod dinosaurs, other factors than digestive physiology appear more promising candidates to explain evolutionary drives towards extreme BM.

  11. Influence of detector pixel size, TOF resolution and DOI on image quality in MR-compatible whole-body PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimization of a whole-body PET system remains a challenging task, as the imaging performance is influenced by a complex interaction of different design parameters. However, it is not always clear which parameters have the largest impact on image quality and are most eligible for optimization. To determine this, we need to be able to assess their influence on image quality. We performed Monte-Carlo simulations of a whole-body PET scanner to predict the influence on image quality of three detector parameters: the TOF resolution, the transverse pixel size and depth-of-interaction (DOI)-correction. The inner diameter of the PET scanner was 65 cm, small enough to allow physical integration into a simultaneous PET-MR system. Point sources were used to evaluate the influence of transverse pixel size and DOI-correction on spatial resolution as function of radial distance. To evaluate the influence on contrast recovery and pixel noise a cylindrical phantom of 35 cm diameter was used, representing a large patient. The phantom contained multiple hot lesions with 5 mm diameter. These lesions were placed at radial distances of 50, 100 and 150 mm from the center of the field-of-view, to be able to study the effects at different radial positions. The non-prewhitening (NPW) observer was used for objective analysis of the detectability of the hot lesions in the cylindrical phantom. Based on this analysis the NPW-SNR was used to quantify the relative improvements in image quality due to changes of the variable detector parameters. The image quality of a whole-body PET scanner can be improved significantly by reducing the transverse pixel size from 4 to 2.6 mm and improving the TOF resolution from 600 to 400 ps and further from 400 to 200 ps. Compared to pixel size, the TOF resolution has the larger potential to increase image quality for the simulated phantom. The introduction of two layer DOI-correction only leads to a modest improvement for the spheres at radial distance of

  12. Associations between adiposity, hormones, and gains in height, whole-body height-adjusted bone size, and size-adjusted bone mineral content in 8- to 11-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Ritz, Christian; Larnkjær, Anni;

    2016-01-01

    We examined fat-independent associations of hormones with height and whole-body bone size and mineral content in 633 school children. IGF-1 and osteocalcin predict growth in height, while fat, osteocalcin, and in girls also, IGF-1 predict growth in bone size. Leptin and ghrelin are inversely...... associated with bone size in girls. INTRODUCTION: Obesity causes larger bone size and bone mass, but the role of hormones in this up-regulation of bone in obesity is not well elucidated. We examined longitudinal associations between baseline body fat mass (FM), and fat-independent fasting levels of ghrelin......, adiponectin, leptin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1), osteocalcin, and intact parathyroid hormone, and subsequent changes in height and in whole-body height-adjusted bone area "BAheight" and size-adjusted bone mineral content "BMCsize" in 8- to 11-year-olds. METHODS: Analyses were carried out...

  13. Influences of body size and environmental factors on autumn downstream migration of bull trout in the Boise River, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnot, L.; Dunham, J.B.; Hoem, T.; Koetsier, P.

    2008-01-01

    Many fishes migrate extensively through stream networks, yet patterns are commonly described only in terms of the origin and destination of migration (e.g., between natal and feeding habitats). To better understand patterns of migration in bull trout,Salvelinus confluentus we studied the influences of body size (total length [TL]) and environmental factors (stream temperature and discharge) on migrations in the Boise River basin, Idaho. During the autumns of 2001-2003, we tracked the downstream migrations of 174 radio-tagged bull trout ranging in size from 21 to 73 cm TL. The results indicated that large bull trout (>30 cm) were more likely than small fish to migrate rapidly downstream after spawning in headwater streams in early autumn. Large bull trout also had a higher probability of arriving at the current terminus of migration in the system, Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of migration by small bull trout was more variable and individuals were less likely to move into Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of downstream migration by all fish was slower when stream discharge was greater. Temperature was not associated with the rate of migration. These findings indicate that fish size and environmentally related changes in behavior have important influences on patterns of migration. In a broader context, these results and other recent work suggest, at least in some cases, that commonly used classifications of migratory behavior may not accurately reflect the full range of behaviors and variability among individuals (or life stages) and environmental conditions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  14. Effects of adult body size on fecundity and the pre-gravid rate of Anopheles gambiae females in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, E O; Takken, W

    1993-10-01

    The influence of adult body size on the pre-gravid state and fecundity was studied in Anopheles gambiae Giles females hand-caught inside houses and virgin females collected as pupae in Tanzania. Blood-fed mosquitoes were kept for 2-3 days before dissection and examination for insemination and ovarian condition. Those females which did not develop eggs were classified as pre-gravid. The number of mature eggs in those mosquitoes which became gravid was counted. Virgin females were fed and kept for egg maturation in the laboratory. Wing-length of females was measured as an index of mosquito size. The overall pre-gravid rate in the resting An.gambiae population was found to be 21% and, of these, 66% had been inseminated. In the virgin females the pre-gravid rate was 92.6%. The mean wing-length of wild females which became gravid was significantly larger than those which remained pre-gravid. There was a positive correlation between fecundity and wing-length. Smaller females tended to require two or three bloodmeals to facilitate completion of the first gonotrophic cycle. The critical size permitting oviposition from the first blood-meal was a wing-length of 3 mm. PMID:8268486

  15. Closely related species of birds differ more in body size when their ranges overlap--in warm, but not cool, climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothwell, Emma; Montgomerie, Robert; Lougheed, Stephen C; Martin, Paul R

    2015-07-01

    Differences in body size are widely thought to allow closely related species to coexist in sympatry, but body size also varies as an adaptive response to climate. Here, we use a sister lineage approach to test the prediction that body size differences between closely related species of birds worldwide are greater for species whose ranges are sympatric rather than allopatric. We further test if body size differences among sympatric versus allopatric species vary with geography, evolutionary distance, and environmental temperatures. We find greater differences in size among sympatric compared with allopatric lineages, but only in closely related species that live where mean annual temperatures are above 25°C. These size differences in warm environments declined with the evolutionary distance between sister lineages. In species living in cooler regions, closely related allopatric and sympatric species did not differ significantly in size, suggesting either that colder temperatures constrain the evolutionary divergence of size in sympatry, or that the biotic selective pressures favoring size differences in sympatry are weaker in colder environments. Our results are consistent with suggestions by Wallace, Darwin, and Dobzhansky that climatic selective pressures are more important in cooler environments (e.g., high elevations and latitudes) whereas biotic selective pressures dominate in warm environments (e.g., lowland tropics). PMID:26085317

  16. Body size and geographic range do not explain long term variation in fish populations: a Bayesian phylogenetic approach to testing assembly processes in stream fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Jacquemin

    Full Text Available We combine evolutionary biology and community ecology to test whether two species traits, body size and geographic range, explain long term variation in local scale freshwater stream fish assemblages. Body size and geographic range are expected to influence several aspects of fish ecology, via relationships with niche breadth, dispersal, and abundance. These traits are expected to scale inversely with niche breadth or current abundance, and to scale directly with dispersal potential. However, their utility to explain long term temporal patterns in local scale abundance is not known. Comparative methods employing an existing molecular phylogeny were used to incorporate evolutionary relatedness in a test for covariation of body size and geographic range with long term (1983 - 2010 local scale population variation of fishes in West Fork White River (Indiana, USA. The Bayesian model incorporating phylogenetic uncertainty and correlated predictors indicated that neither body size nor geographic range explained significant variation in population fluctuations over a 28 year period. Phylogenetic signal data indicated that body size and geographic range were less similar among taxa than expected if trait evolution followed a purely random walk. We interpret this as evidence that local scale population variation may be influenced less by species-level traits such as body size or geographic range, and instead may be influenced more strongly by a taxon's local scale habitat and biotic assemblages.

  17. Effect of sugar on male Anopheles gambiae mating performance, as modified by temperature, space, and body size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannon James W

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae plant-sugar feeding was thought to be rare and physiologically optional. Unlike adult females, males have no alternative source of energy and soon die with only water, yet they might be competent to inseminate all females within their brief lifespan. This study was designed to detect sugar's effect, if any, on male performance. Methods Males with and without 20% sucrose were evaluated at two body sizes and two temperatures, 23° and 27°C. Survival was recorded twice daily, and sexual behaviour was recorded each night after adult emergence. Insemination at a 2:1 male:female ratio was examined in three cage sizes, including walk-in mesocosms. Results Without sugar, males of both sizes lived longer at 23° than 27°C, and large males lived longer at each temperature. Survival of large males at low temperature averaged 3.7 days, small males at high temperature, 1.9 days. With sugar, males in all four treatments suffered minimal mortality. With sugar, in small cages, large males at 27°C matured most rapidly. A few erected fibrillae and inseminated females on night 1. On night 2, maximal proportions erected fibrillae and swarmed, and over one-third of females became inseminated. Small sugar-fed males at 23°C matured most slowly but had achieved nearly maximal levels of swarming by night 3. By night 5, small males had inseminated more than half the females, and large males had inseminated nearly all of them. Without sugar, large males progressed similarly during the first two nights. On night 3, however, the proportion erecting fibrillae and swarming declined precipitously at 27°C, and to a lesser degree at 23°C. Cumulative insemination never reached high levels. Small males never achieved high levels of fibrillar erection or swarming and inseminated few females, even at 23°C. In larger cages and under more semi-natural conditions, regardless of body size, without sugar male insemination capacity was

  18. Effects of aspect ratio and specimen size on uniaxial failure stress of iron green bodies at high strain rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuroyanagi Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Powder metallurgy is used for the production of a number of mechanical parts and is an essential production method. These are great advantages such as product cost effectiveness and product uniqueness. In general, however parts created by powder metallurgy have low strength because of low density. In order to increase strength as well as density, new techniques such as high-velocity-compaction (HVC was developed and further investigation has been conducted on improvement of techniques and optimum condition using computer simulation. In this study, the effects of aspect ratio and specimen size of iron green bodies on failure strength of uniaxial compression and failure behavior were examined using a split Hopkinson pressure Bar. The diameters of specimens were 12.5 mm and 25 mm the aspect ratios (thickness/diameter were 0.8 and 1.2.

  19. Body size, reproductive biology and abundance of the rare pseudoboini snakes genera Clelia and Boiruna (Serpentes, Colubridae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Pizzatto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoboini snakes of the genera Clelia and Boiruna are apparently rare in nature and certainly rare in collections. This work presents data on body size, reproduction and abundance of five Brazilian species of these genera, in the largest collection of snakes in Latin America, the Instituto Butantan. Despite scarcity of data, follicular cycle seems to be continuous in most species, except Clelia rustica, which occurs in highlands. Females are largerthan males in all species, and fecundity is low when compared to other pseudoboini. Abundance is very low for all species even considering 100 years of collecting, and it is decreasing in recent decades when compared to other snakes (Bothrops jararaca, Oxyrhopus guibei, O. clathratus, Philodryas patagoniensis, Sibynomorphus mikanii, and Spilotes pullatus. The studied species present at least five traits of commonly threatened species and require more attention in researches and conservation policies.

  20. Effects of aspect ratio and specimen size on uniaxial failure stress of iron green bodies at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroyanagi, Yuki; Nishida, Masahiro; Ogura, Takashi; Häggblad, H.-Å.; Jonsén, P.; Gustafsson, G.

    2015-09-01

    Powder metallurgy is used for the production of a number of mechanical parts and is an essential production method. These are great advantages such as product cost effectiveness and product uniqueness. In general, however parts created by powder metallurgy have low strength because of low density. In order to increase strength as well as density, new techniques such as high-velocity-compaction (HVC) was developed and further investigation has been conducted on improvement of techniques and optimum condition using computer simulation. In this study, the effects of aspect ratio and specimen size of iron green bodies on failure strength of uniaxial compression and failure behavior were examined using a split Hopkinson pressure Bar. The diameters of specimens were 12.5 mm and 25 mm the aspect ratios (thickness/diameter) were 0.8 and 1.2.

  1. Prenatal exposure to vitamin-D from fortified margarine and milk and body size at age 7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C B; Gamborg, M; Berentzen, T L;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Prenatal vitamin-D deficiency may be associated with increased risk of obesity later in life. Using two national vitamin-D fortification programs as the setting for a societal experiment, we investigated whether exposure to vitamin-D from fortified margarine and low-fat milk...... of 7 years of 54 270 children, who were measured during the mandatory Copenhagen School Health examination, we compared children according to whether the mothers were pregnant during the fortification programs or not. The comparisons were performed for children born just before and after initiation...... overweight and obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to vitamin-D from fortification of margarine and low-fat milk showed no association with body size at 7 years....

  2. Characterizing the trophic niches of stocked and resident cyprinid fishes: consistency in partitioning over time, space and body sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bašić, Tea; Britton, J Robert

    2016-07-01

    Hatchery-reared fish are commonly stocked into freshwaters to enhance recreational angling. As these fishes are often of high trophic position and attain relatively large sizes, they potentially interact with functionally similar resident fishes and modify food-web structure. Hatchery-reared barbel Barbus barbus are frequently stocked to enhance riverine cyprinid fish communities in Europe; these fish can survive for over 20 years and exceed 8 kg. Here, their trophic consequences for resident fish communities were tested using cohabitation studies, mainly involving chub Squalius cephalus, a similarly large-bodied, omnivorous and long-lived species. These studies were completed over three spatial scales: pond mesocosms, two streams and three lowland rivers, and used stable isotope analysis. Experiments in mesocosms over 100 days revealed rapid formation of dietary specializations and discrete trophic niches in juvenile B. barbus and S. cephalus. This niche partitioning between the species was also apparent in the streams over 2 years. In the lowland rivers, where fish were mature individuals within established populations, this pattern was also generally apparent in fishes of much larger body sizes. Thus, the stocking of these hatchery-reared fish only incurred minor consequences for the trophic ecology of resident fish, with strong patterns of trophic niche partitioning and diet specialization. Application of these results to decision-making frameworks should enable managers to make objective decisions on whether cyprinid fish should be stocked into lowland rivers according to ecological risk. PMID:27547336

  3. Effect of directional selection for body size on fluctuating asymmetry in certain morphological traits in Drosophila ananassae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Vishalakshi; B N Singh

    2009-06-01

    Variation in the subtle differences between the right and left sides of bilateral characters or fluctuating asymmetry (FA) has been considered as an indicator of an organism’s ability to cope with genetic and environmental stresses during development. However, due to inconsistency in the results of empirical studies, the relationship between FA and stress has been the subject of intense debate. In this study, we investigated whether stress caused by artificial bidirectional selection for body size has any effect on the levels of FA of different morphological traits in Drosophila ananassae. The realised heritability (h2) was higher in low-line females and high-line males, which suggests an asymmetrical response to selection for body size. Further, the levels of FA were compared across 10 generations of selection in different selection lines in both sexes for sternopleural bristle number, wing length, wing-to-thorax ratio, sex combtooth number and ovariole number. The levels of FA differed significantly among generations and selection lines but did not change markedly with directional selection. However, the levels of FA were higher in the G10 generation (at the end of selection) than G0 (at the start of selection) but lower than the G5 generation in different selection lines, suggesting that the levels of FA are not affected by the inbreeding generated during the course of selection. Also, the levels of FA in the hybrids of high and low lines were significantly lower than the parental selection lines, suggesting that FA is influenced by hybridisation. These results are discussed in the framework of the literature available on FA and its relationship with stress.

  4. The ability of UK offshore workers of different body size and shape to egress through a restricted window space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Arthur; Ledingham, Robert; Furnace, Graham; Schranz, Natasha; Nevill, Alan

    2016-07-01

    404 male offshore workers aged 41.4 ± 10.7 y underwent 3D body scanning and an egress task simulating the smallest helicopter window emergency exit size. The 198 who failed were older (P < 0.01), taller (P < 0.05) and heavier (P < 0.0001) than the 206 who passed. Using all extracted dimensions from the scans, binary logistic regression identified a model (refined using backward elimination) which predicted egress outcome with 75.2% accuracy. Using only weight, bideltoid breadth and maximum chest depth, the model achieved ∼70% accuracy. When anatomical dimensions categorise individuals for small window egress, 25% or more will be misclassified, with false positives (those predicted to fail, but pass) slightly outnumbering false negatives (those predicted to pass, but fail), highlighting the limitations of a predictive approach which treats the body as a rigid object. Differences in flexibility and technique may explain these observations, which may be important considerations for future research. PMID:26611986

  5. Measures of Body Size and Composition and Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation in Older People: The Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Maria G; Yee, Laura M; Biggs, Mary L; Djoussé, Luc; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Ix, Joachim H; Zieman, Susan J; Siscovick, David S; Gottdiener, John S; Rosenberg, Michael A; Kronmal, Richard A; Heckbert, Susan R; Kizer, Jorge R

    2016-06-01

    Various anthropometric measures, including height, have been associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). This raises questions about the appropriateness of using ratio measures such as body mass index (BMI), which contains height squared in its denominator, in the evaluation of AF risk. Among older adults, the optimal anthropometric approach to risk stratification of AF remains uncertain. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measures were obtained from 4,276 participants (mean age = 72.4 years) free of cardiovascular disease in the Cardiovascular Health Study. During follow-up (1989-2008), 1,050 cases of AF occurred. BMI showed a U-shaped association, whereas height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, fat mass, and fat-free mass were linearly related to incident AF. The strongest adjusted association occurred for height (per each 1-standard-deviation increment, hazard ratio = 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.25, 1.51), which exceeded all other measures, including weight (hazard ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.29). Combined assessment of log-transformed weight and height showed regression coefficients that departed from the 1 to -2 ratio inherent in BMI, indicating a loss of predictive information. Risk estimates for AF tended to be stronger for hip circumference than for waist circumference and for fat-free mass than for fat mass, which was explained largely by height. These findings highlight the prominent role of body size and the inadequacy of BMI as determinants of AF in older adults. PMID:27188936

  6. Reduced body mass, food intake, and testis size in response to short photoperiod in adult F344 rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heideman Paul D

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although laboratory rats are often considered classic nonseasonal breeders, peripubertal rats of two inbred strains, F344 and BN, have both reproductive and nonreproductive responses to short photoperiods. Unmanipulated adult rats have not been reported to have robust responses to short photoperiod alone, although several treatments can induce photoperiodic responses in adults. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that unmanipulated F344 rats retain responses to short photoperiod as adults and that they have the necessary elements for an endogenous circannual rhythm of sensitivity to short photoperiod. Results Relative to rats kept in long photoperiods (L16:D8, adult F344 rats transferred at 4.5 months of age to short photoperiods (L8:D16 had significantly lower testis size, food intake, and body weight. In a second experiment, newly weaned F344 rats underwent an initial period of inhibition of reproductive maturation, lower food intake, and lower body weight in short photoperiod or intermediate photoperiod (L12:D12 relative to rats in long photoperiod. By 18 weeks of treatment, rats in the two inhibitory photoperiods no longer differed from long photoperiod controls. In short photoperiod, rats underwent a second period of slight reproductive inhibition between weeks 35 and 48, but there was an effect on body weight and slight inhibition of food intake only in an intermediate photoperiod. Conclusion Male F344 rats retain photoresponsiveness as adults, with less reproductive inhibition but equivalent nonreproductive responses. There was only weak evidence for an endogenous timer controlling a circannual cycle of sensitivity to short photoperiod.

  7. INTRASPECIFIC VARIATION IN ACOUSTIC TRAITS AND BODY SIZE, AND NEW DISTRIBUTIONAL RECORDS FOR PSEUDOPALUDICOLA GIARETTAI CARVALHO, 2012 (ANURA, LEPTODACTYLIDAE, LEIUPERINAE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS CONGENERIC DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THIAGO RIBEIRO DE CARVALHO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide an updated diagnosis for Pseudopaludicola giarettai based on the morphometric and acoustic variation observed with the assessment of new populations, plus an expansion of its distribution range. Our results support that all acoustic variation observed might be attributed to intraspecific variation. The variation in body size and dorsal stripe patterns observed for Pseudopaludicola giarettai reinforces that the distinctive whistling advertisement call pattern is the most reliable evidence line to diagnose it from its congeners, whereas morphological (robust body, glandular dorsum and morphometric (body size features vary considerably within and among populations so that they should no longer be employed as diagnostic features of Pseudopaludicola giarettai.

  8. The influence of age and sex on genetic associations with adult body size and shape: a large-scale genome-wide interaction study

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Thomas W; Heid, Iris M.; Gorski, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of Eu...

  9. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape : A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Thomas W; Justice, Anne E; Graff, Mariaelisa; Barata, Llilda; Feitosa, Mary F.; Chu, Su,; Czajkowski, Jacek; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kilpelainen, Tuomas O.; Lu, Yingchang; Magi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Pers, Tune H.; Rueeger, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age-and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of Eur...

  10. Effect of abrasive grit size on wear of manganese-zinc ferrite under three-body abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1987-01-01

    Wear experiments were conducted using replication electron microscopy and reflection electron diffraction to study abrasion and deformed layers produced in single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrites under three-body abrasion. The abrasion mechanism of Mn-Zn ferrite changes drastically with the size of abrasive grits. With 15-micron (1000-mesh) SiC grits, abrasion of Mn-Zn ferrite is due principally to brittle fracture; while with 4- and 2-micron (4000- and 6000-mesh) SiC grits, abrasion is due to plastic deformation and fracture. Both microcracking and plastic flow produce polycrystalline states on the wear surfaces of single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrites. Coefficient of wear, total thickness of the deformed layers, and surface roughness of the wear surfaces increase markedly with an increase in abrasive grit size. The total thicknesses of the deformed layers are 3 microns for the ferrite abraded by 15-micron SiC, 0.9 microns for the ferrite abraded by 4-micron SiC, and 0.8 microns for the ferrite abraded by 1-micron SiC.

  11. Utilizing the micron sized non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma inside the animal body for the tumor treatment application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirpour, Shahriar; Piroozmand, Somayeh; Soleimani, Neda; Jalali Faharani, Neda; Ghomi, Hamidreza; Fotovat Eskandari, Hoda; Sharifi, Ali Mohammad; Mirpour, Sahar; Eftekhari, Mohammad; Nikkhah, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of micron sized non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma inside the animal body on breast cancer tumor. The μ-plasma jet consists of micron sized hollow tube in which pure helium gas is ionized by high voltage (4 kV) and high frequency (6 kHz). The efficiency of the plasma treatment in killing cancer cells was first investigated by cell viability measurements of treated 4T1 cells using flow cytometry and cell cycle analysis. For exploration of the in vivo effects of the plasma treatment, the BALB/c mice inoculated by 4T1 cell lines were exposed subcutaneously to plasma for 3 minutes. In addition, H&E staining, TUNEL and Western blotting assays were performed in order to observed the effects of the non-thermal plasma on the tumor cells. The results showed that the efficiency of the plasma in suppression of the tumor growth is comparable to that of a typical chemotherapy drug. Moreover, the results indicated that the plasma induces apoptosis in the tumor tissue and increases the ratio of the apoptotic to anti-apoptotic protein expression. We believe that these findings presented herein may extend our knowledge of the mechanisms by which the plasma exerts its promising anti-cancer effects. PMID:27383714

  12. GI Joe or Average Joe? The impact of average-size and muscular male fashion models on men's and women's body image and advertisement effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2010-06-01

    Increasing body size and shape diversity in media imagery may promote positive body image. While research has largely focused on female models and women's body image, men may also be affected by unrealistic images. We examined the impact of average-size and muscular male fashion models on men's and women's body image and perceived advertisement effectiveness. A sample of 330 men and 289 women viewed one of four advertisement conditions: no models, muscular, average-slim or average-large models. Men and women rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as muscular models. For men, exposure to average-size models was associated with more positive body image in comparison to viewing no models, but no difference was found in comparison to muscular models. Similar results were found for women. Internalisation of beauty ideals did not moderate these effects. These findings suggest that average-size male models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers. PMID:20488770

  13. A novel method for evaluating microglial activation using ionized calcium-binding adaptor protein-1 staining: cell body to cell size ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Bertha Hovens

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to validate a newly developed methodology of semi-automatic image analysis to analyze microglial morphology as marker for microglial activation in ionized calcium-binding adaptor protein-1 (IBA-1 stained brain sections. Methods: The novel method was compared to currently used analysis methods, visual characterization of activation stage and optical density measurement, in brain sections of young and aged rats that had undergone surgery or remained naοve. Results: The cell body to cell size ratio of microglia was strongly correlated to the visual characterization activation stage. In addition, we observed specific surgery and age-related changes in cell body size, size of the dendritic processes and cell body to cell size ratio. Conclusion: The novel analysis method provides a sensitive marker for microglial activation in the rat brain, which is quick and easy to perform and provides additional information about microglial morphology.

  14. Influence of body size on Cu bioaccumulation in zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha exposed to different sources of particle-associated Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Huan, E-mail: huanzhong1982@hotmail.com [Environmental and Resource Studies Program, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada); Nanjing University, School of Environment, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Kraemer, Lisa; Evans, Douglas [Environmental and Resource Studies Program, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Mussels exposed to algal/sediment-Cu have different size-related Cu accumulation. • Size-related Cu accumulation in mussels could be more dependant on algal-Cu uptake. • Importance of algal/sediment-Cu to Cu bioaccumulation varies with mussel body size. • Cu sources (algae and sediments) should be considered in “mussel watch” programs. • Cu stable isotope offers many advantages in Cu bioaccumulation studies. -- Abstract: Size of organisms is critical in controlling metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation, while mechanisms of size-related metal bioaccumulation are not fully understood. To investigate the influences of different sources of particle-associated Cu on body size-related Cu bioavailability and bioaccumulation, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) of different sizes were exposed to stable Cu isotope ({sup 65}Cu) spiked algae (Chlorella vulgaris) or sediments in the laboratory and the Cu tissue concentration-size relationships were compared with that in unexposed mussels. Copper tissue concentrations decreased with mussel size (tissue or shell dry weight) in both unexposed and algal-exposed mussels with similar decreasing patterns, but were independent of size in sediment-exposed mussels. Furthermore, the relative contribution of Cu uptake from algae (65–91%) to Cu bioaccumulation is always higher than that from sediments (9–35%), possibly due to the higher bioavailability of algal-Cu. Therefore, the size-related ingestion of algae could be more important in influencing the size-related variations in Cu bioaccumulation. However, the relative contribution of sediment-Cu to Cu bioaccumulation increased with body size and thus sediment ingestion may also affect the size-related Cu variations in larger mussels (tissue weight >7.5 mg). This study highlights the importance of considering exposure pathways in normalization of metal concentration variation when using bivalves as biomonitors.

  15. Influence of body size on Cu bioaccumulation in zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha exposed to different sources of particle-associated Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Mussels exposed to algal/sediment-Cu have different size-related Cu accumulation. • Size-related Cu accumulation in mussels could be more dependant on algal-Cu uptake. • Importance of algal/sediment-Cu to Cu bioaccumulation varies with mussel body size. • Cu sources (algae and sediments) should be considered in “mussel watch” programs. • Cu stable isotope offers many advantages in Cu bioaccumulation studies. -- Abstract: Size of organisms is critical in controlling metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation, while mechanisms of size-related metal bioaccumulation are not fully understood. To investigate the influences of different sources of particle-associated Cu on body size-related Cu bioavailability and bioaccumulation, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) of different sizes were exposed to stable Cu isotope (65Cu) spiked algae (Chlorella vulgaris) or sediments in the laboratory and the Cu tissue concentration-size relationships were compared with that in unexposed mussels. Copper tissue concentrations decreased with mussel size (tissue or shell dry weight) in both unexposed and algal-exposed mussels with similar decreasing patterns, but were independent of size in sediment-exposed mussels. Furthermore, the relative contribution of Cu uptake from algae (65–91%) to Cu bioaccumulation is always higher than that from sediments (9–35%), possibly due to the higher bioavailability of algal-Cu. Therefore, the size-related ingestion of algae could be more important in influencing the size-related variations in Cu bioaccumulation. However, the relative contribution of sediment-Cu to Cu bioaccumulation increased with body size and thus sediment ingestion may also affect the size-related Cu variations in larger mussels (tissue weight >7.5 mg). This study highlights the importance of considering exposure pathways in normalization of metal concentration variation when using bivalves as biomonitors

  16. Development of Dietary Patterns Spanning Infancy and Toddlerhood: Relation to Body Size, Composition and Metabolic Risk Markers at Three Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise BB Andersen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the development of dietary patterns during toddlerhood and the relation to growth and health. The study objective was to characterise the development of dietary patterns from 9-36 mo of age and investigate the association to body size, body composition and metabolic risk markers at 36 mo. Food records were filled out at 9, 18 and 36 mo of age (n = 229. Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis (PCA. Three dietary patterns were identified: Transition Food, Healthy Food and Traditional Food. The course of development in dietary patterns from 9-36 mo indicated tracking for a relatively large group of participants in the three patterns. Transition Food and Healthy Food were associated with some of the investigated outcomes. Children with lower adherence to the Transition Food pattern than average at 18 and 36 mo irrespectively of intake at 9 mo had higher BMI z-scores at 36 mo. Similar trend was identified for higher fat mass indices. Children with lower adherence to the Healthy Food pattern than average at all three ages compared to children with higher adherence to the Healthy Food pattern at the first two registrations, 9 and 18 mo had higher total cholesterol and LDL. Hence, this could represent undesirable development of dietary patterns in toddlers. In conclusion, development of dietary patterns can be exploratory characterised by PCA and related to potential cardiovascular risk markers in toddlers even within a relatively homogeneous population with a high socioeconomic status. The tracking of dietary patterns from 9 mo of age indicates a need for early and sustained promotion of healthy diets.

  17. An actor-based model of social network influence on adolescent body size, screen time, and playing sports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Shoham

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that obesity may be "contagious" between individuals in social networks. Social contagion (influence, however, may not be identifiable using traditional statistical approaches because they cannot distinguish contagion from homophily (the propensity for individuals to select friends who are similar to themselves or from shared environmental influences. In this paper, we apply the stochastic actor-based model (SABM framework developed by Snijders and colleagues to data on adolescent body mass index (BMI, screen time, and playing active sports. Our primary hypothesis was that social influences on adolescent body size and related behaviors are independent of friend selection. Employing the SABM, we simultaneously modeled network dynamics (friendship selection based on homophily and structural characteristics of the network and social influence. We focused on the 2 largest schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health and held the school environment constant by examining the 2 school networks separately (N = 624 and 1151. Results show support in both schools for homophily on BMI, but also for social influence on BMI. There was no evidence of homophily on screen time in either school, while only one of the schools showed homophily on playing active sports. There was, however, evidence of social influence on screen time in one of the schools, and playing active sports in both schools. These results suggest that both homophily and social influence are important in understanding patterns of adolescent obesity. Intervention efforts should take into consideration peers' influence on one another, rather than treating "high risk" adolescents in isolation.

  18. Population-level scaling of avian migration speed with body size and migration distance for powered fliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel; Hochachka, Wesley M; DeLong, John P; Kelling, Steve

    2013-08-01

    Optimal migration theory suggests specific scaling relationships between body size and migration speed for individual birds based on the minimization of time, energy, and risk. Here we test if the quantitative predictions originating from this theory can be detected when migration decisions are integrated across individuals. We estimated population-level migration trajectories and daily migration speeds for the combined period 2007-2011 using the eBird data set. We considered 102 North American bird species that use flapping or powered flight during migration. Many species, especially in eastern North America, had looped migration trajectories that traced a clockwise path with an eastward shift during autumn migration. Population-level migration speeds decelerated rapidly going into the breeding season, and accelerated more slowly during the transition to autumn migration. In accordance with time minimization predictions, spring migration speeds were faster than autumn migration speeds. In agreement with optimality predictions, migration speeds of powered flyers scaled negatively with body mass similarly during spring and autumn migration. Powered fliers with longer migration journeys also had faster migration speeds, a relationship that was more pronounced during spring migration. Our findings indicate that powered fliers employed a migration strategy that, when examined at the population level, was in compliance with optimality predictions. These results suggest that the integration of migration decisions across individuals does result in population-level patterns that agree with theoretical expectations developed at the individual level, indicating a role for optimal migration theory in describing the mechanisms underlying broadscale patterns of avian migration for species that use powered flight. PMID:24015527

  19. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Lin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that copepod community growth rates can be described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE, linking spatio-temporal variation of copepod growth rate with temperature and their body size. Our results generally agree with predictions made by the MTE and demonstrate that weight-specific growth rates of copepod communities in our study area are positively related with temperature and negatively related to body size. However, the regression coefficients of body size do not approach the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we find that the deviation from the MTE predictions may be partly attributed to the effect of food availability (which is not explicitly accounted for by the MTE. In addition, significant difference in the coefficients of temperature and body size exists among taxonomic groups. Our results suggest that considering the effects of food limitation and taxonomy is necessary to better understand copepod growth rates under in situ conditions, and such effects on the MTE-based prediction needs further investigation.

  20. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, K. Y.; Sastri, A. R.; Gong, G. C.; Hsieh, C. H.

    2013-03-01

    Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs, and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food) on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that copepod community growth rates can be described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE), linking spatio-temporal variation of copepod growth rate with temperature and their body size. Our results generally agree with predictions made by the MTE and demonstrate that weight-specific growth rates of copepod communities in our study area are positively related with temperature and negatively related to body size. However, the regression coefficients of body size do not approach the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we find that the deviation from the MTE predictions may be partly attributed to the effect of food availability (which is not explicitly accounted for by the MTE). In addition, significant difference in the coefficients of temperature and body size exists among taxonomic groups. Our results suggest that considering the effects of food limitation and taxonomy is necessary to better understand copepod growth rates under in situ conditions, and such effects on the MTE-based predictions need further investigation.

  1. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Lin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs, and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that copepod community growth rates can be described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE, linking spatio-temporal variation of copepod growth rate with temperature and their body size. Our results generally agree with predictions made by the MTE and demonstrate that weight-specific growth rates of copepod communities in our study area are positively related with temperature and negatively related to body size. However, the regression coefficients of body size do not approach the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we find that the deviation from the MTE predictions may be partly attributed to the effect of food availability (which is not explicitly accounted for by the MTE. In addition, significant difference in the coefficients of temperature and body size exists among taxonomic groups. Our results suggest that considering the effects of food limitation and taxonomy is necessary to better understand copepod growth rates under in situ conditions, and such effects on the MTE-based predictions need further investigation.

  2. Shifts in the climate space of temperate cyprinid fishes due to climate change are coupled with altered body sizes and growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Navarro, Ana; Gillingham, Phillipa K; Britton, J Robert

    2016-09-01

    Predictions of species responses to climate change often focus on distribution shifts, although responses can also include shifts in body sizes and population demographics. Here, shifts in the distributional ranges ('climate space'), body sizes (as maximum theoretical body sizes, L∞) and growth rates (as rate at which L∞ is reached, K) were predicted for five fishes of the Cyprinidae family in a temperate region over eight climate change projections. Great Britain was the model area, and the model species were Rutilus rutilus, Leuciscus leuciscus, Squalius cephalus, Gobio gobio and Abramis brama. Ensemble models predicted that the species' climate spaces would shift in all modelled projections, with the most drastic changes occurring under high emissions; all range centroids shifted in a north-westerly direction. Predicted climate space expanded for R. rutilus and A. brama, contracted for S. cephalus, and for L. leuciscus and G. gobio, expanded under low-emission scenarios but contracted under high emissions, suggesting the presence of some climate-distribution thresholds. For R. rutilus, A. brama, S. cephalus and G. gobio, shifts in their climate space were coupled with predicted shifts to significantly smaller maximum body sizes and/or faster growth rates, aligning strongly to aspects of temperature-body size theory. These predicted shifts in L∞ and K had considerable consequences for size-at-age per species, suggesting substantial alterations in population age structures and abundances. Thus, when predicting climate change outcomes for species, outputs that couple shifts in climate space with altered body sizes and growth rates provide considerable insights into the population and community consequences, especially for species that cannot easily track their thermal niches. PMID:26824727

  3. Cardiac size of high-volume resistance trained female athletes: shaping the body but not the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venckunas, T; Simonavicius, J; Marcinkeviciene, J E

    2016-03-01

    Introduction Exercise training, besides many health benefits, may result in cardiac remodelling which is dependent on the type and amount of exercise performed. It is not clear, however, whether significant adaptation in cardiac structure is possible in females undergoing resistance type of exercise training. Rigorous high volume training of most muscle groups emphasising resistance exercises are being undertaken by athletes of some aesthetic sports such as female fitness (light bodybuilding). The impact of this type of training on cardiac adaptation has not been investigated until now. The aim of the current study was to disclose the effect of high volume resistance training on cardiac structure and function. Methods 11 top-level female fitness athletes and 20 sedentary age-matched controls were recruited to undergo two-dimensional echocardiography. Results Cardiac structure did not differ between elite female fitness athletes and controls (p > 0.05), and fitness athletes had a tendency for a smaller (p = 0.07) left ventricular (LV) mass indexed to lean body mass. Doppler diastolic function index (E/A ratio) and LV ejection fraction were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Elite female fitness athletes have normal cardiac size and function that do not differ from matched sedentary controls. Consequently, as high volume resistance training has no easily observable effect on adaptation of cardiac structure, when cardiac hypertrophy is present in young resistance-trained lean female, other reasons such as inherited cardiac disease are to be considered carefully. PMID:27030632

  4. Slender body theory for tip streaming: The formation of concentrated emulsions composed by micron-size drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Hernadez, Elena; Campo-Cortes, F.; Gordillo, J. M.

    2011-11-01

    Under creeping flow conditions a liquid of viscosity μi is injected through a cylindrical capillary tube immersed into an outer immiscible fluid with a viscosity μo. The outer fluid flows parallel to the axis of the tube. If the outer capillary number Cao > 1 and the inner to outer flow rate ratio Qi /Qo diameter of the injector. We present a slender body theory that provides a third order ordinary differential equation for the shape of the interface. The theoretical shape, which is found by shooting with just a single parameter from far downstream towards the tube exit, faithfully reproduces the cone-jet transition observed in experiments for arbitrary values of the three dimensionless numbers that control this physical situation: Cao , μi /μo and Qi /Qo . This theory is a powerful design method since it can be used to check the efficiency of new geometrical designs to generate monodisperse emulsions, avoiding the need to build and test them in the laboratory. Drop size is well predicted by the classical Tomotika's stability analysis.

  5. Associations among body size dissatisfaction, perceived dietary control, and diet history in African American and European American women

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler-Laney, Paula; Hunter, Gary; Bush, Nikki; Alvarez, Jessica; Roy, Jane; Byrne, Nuala; Gower, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    European American (EA) women report greater body dissatisfaction and less dietary control than do African American (AA) women. This study investigated whether ethnic differences in dieting history contributed to differences in body dissatisfaction and dietary control, or to differential changes that may occur during weight loss and regain. Eighty-nine EA and AA women underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure body composition and completed questionnaires to assess body dissatisfact...

  6. Conodont body size and diversity trends after the end-Permian extinction: implications for the recovery of pelagic vs. benthic marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, E. K.; Morgan, D. J.; Clapham, M.; Rego, B. L.; Wang, S. C.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Many marine clades decreased in size across the end-Permian extinction horizon, but the pattern and timing of subsequent size increase during recovery is poorly constrained. The tempo of recovery from the end-Permian extinction is key to understanding the role of evolutionary and environmental constraints in the recovery of ecosystems. However, not all marine organisms share the same recovery pattern. In this study, we document Late Permian to Late Triassic trends in size distribution of conodonts, pelagic chordates that exhibit much more rapid diversification in the Early Triassic compared to benthic clades. Because tooth size correlates with body weight in chordates over many orders of magnitude and is commonly used to predict body size in fossils, conodont elements can serve as a proxy for the size of the conodont animal. Our dataset includes both specimens from high-resolution samples through an exceptionally exposed carbonate platform in south China and size measurements from the published literature for conodonts and seven other marine clades. In platform slope sections of south China, we observe a size decrease across the P/Tr boundary, but in platform interior sections, large conodonts are prolific in the earliest Triassic. Comparison with global data shows that while there is decrease in median conodont size across the P/Tr boundary, there is little change in maximum conodont size, and pre-extinction size distributions return by the Smithian. While benthic clades show Early Triassic size reduction and slow recovery, pelagic clades such as conodonts and ammonoids show large size and rapid diversification after the extinction event. This decoupling of recovery between benthic and pelagic marine ecosystems could reflect a depth gradient in environmental parameters such as oxygen availability or intrinsic differences in the evolutionary dynamics of these clades.

  7. Neighbouring populations, opposite dynamics: influence of body size and environmental variation on the demography of stream-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Chacón, Albert; Genovart, Meritxell; Álvarez, David; Cano, José M; Ojanguren, Alfredo F; Rodriguez-Muñoz, Rolando; Nicieza, Alfredo G

    2015-06-01

    In organisms such as fish, where body size is considered an important state variable for the study of their population dynamics, size-specific growth and survival rates can be influenced by local variation in both biotic and abiotic factors, but few studies have evaluated the complex relationships between environmental variability and size-dependent processes. We analysed a 6-year capture-recapture dataset of brown trout (Salmo trutta) collected at 3 neighbouring but heterogeneous mountain streams in northern Spain with the aim of investigating the factors shaping the dynamics of local populations. The influence of body size and water temperature on survival and individual growth was assessed under a multi-state modelling framework, an extension of classical capture-recapture models that considers the state (i.e. body size) of the individual in each capture occasion and allows us to obtain state-specific demographic rates and link them to continuous environmental variables. Individual survival and growth patterns varied over space and time, and evidence of size-dependent survival was found in all but the smallest stream. At this stream, the probability of reaching larger sizes was lower compared to the other wider and deeper streams. Water temperature variables performed better in the modelling of the highest-altitude population, explaining over a 99 % of the variability in maturation transitions and survival of large fish. The relationships between body size, temperature and fitness components found in this study highlight the utility of multi-state approaches to investigate small-scale demographic processes in heterogeneous environments, and to provide reliable ecological knowledge for management purposes. PMID:25604919

  8. Length and volume of morphologically normal kidneys in Korean Children: Ultrasound measurement and estimation using body size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Hwee; Kim, Myung Joon; Lim, Sok Hwan; Lee, Mi Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Eun [Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measurements and renal length and volume measured with ultrasound in Korean children who have morphologically normal kidneys, and to create simple equations to estimate the renal sizes using the anthropometric measurements. We examined 794 Korean children under 18 years of age including a total of 394 boys and 400 girls without renal problems. The maximum renal length (L) (cm), orthogonal anterior-posterior diameter (D) (cm) and width (W) (cm) of each kidney were measured on ultrasound. Kidney volume was calculated as 0.523 x L x D x W (cm{sup 3}). Anthropometric indices including height (cm), weight (kg) and body mass index (m{sup 2}/kg) were collected through a medical record review. We used linear regression analysis to create simple equations to estimate the renal length and the volume with those anthropometric indices that were mostly correlated with the US-measured renal sizes. Renal length showed the strongest significant correlation with patient height (R2, 0.874 and 0.875 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). Renal volume showed the strongest significant correlation with patient weight (R2, 0.842 and 0.854 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). The following equations were developed to describe these relationships with an estimated 95% range of renal length and volume (R2, 0.826-0.884, p < 0.001): renal length = 2.383 + 0.045 x Height (± 1.135) and = 2.374 + 0.047 x Height (± 1.173) for the right and left kidneys, respectively; and renal volume 7.941 + 1.246 x Weight (± 15.920) and = 7.303 + 1.532 x Weight (± 18.704) for the right and left kidneys, respectively. Scatter plots between height and renal length and between weight and renal volume have been established from Korean children and simple equations between them have been developed for use in clinical practice.

  9. Length and volume of morphologically normal kidneys in Korean Children: Ultrasound measurement and estimation using body size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measurements and renal length and volume measured with ultrasound in Korean children who have morphologically normal kidneys, and to create simple equations to estimate the renal sizes using the anthropometric measurements. We examined 794 Korean children under 18 years of age including a total of 394 boys and 400 girls without renal problems. The maximum renal length (L) (cm), orthogonal anterior-posterior diameter (D) (cm) and width (W) (cm) of each kidney were measured on ultrasound. Kidney volume was calculated as 0.523 x L x D x W (cm3). Anthropometric indices including height (cm), weight (kg) and body mass index (m2/kg) were collected through a medical record review. We used linear regression analysis to create simple equations to estimate the renal length and the volume with those anthropometric indices that were mostly correlated with the US-measured renal sizes. Renal length showed the strongest significant correlation with patient height (R2, 0.874 and 0.875 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). Renal volume showed the strongest significant correlation with patient weight (R2, 0.842 and 0.854 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). The following equations were developed to describe these relationships with an estimated 95% range of renal length and volume (R2, 0.826-0.884, p < 0.001): renal length = 2.383 + 0.045 x Height (± 1.135) and = 2.374 + 0.047 x Height (± 1.173) for the right and left kidneys, respectively; and renal volume 7.941 + 1.246 x Weight (± 15.920) and = 7.303 + 1.532 x Weight (± 18.704) for the right and left kidneys, respectively. Scatter plots between height and renal length and between weight and renal volume have been established from Korean children and simple equations between them have been developed for use in clinical practice.

  10. Metabolic expenditures of lunge feeding rorquals across scale: implications for the evolution of filter feeding and the limits to maximum body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Jean; Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Shadwick, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Bulk-filter feeding is an energetically efficient strategy for resource acquisition and assimilation, and facilitates the maintenance of extreme body size as exemplified by baleen whales (Mysticeti) and multiple lineages of bony and cartilaginous fishes. Among mysticetes, rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae) exhibit an intermittent ram filter feeding mode, lunge feeding, which requires the abandonment of body-streamlining in favor of a high-drag, mouth-open configuration aimed at engulfing a very large amount of prey-laden water. Particularly while lunge feeding on krill (the most widespread prey preference among rorquals), the effort required during engulfment involve short bouts of high-intensity muscle activity that demand high metabolic output. We used computational modeling together with morphological and kinematic data on humpback (Megaptera noveaangliae), fin (Balaenoptera physalus), blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) whales to estimate engulfment power output in comparison with standard metrics of metabolic rate. The simulations reveal that engulfment metabolism increases across the full body size of the larger rorqual species to nearly 50 times the basal metabolic rate of terrestrial mammals of the same body mass. Moreover, they suggest that the metabolism of the largest body sizes runs with significant oxygen deficits during mouth opening, namely, 20% over maximum VO2 at the size of the largest blue whales, thus requiring significant contributions from anaerobic catabolism during a lunge and significant recovery after a lunge. Our analyses show that engulfment metabolism is also significantly lower for smaller adults, typically one-tenth to one-half VO2|max. These results not only point to a physiological limit on maximum body size in this lineage, but also have major implications for the ontogeny of extant rorquals as well as the evolutionary pathways used by ancestral toothed whales to transition from hunting individual prey

  11. Metabolic expenditures of lunge feeding rorquals across scale: implications for the evolution of filter feeding and the limits to maximum body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Potvin

    Full Text Available Bulk-filter feeding is an energetically efficient strategy for resource acquisition and assimilation, and facilitates the maintenance of extreme body size as exemplified by baleen whales (Mysticeti and multiple lineages of bony and cartilaginous fishes. Among mysticetes, rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae exhibit an intermittent ram filter feeding mode, lunge feeding, which requires the abandonment of body-streamlining in favor of a high-drag, mouth-open configuration aimed at engulfing a very large amount of prey-laden water. Particularly while lunge feeding on krill (the most widespread prey preference among rorquals, the effort required during engulfment involve short bouts of high-intensity muscle activity that demand high metabolic output. We used computational modeling together with morphological and kinematic data on humpback (Megaptera noveaangliae, fin (Balaenoptera physalus, blue (Balaenoptera musculus and minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata whales to estimate engulfment power output in comparison with standard metrics of metabolic rate. The simulations reveal that engulfment metabolism increases across the full body size of the larger rorqual species to nearly 50 times the basal metabolic rate of terrestrial mammals of the same body mass. Moreover, they suggest that the metabolism of the largest body sizes runs with significant oxygen deficits during mouth opening, namely, 20% over maximum VO2 at the size of the largest blue whales, thus requiring significant contributions from anaerobic catabolism during a lunge and significant recovery after a lunge. Our analyses show that engulfment metabolism is also significantly lower for smaller adults, typically one-tenth to one-half VO2|max. These results not only point to a physiological limit on maximum body size in this lineage, but also have major implications for the ontogeny of extant rorquals as well as the evolutionary pathways used by ancestral toothed whales to transition from hunting

  12. Hmgcr in the corpus allatum controls sexual dimorphism of locomotor activity and body size via the insulin pathway in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesser Hadj Belgacem

    Full Text Available The insulin signaling pathway has been implicated in several physiological and developmental processes. In mammals, it controls expression of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl CoA Reductase (HMGCR, a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. In insects, which can not synthesize cholesterol de novo, the HMGCR is implicated in the biosynthesis of juvenile hormone (JH. However, the link between the insulin pathway and JH has not been established. In Drosophila, mutations in the insulin receptor (InR decrease the rate of JH synthesis. It is also known that both the insulin pathway and JH play a role in the control of sexual dimorphism in locomotor activity. In studies here, to demonstrate that the insulin pathway and HMGCR are functionally linked in Drosophila, we first show that hmgcr mutation also disrupts the sexual dimorphism. Similarly to the InR, HMGCR is expressed in the corpus allatum (ca, which is the gland where JH biosynthesis occurs. Two p[hmgcr-GAL4] lines were therefore generated where RNAi was targeted specifically against the HMGCR or the InR in the ca. We found that RNAi-HMGCR blocked HMGCR expression, while the RNAi-InR blocked both InR and HMGCR expression. Each RNAi caused disruption of sexual dimorphism and produced dwarf flies at specific rearing temperatures. These results provide evidence: (i that HMGCR expression is controlled by the InR and (ii that InR and HMGCR specifically in the ca, are involved in the control of body size and sexual dimorphism of locomotor activity.

  13. Protein intake at 9 mo of age is associated with body size but not with body fat in 10-y-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoppe, Camilla; Mølgaard, Christian; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke Riegels;

    2004-01-01

    During the complementary feeding period, infants shift from a daily protein intake (PI) of approximately 1 g/kg body wt to an intake 3-4 times as high. A high PI probably has both endocrine and physiologic effects and may increase the risk of obesity.......During the complementary feeding period, infants shift from a daily protein intake (PI) of approximately 1 g/kg body wt to an intake 3-4 times as high. A high PI probably has both endocrine and physiologic effects and may increase the risk of obesity....

  14. Heritability of life-history tactics and genetic correlation with body size in a natural population of brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, V; Garant, D; Bernatchez, L; Dodson, J J

    2007-11-01

    A common dimorphism in life-history tactic in salmonids is the presence of an anadromous pathway involving a migration to sea followed by a freshwater reproduction, along with an entirely freshwater resident tactic. Although common, the genetic and environmental influence on the adoption of a particular life-history tactic has rarely been studied under natural conditions. Here, we used sibship-reconstruction based on microsatellite data and an 'animal model' approach to estimate the additive genetic basis of the life-history tactic adopted (anadromy vs. residency) in a natural population of brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis. We also assess its genetic correlation with phenotypic correlated traits, body size and body shape. Significant heritability was observed for life-history tactic (varying from 0.52 to 0.56 depending on the pedigree scenario adopted) as well as for body size (from 0.44 to 0.50). There was also a significant genetic correlation between these two traits, whereby anadromous fish were genetically associated with bigger size at age 1 (r(G) = -0.52 and -0.61). Our findings thus indicate that life-history tactics in this population have the potential to evolve in response to selection acting on the tactic itself or indirectly via selection on body size. This study is one of the very few to have successfully used sibship-reconstruction to estimate quantitative genetic parameters under wild conditions. PMID:17956389

  15. Diet- and Body Size-Related Attitudes and Behaviors Associated with Vitamin Supplement Use in a Representative Sample of Fourth-Grade Students in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Goldy C.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Kelder, Steven H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine diet- and body size-related attitudes and behaviors associated with supplement use in a representative sample of fourth-grade students in Texas. Design: Cross-sectional data from the School Physical Activity and Nutrition study, a probability-based sample of schoolchildren. Children completed a questionnaire that assessed…

  16. Daily consumption of orange-fleshed sweet potato with added fat tends to increase total body vitamin A pool size in vitamin A depleted Bangladeshi women

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed the affect of daily consumption of orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP), with or without added fat, on the total body vitamin A (VA) pool size of Bangladeshi women with low initial VA status. Women (n=120) received for 60d either 1) 0 µg RAE/d as boiled white-fleshed sweet potatoes (WFSP) ...

  17. Production characteristics of body composition of Florida pompano reared to market size at two different densities in low salinity recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of culture density on production characteristics and body composition of Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus reared to market size using recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) at a salinity of 5 g/L was evaluated in a 110 day growth trial (water temperature, 27.0-28.5 C). Juvenile pom...

  18. The Effect of the Head Size on the Ear-to-Ear Radio-Propagation Channel for Body-Centric Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the head size on the ear-to-ear radio-propagation channel as a part of a body-centric wireless network is examined. The channel quality is evaluated at 2.45 GHz in terms of path gain (|S21|) between two monopole antennas that are placed normal to the surface of the head. The...

  19. Interfacial Tension-Driven Differentiation-(ITDD) may result in a low-density central region inside kilometer-sized bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Francisco J.

    2016-03-01

    Interfacial Tension-Driven Differentiation, (ITDD), and its possible significance with regards to the interior structures of kilometer-sized bodies is discussed. Using a simple physical and geometrical model, an analytical expression for the conditions in which ITDD can occur is derived. It is shown that ITDD coupled with internal convection can lead to a counterintuitive result: that central regions may be less dense than outer regions in km-sized, initially melted bodies. ITDD offers an alternative explanation to the formation of microporosity inside of small bodies, (e.g. Churyumov-Gerasimenko-like objects), as well as macroporosity, which is suggested to occur in the interior of Mars' larger satellite Phobos, without recourse to rubble-pile models. Depending on the development of the velocity boundary layer at the solidification front, ITDD allows not just the possibility of central porosity, but also more complex scenarios, such as the formation of internal porosity rings.

  20. A Nested Case-Control Study of Metabolically Defined Body Size Phenotypes and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J; Abubakar, Mustapha; Jenab, Mazda; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Racine, Antoine; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena A; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina E N; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, J Ramón; Jakszyn, Paula; Molina-Montes, Esther; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José-María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Masala, Giovanna; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Siersema, Peter D; Peeters, Petra H; Ohlsson, Bodil; Ericson, Ulrika; Palmqvist, Richard; Nyström, Hanna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Freisling, Heinz; Kong, So Yeon; Tsilidis, Kostas; Muller, David C; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is positively associated with colorectal cancer. Recently, body size subtypes categorised by the prevalence of hyperinsulinaemia have been defined, and metabolically healthy overweight/obese individuals (without hyperinsulinaemia) have been suggested to be at lower risk of...... cardiovascular disease than their metabolically unhealthy (hyperinsulinaemic) overweight/obese counterparts. Whether similarly variable relationships exist for metabolically defined body size phenotypes and colorectal cancer risk is unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The association of metabolically defined body......) metabolically healthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), (3) metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), and (4) metabolically unhealthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Additionally, in separate models, waist circumference measurements (using the International Diabetes Federation cut-points [≥80 cm for women...

  1. The NK1R-/- mouse phenotype suggests that small body size, with a sex- and diet-dependent excess in body mass and fat, are physical biomarkers for a human endophenotype with vulnerability to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillidge, Katharine; Heal, David J; Stanford, S Clare

    2016-09-01

    The abnormal behaviour of NK1R-/- mice (locomotor hyperactivity, inattentiveness and impulsivity in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Test) is arguably analogous to that of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Evidence suggests that small body size and increased body weight are risk factors for ADHD. Here, we compared the body size, body mass and body composition of male and female NK1R-/- mice and their wildtypes that had been fed either standard laboratory chow or a high-fat (45%: 'Western') diet. Male NK1R-/- mice from both cohorts were approximately 7% shorter than wildtypes. A similar trend was evident in females. Male NK1R-/- mice fed the normal diet weighed less than wildtypes but the 'body mass index' ('mBMI': weight (mg)/length (cm)(2)) of female NK1R-/- mice was higher than wildtypes. When given the high-fat diet, the mBMI of both male and female NK1R-/- mice was higher than wildtypes. There were no consistent genotype or sex differences in protein, ash or water content of mice from the two cohorts. However, the fat content of male NK1R-/- mice on the Western diet was considerably (35%) higher than wildtypes and resembled that of females from both genotypes. We conclude that a lack of functional NK1R is associated with small body size but increases vulnerability to an increase in mBMI and fat content, especially in males. This phenotype could also be evident in ADHD patients with polymorphism(s) of the TACR1 gene (the human equivalent of Nk1r). PMID:27462087

  2. Impact of body size and physical activity during adolescence and adult life on overall and cause-specific mortality in a large cohort study from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadi, Arash; Abnet, Christian C; Kamangar, Farin; Islami, Farhad; Khademi, Hooman; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Bagheri, Mohammad; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgar, Ali; Khoshnia, Masoud; Wacholder, Sholom; Matthews, Charles C; Pharoah, Paul D; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Dawsey, Sanford M

    2014-02-01

    We conducted this study to examine life-course body size and physical activity in relation to total and cause-specific mortality, which has not previously been studied in the low and middle-income countries in Asia. The Golestan Cohort Study is a population-based cohort in northeastern Iran in which 50,045 people above the age of 40 have been followed since 2004. Participants were shown a validated pictogram to assess body size at ages 15, 30, and the time of recruitment. Information on occupational physical activity at these ages was also collected. Subjects were followed up annually, and cause of death was determined. Cox regression models were adjusted for age at cohort start, smoking, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, place of residence, education, and opium use. Models for body size were also adjusted for physical activity at the same age, and vice versa. During a total of 252,740 person-years of follow-up (mean follow-up duration 5.1 ± 1.3 years) through December 2011, 2,529 of the cohort participants died. Larger body sizes at ages 15 or 30 in both sexes were associated with increased overall mortality. Cancer mortality was more strongly associated with adolescent obesity, and cardiovascular mortality with early adulthood body size. Weight gain between these ages was associated with cardiovascular mortality. Obese adolescents who lost weight still had increased mortality from all medical causes in both sexes. Physical activity during adolescence and early adulthood had no association with mortality, but at cohort baseline higher levels of activity were associated with reduced mortality. Mortality in this Middle-Eastern population was associated with obesity both during adolescence and early adult life. PMID:24557643

  3. Relationships among female body size, clutch size, and egg size in captive Deinagkistrodon acutus%圈养尖吻蝮雌体大小、窝卵数和卵大小之间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明行; 谭群英; 杨道德

    2013-01-01

    Wild populations of the five-paced pit-viper ( Deinagkistrodon acutus ) are increasingly threatened due to overhunting by local human populations, who kill the snakes mostly for food and medicinal use, and to a lesser extent for their skin to use in handiwork.Because D.acutus is currently classified as a highly vulnerable species in China, there is increased urgency to develop artificial breeding technology to ensure the long-term survival of the species.Although a number of farms currently breed D.acutus under semi-basement captive conditions, the artificial breeding technology for this species is still in its infancy, and few studies have empirically investigated the reproductive characteristics of D.acutus.In order to increase our understanding of the reproduction of D.acutus, and hence improve prospects of artificially breeding the species, we studied the body size, clutch size, clutch mass and other reproductive characteristics of adults under semi-basement captive conditions in Yongzhou City of Hunan Province from April-September 2010.We collected 42 healthy D.acutus (14♂28 ♀ ) adults and housed them in semi-basement conditions within Yongzhou YISHE Technology Co., Ltd.The snakes' housing consisted of seven cement pools (1.5m length,1.0m width,1.2m height) , which each had a 20 cm-thick layer of soil on the bottom and a nylon net covering the top.Six individuals (2♂4♀ ) were put into each pool, in which the temperature was 16-29℃ and relative humidity was 78%-96% , and housed from April 15-September 15.Because D.acutus are typical sit-and-wait foragers, adults were fed on house mice (Mus musculus) , domestic ducks and chickens.Captive D.acutus mainly preyed on live, small animals during the pre-breeding period, predating on live mice, live ducklings and live chicks in decreasing order.Oviposition season was from 2-21 August, and during this time we measured female body weight after oviposition ( postpartum mass) , snout-vent length ( SVL) , tail

  4. Whole body counter calibration using Monte Carlo modeling with an array of phantom sizes based on national anthropometric reference data

    Science.gov (United States)

    During construction of the whole body counter (WBC) at the Children’s Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), efficiency calibration was needed to translate acquired counts of 40K to actual grams of potassium for measurement of total body potassium (TBK) in a diverse subject population. The MCNP Monte Car...

  5. The Relationship between Body Size and Depressed Mood: Findings from a Sample of African American Middle School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Melby, Janet Nieuwsma

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between body weight and depression among adolescent females has been the subject of considerable attention from researchers. The risk of experiencing this distress, however, is not equally distributed across members of all racial groups. African American girls are generally more satisfied with their bodies and thus may be less…

  6. Supplementing five-point body condition score with body fat percentage increases the sensitivity for assessing overweight status of small to medium sized dogs

    OpenAIRE

    ARAI, Toshiro

    2012-01-01

    Gebin Li,1 Peter Lee,1 Nobuko Mori,1 Ichiro Yamamoto,1 Koh Kawasumi,1 Hisao Tanabe,2 Toshiro Arai11Department of Veterinary Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 2Komazawa Animal Hospital, Tokyo, JapanBackground and methods: Currently, five-point body condition scoring (BCS) is widely used by veterinarians and clinicians to assess adiposity in dogs in Japan. However, BCS score assignment is subjective in nature, and most clinicians do not score...

  7. Body size across the life course and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer in Black women, the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, 1993–2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Whitney R.; Tse, Chiu Kit; Olshan, Andrew F.; Troester, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    It is believed that greater adiposity is associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal but increased risk in postmenopausal women. However, few studies have evaluated these relationships among Black women or examined anthropometric measures other than near-diagnosis body mass index (BMI). PURPOSE This study investigated associations between measures of body size across the life course and breast cancer risk among Black and White women living in the U.S. South. METHODS We used data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study of invasive breast cancer in North Carolina women aged 20–74 years. We assessed nine body size variables, including age 10 relative weight; age 18 BMI; adult weight gain; “reference” BMI 1 year before interview; and post-diagnosis measured BMI and abdominal obesity measures. RESULTS Among premenopausal Whites, heavier childhood relative weight was associated with decreased cancer risk (odds ratio [OR]=0.48 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.33–0.70]). Among premenopausal Blacks, greater adult waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were associated with increased risk (waist OR=1.40 [1.00–1.97] and high tertile WHR OR=2.03 [1.29–3.19]), with associations for WHR in a similar direction in Whites. Among postmenopausal women, recalled body size was not associated with risk, except for increased risk associated with adult weight gain among White non-hormone therapy users. ER/PR status and hormone therapy use also modified other associations. DISCUSSION In this population, greater adult BMI was not associated with increased breast cancer risk, but some measures of early-life body size and abdominal obesity were associated with risk. PMID:24924530

  8. Body size and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    OpenAIRE

    Pischon, Tobias; Lahmann, Petra H; Boeing, Heiner; Friedenreich, Christine; Norat, Teresa; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Guernec, Gregory; Manuela M Bergmann; Linseisen, Jakob; Becker, Nikolaus; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are positively related to risk of colon cancer in men, whereas weak or no associations exist in women. This discrepancy may be related to differences in fat distribution between sexes or to the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women. METHODS: We used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association between anthropometric measures and risks of colon and rectal cancer among 368 277 men and women who we...

  9. Pitch (F0) and formant profiles of human vowels and vowel-like baboon grunts: The role of vocalizer body size and voice-acoustic allometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, Drew; Kollias, Sophie; Ney, Christina; Lloyd, Peter

    2005-02-01

    Key voice features-fundamental frequency (F0) and formant frequencies-can vary extensively between individuals. Much of the variation can be traced to differences in the size of the larynx and vocal-tract cavities, but whether these differences in turn simply reflect differences in speaker body size (i.e., neutral vocal allometry) remains unclear. Quantitative analyses were therefore undertaken to test the relationship between speaker body size and voice F0 and formant frequencies for human vowels. To test the taxonomic generality of the relationships, the same analyses were conducted on the vowel-like grunts of baboons, whose phylogenetic proximity to humans and similar vocal production biology and voice acoustic patterns recommend them for such comparative research. For adults of both species, males were larger than females and had lower mean voice F0 and formant frequencies. However, beyond this, F0 variation did not track body-size variation between the sexes in either species, nor within sexes in humans. In humans, formant variation correlated significantly with speaker height but only in males and not in females. Implications for general vocal allometry are discussed as are implications for speech origins theories, and challenges to them, related to laryngeal position and vocal tract length. .

  10. Allometric scaling of population variance with mean body size is predicted from Taylor’s law and density-mass allometry

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Joel E.; Xu, Meng; Schuster, William S. F.

    2012-01-01

    Two widely tested empirical patterns in ecology are combined here to predict how the variation of population density relates to the average body size of organisms. Taylor’s law (TL) asserts that the variance of the population density of a set of populations is a power-law function of the mean population density. Density–mass allometry (DMA) asserts that the mean population density of a set of populations is a power-law function of the mean individual body mass. Combined, DMA and TL predict th...

  11. Inertial orientation tracker apparatus method having automatic drift compensation for tracking human head and other similarly sized body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxlin, Eric M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A self contained sensor apparatus generates a signal that corresponds to at least two of the three orientational aspects of yaw, pitch and roll of a human-scale body, relative to an external reference frame. A sensor generates first sensor signals that correspond to rotational accelerations or rates of the body about certain body axes. The sensor may be mounted to the body. Coupled to the sensor is a signal processor for generating orientation signals relative to the external reference frame that correspond to the angular rate or acceleration signals. The first sensor signals are impervious to interference from electromagnetic, acoustic, optical and mechanical sources. The sensors may be rate sensors. An integrator may integrate the rate signal over time. A drift compensator is coupled to the rate sensors and the integrator. The drift compensator may include a gravitational tilt sensor or a magnetic field sensor or both. A verifier periodically measures the orientation of the body by a means different from the drift sensitive rate sensors. The verifier may take into account characteristic features of human motion, such as stillness periods. The drift compensator may be, in part, a Kalman filter, which may utilize statistical data about human head motion.

  12. Inertial orientation tracker having gradual automatic drift compensation for tracking human head and other similarly sized body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxlin, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A self contained sensor apparatus generates a signal that corresponds to at least two of the three orientational aspects of yaw, pitch and roll of a human-scale body, relative to an external reference frame. A sensor generates first sensor signals that correspond to rotational accelerations or rates of the body about certain body axes. The sensor may be mounted to the body. Coupled to the sensor is a signal processor for generating orientation signals relative to the external reference frame that correspond to the angular rate or acceleration signals. The first sensor signals are impervious to interference from electromagnetic, acoustic, optical and mechanical sources. The sensors may be rate sensors. An integrator may integrate the rate signal over time. A drift compensator is coupled to the rate sensors and the integrator. The drift compensator may include a gravitational tilt sensor or a magnetic field sensor or both. A verifier periodically measures the orientation of the body by a means different from the drift sensitive rate sensors. The verifier may take into account characteristic features of human motion, such as stillness periods. The drift compensator may be, in part, a Kalman filter, which may utilize statistical data about human head motion.

  13. Inertial orientation tracker apparatus having automatic drift compensation for tracking human head and other similarly sized body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxlin, Eric M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A self contained sensor apparatus generates a signal that corresponds to at least two of the three orientational aspects of yaw, pitch and roll of a human-scale body, relative to an external reference frame. A sensor generates first sensor signals that correspond to rotational accelerations or rates of the body about certain body axes. The sensor may be mounted to the body. Coupled to the sensor is a signal processor for generating orientation signals relative to the external reference frame that correspond to the angular rate or acceleration signals. The first sensor signals are impervious to interference from electromagnetic, acoustic, optical and mechanical sources. The sensors may be rate sensors. An integrator may integrate the rate signal over time. A drift compensator is coupled to the rate sensors and the integrator. The drift compensator may include a gravitational tilt sensor or a magnetic field sensor or both. A verifier periodically measures the orientation of the body by a means different from the drift sensitive rate sensors. The verifier may take into account characteristic features of human motion, such as stillness periods. The drift compensator may be, in part, a Kalman filter, which may utilize statistical data about human head motion.

  14. Correlation and Regression Analysis of Body Weight and Body Size of Adult Holstein Female Cattle%杂种荷斯坦成年母牛体重与体尺指标的相关回归分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马存寿

    2012-01-01

    分析杂一代荷斯坦成年母牛体尺指标与体重的相关性,并进一步进行估测体重的回归分析,指导黄牛改良的生产实际及选育工作。以门源县麻莲乡2008年测量的495头杂种荷斯坦牛相关数据为基础,分析体重与体高、体长、胸围、管围的相关系数,构建估测杂种荷斯坦成年母牛体重的回归模型。结果表明:体重与体高、体长、胸围、管围的相关系数R分别为0.712、0.785,0.889,0.514;得到了估测体重的最优回归模型,Y=-648.399+3.317X3+2.062x2+1.211x1(P〈0.01)(R2=0.877)。杂种荷斯坦成年母牛体重与体高、体长、胸围、管围存在明显的线性关系。%Correlation of The body size index and body weight of adult Holstein female cattle was studied for further regression analysis of body weight and breeding. Based on statistics of 495 adult Hotstein female cattle in Malian township,Menyuan aunty in 2008. Establishing relate coefficient of body weight and body height, body length, chest circumference for building regression model of estinating body weight. The results showed that correlation coefficient (R) of body weight and body length,chest circumference is 0.712,0. 785,0. 889 and 0.514 respectively, optimol regression model is,Y = -648.399 +3.317 X3 +2. 062X2 + 1. 211X1 ( P 〈 0. 01 ) ( R2 = 0. 877 ) ,There is linear relationship between body weight and body weight,body length,chest circumference.

  15. Effects of 'target' plant species body size on neighbourhood species richness and composition in old-field vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon S Schamp

    Full Text Available Competition is generally regarded as an important force in organizing the structure of vegetation, and evidence from several experimental studies of species mixtures suggests that larger mature plant size elicits a competitive advantage. However, these findings are at odds with the fact that large and small plant species generally coexist, and relatively smaller species are more common in virtually all plant communities. Here, we use replicates of ten relatively large old-field plant species to explore the competitive impact of target individual size on their surrounding neighbourhoods compared to nearby neighbourhoods of the same size that are not centred by a large target individual. While target individuals of the largest of our test species, Centaurea jacea L., had a strong impact on neighbouring species, in general, target species size was a weak predictor of the number of other resident species growing within its immediate neighbourhood, as well as the number of resident species that were reproductive. Thus, the presence of a large competitor did not restrict the ability of neighbouring species to reproduce. Lastly, target species size did not have any impact on the species size structure of neighbouring species; i.e. they did not restrict smaller, supposedly poorer competitors, from growing and reproducing close by. Taken together, these results provide no support for a size-advantage in competition restricting local species richness or the ability of small species to coexist and successfully reproduce in the immediate neighbourhood of a large species.

  16. Effects of body size on the diet of Rivulus haraldsiolii (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in a coastal Atlantic Rainforest island stream, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of body size on the feeding habits of the little-known killifi sh Rivulus haraldsiolii, collected in a coastal Atlantic Rainforest island stream, was investigated. Samples were collected during a study trip on 13 July 2009 in a brackish stream located in the northern part of Ilha do Mel Island, one of the most important southern Atlantic Forest areas in southern Brazil. The diet included aquatic immature insects (Diptera pupae and Chironomidae, aquatic insects (Hemiptera – Vellidae, microcrustaceans (Cladocera, aquatic ticks (Acarina, gastropods (Pomacea sp., terrestrial insects (Coleoptera, Formicidae and Isoptera, insect fragments, and plant fragments. The species presented an omnivorous feeding habit, and differences in diet could be related to variations in body sizes. Adults (large individuals feed mainly on Formicidae, plant fragments and aquatic ticks, whereas juveniles (small individuals feed basically on aquatic immature insects (Chironomidae and aquatic ticks.

  17. Differences in sexual size dimorphism among farmed tilapia species and strains undergoing genetic improvement for body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Lind

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many tilapia (Oreochromis spp. farmers produce all-male populations because of the superior growth rate of males compared to females. To investigate differences in body weight at harvest of males and females among different tilapia strains, we analyzed data from 62,787 individuals collected from pedigreed breeding programs of O. niloticus (GIFT from Malaysia, the Abbassa line from Egypt, and the Akosombo line from Ghana, O. shiranus (the Bunda College-Domasi selection line, O. aureus (a selection line under development in Abbassa, Egypt, and a selection line from Israel and a synthetic selection line of Red tilapia under development in Jitra, Malaysia, derived from stock from Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand (O. sp.. Mixed models were separately fitted to the data from each selection line. There was a significant sex effect in all strains (P < 0.001. A significant (P < 0.001 sex by generation interaction was observed in all strains (scale effect, not reversal of rankings, except Red tilapia and O. shiranus. Least squares means showed a large range in the magnitude of body weight differences between sexes across the seven strains. The largest percentage difference between females and males was in O. aureus from Egypt (female body weight was 52.2% that of males at harvest, whereas the smallest difference was observed in the GIFT strain of O. niloticus (female body weight 84.7% that of males. Female to male body weight percentages for Red tilapia, O. shiranus, Egypt O. niloticus, Israeli O. aureus and Ghana O. niloticus were 81.3, 81.0, 69.1, 61.7 and 61.0, respectively. We discuss the results in relation to the potential productivity improvements due to superior growth rates of all-male culture compared to mixed-sex culture in tilapia populations differing in the female to male body weight ratio.

  18. Sea urchins in a high-CO2 world: partitioned effects of body size, ocean warming and acidification on metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nicholas; Harianto, Januar; Byrne, Maria

    2016-04-15

    Body size and temperature are the major factors explaining metabolic rate, and the additional factor of pH is a major driver at the biochemical level. These three factors have frequently been found to interact, complicating the formulation of broad models predicting metabolic rates and hence ecological functioning. In this first study of the effects of warming and ocean acidification, and their potential interaction, on metabolic rate across a broad range in body size (two to three orders of magnitude difference in body mass), we addressed the impact of climate change on the sea urchin ITALIC! Heliocidaris erythrogrammain context with climate projections for southeast Australia, an ocean warming hotspot. Urchins were gradually introduced to two temperatures (18 and 23°C) and two pH levels (7.5 and 8.0), at which they were maintained for 2 months. Identical experimental trials separated by several weeks validated the fact that a new physiological steady state had been reached, otherwise known as acclimation. The relationship between body size, temperature and acidification on the metabolic rate of ITALIC! H. erythrogrammawas strikingly stable. Both stressors caused increases in metabolic rate: 20% for temperature and 19% for pH. Combined effects were additive: a 44% increase in metabolism. Body size had a highly stable relationship with metabolic rate regardless of temperature or pH. None of these diverse drivers of metabolism interacted or modulated the effects of the others, highlighting the partitioned nature of how each influences metabolic rate, and the importance of achieving a full acclimation state. Despite these increases in energetic demand there was very limited capacity for compensatory modulating of feeding rate; food consumption increased only in the very smallest specimens, and only in response to temperature, and not pH. Our data show that warming, acidification and body size all substantially affect metabolism and are highly consistent and

  19. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, K. Y.; A. Sastri; G. C. Gong; C. H. Hsieh

    2012-01-01

    Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food) on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested th...

  20. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, K. Y.; A. R. Sastri; G. C. Gong; C. H. Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs, and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food) on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically,...

  1. Body size, modifying factors, and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population: the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study

    OpenAIRE

    John, Esther M.; Phipps, Amanda I.; Sangaramoorthy, Meera

    2013-01-01

    Data on body size and postmenopausal breast cancer in Hispanic and African American women are inconsistent, possibly due to the influence of modifying factors. We examined associations between adiposity and risk of breast cancer defined by hormone receptor status in a population-based case-control study conducted from 1995–2004 in the San Francisco Bay Area. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Associations wit...

  2. Effects of body size on the diet of Rivulus haraldsiolii (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae) in a coastal Atlantic Rainforest island stream, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vinícius Abilhoa; Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule; Hugo Bornatowski; Fagner Breda de Lara; Glauco Ubiratan Kohler; Luciana Festti; Wanessa Priscila David do Carmo; Igor Kintopp Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    The effect of body size on the feeding habits of the little-known killifi sh Rivulus haraldsiolii, collected in a coastal Atlantic Rainforest island stream, was investigated. Samples were collected during a study trip on 13 July 2009 in a brackish stream located in the northern part of Ilha do Mel Island, one of the most important southern Atlantic Forest areas in southern Brazil. The diet included aquatic immature insects (Diptera pupae and Chironomidae), aquatic insects (Hemiptera – Vellida...

  3. Genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair and oxidative stress pathways may modify the association between body size and postmenopausal breast cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McCullough, L. E.; Eng, S. M.; Bradshaw, P. T.; Cleveland, R. J.; Steck, S. E.; Terry, M. B.; Shen, J.; Crew, K.D.; Rössner ml., Pavel; Ahn, J.; Ambrosone, Ch.B.; Teitelbaum, S. L.; Neugut, A. I.; Santella, R. M.; Gammon, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2015), s. 263-269. ISSN 1047-2797 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : breast cancer * body mass index * oxidative stress * DNA repair * Epidemiology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.000, year: 2014

  4. One Size Doesn't Fit All: New Continua of Figure Drawings and Their Relation to Ideal Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novella, Jocelyn; Gosselin, Jennifer T.; Danowski, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study introduces a new figure drawing measure, the Presentation of Images on a Continuum Scale (PICS), which includes continua of bodies from thin to obese and thin to muscular for both men and women. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students from a private, Catholic university in Connecticut. The data were collected…

  5. Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the…

  6. Altered skeletal muscle fiber composition and size precede whole-body insulin resistance in young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Madsbad, Sten;

    2007-01-01

    associated with LBW. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Vastus lateralis muscle was obtained by percutaneous biopsy from 20 healthy 19-yr-old men with birth weights at 10th percentile or lower for gestational age (LBW) and 20 normal birth weight controls, matched for body fat, physical fitness, and whole-body glucose......CONTEXT: Low birth weight (LBW), a surrogate marker of an adverse fetal milieu, is linked to muscle insulin resistance, impaired insulin-stimulated glycolysis, and future risk of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle mass, fiber composition, and capillary density are important determinants of muscle...... disposal. Myofibrillar ATPase staining was used to classify muscle fibers as type I, IIa, and IIx (formerly type IIb), and double immunostaining was performed to stain capillaries (LBW, n=8; normal birth weight, n=12). RESULTS: LBW was associated with increased proportion of type IIx fibers (+66%; P=0...

  7. The StandFast whole body counter: efficiency as a function of BOMAB phantom size and energy modeled by MCNP5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gary H; Capello, Kevin

    2007-03-01

    The StandFast whole body counter has been modeled using Monte Carlo simulations to examine the effect of phantom size, photon energy, and position of the phantom within the counting enclosure on the counting efficiency. The first geometry, the manufacturer's recommended positioning, was found to have the higher counting efficiencies and the most dependence on phantom size. The second position, where the phantom is at the back of the counting enclosure, had lower counting efficiencies, and hence higher minimum detectable activities, by a factor of between 1.3 to 2.1 when compared with the first geometry; however, for emergency response where accuracy is to be preferred over sensitivity, this geometry would be the better choice. A unified calibration equation was also developed for the StandFast so that it is possible to predict the counting efficiency as a function of photon energy and size to within 11%. PMID:17293701

  8. One size does not fit all: using variables other than the thin ideal to understand Black women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodilupo, Christina M

    2015-04-01

    Very few empirical studies have investigated the effect that culturally relevant beauty ideals (such as long, straight hair and lighter skin tones) have on Black women's feelings about their physical appearance. The current investigation examined the direct effect of internalizing idealized media images on Black women's body esteem and appearance satisfaction. The indirect effects of: (a) the presumed influence of the media images on African American men, and (b) feelings of invisibility were also tested. Using an online survey, the sample included 230 women who identified as African American and/or Black American. Through structural equation modeling (SEM), findings reveal that participants' body esteem was directly negatively impacted by higher levels of internalization of idealized media images. Further, the findings support the idea that higher levels of internalization of media lead to a greater presumed influence of media on men, which leads to higher feelings of invisibility, ultimately leading to lower body esteem. Finally, there was evidence to suggest that appearance satisfaction was not directly negatively affected by internalization of media images but was negatively impacted when the images are presumed to have a higher influence on African American men. PMID:25150817

  9. Body size distribution in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as a possible monitoring method of environmental impacts of transgenic maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grumo, Davide di; Lövei, Gabor L.

    2015-01-01

    informative Lorenz asymmetry coefficients. A total of 6339 carabids belonging to 38 species were captured and indentified. The analysis detected a shift in size distribution between months but no important differences in the assemblages in Bt vs. non-Bt maize plots were found. We concluded that an increasing...

  10. Stocking density effects on production characteristics and body composition of market size cobia, Rachycentron canadum, reared in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production density in excess of a critical threshold can result in a negative relationship between stocking density and fish production. This study was conducted to evaluate production characteristics of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum, reared to market size in production-scale recirculating aq...

  11. Prediction of Postpubertal Reproductive Potential According to Prepubertal Body Weight, Testicular Size, and Testosterone Concentration Using Multiple Regression Analysis in Kıvırcık Ram Lambs

    OpenAIRE

    ELMAZ, Özkan; DİKMEN, Serdal; CİRİT, Ümit; DEMİR, Hıdır

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the prepubertal body weight, testicular size, testosterone concentration, and postpubertal reproductive function was investigated in Kıvırcık ram lambs. The body weight, testicular size, and testosterone concentration were measured every 20 days between 60 and 420 days of age. Semen was collected from the ram lambs at 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 months of age. Data obtained were analyzed by best subsets regression model. We determined that body weight, scrotal circ...

  12. A Nested Case–Control Study of Metabolically Defined Body Size Phenotypes and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J.; Abubakar, Mustapha; Jenab, Mazda; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Racine, Antoine; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena A.; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina E. N.; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, J. Ramón; Jakszyn, Paula; Molina-Montes, Esther; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José-María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Masala, Giovanna; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Siersema, Peter D.; Peeters, Petra H.; Ohlsson, Bodil; Ericson, Ulrika; Palmqvist, Richard; Nyström, Hanna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Freisling, Heinz; Kong, So Yeon; Tsilidis, Kostas; Muller, David C.; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc J

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is positively associated with colorectal cancer. Recently, body size subtypes categorised by the prevalence of hyperinsulinaemia have been defined, and metabolically healthy overweight/obese individuals (without hyperinsulinaemia) have been suggested to be at lower risk of cardiovascular disease than their metabolically unhealthy (hyperinsulinaemic) overweight/obese counterparts. Whether similarly variable relationships exist for metabolically defined body size phenotypes and colorectal cancer risk is unknown. Methods and Findings The association of metabolically defined body size phenotypes with colorectal cancer was investigated in a case–control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Metabolic health/body size phenotypes were defined according to hyperinsulinaemia status using serum concentrations of C-peptide, a marker of insulin secretion. A total of 737 incident colorectal cancer cases and 737 matched controls were divided into tertiles based on the distribution of C-peptide concentration amongst the control population, and participants were classified as metabolically healthy if below the first tertile of C-peptide and metabolically unhealthy if above the first tertile. These metabolic health definitions were then combined with body mass index (BMI) measurements to create four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories: (1) metabolically healthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), (2) metabolically healthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), (3) metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), and (4) metabolically unhealthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Additionally, in separate models, waist circumference measurements (using the International Diabetes Federation cut-points [≥80 cm for women and ≥94 cm for men]) were used (instead of BMI) to create the four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories. Statistical tests used in the analysis were all two-sided, and a

  13. Perception of body size among Mexican teachers and parents Percepción del tamaño corporal en profesores y padres mexicanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jiménez-Cruz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in Mexico has reached epidemic proportions; and body image and body satisfaction might be culturally related. Body dissatisfaction has been related to low self-esteem. The aim of this study was to assess the range of perception among Mexican teachers and parents of the ideal body size of adults, boys and girls. Two-hundred and five teachers and eighty parents from Tijuana and Tecate schools participated in the study. Participants were asked to indicate the ideal body size for each group, as well as their own ideal body size. Average perception of ideal body weight for adults 35 to 45 years of age was 4.0 ± 0.84. Average perception for boys and girls was 4.6. Positive correlations were shown between self-perception of body size and body mass index (0.62, P La obesidad en México ha alcanzado proporciones epidérmicas: la imagen corporal y la satisfacción con el cuerpo de uno mismo podrían tener un componente cultural. La insatisfacción con el cuerpo de uno mismo se ha relacionado con auto-estima baja. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar, entre los profesores y padres mexicanos, el rango de percepción del tamaño corporal ideal de adultos, niños y niñas. Doscientos cinco profesores y ochenta padres de colegios de Tijuana y Tecate participaron en el estudio. Se pidió a los participantes que indicasen el tamaño corporal ideal para cada grupo, así como su propio tamaño corporal ideal. La percepción promedio del peso corporal ideal para adultos de entre 35 y 45 años de edad fue 4,0 ± 0,84. La percepción ideal para niños y niñas fue 4,6. Se observaron correlaciones positivas entre la auto-percepción del tamaño corporal y el índice de masa corporal (0,62, P < 0,001, y la circunferencia de la cintura (0,55, P < 0,001. La auto-percepción del tamaño corporal se asoció con la percepción del tamaño corporal ideal para los niños (0,23, P < 0,001 y las niñas (0,22, P < 0,001, pero el IMC no se asoció con la percepci

  14. Diet- and Body Size-related Attitudes and Behaviors Associated with Vitamin Supplement Use in a Representative Sample of Fourth-grade Students in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Goldy C.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Kelder, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine diet- and body size-related attitudes and behaviors associated with supplement use in a representative sample of fourth-grade students in Texas. Design Cross-sectional data from the School Physical Activity and Nutrition study, a probability-based sample of schoolchildren. Children completed a questionnaire that assessed supplement use, food choices, diet-related attitudes, and physical activity; height and weight were measured. Setting School classrooms. Participants Representative sample of fourth-grade students in Texas (n = 5967; mean age = 9.7 years standard error of the mean [SEM] = .03 years, 46% Hispanic, 11% African-American). Main Outcome Measures Previous day vitamin supplement consumption, diet- and body size-related attitudes, food choices, demographic factors, and physical activity. Analysis Multivariable logistic regression models, P body image and greater interest in trying new food. Relative to nonusers, supplement users were less likely to perceive that they always ate healthful food, although supplement use was associated with more healthful food choices in boys and girls (P < .001). Conclusions and Implications The widespread use of supplements and clustering of supplement use with healthful diet and greater physical activity in fourth graders suggest that supplement use be closely investigated in studies of diet–disease precursor relations and lifestyle factors in children. PMID:19304254

  15. The effects of body size and climate on post-weaning survival of elephant seals at Heard Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Clive R; New, Leslie; Fairley, E.J.; Hindell, M.A.; Burton, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    The population size of southern elephant seals in the southern Indian and Pacific Oceans decreased precipitously between the 1950s and 1990s. To investigate the reasons behind this, we studied the population of southern elephant seals at Heard Island between 1949 and 1954, using data collected by the early Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions. Seals were marked and measured (lengths) as weaned pups, and resighted at Heard and Marion islands and in the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica in subsequent years. Bayesian state-space mark-recapture models were used to determine post-weaning survival. Yearling survival was consistently lower (ϕy: 0.28–0.40) than sub-adult survival (ϕs: 0.79–0.83). We found evidence for constant sub-adult survival and time-dependent resight probabilities. Weaning length was an important determinate of yearling survival, with the probability of survival increasing with individual length. There was some suggestion that the Southern Annular Mode influenced yearling survival but this evidence was not strong. Nonetheless, our results provide further support showing that size at independence affects yearling survival. Given the known sensitivity of southern elephant seal populations to survival early in life, it is possible that the decline in population size at Heard Island between the 1950s and 1990s like that at Macquarie Island was due to low yearling survival mediated through maternal ability to produce large pups and the dominant environmental conditions mothers experience during pregnancy.

  16. A novel zf-MYND protein, CHB-3, mediates guanylyl cyclase localization to sensory cilia and controls body size of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabi Fujiwara

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cilia are important sensory organelles, which are thought to be essential regulators of numerous signaling pathways. In Caenorhabditis elegans, defects in sensory cilium formation result in a small-body phenotype, suggesting the role of sensory cilia in body size determination. Previous analyses suggest that lack of normal cilia causes the small-body phenotype through the activation of a signaling pathway which consists of the EGL-4 cGMP-dependent protein kinase and the GCY-12 receptor-type guanylyl cyclase. By genetic suppressor screening of the small-body phenotype of a cilium defective mutant, we identified a chb-3 gene. Genetic analyses placed chb-3 in the same pathway as egl-4 and gcy-12 and upstream of egl-4. chb-3 encodes a novel protein, with a zf-MYND motif and ankyrin repeats, that is highly conserved from worm to human. In chb-3 mutants, GCY-12 guanylyl cyclase visualized by tagged GFP (GCY-12::GFP fails to localize to sensory cilia properly and accumulates in cell bodies. Our analyses suggest that decreased GCY-12 levels in the cilia of chb-3 mutants may cause the suppression of the small-body phenotype of a cilium defective mutant. By observing the transport of GCY-12::GFP particles along the dendrites to the cilia in sensory neurons, we found that the velocities and the frequencies of the particle movement are decreased in chb-3 mutant animals. How membrane proteins are trafficked to cilia has been the focus of extensive studies in vertebrates and invertebrates, although only a few of the relevant proteins have been identified. Our study defines a new regulator, CHB-3, in the trafficking process and also shows the importance of ciliary targeting of the signaling molecule, GCY-12, in sensory-dependent body size regulation in C. elegans. Given that CHB-3 is highly conserved in mammal, a similar system may be used in the trafficking of signaling proteins to the cilia of other species.

  17. The influence of dominant lethal mutations on litter size and body weight and the consequent impact on transgenerational carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reported untreated mouse control data from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory assessment of dominant damage (ADD) experiments demonstrate a strong negative correlation between body weight at 4, 5, 7, 9, and 11 weeks of age and number in litter at 3 weeks of age. Independently from the above finding, mother mice are also shown to differ substantially as to the mean weights of their litters. Much literature suggests that, as a general rule (a) heavier mice are more likely to develop spontaneous and induced tumors earlier and (b) caloric restriction decreases body weights and tumor incidences and increases longevity. The above findings make it likely that many experiments that have been interpreted to demonstrate radiation-induced transgenerational carcinogenesis have instead merely illustrated a confounding effect of extensive induced dominant lethality. That is, because of induced dominant lethality, experimental groups contain heavier mice or rats, which accordingly develop more spontaneous tumors at a faster rate than control groups, with the increased tumor rates having nothing to do with induction of dominant tumor mutations. Our findings prompt suggestions as to possible modifications in the analysis and experimental design of such experiments

  18. Child behavioural problems and body size among 2-6 year old children predisposed to overweight. results from the "healthy start" study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Pedersen, Jeanett; Händel, Mina N;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychological adversities among young children may be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. We examined if an increased level of child behavioural problems was associated with body size among a selected group of 2-6 year old children, who were all predisposed to develop...... and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess child stress by the SDQ Total Difficulties (SDQ-TD) score and the Prosocial Behavior (PSB) score. Height and weight were measured, and BMI z-scores were calculated. RESULTS: A direct, but non-significant linear trend was found between SDQ-TD score and BMI z...

  19. A lack of crowding? Body size does not decrease with density for two behavior-manipulating parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinersmith, KL; Warinner, Chloe B.; Tan, Virgina; Harris, David J.; Mora, Adrienne B.; Kuris, Armand M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Hechinger, Ryan F.

    2014-01-01

    For trophically transmitted parasites that manipulate the phenotype of their hosts, whether the parasites do or do not experience resource competition depends on such factors as the size of the parasites relative to their hosts, the intensity of infection, the extent to which parasites share the cost of defending against the host’s immune system or manipulating their host, and the extent to which parasites share transmission goals. Despite theoretical expectations for situations in which either no, or positive, or negative density-dependence should be observed, most studies document only negative density-dependence for trophically transmitted parasites. However, this trend may be an artifact of most studies having focused on systems in which parasites are large relative to their hosts. Yet, systems are common where parasites are small relative to their hosts, and these trophically transmitted parasites may be less likely to experience resource limitation. We looked for signs of density-dependence in Euhaplorchis californiensis (EUHA) and Renicola buchanani (RENB), two manipulative trematode parasites infecting wild-caught California killifish (Fundulus parvipinnis). These parasites are small relative to killifish (suggesting resources are not limiting), and are associated with changes in killifish behavior that are dependent on parasite-intensity and that increase predation rates by the parasites’ shared final host (indicating the possibility for cost sharing). We did not observe negative density-dependence in either species, indicating that resources are not limiting. In fact, observed patterns indicate possible mild positive density-dependence for EUHA. Although experimental confirmation is required, our findings suggest that some behavior-manipulating parasites suffer no reduction in size, and may even benefit when "crowded" by conspecifics.

  20. Further studies on the month-of-birth effect on body size: rural schoolchildren and an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, M; Louw, G J

    1993-06-01

    A previous study (Henneberg and Louw: Am. J. Hum. Biol. 2:227-233, 1990) showed that urban schoolchildren born between August and January were taller and heavier by 13 to 17% of the standard deviation (S) than those born in February to July. The study is now extended to 1,522 impoverished rural schoolchildren from the Little Karoo district of S. Africa and to 804 German Shepherd dogs kennelled at a breeding station in the Transvaal. The dogs provided a quasi-experimental model because for all of them nutrition and living conditions were practically identical throughout the year. The month-of-birth effect in the body weight of dogs was found to be stronger than that in urban children: dogs born between August and January were heavier by 22% of S than those born in February through July. In rural children the effect is present, but its magnitude is somewhat less and the peak is shifted by 2-3 months. Children born in May through October are 11% of S lighter than those born in November through April. It seems that living conditions characteristic of extreme poverty tend to diminish the effect. In both the animal model and rural children the month-of-birth effect decreases with advancing age and is more pronounced in males than in females. These findings are in agreement with previous observations in urban children from Cape Town. Since the living conditions of dogs and humans differ, as do the climatic conditions of Cape Town, Little Karoo and the Transvaal, it is surmised that the similarity of the effect may result from factors influencing the entire planet in a uniform way. PMID:8317564

  1. Impact of iterative reconstruction on image quality and radiation dose in multidetector CT of large body size adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare image quality and radiation dose using Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASiR) and Filtered Back Projection (FBP) in patients weighing ≥91 kg. In this Institution Review Board-approved retrospective study, single-phase contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT examinations of 100 adults weighing ≥91 kg (mean body weight: 107.6 ± 17.4 kg range: 91-181.9 kg) with (1) ASiR and (2) FBP were reviewed by two readers in a blinded fashion for subjective measures of image quality (using a subjective standardized numerical scale and objective noise) and for radiation exposure. Imaging parameters and radiation dose results of the two techniques were compared within weight and BMI sub-categories. All examinations were found to be of adequate quality. Both subjective (mean = 1.4 ± 0.5 vs. 1.6 ± 0.6, P < 0.05) and objective noise (13.0 ± 3.2 vs.19.5 ± 5.7, P < 0.0001) were lower with ASiR. Average radiation dose reduction of 31.5 % was achieved using ASiR (mean CTDIvol. ASiR: 13.5 ± 7.3 mGy; FBP: 19.7 ± 9.0 mGy, P < 0.0001). Other measures of image quality were comparable between the two techniques. Trends for all parameters were similar in patients across weight and BMI sub-categories. In obese individuals, abdominal CT images reconstructed using ASiR provide diagnostic images with reduced image noise at lower radiation dose. circle CT images in obese adults are noisy, even with high radiation dose. (orig.)

  2. The systemic exposure to inhaled beclometasone/formoterol pMDI with valved holding chamber is independent of age and body size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govoni, Mirco; Piccinno, Annalisa; Lucci, Germano;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma guidelines recommend prescription of inhaled corticosteroids at a reduced dosage in children compared to older patients in order to minimize the systemic exposure and risk of unwanted side effects. In children, pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI) are recommended in combina....../formoterol administered via pMDI with AeroChamber Plus™ correlates with the nominal dose independently of patient age and body size. Thus, dose reduction in relation to age when using a pMDI with VHC may be unnecessary for reducing the systemic exposure in children.......BACKGROUND: Asthma guidelines recommend prescription of inhaled corticosteroids at a reduced dosage in children compared to older patients in order to minimize the systemic exposure and risk of unwanted side effects. In children, pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI) are recommended in...... combination with a valved holding chamber (VHC) to overcome the problem of coordinating inhalation with actuation. However, the influence of age and body size on the systemic exposure of drugs to be administered via a pMDI with VHC is still not fully elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to compare the systemic...

  3. Sex allocation and secondary sex ratio in Cuban boa ( Chilabothrus angulifer): mother's body size affects the ratio between sons and daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frynta, Daniel; Vejvodová, Tereza; Šimková, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Secondary sex ratios of animals with genetically determined sex may considerably deviate from equality. These deviations may be attributed to several proximate and ultimate factors. Sex ratio theory explains some of them as strategic decisions of mothers improving their fitness by selective investment in sons or daughters, e.g. local resource competition hypothesis (LRC) suggests that philopatric females tend to produce litters with male-biased sex ratios to avoid future competition with their daughters. Until now, only little attention has been paid to examine predictions of sex ratio theory in snakes possessing genetic sex determination and exhibiting large variance in allocation of maternal investment. Cuban boa is an endemic viviparous snake producing large-bodied newborns (˜200 g). Extremely high maternal investment in each offspring increases importance of sex allocation. In a captive colony, we collected breeding records of 42 mothers, 62 litters and 306 newborns and examined secondary sex ratios (SR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) of newborns. None of the examined morphometric traits of neonates appeared sexually dimorphic. The sex ratio was slightly male biased (174 males versus 132 females) and litter sex ratio significantly decreased with female snout-vent length. We interpret this relationship as an additional support for LRC as competition between mothers and daughters increases with similarity of body sizes between competing snakes.

  4. Diel flight pattern and flight performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) measured on a flight mill: influence of age, gender, mating status, and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvary, Mark A; Bloem, Kenneth A; Bloem, Stephanie; Carpenter, James E; Hight, Stephen D; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-04-01

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an invasive herbivore that poses a serious risk to Opuntia cacti in North America. Knowledge of the flight behavior of the cactus moth is crucial for a better understanding of natural dispersal, and for both monitoring and control. We used computer-linked flight mills to investigate diel flight activity and flight performance in relation to gender, age, mating status, and body size. Maximal flight activity for both mated and unmated moths occurred during twilight, whereas flight activity was low during photophase. The total distance flown and the number of initiated flights within a diel cycle were higher in both unmated and mated females than in males, but the longest single flight was similar in both genders. These findings suggest that pheromone trap captures of males likely indicate the simultaneous presence of females and that mated females might even be in areas where males are not detected yet. Flight performance heterogeneity was large, with a small portion of the population (both males and females) performing long unbroken flights, whereas the majority made short flights. Females had higher pupal and adult body size and shorter longevity than males. A few individuals, particularly young mated females, flying long distances may be important for active spread of a population and the colonization of new habitats. Implications of this study in the control of the cactus moth by using the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:18459394

  5. The Impact of Tumor Size on Outcomes After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Medically Inoperable Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allibhai, Zishan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto (Canada); Taremi, Mojgan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stronach Regional Cancer Centre, Newmarket (Canada); Bezjak, Andrea; Brade, Anthony; Hope, Andrew J.; Sun, Alexander [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto (Canada); Cho, B.C. John, E-mail: john.cho@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy for medically inoperable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) offers excellent control rates. Most published series deal mainly with small (usually <4 cm), peripheral, solitary tumors. Larger tumors are associated with poorer outcomes (ie, lower control rates, higher toxicity) when treated with conventional RT. It is unclear whether SBRT is sufficiently potent to control these larger tumors. We therefore evaluated and examined the influence of tumor size on treatment outcomes after SBRT. Methods and Materials: Between October 2004 and October 2010, 185 medically inoperable patients with early (T1-T2N0M0) NSCLC were treated on a prospective research ethics board-approved single-institution protocol. Prescription doses were risk-adapted based on tumor size and location. Follow-up included prospective assessment of toxicity (as per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0) and serial computed tomography scans. Patterns of failure, toxicity, and survival outcomes were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method, and the significance of tumor size (diameter, volume) with respect to patient, treatment, and tumor factors was tested. Results: Median follow-up was 15.2 months. Tumor size was not associated with local failure but was associated with regional failure (P=.011) and distant failure (P=.021). Poorer overall survival (P=.001), disease-free survival (P=.001), and cause-specific survival (P=.005) were also significantly associated with tumor size (with tumor volume more significant than diameter). Gross tumor volume and planning target volume were significantly associated with grade 2 or worse radiation pneumonitis. However, overall rates of grade ≥3 pneumonitis were low and not significantly affected by tumor or target size. Conclusions: Currently employed stereotactic body radiation therapy dose regimens can provide safe effective local therapy even for larger solitary NSCLC tumors (up to 5.7 cm

  6. Influence of dietary protein content and source on colonic fermentative activity in dogs differing in body size and digestive tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, J; Goudez, R; Biourge, V; Tournier, C; Leray, V; Martin, L; Thorin, C; Nguyen, P; Dumon, H

    2012-08-01

    Low-consistency, high-moisture feces have been observed in large dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), compared with small dogs, and particularly in sensitive breeds (e.g., German Shepherd dogs). The aim of this work was to determine if greater colonic protein fermentation is responsible for poorer fecal quality in large sensitive dogs. Twenty-seven bitches were allotted to 4 groups based on size and digestive sensitivity: small, medium, large tolerant, and large sensitive. Five experimental diets varying in protein source [highly digestible wheat gluten (WG) vs. medium digestible poultry meal (PM), and protein concentration from 21.4 to 21.6 (LP) to 38.2 to 39.2% CP (HP)] were tested. Diets were fed for 14 d and followed by a 12-d transition period. Digestive fermentation by-products were investigated in fresh stools [ammonia, phenol, indole, and short chain fatty acids including acetate, propionate, and butyrate (C2 to C4 SCFA), branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), and valerate] and in urine (phenol and indole). Bacterial populations in feces were identified. The PM diets resulted in greater fecal concentrations of ammonia, BCFA, valerate, indole, and C2 to C4 SCFA than WG diets (P = 0.002, P fermentation products in feces together with improved fecal quality in dogs, especially in large sensitive ones. Poor fecal quality in large sensitive dogs could be partly related to the pattern of protein fermentation in the hindgut. PMID:22328724

  7. Effects of season, sex and body size on the feeding ecology of turtle-headed sea snakes ( Emydocephalus annulatus) on IndoPacific inshore coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiran, C.; Dubey, S.; Shine, R.

    2013-06-01

    In terrestrial snakes, many cases of intraspecific shifts in dietary habits as a function of predator sex and body size are driven by gape limitation and hence are most common in species that feed on relatively large prey and exhibit a wide body-size range. Our data on sea snakes reveal an alternative mechanism for intraspecific niche partitioning, based on sex-specific seasonal anorexia induced by reproductive activities. Turtle-headed sea snakes ( Emydocephalus annulatus) on coral reefs in the New Caledonian Lagoon feed entirely on the eggs of demersal-spawning fishes. DNA sequence data (cytochrome b gene) on eggs that we palpated from stomachs of 37 snakes showed that despite this ontogenetic stage specialization, the prey comes from a taxonomically diverse array of species including damselfish (41 % of samples, at least 5 species), blennies (41 %, 4 species) and gobies (19 %, 5 species). The composition of snake diets shifted seasonally (with damselfish dominating in winter but not summer), presumably reflecting seasonality of fish reproduction. That seasonal shift affects male and female snakes differently, because reproduction is incompatible with foraging. Adult female sea snakes ceased feeding when they became heavily distended with developing embryos in late summer, and males ceased feeding while they were mate searching in winter. The sex divergence in foraging habits may be amplified by sexual size dimorphism; females grow larger than males, and larger snakes (of both sexes) feed more on damselfish (which often lay their eggs in exposed sites) than on blennies and gobies (whose eggs are hidden within narrow crevices). Specific features of reproductive biology of coral reef fish (seasonality and nest type) have generated intraspecific niche partitioning in these sea snakes, by mechanisms different from those that apply to terrestrial snakes.

  8. Field study and numerical modeling of wind and surface waves at the middle-sized water body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydakov, Georgy; Kuznetsova, Alexandra; Sergeev, Daniil; Papko, Vladislav; Kandaurov, Alexander; Vdovin, Maxim; Troitskaya, Yuliya

    2015-04-01

    different parameterizations of flux both provided in WAVEWATCH III and in the inserted suggested experimental parameterization. For the cases with default WAVEWATCH III flux parameterizations, wave amplitude characteristics were overestimated, and spectral maxima showed the downshifting comparing with the measured data. Insertion of the suggested parameterization of flux input improved the coincidence. The difference in the use of WAM3 and Tolman & Chalikov source packages is discussed. To conclude, we discuss the applicability of suggested flux parameterization: it increases the accuracy of the simulations and makes possible the application of this technique for getting the surface wind waves forecasts on the water bodies. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research under Grant No. 15-45-02580,RFBR grant 14-05-31343, President Grant for young scientists MK-3550.2014.5, RSF 14-17-00667. References 1. Babanin and Makin Effects of wind trend and gustiness on the sea drag: Lake George study // Journal of Geophysical Research, 2008, 113, C02015, doi:10.1029/2007JC004233 2. Atakturk and Katsaros Wind Stress and Surface Waves Observed on Lake Washington // Journal of Physical Oceanography, 1999, 29, pp. 633-650

  9. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Thomas W; Justice, Anne E; Graff, Mariaelisa; Barata, Llilda; Feitosa, Mary F; Chu, Su; Czajkowski, Jacek; Esko, Tõnu; Fall, Tove; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Lu, Yingchang; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Pers, Tune H; Rüeger, Sina; Teumer, Alexander; Ehret, Georg B; Ferreira, Teresa; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Karjalainen, Juha; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mahajan, Anubha; Neinast, Michael D; Prokopenko, Inga; Simino, Jeannette; Teslovich, Tanya M; Jansen, Rick; Westra, Harm-Jan; White, Charles C; Absher, Devin; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Ahmad, Shafqat; Albrecht, Eva; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; de Craen, Anton J M; Bis, Joshua C; Bonnefond, Amélie; Boucher, Gabrielle; Cadby, Gemma; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Charleston W K; Delgado, Graciela; Demirkan, Ayse; Dueker, Nicole; Eklund, Niina; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Joel; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fischer, Krista; Frau, Francesca; Galesloot, Tessel E; Geller, Frank; Goel, Anuj; Gorski, Mathias; Grammer, Tanja B; Gustafsson, Stefan; Haitjema, Saskia; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E; Jackson, Anne U; Jacobs, Kevin B; Johansson, Åsa; Kaakinen, Marika; Kleber, Marcus E; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lehne, Benjamin; Liu, Youfang; Lo, Ken Sin; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luan, Jian'an; Madden, Pamela A F; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Monda, Keri L; Montasser, May E; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Rayner, Nigel W; Renström, Frida; Rizzi, Federica; Rose, Lynda M; Ryan, Kathy A; Salo, Perttu; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Southam, Lorraine; Stančáková, Alena; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Trompet, Stella; Pervjakova, Natalia; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van der Laan, Sander W; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Setten, Jessica; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Verweij, Niek; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Waite, Lindsay L; Wang, Sophie R; Wang, Zhaoming; Wild, Sarah H; Willenborg, Christina; Wilson, James F; Wong, Andrew; Yang, Jian; Yengo, Loïc; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andersson, Ehm A; Bakker, Stephan J L; Baldassarre, Damiano; Banasik, Karina; Barcella, Matteo; Barlassina, Cristina; Bellis, Claire; Benaglio, Paola; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bonnet, Fabrice; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buchman, Aron S; Campbell, Harry; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cole, John; Collins, Francis S; de Geus, Eco J C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Dimitriou, Maria; Duan, Jubao; Enroth, Stefan; Eury, Elodie; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Forouhi, Nita G; Friedrich, Nele; Gejman, Pablo V; Gigante, Bruna; Glorioso, Nicola; Go, Alan S; Gottesman, Omri; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Gu, Yu-Mei; Broer, Linda; Ham, Annelies C; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hastie, Nicholas; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heath, Andrew C; Henders, Anjali K; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hovingh, Kees G; Hui, Jennie; Husemoen, Lise L; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Hysi, Pirro G; Illig, Thomas; De Jager, Philip L; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; Jørgensen, Torben; Jukema, J Wouter; Juonala, Markus; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karaleftheri, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kinnunen, Leena; Kittner, Steven J; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Krarup, Nikolaj T; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Krüger, Janine; Kuh, Diana; Kumari, Meena; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Langenberg, Claudia; Lannfelt, Lars; Lanzani, Chiara; Lotay, Vaneet; Launer, Lenore J; Leander, Karin; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yan-Ping; Lobbens, Stéphane; Luben, Robert; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Magnusson, Patrik K; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Andrew P; Narisu, Narisu; Nelis, Mari; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Pérusse, Louis; Pichler, Irene; Pilia, Maria G; Pouta, Anneli; Rheinberger, Myriam; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Richards, Marcus; Rice, Kenneth M; Rice, Treva K; Rivolta, Carlo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R; Sarzynski, Mark A; Scholtens, Salome; Scott, Robert A; Scott, William R; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengupta, Sebanti; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Silveira, Angela; Slagboom, P Eline; Smit, Jan H; Sparsø, Thomas H; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P; Stringham, Heather M; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorand, Barbara; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; van der Most, Peter J; Völker, Uwe; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Vonk, Judith M; Waldenberger, Melanie; Walker, Ryan W; Wennauer, Roman; Widén, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wright, Alan F; Zillikens, M Carola; van Dijk, Suzanne C; van Schoor, Natasja M; Asselbergs, Folkert W; de Bakker, Paul I W; Beckmann, Jacques S; Beilby, John; Bennett, David A; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Böger, Carsten A; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Chasman, Daniel I; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Dedoussis, George; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Evans, Denis A; de Faire, Ulf; Farrall, Martin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ford, Ian; Franke, Lude; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Per; Hamsten, Anders; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Heliövaara, Markku; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank; Huikuri, Heikki V; Hveem, Kristian; James, Alan L; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Kivimaki, Mika; Knekt, Paul B; Koistinen, Heikki A; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koskinen, Seppo; Kuusisto, Johanna; Maerz, Winfried; Martin, Nicholas G; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lettre, Guillaume; Levinson, Douglas F; Lind, Lars; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Mitchell, Braxton D; Moll, Frans L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Musk, Arthur W; Nieminen, Markku S; Njølstad, Inger; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Lyle J; Pankow, James S; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L; Pedersen, Oluf; Penninx, Brenda W; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Polašek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P; Psaty, Bruce M; Qi, Lu; Quertermous, Thomas; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rauramaa, Rainer; Ridker, Paul M; Rioux, John D; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I; Rudan, Igor; den Ruijter, Hester M; Saltevo, Juha; Sattar, Naveed; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Staessen, Jan A; Stefania, Bandinelli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; Verbeek, André L M; Vermeulen, Sita H; Viikari, Jorma S; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Clegg, Deborah J; Cupples, L Adrienne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Jaquish, Cashell E; Rao, D C; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Barroso, Inês; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert C; McCarthy, Mark I; Mohlke, Karen L; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Heid, Iris M; North, Kari E; Borecki, Ingrid B; Kutalik, Zoltán; Loos, Ruth J F

    2015-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR<5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y) than in older adults (≥50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape. PMID:26426971

  10. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Mary F.; Chu, Su; Czajkowski, Jacek; Esko, Tõnu; Fall, Tove; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Lu, Yingchang; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Pers, Tune H.; Rüeger, Sina; Teumer, Alexander; Ehret, Georg B.; Ferreira, Teresa; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Karjalainen, Juha; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mahajan, Anubha; Neinast, Michael D.; Prokopenko, Inga; Simino, Jeannette; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Jansen, Rick; Westra, Harm-Jan; White, Charles C.; Absher, Devin; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Ahmad, Shafqat; Albrecht, Eva; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Bis, Joshua C.; Bonnefond, Amélie; Boucher, Gabrielle; Cadby, Gemma; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Delgado, Graciela; Demirkan, Ayse; Dueker, Nicole; Eklund, Niina; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Joel; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fischer, Krista; Frau, Francesca; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Geller, Frank; Goel, Anuj; Gorski, Mathias; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Haitjema, Saskia; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Johansson, Åsa; Kaakinen, Marika; Kleber, Marcus E.; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lehne, Benjamin; Liu, Youfang; Lo, Ken Sin; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luan, Jian'an; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Monda, Keri L.; Montasser, May E.; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renström, Frida; Rizzi, Federica; Rose, Lynda M.; Ryan, Kathy A.; Salo, Perttu; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Southam, Lorraine; Stančáková, Alena; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sung, Yun Ju; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Trompet, Stella; Pervjakova, Natalia; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van der Laan, Sander W; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Setten, Jessica; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Verweij, Niek; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wang, Sophie R.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wild, Sarah H.; Willenborg, Christina; Wilson, James F.; Wong, Andrew; Yang, Jian; Yengo, Loïc; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andersson, Ehm A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Baldassarre, Damiano; Banasik, Karina; Barcella, Matteo; Barlassina, Cristina; Bellis, Claire; Benaglio, Paola; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bonnet, Fabrice; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Boyd, Heather A.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buchman, Aron S; Campbell, Harry; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cole, John; Collins, Francis S.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Dimitriou, Maria; Duan, Jubao; Enroth, Stefan; Eury, Elodie; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Forouhi, Nita G.; Friedrich, Nele; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gigante, Bruna; Glorioso, Nicola; Go, Alan S.; Gottesman, Omri; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Gu, Yu-Mei; Broer, Linda; Ham, Annelies C.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hastie, Nicholas; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hovingh, Kees G; Hui, Jennie; Husemoen, Lise L.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Hysi, Pirro G.; Illig, Thomas; De Jager, Philip L.; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; Jørgensen, Torben; Jukema, J. Wouter; Juonala, Markus; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karaleftheri, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kinnunen, Leena; Kittner, Steven J.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Krarup, Nikolaj T.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Krüger, Janine; Kuh, Diana; Kumari, Meena; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Langenberg, Claudia; Lannfelt, Lars; Lanzani, Chiara; Lotay, Vaneet; Launer, Lenore J.; Leander, Karin; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yan-Ping; Lobbens, Stéphane; Luben, Robert; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Magnusson, Patrik K.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Andrew P.; Narisu, Narisu; Nelis, Mari; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Pérusse, Louis; Pichler, Irene; Pilia, Maria G.; Pouta, Anneli; Rheinberger, Myriam; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Richards, Marcus; Rice, Kenneth M.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivolta, Carlo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Scholtens, Salome; Scott, Robert A.; Scott, William R.; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengupta, Sebanti; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Silveira, Angela; Slagboom, P. Eline; Smit, Jan H.; Sparsø, Thomas H.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P.; Stringham, Heather M.; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorand, Barbara; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; van der Most, Peter J.; Völker, Uwe; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Vonk, Judith M.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Walker, Ryan W.; Wennauer, Roman; Widén, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wright, Alan F.; Zillikens, M. Carola; van Dijk, Suzanne C.; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Beilby, John; Bennett, David A.; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Böger, Carsten A.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bouchard, Claude; Chambers, John C.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Dedoussis, George; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; de Faire, Ulf; Farrall, Martin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ford, Ian; Franke, Lude; Franks, Paul W.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Per; Hamsten, Anders; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Heliövaara, Markku; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Hveem, Kristian; James, Alan L.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.; Kivimaki, Mika; Knekt, Paul B.; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kuusisto, Johanna; Maerz, Winfried; Martin, Nicholas G; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lettre, Guillaume; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lind, Lars; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Moll, Frans L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Musk, Arthur W.; Nieminen, Markku S.; Njølstad, Inger; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J; Pankow, James S.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Pedersen, Oluf; Penninx, Brenda W.; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Polašek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Qi, Lu; Quertermous, Thomas; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rauramaa, Rainer; Ridker, Paul M.; Rioux, John D.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudan, Igor; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Saltevo, Juha; Sattar, Naveed; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sinisalo, Juha; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Spector, Tim D.; Staessen, Jan A.; Stefania, Bandinelli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; Verbeek, André L. M.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Clegg, Deborah J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Jaquish, Cashell E.; Rao, D. C.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Groop, Leif C.; Hunter, David J.; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert C.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Heid, Iris M.; North, Kari E.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR<5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y) than in older adults (≥50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape. PMID:26426971

  11. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Winkler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI, a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE, sex-specific effects (G x SEX or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX. For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel that showed significant (FDR<5% age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y than in older adults (≥50y. No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape.

  12. Comparisons between the influences of habitat, body size and season on the dietary composition of the sparid Acanthopagrus latus in a large marine embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platell, M. E.; Ang, H. P.; Hesp, S. A.; Potter, I. C.

    2007-05-01

    Seasonal samples from Shark Bay on the west coast of Australia were used to determine (1) the habitats occupied by the juveniles and adults of Acanthopagrus latus in this large subtropical marine embayment and (2) the extent to which the dietary composition of this sparid is influenced by habitat type, body length and season. Sampling was undertaken in two habitat types in which A. latus was known to be abundant, namely mangrove ( Avicennia marina) creeks and nearby rocky areas, the latter comprising sandstone boulders and/or limestone reefs. The mean total length ±95% CLs of A. latus was far lower in mangrove creeks, 126 ± 6.1 mm, than in rocky areas, 313 ± 4.7 mm. As A. latus attains maturity at ca. 245 mm, the juveniles of this species typically occupy mangrove areas and then, with increasing body size, move to nearshore rocky areas, where they become adults. The species composition of the food ingested by juvenile A. latus in mangrove creeks differed markedly from that of large juveniles and adults in rocky areas. Based on analyses of data for both habitat types combined, this difference was far greater than that between size classes and season, which was negligible. There were indications, however, that, overall within each habitat, the dietary composition did change seasonally, although not with body size. Acanthopagrus latus fed predominantly on mangrove material, sesarmid crabs and small gastropods in mangrove habitats, and mainly on Brachidontes ustulatus in rocky areas, where this mytilid bivalve is very abundant. The mangrove material, which contributed nearly 40% of its overall dietary volume in mangrove creeks, consisted mainly of lateral root primordia. This apparently unique food source for a teleost is presumably ingested through subsurface nipping, which would be facilitated by the mouth and dentitional characteristics of sparids. The almost total lack of correspondence in the dietary compositions of fish in the length class that was well

  13. Adaptive iterative dose reduction algorithm in CT: Effect on image quality compared with filtered back projection in body phantoms of different sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Milim; Lee, Jeong Min; Son, Hyo Shin; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jeong Hee; Choi, Jin Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To evaluate the impact of the adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR) three-dimensional (3D) algorithm in CT on noise reduction and the image quality compared to the filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm and to compare the effectiveness of AIDR 3D on noise reduction according to the body habitus using phantoms with different sizes. Three different-sized phantoms with diameters of 24 cm, 30 cm, and 40 cm were built up using the American College of Radiology CT accreditation phantom and layers of pork belly fat. Each phantom was scanned eight times using different mAs. Images were reconstructed using the FBP and three different strengths of the AIDR 3D. The image noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the phantom were assessed. Two radiologists assessed the image quality of the 4 image sets in consensus. The effectiveness of AIDR 3D on noise reduction compared with FBP were also compared according to the phantom sizes. Adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D significantly reduced the image noise compared with FBP and enhanced the SNR and CNR (p < 0.05) with improved image quality (p < 0.05). When a stronger reconstruction algorithm was used, greater increase of SNR and CNR as well as noise reduction was achieved (p < 0.05). The noise reduction effect of AIDR 3D was significantly greater in the 40-cm phantom than in the 24-cm or 30-cm phantoms (p < 0.05). The AIDR 3D algorithm is effective to reduce the image noise as well as to improve the image-quality parameters compared by FBP algorithm, and its effectiveness may increase as the phantom size increases.

  14. Adaptive iterative dose reduction algorithm in CT: Effect on image quality compared with filtered back projection in body phantoms of different sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the impact of the adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR) three-dimensional (3D) algorithm in CT on noise reduction and the image quality compared to the filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm and to compare the effectiveness of AIDR 3D on noise reduction according to the body habitus using phantoms with different sizes. Three different-sized phantoms with diameters of 24 cm, 30 cm, and 40 cm were built up using the American College of Radiology CT accreditation phantom and layers of pork belly fat. Each phantom was scanned eight times using different mAs. Images were reconstructed using the FBP and three different strengths of the AIDR 3D. The image noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the phantom were assessed. Two radiologists assessed the image quality of the 4 image sets in consensus. The effectiveness of AIDR 3D on noise reduction compared with FBP were also compared according to the phantom sizes. Adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D significantly reduced the image noise compared with FBP and enhanced the SNR and CNR (p < 0.05) with improved image quality (p < 0.05). When a stronger reconstruction algorithm was used, greater increase of SNR and CNR as well as noise reduction was achieved (p < 0.05). The noise reduction effect of AIDR 3D was significantly greater in the 40-cm phantom than in the 24-cm or 30-cm phantoms (p < 0.05). The AIDR 3D algorithm is effective to reduce the image noise as well as to improve the image-quality parameters compared by FBP algorithm, and its effectiveness may increase as the phantom size increases.

  15. Parallel effects of the inversion In(3R)Payne on body size across the North American and Australian clines in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapun, M; Schmidt, C; Durmaz, E; Schmidt, P S; Flatt, T

    2016-05-01

    Chromosomal inversions are thought to play a major role in climatic adaptation. In D. melanogaster, the cosmopolitan inversion In(3R)Payne exhibits latitudinal clines on multiple continents. As many fitness traits show similar clines, it is tempting to hypothesize that In(3R)P underlies observed clinal patterns for some of these traits. In support of this idea, previous work in Australian populations has demonstrated that In(3R)P affects body size but not development time or cold resistance. However, similar data from other clines of this inversion are largely lacking; finding parallel effects of In(3R)P across multiple clines would considerably strengthen the case for clinal selection. Here, we have analysed the phenotypic effects of In(3R)P in populations originating from the endpoints of the latitudinal cline along the North American east coast. We measured development time, egg-to-adult survival, several size-related traits (femur and tibia length, wing area and shape), chill coma recovery, oxidative stress resistance and triglyceride content in homokaryon lines carrying In(3R)P or the standard arrangement. Our central finding is that the effects of In(3R)P along the North American cline match those observed in Australia: standard arrangement lines were larger than inverted lines, but the inversion did not influence development time or cold resistance. Similarly, In(3R)P did not affect egg-to-adult survival, oxidative stress resistance and lipid content. In(3R)P thus seems to specifically affect size traits in populations from both continents. This parallelism strongly suggests an adaptive pattern, whereby the inversion has captured alleles associated with growth regulation and clinal selection acts on size across both continents. PMID:26881839

  16. Change in proportional protein intake in a 10-week energy-restricted low- or high-fat diet, in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Taylor, Moira A; Ängquist, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in a secondary analysis of a randomised trial the effects of a low-/high-fat diet and reported change from baseline in energy% from protein (prot%), in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors. Methods: Obese adults (n = 771) were randomised to a 600 kcal...... increased the percentage energy intake from protein showed the greatest reduction in weight and cholesterol, and a triglyceride reduction equally large to that of participants on a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg....... energy-deficient low-fat (20-25 fat%) or high-fat (40-45 fat%) diet over 10 weeks. Dietary intake data at baseline and during the intervention were available in 585 completers. We used linear regression to calculate the combined effects of randomised group and groups of prot% change (2) on outcomes...

  17. A comparison of adult body size between captive and wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) on the island of St. Kitts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Trudy R; Cramer, Jennifer Danzy; Nisbett, Alexis; Patrick Gray, J

    2016-04-01

    Weight and 34 morphological measurements were obtained from 103 vervet monkeys living either in the wild or in captive colonies derived from the wild populations on the island of St. Kitts in the Eastern Caribbean. All measures were taken during the same week, eliminating bias that might result from changing seasonal environmental conditions. Vervets on St. Kitts are all descended from a small number of individuals brought to the island approximately 400 years ago from West Africa, thus eliminating bias that might result from subspecific size differences. We conducted a principal components analysis (PCA) and compared individual traits between captive and wild adult animals. Morphological measures such as body, arm, and leg length did not differ significantly between animals living in the wild and animals in captivity. Weight and measures indicating condition-including body mass index (BMI), chest, thigh, and upper arm girth were all higher for animals living in captivity. More consistent available food is probably the cause of differences in measures reflecting condition. PMID:26801341

  18. The effect of the male-female body-size difference on absorbed dose-rate distributions in humans from natural gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous calculations of the natural gamma dose to human organs and tissues were based on the MIRD phantom, a 70 kg hermaphrodite model representing both sexes. This phantom was scaled down to 58 kg, the weight of the ICRP reference female. The effective dose to the reference male and female, based on the unaltered phantom and the scaled phantom respectively, were calculated and averaged to give revised doses to the U.S. population. The dose to females tends to be higher than to males. The over-all effect is about 10%. For most tissues the use of the hermaphrodite model results in a 5% underestimate in population dose values. Hence the correction for the male-female body size difference is to add 1-2 mrad/yr to the estimate of the gamma-ray dose rate to the U.S. population. On this basis, the average annual natural gamma-ray doses to the population are 33 +- 0.1 mrad/yr to the active marrow. The respective body-shielding factors are 0.598 +- 0.009 and 0.608 +- 0.0002 rad/R. (author)

  19. Height and Body Size in Childhood, Adolescence, and Young Adulthood and Breast Cancer Risk According to Molecular Subtype in the Nurses' Health Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Erica T; Hu, Rong; Collins, Laura C; Beck, Andrew H; Schnitt, Stuart; Rosner, Bernard; Eliassen, A Heather; Michels, Karin B; Willett, Walter C; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2016-09-01

    Height and body size in childhood and young adulthood have been consistently associated with breast cancer risk; whether associations differ across molecular subtypes is unclear. In a pooled analysis of the Nurses' Health Studies, we prospectively examined the association of four exposures: height, body mass index (BMI) at the age of 18 years, childhood and adolescent somatotypes, with breast cancer risk according to molecular subtypes defined by immunohistochemical markers. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We identified 2,983 luminal A, 1,281 luminal B, 318 HER2-enriched, 408 basal-like, and 128 unclassified tumors. Height was positively associated with all subtypes (Pheterogeneity = 0.78). BMI at the age of 18 (Pheterogeneity = 0.001), childhood (Pheterogeneity = 0.51), and adolescent somatotype (Pheterogeneity = 0.046) were inversely associated, but with differences in magnitude of association. BMI at the age of 18 of ≥25 kg/m(2) (compared with 20-21.9 kg/m(2)) was associated with a 52% decreased risk of HER2-enriched (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.26-0.91; Ptrend molecular subtypes. BMI at 18 years and childhood and adolescent were inversely associated with risk of most breast cancer molecular subtypes with somewhat stronger associations with HER2-enriched and basal-like subtypes. Cancer Prev Res; 9(9); 732-8. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27590596

  20. Body size and ability to pass through a restricted space: Observations from 3D scanning of 210 male UK offshore workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Arthur; Ledingham, Robert; Furnace, Graham; Nevill, Alan

    2015-11-01

    Offshore workers are subjected to a unique physical and cultural environment which has the ability to affect their size and shape. Because they are heavier than the UK adult population we hypothesized they would have larger torso dimensions which would adversely affect their ability to pass one another in a restricted space. A sample of 210 male offshore workers was selected across the full weight range, and measured using 3D body scanning for shape. Bideltoid breadth and maximum chest depth were extracted from the scans and compared with reference population data. In addition a size algorithm previously calculated on 44 individuals was applied to adjust for wearing a survival suit and re-breather device. Mean bideltoid breadth and chest depth was 51.4 cm and 27.9 cm in the offshore workers, compared with 49.7 cm and 25.4 cm respectively in the UK population as a whole. Considering the probability of two randomly selected people passing within a restricted space of 100 cm and 80 cm, offshore workers are 28% and 34% less likely to pass face to face and face to side respectively, as compared with UK adults, an effect which is exacerbated when wearing personal protective equipment. PMID:26154233

  1. Intrapopulational body size variation and cranial capacity variation in Middle Pleistocene humans: the Sima de los Huesos sample (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, C; Carretero, J M; Arsuaga, J L; Gracia, A; Martínez, I

    1998-05-01

    A sexual dimorphism more marked than in living humans has been claimed for European Middle Pleistocene humans, Neandertals and prehistoric modern humans. In this paper, body size and cranial capacity variation are studied in the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene sample. This is the largest sample of non-modern humans found to date from one single site, and with all skeletal elements represented. Since the techniques available to estimate the degree of sexual dimorphism in small palaeontological samples are all unsatisfactory, we have used the bootstraping method to asses the magnitude of the variation in the Sima de los Huesos sample compared to modern human intrapopulational variation. We analyze size variation without attempting to sex the specimens a priori. Anatomical regions investigated are scapular glenoid fossa; acetabulum; humeral proximal and distal epiphyses; ulnar proximal epiphysis; radial neck; proximal femur; humeral, femoral, ulnar and tibial shaft; lumbosacral joint; patella; calcaneum; and talar trochlea. In the Sima de los Huesos sample only the humeral midshaft perimeter shows an unusual high variation (only when it is expressed by the maximum ratio, not by the coefficient of variation). In spite of that the cranial capacity range at Sima de los Huesos almost spans the rest of the European and African Middle Pleistocene range. The maximum ratio is in the central part of the distribution of modern human samples. Thus, the hypothesis of a greater sexual dimorphism in Middle Pleistocene populations than in modern populations is not supported by either cranial or postcranial evidence from Sima de los Huesos. PMID:9590522

  2. Comparison of Cell Viability and Embryoid Body Size of Two Embryonic Stem Cell Lines After Different Exposure Times to Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehleh Zarei Fard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Activation of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 signaling pathway in embryonic stem (ES cells plays an important role in controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Adverse effects of BMP4 occur in a time dependent manner; however, little is known about the effect of different time exposure of this growth factor on cell number in culture media. In this study, we investigated the role of two different exposure times to BMP4 in cell viability, embryoid body (EB, size, and cavitation of ES cells. Methods: Embryonic stem cells (R1 and B1 lines were released from the feeder cell layers and were cultured using EBs protocol by using the hanging drop method and monolayer culture system. The cells were cultured for 5 days with 100 ng/mL BMP4 from the beginning (++BMP4 or after 48 h (+BMP4 of culture and their cell number were counted by trypan blue staining. The data were analyzed using non-parametric two-tailed Mann-Whitney test. P<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In EB culture protocol, cell number significantly decreased in +BMP4 culture condition with greater cavity size compared to the ++BMP4 condition at day 5 (P=0.009. In contrast, in monolayer culture system, there was no significant difference in the cell number between all groups (P=0.91. Conclusion: The results suggest that short-term exposure of BMP4 is required to promote cavitation in EBs according to lower cell number in +BMP4 condition. Different cell lines showed different behavior in cavitation formation.

  3. Mating Success, Longevity, and Fertility of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera in Relation to Body Size and Cry3Bb1-Resistant and Cry3Bb1-Susceptible Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Wade French

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Insect resistance to population control methodologies is a widespread problem. The development of effective resistance management programs is often dependent on detailed knowledge regarding the biology of individual species and changes in that biology associated with resistance evolution. This study examined the reproductive behavior and biology of western corn rootworm beetles of known body size from lines resistant and susceptible to the Cry3Bb1 protein toxin expressed in transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis maize. In crosses between, and within, the resistant and susceptible genotypes, no differences occurred in mating frequency, copulation duration, courtship duration, or fertility; however, females mated with resistant males showed reduced longevity. Body size did not vary with genotype. Larger males and females were not more likely to mate than smaller males and females, but larger females laid more eggs. Moderately strong, positive correlation occurred between the body sizes of successfully mated males and females; however, weak correlation also existed for pairs that did not mate. Our study provided only limited evidence for fitness costs associated with the Cry3Bb1-resistant genotype that might reduce the persistence in populations of the resistant genotype but provided additional evidence for size-based, assortative mating, which could favor the persistence of resistant genotypes affecting body size.

  4. Mating Success, Longevity, and Fertility of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera) in Relation to Body Size and Cry3Bb1-Resistant and Cry3Bb1-Susceptible Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Bryan Wade; Hammack, Leslie; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2015-01-01

    Insect resistance to population control methodologies is a widespread problem. The development of effective resistance management programs is often dependent on detailed knowledge regarding the biology of individual species and changes in that biology associated with resistance evolution. This study examined the reproductive behavior and biology of western corn rootworm beetles of known body size from lines resistant and susceptible to the Cry3Bb1 protein toxin expressed in transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis maize. In crosses between, and within, the resistant and susceptible genotypes, no differences occurred in mating frequency, copulation duration, courtship duration, or fertility; however, females mated with resistant males showed reduced longevity. Body size did not vary with genotype. Larger males and females were not more likely to mate than smaller males and females, but larger females laid more eggs. Moderately strong, positive correlation occurred between the body sizes of successfully mated males and females; however, weak correlation also existed for pairs that did not mate. Our study provided only limited evidence for fitness costs associated with the Cry3Bb1-resistant genotype that might reduce the persistence in populations of the resistant genotype but provided additional evidence for size-based, assortative mating, which could favor the persistence of resistant genotypes affecting body size. PMID:26569315

  5. Evolution of enlarged body size of coal tits Parus ater in geographic isolation from two larger competitors, the crested tit Parus cristatus and the willow tit Parus montanus, on six Scandinavian islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Åke Norberg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report that on six widely separated Scandinavian islands, the coal tit Parus ater has evolved morphologically in the direction of two absent competitors, the crested tit P. cristatus and the willow tit P. montanus, to the effect that it is up to 10% larger in linear dimensions than conspecifics on the adjacent Swedish mainland, where all three species coexist. The large size is genetically determined, as ascertained by clutch exchange experiments between island and mainland nests. We conclude that the increased size of P. ater in places where it is geographically isolated from its larger congeners is the result of evolutionary adaptation, due ultimately to relaxed interspecific competition. On the islands, P. ater has evolved into a medium-sized generalist, with selection pressures likely governed by the following causal relationships. When competitors are lacking, P. ater takes over the foraging space of the absentees. The enlarged food base allows higher population densities, which intensifies intraspecific interference competition. This, in turn, selects for increased body size. When P. ater coexists with its larger congeners, it occupies peripheral foraging sites in trees, which requires excellent manoeuvrability and energy-expensive locomotion modes. Reduction of body size increases locomotor capacity for mechanical and aerodynamic reasons and lowers energy consumption, so small size is favoured in sympatry. But in geographic isolation, P. ater exploits the tree periphery less and the inner tree regions more, and it also adopts the easier locomotion modes of the absent species. Therefore, selection for manoeuvrability and a small body size is relaxed. The new selection regime shifts the balance between opposing selection forces towards a larger body size. We were able to test 11 alternative hypotheses and available evidence conclusively eliminates them all. As a result, here, evolution could be predicted regarding both direction

  6. Evolution of enlarged body size of coal tits Parus ater in geographic isolation from two larger competitors, the crested tit Parus cristatus and the willow tit Parus montanus, on six Scandinavian islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, R Åke; Lindhe Norberg, Ulla M

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report that on six widely separated Scandinavian islands, the coal tit Parus ater has evolved morphologically in the direction of two absent competitors, the crested tit P. cristatus and the willow tit P. montanus, to the effect that it is up to 10% larger in linear dimensions than conspecifics on the adjacent Swedish mainland, where all three species coexist. The large size is genetically determined, as ascertained by clutch exchange experiments between island and mainland nests. We conclude that the increased size of P. ater in places where it is geographically isolated from its larger congeners is the result of evolutionary adaptation, due ultimately to relaxed interspecific competition. On the islands, P. ater has evolved into a medium-sized generalist, with selection pressures likely governed by the following causal relationships. When competitors are lacking, P. ater takes over the foraging space of the absentees. The enlarged food base allows higher population densities, which intensifies intraspecific interference competition. This, in turn, selects for increased body size. When P. ater coexists with its larger congeners, it occupies peripheral foraging sites in trees, which requires excellent manoeuvrability and energy-expensive locomotion modes. Reduction of body size increases locomotor capacity for mechanical and aerodynamic reasons and lowers energy consumption, so small size is favoured in sympatry. But in geographic isolation, P. ater exploits the tree periphery less and the inner tree regions more, and it also adopts the easier locomotion modes of the absent species. Therefore, selection for manoeuvrability and a small body size is relaxed. The new selection regime shifts the balance between opposing selection forces towards a larger body size. We were able to test 11 alternative hypotheses and available evidence conclusively eliminates them all. As a result, here, evolution could be predicted regarding both direction and amount of change

  7. Advances in body size measurement and conformation appraisal for sheep%羊只体尺参数测量及其形态评价研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娜; 武佩; 宣传忠; 刘艳秋; 邬娟

    2016-01-01

    Body size parameters and conformation appraisal for sheep can reflect its growth development, production performance and genetic characteristics. Therefore, it is very important to study the way of body size measurement and conformation appraisal in improving the breeding efficiency of sheep. A review on the body size measurement and conformation appraisal for sheep was presented in this paper, focused on the body size measuring parameters, the conformation appraisal method, and the relationship between body size and growth development, body size and production performance, body size and genetic characteristics of sheep. Five core conclusions were summarized:parameters in body size measurement, methods of conformation appraisal, relationship between body size and growth, development, relationship between body size and production performance, and relationship between body size and genetic characteristics . Generally, the parameters of body size consist of four type indicators: body length, body width, body height and circumference. While, in some places, such as the region from west Asia into Tunisia in North Africa, the fat-tailed breeds represent the dominant sheep breeds, and the studies confirmed that the role of the tail fat was an adaptive character of the fat-tailed sheep breeds. So, several linear traits of the fat tail were individually measured to research the sheep’s trails. All collected data of body size were analyzed to design efficient selection and breeding strategies for genetic improvement and appropriate genetic evaluation. The genetic and non-genetic effects for each of the growth traits were analyzed and evaluated using the animal model and statistical methods such as containing regression analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis, cluster analysis, discriminant, and correlation analysis, etc. . During the last decade or so, there has been extensive development in statistical procedures for estimation of variance components, and

  8. Sex differences in gait utilization and energy metabolism during terrestrial locomotion in two varieties of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus selected for different body size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayleigh A. Rose

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus of standard breed (large and bantam (small varieties, artificial selection has led to females being permanently gravid and sexual selection has led to male-biased size dimorphism. Using respirometry, videography and morphological measurements, sex and variety differences in metabolic cost of locomotion, gait utilisation and maximum sustainable speed (Umax were investigated during treadmill locomotion. Males were capable of greater Umax than females and used a grounded running gait at high speeds, which was only observed in a few bantam females and no standard breed females. Body mass accounted for variation in the incremental increase in metabolic power with speed between the varieties, but not the sexes. For the first time in an avian species, a greater mass-specific incremental cost of locomotion, and minimum measured cost of transport (CoTmin were found in males than in females. Furthermore, in both varieties, the female CoTmin was lower than predicted from interspecific allometry. Even when compared at equivalent speeds (using Froude number, CoT decreased more rapidly in females than in males. These trends were common to both varieties despite a more upright limb in females than in males in the standard breed, and a lack of dimorphism in posture in the bantam variety. Females may possess compensatory adaptations for metabolic efficiency during gravidity (e.g. in muscle specialization/posture/kinematics. Furthermore, the elevated power at faster speeds in males may be linked to their muscle properties being suited to inter-male aggressive combat.

  9. Clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiotherapy for stage I non-small cell lung cancer using different doses depending on tumor size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment schedules for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung cancer vary from institution to institution. Several reports have indicated that stage IB patients had worse outcomes than stage IA patients when the same dose was used. We evaluated the clinical outcomes of SBRT for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with different doses depending on tumor diameter. Between February 2004 and November 2008, 124 patients with stage I NSCLC underwent SBRT. Total doses of 44, 48, and 52 Gy were administered for tumors with a longest diameter of less than 1.5 cm, 1.5-3 cm, and larger than 3 cm, respectively. All doses were given in 4 fractions. For all 124 patients, overall survival was 71%, cause-specific survival was 87%, progression-free survival was 60%, and local control was 80%, at 3 years. The 3-year overall survival was 79% for 85 stage IA patients treated with 48 Gy and 56% for 37 stage IB patients treated with 52 Gy (p = 0.05). At 3 years, cause-specific survival was 91% for the former group and 79% for the latter (p = 0.18), and progression-free survival was 62% versus 54% (p = 0.30). The 3-year local control rate was 81% versus 74% (p = 0.35). The cumulative incidence of grade 2 or 3 radiation pneumonitis was 11% in stage IA patients and 30% in stage IB patients (p = 0.02). There was no difference in local control between stage IA and IB tumors despite the difference in tumor size. The benefit of increasing the SBRT dose for larger tumors should be investigated further

  10. Dose calculation of Acuros XB and Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm in lung stereotactic body radiotherapy treatment with flattening filter free beams and the potential role of calculation grid size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aimed to appraise the dose differences between Acuros XB (AXB) and Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment for lung cancer with flattening filter free (FFF) beams. Additionally, the potential role of the calculation grid size (CGS) on the dose differences between the two algorithms was also investigated. SBRT plans with 6X and 10X FFF beams produced from the CT scan data of 10 patients suffering from stage I lung cancer were enrolled in this study. Clinically acceptable treatment plans with AAA were recalculated using AXB with the same monitor units (MU) and identical multileaf collimator (MLC) settings. Furthermore, different CGS (2.5 mm and 1 mm) in the two algorithms was also employed to investigate their dosimetric impact. Dose to planning target volumes (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) between the two algorithms were compared. PTV was separated into PTV-soft (density in soft-tissue range) and PTV-lung (density in lung range) for comparison. The dose to PTV-lung predicted by AXB was found to be 1.33 ± 1.12% (6XFFF beam with 2.5 mm CGS), 2.33 ± 1.37% (6XFFF beam with 1 mm CGS), 2.81 ± 2.33% (10XFFF beam with 2.5 mm CGS) and 3.34 ± 1.76% (10XFFF beam with 1 mm CGS) lower compared with that by AAA, respectively. However, the dose directed to PTV-soft was comparable. For OARs, AXB predicted a slightly lower dose to the aorta, chest wall, spinal cord and esophagus, regardless of whether the 6XFFF or 10XFFF beam was utilized. Exceptionally, dose to the ipsilateral lung was significantly higher with AXB. AXB principally predicts lower dose to PTV-lung compared to AAA and the CGS contributes to the relative dose difference between the two algorithms

  11. Neighbourhoods for Active Kids: study protocol for a cross-sectional examination of neighbourhood features and children's physical activity, active travel, independent mobility and body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Melody; McPhee, Julia; Carroll, Penelope; Ikeda, Erika; Mavoa, Suzanne; Mackay, Lisa; Kearns, Robin A; Kyttä, Marketta; Asiasiga, Lanuola; Garrett, Nicholas; Lin, Judy; Mackett, Roger; Zinn, Caryn; Moewaka Barnes, Helen; Egli, Victoria; Prendergast, Kate; Witten, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction New Zealand children's physical activity, including independent mobility and active travel, has declined markedly over recent decades. The Neighbourhoods for Active Kids (NfAK) study examines how neighbourhood built environments are associated with the independent mobility, active travel, physical activity and neighbourhood experiences of children aged 9–12 years in primary and intermediate schools across Auckland, New Zealand's largest city. Methods and analysis Child-specific indices of walkability, destination accessibility and traffic exposure will be constructed to measure the built environment in 8 neighbourhoods in Auckland. Interactive online-mapping software will be used to measure children's independent mobility and transport mode to destinations and to derive measures of neighbourhood use and perceptions. Physical activity will be measured using 7-day accelerometry. Height, weight and waist circumference will be objectively measured. Parent telephone interviews will collect sociodemographic information and parent neighbourhood perceptions. Interviews with school representative will capture supports and barriers for healthy activity and nutrition behaviours at the school level. Multilevel modelling approaches will be used to understand how differing built environment variables are associated with activity, neighbourhood experiences and health outcomes. Discussion We anticipate that children who reside in neighbourhoods considered highly walkable will be more physically active, accumulate more independent mobility and active travel, and be more likely to have a healthy body size. This research is timely as cities throughout New Zealand develop and implement plans to improve the liveability of intensifying urban neighbourhoods. Results will be disseminated to participants, local government agencies and through conventional academic avenues. PMID:27531740

  12. Correlated responses to selection for large body size in oMt1a-oGH transgenic mice: organ traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Parks

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare correlated responses in liver, spleen, kidney, heart and testis absolute weights and as a percentage of 8-week body weight following selection for large 8-week body weight in twice-replicated nontransgenic and transgene-carrier lines of mice from two genetic backgrounds. The transgene was an ovine metallothionein 1a-ovine growth hormone (oMt1a-oGH construct, which was activated by adding 25 mM ZnSO4 to the drinking water. Lines NM and NC were nontransgenic lines derived from a high-growth and randomly selected background, respectively. Lines TM and TC were transgene-carrier lines formed from the respective genetic backgrounds. Line CC was a nontransgenic control from the randomly selected background. At weaning, male mice from each line were assigned to either zinc supplemented or control drinking water. Toe-clips were assayed by PCR for the presence or absence of the transgene. Correlated responses of absolute weights of all organs in nontransgenic lines indicated moderately high genetic correlations of organ weights with body weight, but on a percentage of body weight basis, the correlated responses were much lower. The correlated responses in visceral organ weights were lower in the presence of the inactivated oMt1a-oGH transgene than in its absence. The presence of the activated oMt1a-oGH combined with the effects of selection for growth increase had a greater impact on increasing the size of the splanchnic organs than did selection for large body weight in the absence of the transgene.O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar as respostas correlacionadas no peso absoluto do fígado, baço, rim, coração e testículo e como uma percentagem do peso corporal em 8 semanas após seleção para grande peso corporal de 8 semanas em linhagens de camundongos não transgênicos e portadores de transgene replicado duas vezes, originados de dois backgrounds genéticos. O transgene era um composto de

  13. Adaptive re-tracking algorithm for retrieval of water level variations and wave heights from satellite altimetry data for middle-sized inland water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Lebedev, Sergey; Soustova, Irina; Rybushkina, Galina; Papko, Vladislav; Baidakov, Georgy; Panyutin, Andrey

    One of the recent applications of satellite altimetry originally designed for measurements of the sea level [1] is associated with remote investigation of the water level of inland waters: lakes, rivers, reservoirs [2-7]. The altimetry data re-tracking algorithms developed for open ocean conditions (e.g. Ocean-1,2) [1] often cannot be used in these cases, since the radar return is significantly contaminated by reflection from the land. The problem of minimization of errors in the water level retrieval for inland waters from altimetry measurements can be resolved by re-tracking satellite altimetry data. Recently, special re-tracking algorithms have been actively developed for re-processing altimetry data in the coastal zone when reflection from land strongly affects echo shapes: threshold re-tracking, The other methods of re-tracking (threshold re-tracking, beta-re-tracking, improved threshold re-tracking) were developed in [9-11]. The latest development in this field is PISTACH product [12], in which retracking bases on the classification of typical forms of telemetric waveforms in the coastal zones and inland water bodies. In this paper a novel method of regional adaptive re-tracking based on constructing a theoretical model describing the formation of telemetric waveforms by reflection from the piecewise constant model surface corresponding to the geography of the region is considered. It was proposed in [13, 14], where the algorithm for assessing water level in inland water bodies and in the coastal zone of the ocean with an error of about 10-15 cm was constructed. The algorithm includes four consecutive steps: - constructing a local piecewise model of a reflecting surface in the neighbourhood of the reservoir; - solving a direct problem by calculating the reflected waveforms within the framework of the model; - imposing restrictions and validity criteria for the algorithm based on waveform modelling; - solving the inverse problem by retrieving a tracking point

  14. Linking size and age at sexual maturation to body growth, productivity and recruitment of Atlantic cod stocks spanning the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Trippel, E.A.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2013-01-01

    Sexual maturation patterns of 22 North Atlantic stocks of cod (Gadus morhua) were examined and related to geographical distribution area, ambient water temperature, growth and surplus production. Four patterns were identified, i.e. sexual maturation early in life at small size, early in life at...... large size, late in life at small size and lastly, late in life at large size. These maturation patterns were geographically clustered and associated with differences in growth and surplus production. Stocks maturing late in life at small size were characterised by slow growth and low surplus production...... production (e.g. Iceland, North East Arctic), while stocks maturing early in life at small size generally showed intermediate growth and surplus production (e.g. Baltic stocks). Production of recruits per unit biomass showed a latitudinal trend, but appeared largely independent of maturation pattern, growth...

  15. Body weight distribution and organ size in newborn swine (sus scrofa domestica) -- a study describing an animal model for asymmetrical intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, R; Walter, B; Hoppe, A; Gaser, E; Lampe, V; Kauf, E; Zwiener, U

    1998-03-01

    Normal growth is the expression of the genetic potential to growth which is neither abnormally constrained nor promoted by internal or external factors. Restricted fetal growth is common in human pregnancy and is associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. Because of ethical restrictions, pathogenetical studies are necessarily dependent on appropriate animal models. In the studies presented, evidence will be provided that the naturally occurring distribution of body weight in newborn piglets, obtained from n = 512 newborn piglets (about 12 hours old) in 50 consecutive deliveries in the breed cohort of the mixed German domestic breed - "Deutsches Land-/Edelschwein" gives an appropriate sampling for providing a statistically reliable basis with which to determine different degrees of fetal growth for further pathophysiological studies intended. A strong inverse correlation (r = -0.66, p correlation (r = -0.64, p correlation between body weights and various organ weights was found (values of the correlation coefficient amounted to between 0.45 and 0.98; p 0.68-1.33). Skeleton and heart exhibited similar ranges of weight variation (0.35-1.81 and 0.38-2.00 of the means) to body weight (0.38-1.77 of the means). This was also expressed in the regression analysis, because the slope values were 0.99 and 0.97 respectively. The hormonal glands investigated, the kidneys, and the abdominal parenchymal organs exhibited the largest ranges of weight variation. Moreover, regression analysis gives evidence that the weight restriction was more pronounced than expected concerning respective body weight. This is indicated by slope values > 1 in almost all of those organs. Plasma concentration of IGF-1 showed an inverse correlation with body weight (r = -0.42; p more than 2.5 times in IUGR newborn (fig 5 A, p < 0.05). This investigation provides information on the naturally occurring body weight distribution of one-day-old piglets, which was obviously a result of

  16. Intake of ruminant trans-fatty acids, assessed by diet history interview, and changes in measured body size, shape and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambeck Hansen, Camilla; Heitmann, Berit L; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia;

    2016-01-01

    and body composition (body fat percentage). DESIGN: A 6-year follow-up study. Information on dietary intake was collected through diet history interviews, and anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements were obtained by trained technicians at baseline (1987-1988) and at follow-up (1993......-TFA intake was 1·3 g/d (5th, 95th percentile: 0·4, 2·7 g/d) or 0·6 % of the total energy intake (5th, 95th percentile: 0·2, 1·1 %). No significant associations were observed between R-TFA intake and changes in body weight, waist and hip circumference or body fat percentage. CONCLUSIONS: R-TFA intake within......OBJECTIVE: Studies have suggested that total intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is positively associated with changes in body weight and waist circumference, whereas intake of TFA from ruminant dairy and meat products (R-TFA) has not been associated with weight gain. However, these previous studies...

  17. Effect of the abrasive size and transformability degree on the two body abrasive wear of polycrystalline zirconia; Efeito do tamanho do abrasivo e do grau de transformabilidade no comportamento em desgaste abrasivo a dois corpos de zirconias policristalinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, H.L.; Mello, J.D.B. de [Uberlandia Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Fisicas; Pandolfelli, V.C. [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    1994-12-31

    It was analyzed the two-body abrasive wear behavior of tetragonal zirconia polycrystals with different transformability degrees. The analysis was carried out in pin-on-disk tests, by using different abrasive sizes and was complemented by monitoring the friction coefficient. The wear rate increased with the increasing of the abrasive size. The lowest transformability degree underwent the worst behavior on wear, probably associated with its low fracture toughness and the intermediate transformability presented the best behavior. The correlation between wear rate and friction coefficient characterized the presence of two distinct behaviors. (author). 14 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Body size and flight distance in stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Meliponini): inference of flight range and possible ecological implications Tamanho do corpo em Meliponini (Hymenoptera: Apidae): inferência do raio de vôo e possíveis implicações ecológicas

    OpenAIRE

    E. D. Araújo; Costa, M; J. Chaud-Netto; Fowler, H.G.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the spatial implications of maximum flight distance for several species of stingless bees. Data suggested that maximum flight distance in Meliponini is a function of body size, especially generalized wing size, which can be estimated through principal component analysis. For six species of stingless bees, flight distances and generalized wing sizes were highly correlated (r = 0.938). This indicates that species of Meliponini occupy an effectively larger area as body size increases...

  19. Odnosi med telesno velikostjo, razširjenostjo in gostoto gnezdečih ptic v Sloveniji: Relationship between body size, distribution and abundance of breeding birds in Slovenia:

    OpenAIRE

    Janžekovič, Franc

    2002-01-01

    Through the analysis of empirical data on the breeders of Slovenia, relations between their distribution, abundance and body size were being assessed. Two hypotheses were tested: 1) species with greater distribution have greater abundance than species limited to smaller geographical regions: 2) larger species have lower average abundance than smaller. The relationship between distribution and abundance of the species breeding in Slovenia was in accordance with the exponent growth, while the c...

  20. The Impact of Tumor Size on Outcomes After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Medically Inoperable Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy for medically inoperable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) offers excellent control rates. Most published series deal mainly with small (usually 3 in tumor volume) but are associated with more nonlocal failures as well as poorer survival. These observations suggest these patients may benefit from more extensive staging or consideration of adjuvant therapy

  1. The nematode extraction efficiency of the Oostenbrink eluctriator-cottonwool filter method with special reference to nematode body size and life strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, B.C.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Oostenbrink elutriator-cottonwool filter method is widely used to extract nematodes from soil or litter samples. Nevertheless, its extraction efficiency with respect to nematode body dimensions and life strategy has hardly been investigated. In this study, losses in the elutriator, through the s

  2. Comparison of Cell Viability and Embryoid Body Size of Two Embryonic Stem Cell Lines After Different Exposure Times to Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4

    OpenAIRE

    Nehleh Zarei Fard; Tahereh Talaei-Khozani; Soghra Bahmanpour; Tahereh Esmaeilpour

    2015-01-01

    Background: Activation of bone morphogenetic protei