WorldWideScience

Sample records for body radiation injury

  1. Future directions in therapy of whole body radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinicians have long known that marked granulocytopenia predisposed patients to bacterial infections either from pathogens or commensal organisms with which an individual usually lives in harmony. Evidence that infection was of major importance derives from several observations: (a) clinical observations of bacterial infection in human beings exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in reactor accidents, and in large animals dying from radiation exposure, (b) correlative studies on mortality rate, time of death, and incidence of positive culture in animals, (c) challenge of irradiated animals with normally non-virulent organisms, (d) studies of germ free mice and rats, and (e) studies of the effectiveness of antibiotics in reducing mortality rate. General knowledge and sound experimental data on animals and man clearly demonstrated that the sequelae of pancytopenia (bacterial infection, thrombopenic hemorrhage, and anemia) are the lethal factors. A lot of research was required to demonstrate that there were no mysterious radiations toxins, that hyperheparinemia was not a cause of radiation hemorrhage and that radiation hemorrhage could be prevented by fresh platelet transfusions

  2. Future directions in therapy of whole body radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    Clinicians have long known that marked granulocytopenia predisposed patients to bacterial infections either from pathogens or commensal organisms with which an individual usually lives in harmony. Evidence that infection was of major importance derives from several observations: (a) clinical observations of bacterial infection in human beings exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in reactor accidents, and in large animals dying from radiation exposure, (b) correlative studies on mortality rate, time of death, and incidence of positive culture in animals, (c) challenge of irradiated animals with normally non-virulent organisms, (d) studies of germ free mice and rats, and (e) studies of the effectiveness of antibiotics in reducing mortality rate. General knowledge and sound experimental data on animals and man clearly demonstrated that the sequelae of pancytopenia (bacterial infection, thrombopenic hemorrhage, and anemia) are the lethal factors. A lot of research was required to demonstrate that there were no mysterious radiations toxins, that hyperheparinemia was not a cause of radiation hemorrhage and that radiation hemorrhage could be prevented by fresh platelet transfusions.

  3. Radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation accidents and incidents continue to be of great interest and concern to the public. Issues such as the threat of nuclear war, the Chernobyl reactor accident, or reports of sporadic incidences of accidental radiation exposure keep this interest up and maintain a high level of fear among the public. In this climate of real concern and radiation phobia, physicians should not only be prepared to answer questions about acute or late effects of ionizing radiation, but also be able to participate in the initial assessment and management of individuals who have been exposed to ionizing radiation or contaminated with radioactive material. Some of the key facts about radiation injury and its medical treatment are discussed by the author

  4. Radiation-Associated Kidney Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kidneys are the dose-limiting organs for radiotherapy to upper abdominal cancers and during total body irradiation. The incidence of radiotherapy-associated kidney injury is likely underreported owing to its long latency and because the toxicity is often attributed to more common causes of kidney injury. The pathophysiology of radiation injury is poorly understood. Its presentation can be acute and irreversible or subtle, with a gradual progressive dysfunction over years. A variety of dose and volume parameters have been associated with renal toxicity and are reviewed to provide treatment guidelines. The available predictive models are suboptimal and require validation. Mitigation of radiation nephropathy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and other compounds has been shown in animal models and, more recently, in patients.

  5. Radiation injury of the lung after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer: A timeline and pattern of CT changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a new radiotherapy treatment method that has been applied to the treatment of Stage I lung cancers in medically inoperable patients, with excellent clinical results. SBRT allows the delivery of a very high radiation dose to the target volume, while minimizing the dose to the adjacent normal tissues. As a consequence, CT findings after SBRT have different appearance, geographic extent and progression timeline compared to those following conventional radiation therapy for lung cancer. In particular, SBRT-induced changes are limited to the 'shell' of normal tissue outside the tumor and have a complex shape. When SBRT-induced CT changes have a consolidation/mass-like appearance, the differentiation from tumor recurrence can be very difficult. An understanding of SBRT technique as it relates to the development of SBRT-induced lung injury and familiarity with the full spectrum of CT manifestations are important to facilitate diagnosis and management of lung cancer patients treated with this newly emerging radiotherapy method.

  6. Rectal injuries following radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rectal injuries following radiation therapy were reviewed. Primary diseases in which radiation injuries appeared were described, and local injuries in the neibouring organs such as the small intestine, the bladder, the uterus, and the vagina were also referred to. Classification, frequency, fistulation, radiation necrosis, x-ray findings and occurrence time of rectal and sigmoid colonic injuries were reported. As occurrence factors of radiation injuries, total dose, measurement of dose, stage of primary disease, and history of laparatomy were mentioned. Countermeasures for reducing rectal injuries and treatment methods of local injuries were also described. (Serizawa, K.)

  7. Radiation Injury to the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hits since January 2003 RADIATION INJURY TO THE BRAIN Radiation treatments affect all cells that are targeted. ... fractions, duration of therapy, and volume of [healthy brain] nervous tissue irradiated influence the likelihood of injury. ...

  8. Thrombopoietin and radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is the primary regulator of megakaryocytosis. Recent studies show that there is close relationship between TPO and hematopoietic stem cell. TPO can stimulate hematopoietic recovery after radiation injury. TPO may have widespread use in such areas as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, platelets collection and separation

  9. Morphological aspects of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injury to haemopoietic and lymphatic tissues produced by ionizing irradiation in various species of mammals including man is one of the major features of the biological effects of radiation (Bond et al. 1965,' Cottier, 1961). At the moment of injury and for a short time thereafter relatively little morphological evidence of cell damage in bone marrow other than cessation of cell division and DNA synthesis is seen. Within a few hours, however, depending on the level of exposure, major destruction of red bone marrow tissue can occur. In this chapter the histologic changes in bone marrow are summarized for correlation with the functional aspects of the change in the target tissue, particularly its cell renewal features and where possible the remarkable flux or migration of cells through bone marrow and lymphatic tissues. This latter topic of cellular traffic represents the outcome of extensive physiological studies on haemopoiesis and lymphopoiesis by mammalian radiobiologists. The initial injury, the structural changes and the physiological consequences are the first half of the radiation injury sequence. Regeneration also has morphological features of major importance to the understanding of radiation haematology. It is common to discuss radiation effects on biological materials from the point of view of external or internal sources of exposure. In addition exposure rate, whole body or partial body, type and quality of the ionizing source are features that must be taken into account. While these features are extremely important, the simplest approach to understanding histologic effects on the bone marrow is to assume acute penetrating whole-body exposure in the lethal range. With this background the differences related to variations in the conditions of exposure can usually be understood. The individual human or animal organism receiving the exposure must also be considered in the final outcome of the experience because age, sex, nutritional status and presence

  10. Management of radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injuries by exposure to ionizing radiation can be due to the detonation of a nuclear device in a military conflict, or it can occur following a large industrial accident (e.g. Chernobyl), or it can be the result of therapy (e.g. in a laboratory, in the case of cancer or other clinical situations). The severity of biological tissues damage depends on the energy deposited. The skin and subcutaneous tissue alone damaged may be related with an exposure to low energy radiation. In case of an exposure to high energy radiation the deeper structures will be involved. The treatment of the clinical situation after radiation requires special facilities (burn intensive care unit) and a massive support from a dedicated team. (author)

  11. Chronic radiation injury with mice and dogs exposed to external whole-body irradiation at the Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes studies on chronic radiation injury in experimental animals and the extrapolation of derived injury parameters to man. Most of the large studies have used mice given single, weekly, or continuous exposure to cobalt-60 gamma rays, or, more recently, single or weekly exposure to fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor. Primary measures of injury have been life shortening and the associated major pathological changes, particularly neoplastic diseases. Recent and ongoing studies compare the effects of extremely low neutron exposures with gamma irradiations delivered as a single dose or in 60 equal weekly increments. Total neutron doses range from 1 to 40 rads; gamma-ray doses range from 22.5 to 600 rads. Selected genetic studies are performed concurrently to provide a nearly complete matrix of somatic and genetic effects of these low exposures. Studies with the beagle have complemented those with mice and have shown a strong parallelism in the responses of the two species. Present exposures are at 0.3, 0.75, and 1.88 rads per day of continuous gamma irradiation to test a model for the prediction of life shortening in man which has evolved from Argonne's long-term studies. The dog offers the opportunity for longitudinal clinical evaluations that are not possible in the mouse, to develop a broader view of the neoplastic disease spectrum, and to study the mechanisms of radiation induction of leukemia. Diverse statistical approaches have been used to measure excess risk, dose-response functions, and rates of injury and repair. Actuarial statistical methods have been favored since they permit a more direct means of extrapolation to man. 50 refs., 4 figs

  12. Interventional effect of laser acupoint radiation on the expression of Nissl body and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in newborn rat models with ischemic/hypoxic cerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Some researches report that He-Ne laser can activate function of erythrocytes and increase content of blood and oxygen via bio-stimulating effect;therefore,it suspects that laser radiation at Baihui and Dazhui can partially increase blood circulation for oxygen-supplying content of brain and improve functional status of neurons.OBJECTIVE:To verify the effects of laser radiation at Baihui and Dazhui on the expression of Nissl body of brain tissue neurons and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in newborn rats with ischemic/hypoxic cerebral injury.DESIGN:Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING:Department of Neurological Histochemistry,Xianning University.MATERIALS:Forty Wistar rats of 7 - 8 days old,weighing 15 - 20 g and of both genders,were selected from Wuhan Experimental Animal Center.All the rats were randomly divided into sham operation group (n =8),model group (n =16) and radiation group (n =16).The experimental animals were disposed according to ethical criteria.BDNF kit was provided by Wuhan Boster Bioengineering Co.,Ltd.METHODS:The experiment was carried out in the Department of Neurological Histochemistry,Xianning University from April 2005 to October 2006.Rats in the radiation group and model group were performed with ligation of left common carotid artery,recovered at room temperature for 1-6 days,maintained in self-made hypoxic cabin under normal pressure and injected mixture gas (0.05 volume fraction of O2 and 0.92 volume fraction of N2) for 2 hours.In addition,rats in the sham operation group were treated with separation of left common carotid artery but not ligation and hypoxia.Rats in the model group were not given any treatment;while,rats in the radiation group were exposed with He-Ne laser of 63.28 nm in the wave length at Baihui and Dazhui acupoints on the second day after ischemia-hypoxia.The radiation was given for 10 minutes per day and once a day.Ten days were regarded as a course and the rats were exposed for 2 courses in

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the translation of IAEA Safety Reports Series No.2 ,Diagnosis and Treatment of Radiation Injuries. This report is directed at medical professionals who may be involved in the management of radiation injuries starting from the first few hours or days after an exposure of undefined severity. The principal aim of this publication is to provide guidelines to enable medical professionals to carry out prompt diagnostic measure and to offer emergency treatment. This report provides information in tabulated form on clinical criteria for dose assesment. Additionally, it discusses the appropriate dose-effect relationship in cases of external radiation involving either total body or local exposures, as well as internal contamination

  14. Stereotactic body radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comprehensive an up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. Examines in detail retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials for various organ sites from around the world. Written by world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia and Europe. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an innovative treatment for various primary and metastatic cancers, and the past five years have witnessed a quantum leap in its use. This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. It will serve as a detailed resource for this rapidly developing treatment modality. The organ sites covered include lung, liver, spine, pancreas, prostate, adrenal, head and neck, and female reproductive tract. Retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials on SBRT for various organ sites from around the world are examined, and toxicities and normal tissue constraints are discussed. This book features unique insights from world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia, and Europe. It will be necessary reading for radiation oncologists, radiation oncology residents and fellows, medical physicists, medical physics residents, medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, and cancer scientists.

  15. Stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Simon S. [Univ. Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center, Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Case Comprehensive Cancer Center; Teh, Bin S. [The Methodist Hospital Cancer Center and Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States). Weill Cornell Medical College; Lu, Jiade J. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Schefter, Tracey E. (eds.) [Colorado Univ., Aurora, CO (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-11-01

    Comprehensive an up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. Examines in detail retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials for various organ sites from around the world. Written by world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia and Europe. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an innovative treatment for various primary and metastatic cancers, and the past five years have witnessed a quantum leap in its use. This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. It will serve as a detailed resource for this rapidly developing treatment modality. The organ sites covered include lung, liver, spine, pancreas, prostate, adrenal, head and neck, and female reproductive tract. Retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials on SBRT for various organ sites from around the world are examined, and toxicities and normal tissue constraints are discussed. This book features unique insights from world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia, and Europe. It will be necessary reading for radiation oncologists, radiation oncology residents and fellows, medical physicists, medical physics residents, medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, and cancer scientists.

  16. Radiation injuries in atomic bomb survivors, chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic bombs, for the first time in human history, were dropped on Hiroshima in August 6, and on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. Though the powers of these bombs were small as compared with those of present day nuclear weapons, the atomic bombs claimed many lives instantaneously, damaged human bodies, and destroyed all objects, annihilating the urban areas. Even today, the dreadful consequences of the bombings still remain in both body and mind of the victims. Meanwhile, the experiences of atomic bomb disasters are fading constantly. In order to maintain the vivid information, in Part 2 ''Bodily injuries'', the following matters are described: early bodily injuries such as burns, (blast) external wounds, radiation injuries, and pathology in bodily injuries; later bodily injuries such as keloids, injuries to blood and eyes, injuries in exposed women, injuries in growth, aging and life, injuries in mental/nervous system, malignant tumors, and changes in chromosomes; and genetic effects. (J.P.N.)

  17. Non-invasive whole-body plethysmograph for assessment and prediction of radiation-induced lung injury using simultaneously acquired nitric oxide and lung volume measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a prevalent side effect in patients who undergo thoracic irradiation as part of their cancer treatment. Preclinical studies play a major role in understanding disease onset under controlled experimental conditions. The aim of this work is to develop a single-chambered optimized, non-invasive, whole-body plethysmograph prototype for unrestrained small animal lung volume measurements for preclinical RILI studies. The system is also designed to simultaneously obtain nitric oxide (NO) measurements of the expired breath. The device prototype was tested using computer simulations, phantom studies and in vivo measurements in experimental animal models of RILI. The system was found to improve resemblance to true breathing signal characteristics as measured by improved skewness (21.83%) and kurtosis (51.94%) in addition to increased overall signal sensitivity (3.61%) of the acquired breath signal, when compared to matching control data. NO concentration data was combined with breath measurements in order to predict early RILI onset. The system was evaluated using serial weekly measurements in hemi-thorax irradiated rats (n = 8) yielding a classification performance of 50.0%, 62.5%, 87.5% using lung volume only, NO only, and combined measurements of both, respectively. Our results indicate that improved performance could be achieved when measurements of lung volume are combined with those of NO. This would provide the overall plethysmography system with the ability to provide useful diagnostic and prognostic information for preclinical and, potentially, clinical thoracic dose escalation studies. (paper)

  18. CT appearance of radiation injury of the lung and clinical symptoms after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancers: Are patients with pulmonary emphysema also candidates for SBRT for lung cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the computed tomographic (CT) appearance of radiation injury to the lung and clinical symptoms after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and evaluate the difference by the presence of pulmonary emphysema (PE) for small lung cancers. Methods and Materials: In this analysis, 45 patients with 52 primary or metastatic lung cancers were enrolled. We evaluated the CT appearance of acute radiation pneumonitis (within 6 months) and radiation fibrosis (after 6 months) after SBRT. Clinical symptoms were evaluated by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. We also evaluated the relationship between CT appearance, clinical symptoms, and PE. Results: CT appearance of acute radiation pneumonitis was classified as follows: (1) diffuse consolidation, 38.5%; (2) patchy consolidation and ground-glass opacities (GGO), 15.4%; (3) diffuse GGO, 11.5%; (4) patchy GGO, 2.0%; (5) no evidence of increasing density, 32.6%. CT appearance of radiation fibrosis was classified as follows: (1) modified conventional pattern, 61.5%; (2) mass-like pattern, 17.3%; (3) scar-like pattern, 21.2%. Patients who were diagnosed with more than Grade 2 pneumonitis showed significantly less no evidence of increased density pattern and scar-like pattern than any other pattern (p = 0.0314, 0.0297, respectively). Significantly, most of these patients with no evidence of increased density pattern and scar-like pattern had PE (p = 0.00038, 0.00044, respectively). Conclusion: Computed tomographic appearance after SBRT was classified into five patterns of acute radiation pneumonitis and three patterns of radiation fibrosis. Our results suggest that SBRT can be also safely performed even in patients with PE

  19. Plastic surgery of radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review of the book - Plastic surgery of radiation injuries, -written by the staff members of the RAMS surgical centre, the creators of a number of original methods for reconstructive and plastic microsurgery Milanov N.O. and Shilov B.L., is presented. The book consists of introduction, four chapters and conclusion. The introduction deals with the terms of operational intervention and indications for choice of the method of operation. Peculiarities of radiation injuries and basic principles for selection the method of plastic art are considered in the first and second chapters. The third and fourth chapters are related to treatment of late radiation defects. The possibilities for earlier intervention are contained in the fourth chapter

  20. High energy radiation effects on the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-energy radiation injuries and their risks were recognized, information on low-energy radiation injuries was also arranged, and with these backgrounds, countermeasures against prevention of radiation injuries were considered. Redintegration of DNA and mutation by radiation were described, and relationship between radiation injuries and dose was considered. Interaction of high-energy radiation and substances in the living body and injuries by the interaction were also considered. Expression method of risk was considered, and a concept of protection dose was suggested. Protection dose is dose equivalent which is worthy of value at the point where the ratio to permissible dose distributed among each part of the body is at its maximum in the distribution of dose equivalent formed within the body when standard human body is placed at a certain radiation field for a certain time. Significance and countermeasures of health examination which is under an abligation to make radiation workers receive health check were thought, and problems were proposed on compensation when radiation injuries should appear actually. (Tsunoda, M.)

  1. Frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in mouse bone marrow induced by combined radiation-burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: In order to detect if any analysis of frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (fMPCE) in mouse bone marrow was possible to diagnose combined radiation-burn injuries. Methods: By using the index of fMPCE, the investigation was carried out in the conditions of burn injury alone, radiation injury alone and combined radiation-burn injury. Results: The fMPCE induced by 10% and 20% body surface area (BSA) burns were not significantly increased at 24h compared with untreated groups. The fMPCE induced by combined radiation-burn injury significantly lower than those by radiation alone, and the fMPCE in the 20% BSA combined radiation-burn injury groups were lower than those in 10% BSA groups. Conclusion: These results indicate that radiation combined burns have an effect to reduce the fMPCE induced by radiation injury. The reason may be due to the frequency of increase of PCE after burn injury

  2. Radiation Regulation Bodies in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tthere are two types Regulatory Bodies in South Africa: department of Health - Radiation Control (DoH) and National Nuclear Regulator (NNR). The function DoH include of Promotion and maintenance of health within the framework of National health plan, Protection against injury or disease caused by technological devises, Protection against injury or disease caused by radiation, Promote safe and legal use of such products. The National Nuclear Regulator authorizes Nuclear Installation License, Nuclear Vessel License, Certificate of Registration and Certificate of Exemption. Some of the Electronic Products include licensing electro-medical products, Import or manufactured License conditions, Radiation workers, Report forms, Use and Radio-nuclides. Nuclear Authorization is the process of granting, by the National Nuclear Regulator, a written approval to applicants or / and operating organizations to perform nuclear related activities as detailed in the scope of the authorization. International Trade Administration Commission of South Africa (ITAC) issue license for import and export of all products including electronic X-Ray products and Radio-nuclides

  3. Radiation reactions and injuries, their prophylaxis and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most frequent local and total radiation reactions (epithema, dry and wet epidermitises, esophagitises, radiation variations of pulmonary tissues, the reaction of mucous membrane of the rectum, radiation cystitises) are described. The problems on delayed radiation injuries (delayed skin injuries, injuries of intestine, limbs, lungs, heart, organs of urochesia) are considered. Delayed radiation injuries are shown to be expected, if the tolerant level of healthy tissues irradiated increases during radiotherapy. Special attention is paid to prophylaxis and radiation injuries therapy

  4. Changes of intermediary taurine and tryptophan metabolism after combined radiation-thermal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of changes of the taurine and tryptophane concentration in blood serum of rats has been studied during 30 days after 3b degree burn of 15% of body surface after total even exposure to radiation in doses of 3 and 6 Gy, and after combined radiation thermal injury. Combined radiation-thermal injury was found to be characterized by reduced concentration of taurine but an increase of the tryptophane level from the second-third day after the injury

  5. Life After Traumatic Injury: How the Body Responds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Life After Traumatic Injury: How the Body Responds By Chelsea ... alive immediately after a traumatic injury to improving life after survival. Learn more: Fact Sheets on Sepsis and ...

  6. Combination of radiation injuries: pathogenesis, clinic, therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern notions on combined radiation injuries (CRI) are presented. Characteristic of injurious factors of nuclear explosion and common regularities of the CRI origination is given. The data on the CRI clinical peculiarities, diagnostics and treatment, principles of medical assistance for the injured on the stages of medical evacuation and recommendations on rehabilitation are presented

  7. Integrative Metabolic Signatures for Hepatic Radiation Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Jack Kurland

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD is a dose-limiting factor in curative radiation therapy (RT for liver cancers, making early detection of radiation-associated liver injury absolutely essential for medical intervention. A metabolomic approach was used to determine metabolic signatures that could serve as biomarkers for early detection of RILD in mice.Anesthetized C57BL/6 mice received 0, 10 or 50 Gy Whole Liver Irradiation (WLI and were contrasted to mice, which received 10 Gy whole body irradiation (WBI. Liver and plasma samples were collected at 24 hours after irradiation. The samples were processed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.Twenty four hours after WLI, 407 metabolites were detected in liver samples while 347 metabolites were detected in plasma. Plasma metabolites associated with 50 Gy WLI included several amino acids, purine and pyrimidine metabolites, microbial metabolites, and most prominently bradykinin and 3-indoxyl-sulfate. Liver metabolites associated with 50 Gy WLI included pentose phosphate, purine, and pyrimidine metabolites in liver. Plasma biomarkers in common between WLI and WBI were enriched in microbial metabolites such as 3 indoxyl sulfate, indole-3-lactic acid, phenyllactic acid, pipecolic acid, hippuric acid, and markers of DNA damage such as 2-deoxyuridine. Metabolites associated with tryptophan and indoles may reflect radiation-induced gut microbiome effects. Predominant liver biomarkers in common between WBI and WLI were amino acids, sugars, TCA metabolites (fumarate, fatty acids (lineolate, n-hexadecanoic acid and DNA damage markers (uridine.We identified a set of metabolomic markers that may prove useful as plasma biomarkers of RILD and WBI. Pathway analysis also suggested that the unique metabolic changes observed after liver irradiation was an integrative response of the intestine, liver and kidney.

  8. The history of knowledge on radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible endangering with the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy and the fateful threat of mankind by nuclear weapons in a world-wide extent keep the discussion on problems of radiation injuries and the national and international activities to avoid them as well running. In view of the burning discussions, the impression may rise that radiation injuries became aware to the human-being only recently. Actually this knowledge dats back to the turn of the century. The development of the knowledge on radiation injuries originating immediately after discovery of W.C. Roentgen in 1895 is presented concisely. The application of radiotherapy is taken into consideration. A historical retrospect in various sections deals with the initial period of radiogenic skin injuries, with the recognition of radiation injuries at the internal organs, the proof of carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiations and its mutagenic influence. Finally it is presented how experience gained during decades, is used as a basis for the conception of present radiation protection. (author)

  9. Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Radiation Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Juliann G

    2016-08-01

    Recent understanding of the cellular and molecular signaling activations in adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has provided new insights into their potential clinical applications, particularly for tissue repair and regeneration. This review focuses on these advances, specifically in the context of self-renewal for tissue repair and recovery after radiation injury. Thus far, MSCs have been characterized extensively and shown to be useful in mitigation and therapy for acute radiation syndrome and cognitive dysfunction. Use of MSCs for treating radiation injury alone or in combination with additional trauma is foreseeable. PMID:27356065

  10. Assessment of radiation injuries: role of nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of an intentional or accidental release of ionizing radiation, timely assessment of the radiation exposure is critical for the triage and to facilitate timely and optimal medical care to the effected population. In addition to mild to severe injuries to tissues and organs, radiation injury can also cause cognitive decline, depressive behavior and affective state disturbances following exposure to both high and low doses of radiation. These may be even seen without evident tissue injury within hours to days or months to years after exposure to low doses of radiation. In this study, we exploited the multi-parametric contrast of NMR/MRI and its potential to assess radiation dose absorbed and radiation sickness thereof. High resolution NMR spectroscopy experiments were conducted on urine and serum samples collected from mice irradiated (whole body and focal irradiation) with 3, 5 and 8 Gray of γ-radiation at different time points post irradiation. Irradiated mice serum and urine showed distinct metabolic phenotypes and revealed dose and time dependent clustering of irradiated groups depicting different phases of radiation sickness. Increased concentration of urine metabolites related to gut microflora and energy metabolism were observed during different phases of radiation sickness. On the other hand serum spectra reflected changes associated with lipid, energy and membrane metabolism during radiation sickness. In vivo NMR spectroscopy and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was also performed in different regions of brain post irradiation in animal model, which showed radiation induced metabolite changes in hippocampus region. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) also demonstrated dose related changes in various brain regions which corroborated well with the behavioral parameters. The results of the present work lay a scientific foundation for development of high throughput radiation bio-dosimetry. This could further be useful in development

  11. Progress in imaging of brain radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanisms of brain radiation injury mainly include three hypotheses: vascular injury, glial cells damage and immune response. Most scholars' studies have recently supported the former two ones. Vascular injury plays a major role in the effect of delayed radiation injury. Focal brain injury and diffuse white matter injury can be definitely diagnosed by CT and MRI. T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) in MRI shows high sensitivity in water contents, and is not affected by the beam hardening artifacts from the cranial base. Compared with CT, the sensitivity of MR for detecting white matter lesions is two to threefold higher. When lesions occurs at the site of an irradiated cerebral tumor, tumor recurrence and focal cerebral necrosis cannot be differentiated by CT or MR, PET and MRS now present a certain advantage of differential diagnosis. Tumor presents high metabolism and necrosis demonstrates low metabolism by utilizing PET scanning, however PET's sensitivity and specificity are far from satisfactory. The amount or ratio of metabolic products in the region of interest measured by MRS contributes to the deferential diagnosis. In addition, PET functional imaging and MRS can also predict the early asymptomatic reversible radiation injury so as to allow the early therapy of steroids and possibly other drugs, prior to the development of irreversible changes

  12. Radiation-induced lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radiation therapy is limited by the occurrence of the potentially fatal clinical syndromes of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Radiation pneumonitis usually becomes clinically apparent from 2 to 6 months after completion of radiation therapy. It is characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, and alveolar infiltrates on chest roentgenogram and may be difficult to differentiate from infection or recurrent malignancy. The pathogenesis is uncertain, but appears to involve both direct lung tissue toxicity and an inflammatory response. The syndrome may resolve spontaneously or may progress to respiratory failure. Corticosteroids may be effective therapy if started early in the course of the disease. The time course for the development of radiation fibrosis is later than that for radiation pneumonitis. It is usually present by 1 year following irradiation, but may not become clinically apparent until 2 years after radiation therapy. It is characterized by the insidious onset of dyspnea on exertion. It most often is mild, but can progress to chronic respiratory failure. There is no known successful treatment for this condition. 51 references

  13. Parenteral nutrition in radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basing on the results of experiments on mice and rats and their clinical use in oncological patients treatment recommendations are given on use of parenteral nutrition in treatment of radiation disease

  14. Radiation injury to peripheral and cranial nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the results of laboratory and clinical investigations regarding the radiosensitivity of peripheral nerve are presented. Before outlining this research the authors briefly review peripheral neuroanatomy and physiology and then discuss variables associated with injury. It is important to remember that radiation injury is multifactorial in nature, and that the relative importance of individual factors is not well understood. Reports up through the middle of this century were fraught with rudimentary dosimetry, primitive investigative methods, and arbitrary endpoints that resulted in widely conflicting conclusions that continue to date

  15. Hepatic radiation injury in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole livers of rats were exposed intraoperatively to graded doses (0 to 75 Gy) of 137Cs gamma radiation. At various times (0 to 155 days) after liver irradiation, minimally invasive, nondestructive tests (rose bengal retention and plasma alkaline phosphatase, glutamic-oxaloacetic acid transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase) were performed on at least half the surviving animals in each dose group to assess developing liver injury. Liver histology was done on animals sacrificed 96 to 100 days after irradiation. Radiation damage to the stomach killed approximately 50% of the animals 30 to 60 days after exposure to doses of 25 Gy or higher. These deaths were significantly reduced when care was taken to shield the stomach during irradiation. Stomach injury did not, however, appreciably affect liver function as measured by rose bengal retention. Whole-liver irradiation to 15 Gy resulted in reduced liver size and minimal histological changes, but did not result in increased rose bengal retention or plasma alkaline phosphatase concentration. The next highest dose group studied (25 Gy) showed significant histological abnormalities and liver injury as measured by increased rose bengal retention and liver enzymes. The latent period for development of hepatic injury, as measured by increased rose bengal retention, was 35 to 42 days and was relatively invariant over the 25- to 75-Gy dose range. Hepatic vein lesions and cellular necrosis were the most prominent histological lesions observed in 25-Gy-irradiated liver

  16. Substances stimulating recovery for radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relationship between radiation injury and its recovery (intracellular recovery, intercellular recovery, or individual recovery) was discussed. In addition to histological researches in Japan, some substances (free radicals, endotoxin, vaccine, crude drugs, tissue extracts, blood platelet, etc.) stimulating recovery for radiation injury were introduced, and the progress of the study by the authors was summarized. Effects of a root of Panax ginseng (it is believed to accelerate segmentation of marrow cells, and synthesis of DNA and protein in rats and men), methods of its extracting and administration, its influences upon hemogram and organ weight in animal experiments, exclusion of side effects, period of administration, and purification of its effective components were reported. (Ichikawa, K.)

  17. Fractured identities: injury and the balletic body

    OpenAIRE

    Wainwright, Steven P.; Williams, Clare; Turner, Bryan S.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Social worlds shape human bodies and so it is inevitable that there are strong relationships between the body, professional dance and identity. In this article we draw on Bourdieu?s notions of habitus, and various forms of capital, as the main theoretical framework for our discussion. Our ethnography of the balletic body elicited dancers and ex-dancers? perceptions of their bodies and ...

  18. Hematological parameters after acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to clinical experiences of radiation accidents during the past two decades, utilization of measured hematologic changes as a direcrt indicator of the severity of radiation injury provides important information for diagnosis and prognostic evaluation in individual cases. Hematologic changes can be described in terms of prognostic categories based on the possible outcome of the acute radiation syndrome. The five categories suggested by Wald according to the grade of severity. By the actual application of this category to our experience of the 1971 Chiba accident of exposure to irridium 192, it was proved that the estimated dose was well correlated to the value by cytogenetic analysis and physical estimation used of thermo-luminescence phenomena. In hematological parameters, a decrease of lymphocytes occurs whithin 24 hours after the exposure. The level of this early lymphopenia is regarded as one of the best indicators of severity of radiation injury. For the decision of therapeutic procedures, however, the total granulocyte count and platelet count are more valuable to exclude severe infection and bleeding symptoms occurred one month after the exposure. The limitation of the approach by hematologic data must exist in the case exposed in a non-uniform fashion. To overwhelm this difficulty, the application of rapid marrow scanning by short-lived RI such as 52Fe is expected and the bone marrow imaging by magnetic resonance studies is more exciting. For more sensitive and technically easy-drived methods detecting hematologic injury, our new method of detecting micro-nucleus in polychromatic erythroblasts from cultured erythroid colonies from peripheral blood is now developing. Preliminary data have shown the sensitivity of this method is comparable to the cytogenetic study of pheripheral lymphocytes. (author)

  19. Advances in small intestinal ionizing radiation injury research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intestinal ionising radiation injuries are a dose limiting factor in the course of radiotherapy of abdominal and pelvic malignancies. In this paper it is reviewed that ionizing radiation injuries of small intestine,including clinical symptoms, epithelium and submucosa changes, signal molecular expression changes, histological and ultrastructure changes. The ongoing works of our laboratory on subjects of intestinal injuries induced by heavy ions and protection against these injuries are also presented. (authors)

  20. Injury and repair of astrocyte after ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrocyte is the most glial cell in the central nervous system. In the present experiment, radiation injury to the central nervous system (CNS) triggers a large network of cellular changes including neuron, glial cell and endothelial cell in morphology and metabolism and function. Astrocyte changes rapidly after ionizing radiation. There is a relationship between astrocyte and the pathologic process and function recover of damaged brain tissue following CNS injury. This suggests that astrocyte plays an important role in cure of clinical radiation injury

  1. Explanation of diagnostic criteria for external radiation bone injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National occupational health standard-Diagnostic Criteria for External Radiation Bone Injuries has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. Based on the extensive research of literature, systematic study of the relevant laws and regulations, this standard was enacted according to its making principles. It is mainly used for diagnosis of bone injury induced by radiation accident, and it also can serve as a guide to diagnose bone injury induced by medical radiation. To implement this standard, and to diagnose and treat the external radiation bone injuries patient correctly and promptly, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  2. UV radiation impairs the body's defence mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is usually divided into three wavelength ranges, which differ considerably from each other with respect to their effect on human health. UV-B radiation, in particular, weakens the body's resistance against cancer cells and thus increases cancer risk. Although virtually all UV-B radiation stops at the surface layer of skin, the whole body suffers from its adverse effects. UV radiation affects the body's defence mechanism relatively quickly. A reduction in the body's capacity to defend itself against alien substances can already be detected within a couple of days after the body has been exposed to a small amount of UV radiation. The risk of cancer increases slowly over the years. The skin cancers that are treated in hospitals today have their origin in the ways of life pursued in the 1960's and 70's. Factors affecting the amounts of UV doses received by Finns include trips to the South, solarium treatments and, to some extent, thinning of the ozone layer. (orig.) (4 figs.)

  3. Combined therapy of urinary bladder radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaderin, V.P.; Polyanichko, M.F. (Rostovskij-na-Donu Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Onkologicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1982-01-01

    A scheme of therapy of radiation cystitis is suggested. It was developed on the basis of evaluation of literature and clinical data of 205 patients with radiation injury of the urinary bladder. The method is based on general and local therapy of damaged tissues by antiinflammatory drugs, anesthetics and stimulators of reparative regeneration. Severe ulcerative and incrustation cystites, refractory to conservative therapy, were treated by surgery, using antiseptics and reparation stimulators before, during and after operation. As a result, there were hardly any complications after reconstruction of the bladder with intestinal and peritoneal tissues. 104 patients (96.1%) were cured completely and ability to work was restored in 70 patients (76.9%).

  4. Radiation-included brachial plexus injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All 449 breast cancer patients treated with post-operative radiotherapy to the breast and lymph nodes between 1982 and 1984 have been followed for 3-5.5 years. In this group two different fractionation schedules were used, one five times a fortnight and one daily, both over 6 weeks. The calculated dose to the brachial plexus was 45 Gy in 15 fractions or 5e Gy in 30 fractions. These schedules are equivalent doses using the standard NSD formula. The diagnosis of a brachial plexus injury was made clinically and computed tomography from recurrent disease. The actuarial incidence of a radiation-induced brachial plexus injury for the whole group was 4.9% at 5.5 years. No cases were seen in the first 10 months following radiotherapy. The incidence rises between 1 and 4 years and then starts to plateau. When the large fraction size group is compared with the small fraction size group the incidence at 5.5 years is 5.9% and 1.0%, respectively (p 0.09). Two different treatment techniques were used in this group but were not found to contribute to the probability of developing a brachial plexud injury. It is suggested that radiation using large doses per fraction are less well tolerated by the brachial plexus than small doses per fraction; a commonly used fractionation schedule such as 45 Gy in 15 fractions may give unacceptably high brachial plexus morbidity; and the of small doses per fraction or avoiding lymphatic irradiation is advocated. (author). 13 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  5. Skin injuries on the body and thigh of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Gröhn, Y.T.; Thysen, Iver

    1994-01-01

    An epidemiological study was conducted in 18 dairy herds with the objective to characterize those groups of cows where skin injuries to the body and thighs occurred most frequently. Data were analyzed with multivariable logistic regression. The epidemiologic patterns were different in first and l...

  6. Entanglement from thermal black body radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Two non--interacting quantum systems which couple to a common environment with many degrees of freedom initially in thermal equilibrium can become entangled due to the indirect interaction mediated through this heat bath. I examine here the dynamics of reservoir induced entanglement for a heat bath consisting of a thermal electro--magnetic radiation field, such as black body radiation or the cosmic microwave background, and show how the effect can be understood as result of an effective induc...

  7. Preventive treatment of combined radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of sepsis development increases when thermal burns and other trauma occur in combination with exposure to radiation. Only surgical correction of the life-threatening state recommends within 48 hours after irradiation. All other arrangements have to carry out when hemopoiesis recovery will complete. However exposed patients with combined injuries (CI) die during the first two or three weeks mainly due to sepsis. Therefore prophylaxis and preventive therapy of infectious complications are need early. Actual difficulties in choice of valid treatment procedure for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) exhibit additional aggravation under CI. The available facts prove decreasing early therapy efficiency for rather high dose exposure and wound trauma occurrence. The own results showed that bacterial polysaccharide pyrogenal, glycopin (synthetic analogue of muramil-dipeptide), thymus preparations (thymozin, thymotropin, thymogen), tuftsin, heterologic human and bovine immunoglobulins did not modify the low values of 30-day survival under CI (irradiation + thermal burn). Single injection of prodigiozan, zymozan and some other yeast polysaccharides in 1 hr after CI resulted at moderate increasing of survival. The main purpose of this study, which bases upon our understanding of CI pathogenesis, was search more effective means for preventive treatment of combined radiation injuries. Two groups of remedies were under study. The first group included so called 'biological response modifiers' (BRM). These agents may increase host defences to infection, macrophage's activity and hemopoietic growth factor's secretion. The second group included antibiotics that should be directed against the potential gram-negative as well as gram-positive pathogens and simultaneously be useful for selective decontamination of gastrointestinal tract. (author)

  8. [Foreign bodies--uncommon causes of GIT injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasala, P; Hadwiger, J; Gryga, A; Folprecht, M

    2009-09-01

    Injuries to various parts of the digestive tract caused by foreign bodies, frequently deliberately swallowed or inserted using various practics, are less common, however serious injuries. The symptomatology may be vague, credibility is often limited or anamnestic data may be intentionaly missing, which makes the diagnostic process tricky. Undefined, vague signs are related to specificities during the GIT perforation, so called hidden perforation. The recovery is commonly complicated, with a resulting handicap of stool incontinence or of colostomy. This is demonstrated on several subjects, treated in our surgical department. PMID:20052930

  9. General discussion about enzymes activities of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researching reliable and practical indicators of radiation injury, however, is very interesting and considerable department of scientific studies, practical and theoretical. Enzymes activities are among biochemical indicators which are changed after radiation injury. Activity of these specific proteins is important in regulation of every biochemical reaction in existing beings. Biological macromolecules can be damaged by radiation or the cell permeability can be changed. All of these influence directly on enzymes activities. In this paper we present the review of the all important enzymes, indicators of the radiation injury, which variances on reference to normal values are significant of the functional and the structural changes of essential organs (author)

  10. A Rat Body Phantom for Radiation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Garry D.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Slaba, Tony C.; Walker, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    To reduce the uncertainties associated with estimating the biological effects of ionizing radiation in tissue, researchers rely on laboratory experiments in which mono-energetic, single specie beams are applied to cell cultures, insects, and small animals. To estimate the radiation effects on astronauts in deep space or low Earth orbit, who are exposed to mixed field broad spectrum radiation, these experimental results are extrapolated and combined with other data to produce radiation quality factors, radiation weighting factors, and other risk related quantities for humans. One way to reduce the uncertainty associated with such extrapolations is to utilize analysis tools that are applicable to both laboratory and space environments. The use of physical and computational body phantoms to predict radiation exposure and its effects is well established and a wide range of human and non-human phantoms are in use today. In this paper, a computational rat phantom is presented, as well as a description of the process through which that phantom has been coupled to existing radiation analysis tools. Sample results are presented for two space radiation environments.

  11. Plastic and reconstructive surgical treatment of the radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven cases of radiation injury are reported. Three of them were relatively superficial ''radiation dermatitis''. They received radical excision and free skin-grafting to the cosmetic and functional satisfaction. Eight patients had deeper injury, ''radiation ulcer''. Six cases were treated by ''local flap''. The local flap technique is the simplest and the most effective way to treat the radiation ulcer. The reason is 1) it is a one stage operation, 2) it has a permanent pedicle supplying good blood flow, 3) it has very close texture and color match to the area. However, a skin-grafting performed on one patient of radiation ulcer ended up with failure. The indication of the skin-grafting and the local flap was discussed from the point of the stage or degree of radiation injuries and the recommendable method is the skin-grafting to the radiation dermatitis and the local flap to the radiation ulcer. (auth.)

  12. Understanding of radiation protection in medicine. Pt. 1. Knowledge about radiation exposure and anxiety about radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a questionnaire we investigated whether radiation exposure in correctly understood by medical doctors (n=140), nurses (n=496) and the general public (n=236). Thirty-three percent of medical doctors, 53% of nurses and the general public did not know who is legally allowed to irradiate the human body. Forty-five percent of doctors, 63% of nurses and 48% of the general public complained of anxiety about radiation injury. Fifty-six percent of patients did not ask medical doctors or nurses for an explanation of the risk of exposure. Moreover, 64% of doctors did not explain the risk to patients. In addition, 21% of doctors, 46% of nurses and the general public incorrectly understood that x-rays remain in the examination room. Twenty-seven percent of doctors, 49% of nurses and 80% of the general public did not know the ten-day rule. In conclusion, the results of this questionnaire indicated that basic knowledge about radiation exposure was not adequate. To protect against medical radiation exposure, personnel who are licensed to irradiate to the human body should be well recognized by medical staff and the general public. It is also important that informed consent for radiological examinations be based on fundamental knowledge about radiation exposure. Therefore, to reach a general consensus on radiological examinations and to reduce individual exposure, general public education regarding radiation protection is required. Postgraduate education on radiation protection for medical doctors and nurses is also strongly recommended. (author)

  13. Black-body radiation in Tsallis statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some results for the black-body radiation obtained in the context of the q-thermostatistics are analyzed on both thermodynamical and statistical-mechanical levels. Since the thermodynamic potentials can be expressed in terms of Wright's special function a useful asymptotic expansion can be obtained. This expansion allows to consider thermodynamic properties away from the Boltzmann-Gibbs limit q = 1. The role of non-extensivity, q 4 behavior is considered. The application of some approximation schemes widely used in the literature to analyze the cosmic radiation is discussed. (author)

  14. Prenatal radiation injury and immune development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies demonstrated a significant reduction in thymic medullary and epithelial volumes in irradiated canine fetuses. The present study was performed to determine if this prenatal radiation-induced damage persists and is accompanied by functional immune abnormalities after birth. Six pregnant beagle dogs received sham-irradiation or single abdominal exposures to 200R of 60Co radiation at 35 days gestation. The mean fetal dose was approximately 1.5 Gy. Half the dogs of each litter were sacrificed at birth; half were sacrificed at 24 weeks of age. Following sacrifice, thymus sections from each dog were examined morphometrically. The following in vitro and in vivo assays were performed at selected times; lymphocyte blastogenesis, hematology, bone marrow progenitor cell (CFU-GM) colony growth, humoral antibody response to sheep red blood cells, dinitrochloro-benzene skin sensitization, and gross and histopathology. When compared with age-matched controls, thymic medullary volumes in irradiated dogs were significantly reduced at birth; but, by 24 weeks of age, were similar to control values. At 12-16 weeks of age irradiated dogs showed a significant decrease in humoral antibody responses to inoculated sheep red blood cells. In vitro culture of bone marrow demonstrated a significant reduction of CFU-GM colony growth in irradiated dogs at 24 weeks of age. This was accompanied by a reduction in peripheral white blood cell counts in these dogs from 12-24 weeks of age. These data suggest that radiation injury to the fetal lymphohematopoietic system results in significant postnatal immunologic and hematopoietic defects

  15. Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage

  16. [Comparative Evaluation of Healing Wounds at a Local and Combined Radiation Injury in an Experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeza, V I; Grebenyuk, A N; Kondakov, A Y; Zargarova, N I

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing activity of 20 different means of conservative treatment of radiation burns was studies in the experiments on the rats subjected to local β-radiation (at a dose of 60 Gy) and combined radiation damage (β-radiation at a dose of 60 Gy and the whole-body γ-irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy). It was found that reparative processes in the irradiated,skin in the case of the local radiation injuries are most effectively accelerated by ointments Biopin, Panthenol-Ratiopharm, IL-1β and Iruksol; Dimexidum solution; aerosols Olazol, Gipozol and Polkortolon; wound coverings Procell-super and Selenopol. Ointments containing IL-1β, Dimexidum solution, aerosols and wound coverings have a healing effect in the case of combined radiation injury. PMID:26964343

  17. Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection by post-irradiation injection of a thermostable fraction of the ginseng extract in mice, rats and guinea pigs was studied. The thermostable fraction lost ''by-effects'' of decrease in body weight and splenic hyperplasia which were caused in injected mice by the original ginseng extract. The fraction protected mice (male) irradiated with 720 R of X-rays and rats (male) irradiated with 825 R with the dose about 6 mg per 100 g of body weight. The fraction also protected guinea pigs, both female and male, irradiated with 325 R with the dose about 80 mg per 300 g of body weight. The thermostable fraction stimulated recovery of thrombocyte and erythrocyte counts, but not leukocyte counts, in 550-R irradiated mice. Recovery of all the three blood cell counts was stimulated by the fraction in rats irradiated with 630 R and guinea pigs irradiated with 200 R. Comparison of stimulated recovery by the thermostable fraction of the ginseng extract among the three blood cell counts showed that restoring action was the most marked on thrombocyte counts, commonly in the three species of the animals. (author)

  18. The modes of death in mammals exposed to whole body radiation (acute radiation syndromes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When an animal is exposed to a sufficient amount of radiation, there will be changes in many organs of the body, and as a result of either the effects in one particular organ or the interaction of effects in several organs, the animal as a whole will show characteristic syndromes. Some syndromes result inevitably in death. Others may or may not be lethal, depending on the extent of the tissue damage. The time of appearance of the syndromes, their duration, and the survival of the organism depend on many factors. Whole body acute doses of radiation produce the same spectrum of Central Nervous System (CNS), Gastrointestinal (GI) and Bone Marrow (BM) injury in man as was described for animals. Damage to the skin, ovary and testis are an integral and important part of the symptoms. (author)

  19. Medical emergency center for radiation injuries in Zagreb, Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the way how radiation injuries due to a radiation accident can be treated. Several degrees of action will be provided in case of a NPP-Krsko nuclear accident. Medical treatment will be done in the Centre for Radiation Medicine and Protection in Clinical Hospital Centre Zagreb. (rieger)

  20. Intestinal Microbiota-Derived Metabolomic Blood Plasma Markers for Prior Radiation Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Assessing whole-body radiation injury and absorbed dose is essential for remediation efforts following accidental or deliberate exposure in medical, industrial, military, or terrorist incidents. We hypothesize that variations in specific metabolite concentrations extracted from blood plasma would correlate with whole-body radiation injury and dose. Methods and Materials: Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n=12 per group) were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 10.4 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation. At 24 hours after treatment, all animals were euthanized, and both plasma and liver biopsy samples were obtained, the latter being used to identify a distinct hepatic radiation injury response within plasma. A semiquantitative, untargeted metabolite/lipid profile was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which identified 354 biochemical compounds. A second set of C57BL/6 mice (n=6 per group) were used to assess a subset of identified plasma markers beyond 24 hours. Results: We identified a cohort of 37 biochemical compounds in plasma that yielded the optimal separation of the irradiated sample groups, with the most correlated metabolites associated with pyrimidine (positively correlated) and tryptophan (negatively correlated) metabolism. The latter were predominantly associated with indole compounds, and there was evidence that these were also correlated between liver and plasma. No evidence of saturation as a function of dose was observed, as has been noted for studies involving metabolite analysis of urine. Conclusions: Plasma profiling of specific metabolites related to pyrimidine and tryptophan pathways can be used to differentiate whole-body radiation injury and dose response. As the tryptophan-associated indole compounds have their origin in the intestinal microbiome and subsequently the liver, these metabolites particularly represent an attractive marker for radiation injury within blood plasma

  1. Intestinal Microbiota-Derived Metabolomic Blood Plasma Markers for Prior Radiation Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ó Broin, Pilib [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States); Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Saha, Subhrajit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Hartil, Kirsten [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Chen, Emily I. [Department of Pharmacology, Proteomics Shared Resource, Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldman, Devorah; Fleming, William Harv [Department of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Kurland, Irwin J. [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Guha, Chandan, E-mail: cguha@montefiore.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Golden, Aaron, E-mail: aaron.golden@einstein.yu.edu [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Assessing whole-body radiation injury and absorbed dose is essential for remediation efforts following accidental or deliberate exposure in medical, industrial, military, or terrorist incidents. We hypothesize that variations in specific metabolite concentrations extracted from blood plasma would correlate with whole-body radiation injury and dose. Methods and Materials: Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n=12 per group) were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 10.4 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation. At 24 hours after treatment, all animals were euthanized, and both plasma and liver biopsy samples were obtained, the latter being used to identify a distinct hepatic radiation injury response within plasma. A semiquantitative, untargeted metabolite/lipid profile was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which identified 354 biochemical compounds. A second set of C57BL/6 mice (n=6 per group) were used to assess a subset of identified plasma markers beyond 24 hours. Results: We identified a cohort of 37 biochemical compounds in plasma that yielded the optimal separation of the irradiated sample groups, with the most correlated metabolites associated with pyrimidine (positively correlated) and tryptophan (negatively correlated) metabolism. The latter were predominantly associated with indole compounds, and there was evidence that these were also correlated between liver and plasma. No evidence of saturation as a function of dose was observed, as has been noted for studies involving metabolite analysis of urine. Conclusions: Plasma profiling of specific metabolites related to pyrimidine and tryptophan pathways can be used to differentiate whole-body radiation injury and dose response. As the tryptophan-associated indole compounds have their origin in the intestinal microbiome and subsequently the liver, these metabolites particularly represent an attractive marker for radiation injury within blood plasma.

  2. Occupational radiation injuries in Bulgaria during the last 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis for the period 1976-1995 have been done. The main reasons for radiation injuries as well as their distribution in different branches such as uranium industry, research, medicine and nuclear installations are outlined. Compiled data on the incidence of different nosological groups as chronic radiation disease, local radiation injury, radionuclide intoxication, radiation cataract, leucosis and malignant neoplasms are reported. The procedure of acknowledging a radiation injury as an occupational one as well as the necessary documentation for this are also described. The results presented in the article are based on the work carried out by the diagnostic commission at the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (BG). 2 refs., 2 tabs. (author)

  3. Proton spectroscopy of radiation-induced injury to the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the role of hydrogen MR spectroscopy (HMRS) in differentiating radiation-injured brain from normal brain and neoplasm, the authors performed HMRS on five cat brains with iatrogenically produced radiation injury. Reductions in N-acetyl aspartate (NAA/choline, and NAA/creatine-phosphocreatine (CR)) resonances were demonstrated in voxels from the five irradiated hemispheres compared with normal hemispheres (P < .01). NAA/CR ratios below 1.21 were always associated with radiation injury; ratios above 1.30 demarcated normal hemispheres. Large unassigned amino acid resonances from 2.0 to 2.5 ppm were also present. Results of autopsy examination confirmed radiation-induced white matter injury. Using NAA/CR ratios, one can separate normal brain from radiation-injured brain. Differentiating residual tumor from radiation-injured and normal brain may be possible with HMRS

  4. Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection from bone marrow death by a single injection of partially purified ginseng extract after whole-body X-irradiation was confirmed in JCL-ICR mice. The extract was efficacious both by intraperitoneal and intravenous injection. The extract protected mice when it was injected from 2 days before irradiation to 2.5 hr after that. Recovery of splenic weight and splenic DNA was stimulated by the extract, but that of thymic weight was not. Stimulated recovery by the extract was also observed in thrombocyte and erythrocyte counts, while the extract did not markedly affect recovery of leukocyte counts. The extract also increased 30-day survival ratio of splenectomized mice. In splenectomized mice recovery of only thrombocyte counts was stimulated by the extract. Recovery of thrombocyte counts after exposure is assumed one of the most important factors for restoration of bone marrow death. (author)

  5. Further approaches to biological indicators of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite of the decades-long investigations, the search for proper biological indicator of radiation injuries did not result in techniques fulfilling all the requirements. So far, the most reliable assay is the dicentric chromosome aberration analysis. New developments have been made recently on a cytogenetic technique, the micronucleus assay, and for local injuries on the application of thermography

  6. Ninety-nine years of radiation injuries in dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A German dentist, F.O. Walkhoff, has started dental radiography as early as two weeks after Roentgen's discovery on November 8, 1895. The purpose of this paper is to revisit radiation injuries by dividing the era into the era of Kells (before World War II) and the era of low exposure doses (after World War II). Edmund Kells (1856-1928), a pioneer of dental radiologist in the United States, has later become a victim of radiation injuries. During the era of Kells, skin radiation injuries were frequent among the group of dental and medical personnels. In the era of low exposure doses, cancers, leukemia, and genetic effects have begun to receive attention. Radiation injuries occurring in a dental practice are discussed in the context of the two eras. (N.K.) 43 refs

  7. Ninety-nine years of radiation injuries in dental radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Kadzuo (Nippon Dental Univ., Niigata (Japan). School of Dentistry at Niigata)

    1994-06-01

    A German dentist, F.O. Walkhoff, has started dental radiography as early as two weeks after Roentgen's discovery on November 8, 1895. The purpose of this paper is to revisit radiation injuries by dividing the era into the era of Kells (before World War II) and the era of low exposure doses (after World War II). Edmund Kells (1856-1928), a pioneer of dental radiologist in the United States, has later become a victim of radiation injuries. During the era of Kells, skin radiation injuries were frequent among the group of dental and medical personnels. In the era of low exposure doses, cancers, leukemia, and genetic effects have begun to receive attention. Radiation injuries occurring in a dental practice are discussed in the context of the two eras. (N.K.) 43 refs.

  8. Chinese prescription Shenlingbaizhu extract prevents radiation-induced small intestinal injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to investigate the therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese prescription Shenlingbaizhu Extract on radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice. Methods: Proliferation improvement of irradiated intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) was tested by MTT assay in vitro. The preventive effect of the prescription was also tested in vivo. Mice were treated with Shenlingbaizhu by intragastric administration immediately after receiving local irradiation to the abdomen at a dose of 10 Gy (60Co γ-ray). The body mass, diarrhea and survival were recorded. The pathological changes in the jejunum of mice were stained by HE and observed. Results: Shenlingbaizhu Extract could significantly promote the proliferation of irradiated intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Shenlingbaizhu Extract treatment reduced the diarrhea of irradiated mice, improved the intestinal structural recovery and increased the mice survival. Conclusion: Traditional Chinese prescription Shenlingbaizhu Extract shows significant protective effect on radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice, providing data for clinical treatment of radiation-induced intestinal injury. (authors)

  9. Human ghrelin mitigates intestinal injury and mortality after whole body irradiation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Wang

    Full Text Available Widespread use of ionizing radiation has led to the realization of the danger associated with radiation exposure. Although studies in radiation countermeasures were initiated a half century ago, an effective therapy for a radiomitigator has not been identified. Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal hormone, and administration of ghrelin is protective in animal models of injuries including radiation combined injury. To test whether ghrelin can be protective in whole body irradiaton (WBI alone, male Sprague Dawley (SD rats were treated with human ghrelin (20 nmol/rat daily for 6 days starting at either 24 h or 48 h after 10 Gray (Gy WBI and survival outcome was examined. The 10 Gy WBI produced a LD70/30 model in SD rats (30% survival in 30 days. The survival rate in rats treated with ghrelin starting at 24 h was significantly improved to 63% and when treatment was initiated at 48 h, the survival remained at 61%. At 7 days post WBI, plasma ghrelin was significantly reduced from the control value. Ghrelin treatment starting at 24 h after WBI daily for 6 days improved histological appearance of the intestine, reduced gut permeability, serum endotoxin levels and bacterial translocation to the liver by 38%, 42% and 61%, respectively at day 7 post WBI. Serum glucose and albumin were restored to near control levels with treatment. Ghrelin treatment also attenuated WBI-induced intestinal apoptosis by 62% as evidenced by TUNEL staining. The expression of anti-apoptotic cell regulator Bcl-xl was decreased by 38% in the vehicle and restored to 75% of the control with ghrelin treatment. Increased expression of intestinal CD73 and pAkt were observed with ghrelin treatment, indicating protection of the intestinal epithelium after WBI. These results indicate that human ghrelin attenuates intestinal injury and mortality after WBI. Thus, human ghrelin can be developed as a novel mitigator for radiation injury.

  10. Neurogenic differentiation factor NeuroD confers protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Du, Aonan; Xu, Jing; Ma, Yanchao; Cao, Han; Yang, Chao; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xing, Chun-Gen; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, especially the small intestine, is particularly sensitive to radiation, and is prone to radiation-induced injury as a result. Neurogenic differentiation factor (NeuroD) is an evolutionarily-conserved basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor. NeuroD contains a protein transduction domain (PTD), which allows it to be exogenously delivered across the membrane of mammalian cells, whereupon its transcription activity can be unleashed. Whether NeuroD has therapeutic effects for radiation-induced injury remains unclear. In the present study, we prepared a NeuroD-EGFP recombinant protein, and explored its protective effects on the survival and intestinal damage induced by ionizing radiation. Our results showed that NeuroD-EGFP could be transduced into small intestine epithelial cells and tissues. NeuroD-EGFP administration significantly increased overall survival of mice exposed to lethal total body irradiation (TBI). This recombinant NeuroD also reduced radiation-induced intestinal mucosal injury and apoptosis, and improved crypt survival. Expression profiling of NeuroD-EGFP-treated mice revealed upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), a known inhibitor of apoptosis in mammalian cells. In conclusion, NeuroD confers protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury, and provides a novel therapeutic clinical option for the prevention of intestinal side effects of radiotherapy and the treatment of victims of incidental exposure. PMID:27436572

  11. Explanation of diagnostic criteria for radiation heart injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National occupational health standards-Diagnostic Criteria for Radiation Heart Injury has been approved and issued by Ministry of Health. On the basis of the extensive research literature, systematic study of the relevant laws and regulations in the criteria, further explicitly formulating the basis and principles of this criteria to guide the development of criteria. This criteria is mainly used for diagnosis of heart injury caused by radiation accident and medical radiation. To be better for using this criteria and to diagnosis correctly this disease and prompt treatment, the criteria-related content is interpreted in this article. (authors)

  12. Therapy of combined radiation injuries with hemopoietic growth factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation accidents of the 5-7 th levels according to IAEA scale lead to life-threatening acute radiation syndrome and many patients will probably suffer from additional thermal burns. These combined injuries (CI) will be among the most difficult to achieve survival. Present therapeutic means need to augment with new approaches to stimulate host defence mechanisms, blood system recovery and to enhance survival. The evaluation of therapeutic properties of human recombinant G-CSF, IL-1,IL-2 and other so called 'biological response modifiers' on survival and blood recovery after CI was the purpose of this work. Experiments carried out with mice CBA x C57BL6 receiving 7 Gy total body irradiation followed by a full-thickness thermal bum of 10% of body surface. It established that G-CSF does not exhibit a positive modifying action on the damage level and on hematopoietic recovery. I.p two-four/fold infusion of IL-2 during the initial 2 days has provided a significant statistically survival increase from 40% (untreated mice with CI) to 86%. Single s.c IL-1 injection resulted in abrupt deterioration of the outcome when dealing with CI; three/fold administration of IL-1 in 2,4 and 6 days after CI did not increase survival. Extracellular yeast polysaccharides resulted only a 15 to 30% increase in survival it given 1 h after CI. The best results obtained when mixture of heat-killed L.acidophilus injected s.c immediately alter CI - survival has increased from 27% (untreated mice) to 80%. Revealed beneficial effects of IL-2 and biological response modifiers did not accompany by a corresponding correction of depressed hematological parameters

  13. Clarithromycin Attenuates Radiation-Induced Lung Injury in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung Jun; Yi, Chin-ok; Heo, Rok Won; Song, Dae Hyun; Cho, Yu Ji; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Kang, Ki Mun; Roh, Gu Seob; Lee, Jong Deog

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a common and unavoidable complication of thoracic radiotherapy. The current study was conducted to evaluate the ability of clarithromycin (CLA) to prevent radiation-induced pneumonitis, oxidative stress, and lung fibrosis in an animal model. C57BL/6J mice were assigned to control, irradiation only, irradiation plus CLA, and CLA only groups. Test mice received single thoracic exposures to radiation and/or oral CLA (100 mg/kg/day). Histopathologic finding...

  14. A rat model of radiation injury in the mandibular area

    OpenAIRE

    Sønstevold, Tonje; Johannessen, Anne Christine; Stuhr, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiation technology focuses on delivering the radiation as precisely as possible to the tumor, nonetheless both acute and long-term damage to surrounding normal tissue may develop. Injuries to the surrounding normal tissue after radiotherapy of head and neck cancer are difficult to manage. An animal model is needed to elucidate good treatment modalities. The aim of this study was to establish a rat model where a certain radiation dose gives reproducible tissue reactions in the ...

  15. Effects of bone marrow transplantation and bone marrow shielding on the intestinal radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of hemopoietic tissue transplantation and bone marrow shielding on early intestinal injury in mice after high does gamma irradiation were studied. Fresh bone marrow cells (2 x 106) transplanted after 12 Gy and 10 Gy whole body irradiation had no protective effect on intestinal injury. In mice exposed to 14 Gy whole body or abdominal region irradiation, there was no difference in the decrease of intestinal epithelial cells and inhibition of crypt mitosis. Therefore hemopoietic tissue shielding could not reduce severity of intestinal damage. These results showed that the radiation injury of intestinal tract is essentially a direct effect of γ-ray and has not obvious relationship to the hemopoietic tissues

  16. Acute syndrome of radiation: injuries to the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute syndrome of radiation: injuries to the gastrointestinal tract. Exposure to ionising radiation at medium to high doses results in the manifestation of mixed pathologies. Following the analysis of several radiation accidents it is clear that intestinal injury influences patient survival. However the appearance of the classically defined gastrointestinal syndrome is not always evident. Nevertheless injury to the gastrointestinal tract, in particular loss of barrier function, seems to play an important role in the development of Multiple Organ Failure such as reported in the recent accident at Tokai Mura. Ionising radiation overexposure results in changes in intestinal motility and nutrient, fluid and electrolyte absorption and secretion all which may contribute to the genesis of diarrhea. In addition to modified cellular transport properties for nutrients or electrolytes, important loss of epithelial cells is also a major contributing factor. Intestinal functions are controlled by many factors such as neurotransmitters, locally released mediators from endocrine cells or immunocompetent cells in addition to luminal agents. To date, treatment of radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury is mainly symptomatic. However treatments such as growth factors, anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as cellular transplantation remain to be validated in the radiation accident situation. (author)

  17. Anesthesia for plastic reconstruction surgery of radiation injury of neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of anesthesia used in the plastic reconstruction of 18 cases of radiation injury of neck is reported. 17 cases were malignant tumor patients. After radiotherapy, their general condition was weak. The injury of neck skin and surrounding tissues was severe. Most operations were excision of the focus and repairing the wound using adjacent flap. The choice of anesthesia depended on the general condition, degree of injury and the procedure. Good pre-operative preparation, close monitoring and satisfactory airway control during operation are very important

  18. Effects of early escharectomy on rats with combined radiation-burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To provide evidence for beneficial effect of clinical therapy with early escharectomy on survival and wound healing in rats combined radiation-burn injury. Methods: Rats were exposed to 5 Gy whole-body γ-ray irradiation from a 60Co source and to thermal-radiation burn (10% TBSA, full thickness burn) successively by a 5 kW bromo-tungsten lamp. Then the animals were given anti-shock and anti-infection remedies. Early escharectomy and stitch (EES) at 24 h after injury, eschar-protecting treatment, or other treatment modalities were carried out. The 60-day survival rate, the duration of wound healing and the changes of the body weight of animals were observed. Results: The 60-day survival rate of EES group reached 78%, being higher than that of the no-escharectomy group (40%, P < 0.05) and even higher than that of the escharectomy with non-stitch group (15%, P < 0.01) and that of the control group (10%, P < 0.01). Besides, in the EES group, the wound showed no sign of infection and healed well, and the body weights recovered faster. Conclusions: EES is effective and available on this model of combined injuries. It is appropriate for operation at 24-48 h after injury

  19. Lymphocyte chromosome aberrations in partial-body fractionated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    a relationship between lymphocyte chromosome aberration yields which occur in partial-body fractionated radiation therapy and those yields measured in vitro is derived. These calculations are applied to the case of patients undergoing radiation therapy for mammary carcinoma. (author)

  20. Lymphocyte chromosome aberrations in partial-body fractionated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstrand, K.E.; Dixon, R.L. (Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC (USA))

    1982-03-01

    a relationship between lymphocyte chromosome aberration yields which occur in partial-body fractionated radiation therapy and those yields measured in vitro is derived. These calculations are applied to the case of patients undergoing radiation therapy for mammary carcinoma.

  1. Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ϒ, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins

  2. A Nonhuman Primate Model of Human Radiation-Induced Venocclusive Liver Disease and Hepatocyte Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Human liver has an unusual sensitivity to radiation that limits its use in cancer therapy or in preconditioning for hepatocyte transplantation. Because the characteristic veno-occlusive lesions of radiation-induced liver disease do not occur in rodents, there has been no experimental model to investigate the limits of safe radiation therapy or explore the pathogenesis of hepatic veno-occlusive disease. Methods and Materials: We performed a dose-escalation study in a primate, the cynomolgus monkey, using hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy in 13 animals. Results: At doses ≥40 Gy, animals developed a systemic syndrome resembling human radiation-induced liver disease, consisting of decreased albumin, elevated alkaline phosphatase, loss of appetite, ascites, and normal bilirubin. Higher radiation doses were lethal, causing severe disease that required euthanasia approximately 10 weeks after radiation. Even at lower doses in which radiation-induced liver disease was mild or nonexistent, latent and significant injury to hepatocytes was demonstrated by asialoglycoprotein-mediated functional imaging. These monkeys developed hepatic failure with encephalopathy when they received parenteral nutrition containing high concentrations of glucose. Histologically, livers showed central obstruction via an unusual intimal swelling that progressed to central fibrosis. Conclusions: The cynomolgus monkey, as the first animal model of human veno-occlusive radiation-induced liver disease, provides a resource for characterizing the early changes and pathogenesis of venocclusion, for establishing nonlethal therapeutic dosages, and for examining experimental therapies to minimize radiation injury

  3. A Nonhuman Primate Model of Human Radiation-Induced Venocclusive Liver Disease and Hepatocyte Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yannam, Govardhana Rao [Department of Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Han, Bing [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Setoyama, Kentaro [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Yamamoto, Toshiyuki [Department of Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Ito, Ryotaro; Brooks, Jenna M. [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Guzman-Lepe, Jorge [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Galambos, Csaba [Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Fong, Jason V. [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Deutsch, Melvin; Quader, Mubina A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Yamanouchi, Kosho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kabarriti, Rafi; Mehta, Keyur [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro [Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); and others

    2014-02-01

    Background: Human liver has an unusual sensitivity to radiation that limits its use in cancer therapy or in preconditioning for hepatocyte transplantation. Because the characteristic veno-occlusive lesions of radiation-induced liver disease do not occur in rodents, there has been no experimental model to investigate the limits of safe radiation therapy or explore the pathogenesis of hepatic veno-occlusive disease. Methods and Materials: We performed a dose-escalation study in a primate, the cynomolgus monkey, using hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy in 13 animals. Results: At doses ≥40 Gy, animals developed a systemic syndrome resembling human radiation-induced liver disease, consisting of decreased albumin, elevated alkaline phosphatase, loss of appetite, ascites, and normal bilirubin. Higher radiation doses were lethal, causing severe disease that required euthanasia approximately 10 weeks after radiation. Even at lower doses in which radiation-induced liver disease was mild or nonexistent, latent and significant injury to hepatocytes was demonstrated by asialoglycoprotein-mediated functional imaging. These monkeys developed hepatic failure with encephalopathy when they received parenteral nutrition containing high concentrations of glucose. Histologically, livers showed central obstruction via an unusual intimal swelling that progressed to central fibrosis. Conclusions: The cynomolgus monkey, as the first animal model of human veno-occlusive radiation-induced liver disease, provides a resource for characterizing the early changes and pathogenesis of venocclusion, for establishing nonlethal therapeutic dosages, and for examining experimental therapies to minimize radiation injury.

  4. Quantitative assessment of acute radiation injury of the lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to unify various approaches to the assessment of acute radiation injury of the organ of vision. The development of cataracts was studied on mice subjected to local irradiation of the head at doses: 7, 10, 12, 15, 20 and 25 Gy. A clinical picture of radiation injury of the eye at different X-ray doses at different stages was established during ophthalmological examination using a manual electroophthalmoscope (X5). A method of the quantitative assessment of radiation injury of the mouse eye at different radiation doses was proposed using the light transmission factor tau; its experimental value was obtained, values for different clinical stages of cataracts were established. The time course of the development of radiation cataracts in mice subjected to X-ray irradiation in a wide spectrum of doses, was observed; clinical features of the process were revealed. Dose fractionation under the above conditions did not make aprotective effect on the lens. Dependence of a degree of lens injury on irradiation dose obtained owing to the use of the light transmission factor tau, was described with the following equation: N=Nsub(0)esup(-D/Dsup(0))

  5. Experimental study of extremely severe combined radiation-burn injury in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty adult healthy dogs were equally divided into three groups: 1) Radiation injury group (RIG): whole body irradiated with 4 Gy of gamma rays; 2) Burn group (BG): inflicted with flash burn (8% TBSA III deg, 12% TBSA II deg burn); 3) Combined radiation-burn injury group (CRIG): exposed to both radiation and burn. All animals in RIG and CRIG died; the mean survival times were 11 and 8 days, respectively. Three dogs of BG died with survival time of 10 days.The main clinical manifestation and course of dogs in CRIG were similar to those in RIG. Since it was a combined injury, an addition effect was observed. The characteristics of combined effect was as follows: 1) The relationship between the radiation doses and combined effects of mortality and infection showed an S curve; 2) The incidence of sepsis in burn wound was high and it was the main portal of bacterial invasion; and 3) Negative nitrogen balance, gastrointestinal pathological changes, digestive and absorptive disturbances, and anorexia were observed after injury. Besides, the mechanism of lower rate of lymphocyte transformation is discussed

  6. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Spinal Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Kamran A. [Mayo Medical School, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Stauder, Michael C.; Miller, Robert C.; Bauer, Heather J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Rose, Peter S. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Olivier, Kenneth R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Brinkmann, Debra H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Laack, Nadia N., E-mail: laack.nadia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Based on reports of safety and efficacy, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for treatment of malignant spinal tumors was initiated at our institution. We report prospective results of this population at Mayo Clinic. Materials and Methods: Between April 2008 and December 2010, 85 lesions in 66 patients were treated with SBRT for spinal metastases. Twenty-two lesions (25.8%) were treated for recurrence after prior radiotherapy (RT). The mean age of patients was 56.8 {+-} 13.4 years. Patients were treated to a median dose of 24 Gy (range, 10-40 Gy) in a median of three fractions (range, 1-5). Radiation was delivered with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and prescribed to cover 80% of the planning target volume (PTV) with organs at risk such as the spinal cord taking priority over PTV coverage. Results: Tumor sites included 48, 22, 12, and 3 in the thoracic, lumbar, cervical, and sacral spine, respectively. The mean actuarial survival at 12 months was 52.2%. A total of 7 patients had both local and marginal failure, 1 patient experienced marginal but not local failure, and 1 patient had local failure only. Actuarial local control at 1 year was 83.3% and 91.2% in patients with and without prior RT. The median dose delivered to patients who experienced local/marginal failure was 24 Gy (range, 18-30 Gy) in a median of three fractions (range, 1-5). No cases of Grade 4 toxicity were reported. In 1 of 2 patients experiencing Grade 3 toxicity, SBRT was given after previous radiation. Conclusion: The results indicate SBRT to be an effective measure to achieve local control in spinal metastases. Toxicity of treatment was rare, including those previously irradiated. Our results appear comparable to previous reports analyzing spine SBRT. Further research is needed to determine optimum dose and fractionation to further improve local control and prevent toxicity.

  7. Neuronal apoptosis and neurofilament protein expression in the lateral geniculate body of cats following acute optic nerve injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The visual pathway have 6 parts, involving optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, lateral geniculate body, optic radiation and cortical striatum area. Corresponding changes may be found in these 6 parts following optic nerve injury. At present, studies mainly focus on optic nerve and retina, but studies on lateral geniculate body are few.OBJECTIVE: To prepare models of acute optic nerve injury for observing the changes of neurons in lateral geniculate body, expression of neurofilament protein at different time after injury and cell apoptosis under the optical microscope, and for investigating the changes of neurons in lateral geniculate body following acute optic nerve injury.DESIGN: Completely randomized grouping design, controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital of Ji'nan Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: Twenty-eight adult healthy cats of either gender and common grade, weighing from 2.0 to 3.5 kg, were provided by the Animal Experimental Center of Fudan University. The involved cats were divided into 2 groups according to table of random digit: normal control group (n =3) and model group (n =25). Injury 6 hours, 1, 3, 7 and 14 days five time points were set in model group for later observation, 5 cats at each time point. TUNEL kit (Bohringer-Mannheim company)and NF200& Mr 68 000 mouse monoclonal antibody (NeoMarkers Company) were used in this experiment.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital of Ji'nan Military Area Command of Chinese PLA between June 2004 and June 2005. ① The cats of model group were developed into cat models of acute intracranial optic nerve injury as follows: The anesthetized cats were placed in lateral position. By imitating operation to human, pterion approach was used. An incision was made at the joint line between outer canthus and tragus, and deepened along cranial base until white optic nerve via optic nerve pore

  8. Body composition of active persons with spinal cord injury and with poliomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study sought to evaluate the body composition of subjects with active spinal cord injuries and polio. Two groups of males and females, active, free-living, of similar ages and body mass index (BMI), were distributed according to the source of deficiency: SCI – low spinal cord injury (T5-T12) an...

  9. Melatonin as Protection Against Radiation Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetner, D; Andersen, L P H; Rosenberg, J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Radiation is widely used in the treatment of various cancers and in radiological imaging procedures. Ionizing radiation causes adverse effects, leading to decreased quality of life in patients, by releasing free radicals that cause oxidative stress and tissue damage. The sleep......-hormone melatonin is a free radical scavenger, and induces several anti-oxidative enzymes. This review investigates the scientific literature on the protective effects of melatonin against exposure to ionizing radiation, and discusses the clinical potential of melatonin as prophylactic treatment against ionizing...... radiation damage. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed and included experimental or clinical studies written in English that investigated the protective effects of melatonin against gamma or X-ray irradiation in vivo. Studies were excluded if patients were treated with chemotherapy...

  10. Early radiographic changes in radiation bone injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chronologic series of periapical radiographs was evaluated for the purpose of detecting damage to bone and tooth-supporting tissues in a patient receiving radiation therapy for a basal cell carcinoma of the mandibular gingiva. Widening of the periodontal space was one of the early radiographic changes observed. It is suggested, from the sequence of radiographic changes, that radiation-induced changed in the circulatory system of the bone might be primarily responsible for the resulting changes

  11. A rat model of radiation injury in the mandibular area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation technology focuses on delivering the radiation as precisely as possible to the tumor, nonetheless both acute and long-term damage to surrounding normal tissue may develop. Injuries to the surrounding normal tissue after radiotherapy of head and neck cancer are difficult to manage. An animal model is needed to elucidate good treatment modalities. The aim of this study was to establish a rat model where a certain radiation dose gives reproducible tissue reactions in the mandibular area corresponding to injuries obtained in humans. The left mandible of male Sprague Dawley rats was irradiated by external radiotherapy (single fraction 15 Gy, total dose 75 Gy) every second week five times. Endpoint was six weeks after last radiation treatment, and the test group was compared to non-irradiated controls. Morphological alterations of the soft tissues, bone and tooth formation, as well as alterations of salivation, vascularity and collagen content were assessed. An unpaired, non-parametric Mann–Whitney test was used to compare the statistical differences between the groups. Analysis of the soft tissues and mandible within the radiation field revealed severe unilateral alopecia and dermatitis of the skin, extensive inflammation of the submandibular gland with loss of serous secretory cells, hyperkeratinization and dense connective fiber bundles of the gingival tissue, and disturbed tooth development with necrosis of the pulp. Production of saliva and the vascularity of the soft tissues were significantly reduced. Furthermore, the collagen fibril diameter was larger and the collagen network denser compared to non-irradiated control rats. We have established an animal model of radiation injury demonstrating physiological and histological changes corresponding to human radiation injuries, which can be used for future therapeutic evaluations

  12. Stem cell, cytokine and plastic surgical management for radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing concern on systemic and local radiation injuries caused by nuclear power plant accident, therapeutic irradiation or nuclear terrorism should be treated and prevented properly for life-saving and improved wound management. We therefore reviewed our therapeutic regimens and for local radiation injuries and propose surgical methods reflecting the importance of the systemic and general conditions. For local radiation injuries, after careful and complete debridement, sequential surgeries with local flap, arterialized or perforator flap and to free flap are used when the patients' general conditions allow. Occasionally, undetermined wound margins in acute emergency radiation injuries and the regenerative surgical modalities should be attempted with temporal artificial dermis impregnated and sprayed with angiogenic factor such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and secondary reconstruction can be a candidate for demarcation and saving the donor morbidity. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), together with angiogenic and mitogenic factor of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and an artificial dermis were applied over the excised irradiated skin defect are tested for differentiation and local stimulation effects in the radiation-exposed wounds. The perforator flap and artificial dermal template with growth factor were successful for reconstruction in patients who are suffering from complex underlying disease. Patients were uneventfully treated with minimal morbidities. The hMSCs are strongly proliferative even after 20 Gy irradiation in vitro. Immediate artificial dermis application impregnated with hMSCs and bFGF over the 20 Gy irradiated skin and soft tissues demonstrated the significantly improved fat angio genesis, architected dermal reconstitution and less inflammatory epidermal recovery. Even though emergent cases are more often experienced, detailed understanding of underlying diseases and rational

  13. Kidney and lung injury in irradiated rats protected from acute death by partial-body shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninety-six CD-1 male rats were exposed to gamma-ray doses (0-25 Gy) in increments of 5 Gy. One femur, the surgically exteriorized GI tract, and the oral cavity were shielded during irradiation to protect against acute mortality from injury to the hematopoietic system, small intestine, and oral cavity. In addition, the thoraxes of half of the animals from each dose group were shielded. At approximately monthly intervals from 2 to 10 months after irradiation the hematocrit, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), and 51Cr-EDTA clearance were measured. During the study 20 thorax-shielded and 19 thorax-irradiated animals died. All rats whose thoraxes received 25 Gy irradiation and three out of seven rats whose thoraxes received 20 Gy died 1 to 3 months postirradiation with massive pleural fluid accumulation. Shielding the thoraxes prevented this mode of death at these doses. Kidney injury was judged to be the primary cause of death of all thorax-shielded animals and 15- and 20-Gy thorax-irradiated animals. Animals with kidney damage had elevated PUN and reduced 51Cr-EDTA clearance and hematocrits. The relative merits of each of these end points in assessing radiation-induced kidney injury after total-body exposure are discussed

  14. Study of pathogenesis and the change of immune system of radiation brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation brain injury is a severe complication of the pate tumour after radiotherapy. Review the pathogenesis of radiation brain injury and ion irradiation and the change of immune system then conclude the change of immune system that radiation brain injury can cause. (authors)

  15. Hedgehog signaling and radiation induced liver injury: a delicate balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabarriti, Rafi; Guha, Chandan

    2014-07-01

    Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) is a major limitation of radiation therapy (RT) for the treatment of liver cancer. Emerging data indicate that hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays a central role in liver fibrosis and regeneration after liver injury. Here, we review the potential role of Hh signaling in RILD and propose the temporary use of Hh inhibition during liver RT to radiosensitize HCC tumor cells and inhibit their progression, while blocking the initiation of the radiation-induced fibrotic response in the surrounding normal liver. PMID:26202634

  16. Rabbit model of radiation-induced lung injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Zong Du; Hua Ren; Jian-Fei Song; Li-Fei Zhang; Feng Lin; Hai-Yong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the feasibility of establishing an animal model of chronic radiation-induced lung injury.Methods:Twenty-eightNewZealand white rabbits were randomly divided into3 groups(the right lung irradiation group, the whole lung irradiation group and the control group).Animal model of radiation-induced lung injury was established by high-does radiotherapy in the irradiation groups, then all rabbits underwentCT and pathological examinations at1,2,4,8,12,16 weeks, respectively after radiation.Results:Within4 weeks of irradiation, some rabbits in the right lung irradiation group and whole lung irradiation group died. CT and pathological examinations all showed acute radiation pneumonitis.At8-12 weeks after irradiation,CT scanning showed ground glass samples signs, patchy shadows and fibrotic stripes. Pathological examination showed the fibrosis pulmonary alveolar wall thickened obviously. Conclusions:The clinical animal model of chronic radiation-induced lung injury which corresponds to practical conditions in clinic can be successfully established.

  17. Study of collagen metabolism and regulation after β radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The animal model of β radiation injury was established by the β radiation produced by the linear accelerator; and irradiated NIH 3T3 cells were studied. In the experiment the contents of total collagen, collagen type I and type III were measured. The activity of MMPs-1 were tested. The contents of TGF-β1, IL-6 were also detected. The results showed that after exposure to β radiation, little change was found in the content of total collagen, but the content of collagen I decreased and the content of collagen III, MMPs-1 activity increased; the expression of TGF-β1, IL-6 increased. The results suggest that changes in the metabolism of collagen play an important role in the irradiated injury of the skin; TGF-β1, IL-6 may be essential in the regulation of the collagen metabolism

  18. Biological dosimetry in case of combined radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of biological dosimetry methods and prospects for their development are considered. Attention is paid to biological indicators of radiation injuries caused by nuclear weapons. It is noted, that determination of the number of lymphocytes in the blood in case of combined radiation injuries should be concerned with great care and in each case the analysis results should reffered to critically and supported by the data from other investigations. Promissing are the methods related to dermination of reticulocyte number in the peripheral blood within the irradiation dose range, causing bone marrow form of radiation syndrome, method of leukocyte adhesion and some other methods based on the change of biophysical caracteristics of cell membranes. To increase the information efficiency it is necessary to combine these methods with the methods, based on genetic change registration, and to develop a combined method

  19. Radiation injury to the temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guida, R.A.; Finn, D.G.; Buchalter, I.H.; Brookler, K.H.; Kimmelman, C.P. (New York Eye and Ear Infirmary/New York Medical College (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone is an unusual sequela of radiation therapy to the head and neck. Symptoms occur many years after the radiation is administered, and progression of the disease is insidious. Hearing loss (sensorineural, conductive, or mixed), otalgia, otorrhea, and even gross tissue extrusion herald this condition. Later, intracranial complications such as meningitis, temporal lobe or cerebellar abscess, and cranial neuropathies may occur. Reported here are five cases of this rare malady representing varying degrees of the disease process. They include a case of radiation-induced necrosis of the tympanic ring with persistent squamous debris in the external auditory canal and middle ear. Another case demonstrates the progression of radiation otitis media to mastoiditis with bony sequestration. Further progression of the disease process is seen in a third case that evolved into multiple cranial neuropathies from skull base destruction. Treatment includes systemic antibiotics, local wound care, and debridement in cases of localized tissue involvement. More extensive debridement with removal of sequestrations, abscess drainage, reconstruction with vascularized tissue from regional flaps, and mastoid obliteration may be warranted for severe cases. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has provided limited benefit.

  20. Changes of interleukin-3 expression after combined radiation-burn injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the changes of IL-3 expression after 5 Gy irradiation, 30% total body surface area burn and combined radiation-burn injury in mice. Methods: Northern dot blotting, production of mRNA, cell culture, assay of IL-3 biological activity, etc. Results: The IL-3 mRNA was markedly decreased by 77% and 21% on the 3rd day and the 14th day after irradiation, respectively. The IL-3 protein was decreased by 83% and 36% on 3rd and 14th day, respectively. There was a significant inhibition of IL-3 expression on the 3rd day after simple burn and slight increase of IL-3 expression on the 14th day. In groups with combined injury, IL-3 was more than that in the irradiated groups but less than that in the groups with burn injury. The changes of IL-3 expression were parallel with the changes of bone marrow cells. Conclusion: Inhibition of IL-3 expression is one of the reasons of hematopoietic failure caused by radiation and combined radiation-burn injury in mice

  1. Hypoxia expression in radiation-induced late rectal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor hypoxia and angiogenesis have been studied extensively. However, the relation between normal tissue injury and hypoxia is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on radiation-induced late rectal injury in mice. The rectum of C57BL/6N mice was irradiated locally with a single dose of 25 Gy and the following experiments were performed including hematoxylin-eosin (H.E.) staining, azan staining, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Radiation-induced fibrotic changes were observed from 14 days and reached the peak 30 days after irradiation. The expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endothelial cell marker CD31 increased significantly with the formation of fibrosis induced by irradiation compared with unirradiated control. In addition, the maximum expression of TGF-β1, HIF-1α and VEGF was found at 14, 30 and 90 days after irradiation, respectively. The temporal changes of cytokines were consistent with the dynamic change of fibrosis. Our data suggests that late normal tissue injury involved various cytokines including hypoxia-induced angiogenic cytokines. These results may have important implications in the understanding of radiation-induced late normal tissue injury. (author)

  2. Modification of radiation-induced latent injury of rat liver by thioctacid and flavobion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of hepatoprotective drugs (flavobion and thioctacid) and a single whole-body irradiation (5,7 Gy of gamma radiation) on the regeneration of rat liver was examined. Liver regeneration was estimated on the basis of chosen morphological parameters on hour 30 after partial hepatectomy. Rediation-induced latent injury to intact rat liver 30 min bedore partial hepatectomy manifested in remaining regenerating liver by slowing-down of the increase in liver weight, cellularity and inhibition of the mitotic activity and in more frequent chromosome aberrations. Both hepatoprotective agents, especially thioctacid, used i.p. 60 min before irradiation, i. e. 90 min before partial hepatectomy, alleviate the manifestations of latent injury in this low proliferating organ as indicated by an increase in cellularity and mitotic index as compared with unprotected animals. Furthermore, the preparations tested decreased the frequency of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations

  3. Robust human body model injury prediction in simulated side impact crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golman, Adam J; Danelson, Kerry A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a parametric methodology to robustly predict occupant injuries sustained in real-world crashes using a finite element (FE) human body model (HBM). One hundred and twenty near-side impact motor vehicle crashes were simulated over a range of parameters using a Toyota RAV4 (bullet vehicle), Ford Taurus (struck vehicle) FE models and a validated human body model (HBM) Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS). Three bullet vehicle crash parameters (speed, location and angle) and two occupant parameters (seat position and age) were varied using a Latin hypercube design of Experiments. Four injury metrics (head injury criterion, half deflection, thoracic trauma index and pelvic force) were used to calculate injury risk. Rib fracture prediction and lung strain metrics were also analysed. As hypothesized, bullet speed had the greatest effect on each injury measure. Injury risk was reduced when bullet location was further from the B-pillar or when the bullet angle was more oblique. Age had strong correlation to rib fractures frequency and lung strain severity. The injuries from a real-world crash were predicted using two different methods by (1) subsampling the injury predictors from the 12 best crush profile matching simulations and (2) using regression models. Both injury prediction methods successfully predicted the case occupant's low risk for pelvic injury, high risk for thoracic injury, rib fractures and high lung strains with tight confidence intervals. This parametric methodology was successfully used to explore crash parameter interactions and to robustly predict real-world injuries. PMID:26158552

  4. Late radiation injury to muscle and peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Late radiation injury to muscles and peripheral nerves is infrequently observed. However, the success of radiation oncology has led to longer patient survival, providing a greater opportunity for late effects to develop, increase in severity and, possibly, impact the quality of life of the patient. In addition, when radiation therapy is combined with surgery and/or chemotherapy, the risk of late complications is likely to increase. It is clear that the incidence of complications involving muscles and nerves increases with time following radiation. The influence of volume has yet to be determined; however, an increased volume is likely to increase the risk of injury to muscles and nerves. Experimental and clinical studies have indicated that the (α(β)) ratio for muscle is approximately 4 Gy and, possibly, 2 Gy for peripheral nerve, indicating the great influence of fractionation on response of these tissues. This is of concern for intraoperative radiation therapy, and for high dose rate brachytherapy. This review of clinical and experimental data discusses the response of muscle and nerves late after radiation therapy. A grading system has been proposed and endpoints suggested

  5. Fatal radiation pneumonia following subclinical busulfan injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soble, A.R.; Perry, H.

    1977-01-01

    A patient with polycythemia vera received a moderate dose (480 mg) of busulfan intermittently over a 6 year period and later developed Hodgkin's disease. Following split-course upper mantle, chest irradiation, he developed rapidly progressive, fatal pneumonia and bone marrow hypoplasia. It is postulated that the hyperacute organ failures (lung and bone marrow) resulted from augmentation of subclinical busulfan-induced damage of these organs by additive radiation effect. It is recommended that in patients who have had antineoplastic chemotherapy, major radiotherapy to the cervicothoracic region be accompanied by careful monitoring of respiratory and hematopoietic function, both before and during radiotherapy.

  6. Fermi golden rule for $N$-body systems in a black-body radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ostilli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    We review the calculation of the Fermi golden rule for a system of $N$-body dipoles, magnetic or electric, weakly interacting with a black-body radiation. By using the magnetic or electric field-field correlation function evaluated in the 1960s for the black body radiation, we deduce a general formula for the transition rates and study its limiting, fully coherent or fully incoherent, regimes.

  7. Skin Injuries Reduce Survival and Modulate Corticosterone, C-Reactive Protein, Complement Component 3, IgM, and Prostaglandin E 2 after Whole-Body Reactor-Produced Mixed Field (n + γ-Photons) Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Kiang, Juliann G; Ledney, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Skin injuries such as wounds or burns following whole-body γ-irradiation (radiation combined injury (RCI)) increase mortality more than whole-body γ-irradiation alone. Wound-induced decreases in survival after irradiation are triggered by sustained activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways, persistent alteration of cytokine homeostasis, and increased susceptibility to systemic bacterial infection. Among these factors, radiation-induced increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrat...

  8. Salivary biochemical markers as potential acute toxicity parameters for acute radiation injury: A study on small experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, S; Agrawal, P; Kumar, N; Mittal, G; Nishad, D K; Chaudhury, N K; Bhatnagar, A; Basu, M; Chhillar, N

    2016-03-01

    Researchers have been evaluating several biodosimetric/screening approaches to assess acute radiation injury, related to mass causality. Keeping in mind this background, we hypothesized that effect of whole-body irradiation in single fraction in graded doses can affect the secretion of various salivary components that could be used as acute radiation injury/toxicity marker, which can be used in screening of large population at the time of nuclear accidents/disaster. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats treated with whole-body cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of dose 1-5 Gy (dose rate: 0.95 Gy/min) were included in this study. Whole mixed saliva was collected from all animals before and after radiation up to 72 h postradiation. Saliva was analyzed for electrolytes, total protein, urea, and amylase. Intragroup comparison of salivary parameters at different radiation doses showed significant differences. Potassium was significantly increased as the dose increased from 1 Gy to 5 Gy (p 0.5). Sodium was significantly altered after 3-5 Gy (p 0.5), except 1 and 2 Gy, whereas changes in sodium level were nonsignificant (p > 0.5). Urea, total protein, and amylase levels were also significantly increased as the radiation dose increased (p 0.5). This study suggests that salivary parameters were sensitive toward radiation even at low radiation dose which can be used as a predictor of radiation injury. PMID:25813962

  9. Dose Definition and Physical Dose Evaluation for the Human Body in External Radiation Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the bone marrow type of radiation sickness, it is possible to describe the injury to whole-body haematopoietic tissue using stem cell dose. In the case of highly non-uniform exposure, an extra-high local dose to certain parts of the body or absorbed dose to critical organs should be additionally described. To obtain objective dosimetric data from objects carried by the irradiated victims, the watch is an easily available accident dosemeter. Watch rubies can be used as thermoluminescence dosemeters, and the watch glass can be used in electron spin resonance dose measurement. (author)

  10. Elevated metallothionein level in mice liver after cadmium chloride administration does not protect against combined radiation and thermal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of metallothionein (MT) preinduction by cadmium chloride on the resistance to combined injury such as whole body γ-irradiation at the dose of 7 Gy + thermal burn are investigated in (CBAxC57BL/6)F1 mice. Normal level of MT markedly increases in mice liver but not in bone marrow cells if cadmium chloride is given subcutaneously - 1 mg/kg - prior to combined injury. However, preinduction of M did not reduce the lethal effects and bone marrow devastation caused by combined radiation injury. No differences in the leukopenia degree are observed between control and MT-induced mice. So, cadmium-induced MT elevation in mice liver does not protect against the toxic and lethal effects caused by combined radiation injury

  11. Management of Radiation Injuries by Panax ginseng Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Preeti; Jahan, Swafiya; Kim, Tae Hawn; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Chemical radiation protection is an important strategy to protect living beings against the deleterious effects of radiation. In the present study, the radioprotective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Panax ginseng extract (PGR-HAE) was studied on radiation-induced deleterious alterations in Swiss albino mice. Oral administration of such extract (25 mg/kg b wt/day/animal) for 5 consecutive days, half an h. before whole-body exposure to 6 Gy gamma radiation, enhanced the 30 days survival a...

  12. Experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meirelles, Rafael Panisi de Campos [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Hochman, Bernardo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Helene Junior, Americo; Fraga, Murillo Francisco Pires [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas da Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (FCMSCSP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia. Divisao de Cirurgia Plastica; Lellis, Rute [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas da Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (FCMSCSP), SP (Brazil). Divisao de Patologia; Ferreira, Lydia Masako, E-mail: rpcmeirelles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: lydia.dcir@epm.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Mediciana. Divisao de Cirugia Plastica

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: to describe an experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits. Methods: on this study eight six-month-old New Zealand male rabbits, with an average weight of 2.5kg were used. They were distributed in four groups (n=2 per group). The control group did not receive radiotherapy and the others received one radiotherapy session of 2000, 3000 and 4500 cGy, respectively. Photographic analysis and histopathological evaluation of the irradiated areas were carried out. Results: after 30 days, the animals from the control group had all their hair grown. In spite of that, the animals from group 2000 cGy had a 60-day alopecia and from group 3000 cGy, a 90-day alopecia. After the 30th day, the 3000cGy group demonstrated 90-day cutaneous radiation injuries, graded 3 and 4. One of the animals from group 4500 cGy died on the 7th day with visceral necrosis. The other from the same group had total skin necrosis. A progressive reduction of glands and blood vessels count and an increase on collagen deposition was observed. Conclusion: The proposed experimental model is reproducible. This study suggests that the dosage 4500cGy is excessive and the 3000 cGy is the most effective for this experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits. (author)

  13. Bone marrow transplantation and other treatment after radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review deals mainly with current concepts about bone marrow transplantation as therapy for serious radiation injury. Such injury can be classified according to the following broadly defined dose ranges: (1) the supralethal range, leading mainly to the cerebral and intestinal syndromes; (2) the potentially lethal or therapeutic range which causes the bone marrow syndrome, and (3) the sublethal range which rarely leads to injury requiring therapy. The bone marrow syndrome of man and animals is discussed in detail. The optimal therapy for this syndrome is bone marrow transplantation in conjunction with conventional supportive treatment. The principal complications of such therapy are Graft versus Host Disease and a slow recovery of the recipient's immune system. Concerted research activities in a number of institutions have led to considerable progress in the field of bone marrow transplantation. Improved donor selection, new techniques for stem-cell separation and preservation, as well as effective barrier-nursing and antibiotic decontamination, have made bone marrow transplantation an accepted therapy for marrow depression, including the aplasia caused by excessive exposure to radiation. The review also contains a number of guidelines for the handling of serious radiation accidents. (Auth.)

  14. Experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to describe an experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits. Methods: on this study eight six-month-old New Zealand male rabbits, with an average weight of 2.5kg were used. They were distributed in four groups (n=2 per group). The control group did not receive radiotherapy and the others received one radiotherapy session of 2000, 3000 and 4500 cGy, respectively. Photographic analysis and histopathological evaluation of the irradiated areas were carried out. Results: after 30 days, the animals from the control group had all their hair grown. In spite of that, the animals from group 2000 cGy had a 60-day alopecia and from group 3000 cGy, a 90-day alopecia. After the 30th day, the 3000cGy group demonstrated 90-day cutaneous radiation injuries, graded 3 and 4. One of the animals from group 4500 cGy died on the 7th day with visceral necrosis. The other from the same group had total skin necrosis. A progressive reduction of glands and blood vessels count and an increase on collagen deposition was observed. Conclusion: The proposed experimental model is reproducible. This study suggests that the dosage 4500cGy is excessive and the 3000 cGy is the most effective for this experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits. (author)

  15. Radiation-induced lung injury outside the irradiated area after radiation therapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organizing pneumonia (OP) and eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) are known as lung injuries after radiation therapy for breast cancer. In this study, we reported nine cases of OP and a case of EP after radiation therapy. All 10 women (62±10 years of age) were nonsmokers. Nine patients received endocrine therapy after radiation therapy. The mean intervals from completion of radiation therapy to occurrence of any symptoms were 119 days. All the patients have symptoms, but none are severe. Seven patients were treated with corticosteroids, and three were without treatment. All patients improved, but a relapse occurred in three (two treated with corticosteroid, one without treatment). Because of our findings and the previous studies, tobacco smoke may have played a suppressive role in the occurrence of lung injury in nonirradiated areas after radiation therapy in breast cancer patients, and endocrine therapy may have played a promotive role. (author)

  16. Radiological and Nuclear Emergencies: Medical Management of Radiation Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ravi Shankar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear radiation which could be in the form of alpha, beta, gamma rays, etc, could cause radioactive contamination, radiation burns, acute radiation syndrome or a combination of any of these above-mentioned disasters. Effects of radiation and the subsequent treatment depend on the severity of exposure and the organs directly involved. Radiation levels up to 200 rads lead to nausea and vomiting whilst radiation levels between 200 rads and 400 rads lead to diarrhea, vomiting and pneumonitis. Whilst 450 rads is lethal in 50 per cent population, doses above this cause increased fatality and organ involvement with the Central Nervous System being affected with 2000 rads radiation. Nuclear disaster management lies most importantly in identifying that patient who would recover if treated immediately. Whereas decontamination of skin and wounds is done first, immediate first aid may take priority in a seriously injured patient. In the event of internal contamination, effective decorporation maybe required. This is followed by prevention and treatment of infections in sterile conditions. Radiation burn injuries will require effective long-term management. Finally, what would be most important is the necessity to have suitable hospital care where bone marrow, stem cell transfusion and restitution of the immune system would take place.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(2, pp.113-117, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.830

  17. Parenteral nutrition in experimental acute radiation injury of the abdominal cavity organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peculiarities of metabolism in rats after partial body irradiation of the abdomen in a high dose and the effect of parenteral nutrition (PN) with various compositions of diagrams on metabolic indexes with the aim of explaining diagram under conditions of intensive radiation injury of gastrointestinal tract, are investigated. Experiments have been carried out on male rats of the Vistar line, subjected to partial-body X-ray irradiation of the abdomen with the dose of 1400 R. It is shown that under conditions of radiation effect with predominnt unjury of the abdomen, considerable suppression of oxidation processes limits metabolism of nutritious substances. A decrease of glucose and amino acid content in PN produces a pronounced therapeutic effect under these conditions. The increase of lipid component in the PN composition and retabolile introduction increases PN therapeutic effect

  18. Effects of Berberine Against Radiation-Induced Intestinal Injury in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation-induced intestinal injury is a significant clinical problem in patients undergoing abdominal radiotherapy (RT). Berberine has been used as an antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antimotility agent. The present study investigated the protective effect of berberine against radiation-induced intestinal injury. Methods and Materials: The mice were administrated berberine or distilled water. A total of 144 mice underwent 0, 3, 6, 12, or 16 Gy single session whole-abdominal RT and 16 mice underwent 3 Gy/fraction/d for four fractions of fractionated abdominal RT. Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10, diamine oxidase, intestinal fatty acid-binding protein, malonaldehyde, and apoptosis were assayed in the mice after RT. The body weight and food intake of the mice receiving fractionated RT were recorded. Another 72 mice who had undergone 12, 16, or 20 Gy abdominal RT were monitored for mortality every 12 h. Results: The body weight and food intake of the mice administered with distilled water decreased significantly compared with before RT. After the same dose of abdominal RT, tumor necrosis factor-α, diamine oxidase, intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in plasma and malonalhehyde and apoptosis of the intestine were significantly greater in the control group than in the mice administered berberine (p < .05-.01). In contrast, interleukin-10 in the mice with berberine treatment was significantly greater than in the control group (p < .01). A similar result was found in the fractionated RT experiment and at different points after 16 Gy abdominal RT (p < .05-.01). Berberine treatment significantly delayed the point of death after 20 Gy, but not 16 Gy, abdominal RT (p < .01). Conclusion: Treatment with berberine can delay mortality and attenuated intestinal injury in mice undergoing whole abdominal RT. These findings could provide a useful therapeutic strategy for radiation-induced intestinal injury.

  19. The progress in research on the mechanism, prevention and treatment of radiation-induced lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During radiotherapy of chest tumor,many patients often develop radiation-induced lung injury (including radiation induced interstitial pneumonia or pulmonary fibrosis), which significantly affects their quality of life. Therefore, it is very important to study the mechanism, prevention, and treatment of radiation-induced lung injury. Herein a review of recent research advances in radiation-induced lung injury is made, in order to provide theoretical basis for further research. (authors)

  20. Radiation injury of canine bile duct induced by 103Pd metal stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess radiation injury of dog bile duct induced by 103Pd metal stent. Methods: Hybrid dogs with body weight form 15 to 20 kg were used. 103Pd metal stent was implanted into the common bile duct under anaesthesia, and the irradiation doses by 103Pd were 12.5 x 104 kBq, 16.6 x 104 kBq, 22.2 x 104 kBq, 25.9 x 104 kBq, 29.6 x 104 kBq and 3.7 x 105 kBq, respectively. Results: Radiation injury on the mucosa of the bile duct was observed in 12.5 x 104 kBq group, and the damage extended to the muscular layer in 22.2 x 104 kBq group. Perforation of the bile duct was observed in 3.7 x 105 kBq group. The dose-response curve of radiation injury at different doses of intra-biliary metal stent 103Pd showed the effective dose (ED50) to be 28.2 x 104 kBq. Conclusion: There is an obvious dose response relationship for in the 103Pd metal stent. The result is unimportant theoretical basis for application of 103Pd metal stent to clinical treatment of biliary cancer

  1. Radiation between segments of the seated human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft

    2002-01-01

    Detailed radiation properties for a thermal manikin were predicted numerically. The view factors between individual body-segments and between the body-segments and the outer surfaces were tabulated. On an integral basis, the findings compared well to other studies and the results showed that situ...

  2. Clinical and dosimetric factors of radiation-induced esophageal injury: Radiation-induced esophageal toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Bo Qiao; Yan-Hui Zhao; Yan-Bin Zhao; Rui-Zhi Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the clinical and dosimetric predictive factors for radiation-induced esophageal injury in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) during threedimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 208 consecutive patients (146 men and 62 women) with NSCLC treated with 3D-CRT. The median age of the patients was 64 years (range 35-87 years). The clinical and treatment parameters including gender, age, performance status, sequential chemotherapy, concurrent chemotherapy, presence of carinal or subcarinal lymph nodes, pretreatment weight loss, mean dose to the entire esophagus, maximal point dose to the esophagus, and percentage of volume of esophagus receiving >55 Gy were studied. Clinical and dosimetric factors for radiation-induced acute and late grade 3-5 esophageal injury were analyzed according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria.RESULTS: Twenty-five (12%) of the two hundred and eight patients developed acute or late grade 3-5 esophageal injury. Among them, nine patients had both acute and late grade 3-5 esophageal injury, two died of late esophageal perforation. Concurrent chemotherapy and maximal point dose to the esophagus ≥60 Gy were significantly associated with the risk of grade 3-5 esophageal injury. Fifty-four (26%) of the two hundred and eight patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Among them, 25 (46%) developed grade 3-5 esophageal injury (P = 0.0001<0.01). However, nograde 3-5 esophageal injury occurred in patients who received a maximal point dose to the esophagus <60 Gy (P= 0.0001<0.01).CONCLUSION: Concurrent chemotherapy and the maximal esophageal point dose ≥60 Gy are significantly associated with the risk of grade 3-5 esophageal injury in patients with NSCLC treated with 3D-CRT.

  3. Assessment of recovery of the intestine after acute radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, A.R.; Cheeseman, C.I.; Thomson, A.B.

    1987-02-01

    Several aspects of intestinal function and morphology are affected by acute radiation damage, including changes in the activity of proliferative cells in the crypts, immune cell populations, and the transport of various substrates. This study was designed to compare the time course of the recovery of intestinal proliferation, transport, and leukocyte population following radiation injury. Rats received a single dose of 6 Gy to the abdomen from a /sup 137/Cs source and were studied 3, 7, and 14 days later. No changes in the passive uptake of L-glucose or D-leucine were observed in the jejunum. Active transport of D-glucose and maximal water uptake were reduced at 3 days but had returned to normal by 7 days, whereas L-leucine uptake required more than 7 days to return to control levels. Mucosal permeability, assessed by an in vivo potential difference technique, remained increased 7 days after irradiation. Ornithine decarboxylase, an indicator of DNA synthetic activity, was elevated following radiation treatment and remained so even after 14 days. By comparison, myeloperoxidase activity, used as a quantitative monitor of granulocyte numbers, was still reduced after 7 days. These data indicate that while certain parameters of gut function may return to normal soon after radiation injury, the recovery of other factors is more prolonged. Thus the return of transport function to normal values post irradiation may be viewed as an adaptive change rather than simply the recovery of the tissue.

  4. Prophylactic measures of radiation injuries by natural herbs and neutraceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of radiation biology has gained greater relevance and significance in health and environmental issues. In the present time, nuclear terrorism and weapon related effects are raising much alarm and concern to public health. Obviously, radiation biology research has great potential in diagnosis, therapy and establishing standards for assessment risk from radiation exposure. The development of effective medical countermeasures against nuclear biological and chemical weapons is of immense importance to the defense of all nations and especially to those threatened by international terrorism. Chemical radiation protection is an important strategy to protect living being against deleterious effects of radiation. Earlier the synthetic chemical substances, which could minimize the pathological changes in the living system after exposure to ionizing radiation, were looked into. Medicinal plants are the local heritage with global importance. World is enclosed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. Herbs have always been the principle form of medicine in India and presently they become popular. Over the last few years, interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phyto products for the use in anti-radiation strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for preventing the radiation induced lesions in many countries. Several Indian medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Alstonia scholaris, Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus niruri, Syzygium cumini, Aegle marmelos, Panax ginseng, Linum usitatissimum, Delonix regia etc) and antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have been tested in this laboratory by taking various biological end points for the possible use of natural products and phytochemicals to serve as radio protectors for medical countermeasures against radiation injuries, and the results obtained from such studies are highly encouraging and fruitful. It opens new avenues for the

  5. Radiation injury of the rectum: Evaluation of surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred four patients, 80 women and 24 men, with radiation injury of the rectum following treatment for gynecologic and urologic malignancy were studied. In 50 patients, the rectal injury was treated surgically; 54 patients were treated conservatively. The age and sex distributions were the same in each group. In 63 patients, symptoms developed one month to one year after radiotherapy. The longest latent interval was 17 years. Of the 50 surgical patients, 23 had associated small bowel injury. The indications for surgery for the rectal injury were 1) proctitis unresponsive to conservative measures in 14 patients, 2) rectal stricture or fistula or both in 32, and 3) rectosigmoid perforation in four. Forty-one patients had external diversions. Eleven had intestinal continuity restored; six of the 11 had required the stoma for proctitis unresponsive to medical measures. Nineteen patients did not undergo colostomy closure, although symptoms were greatly improved. Diversion alone was insufficient treatment in the remaining 11 patients. Twenty-six patients died. The 12 deaths in the surgical group comprised four due to residual malignancy, four from post-operative complications, and four from unrelated causes. Of the 14 deaths in the nonsurgical group, 11 died of the primary malignancy and three of unrelated causes. Diversion is considered the safest form of treatment for rectovaginal fistulae, rectal strictures, and proctitis unresponsive to medical measures. Intestinal resection resulted in a sharp rise in the morbidity and mortality rates

  6. Radiation injury of the rectum: evaluation of surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred four patients, 80 women and 24 men, with radiation injury of the rectum following treatment for gynecologic and urologic malignancy were studied. In 50 patients, the rectal injury was treated surgically; 54 patients were treated conservatively. The age and sex distributions were the same in each group. In 63 patients, symptoms developed one month to one year after radiotherapy. The longest latent interval was 17 years. Of the 50 surgical patients, 23 had associated small bowel injury. The indications for surgery for the rectal injury were 1) proctitis unresponsive to conservative measures in 14 patients, 2) rectal stricture or fistula or both in 32, and 3) rectosigmoid perforation in four. Forty-one patients had external diversions. Eleven had intestinal continuity restored; six of the 11 had required the stoma for proctitis unresponsive to medical measures. Nineteen patients did not undergo colostomy closure, although symptoms wer greatly improved. Diversion alone was insufficient treatment in the remaining 11 patients. Twenty-six patients died. The 12 deaths in the surgical group comprised four due to residual malignancy, four from postoperative complications, and four from unrelated causes. Of the 14 deaths in the nonsurgical group, 11 died of the primary malignancy and three of unrelated causes. Diversion is considered the safest form of treatment for rectovaginal fistulae, rectal strictures, and proctitis unresponsive to medical measures. Intestinal resection resulted in sharp rise in the morbidity and mortality rates

  7. Management of radiation injuries of vulva and vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Acute and late injuries of vulva and vagina are frequent and potentially serious complications in radiotherapy of gynecologic tumors. They still are reported poorly in literature. Methods: Based on a literature search a survey will be given of the modalities, which are used or recommended for prophylaxis or treatment of these radiation injuries. The principles of the different measures will be discussed with available study results. Results: Hygiene measures and the topical application of antimicrobial or granulation stimulating substances, which is mostly based on long standing clinical experience, are the principles of the treatment of acute reactions of vulva and vagina. The topical use of estrogen, which promotes proliferation of epithelium, is generally described in connection with treatment and prophylaxis of late radiation injuries. As a prophylaxis for the late reaction of vaginal stenosis, vaginal dilatation is recommended in literature. Conclusion: With the exception of a few reports on estrogen, there are no data about the effectiveness of the currently used medical substances. The local application of estrogen as prophylaxis of the acute reactions will therefore be examined in a prospective study. (orig.)

  8. The Role of Proinflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-18 in Radiation Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mang

    2016-08-01

    Massive radiation-induced inflammatory factors released from injured cells may cause innate and acquired immune reactions that can further result in stress response signal activity-induced local and systemic damage. IL-1 family members IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-33 play key roles in inflammatory and immune responses and have been recognized to have significant influences on the pathogenesis of diseases. IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-33 share similarities of cytokine biology, but differences exist in signaling pathways. A key component of the inflammatory reaction is the inflammasome, which is a caspase-1-containing multiprotein oligomer. Pathological stimuli such as radiation can induce inflammasome and caspase-1 activation, and subsequently cause maturation (activation) of pro-forms of IL-1 and IL-18 upon caspase-1 cleavage. This caspase-1 dependent and IL-1 and IL-18 associated cell damage is defined as pyroptosis. Activated IL-1 and IL-18 as proinflammatory cytokines drive pathology at different immune and inflammatory disorders through Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. While the mechanisms of IL-1β-induced pathophysiology of diseases have been well studied, IL-18 has received less attention. The author recently reported that gamma radiation highly increased IL-1β, IL-18 and IL-33 expression in mouse thymus, spleen and/or bone marrow cells; also circulating IL-18 can be used as a radiation biomarker to track radiation injury in mice, minipigs, and nonhuman primates. This mini-review focuses on the role of IL-18 in response to gamma radiation-induced injury. PMID:27356067

  9. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for centrally located lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyner, Melissa [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Salter, Bill J. [The Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Papanikolaou, Niko [Cancer Therapy and Research Center, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Fuss, Martin [Oregon Health and Science Univ., Portland (United States). Dept. of Radiation Medicine

    2006-09-15

    Presentation of outcomes of patients treated by stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung lesions located within or touching a 2 cm zone around major airways. Serial tomotherapeutic SBRT has been planned and delivered at our institution since August 2001. Of 108 patients treated for primary and secondary lung tumors, nine harbored tumors (8 metastases, 1 recurrent NSCLC) located in close proximity to carina, right and left main bronchi, right and left upper lobe bronchi, intermedius, right middle lobe, lingular, or right and left lower lobe bronchi. SBRT was delivered to total doses of 36 Gy in 3 fractions (n=8) or 6 fractions (n=1), using a serial tomotherapy system (Nomos Peacock). We assessed local tumor control, clinical toxicity, normal tissue imaging changes, and overall survival. Median tumor volume was 26 cm{sup 3} (range 1.7 to 135 cm{sup 3}). Tumor locations were hilar (n=3), and parenchymal in six cases. Hilar lesions accounted for the three largest tumor volumes in the series. During a median follow-up of 10.6 months (range 2.5 to 41.5 months), all lesions treated were locally controlled as confirmed by CT or CT/PET imaging. Parenchymal imaging changes included focal lung fibrosis and major airway wall thickening. One occurrence of major airway occlusion (right lower lobe bronchus) was observed. This event was diagnosed by chest x-ray at 36 months, following treatment of the second largest hilar lesion in the present series. Based on the outcomes observed in this small sample series, SBRT for centrally located lung lesions appears feasible, was associated with low incidence of toxicities, and provided sustained local tumor control. However, long-term survival may be associated with major airway injury. As long-term follow-up in larger numbers of patients is lacking at this time, exclusion of patients with centrally located lesions may be considered when patients are treated in curative intent.

  10. Some hazardous effects of radiations on human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation hazards and its dangers has been increasing by leaps and bounds. Certain elements and particles are capable of degrading by themselves and releasing energy in the form of radiations. Such types of radiations can not be seen by naked eyes, but are capable of penetrating our body and can produce serious ill effects. Acute radiation syndrome can be divided into three main categories: (1) Hematopoietic:- In this type of syndrome there is fall in blood cells, causes infections, bleeding and anemia (2) Gastrointestinal:- It occurs at the exposures of 600-1000 rad. Nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting and abdominal pain are main symptoms. (3) Neurovascular:- When exposure greater than 1000 rad occurs it effects nervous system which results in dizziness, headache or decreased level of consciousness. The various organs or parts of body are affected by exposure to radiations such as the losing of hair and clumping of hairs with radiation exposure above 200 rems or higher, same way the thyroid gland is susceptible to radioactive iodine, in sufficient amount iodine can destroy some parts or fully the thyroid. When a person is exposed to radiations around 100 rems the blood lymphocyte cell count will be reduced, leaving the victim more susceptible to infection. If the exposure is between 1000-5000 rems blood vessels got damage resulting into heart failure, in short, we can say that in order to prevent body from radiation the only way to keep away from them. (author)

  11. Nonlocal Effects in Black Body Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bremm, G N

    2016-01-01

    Nonlocal electrodynamics is a formalism developed to include nonlocal effects in the measurement process caused by the non-inertial state of the observers. This theory modifies Maxwell's electrodynamics by eliminating the hypothesis of locality that assumes an accelerated observer simultaneously equivalent to a comoving inertial frame of reference. In this scenario, the transformation between an inertial and accelerated observer is generalized which affects the properties of physical fields. In particular, we analyze how an uniformly accelerated observer perceives a homogeneous and isotropic blackbody radiation. We show that all nonlocal effects are transient and most relevant in the first period of acceleration.

  12. Management of radiation injuries by natural herbs and neutraceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the era of expanding nuclear energy program all over world, the role of radiation biology has acquired greater relevance and significance in addressing the health and environment issues. In view of constant human exposure to background radiation both naturally and man made e.g nuclear power plants and weapons testing, consumer products, medical X-ray, uranium mining and milling etc., the radiobiological research has been devoted to induction of cancer and evaluation of genetic effects. In the present time, nuclear terrorism and weapon related effects are raising much alarm and concern to public health. Obviously, radiation biology research has great potential in diagnosis, therapy and establishing standards for assessment risk from radiation exposure. The development of effective medical countermeasures to protect, mitigate, and treat normal tissue injury needs urgent investigation for basic molecular mechanisms and developing appropriate ready to-use kits using relevant cellular, animal model and clinical trails for practical purposes. Since the use of synthetic compounds is associated with the inherent toxicity, attention in recent years has been directed towards developing radiation countermeasure agents from the natural sources and/or nature-identical molecules. The rich biodiversity available in the Indian subcontinent has yielded several new drugs that find application in the modern medicine and there is a like hood of discovering many more, Over the last few years, interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phyto products for the use in anti-radiation strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for preventing the radiation induced lesions in many countries. Several Indian medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Alstonia scholaris, Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus niruri, Svzvgiumcumini, Aegle marmelos etc) and antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have been tested in this

  13. Biochemical Indicators of Radiation Injury in Man. Proceedings of a Scientific Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an organism has suffered a radiation insult, knowledge of the dose and localization of the exposure is of the greatest importance for the treatment of any radiation damage. Supplementary to the information obtained from physical dosimetry, data obtained by biochemical indicators can, on the basis of metabolic changes in the irradiated organism, help in making early diagnosis, in assessing the extent of the radiation injury, and making a prognosis. Biochemical tests under optimal conditions would not depend on the quality and distribution of the dose in the body and would also reflect the sensitivity of the individual organisms. The International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization convened a joint scientific meeting on Biochemical Indicators of Radiation Injury in Man in Paris-Le Vésinet, France, from 22 to 26 June 1970. The main purpose of the meeting was to discuss recent problems in determining which biochemical and metabolic changes occurring in irradiated organisms could be used as indicators of radiation injury and its extent, and could thus be of help in planning the proper treatment of the injured persons. During the meeting the results obtained with various biochemical indicators, and experimental techniques and laboratory methods used in this field, were evaluated and compared. Both research workers and clinicians were invited to participate at the meeting. They discussed the possible value of several tests, used successfully in experimental animals, for clinical application; ways of standardizing suitable tests; and mutual collaboration between laboratories and clinics. The outcome of their discussions is summarized in the conclusions and recommendations which are included in these Proceedings together with the papers presented

  14. Body Image as a Mediator of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Brausch, Amy M.

    2012-01-01

    Attitudes towards the body have been largely overlooked as a potential risk factor for adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) despite theorizing that a negative body image may play a critical role in the development of this behavior. The current study used structural equation modeling to evaluate the fit of a theoretical model specifying body…

  15. Experience of prevention of radiation injuries of rectum and urinary bladder in cervical carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of preventing radiation injuries of rectum and urinary bladder in cervical carcinoma patients after concomitant radiotherapy are developed; they are based on the bond application of dimenthylsulphoxide (DMSO) and metronidazole (MZ) solved in DMSO. It is show that the application of DMSO in radiotherapy significantly decreases the rate and severity of radiation injuries of rectum and urinary bladder. MZ application entrances radiation injurious effect on the tumor

  16. Epidermal Growth Factor Regulates Hematopoietic Regeneration Following Radiation Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Doan, Phuong L.; Himburg, Heather A.; Helms, Katherine; Russell, J. Lauren; Fixsen, Emma; Quarmyne, Mamle; Harris, Jeffrey R; Deoliviera, Divino; Sullivan, Julie M.; Chao, Nelson J.; Kirsch, David G.; Chute, John P

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms which regulate HSC regeneration following myelosuppressive injury are not well understood. We identified epidermal growth factor (EGF) to be highly enriched in the bone marrow (BM) serum of mice bearing deletion of Bak and Bax in Tie2+ cells (Tie2Cre;Bak1−/−;Baxfl/− mice), which displayed radioprotection of the HSC pool and 100% survival following lethal dose total body irradiation (TBI). BM HSCs from wild type mice expressed functional EGFR and systemic administration of EGF p...

  17. Effect of misonidazole on radiation injury to mouse spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of hind limb paralysis in unanaesthetized mice following spinal cord X irradiation and/or misonidazole (MISO) was studied at 7 and 18 months after treatment. The sensitizer enhancement ratios calculated from the ED50 at 7 and 18 months showed a small enhancement of radiation paralysis when MISO was given before X-irradiation but it was not statistically significant. Enhancement of spinalcord injury at lower MISO doses has been observed in previous studies but this may have been due to anaesthesia-induced hypoxia. (U.K.)

  18. The us of low-energy laser for prevention and treatment of local radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibilities for usage of laser biostimulation therapy in medicine were considered. Laser radiation stimulates activity of enzymatic systems. Nucleic acid synthesis increases under the action of laser radiation (LR). Stimulation of LR was observed at tissue level. Low-energy laser therapy was used to cut short early skin radiation injuries during photon radiotherapy of tumors. Efficiency of laser radiation methods for treatment of early and delayed radiation injuries was shown. Lasers of unimpaired intensity are used for prophylaxis of radiation injuries during radiotherapy of malignant tumors

  19. Clarithromycin Attenuates Radiation-Induced Lung Injury in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Jun Lee

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI is a common and unavoidable complication of thoracic radiotherapy. The current study was conducted to evaluate the ability of clarithromycin (CLA to prevent radiation-induced pneumonitis, oxidative stress, and lung fibrosis in an animal model. C57BL/6J mice were assigned to control, irradiation only, irradiation plus CLA, and CLA only groups. Test mice received single thoracic exposures to radiation and/or oral CLA (100 mg/kg/day. Histopathologic findings and markers of inflammation, fibrosis, and oxidative stress were compared by group. On a microscopic level, CLA inhibited macrophage influx, alveolar fibrosis, parenchymal collapse, consolidation, and epithelial cell changes. The concentration of collagen in lung tissue was lower in irradiation plus CLA mice. Radiation-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, TNF receptor 1, acetylated nuclear factor kappa B, cyclooxygenase 2, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and matrix metallopeptidase 9 were also attenuated by CLA. Expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase 1, transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor, and type I collagen in radiation-treated lungs were also attenuated by CLA. These findings indicate that CLA ameliorates the deleterious effects of thoracic irradiation in mice by reducing pulmonary inflammation, oxidative damage, and fibrosis.

  20. Clarithromycin Attenuates Radiation-Induced Lung Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Yi, Chin-ok; Heo, Rok Won; Song, Dae Hyun; Cho, Yu Ji; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Kang, Ki Mun; Roh, Gu Seob; Lee, Jong Deog

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a common and unavoidable complication of thoracic radiotherapy. The current study was conducted to evaluate the ability of clarithromycin (CLA) to prevent radiation-induced pneumonitis, oxidative stress, and lung fibrosis in an animal model. C57BL/6J mice were assigned to control, irradiation only, irradiation plus CLA, and CLA only groups. Test mice received single thoracic exposures to radiation and/or oral CLA (100 mg/kg/day). Histopathologic findings and markers of inflammation, fibrosis, and oxidative stress were compared by group. On a microscopic level, CLA inhibited macrophage influx, alveolar fibrosis, parenchymal collapse, consolidation, and epithelial cell changes. The concentration of collagen in lung tissue was lower in irradiation plus CLA mice. Radiation-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TNF receptor 1, acetylated nuclear factor kappa B, cyclooxygenase 2, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and matrix metallopeptidase 9 were also attenuated by CLA. Expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase 1, transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor, and type I collagen in radiation-treated lungs were also attenuated by CLA. These findings indicate that CLA ameliorates the deleterious effects of thoracic irradiation in mice by reducing pulmonary inflammation, oxidative damage, and fibrosis. PMID:26114656

  1. Coniferyl Aldehyde Ameliorates Radiation Intestine Injury via Endothelial Cell Survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer treatments related gastrointestinal toxicity has also been recognized as a significant economic burden. Especially, extensive apoptosis of microvascular endothelial cell of the lamina propria is the primary lesion initiating intestinal radiation damage after abdominal radiation therapy. Coniferyl aldehyde (CA) is phenolic compounds isolated from cork stoppers, and one of the major pyrolysis products of lignin. Shi H. was support for the empirical use of CA as a medicinal food for cardiovascular diseases. CA has positive effect in broad way but there is no consequence in radiation induced intestine damage. Here, we investigate effect of CA on small intestine after abdominal IR to mice in this study. In this study, CA increased the survival rate in C3H mice against 13.5 Gy abdominal IR. We found CA protects small intestine via preventing endothelial cell apoptosis and enhancing their angiogenic activity. CA also showed protective effect on crypt cell survival. Endothelial cell survival may affect crypt cell protection against IR. From this data, we concluded that CA is effective for protection against abdominal radiation injury. CA could ameliorate side-effect of radiation therapy

  2. Coniferyl Aldehyde Ameliorates Radiation Intestine Injury via Endothelial Cell Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ye Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Lee, Yoonjin; Lee, Haejune [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yunsil [Ewha Woman' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Younggyu [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Cancer treatments related gastrointestinal toxicity has also been recognized as a significant economic burden. Especially, extensive apoptosis of microvascular endothelial cell of the lamina propria is the primary lesion initiating intestinal radiation damage after abdominal radiation therapy. Coniferyl aldehyde (CA) is phenolic compounds isolated from cork stoppers, and one of the major pyrolysis products of lignin. Shi H. was support for the empirical use of CA as a medicinal food for cardiovascular diseases. CA has positive effect in broad way but there is no consequence in radiation induced intestine damage. Here, we investigate effect of CA on small intestine after abdominal IR to mice in this study. In this study, CA increased the survival rate in C3H mice against 13.5 Gy abdominal IR. We found CA protects small intestine via preventing endothelial cell apoptosis and enhancing their angiogenic activity. CA also showed protective effect on crypt cell survival. Endothelial cell survival may affect crypt cell protection against IR. From this data, we concluded that CA is effective for protection against abdominal radiation injury. CA could ameliorate side-effect of radiation therapy.

  3. The investigation of radiation enteritis, especially ileum injuries treated surgically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Masanari; Watanabe, Satoshi; Honda, Ichiro; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yano, Yoshimasa; Hatano, Kazuo [Chiba Cancer Center Hospital (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been widely used as one of several therapies for malignant disease of the lower abdomen. However, radiation enteritis was a severe side effect, and it was very difficult to treat and care. We report the cases of radiation enteritis that we encountered, especially ileum injuries. There were 27 regions in 23 patients: 10 obstipation, 8 fistula 6 perforation, 2 obstipation and perforation, 1 obstipation and fistula to urinary tract, and 1 perforation and bleeding of sigmoid colon. We treated these by combined bypass, resection of the bowels, external fistula, and others. Radiation enteritis is considered a progressive and irreversible disease, and many patients would experience recurrences over their lifetime, and in some cases would need multiple operations. The leakage and the short bowel after resection were severe problems, and in addition, we found that the abdominal wall was one of the difficult problems to treat and care, such as many external fistula and hardening of abdominal wall after polysurgery and radiation therapy. (author)

  4. (Radiation carcinogenesis in the whole body system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1990-12-14

    The objectives of the trip were: to take part in and to give the summary of a Symposium on Radiation Carcinogenesis at Tokyo, and to give a talk at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences at Chiba. The breadth of the aspects considered at the conference was about as broad as is possible, from effects at the molecular level to human epidemiology, from the effects of tritium to cancer induction by heavy ions. The events induced by cancer that lead to cancer and the events that are secondary are beginning to come into better focus but much is still not known. Interest in suppressor genes is increasing rapidly in the studies of human tumors and many would predict that the three or four suppressor genes associated with cancer are only the first sighting of a much larger number.

  5. Attractive optical forces from black-body radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnleitner, Matthias; Ritsch, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Black-body radiation around hot objects induces AC Stark shifts of the energy levels of nearby atoms and molecules. These shifts are roughly proportional to the fourth power of the temperature and induce a force decaying with the third power of the distance from the object's surface. We explicitly calculate the resulting attractive black-body optical dipole force for ground state hydrogen atoms. Surprisingly this force can surpass the repulsive radiation pressure and actually pull the atoms towards the surface with a force stronger than gravity. We exemplify the dominance of the "black-body force" over gravity for hydrogen in a cloud of hot dust particles. These forces, which have been neglected to date, appear highly relevant in various astrophysical scenarios, in particular since analogous results hold for a wide class of broadband radiation sources.

  6. Image-Guidance for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) describes a recently introduced external beam radiation paradigm by which small lesions outside the brain are treated under stereotactic conditions, in a single or few fractions of high-dose radiation delivery. Similar to the treatment planning and delivery process for cranial radiosurgery, the emphasis is on sparing of adjacent normal tissues through the creation of steep dose gradients. Thus, advanced methods for assuring an accurate relationship between the target volume position and radiation beam geometry, immediately prior to radiation delivery, must be implemented. Such methods can employ imaging techniques such as planar (e.g., x-ray) or volumetric (e.g., computed tomography [CT]) approaches and are commonly summarized under the general term image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). This review summarizes clinical experience with volumetric and ultrasound based image-guidance for SBRT. Additionally, challenges and potential limitations of pre-treatment image-guidance are presented and discussed

  7. Drug/radiation interactions and central nervous system injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system (CNS) injury caused by combined treatment with cranial radiation therapy (CRT) and chemotherapy is a complicated and difficult problem. Interactions between the two modalities at the cellular level, the effect of treatment sequencing, and chemotherapy and RT dosages are all poorly understood. While this is generally true and applicable to toxicities expressed in multiple organs and tissue types, it is particularly true for the brain. There are many clinical descriptions and situations that strongly implicate an enhanced neurotoxic potential for combined treatment compared to either therapy alone; there is a paucity of definitive experimental evidence, however, and few animal models that can be used to elucidate the nature and pathophysiology of this clinical association. This paper addresses the neurotoxic potential of a specific chemotherapeutic drug when combined with CRT; outlines whose drugs known to cause CNS injury when combined with CRT. Although many of the clinical situations are complicated because multiple cytotoxic agents have been used, usually only one is thought to contribute to the CNS injury. The authors discuss each drug separately

  8. Taste aversions conditioned with partial body radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced taste aversion was compared in rats which received partial body exposure to the head or abdomen with rats receiving whole body irradiation. Exposure levels ranged from 25 to 300 roentgens (R). In additional groups, saccharin aversion to partial body gamma ray exposures of the abdomen were conditioned in animals which had prior experience with the saccharin solution. Aversion was measured with a single-bottle short-term test, a 23-hour preference test and by the number of days taken to recover from the aversion. Whole-body exposure was most effective in conditioning the aversion, and exposure of the abdominal area was more effective than exposure to the head. Also, the higher the exposure, the stronger the aversion. Rats receiving prior experience with the saccharin did not condition as well as control rats with no prior saccharin experience. The possible role of radiation-induced taste aversion in human radiotherapy patients was discussed. (author)

  9. Protective Effects of Lentinan against T Lymphocytes Injury in Mice under Chronic Radiation Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yong; LI; Ming-chun; FU; Qing-jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of lentinan (LTN) on mice exposed to chronic radiation. Methods Animals were divided into three groups (n = 10), they were animals exposed to radiation (Rad), normal control animals (Ctr), and irradiated animals treated with LTN (Rad + LTN). Animal model of chronic radiation stress injury was induced by irradiating mice with 60 Co γ-ray for 6 weeks from Monday to Friday consecutively. Before radiation, the mice in Rad + LTN group were ip injected with 0.5 mL LTN (0.01 mg/mL), whereas mice in other groups were injected with 0.9% physiological saline. The effects of LTN treatment on irradiated mice were examined by histological analysis on the spleen. The cell numbers and viability of T lymphocytes, which were isolated from the spleen, were determined by Trypan blue staining. Nitric oxide (NO) production and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion in T lymphocytes were also measured. Results Chronic radiation significantly reduced the body weights and the spleen and thymus indexes, associated with reduced T lymphocytes viability and functions, and elevated NO production. Treatment with LTN significantly normalized the elevated NO production, and attenuated the negative outcomes resulting from radiation mentioned above. Conclusion The results suggest that radioprotective effect of LTN may be contributed by improved T lymphocytes viability and functions via regulating the NO and IL-2 production in T lymphocytes.

  10. Protective Effects of Lentinan against T Lymphocytes Injury in Mice under Chronic Radiation Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong; LI Ming-chun; FU Qing-jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of lentinan (LTN) on mice exposed to chronic radiation.Methods Animals were divided into three groups (n =10),they were animals exposed to radiation (Rad),normal control animals (Ctr),and irradiated animals treated with LTN (Rad + LTN).Animal model of chronic radiation stress injury was induced by irradiating mice with 60Co γ-ray for 6 weeks from Monday to Friday consecutively.Before radiation,the mice in Rad + LTN group were ip injected with 0.5 mL LTN (0.01 mg/mL),whereas mice in other groups were injected with 0.9% physiological saline.The effects of LTN treatment on irradiated mice were examined by histological analysis on the spleen.The cell numbers and viability of T lymphocytes,which were isolated from the spleen,were determined by Trypan blue staining.Nitric oxide (NO) production and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion in T lymphocytes were also measured.Results Chronic radiation significantly reduced the body weights and the spleen and thymus indexes,associated with reduced T lymphocytes viability and functions,and elevated NO production.Treatment with LTN significantly normalized the elevated NO production,and attenuated the negative outcomes resulting from radiation mentioned above.Conclusion The results suggest that radioprotective effect of LTN may be contributed by improved T lymphocytes viability and functions via regulating the NO and IL-2 production in T lymphocytes.

  11. Early remodeling of nasal mucosa in rat model after radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the feature of nasal mucosa remodeling in experimental radiation injury. Methods: Fourty male rats were randomly divided into five groups, as control group and radiation injury groups (radiation dose were 20 Gy, 30 Gy, 40 Gy and 50 Gy). Each group had 8 rats. Two weeks after the last irradiation, the rats were killed and the nasal middle turbinates of the animals were removed. The tissue blocks were embedded in paraffin. The paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), alcian blue- periodic acid-Schif (AB-PAS), and Masson Trichrome (MT). The infiltrating eosinophils in nasal mucosa were examined. AB-PAS positive cells in the surface epithelium in nasal mucosa were counted. The percentage of area in MT stained extracellular matrix in nasal mucosa and damage of epithelium were determined by an image analyzer. Results: The control group only presented a few eosinophils. Significant eosinophil infiltration was observed in the radiation injury groups, especially for the 30 Gy radiation injury group. Compared with the control group, there was no significant epithelial damage in 20 Gy radiation injury group. Significant epithelial damage were observed in the rest of radiation injury groups. The epithelial damage became more severe as the radiation dose increasing. A little but not significant increase in AB-PAS positive cells was observed in the mucos of the 20 Gy radiation injury group and significant increase in the 30 and 40 Gy groups. But in the 50 Gy radiation injury group, the AB-PAS positive cells were decreased compared with control group. The collagen fibrils in the mucosa of nasal middle turbinate in 20 Gy radiation injury group did not significantly increase.. But in the other groups, the increase was significant compared with that of control group. Furthermore, collagen fibrils increased as the radiation dose increased. Conclusions: Epithelial damage, goblet cells hyperplasia and extracellular matrix deposition are the

  12. Experimental radiation injury: combined MR imaging and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model of radiation injury to the brain was developed in the cat. Definite radiation changes were demonstrated at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in four of six cats. These changes consisted of high-intensity abnormalities on images obtained with a long repetition time (TR) and a long echo time (TE), which were initially noted 208-285 days after irradiation. These changes were associated with gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhancement on short TR and inversion-recovery (IR) pulse sequences. Gd-DTPA enhancement and the high intensity on the long TR/TE images were identified at the same time and became more prominent throughout the study. Chemical-shift imaging and phosphorus spectroscopy demonstrated no notable changes despite clear-cut MR evidence of abnormalities. Sodium imaging was positive in one case. Correlation of MR and pathologic findings revealed areas of radiation necrosis and wallerian degeneration that corresponded to areas of Gd-DTPA enhancement on short TR and IR images and to areas of high intensity on long TR/TE images. Peripheral to the areas of Gd-DTPA enhancement were nonenhanced zones of high-signal-intensity abnormality on long TR/TE images, which represented regions of demyelination without necrosis. Gd-DTPA-enhanced proton imaging was the most sensitive method for detecting radiation damage in this animal model

  13. Incorporating Human Body Mass in Standards of Helmet Impact Protection against Traumatic Brain Injury

    CERN Document Server

    Blackman, Eric G

    2009-01-01

    Impact induced traumatic brain injury (ITBI) describes brain injury from head impact not necessarily accompanied by skull fracture. For sufficiently abrupt head impact decelerations, ITBI results from brain tissue stress incurred as the brain crashes into the inside of the skull wall, displacing the surrounding cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Proper helmet cushioning can damp the impact force and reduce ITBI. But force is mass times acceleration and commonly used helmet blunt impact standards are based only on acceleration thresholds. Here I show how this implies that present standards overestimate the minimum acceleration onset for ITBI by implicitly assuming that the brain is mechanically decoupled from the body. I quantify how an arbitrary orientation of the body with respect to impact direction increases the effective mass that should be used in calculating the required damping force and injury threshold accelerations. I suggest a practical method to incorporate the body mass and impact angle into ITBI helme...

  14. Genome injuries by radiation and their health effect on infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injuries of the genome, mainly double strand break (DSB) of chromosomal DNA, are conceived to be a characteristic cause of radiation hazard, on which recent findings at the molecular level are explained together with DSB repairing process leading to chromosome abnormality. In some A-bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, leukemia and solid tumor are known to be caused several years after the exposure and in childhood victims of Chernobyl nuclear accident, the incidence of thyroid cancer is known to be increased thereafter. The late radiation hazard is considered to appear by DSB and error in its subsequent repairing process resulting in change of genomic information leading to cancer formation. Gamma ray irradiation at 1 Gy reportedly induces 1,000 sites of single strand break (SSB) and 40 of DSB per one cell. Repair of DSB in humans is through either non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination repair (HR) where many factors and enzymes participate. NHEJ works in most of somatic cells regardless to cell cycle and base sequence, and is error-prone because changes like partial redundancy, translocation and base deletion tend to occur at the end-joining. For chromosomal translocation, proposed are 2 models of contact- and breakage-first, depending on the site of DSB to be repaired. Molecular analysis of the translocation has been performed in studies of lymphatic and myelogenic leukemia cells. Peripheral lymphocytes of exposed people are used for their dose assessment, and for which an easy, simple method using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been developed by authors. Hopefully, the system evaluating the ability to repair genomic injuries is to be developed for protecting children from their genome stress like radiation. (T.T.)

  15. Attempt at a medicolegal assessment of radiation damage as bodily injury. Der Versuch einer gerichtsmedizinischen Beurteilung des Strahlenschadens als Koerperverletzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, J.

    1970-02-20

    The dissertation shows on which basis an unsuccessful therapy or the inevitable consequence of therapy, radiation damage, can be prosecuted under penal law as bodily injury. A description is given of the nature and the different types of ionizing radiation, effects on the cell and on the human organism, types of damage, different degrees of sensitivity of the various organs, signs and symptoms in the human body, maximum doses, legal restrictions for different patient groups and organs. The problems involved in objectification and establishing a causal relationship between ionizing radiation and the manifest damage are pointed out clearly. The legal part of the work examines negligence, obligation to inform the patient, obligation to exercise due care, failure to do so and malpractice as possible criteria for culpable infliction of bodily injury. (HSCH).

  16. Ionizing radiation and lipid peroxidation in human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipids are organic compounds constituting the living cells. Lipid molecules can be disassembled through peroxidative pathways and hydrocarbons can be bred as end-product of lipid peroxidation in vivo. Lipid peroxidation can be started by an indirect effect of ionizing radiation. So a radioinduced cellular damage in human body can be detected by monitoring the production of specific hydrocarbons

  17. CpG-Oligodeoxynucleotide Treatment Protects against Ionizing Radiation-Induced Intestine Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    Full Text Available the bone marrow and the intestine are the major sites of ionizing radiation (IR-induced injury. Our previous study demonstrated that CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN treatment mitigated IR-induced bone marrow injury, but its effect on the intestine is not known. In this study, we sought to determine if CpG-ODN have protective effect on IR-induced intestine injury, and if so, to determine the mechanism of its effect.Mice were treated with CpG-ODN after IR. The body weight and survival were daily monitored for 30 days consecutively after exposure. The number of surviving intestinal crypt was assessed by the microcolony survival assay. The number and the distribution of proliferating cell in crypt were evaluated by TUNEL assay and BrdU assay. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 in crypt were analyzed by Immunohistochemistry assay. The findings showed that the treatment for irradiated mice with CpG-ODN diminished body weight loss, improved 30 days survival, enhanced intestinal crypts survival and maintained proliferating cell population and regeneration in crypt. The reason might involve that CpG-ODN up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 protein and down-regulated the expression of Bax protein and caspase-3 protein.CpG-ODN was effective in protection of IR-induced intestine injury by enhancing intestinal crypts survival and maintaining proliferating cell population and regeneration in crypt. The mechanism might be that CpG-ODN inhibits proliferating cell apoptosis through regulating the expression of apoptosis-related protein, such as Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3.

  18. Injuries among Portuguese kitesurfers: The most affected body regions A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic sports keep rising in popularity. Kitesurfing is a high-risk sport that combines aspects of several water sports. The dangers of high-risk sports have been widely studied. Kitesurfing is a relatively new water sport, and the understanding of the injuries due to its practice has not yet been largely investigated. The purpose of this study is to investigate the most common types and causes of injuries among Portuguese kitesurfers. The data was collected using a retrospective 12 months web-based questionnaire. A total of n= 87 kitesurfers, mostly from the North, showed that 75.9% have a kitesurfing initiation course and 57.5% use protective equipment. A total of 60.9% has been injured in the 12 month’s period, being the knee and the lumbar spine the most common body injury. A reasonable number of injuries occurred while performing a landing or a maneuver, being 53.9% of the injuries reported as a new injury. This 12 month’s retrospective study supports earlier studies and provides basis knowledge about the incidence of Portuguese kitesurfers injuries. The data support the benefits of physical fitness (p< 0.05 in injuries prevention.

  19. Efficacy of different methods of epidermatoplasty in radiation injuries of tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience of surgical treatment of delayed radiation injuries in 18 patients is generalized. Three methods of epidermatoplasty are compared: defect plasty by local tissue, unimoment defect epidermatoplasty by bifid graft and postponed epidermatoplasty. Data of bacterial contamination of the area and depth of radiation injuries of different localizations are given. Clinical recovery is obtained in 16 patients

  20. Attenuation of Acute Lung Inflammation and Injury by Whole Body Cooling in a Rat Heatstroke Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi-Hsing Yang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole body cooling is the current therapy of choice for heatstroke because the therapeutic agents are not available. In this study, we assessed the effects of whole body cooling on several indices of acute lung inflammation and injury which might occur during heatstroke. Anesthetized rats were randomized into the following groups and given (a no treatment or (b whole body cooling immediately after onset of heatstroke. As compared with the normothermic controls, the untreated heatstroke rats had higher levels of pleural exudates volume and polymorphonuclear cell numbers, lung myloperoxidase activity and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, histologic lung injury score, and bronchoalveolar proinflammatory cytokines and glutamate, and PaCO2. In contrast, the values of mean arterial pressure, heart rate, PaO2, pH, and blood HCO3− were all significantly lower during heatstroke. The acute lung inflammation and injury and electrolyte imbalance that occurred during heatstroke were significantly reduced by whole body cooling. In conclusion, we identified heat-induced acute lung inflammation and injury and electrolyte imbalance could be ameliorated by whole body cooling.

  1. The establishment of brain radiation injury experimental model of SD rats with whole brain irradiation in wakefulness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish the brain radiation injury experimental model of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat being irradiated in wakefulness so that the side effects from the anesthetics can be eliminated. Methods: Experiment animals were divided into 4 groups randomly according to the difference of radiation dose. Each group involved 25 rats. 'Thermoplastic material fixing cage' was used to keep rats in wakefulness during irradiation. The whole brains of SD rats were irradiated by 4 MeV electron beam at a single dose of 0 Gy, 2 Gy, 15 Gy and 30 Gy, which was measured by therapy beam analyser and dosimeter. The scores of gross neurological symptoms and changes in body weight were sequentially evaluated twice every week after irradiation. The examination of the head skin inside the field was performed as well. The changes of the nerve cell in the hippocampus region of rats with the Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining were observed at the time of 6 hours, 1 day, 1 week and 1 month after irradiation. Results: The peak dosage depth of 4 MeV electron beam was 14.3 mm, and the dosimetry homogeneity of the radiation field was within 5%. The dose attenuation rate was less than 2.57% because of the thermoplastic material fixing cage. Intra-portal alopecia was observed in all the rats exposed to radiation at the dose of 30 Gy and in some of the rats exposed to radiation at the dose of 15 Gy. There was no significant difference in increasing trend of body weight and the score changes of the gross neurological symptoms in all groups. The obvious lesion was observed in the hippocampus region of rats after 30 Gy irradiated. Conclusion: The brain radiation injury experimental model of SD rat in wakefulness with whole brain radiation eliminates the side effects from the anesthetic. It appears to be an excellent model for studying on the brain radiation injury in the early stage

  2. Computed tomographic findings of radiation-induced acute adrenal injury with associated radiation nephropathy: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation nephropathy was first recognized in 1906. The kidney is a radiosensitive organ with a tolerance dose (5% complications in 5 years) of 20 Gray. The imaging findings of acute and chronic radiation induced renal injury are previously described. Radiation-induced adrenal injury, to our knowledge, has not been described in the literature. Unlike the kidneys and other upper abdominal organs, the adrenal glands are traditionally thought to be radio-resistant, protected from radiation-induced injury by proximity to adjacent organs and by the adrenal medulla which reportedly has increased radio-resistance. We present the computed tomographic imaging findings of a patient with acute radiation induced adrenal injury which resulted in adrenal insufficiency following radiotherapy of an adjacent thecal metastasis

  3. Considerations of long-term radiation injury in nonhemopoietic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute whole body doses resulting in long-term survival are limited to about 4-5 Gy if successful marrow transplantation is not performed, and the critical tissue at risk is the bone marrow. After doses approaching this limit, long-term somatic injury comprises cataracts, persistent but not permanent infertility in man, and temporary or permanent sterility in some women. If marrow tranplantation is successful, the acute dose can be increased to about 7.5 Gy. The limiting tissue now becomes the lung, and the limiting effect is pnenumonitis. Cataracts and infertility become more prevalent, and other long-term effects become apparent. The main additional nonhemopoietic somatic effects are restrictive and obstructive lung damage, and hormonal imbalances in children that result in retardation of sexual development and growth. There are also a few secondary malignancies and a few cases of leukoencephalopathy. However, the latter are associated with additional prophylactic treatments for CNS disease

  4. Evaluation of body appendage injuries to juvenile signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus: relationships and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouba A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive behaviour occurs frequently in crayfish and commonly results in injuries to body appendages. This study aimed to evaluate injuries to antennae, chelae, and walking legs of juvenile signal crayfish after seven months of rearing at high stocking density. We suggest that the high incidence of antennae injuries (66.8% is related to their delicate structure and exposed position, which makes them vulnerable to damage. Chelae were more frequently injured (45.5% than walking legs (7.8–23.6%. Considering the robustness of these structures and the scarcity of animals with both chelae missing and/or regenerating (4.9%, it seemed that injured animals were often killed by less injured ones. Antennae of crayfish with a single injured chela were more frequently injured on the side of the body with the damaged chela, and a similar pattern was observed for walking legs. Expanding on previous research reporting a negative relationship only between incidence of chela injury and crayfish size, we found this relationship to be significant for all evaluated appendages. We hypothesize that any injury and accompanying regeneration may have significant impact on subsequent injuries, overall growth, and reproductive success, and may result in death through cannibalism.

  5. Normal tissue toxicity after small field hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constine Louis S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stereotactic body radiation (SBRT is an emerging tool in radiation oncology in which the targeting accuracy is improved via the detection and processing of a three-dimensional coordinate system that is aligned to the target. With improved targeting accuracy, SBRT allows for the minimization of normal tissue volume exposed to high radiation dose as well as the escalation of fractional dose delivery. The goal of SBRT is to minimize toxicity while maximizing tumor control. This review will discuss the basic principles of SBRT, the radiobiology of hypofractionated radiation and the outcome from published clinical trials of SBRT, with a focus on late toxicity after SBRT. While clinical data has shown SBRT to be safe in most circumstances, more data is needed to refine the ideal dose-volume metrics.

  6. Protective Effect of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. Against Radiation Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yabin Duan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. against radiation injury was examined in mice. Kunming mice were randomly divided into a control group, model group, positive drug group and L. ruthenicum high dose (8 g/kg, L. ruthenicum middle dose (4 g/kg, L. ruthenicum low dose (2 g/kg treatment groups, for which doses were administered the third day, seventh day and 14th day after irradiation. L. ruthenicum extract was administered orally to the mice in the three treatment groups and normal saline was administered orally to the mice in the control group and model group for 14 days. The positive group was treated with amifostine (WR-2721 at 30 min before irradiation. Except for the control group, the groups of mice received a 5 Gy quantity of X-radiation evenly over their whole body at one time. Body weight, hemogram, thymus and spleen index, DNA, caspase-3, caspase-6, and P53 contents were observed at the third day, seventh day, and 14th day after irradiation. L. ruthenicum could significantly increase the total red blood cell count, hemoglobin count and DNA contents (p < 0.05. The spleen index recovered significantly by the third day and 14th day after irradiation (p < 0.05. L. ruthenicum low dose group showed a significant reduction in caspase-3 and caspase-6 of serum in mice at the third day, seventh day, and 14th day after irradiation and L. ruthenicum middle dose group experienced a reduction in caspase-6 of serum in mice by the seventh day after irradiation. L. ruthenicum could decrease the expression of P53. The results showed that L. ruthenicum had protective effects against radiation injury in mice.

  7. Preliminary radiation protection tests for the body height and body weight of the Chinese reference man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation protection standard recommended by ICRP was evaluated in terms of its suitability for Chinese people. The body height and weight of 100,325 healthy Chinese were measured and anatomical data collected from usable corpses of persons who died by accident or sudden death. The data included the size and weight of certain organs. 18 refs

  8. Temperature fields in large radiation-absorbing bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodies in the vicinity of radiation sources are heated by absorption of radiation energy. Information on the temperature fields in such bodies is often important from the safety point of view, e.g., in connection with possible local melting or with temperature-induced changes in the properties of materials. This paper shows how such temperature fields can be calculated. The theoretical results are supported by experimental findings. For this purpose a large body was equipped with an array of thermocouples and was irradiated in a reactor at Juelich. The paper presents an unidimensional temperature field equation, sufficient for many cases arising in practice, in a form taking into account the decrease in the heat source term in the direction of the radiation, as well as a system of equations for determining three-dimensional temperature fields with any specified boundary conditions. The system is written in a matrix from appropriate for solution by the finite element method. The matrices for a rith-prism finite element, required for practical calculations, are presented explicitly. These matrices make it possible to calculate temperature fields in very extensive bodies. (orig.)

  9. Management of radiation injuries of vulva and vagina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraunholz, I.B.; Schopohl, B.; Boettcher, H.D. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Onkologie, Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Background: Acute and late injuries of vulva and vagina are frequent and potentially serious complications in radiotherapy of gynecologic tumors. They still are reported poorly in literature. Methods: Based on a literature search a survey will be given of the modalities, which are used or recommended for prophylaxis or treatment of these radiation injuries. The principles of the different measures will be discussed with available study results. Results: Hygiene measures and the topical application of antimicrobial or granulation stimulating substances, which is mostly based on long standing clinical experience, are the principles of the treatment of acute reactions of vulva and vagina. The topical use of estrogen, which promotes proliferation of epithelium, is generally described in connection with treatment and prophylaxis of late radiation injuries. As a prophylaxis for the late reaction of vaginal stenosis, vaginal dilatation is recommended in literature. Conclusion: With the exception of a few reports on estrogen, there are no data about the effectiveness of the currently used medical substances. The local application of estrogen as prophylaxis of the acute reactions will therefore be examined in a prospective study. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Akute und spaete Reaktionen an Vulva und Vagina sind haeufige und zum Teil schwerwiegende Nebenwirkungen der Strahlentherapie von gynaekologischen Tumoren, auf die in der Literatur kaum eingegangen wird. Methoden: Basierend auf einer umfangreichen Literaturrecherche, werden die Massnahmen, die zur Prophylaxe oder Therapie dieser Strahlenreaktionen zur Verfuegung stehen, systematisch zusammengestellt und, soweit verfuegbar, mit Ergebnissen aus Studien diskutiert. Ergebnisse: Hygienemassnahmen und die auf klinischen Erfahrungswerten basierende lokale Anwendung einer Vielzahl von mehr oder weniger antimikrobiell wirkenden oder granulationsfoerdernden Substanzen lassen sich als Grundprinzipien der Behandlung von akuten

  10. Self-Injury and Disordered Eating: Expressing Emotion Dysregulation through the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Peat, Christine M.; Claes, Laurence; Smits, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that emotion dysregulation, body-related concerns, and depressive symptoms are associated with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and disordered eating (DE) separately and in combination. However, it has been difficult to ascertain to what extent these constructs contribute to NSSI and DE given the relatively small…

  11. Activation of platelet aggregation and arachidonate metabolism in early stage of acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the changes of platelet aggregation and arachidonate metabolism in platelets and endothelial cells after 8.0-8.5 Gy γ-ray whole-body irradiation in rats. It was found that with 8.0 Gy exposure platelet aggregation rate and speed, and plasma TxB2 level were increased at 4h and on the 1st day post irradiation, and that 6-keto-PGF1α level was enhanced at 4h, then reduced to the control level on the 1st day post irradiation. The result of biological assay showed the ability for rat platelets to convert exogenous arachidonate into TxA2 was significantly raised at 4h and on the 1st day after 8.5 Gy γ-ray irradiation. It is suggested that the activation of platelet arachidonate metabolism may be one of the important causes of acute radiation injury is suggested that the activation of platelet arachidonate metabolism may be one of the important causes of acute radiation injury

  12. Radiation doses from contaminant aerosol deposition to the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly all assessments of radiation doses received following accidental airborne releases have focused on the contributions originating from the plume and from ground deposition. Very little thought has however been given to doses received from deposition directly onto humans. The results of recent experimental investigations of aerosol deposition to and clearance from human skin and clothing have been used to model the doses potentially received in an accident situation. It was found that both the skin dose from β-emitters and the whole body dose from γ-emitters may be significant compared with doses received through other pathways, such as external radiation from the environment. (au)

  13. Pathological changes after bone marrow and skin allograft transplantation in rats inflicted with severe combined radiation-burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow and skin allografts from the same donor were transplanted to rats inflicted with 8 Gy γ-radiation combined with third degree burns of 15% body surface area within 6 hr post injury. Pathological changes of hematopoietic tissues and skin allografts were studied. All injured controls died within 7 days post injury without bone marrow regeneration; 50% of treated rats survived with living skin allografts on 50th day post injury. On days 100 and 480 post operation, grafted skin still survived well on recipients with normal ultrastructure. Epidermic cells of skin allografts proliferated on day 5, developed and repaired on day 10. Histological structure of the skin returned to normal on day 30 post operation. The regeneration of bone marrow appeared on 5th day, increased markedly on day 10, and almost completed on day 15 after bone marrow transplantation. However, the regeneration of lymphocytes in cortex of spleen and lymph nodes did not appear until day 15 of BMT. The results show that bone marrow and skin allograft transplantation at early time post injury in most severe combined radiation-burn injury have tremendous beneficial effects, and the skin allograft can survive for a long time

  14. Mitotic delay of irradiated cells and its connection with quantity of radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study is dedicated to development of mathematical approach to interpret radiation-induced mitosic delay. An assumption is made that mitotic delay is conditioned by discrete injuries distributed in cells according to stochasticity of interaction of radiation and target substance. It is supposed to consider the problem on injuries nature causing mitotic delay and to use the developed method for accounting the effect of radiation-induced mitotic delay on registered chromosomal aberration yield. 10 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  15. Radioprotection and therapy of radiation injury with cytokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our results demonstrate that IL 1 promotes hematopoiesis in normal and radiation-compromised animals. IL 1 protected mice from lethal hematopoietic syndrome when given before irradiation. Given therapeutically after irradiation, IL 1 promoted recovery from radiation injury. Several activities of IL 1 may explain its bone marrow restorative properties. The induction with IL 1 of several hematopoietic growth factors (GM-CSF, G-CSF, M-CSF, IL 3, and IL 6) clearly contributes to the accelerated growth and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. The induction of scavenger proteins may reduce oxidative damage after irradiation. Our work raises a number of additional questions concerning the potential therapeutic utility of IL 1. The ability of IL 1 to promote engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow cells will require further study. The optimal dosage, schedule, and route for IL 1 induction of hematopoiesis will need to be established. The observed synergy of IL 1 with TNF, IL 6, or CSF's may be useful in reducing the requisite doses of cytokines from pharmacological to physiological levels, thus reducing toxic effects. The observation that the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, does not inhibit IL 1 radioprotection may allow us to combat some of the toxic manifestations of IL 1 and to preserve its beneficial actions. Clinical trials with IL 1 in patients, now in progress, should establish whether this cytokine may be useful in reversing the myelotoxic effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in humans

  16. Radiation-induced hypoxia may perpetuate late normal tissue injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not hypoxia develops in rat lung tissue after radiation. Methods and Materials: Fisher-344 rats were irradiated to the right hemithorax using a single dose of 28 Gy. Pulmonary function was assessed by measuring the changes in respiratory rate every 2 weeks, for 6 months after irradiation. The hypoxia marker was administered 3 h before euthanasia. The tissues were harvested at 6 weeks and 6 months after irradiation and processed for immunohistochemistry. Results: A moderate hypoxia was detected in the rat lungs at 6 weeks after irradiation, before the onset of functional or histopathologic changes. The more severe hypoxia, that developed at the later time points (6 months) after irradiation, was associated with a significant increase in macrophage activity, collagen deposition, lung fibrosis, and elevation in the respiratory rate. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed an increase in TGF-β, VEGF, and CD-31 endothelial cell marker, suggesting a hypoxia-mediated activation of the profibrinogenic and proangiogenic pathways. Conclusion: A new paradigm of radiation-induced lung injury should consider postradiation hypoxia to be an important contributing factor mediating a continuous production of a number of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines

  17. Effect of auto-skin grafting on bacterial infection of wound in rats inflicted with combined radiation-burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats were exposed to 6 Gy whole body γ-ray irradiation from a 60Co source followed by light radiation burn (15% TBSA, full thickness burn) from a 5 kw bromo-tungsten lamp. The effect of auto-skin grafting on invasive bacterial infection of wound in the rats with combined radiation-burn injury was studied, In the control group inflicted with combined radiation-burn injury but without skin grafting, bacteria were found on and in the eschars at 24th hour after injury, and in the subeschar tissue on 3rd day. Tremendous bacterial multiplication occurred from 7th to 15th day, and the amount of bacteria in the internal organs increased along with the increase of subeschar infection. At the same time, no bacterial infection was found in internal organs in auto-skin grafted group at 24th hour after injury. The results show that skin grafting can decrease or prevent bacterial infection in both subeschar tissue and internal organs

  18. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms and remission of vital oxidative injury by low dose radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaoka, K. [Okayama University Medical School, Okayama (Japan); Nomura, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Kojima, S. [Science University of Tokyo, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Excessive active oxygen produced in vivo by various causes is toxic. Accumulation of oxidation injuries due to excessive active causes cell and tissue injuries, inducing various pathologic conditions such as aging and carcinogenesis. On the other hand, there are chemical defense mechanisms in the body that eliminate active oxygen or repair damaged molecules, defending against resultant injury. It is interesting reports that appropriate oxidation stress activate the chemical biological defense mechanisms. In this study, to elucidate these phenomena and its mechanism by low dose radiation, we studied on the below subjects. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms by low dose radiation: (1) The effects radiation on lipid peroxide (LPO) levels in the organs, membrane fluidity and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined in rats and rabbits. Rats were irradiated with low dose X-ray over their entire bodies, and rabbits inhaled vaporized radon spring water, which primarily emitted {alpha}-ray. The following results were obtained. Unlike high dose X-ray, low dose X-ray and radon inhalation both reduced LPO levels and made the state of the SH-group on membrane-bound proteins closer to that of juvenile animals, although the sensitivity to radioactivity varied depending on the age of the animals and among different organs and tissues. The SOD activity was elevated, suggesting that low dose X-ray and radon both activate the host defensive function. Those changes were particularly marked in the organs related to immune functions of the animals which received low dose X-ray, while they were particularly marked in the brain after radon inhalation. It was also found that those changes continued for longer periods after low dose X-irradiation. (2) Since SOD is an enzyme that mediates the dismutation of O{sub 2}- to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the question as to whether the resultant H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is further detoxicated into H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} or not must

  19. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms and remission of vital oxidative injury by low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excessive active oxygen produced in vivo by various causes is toxic. Accumulation of oxidation injuries due to excessive active causes cell and tissue injuries, inducing various pathologic conditions such as aging and carcinogenesis. On the other hand, there are chemical defense mechanisms in the body that eliminate active oxygen or repair damaged molecules, defending against resultant injury. It is interesting reports that appropriate oxidation stress activate the chemical biological defense mechanisms. In this study, to elucidate these phenomena and its mechanism by low dose radiation, we studied on the below subjects. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms by low dose radiation: (1) The effects radiation on lipid peroxide (LPO) levels in the organs, membrane fluidity and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined in rats and rabbits. Rats were irradiated with low dose X-ray over their entire bodies, and rabbits inhaled vaporized radon spring water, which primarily emitted α-ray. The following results were obtained. Unlike high dose X-ray, low dose X-ray and radon inhalation both reduced LPO levels and made the state of the SH-group on membrane-bound proteins closer to that of juvenile animals, although the sensitivity to radioactivity varied depending on the age of the animals and among different organs and tissues. The SOD activity was elevated, suggesting that low dose X-ray and radon both activate the host defensive function. Those changes were particularly marked in the organs related to immune functions of the animals which received low dose X-ray, while they were particularly marked in the brain after radon inhalation. It was also found that those changes continued for longer periods after low dose X-irradiation. (2) Since SOD is an enzyme that mediates the dismutation of O2- to H2O2, the question as to whether the resultant H2O2 is further detoxicated into H2O and O2 or not must still be evaluated. Hence, we studied the effect of

  20. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Treatment of Spinal Bone Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihan, Yasemin Benderli

    2016-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) appears an effective and safe treatment modality for spinal bone metastasis, which can enhance local control and improve quality of life. Life expectation, predicted fracture risk, localization, quality, size and number of metastasis and presence or absence of nerve compression seem to be important factors in decision-making for treatment. Further studies are needed to identify subsets of patient which will most benefit from treatment. PMID:27039816

  1. Mouse skin regeneration after injuries caused by ionizing radiation and hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The half-period of mouse skin regeneration after sublethal injuries caused by hyperthermia (44 deg C) was 2.9 h and completed within 16-24 h. The half-period of regeneration after sublethal injuries caused by ionizing radiation was 2.1 h at a dose of 5 Gy and 4.3 at a dose of 20 Gy. The rate of mouse skin regeneration after sublethal injuries caused by exposure to ionizing radiation only and in combination with hyperthermia at similar levels of injury did not differ

  2. Imaging of rare radiation injuries after radiosurgery for brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) is generally an effective and safe treatment for brain metastases. We report 3 rare complicated cases after GKS due to radiation injury including image findings. Case 1: A 58-year-old man received whole brain radiation therapy for right occipital brain metastasis from lung cancer. However, local recurrence was noted and GKS was carried out 5 months later (size 28 mm, marginal dose 23 Gy (50% isodose)). Four years later, a cyst appeared and the patient developed apraxia and visual disturbance. Surgery was performed and the histopathology showed necrosis. Case 2: A 51-year-old woman received GKS for 4 brain metastases from breast cancer. The right occipital lobe lesion was treated with marginal dose of 18 Gy (size 24 mm, 50% isodose). Thirty-one months later, she developed left homonymous hemianopsia and MR imaging and CT scan showed intracerebral hemorrhage with cyst formation. An operation was performed and the histology revealed necrosis. Case 3: A 37-year-old man received GKS for left temporal brain metastasis from lung cancer (size 14 mm, marginal dose 23 Gy (50% isodose)). Twelve months later, the lesion increased in size again, so we carried out a second GKS on the same lesion (size 15 mm, marginal dose 23 Gy (50% isodose)). Thirty-five months later, massive peritumoral edema appeared and the patient developed left oculomotor palsy. An emergency operation was performed and the histopathological diagnosis was cavernous malformation that was thought to be induced by radiosurgery. Although the incidence is low, rare complications associated with radiation therapy can also occur by radiosurgery. (author)

  3. Motion of extended bodies in GRT and gravitational radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of motion of extended spherically symmetric bodies connected only by gravitational interaction with provision for their gravitational self-radiation is considered in the paper in the framework of GRT. The problem is solved by the method of successive Fock representations in the harmonic coordinate system in the approximation of slow motions and weak fields (v2/C2 approximately U/C2 approximately epsilon2 << 1). With the accuracy up to the fifth-order members over epsilon, inclusive. Equations of motion are derived for two bodies with provision for the reaction of their gravitational radiation. It is shown that the system conservatism is observed up to the fifth-order approximation. But in the second approximation over epsilon only two classical motion integrals exist instead of six ones (the total energy and total momentum ntegrals). The effect of torsion induction is got in the system of initially non-rotatable bodies. It is shown that in the fifth-order approximation the system does not preserve its conservatism due to gravitational radiation. The expression for the energy loss rate is obtained for the system directly from the obtained equations of motion

  4. Gastrointestinal Toxicities With Combined Antiangiogenic and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollom, Erqi L.; Deng, Lei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Pai, Reetesh K. [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Brown, J. Martin; Giaccia, Amato; Loo, Billy W.; Shultz, David B.; Le, Quynh Thu; Koong, Albert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Chang, Daniel T., E-mail: dtchang@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Combining the latest targeted biologic agents with the most advanced radiation technologies has been an exciting development in the treatment of cancer patients. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an ablative radiation approach that has become established for the treatment of a variety of malignancies, and it has been increasingly used in combination with biologic agents, including those targeting angiogenesis-specific pathways. Multiple reports have emerged describing unanticipated toxicities arising from the combination of SBRT and angiogenesis-targeting agents, particularly of late luminal gastrointestinal toxicities. In this review, we summarize the literature describing these toxicities, explore the biological mechanism of action of toxicity with the combined use of antiangiogenic therapies, and discuss areas of future research, so that this combination of treatment modalities can continue to be used in broader clinical contexts.

  5. Two cases of radiation-induced skin injury following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of radiation-induced skin injury following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) are reported. Case 1 is a 52-year-old man who underwent PTCA for 7 times. Case 2 is a 67-year-old man who underwent PTCA for 5 times. In both cases, a cutaneous lesion developed into an ulcer over the right infrascapular region. The ulcer was treated surgically. The histopathological features were compatible with chronic radiation dermatitis. To avoid such injury in interventional procedures with long fluoroscopic time, it is very important for medical staffs to recognize the radiation-induced skin injury and to reduce the patient's absorbed dose as much as possible. (author)

  6. C/EBPδ Deficiency Sensitizes Mice to Ionizing Radiation-Induced Hematopoietic and Intestinal Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Pawar, Snehalata A.; Shao, Lijian; Chang, Jianhui; Wang, Wenze; Pathak, Rupak; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Junru; Hendrickson, Howard; Boerma, Marjan; Sterneck, Esta; Zhou, Daohong; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the radiation response is critical for developing interventions to mitigate radiation-induced injury to normal tissues. Exposure to radiation leads to increased oxidative stress, DNA-damage, genomic instability and inflammation. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (Cebpd; C/EBPδ is implicated in regulation of these same processes, but its role in radiation response is not known. We investigated the role of C/EBPδ in radiation-i...

  7. Protective effect of Acanthopanax giraldii Harms polysaccharides on radiation injury in mice and its mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the protective effect of Acanthopanax giraldii Harms polysaccharides (AGP)on radiation injury in mice and its mechanism. Methods: The mice were treated with ip injection of AGP (125-250 mg/kg) and exposure to whole-body irradiation with 60Co γ-rays. The white blood cell (WBC), blood platelets (PLT), reticulocyte counts, the number of nucleated bone marrow cell (NNBMC), the content of MDA in the liver and serum, the content of DNA and RNA in the liver and spleen, and activities of ALT, AST, SOD, GSH-PX in the serum and blood were measured. Results: After irradiation, the general status of the mice was changed as showed by hair deprivation, body weight reduction, blood spots appearance on the tail, and so on. The numbers of WBC, PLT, reticulocytes and NNBMC all reduced remarkably. MDA contents and activities of ALT, AST increased obviously, and DNA, RNA contents and activities of SOD, GSH-PX decreased evidently after radiation. AGP could accelerate restoration of all these indexes. Conclusion: AGP has protective effects on irradiated mice, the mechanism of which might be related with antioxidation. (authors)

  8. Changes of malonaldehyde, cathepsin D and α2-macroglobulin (α2M) after ionizing radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increases in levels of malonaldehyde in plasma, liver and kidney, and increases of tissue kallikrein in kidney and urine were found in Wistar rats after total body 60Co irradiation with lethal doses. Increased activities of cathepsin D in spleen was associated with a marked reduction of splenic weight. The levels of α2M and activities of αM in plasma were both increased with increasing radiation doses, but the increase of α2M levels in spleen was slower and lower than that in liver, kidney and skin. It seems that the effectiveness of α2M in the treatment of rats after total body irradiation might be related with its binding action with cathepsin D and other proteases in spleen and other radiosensitive tissues. One case of acute and two cases of chronic skin radiation injury were treated with α2M preparation, either with or without surgical operation. There were decrease in levels of malonaldehyde as well in activities of cathepsin D, and increase in activities of superoxide dismutase. It suggests that α2M preparation might be useful for both inhibiting excess proteases and scavenging oxygen free radicals

  9. Mental and growth retardation after medulloblastoma radiation therapy. MRI assessment of radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on 3 cases of a medulloblastoma and discuss the usefulness of calculating the T2 value from long-term follow-up MRIs of 1.5 T in order to analyze the cause of mental retardation. Of 13 medulloblastoma patients who were treated at our hospital from 1970 through 1984, 4 patients survived. Excluding 1 of these patients, a 2-year-old child, the remaining 3 cases are discussed. The 3 patients underwent surgery and received postoperative craniospinal irradiation and chemotherapy. The radiation dose (tumoral dose) was 40 to 85 Gy to the posterior fossa, 0 to 30.4 Gy to the spinal cord, and 25.6 to 35.2 Gy to the whole brain. The long-term effects were evaluated by calculating the T2 value and conducting a psychometric analysis from 2 to 11 years after radiation therapy. Their respective Tanaka-Vineland IQ test results were 32, 46, and 102 and their respective growth heights were -3.6 SD, -6.4 SD, and +0.18 SD. Growth hormone deficiencies were identified in all 3 patients. The decline in ability and failure to grow became more pronounced with time. The calculated T2 values showed alterations in the hippocampus, the occipital white matter, and the hypothalamus of all 3 patients. The hippocampal alteration contributed to a decline in intellectual ability and resulted in learning difficulties at school. It should be noted that in addition to whole-brain radiation that was pursued, the focal radiation provided delivers the same radiation dose to the hippocampus as to the tumor. Such a high radiation dose thus might be responsible for the decline in intellectual ability. Therefore, to avoid radiation injury to these areas, stereotactic radiosurgery must be planned for focal radiation therapy. (K.H.)

  10. Secondary radiation dose during high-energy total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this work was to assess the additional dose from secondary neutrons and γ-rays generated during total body irradiation (TBI) using a medical linac X-ray beam. Nuclear reactions that occur in the accelerator construction during emission of high-energy beams in teleradiotherapy are the source of secondary radiation. Induced activity is dependent on the half-lives of the generated radionuclides, whereas neutron flux accompanies the treatment process only. The TBI procedure using a 18 MV beam (Clinac 2100) was considered. Lateral and anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior fractions were investigated during delivery of 2 Gy of therapeutic dose. Neutron and photon flux densities were measured using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and semiconductor spectrometry. The secondary dose was estimated applying the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. The main contribution to the secondary dose is associated with fast neutrons. The main sources of γ-radiation are the following: 56Mn in the stainless steel and 187W of the collimation system as well as positron emitters, activated via (n,γ) and (γ,n) processes, respectively. In addition to 12 Gy of therapeutic dose, the patient could receive 57.43 mSv in the studied conditions, including 4.63 μSv from activated radionuclides. Neutron dose is mainly influenced by the time of beam emission. However, it is moderated by long source-surface distances (SSD) and application of plexiglass plates covering the patient body during treatment. Secondary radiation gives the whole body a dose, which should be taken into consideration especially when one fraction of irradiation does not cover the whole body at once. (orig.)

  11. Alterations in body composition and spasticity following subtetanic neuromuscular electrical stimulation training in spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Crowe, MB, BCh, BAO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this prospective cohort study was to investigate alterations in body composition variables and spasticity following subtetanic neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES training in an adult population with spinal cord injury (SCI. Fourteen sedentary adults with SCI (thoracic [T]4–T11; American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale A/B; time since injury: 10.17 +/– 11.17 yr were recruited from the National SCI database. Four adhesive electrodes (175 cm2 each were placed bilaterally on the proximal and distal quadriceps and hamstrings muscle groups and subtetanic contractions were elicited using a handheld NMES device. Lean body mass (LBM and other body composition variables were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Spasticity was measured using the Spinal Cord Assessment Tool for Spastic Reflexes (SCATs and visual analog scales. Verbal and written feedback was obtained to subjectively evaluate spasticity. LBM and spasticity measurements were taken before and after an 8 wk NMES training program in order to assess change. A statistically significant increase in lower-limb LBM, i.e., muscle tissue (p > 0.001, and a reduction in SCATs (p < 0.001 score, indicating reduced spasticity, was observed. Subjective responses were positive. Improvements in body composition and SCATs scores indicate that subtetanic NMES training elicits favorable responses and may have important clinical implications for an SCI population.

  12. Modulation of radiation injuries in rats receiving multiple doses of Aloe Vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has been performed to examine the efficacy of Aloe vera juice (Aloe barbadensis Miller) against radiation injuries of 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation (single dose). Inductions of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, (TBARS)) of biomembranes lipids as well as the subsequent changes in the activities of subcellular organelle marker enzymes were discussed. Activities of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), acid phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase (marker enzymes of mitochondria, lysosome and microsomes, respectively) were estimated. The activities of these enzymes were also measured in cytosol. Subcellular fractionation's were performed in liver, heart and spleen tissues. Aloe vera was supplemented daily to rats (0.25 ml/kg body wt/day) by gavage, 5 days before irradiation and treatment was extended for 10 days post irradiation. Experimental investigations were performed on the 3rd and 10th day after exposure to radiation. The results obtained indicated that, Aloe vera administration has significantly minimized the radiation-induced increase in the amount of TBARS in different cell fractions as compared with control rats. Significant amelioration in the activities of organelles marker enzymes GDH, acid phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase was observed from 3rd up to 10th days for the 3 tissues. The results also detected improvement in cytosolic enzyme activities due to Aloe vera intake. It could be suggested that the diverse active constituents of Aloe vera play a significant role in decreasing the peroxidation of subcellular membrane lipids induced by radiation exposure, prevent diffusion of organelle enzymes to cytosol and consequently salvage the integrity of living cell

  13. Inhibition of intestinal epithelial apoptosis improves survival in a murine model of radiation combined injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Enjae; Perrone, Erin E; Brahmamdan, Pavan; McDonough, Jacquelyn S; Leathersich, Ann M; Dominguez, Jessica A; Clark, Andrew T; Fox, Amy C; Dunne, W Michael; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2013-01-01

    World conditions place large populations at risk from ionizing radiation (IR) from detonation of dirty bombs or nuclear devices. In a subgroup of patients, ionizing radiation exposure would be followed by a secondary infection. The effects of radiation combined injury are potentially more lethal than either insult in isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanisms of mortality and possible therapeutic targets in radiation combined injury. Mice were exposed to IR with 2.5 Gray (Gy) followed four days later by intratracheal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). While either IR or MRSA alone yielded 100% survival, animals with radiation combined injury had 53% survival (p = 0.01). Compared to IR or MRSA alone, mice with radiation combined injury had increased gut apoptosis, local and systemic bacterial burden, decreased splenic CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and increased BAL and systemic IL-6 and G-CSF. In contrast, radiation combined injury did not alter lymphocyte apoptosis, pulmonary injury, or intestinal proliferation compared to IR or MRSA alone. In light of the synergistic increase in gut apoptosis following radiation combined injury, transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their intestine and wild type mice were subjected to IR followed by MRSA. Bcl-2 mice had decreased gut apoptosis and improved survival compared to WT mice (92% vs. 42%; p<0.01). These data demonstrate that radiation combined injury results in significantly higher mortality than could be predicted based upon either IR or MRSA infection alone, and that preventing gut apoptosis may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:24204769

  14. Inhibition of intestinal epithelial apoptosis improves survival in a murine model of radiation combined injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjae Jung

    Full Text Available World conditions place large populations at risk from ionizing radiation (IR from detonation of dirty bombs or nuclear devices. In a subgroup of patients, ionizing radiation exposure would be followed by a secondary infection. The effects of radiation combined injury are potentially more lethal than either insult in isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanisms of mortality and possible therapeutic targets in radiation combined injury. Mice were exposed to IR with 2.5 Gray (Gy followed four days later by intratracheal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. While either IR or MRSA alone yielded 100% survival, animals with radiation combined injury had 53% survival (p = 0.01. Compared to IR or MRSA alone, mice with radiation combined injury had increased gut apoptosis, local and systemic bacterial burden, decreased splenic CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and increased BAL and systemic IL-6 and G-CSF. In contrast, radiation combined injury did not alter lymphocyte apoptosis, pulmonary injury, or intestinal proliferation compared to IR or MRSA alone. In light of the synergistic increase in gut apoptosis following radiation combined injury, transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their intestine and wild type mice were subjected to IR followed by MRSA. Bcl-2 mice had decreased gut apoptosis and improved survival compared to WT mice (92% vs. 42%; p<0.01. These data demonstrate that radiation combined injury results in significantly higher mortality than could be predicted based upon either IR or MRSA infection alone, and that preventing gut apoptosis may be a potential therapeutic target.

  15. 放烧复合伤的治疗研究%Studies on the treatment of combined radiation-burn injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程天民; 冉新泽

    2008-01-01

    Combined radiation-bum injuries mainly occur under the circumstances of nuclear explosion, nuclear accident, nuclear terrorism, depleted uranium attack, as well as secondary injuries following attack on nuclear installation. Combination of burn and radiation injuries bring along more serious whole body damage, more complicated pathological mechanism and much more difficult management. Research progress on the pathological mechanism and medical management of several key links of combined injury were discussed in this paper.①En-hancement of early first aid and prevention of early death of wounded. ②Damage and restoration of hemopoetic function.③Disturbance of immune function and prevention and treatment of infection (mainly on the intestinla mucosa immunity and enter-ological infection).④Management of burn wound.⑤The uole of several important measures in the comprehensive treatment.

  16. A case of hypopharyngeal stenosis caused by late radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reported a 47-year-old man with hypopharyngeal stenosis caused by late radiation injuries. At the age of ten he underwent irradiation (3000 rads) to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy. He had keroid skin change at the age of 19, hypothyroidism since 26, right cervical and brachial plexus neuropathy since 33, and paralysis and papilloma of right vocal cord at 34. And at the age of 41 he underwent tracheotomy owing to laryngeal stenosis. In November 1984 (at age 43) he felt abnormal sensation on the throat but had no dysphagia nor misdigulutition. On November 1987 he had difficulties of swallowing, and could not take anything but fluid. At that time he was diagnosed as hypopharyngeal stenosis. With steroids and antibiotics his difficulties of swallowing were reduced. He experienced the same difficulties on April 1988. Since December 1988 his dysphagia got worse and was not recovered with medication. On May 17 1989, laryngopharyngectomy was performed. At the level of cricoid cartilage hypopharynx was resected. As for the posterior wall, pharynx and cervical esophagus were fixed to prevertebral fascia and anastomosed with end-to-end. And antero-lateral defects were reconstructed with myomucosal tongue flap. Postoperatively he could eat orally. On the basis of the experience of this case and the review of the literature the authors conclude that myomucosal tongue flap is one of alternatives for hypopharyngeal reconstruction. (author)

  17. Factors affecting radiation injury after interstitial brachytherapy for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of brachytherapy on normal brain tissue are not easily delineated in the clinical setting because of the presence of concurrent radiation-induced changes in the coexistent brain tumor. Sequential morphologic studies performed after the implantation of radioactive sources into the brains of experimental animals have provided a better understanding of the character and magnitude of the structural changes produced by interstitial irradiation on normal brain tissue. Furthermore, the clinical experience accumulated thus far provides not only relevant information, but also some guidelines for future treatment policies. In this paper, the authors summarize the experimental findings and review the pathologic and clinical features of brain injury caused by interstitial brachytherapy. A number of studies in the older literature examined the effects of radioisotopes such as radium-226 (38--43), radon-22 (44--46), gold-198 (29,47--50), tantalum-182 (29,51,52) yttrium-9- (50,53,54), and cobalt-60 (29,50,55). This review is restricted to low- and high-activity encapsulated iodine-125 (125I) and iridium-192 (192Ir), the isotopes that are most commonly used in current clinical practice

  18. The Protective Role of Ginkgo Biloba against Radiation Induced Injury on Rat Gastro-intestinal Tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb 761) is an antioxidant substance exhibits a wide variety of biological activities. The present study was performed to evaluate oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters of gastrointestinal injury induced by exposing rats to acute doses of γ-rays and the potential value of EGb 761 in preventing changes in these parameters. Male albino rats were treated orally with the extract in a dose of 100 mg/ kg for 7 successive days before whole body exposure to acute radiation levels of 2 and 6 Gray (Gy). Control groups were run concurrently. The rats were sacrificed 3 days after irradiation. Various inflammatory mediators and biochemical parameters were determined in the stomach and intestine. Both tissues were also examined histopathologically. Exposure to radiation led to dose dependent changes in the level of oxidative stress biomarkers (elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and nitrite associated with a glutathione (GSH) decrease as well as in the level of inflammatory parameters (elevation of Tumour necrosis factorα (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) associated with depletion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Pre-treatment with EGb 761 protected against the changes in both oxidative stress biomarkers and inflammatory mediators. EGb 761 exerted a protective effect against the radiation induced gastrointestinal damage, possibly through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties.

  19. Actual versus ideal body weight for acute kidney injury diagnosis and classification in critically Ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Thongprayoon, Charat; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Akhoundi, Abbasali; Ahmed, Adil H.; Kashani, Kianoush B

    2014-01-01

    Background In the current acute kidney injury (AKI) definition, the urine output (UO) criterion does not specify which body weights (BW), i.e. actual (ABW) versus ideal (IBW), should be used to diagnose and stage AKI, leading to heterogeneity across research studies. Methods This is a single center, retrospective, observational study conducted at a tertiary referral hospital. All adult patients who were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at our institution for a minimum of 6 continuous h...

  20. Clinical and experimental investigation on small intestinal injury following radiation therapy for carcinoma of uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation injury of the small bowel was observed in 6 of 460 patients with carcinoma of uterine cervix who were treated by radiation between April 1966 and December 1973 at Tokyo Women's Medical College, Department of Radiology. Three of these 6 patients were treated conservatively and the other 3 others underwent surgery but died subsequently. Clinically and surgically these 6 patients showed marked adhesions of intestinal loops, which may be accounted for by the radiation injury of the small bowel. Clinical experience has shown that it is necessary to use a small radiation field to decrease small bowel injury from radiation. An experiment using abdominal radiation in mice confirmed that LD sub(50/30) is larger with a center split, maintaining equal integral doses. In adult dogs, severe small bowel obstruction was observed with over 4000 rad irradiation. Small bowel injury was milder in case with center split, intracavitary irradiation, and small radiation field. It was concluded that center split is one of the methods of preventing radiation injury of the small bowel. (Evans, J.)

  1. Thermalization of magnetized electrons from black body radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe an interesting mechanism whereby an electron in a strong magnetic field can have both the parallel and perpendicular motions come into thermal equilibrium with black body radiation. The mechanism does not include any collisions with other particles and can overcome the extreme slowing of thermalization of highly magnetized particles at low temperatures. The mechanism depends upon the magnetic field strength having a spatial variation. We provide results from two example cases. This mechanism could affect the temperatures that can be achieved in experiments devoted to trapping antihydrogen

  2. Post-Radiational Changes in DNA Metabolism as Indicators of Radiation Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To serve as indicators of radiation effects, post-radiational metabolic reactions must be highly radiosensitive with a quantitative dependence on irradiation dose: they must possess the property of specificity, i. e. they must respond to irradiation in the biological dose range much more strongly than to any extreme non-radiational influence; and they must be correlated with the main post-radiational pathogenetic mechanisms. An analysis of the published research on post-radiational disturbances of DNA metabolism in the organism leads to the conclusion that the above-mentioned criteria are largely met by the following phenomena: hyperexcretion of deoxynucleosides in the urine caused by irradiation (deoxynucleosiduria), and an increased amount of polydeoxyribonucleotides in the bone marrow of an irradiated organism. Deoxynucleosiduria has the following characteristics: quantitative dependence on the irradiation dose rate in animals; maximum radiosensitivity occurring during the period 6-12 hours after irradiation; specificity; phasing, the hyperexcretion of deoxycytidine during the first two days after irradiation reflects the destruction of cells in the radiosensitive tissues; a new wave of restorative activity, which reflects the hyperproduction of DNA precursors in the post-radiational recovery phase. This indicator can be used for quantitative and time estimation of both pathogenetic effects of irradiation, i.e. damage and recovery. The fact that postradiational nucleosiduria in man has not yet been adequately studied limits its clinical use as a test for radiation damage. Determining the amount of polydeoxyribonucleotides in bone-marrow punctures from an irradiated organism is to some extent inferior to the use of deoxynucleosiduria as a test for radiation damage. With this indicator one cannot evaluate the injury caused by irradiation at doses above 300 R or estimate the level of the post-radiational recovery processes. Before use can be made of the

  3. A functionally relevant tool for the body following spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Pazzaglia

    Full Text Available A tool such as a prosthetic device that extends or restores movement may become part of the identity of the person to whom it belongs. For example, some individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI adapt their body and action representation to incorporate their wheelchairs. However, it remains unclear whether the bodily assimilation of a relevant external tool develops as a consequence of altered sensory and motor inputs from the body or of prolonged confinement sitting or lying in the wheelchair. To explore such relationships, we used a principal component analysis (PCA on collected structured reports detailing introspective experiences of wheelchair use in 55 wheelchair-bound individuals with SCI. Among all patients, the regular use of a wheelchair induced the perception that the body's edges are not fixed, but are instead plastic and flexible to include the wheelchair. The PCA revealed the presence of three major components. In particular, the functional aspect of the sense of embodiment concerning the wheelchair appeared to be modulated by disconnected body segments. Neither an effect of time since injury nor an effect of exposure to/experience of was detected. Patients with lesions in the lower spinal cord and with loss of movement and sensation in the legs but who retained upper body movement showed a higher degree of functional embodiment than those with lesions in the upper spinal cord and impairment in the entire body. In essence, the tool did not become an extension of the immobile limbs; rather, it became an actual tangible substitution of the functionality of the affected body part. These findings suggest that the brain can incorporate relevant artificial tools into the body schema via the natural process of continuously updating bodily signals. The ability to embody new essential objects extends the potentiality of physically impaired persons and can be used for their rehabilitation.

  4. The Protective Effects of 5-Methoxytryptamine-α-lipoic Acid on Ionizing Radiation-Induced Hematopoietic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguan Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are prospective radioprotectors because of their ability to scavenge radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS. The hematopoietic system is widely studied in radiation research because of its high radiosensitivity. In the present study, we describe the beneficial effects of 5-methoxytryptamine-α-lipoic acid (MLA, which was synthesized from melatonin and α-lipoic acid, against radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. MLA administration significantly enhanced the survival rate of mice after 7.2 Gy total body irradiation. The results showed that MLA not only markedly increased the numbers and clonogenic potential of hematopoietic cells but also decreased DNA damage, as determined by flow cytometric analysis of histone H2AX phosphorylation. In addition, MLA decreased the levels of ROS in hematopoietic cells by inhibiting NOX4 expression. These data demonstrate that MLA prevents radiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome by increasing the number and function of and by inhibiting DNA damage and ROS production in hematopoietic cells. These data suggest MLA is beneficial for the protection of radiation injuries.

  5. Changes of some immune functions in combined radiation-burn injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of some immune functions in radiation injury (6 Gy), burn injury (15%, III deg) and combined radiation-burn injury (CRBI) were studied in rats. The results showed that the functions of splenocytes and thymocytes in radiation injury group (RIG) were depressed more markedly 24-72 h after injury. The degree of thymocyte depression in burn injury group (BIG) was significantly lower than that in RIG and recovered more easily. The characteristics of the CRBI effects were as follows: (1) The combined depression effect on thymocytes in CRBI as compared with that in RIG was deeper and the recovery was slower. (2) The depression course of splenocytes was similar to that in RIG, but the depression degree in the early stage was significantly more heavy than that in RIG. (3) In the later stage of CRBI the level of recovery of TH cells was significantly lower than that in RIG. (4) Eschar-excision plus skin grafting at 24 h after combined injury was helpful for the recovery of thymocyte and splenocytes function. The results showed that the depression and recovery of immune functions in combined injury were closely related to the wound of burn

  6. Radiation combined injury models to study the effects of interventions and wound biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawaski, Janice A; Yates, Charles R; Miller, Duane D; Kaffes, Caterina C; Sabek, Omaima M; Afshar, Solmaz F; Young, Daniel A; Yang, Yunzhi; Gaber, M Waleed

    2014-12-01

    In the event of a nuclear detonation, a considerable number of projected casualties will suffer from combined radiation exposure and burn and/or wound injury. Countermeasure assessment in the setting of radiation exposure combined with dermal injury is hampered by a lack of animal models in which the effects of interventions have been characterized. To address this need, we used two separate models to characterize wound closure. The first was an open wound model in mice to study the effect of wound size in combination with whole-body 6 Gy irradiation on the rate of wound closure, animal weight and survival (morbidity). In this model the addition of interventions, wound closure, subcutaneous vehicle injection, topical antiseptic and topical antibiotics were studied to measure their effect on healing and survival. The second was a rat closed wound model to study the biomechanical properties of a healed wound at 10 days postirradiation (irradiated with 6 or 7.5 Gy). In addition, complete blood counts were performed and wound pathology by staining with hematoxylin and eosin, trichrome, CD68 and Ki67. In the mouse open wound model, we found that wound size and morbidity were positively correlated, while wound size and survival were negatively correlated. Regardless of the wound size, the addition of radiation exposure delayed the healing of the wound by approximately 5-6 days. The addition of interventions caused, at a minimum, a 30% increase in survival and improved mean survival by ∼9 days. In the rat closed wound model we found that radiation exposure significantly decreased all wound biomechanical measurements as well as white blood cell, platelet and red blood cell counts at 10 days post wounding. Also, pathological changes showed a loss of dermal structure, thickening of dermis, loss of collagen/epithelial hyperplasia and an increased density of macrophages. In conclusion, we have characterized the effect of a changing wound size in combination with radiation

  7. Using a whole body counter to attract a younger generation to radiation and radiation protection topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently there is a lack of young academics in the nuclear field especially in the field of radiation protection RP. One of the reasons is the very small number of students in the so called STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) which distribute among the different topics in these fields. One important task to overcome the foreseeable shortage of RP professionals is to attract pupils to this field. In routine monitoring the whole body counter of the Institute of Radiation Research (ISF) is used to identify and quantify radioactive materials that are incorporated in the human body using the technique of gamma spectroscopy. The in-vivo monitoring lab participates in activities for pupils at school level, e.g. Kinderuniversitaet, practical studies of secondary level pupils and 'Girls day'. Pupils that come to the lab are ages 14 to 18. The whole body counter is an optimal tool for these children to experience (natural) radioactivity and radiation protection issues. First pupils get a short introduction on radioactivity and gamma spectroscopy at a level adjusted to their current knowledge. After this they are measuring themselves in the whole body counter. A routine measurement of 300 s is able to show the natural occurring K-40 in their bodies. After their own measurements they do calibration measurements using a bottle phantom with a set up adjusted to their own body weights. The bottle phantom is filled with a potassium chloride (KCl) solution and contains no other radioactivity than the natural K-40 content of the KCl. Thus no further radiation protection measures need to be taken for using this phantom. A simple Excel-Sheet is then used to estimate their own K-40 activity by comparing the spectra of their measurement to the ones of the calibration measurements. This 'hands on' experience and the connection of radiation and their own bodies often is a 'eureka' effect and opens discussion on preconceptions of radiation and the need of RP

  8. Reactive oxygen species perpetuate radiation-induced lung injury: causes and cures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of unacceptable radiation-induced lung injury remains a significant limiting factor in the current treatment of the tumors involving the thoracic region. Despite advances in normal tissue radiobiology, demonstrating that ionizing radiation triggers a cascade of genetic and molecular events that proceed during a latent period of pulmonary injury, the precise mechanisms underlying radiation-induced lung injury remain unclear. Based on our recent results, we propose a new paradigm of radiation-induced lung injury hypothesizing that hypoxia plays a central role in generating a non-healing wound response that perpetuates radiation lung injury through continuous generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression/activation of cytokines. Several lines of evidence from our group support this hypothesis. Using electron spin resonance (ESR) and spin trapping we have demonstrated the presence of ROS in rat lungs 13 weeks after irradiation. In a transgenic mouse model we have shown that overexpression of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD), an important scavenger of ROS, ameliorates RT-induced lung injury. In addition, our data show that synthetic superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic compounds can be used to target ROS and reduce RT-induced lung damage. The findings noted above indicating a role for chronic ROS expression in the perpetuation of a wound healing response, suggest that long term SOD mimetic administration may be an effective therapeutic intervention. This strategy may reduce the risk of radiation-induced lung injury at standard radiation doses and may allow for higher doses of radiation to be delivered to selected tumors without increasing the risk of pulmonary complications

  9. Micronucleus frequency in peripheral lymphocytes for the differential diagnosis of radiation injuries combined with thermal burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was conducted to determine if any analysis of micronucleus frequency in human peripheral lymphocytes was useful to diagnostically differentiate radiation injuries in the presence of thermal burns. In the first part of the study, 27 patients with burns of various degrees were tested to determine if the peripheral lymphocytes stimulated in vitro for mitotic division would contain micronuclei--a type of chromosomal aberration inducible by many genotoxic substances. Data showed that the frequency of micronuclei did not increase with burn injury but did correlate with age. Therefore, it is suggested that in cases of radiation injuries combined with burns, the pathologic process related to the latter type of injury does not influence the differential diagnostic value of the micronucleus test. In the second part of the study, the validity of this hypothesis was tested in guinea pigs exposed to various doses of gamma-radiation (between 0.5 and 4.0 Gy) and then inflicted with thermal burns. The results confirmed that when radiation injuries and thermal burns coexist, the micronucleus test is a reliable biologic indicator of radiation injury

  10. Apoptosis of dermal fibroblasts in wounds combined with radiation injury and its mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study apoptosis of dermal fibroblasts in wounds combined with total body irradiation (TBI) injury and its mechanisms. Methods: The authors determined the amount of dermal fibroblasts in wounds of rats using histological method, observed apoptosis of dermal fibroblasts in wounds by transmission electron microscope and TUNEL assay, and detected the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in wounds with immunohistochemistry method. Results: The ratio of fibroblastic apoptosis in wounds combined with TBI injury significantly increased as compared with that of simple incision injury. The contents of Bax in wounds combined with TBI injury were significantly higher than those of simple incision injury, and the contents of Bcl-2 and Bcl-2/Bax ratio in the former were significantly lower. Conclusion: Apoptosis of dermal fibroblasts in wounds combined with TBI injury increases significantly, which causes reduction of the amount of fibroblasts. Abnormalities of Bcl-2, Bax and Bcl-2/Bax ratio are important reasons of the increase of fibroblastic apoptosis

  11. The Role of the Nurse in the Rehabilitation of Patients with Radical Changes in Body Image Due to Burn Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Aacovou, I.

    2005-01-01

    Burn injuries are among the most serious causes of radical changes in body image. The subject of body image and self-image is essential in rehabilitation, and the nurse must be aware of the issues related to these concepts and take them seriously into account in drafting out the nursing programme. This paper defines certain key words related to body image and discusses the social context of body image. Burn injuries are considered in relation to the way each of these affects the patient's bod...

  12. Protective effect of catecholestrogens against 60Co γ-ray radiation injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When 10-week-old male BALB/c mice received whole-body irradiation with a single dose of 8 Gy 60Co γ-ray and catecholestrogen 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2) was subcutaneously injected 3 hours before and after the irradiation, 30-day survival rate of the mice was 70%, while the survival rate of the mice administered the other test samples was as follows; 2-hydroxyestrone, 20%; 2-hydroxyestriol, 20%; 4-hydroxyestradiol, 0%; 2-methoxyestrone, 0%; 2-methoxyestradiol, 0%; 2-methoxyestriol, 0%; estrone, 0%; estradiol, 5%; estriol, 0%; control, 5%. Lipid peroxide level in the liver of mice markedly increased on the 4th day after the irradiation. However, this increase in the lipid peroxide level was significantly suppressed by the administration of 2-OHE2. The radiation-induced anemia, leukopenia, and atrophy of the thymus were significantly protected by the administration of 2-OHE2. These results indicate that 2-OHE2 had a potent inhibitory effect on radiation injury. (author)

  13. Quercetin prevents pyrrolizidine alkaloid clivorine-induced liver injury in mice by elevating body defense capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Ji

    Full Text Available Quercetin is a plant-derived flavonoid that is widely distributed in nature. The present study is designed to analyze the underlying mechanism in the protection of quercetin against pyrrolizidine alkaloid clivorine-induced acute liver injury in vivo. Serum transaminases, total bilirubin analysis, and liver histological evaluation demonstrated the protection of quercetin against clivorine-induced liver injury. Terminal dUTP nick end-labeling assay demonstrated that quercetin reduced the increased amount of liver apoptotic cells induced by clivorine. Western-blot analysis of caspase-3 showed that quercetin inhibited the cleaved activation of caspase-3 induced by clivorine. Results also showed that quercetin reduced the increase in liver glutathione and lipid peroxidative product malondialdehyde induced by clivorine. Quercetin reduced the enhanced liver immunohistochemical staining for 4-hydroxynonenal induced by clivorine. Results of the Mouse Stress and Toxicity PathwayFinder RT2 Profiler PCR Array demonstrated that the expression of genes related with oxidative or metabolic stress and heat shock was obviously altered after quercetin treatment. Some of the alterations were confirmed by real-time PCR. Our results demonstrated that quercetin prevents clivorine-induced acute liver injury in vivo by inhibiting apoptotic cell death and ameliorating oxidative stress injury. This protection may be caused by the elevation of the body defense capacity induced by quercetin.

  14. Injury patterns to other body regions and load vectors in nearside impact occupants with and without shoulder injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Stadter, Gregory W.; Halloway, Dale E.; Pintar, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    CIREN and NASS-CDS databases were used to analyze nearside impact injuries. Front seat occupants with and without shoulder injuries were examined on an individual basis in both databases. All vehicles were from model year 2000 or newer. Variables such as the type of collision, change in velocity, principal direction force, demographics, injuries scored by the MAIS and ISS metrics, and injuries to the head, thorax, abdomen and pelvis were included. Shoulder injuries included fractures to the h...

  15. Radiation-Related Injuries and Their Management: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Wunderle, Kevin; Gill, Amanjit S.

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (in the form of X-rays) is used for the majority of procedures in interventional radiology. This review article aimed at promoting safer use of this tool through a better understanding of radiation dose and radiation effects, and by providing guidance for setting up a quality assurance program. To this end, the authors describe different radiation descriptive quantities and their individual strengths and challenges, as well as the biologic effects of ionizing radiation, inc...

  16. Expression and significance of EGFR protein in model of radiation injury in mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The expression of EGFR protein was studied by SABC immunohistochemistry in 40 cases of model of radiation injury in mouse skin. Methods: Experiment animals were divided into four groups according to radiation dose. Results: The positive rates were 27.0%, 49.3%, 72.2%, 87.6% in 5 Gy group, 15 Gy group, 30 Gy group, 45 Gy group respectively, showing significant difference (P < 0.01). While the positive rate was 10.8% in normal control group, with significant difference (P < 0.01) compared with each radiation group. Conclusion: The enhancement of expression of EGFR in accordance with the increasing of radiation dose in certain dose range might be one important factor related to c-erbB-1 gene activated and enlarged by radiation, and the overexpression of EGFR protein might be related to poor healing in radiation skin injury

  17. Acute radiation syndrome, c.aused by single whole-body external irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general characteristic of conceptions of the material substrate of various forms and types of radiation injuries from the moment of a wide use of radiation energy and radioactive substances up to the present time, the dependence of structural changes on the type of ionizing radiation, dose and forms of its effect, are presented. The pathological anatomy of particular manifestations of acute radiation disease in various systems of the organism is described. The attention is paid to the variant of radiation disease taking place during non-uniform general irradiation. Local and general morphological changes which develop in skin, hyperdermic fat and skeleton muscles simultaneously in the zone of massive local effect against the background of the general radiation injury, are described for the first time. Delayed alterations in blood vessels and interstitial tissue after the acute radiation disease are described as well as the pathomorphology and histochemistry of trophic disorders in the acute and delayed periods of acute radiation disease

  18. Recombinant human MFG-E8 attenuates intestinal injury and mortality in severe whole body irradiation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ajakaiye

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI syndrome component of acute radiation syndrome (ARS results from depletion of immature parenchymal stem cells after high dose irradiation and contributes significantly to early mortality. It is associated with severe, irreparable damage in the GI tract and extremely low survival. There is a need for the development of viable mitigators of whole body irradiation (WBI due to the possibility of unexpected high level radiation exposure from nuclear accidents or attacks. We therefore examined the effect of recombinant human milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (rhMFG-E8 in mitigating damage after WBI. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 10 Gy WBI using Cesium-137 as the radiation source. The animals in the treatment group received rhMFG-E8 (166 µg/kg BW subcutaneously once a day with the first dose given 6 h after WBI. Blood and tissue samples from the ileum were collected after 3 days of treatment. A separate cohort of animals was treated for 7 days and the 21 day mortality rate was determined. Treatment with rhMFG-E8 significantly improved the survival from 31% to 75% over 21 days. Furthermore, rhMFG-E8 treatment resulted in a 36% reduction in the radiation injury intestinal mucosal damage score, corresponding to visible histological changes. MFG-E8 gene expression was significantly decreased in WBI-induced animals as compared to sham controls. Treatment with rhMFG-E8 increased p53 and p21 expression by 207% and 84% compared to untreated controls. This was accompanied by an 80% increase in the expression of anti-apoptotic cell regulator Bcl-2. p53 and p21 levels correlate with improved survival after radiation injury. These cell regulators arrest the cell after DNA damage and enable DNA repair as well as optimize cell survival. Taken together, these results indicate that rhMFG-E8 ameliorates the GI syndrome and improves survival after WBI by minimizing intestinal cell damage and optimizing recovery.

  19. Ghrelin Therapy Improves Survival after Whole-Body Ionizing Irradiation or Combined with Burn or Wound: Amelioration of Leukocytopenia, Thrombocytopenia, Splenomegaly, and Bone Marrow Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Juliann G.; Zhai, Min; Liao, Pei-Jyun; Elliott, Thomas B.; Gorbunov, Nikolai V.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation alone (RI) or combined with traumatic tissue injury (CI) is a crucial life-threatening factor in nuclear and radiological events. In our laboratory, mice exposed to 60Co-γ-photon radiation (9.5 Gy, 0.4 Gy/min, bilateral) followed by 15% total-body-surface-area skin wounds (R-W CI) or burns (R-B CI) experienced an increment of ≥18% higher mortality over a 30-day observation period compared to RI alone. CI was accompanied by severe leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, erythropenia, and anemia. At the 30th day after injury, numbers of WBC and platelets still remained very low in surviving RI and CI mice. In contrast, their RBC, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were recovered towards preirradiation levels. Only RI induced splenomegaly. RI and CI resulted in bone-marrow cell depletion. In R-W CI mice, ghrelin (a hunger-stimulating peptide) therapy increased survival, mitigated body-weight loss, accelerated wound healing, and increased hematocrit. In R-B CI mice, ghrelin therapy increased survival and numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets and ameliorated bone-marrow cell depletion. In RI mice, this treatment increased survival, hemoglobin, and hematocrit and inhibited splenomegaly. Our novel results are the first to suggest that ghrelin therapy effectively improved survival by mitigating CI-induced leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, and bone-marrow injury or the RI-induced decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit. PMID:25374650

  20. Analysis and treatment of radiation injuries occuring after radiotherapy in carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue tolerance dose depends upon the irradiated volume. Advanced cancer requests large irradiated volume, and increase of irradiated volume brings increase of radiation injuries. Radium volume implant contributes greatly to control the invasive advanced cancers of oral cavity. But, radiation injuries accompanied were obliged to increase. Soft tissue radiation necroses -radiation ulcer- and small necrosis of mandible can be treated by conservative therapy. But, advanced necrosis of mandible is forced to be treated by mandibulectomy. As for oropharynx, development of supervoltage radiotherapy increased radiation necrosis according to increase of irradiated dose. But, recently, radiation injury in the oropharynx is inclined to decrease. (author)

  1. Protective Effects of 5-Androstendiol (5-AED) on Radiation-induced Intestinal Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joong Sun; Lee, Seung Sook; Jang, Won Suk; Lee, Sun Joo; Park, Sun Hoo; Kim, MinSook; Cho, Soo Youn [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National University College of Veterinary Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We examined the radioprotective effects of 5-androstendiol (5-AED), a natural hormone produced in the reticularis of the adrenal cortex, as a result of intestinal damage in gamma-irradiated C3H/HeN mice. Thirty mice (C3H/HeN) were divided into three groups; 1) non-irradiated control group, 2) irradiated group, and 3) 5-AED-treated group prior to irradiation. Next, 5-AED (50 mg/kg per body weight) was subcutaneously injected 24 hours before irradiation. The mice were whole-body irradiated with 10 Gy for the histological examination of jejunal crypt survival and the determination of the villus morphology including crypt depth, crypt size, number of villi, villus height, and length of basal lamina, as well as 5 Gy for the detection of apoptosis. The 5-AED pre-treated group significantly increased the survival of the jejunal crypt, compared to irradiation controls (p<0.05 vs. irradiation controls at 3.5 days after 10 Gy). The evaluation of morphological changes revealed that the administration of 5-AED reduced the radiation-induced intestinal damages such as villus shortening and increased length of the basal lamina of enterocytes (p<0.05 vs irradiation controls on 3.5 day after 10 Gy, respectively). The administration of 5-AED decreased the radiation-induced apoptosis in the intestinal crypt, with no significant difference between the vehicle and 5-AED at 12 hours after 5 Gy. The results of this study suggest that the administration of 5-AED has a protective effect on intestinal damage induced by {gamma}-irradiation. In turn, these results suggest that 5-AED could be a useful candidate for radioprotection against intestinal mucosal injury following irradiation.

  2. Protective Effects of 5-Androstendiol (5-AED) on Radiation-induced Intestinal Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the radioprotective effects of 5-androstendiol (5-AED), a natural hormone produced in the reticularis of the adrenal cortex, as a result of intestinal damage in gamma-irradiated C3H/HeN mice. Thirty mice (C3H/HeN) were divided into three groups; 1) non-irradiated control group, 2) irradiated group, and 3) 5-AED-treated group prior to irradiation. Next, 5-AED (50 mg/kg per body weight) was subcutaneously injected 24 hours before irradiation. The mice were whole-body irradiated with 10 Gy for the histological examination of jejunal crypt survival and the determination of the villus morphology including crypt depth, crypt size, number of villi, villus height, and length of basal lamina, as well as 5 Gy for the detection of apoptosis. The 5-AED pre-treated group significantly increased the survival of the jejunal crypt, compared to irradiation controls (p<0.05 vs. irradiation controls at 3.5 days after 10 Gy). The evaluation of morphological changes revealed that the administration of 5-AED reduced the radiation-induced intestinal damages such as villus shortening and increased length of the basal lamina of enterocytes (p<0.05 vs irradiation controls on 3.5 day after 10 Gy, respectively). The administration of 5-AED decreased the radiation-induced apoptosis in the intestinal crypt, with no significant difference between the vehicle and 5-AED at 12 hours after 5 Gy. The results of this study suggest that the administration of 5-AED has a protective effect on intestinal damage induced by γ-irradiation. In turn, these results suggest that 5-AED could be a useful candidate for radioprotection against intestinal mucosal injury following irradiation.

  3. Nigella sativa oil Ameliorates ionizing Radiation induced cellular injury in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigella sativa (NS), commonly known as black seed, is a plant spices in which thymoquinone is the main active ingredient isolated from the black seeds. The seeds of Nigella sativa are used in herbal medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases. The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of NS against gamma radiation induced nephrotoxicity and inflammatory changes in male albino rats. Twenty four albino rats were divided into four equal groups as follows: control group, irradiated group (animals subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy), treated group (rats treated with 0.2 ml/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks), and treated irradiated group (animals treated with 0.2 mL/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy). The obtained results revealed that the administration of Nigella sativa oil to irradiated rats significantly ameliorated the changes induced in kidney antioxidant system; catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as reduced glutathione concentration. Also, NS oil restored the kidney function indices (urea and creatinine) near normal level when compared with their equivalent values in irradiated rats. In addition, the changes in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) activities were markedly improved compared to the corresponding values of irradiated group. The histopathological results showed distinctive pattern of ischemic renal injury in irradiated group, while in treated- irradiated group the renal tissues showed relatively well-preserved architecture with or without focal degeneration. In conclusion, NS acts in the kidney as a potent scavenger of free radicals to prevent or ameliorates the toxic effects of gamma irradiation as shown in the biochemical and histopathological study and also NS oil might provide substantial protection against

  4. Radiation injury of the skin following diagnostic and interventional fluoroscopic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many radiation injuries to the skin, resulting from diagnostic and interventional fluoroscopic procedures, have been reported in recent years. In some cases skin damage was severe and debilitating. We analyzed 72 reports of skin injuries for progression and location of injury, type and number of procedures, and contributing patient and operator factors. Most cases (46) were related to coronary angiography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). A smaller number was documented after cardiac radiofrequency catheter ablation (12), transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement (7), neuroradiological interventions (3) and other procedures (4). Important factors leading to skin injuries were long exposure times over the same skin area, use of high dose rates, irradiation through thick tissue masses, hypersensitivity to radiation, and positioning of arms or breasts into the radiation entrance beam. Physicians were frequently unaware of the high radiation doses involved and did not recognize the injuries as radiation induced. Based on these findings, recommendations to reduce dose and improve patient care are provided. (author)

  5. The stereotactic body radiation therapy: initiation and clinical program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fully describe an innovative radiotherapy technique called Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT), and explain how this technique is commonly used for clinical purpose at the anticancer center Leon-Berard (Lyon, France). In this technique, a non-invasive stereotactic body frame is used to locate the tumor site with a great precision. This frame is combined with a system, which enables to track the respiratory motions (Active Breathing Control (ABC) or diaphragmatic compression (DC)) in order to reduce the treatment margins for organ motion due to breathing. Thus, the volume of normal tissues that will be irradiated is considerably reduced. The dosimetry is realized with 3 CT exams performed in treatment conditions. The 3D patient 'repositioning' is done with a volume CT acquisition (kV) combined with orthogonal images (kV and MV). The SBRT requires a system to limit the organ motions. Although the ABC seems to be more fastidious for patient, it would enable to use smaller margins than with DC technique. Nevertheless, the ABC is not compatible with volume CT acquisitions, which considerably improve the patient repositioning. In conclusion, the quality of repositioning and the high level of conformation enable to deliver high equivalent doses (> 100 Gy) in hypo-fractionated mode, without increasing the treatment toxicity. The SBRT employs the last technologic innovations in radio-therapy and is therefore considered as a new efficient tool for solid tumors treatment. (author)

  6. Attenuative effects of G-CSF in radiation induced intestinal injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joong Sun; Gong, Eun Ji; Kim, Sung Dae; Heo, Kyu; Ryoo, Seung Bum; Yang, Kwang Mo [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been reported to protect from radiationinduced myelosuppression. Growing evidence suggests that G-CSF also has many important non-hematopoietic functions in other tissues, including the intestine (Kim et al., 2010; Kim et al., 2011). However, little is known about the influence of G-CSF on intestinal injury. Examination 12 hours after radiation (5 Gy) revealed that the G-CSF treated mice were significantly protected from apoptosis of jejunal crypt, compared with radiation controls. G-CSF treatment attenuated intestinal morphological changes such as decreased survival crypt, the number of villi, villous shortening, crypt depth and length of basal lamina of 10 enterocytes compared with the radiation control 3.5 days after radiation (10 Gy). G-CSF attenuated the change of peripheral blood from radiation-induced myelosuppression and displayed attenuation of mortality in lethally-irradiated (10 Gy) mice. The present results support the suggestion that G-CSF administrated prior to radiation plays an important role in the survival of irradiated mice, possibly due to the protection of hematopoietic cells and intestinal stem cells against radiation. The results indicate that G-CSF protects from radiation-mediated intestinal damage and from hematopoietic injury. G-CSF treatment may be useful clinically in the prevention of injury following radiation.

  7. Attenuative effects of G-CSF in radiation induced intestinal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been reported to protect from radiationinduced myelosuppression. Growing evidence suggests that G-CSF also has many important non-hematopoietic functions in other tissues, including the intestine (Kim et al., 2010; Kim et al., 2011). However, little is known about the influence of G-CSF on intestinal injury. Examination 12 hours after radiation (5 Gy) revealed that the G-CSF treated mice were significantly protected from apoptosis of jejunal crypt, compared with radiation controls. G-CSF treatment attenuated intestinal morphological changes such as decreased survival crypt, the number of villi, villous shortening, crypt depth and length of basal lamina of 10 enterocytes compared with the radiation control 3.5 days after radiation (10 Gy). G-CSF attenuated the change of peripheral blood from radiation-induced myelosuppression and displayed attenuation of mortality in lethally-irradiated (10 Gy) mice. The present results support the suggestion that G-CSF administrated prior to radiation plays an important role in the survival of irradiated mice, possibly due to the protection of hematopoietic cells and intestinal stem cells against radiation. The results indicate that G-CSF protects from radiation-mediated intestinal damage and from hematopoietic injury. G-CSF treatment may be useful clinically in the prevention of injury following radiation.

  8. Avoidance of radiation injuries from medical interventional procedures, ICRP Publication 85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interventional radiology (fluoroscopically-guided) techniques are being used by an increasing number of clinicians not adequately trained in radiation safety or radiobiology. Many of these interventionists are not aware of the potential for injury from these procedures or the simple methods for decreasing their incidence. Many patients are not being counselled on the radiation risks, nor followed up when radiation doses from difficult procedures may lead to injury. Some patients are suffering radiation-induced skin injuries and younger patients may face an increased risk of future cancer. Interventionists are having their practice limited or suffering injury, and are exposing their staff to high doses. In some interventional procedures, skin doses to patients approach those experienced in some cancer radiotherapy fractions. Radiation-induced skin injuries are occurring in patients due to the use of inappropriate equipment and, more often, poor operational technique. Injuries to physicians and staff performing interventional procedures have also been observed. Acute radiation doses (to patients) may cause erythema at 2 Gy, cataract at 2 Gy, permanent epilation at 7 Gy, and delayed skin necrosis at 12 Gy. Protracted (occupational) exposures to the eye may cause cataract at 4 Gy if the dose is received in less than 3 months, at 5.5 Gy if received over a period exceeding 3 months. Practical actions to control dose to the patient and to the staff are listed. The absorbed dose to the patient in the area of skin that receives the maximum dose is of priority concern. Each local clinical protocol should include, for each type of interventional procedure, a statement on the cumulative skin doses and skin sites associated with the various parts of the procedure. Interventionists should be trained to use information on skin dose and on practical techniques to control dose. Maximum cumulative absorbed doses that appear to approach or exceed 1 Gy (for procedures that may be

  9. Lung pathology in case of acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of pathomorphological studies of 27 patients exposed to total external γ- and β-radiation resulted from the Chernobyl accident and lost due to the acute radiation disease in the first weeks following radiation exposure are discussed. Dose range is 3.7-13.7 Gy. Two groups of pathological changes in lungs are revealed, those are: infection (bacterial, viral and fungous) ones caused by acute radiation disease and signs of respiratory distress-syndrome in adults

  10. Bioprotection by local and whole-body preheating. Bioprotection of damage to mice tongue from burning by local preheating of oral cavity and of radiation damage of small intestine from whole-body preheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have reported the cytoprotective effects of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 on various stress damage induced by mild heating. In this study, we examined the cytoprotective effects of HSP 70 induced by the local preheating of the oral cavity of mice at 42 deg C for 30 mm, and the following results were obtained. We also examined the cytoprotective effects against radiation injury by whole-body preheating at 41.3-41.6 deg C for 30 min. The concentration of HSP 70 in lymphocytes was increased 2 days after preheating, but not significantly. The concentration of HSP 70 in masseter muscle was significantly increased 2 days after preheating. Under non-heat stress (control), tongue muscle was strongly stained with immunoblotting of HSP 72 antibody, an antibody of induced-type HSP 70. Tongue damage and weight loss of the mice in the preheating group, whose tongues were burned, were less than in the control group. These results showed that HSP 70 induced by local preheating of the oral cavity protected against tongue damage from burning. Radiation injury of the small intestine on HE stain of whole-body radiated mice was obviously reduced by whole-body preheating. Decrease of the ratio of the villus length to the crypt of whole body-irradiated mice was significantly improved by whole-body preheating. From these results, it was concluded that local and whole-body preheating were useful for cytoprotection from stressful damage. (author)

  11. Protective Effects of Ibuprofen and L-Carnitine Against Whole Body Gamma Irradiation-Induced Duodenal Mucosal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Akpolat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ibuprofen and L-carnitine have been demonstrated to provide radioprotective activity to the hamster against whole body sublethal irradiation. The purpose of this study is to test those antioxidant drugs, each of which has the capacity of inhibiting mucosal injury, as topical radioprotectants for the intestine. Material and Methods: The male hamsters were divided into the following four groups (n=6: group 1: control group, received saline, 1 ml/100 g by gavage, as placebo. Group 2: irradiated-control group, received whole body irradiation of 8 Gy as a single dose plus physiological saline. The animals in groups 3 and 4 were given a daily dose of 10 mg/kg of ibuprofen and 50 mg/kg of L-carnitine for 15 days respectively, before irradiation with a single dose of 8 Gy. Twenty-four hours after radiation exposure, the hamsters were sacrificed and samples were taken from the duodenum, and the histopatological determinations were carried out. Results: Morphologically, examination of the gamma irradiated duodenum revealed the presence of shortening and thickening of villi and flattening of enterocytes, massive subepithelial lifting. Pretreatment of ibuprofen and L-carnitine with irradiation reduced these histopathological changes. Conclusion: Ibuprofen and L-carnitine administrated by the oral route may be a good radioprotector against small intestinal damage in patients undergoing radiotherapy.

  12. Polylogarithmic representation of radiative and thermodynamic properties of thermal radiation in a given spectral range: II. Real-body radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Fisenko, Anatoliy I

    2015-01-01

    The general analytical expressions for the thermal radiative and thermodynamic properties of a real-body are obtained in a finite range of frequencies at different temperatures. The frequency dependence of the spectral emissivity is represented as a power series. The Stefan-Boltzmann law, total energy density, number density of photons, Helmholtz free energy density, internal energy density, enthalpy density, entropy density, heat capacity at constant volume, pressure, and total emissivity are expressed in terms of the polylogarithm functions. The general expressions for the thermal radiative and thermodynamic functions are applied for the study of thermal radiation of liquid and solid zirconium carbide. These functions are calculated using experimental data for the frequency dependence of the normal spectral emissivity in the visible-near infrared range at the melting (freezing) point. The gaps between the thermal radiative and thermodynamic functions of liquid and solid zirconium carbide are observed. The g...

  13. Protection from radiation injury by elemental diet: does added glutamine change the effect?

    OpenAIRE

    McArdle, A. H.

    1994-01-01

    The feeding of a protein hydrolysate based 'elemental' diet supplemented with added glutamine did not provide superior protection to the small intestine of dogs subjected to therapeutic pelvic irradiation. Comparison of diets with and without the added glutamine showed significant protection of the intestine from radiation injury. Both histological examination and electron microscopy showed lack of tissue injury with both diets. The activity of the free radical generating enzymes, scavengers,...

  14. Two cases of radiation-induced skin injury following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Chiho; Ichino, Naoki; Araki, Yoshiko; Mouri, Yuki; Yamatodani, Yoshiko [Minoo City Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Morikawa, Kaoru

    1999-02-01

    Two cases of radiation-induced skin injury following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) are reported. Case 1 is a 52-year-old man who underwent PTCA for 7 times. Case 2 is a 67-year-old man who underwent PTCA for 5 times. In both cases, a cutaneous lesion developed into an ulcer over the right infrascapular region. The ulcer was treated surgically. The histopathological features were compatible with chronic radiation dermatitis. To avoid such injury in interventional procedures with long fluoroscopic time, it is very important for medical staffs to recognize the radiation-induced skin injury and to reduce the patient`s absorbed dose as much as possible. (author)

  15. Effect of radiation sickness on the progress and treatment of mechanical and thermal injuries. [In German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, K.

    1964-04-01

    It has been estimated that 70 or 75% of persons exposed to atomic weapons would suffer mechanical and thermal injuries, and that 30% receive radiation injuries. Of the total persons injured, 75% would suffer combinations of these injuries. As a result the various injurious agents, complexes of injury conditions, would be observed. These include leukopenia and impaired resistance to infection, shortened delay in appearance o irradiation symptoms, intensified evidence of shock, and an increased tendency toward hemorrhage, with increased sensitivity to blood loss. The author discusses a wide range of general and specific medical procedures and drugs that can be used to treat and support recovery of persons with combined radiation and mechanical or thermal injuries. Some general treatment procedures include absolute isolation and rest, special dietetic supplementation, strict medical supervision to prevent acute hemorrhage or circulatory failure, and parenteral administration of fluids. Other special measures include treatment of the primary reactions to injury by antihistamines, sedatives, antibiotics, hormones, support of circulation, blood transfusions, etc.

  16. Specific effect of electromagnetic radiation of SHF on genome and some genetic processes in the norm and in case of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modifying effect of electromagnetic radiation of SHF in a wide frequency range on chromosomal aberration yield in various biological objects which is an important test of radiation injury at molecular-cellular level was studied. The presented results testify to the ability of SHF electromagnetic radiation specific effect on the processes of gene expression and to SHD ability to modify radiation injuries at various levels. 13 refs.; 3 figs

  17. Effect of zinc and vitamin E on lipid peroxidation and membrane fluidity in liver with radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of zinc and vitamin E on protecting liver from radiation damage. Methods: After a single 7.5 Gy whole-body irradiation by 60Co gamma rays mice were fed with zinc and vitamin E, then LPO concentration and GSH-Px activity in liver homogenate were tested and changes of membrane fluidities in mitochondria and microsome were observed. Results: After irradiation, the LPO concentration in liver homogenate increased significantly, whereas the activity of GSH-Px decreased. There were changes of membrane fluidities in both mitochondria and microsomes. Conclusions: Zinc and vitamin E can inhibit lipid peroxidation and increase the activity of GSH-Px and membrane fluidity. They might have great potentials in protection against hepatic radiation injury

  18. Evaluation of mass-like consolidation after stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of mass-like consolidation of the lung on computed tomography (CT) after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) retrospectively. Forty lung tumors in 37 patients who underwent SBRT were evaluated. Mass-like consolidation was defined as a dense consolidation that newly appeared over or around the original tumor, which included radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) and local recurrence. Time of appearance, initial CT findings (ectatic bronchi and conformity to dose distribution) and serial changes in the size of the mass-like consolidation were evaluated. Mass-like consolidation appeared in 27 (68%) of 40 tumors at a median of 5 months after SBRT. Follow-up examination revealed that 24 (89%) of the 27 mass-like consolidations were RILI and 3 (11%) were local recurrence. There were no significant differences in the initial CT findings between RILI and local recurrence. The size of the mass-like consolidation varied in the 12 months after SBRT. After 12 months or more, however, the size did not increase in any of the RILI cases, but it did increase in all recurrence cases. Mass-like consolidations were observed in 68% of cases at a median of 5 months after SBRT. Although most of the mass-like consolidations were RILI, local recurrence was observed in a few cases. Early detection of local recurrence after SBRT was difficult. (author)

  19. Amylase and blood cell-count hematological radiation-injury biomarkers in a rhesus monkey radiation model-use of multiparameter and integrated biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective medical management of suspected radiation exposure incidents requires the recording of dynamic medical data (clinical signs and symptoms), biological assessments of radiation exposure, and physical dosimetry in order to provide diagnostic information to the treating physician and dose assessment for personnel radiation protection records. The need to rapidly assess radiation dose in mass-casualty and population-monitoring scenarios prompted an evaluation of suitable biomarkers that can provide early diagnostic information after exposure. We investigated the utility of serum amylase and hematological blood-cell count biomarkers to provide early assessment of severe radiation exposures in a non-human primate model (i.e., rhesus macaques; n=8) exposed to whole-body radiation of 60Co-gamma rays (6.5 Gy, 40cGymin-1). Serum amylase activity was significantly elevated (12.3±3.27- and 2.6±0.058-fold of day zero samples) at 1 and 2-days, respectively, after radiation. Lymphocyte cell counts decreased (≤15% of day zero samples) 1 and 2 days after radiation exposure. Neutrophil cell counts increased at day one by 1.9(±0.38)-fold compared with levels before irradiation. The ratios of neutrophil to lymphocyte cell counts increased by 13(±2.66)- and 4.23(±0.95)-fold at 1 and 2 days, respectively, after irradiation. These results demonstrate that increases in serum amylase activity along with decreases of lymphocyte counts, increases in neutrophil cell counts, and increases in the ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte counts 1 day after irradiation can provide enhanced early triage discrimination of individuals with severe radiation exposure and injury. Use of the biodosimetry assessment tool (BAT) application is encouraged to permit dynamic recording of medical data in the management of a suspected radiological casualty

  20. Fetal liver cells transplantation in the treatment of extremely severe acute radiation injuries induced by large dose irradiation in leukemic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven cases of extremely severe acute radiation injuries treated with fetal liver cells transplantation (FLT) are reported. Patients received 6-8 Gy whole body irradiation which was followed by an infusion of fetal liver cell suspension. Hematological reconstitution occurred in all patients and temporary chimera developed in 3 patients after FLT. There were no difference between the hematologic reconstitution in patients with or without chimera

  1. Potency preservation following stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erectile dysfunction after prostate radiation therapy remains an ongoing challenge and critical quality of life issue. Given the higher dose of radiation per fraction using stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) there is concern that post-SBRT impotency would be higher than conventional radiation therapy approaches. This study sought to evaluate potency preservation and sexual function following SBRT for prostate cancer. Between February 2008 and March 2011, 216 men with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated definitively with SBRT monotherapy at Georgetown University Hospital. Potency was defined as the ability to have an erection firm enough for intercourse with or without sexual aids while sexual activity was defined as the ability to have an erection firm enough for masturbation and foreplay. Patients who received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were excluded from this study. Ninety-seven hormone-naïve men were identified as being potent at the initiation of therapy and were included in this review. All patients were treated to 35–36.25 Gy in 5 fractions delivered with the CyberKnife Radiosurgical System (Accuray). Prostate specific antigen (PSA) and total testosterone levels were obtained pre-treatment, every 3 months for the first year and every 6 months for the subsequent year. Sexual function was assessed with the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM), the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC)-26 and Utilization of Sexual Medication/Device questionnaires at baseline and all follow-up visits. Ninety-seven men (43 low-, 50 intermediate- and 4 high-risk) at a median age of 68 years (range, 48–82 years) received SBRT. The median pre-treatment PSA was 5.9 ng/ml and the minimum follow-up was 24 months. The median pre-treatment total serum testosterone level was 11.4 nmol/L (range, 4.4-27.9 nmol/L). The median baseline SHIM was 22 and 36% of patients utilized sexual aids prior to treatment. Although potency rates declined following

  2. Methods of experimental study of radiation injuries to organs and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented review of literature points to a great variety of quantitative methods for studying radiation injuries to many of the organs. Choice of a method depends on the problem of investigation that should be directed primarily at a possibility of applying the data obtained in clinical practice. This application can be realized at present by evaluation of radiation injuries at the tissue level, while further development of methods for in vitro cultivation of tissues, as it has already been realized for hemopoietic and some other tissues, is required for determination of radiosensitivity of certain cells in differet human tissues

  3. Experience in expert opinion of late radiation injuries after radiotherapy of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    13 cases of radiation injuries due to radiotherapy in childhood and adolescence were handled centrally for compensation settlement. This was part of the GDR expert opinion program of complications resulting from medical irradiation. Investigations, in recent years, were carried out under the aspect of compensation in terms of civil law or extended financial assistance according to a Decree issued on Dec. 16, 1974. These late radiation injuries resulted from radiotherapy of childhood cancer (n = 3) and of benign tissue processes (n = 10), primarily haemangiomas in early childhood (n = 7). Case histories with facts and findings of expert opinion are outlined. (author)

  4. Prevention of radiation injuries of the urinary bladder and rectum using locally applied dimethylsulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the preventi.on of radiation injuries of the urinary bladder and rectum for cervical cancer patients was worked out. It was based on the iocal application of the radioprotective agent dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) before a session of interstitial irradiation with the AGAT-B apparatus. Concomitant radiation therapy with DMSO was provided to 22 cervical cancer patients. The control group included 59 patients who received similar treatment without DMSO. The experession of early reactions and late injuries of the rectum and urinary bladder were signifncantly lower in the DMSO group. A radioprotective DMSO effect with relation to tumor was not found

  5. Impact of an angiotensin analogue in treating thermal and combined radiation injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Sachin Suresh

    Background: In recent years there has been a growing concern regarding the use of nuclear weapons by terrorists. Such incidents in the past have shown that radiation exposure is often accompanied by other forms of trauma such as burns, wounds or infection; leading to increased mortality rates among the affected individuals. This increased risk with combined radiation injury has been attributed to the delayed wound healing observed in this injury. The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) has emerged as a critical regulator of wound healing. Angiotensin II (A-II) and Angiotensin (1-7) [A(1-7)] have been shown to accelerate the rate of wound healing in different animal models of cutaneous injury. Nor-Leu3-Angiotensin (1-7) [Nor-Leu3-A (1-7)], an analogue of A(1-7), is more efficient than both A-II and A(1-7) in its ability to improve wound healing and is currently in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Aims: The three main goals of this study were to; 1) Develop a combined radiation and burn injury (CRBI) model and a radiation-induced cutaneous injury model to study the pathophysiological effects of these injuries on dermal wound healing; 2) To treat thermal and CRBI injuries using Nor-Leu 3-A (1-7) and decipher the mechanism of action of this peptide and 3) Develop an in-vitro model of CRBI using dermal cells in order to study the effect of CRBI on individual cell types involved in wound healing. Results: CRBI results in delayed and exacerbated apoptosis, necrosis and inflammation in injured skin as compared to thermal injury by itself. Radiation-induced cutaneous injury shows a radiation-dose dependent increase in inflammation as well as a chronic inflammatory response in the higher radiation exposure groups. Nor-Leu3-A (1-7) can mitigate thermal and CRBI injuries by reducing inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage while increasing the rate of proliferation of dermal stem cells and re-epithelialization of injured skin. The in

  6. The need for and the importance of biological indicators of radiation effects with special reference to injuries in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for further research on the existing and new biological indicators of radiation injury has been expressed. The studies on the radiation-induced alterations of membrane structure and function stimulated investigations aiming to develop an indicator based on membrane-phenomena. The co-ordinated research programme on ''Cell Membrane Probes as Biological Indicators of Radiation Injury in Radiation Accidents'' was initiated in mid 1977 and terminated in 1980. Within this programme many basic observations were made in connection with altered features of various animal and human cell membranes. Molecular, biophysical, biochemical and cell biological approaches were performed. The rapid reaction within minutes or hours of membranes against relatively low doses of various types of irradiations were described and the effects proved to be transitory, i.e. membrane regeneration occurred within hours. These dose- and timedependent alterations suggest the possibility of developing a biological indicator which would give signals at the earliest period after radiation injury when no other biological informations are available. The importance of a system of biological indicators is emphasized. (author)

  7. Protection from radiation injury through oral administration of PF4 gene carried by attenuated salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the in vivo radiation protection effect of PF4 by oral administration of attenuated salmonella as the carrier in mice. Methods: The eukaryotic vector pIRES2-EGFP-carried PF4 gene was transferred into an aroA-autotrophic mutant of salmonella typhimurium (SL3261), which was administered orally to BALBPc mice at 1x108 PFu once every interval three days. At 12 hours after the third oral administration the mice were subjected to a total body irradiation (TBI) of 700 cGy by a 60Co source. The protective effect of SL3261/PF4 was determined by detection GFP ( green fluorescence protein) expression in tissues, peripheral blood count, culture of bone marrow colony-forming cells and survival time of mice. Results: Expression of GFP could be detected in the liver, spleen, intestine, kidney, peripheral blood and bone marrow. On days 7 and 14 after irradiation, Compared to controls, there were obvious differences in number of bone marrow mononuclear cells, CFU-GM (granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming unit ) and HPP-CFC (high proliferating potential-colony-forming cells) of mice treated with SL3261/PF4 (P<0.05) as well as prolongation of the survival time. Conclusion: These data demonstrate for the first time that PF4 protects mice from TBI injury and accelerates recovery of hematopoiesis by oral administration of attenuated salmonella carrying PF4 gene. (authors)

  8. Dysuria Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einsley-Marie eJanowski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysuria following prostate radiation therapy is a common toxicity that adversely affects patients’ quality of life and may be difficult to manage. Methods: 204 patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT from 2007 to 2010 for localized prostate carcinoma with a minimum follow up of three years were included in this retrospective review of prospectively collected data. All patients were treated to 35-36.25Gy in 5 fractions delivered with robotic SBRT with real time fiducial tracking. Dysuria and other lower urinary tract symptoms were assessed via Question 4b (Pain or burning on urination of the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC-26 and the American Urological Association (AUA Symptom Score at baseline and at routine follow up. Results: 204 patients (82 low-, 105 intermediate-, and 17 high risk according to the D’Amico classification at a median age of 69 years (range 48-91 received SBRT for their localized prostate cancer with a median follow up of 47 months. Bother associated with dysuria significantly increased from a baseline of 12% to a maximum of 43% at one month (p<0.0001. There were two distinct peaks of moderate to severe dysuria bother at 1 month and at 6-12 months, with 9% of patients experiencing a late transient dysuria flare. While a low level of dysuria was seen through the first two years of follow-up, it returned to below baseline by two years (p=0.91. The median baseline AUA score of 7.5 significantly increased to 11 at 1 month (p<0.0001 and returned to 7 at 3 months (p= 0.54. Patients with dysuria had a statistically higher AUA score at baseline and at all follow-ups up to 30 months. Dysuria significantly correlated with dose and AUA score on multivariate analysis. Frequency and strain significantly correlated with dysuria on stepwise multivariate analysis.Conclusions: The rate and severity of dysuria following SBRT is comparable to patients treated with other radiation modalities.

  9. Contributions to the question of recovery from radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents the results of research work of the committees III 'radiation dose and radiation effects' and IV 'radiation damage and diseases due to radiation' of the Schutzkommission beim Bundesminister des Innern (Safety commission at the Federal Ministry of the Interior) to the interested public. The reports and papers deal with the phenomenon of the recovery of mammals after exposure to ionizing radiation. During the last few years, these problems of recovery from radiation damage have become of focal interest. This is due, above all, to our increased knowledge in the fields of radiochemistry and radiobiology. As an example various repair mechanisms have been identified in irradiated mammal cells in the last few decades. Most of the investigations carried out afterwards, some of which were made by committees III and IV of the Schutzkommission, had practical purposes. There is a hope that the effective radiation damage after a certain radiation dose can be considerably reduced by utilizing the natural ability of animal and human cells to recover, if necessary in combination with the application of chemical radioprotective substances. (orig.)

  10. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in Radiation-Induced Rectal Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The available dose/volume/outcome data for rectal injury were reviewed. The volume of rectum receiving ≥60Gy is consistently associated with the risk of Grade ≥2 rectal toxicity or rectal bleeding. Parameters for the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal tissue complication probability model from four clinical series are remarkably consistent, suggesting that high doses are predominant in determining the risk of toxicity. The best overall estimates (95% confidence interval) of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model parameters are n = 0.09 (0.04-0.14); m = 0.13 (0.10-0.17); and TD50 = 76.9 (73.7-80.1) Gy. Most of the models of late radiation toxicity come from three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy dose-escalation studies of early-stage prostate cancer. It is possible that intensity-modulated radiotherapy or proton beam dose distributions require modification of these models because of the inherent differences in low and intermediate dose distributions.

  11. Automated fiducial marker planning for thoracic stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jason D.; Rai, Lav; Wibowo, Henky; Tsalyuk, Serge; Anderson, Eric D.

    2012-02-01

    Stereotactic body-radiation therapy (SBRT) has gained acceptance in treating lung cancer. Localization of a thoracic lesion is challenging as tumors can move significantly with breathing. Some SBRT systems compensate for tumor motion with the intrafraction tracking of targets by two stereo fluoroscopy cameras. However, many lung tumors lack a fluoroscopic signature and cannot be directly tracked. Small radiopaque fiducial markers, acting as fluoroscopically visible surrogates, are instead implanted nearby. The spacing and configuration of the fiducial markers is important to the success of the therapy as SBRT systems impose constraints on the geometry of a fiducial-marker constellation. It is difficult even for experienced physicians mentally assess the validity of a constellation a priori. To address this challenge, we present the first automated planning system for bronchoscopic fiducial-marker placement. Fiducial-marker planning is posed as a constrained combinatoric optimization problem. Constraints include requiring access from a navigable airway, having sufficient separation in the fluoroscopic imaging planes to resolve each individual marker, and avoidance of major blood vessels. Automated fiducial-marker planning takes approximately fifteen seconds, fitting within the clinical workflow. The resulting locations are integrated into a virtual bronchoscopic planning system, which provides guidance to each location during the implantation procedure. To date, we have retrospectively planned over 50 targets for treatment, and have implanted markers according to the automated plan in one patient who then underwent SBRT treatment. To our knowledge, this approach is the first to address automated bronchoscopic fiducialmarker planning for SBRT.

  12. Delayed radiation injury of gut-exposed and gut-shielded mice. I. The decrement in resistance to continuous gamma-ray stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two mouse strains (RF/J and C57B1/6J) were exposed to x-ray doses totaling 400, 800, or 1200 rad. Total doses were given in 200-rad fractions at 7-day intervals to the whole body, gut only, or gut shielded. Animals treated as above (conditioned) were divided into 2 groups to form a two-part investigation. X-ray-conditioned and control mice were subjected to a continuous gamma-ray stress (challenge exposure) 28 days after the last x-ray dose. Delayed injury was measured as a reduction in mean after-survival (MAS) time and was observed in whole-body, gut-conditioned, and gut-shielded groups. The cause of death was attributed to hemopoietic hypoplasia in all groups. MAS reduction in all conditioned groups in both strains was linear with dose within the dose range used. Delayed injury per volume dose (measured as a reduction in MAS) was independent of the tissue initially conditioned with an acute dose of x rays. Thus, delayed injury per unit weight of gut tissue exposed was equal to that of either whole-body or gut-shielded radiation injury. Comparative weight loss observations during the continuous gamma-ray challenge exposure revealed a decrement in metabolic processes associated with body weight maintenance. This decrement was seen in all x-ray-conditioned groups

  13. First Patagonian Course on 'Diagnosis and Therapy of Injuries Induced by Ionizing Radiation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Patagonia there are academic centers, health and industrial facilities that use ionizing radiations in its usual practices. However, they do not have protocols that respond to local needs. For this reason was held from October 5 to November 10, 2012 in Bariloche Atomic Center, a training course for health personnel. The range of topics covered ranged from the definition of dosimetry quantities, types of radiation and biological dosimetry, biological effects, radiation acute syndrome, radiation-induced cutaneous syndrome, internal contamination, screening in radiological emergencies, etc.The course provided a theoretical and practical guide about how to recognize and treat people exposed to radiations, guidelines for acting in radiological emergencies and a perception of the psychosocial impact of the radiation accidents.The result was a pocket book for health personnel that will be used in case of having a patient with radiation induced injury

  14. In vivo characterization of early-stage radiation skin injury in a mouse model by two-photon microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Won Hyuk Jang; Sehwan Shim; Taejun Wang; Yeoreum Yoon; Won-Suk Jang; Jae Kyung Myung; Sunhoo Park; Ki Hean Kim

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) injury is tissue damage caused by high energy electromagnetic waves such as X-ray and gamma ray. Diagnosis and treatment of IR injury are difficult due to its characteristics of clinically latent post-irradiation periods and the following successive and unpredictable inflammatory bursts. Skin is one of the many sensitive organs to IR and bears local injury upon exposure. Early-stage diagnosis of IR skin injury is essential in order to maximize treatment efficiency and ...

  15. Lung deformations and radiation-induced regional lung collapse in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diot, Quentin, E-mail: quentin.diot@ucdenver.edu; Kavanagh, Brian; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Gaspar, Laurie; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Garg, Kavita [Department of Radiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To differentiate radiation-induced fibrosis from regional lung collapse outside of the high dose region in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung tumors. Methods: Lung deformation maps were computed from pre-treatment and post-treatment computed tomography (CT) scans using a point-to-point translation method. Fifty anatomical landmarks inside the lung (vessel or airway branches) were matched on planning and follow-up scans for the computation process. Two methods using the deformation maps were developed to differentiate regional lung collapse from fibrosis: vector field and Jacobian methods. A total of 40 planning and follow-ups CT scans were analyzed for 20 lung SBRT patients. Results: Regional lung collapse was detected in 15 patients (75%) using the vector field method, in ten patients (50%) using the Jacobian method, and in 12 patients (60%) by radiologists. In terms of sensitivity and specificity the Jacobian method performed better. Only weak correlations were observed between the dose to the proximal airways and the occurrence of regional lung collapse. Conclusions: The authors presented and evaluated two novel methods using anatomical lung deformations to investigate lung collapse and fibrosis caused by SBRT treatment. Differentiation of these distinct physiological mechanisms beyond what is usually labeled “fibrosis” is necessary for accurate modeling of lung SBRT-induced injuries. With the help of better models, it becomes possible to expand the therapeutic benefits of SBRT to a larger population of lung patients with large or centrally located tumors that were previously considered ineligible.

  16. Lung deformations and radiation-induced regional lung collapse in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To differentiate radiation-induced fibrosis from regional lung collapse outside of the high dose region in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung tumors. Methods: Lung deformation maps were computed from pre-treatment and post-treatment computed tomography (CT) scans using a point-to-point translation method. Fifty anatomical landmarks inside the lung (vessel or airway branches) were matched on planning and follow-up scans for the computation process. Two methods using the deformation maps were developed to differentiate regional lung collapse from fibrosis: vector field and Jacobian methods. A total of 40 planning and follow-ups CT scans were analyzed for 20 lung SBRT patients. Results: Regional lung collapse was detected in 15 patients (75%) using the vector field method, in ten patients (50%) using the Jacobian method, and in 12 patients (60%) by radiologists. In terms of sensitivity and specificity the Jacobian method performed better. Only weak correlations were observed between the dose to the proximal airways and the occurrence of regional lung collapse. Conclusions: The authors presented and evaluated two novel methods using anatomical lung deformations to investigate lung collapse and fibrosis caused by SBRT treatment. Differentiation of these distinct physiological mechanisms beyond what is usually labeled “fibrosis” is necessary for accurate modeling of lung SBRT-induced injuries. With the help of better models, it becomes possible to expand the therapeutic benefits of SBRT to a larger population of lung patients with large or centrally located tumors that were previously considered ineligible

  17. MR Gd-DTPA enhancement of radiation brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR examinations of 104 patients who had undergone radiotherapy to the brain were reviewed. Thirty-six patients received Gd-DTPA enhanced study during the course of MR evaluation and six of the patients showed enhancing radiation necrosis. Histopathological confirmations were obtained in three patients. Gd-DTPA enhancing radiation lesions were multiple and patchy in three patients, multiple and patchy with cyst formation in two and ring shaped in one. In terms of their distribution, enhancing lesions in four patients were seen only in the white matter within the irradiated field and these patients had undergone radiotherapy within five years. The interval after radiotherapy was more than eight years in two patients and their enhanced lesions were observed in both the white and gray matter. Histopathological findings of Gd-DTPA enhancing radiation necrosis were gliosis and coalescing vacuoles of the neural tissue. None of these enhanced radiation lesions showed significant mass effects. Patterns of the enhancement were not specific. it was considered to be difficult to differentiate tumor recurrence from radiation necrosis with conventional Gd-DTPA enhanced MR examinations. In one patient, delayed MR images after GD-DTPA administration showed increases in the size and number of radiation enhanced lesions. Dynamic and delayed MR study might add more information to conventional imaging after Gd-DTPA. Further studies are necessary to differentiate radiation lesions from tumor recurrences. (author)

  18. Effect of heme oxygenase-1 on radiation-induced skin injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on the acute radiation-induced skin injury by gene transfer. Methods: Thirty-three male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups as PBS-injected group, Ad-EGFP-injected group and Ad-HO-1-injected group (n=11). In each group, three rats were used for determining the expression of target gene and the other rats were irradiated on the buttock skin with 40 Gy electron beam generated by a linear accelerator. Immediately after irradiation, rats were administered with a subcutaneous injection of PBS, Ad-EGFP or Ad-HO-1, respectively. Subsequently, the skin reactions were measured twice a week using the semi-quantitative skin injury scale. Results: The strong positive expression of HO-1 was observed in subcutaneous dermal tissue after injection of Ad-HO-1. Compared to the PBS-injected group or the Ad-EGFP-injected group, a significant mitigation of skin injury was observed in Ad-HO-1-injected mice 14 d after irradiation (q=0.000-0.030, P<0.05). Conclusions: HO-1 could significantly mitigate radiation-induced acute skin injury and Ad-HO-1 could be used to treat radiation-induced skin injury. (authors)

  19. Delayed radiation injury of brain stem after radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical characteristics, MRI findings, diagnosis, treatment and prognostic factors of patients with radiation induced brain stem injury in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: From January 1991 to January 2001, 24 patients with radiation injury of brain stem were treated, 14 males and 10 females. The latency ranged from 6 to 38 months, with a median of 18 months. The lesions were located in the pons in 10 patients, mesencephalon + pons in 4, pons + medulla oblongata in 5, medulla oblongata in 2 and mesencephalon + pons + medulla oblongata in 3. MRI findings showed that the injury was chiefly presented as hypointensity foci on T1WI and hyperintensity foci on T2WI. Results: Eighteen patients were treated with dexamethasone in the early phase, with symptoms relieved in 12 patients but unimproved in 6 patients. Eight 44% patients died within the 8-38 months, leaving 16 patients surviving for 0.5 to 6.0 years. Conclusions: Radiation injury of brain stem has a short latency with severe symptoms, signifying poor prognosis. It is suggested that adequate reduction of irradiation volume and dose at the brain stem should be able to lower the incidence of brain stem injury

  20. Detection of radiation brain injury of malignant glioma by 1H-MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) method, to evaluate the difference of radiation brain injury between volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) in patients with postoperative glioma after radiation therapy. Methods: 24 patients with malignant glioma (WHOII-IV grade glioma) confirmed with clinical surgery were selected, among them 12 patients were treated with VMAT technique, and another 12 patients with 3DCRT technique, all received DT60-66GY/30-33F dose prescriptions. 1H-MRS examination was performed to analyze the change of metabolites in the brain tissues of region of interest (ROI) before and after radiotherapy,and the ratios of NAA/ Cr, Cho / Cr, NAA / Cho were computed. Results: The dose distribution of VMAT group was superior to 3DCRT group, the NAA/Cr in two groups after radiation were decreased compared with before radiation, there was a statistically difference in NAA/Cr after radiation between two groups (P<0.01). The Cho / Cr and NAA / Cho in two groups were increased compared with before radiation;after radiation, only NAA/Cho had a statistical difference between two groups (P<0.01). Conclusion: VMAT technique is superior to 3DCTR to reduce radiation brain injury in patients with postoperative glioma. (authors)

  1. An Immunohistochemical Panel to Assess Ultraviolet Radiation Associated Oxidative Skin Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Mamalis, A; Fiadorchanka, N; L. ADAMS; Serravallo, M; Heilman, E; Siegel, D; Brody, N; Jagdeo, J

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation results in a significant loss in years of healthy life, approximately 1.5 million disability-adjusted life years, and is associated with greater than 60,000 deaths annually worldwide that are attributed to melanoma and other skin cancers. Currently, there are no standardized biomarkers or assay panels to assess oxidative stress skin injury patterns in human skin exposed to ionizing radiation. Using biopsy specimens from chronic solar UV-exposed and UV-protected skin...

  2. Radiation Injury After a Nuclear Detonation: Medical Consequences and the Need for Scarce Resources Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    DiCarlo, Andrea L.; Maher, Carmen; Hick, John L.; Hanfling, Dan; Dainiak, Nicholas; Chao, Nelson; Bader, Judith L; Coleman, C. Norman; Weinstock, David M.

    2011-01-01

    A 10-kiloton (kT) nuclear detonation within a US city could expose hundreds of thousands of people to radiation. The Scarce Resources for a Nuclear Detonation Project was undertaken to guide community planning and response in the aftermath of a nuclear detonation, when demand will greatly exceed available resources. This article reviews the pertinent literature on radiation injuries from human exposures and animal models to provide a foundation for the triage and management approaches outline...

  3. "It's all about acceptance": A qualitative study exploring a model of positive body image for people with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Gammage, Kimberley L; van Ingen, Cathy; Ditor, David S

    2015-09-01

    Using modified constructivist grounded theory, the purpose of the present study was to explore positive body image experiences in people with spinal cord injury. Nine participants (five women, four men) varying in age (21-63 years), type of injury (C3-T7; complete and incomplete), and years post-injury (4-36 years) were recruited. The following main categories were found: body acceptance, body appreciation and gratitude, social support, functional gains, independence, media literacy, broadly conceptualizing beauty, inner positivity influencing outer demeanour, finding others who have a positive body image, unconditional acceptance from others, religion/spirituality, listening to and taking care of the body, managing secondary complications, minimizing pain, and respect. Interestingly, there was consistency in positive body image characteristics reported in this study with those found in previous research, demonstrating universality of positive body image. However, unique characteristics (e.g., resilience, functional gains, independence) were also reported demonstrating the importance of exploring positive body image in diverse groups. PMID:26002149

  4. Injury patterns to other body regions and load vectors in nearside impact occupants with and without shoulder injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Stadter, Gregory W; Halloway, Dale E; Pintar, Frank A

    2013-01-01

    CIREN and NASS-CDS databases were used to analyze nearside impact injuries. Front seat occupants with and without shoulder injuries were examined on an individual basis in both databases. All vehicles were from model year 2000 or newer. Variables such as the type of collision, change in velocity, principal direction force, demographics, injuries scored by the MAIS and ISS metrics, and injuries to the head, thorax, abdomen and pelvis were included. Shoulder injuries included fractures to the humerus, scapula and clavicle, and associated joint traumas. The median changes in velocities for occupants with and without shoulder injuries were 36 and 32 km/h in CIREN and 29 and 32 km/h in NASS databases. Approximately two-thirds of all cases occurred below 40 km/h. In both databases, the clavicle, scapula and humerus fractures, and AC joint dislocations were found, and the scapula fracture was associated with the clavicle, AC joint, acromion and humerus injuries in few occupants. The clavicle fracture was associated with AC joint and humerus injuries only in the NASS database. Thorax, abdomen and pelvic injuries and skull fractures increased with the presence of shoulder injuries in both databases, albeit not at the same rate. Anterior oblique loading was more frequent than pure lateral loading in both databases suggesting the importance of the oblique vector in side impact trauma. These findings underscore a need for detailed examinations of shoulder load-sharing using biomechanical studies to better understand its role in side impact traumas, shoulder biofidelity and injury assessments in dummies. PMID:24406953

  5. Factors Predictive of Symptomatic Radiation Injury After Linear Accelerator-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Intracerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate predictive factors in the development of symptomatic radiation injury after treatment with linear accelerator–based stereotactic radiosurgery for intracerebral arteriovenous malformations and relate the findings to the conclusions drawn by Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC). Methods and Materials: Archived plans for 73 patients who were treated at the British Columbia Cancer Agency were studied. Actuarial estimates of freedom from radiation injury were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for analysis of incidence of radiation injury. Log–rank test was used to search for dosimetric parameters associated with freedom from radiation injury. Results: Symptomatic radiation injury was exhibited by 14 of 73 patients (19.2%). Actuarial rate of symptomatic radiation injury was 23.0% at 4 years. Most patients (78.5%) had mild to moderate deficits according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. On univariate analysis, lesion volume and diameter, dose to isocenter, and a Vx for doses ≥8 Gy showed statistical significance. Only lesion diameter showed statistical significance (p 5 cm3 and diameters >30 mm were significantly associated with the risk of radiation injury (p 12 also showed strong association with the incidence of radiation injury. Actuarial incidence of radiation injury was 16.8% if V12 was 3 and 53.2% if >28 cm3 (log–rank test, p = 0.001). Conclusions: This study confirms that the risk of developing symptomatic radiation injury after radiosurgery is related to lesion diameter and volume and irradiated volume. Results suggest a higher tolerance than proposed by QUANTEC. The widely differing findings reported in the literature, however, raise considerable uncertainties.

  6. Factors Predictive of Symptomatic Radiation Injury After Linear Accelerator-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Intracerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, Christopher, E-mail: cherbert@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); McKenzie, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Redekop, Gary [Division of Neurosurgery, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hsu, Fred [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Abbotsford, BC (Canada); Gete, Ermias; Gill, Brad; Lee, Richard; Luchka, Kurt [Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Haw, Charles [Division of Neurosurgery, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Lee, Andrew [Department of Neurosurgery, Royal Columbian Hospital, New Westminster, BC (Canada); Toyota, Brian [Division of Neurosurgery, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Martin, Montgomery [Department of Medical Imaging, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate predictive factors in the development of symptomatic radiation injury after treatment with linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery for intracerebral arteriovenous malformations and relate the findings to the conclusions drawn by Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC). Methods and Materials: Archived plans for 73 patients who were treated at the British Columbia Cancer Agency were studied. Actuarial estimates of freedom from radiation injury were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for analysis of incidence of radiation injury. Log-rank test was used to search for dosimetric parameters associated with freedom from radiation injury. Results: Symptomatic radiation injury was exhibited by 14 of 73 patients (19.2%). Actuarial rate of symptomatic radiation injury was 23.0% at 4 years. Most patients (78.5%) had mild to moderate deficits according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. On univariate analysis, lesion volume and diameter, dose to isocenter, and a V{sub x} for doses {>=}8 Gy showed statistical significance. Only lesion diameter showed statistical significance (p < 0.05) in a multivariate model. According to the log-rank test, AVM volumes >5 cm{sup 3} and diameters >30 mm were significantly associated with the risk of radiation injury (p < 0.01). The V{sub 12} also showed strong association with the incidence of radiation injury. Actuarial incidence of radiation injury was 16.8% if V{sub 12} was <28 cm{sup 3} and 53.2% if >28 cm{sup 3} (log-rank test, p = 0.001). Conclusions: This study confirms that the risk of developing symptomatic radiation injury after radiosurgery is related to lesion diameter and volume and irradiated volume. Results suggest a higher tolerance than proposed by QUANTEC. The widely differing findings reported in the literature, however, raise considerable uncertainties.

  7. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms and alleviation of in vivo oxidation injury by low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We clarified that adequate oxygen stress induced by low dose radiation activates not only chemical biological protective function, such as induction of the synthesis of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), but also the biomembrane function, such as enhanced membrane fluidity and ATPase activity. It is possible that activation of these mechanisms alleviates in vivo oxidation injuries resulting in alleviation of pathologic condition, such as ferric-nitrilotriacetate (Fe3+-NTA) or CCl4-induced liver damage, 1-methyl-4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-pyridine (MPTP)-induced brain damage and diabetes mellitus. Namely, in contrast to the toxic effects of high dose irradiation, adequate activation of the functions of the living body by low dose radiation or inhalation of an appropriate amount of radon can contribute to suppressing aging and to preventing or reducing active oxygen species related diseases which are thought to involve peroxidation and have been regarded as the diseases for which radon spring water is an effective treatment. In future, clarification in detail of the mechanisms of these phenomena is required to understand the effects of low dose radiation on the functions of the living body, including adaptive response. (author)

  8. Radiation skin injury caused by percutaneous coronary intervention. Report of two cases in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiation-induced skin injury has been recognized for the past decade as a potential complication of fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGI). In our country the awareness of the possibility of appearance of skin injury as a consequence of FGIispoor. The number of interventional procedures is nearly 79 000 or 1.9% of all x-ray procedures performed in Bulgaria in 2013. There is a great probability patients to have radiation induced skin injuries but not to be diagnosed. This is the first report of two cases of radiation induced skin injuries in Bulgaria occurring in 2014. Case 1: 62-year-old man with chronic total occlusion (CTO), underwent two percutaneouscoronaryinterventions (PCIs) and one short coronary angiography (CA). The 2nd and the 3rd procedures were done the same day within one hour. Skin lesion of National Cancer Institute (NCI) toxicity grade of I was detected by the nurse 3 weeks after the last two procedures. The patient received total dose area product (DAP)> 56269 μGy.m2. Case 2: 76-year-old man, developed skin lesion of NCI skin toxicity grade IV about 11 months after a prolonged selective coronary arteriography by percutaneous right radial artery approach. It started with erythematous patch in the right side of the back 2 days after the procedure. The patient received DAP 86802 μGy.m2. PCI in CTO and FGI with higher complexity and prolonged fluoroscopy time require awareness and knowledge on radiation safety

  9. Differentiation between glioma recurrence and radiation-induced brain injuries using perfusion-weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) in the differentiation of recurrent glioma and radiation-induced brain injuries. Methods: Fifteen patients with previously resected and irradiated glioma, presenting newly developed abnormal enhancement, were included in the study. The final diagnosis was determined either histologically or clinicoradiologically. PWI was obtained with a gradient echo echo-planar-imaging (GRE-EPI) sequence. The normalized rCBV ratio [CBV (abnormal enhancement)/CBV (contralateral tissue)], rCBF ratio [CBF (abnormal enhancement)/CBF (contralateral tissue)] and rMTT ratio [(MTT abnormal enhancement)/MTT (contralateral tissue)] were calculated, respectively. The regions of interest (ROIs) consisting of 20-40 mm2 were placed in the abnormal enhanced areas on postcontrast T1-weighted images. Ten to fifteen ROIs measurements were performed in each lesion and the mean value was obtained. Mann-Whitney test was used to determine whether there was a difference in the rCBV/rCBF/MTT ratios between glioma recurrence and radiated injuries. Results: Nine of the 15 patients were proved recurrent glioma, 6 were proved radiation-induced brain injuries. The mean rCBV ratio [2.87 (0.70-4.91)] in glioma recurrence was markedly higher than that [0.70 (0.12-1.62)] in radiation injuries (Z=-2.55, P<0.05). The mean rCBF ratio [1.89 (0.64-3.96)] in glioma recurrence was markedly higher than that [0.56 (0.12-2.08)] in radiation injuries (Z=-2.08, P<0.05). The areas under rCBV and rCBF ROC curve were 0.893 and 0.821. If the rCBV ratio ≤ 0.77, the diagnosis sensitivity of radiation-induced brain injuries was 100.0%; If ≥ 2.44, the diagnosis specificity of recurrent glioma was 100.0%. Conclusion: PWI was an effective technique in distinguishing glioma recurrence from radiation injuries and rCBV and rCBF ratios were of great value in the differentiation. (authors)

  10. The role of Body Mass Index in child pedestrian injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Elizabeth E; Plumert, Jodie M; McClure, Leslie A; Schwebel, David C

    2016-05-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to examine obesity as a potential risk factor for childhood pedestrian injury. A racially diverse sample of 7- and 8-year-old children completed a road-crossing task in a semi-immersive virtual environment and two pedestrian route selection tasks. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that children with a higher Body Mass Index (BMI) waited less before crossing, had a smaller temporal buffer between themselves and oncoming traffic while crossing, and had more collisions with traffic. Girls were more cautious than boys when crossing the virtual roadway. Unlike the results from the virtual road-crossing task, BMI was not associated with risky route selection. Instead, race emerged as the strongest predictor, with African-American children selecting riskier routes for crossing. Together, these findings suggest overweight and obese children may be at increased risk for pedestrian injury. The discussion considers explanations for why obese children may exhibit riskier road-crossing behavior. PMID:26890078

  11. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wen-Yen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jen, Yee-Min, E-mail: yeeminjen@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Meei-Shyuan [School of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Li-Ping [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cardinal Tien Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chang-Ming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Ko, Kai-Hsiung [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuen-Tze; Lin, Jang-Chun; Chao, Hsing-Lung; Lin, Chun-Shu; Su, Yu-Fu; Fan, Chao-Yueh; Chang, Yao-Wen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To examine the safety and efficacy of Cyberknife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and its effect on survival in patients of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: This was a matched-pair study. From January 2008 to December 2009, 36 patients with 42 lesions of unresectable recurrent HCC were treated with SBRT. The median prescribed dose was 37 Gy (range, 25 to 48 Gy) in 4-5 fractions over 4-5 consecutive working days. Another 138 patients in the historical control group given other or no treatments were selected for matched analyses. Results: The median follow-up time was 14 months for all patients and 20 months for those alive. The 1- and 2-year in-field failure-free rates were 87.6% and 75.1%, respectively. Out-field intrahepatic recurrence was the main cause of failure. The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate was 64.0%, and median time to progression was 8.0 months. In the multivariable analysis of all 174 patients, SBRT (yes vs. no), tumor size ({<=}4 cm vs. >4 cm), recurrent stage (stage IIIB/IV vs. I) and Child-Pugh classification (A vs. B/C) were independent prognostic factors for OS. Matched-pair analysis revealed that patients undergoing SBRT had better OS (2-year OS of 72.6% vs. 42.1%, respectively, p = 0.013). Acute toxicities were mild and tolerable. Conclusion: SBRT is a safe and efficacious modality and appears to be well-tolerated at the dose fractionation we have used, and its use correlates with improved survival in this cohort of patients with recurrent unresectable HCC. Out-field recurrence is the major cause of failure. Further studies of combinations of SBRT and systemic therapies may be reasonable.

  12. Small Bowel Dose Tolerance for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCouture, Tamara A; Xue, Jinyu; Subedi, Gopal; Xu, Qianyi; Lee, Justin T; Kubicek, Gregory; Asbell, Sucha O

    2016-04-01

    Inconsistencies permeate the literature regarding small bowel dose tolerance limits for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatments. In this review, we organized these diverse published limits with MD Anderson at Cooper data into a unified framework, constructing the dose-volume histogram (DVH) Risk Map, demonstrating low-risk and high-risk SBRT dose tolerance limits for small bowel. Statistical models of clinical data from 2 institutions were used to assess the safety spectrum of doses used in the exposure of the gastrointestinal tract in SBRT; 30% of the analyzed cases had vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors (VEGFI) or other biological agents within 2 years before or after SBRT. For every dose tolerance limit in the DVH Risk Map, the probit dose-response model was used to estimate the risk level from our clinical data. Using the current literature, 21Gy to 5cc of small bowel in 3 fractions has low toxicity and is reasonably safe, with 6.5% estimated risk of grade 3 or higher complications, per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. In the same fractionation for the same volume, if lower risk is required, 16.2Gy has an estimated risk of only 2.5%. Other volumes and fractionations are also reviewed; for all analyzed high-risk small bowel limits, the risk is 8.2% or less, and the low-risk limits have 4% or lower estimated risk. The results support current clinical practice, with some possibility for dose escalation. PMID:27000513

  13. Alpha-tocopherol succinate- and AMD3100-mobilized progenitors mitigate radiation combined injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay K.; Wise, Stephen Y.; Fatanmi, Oluseyi O.; Beattie, Lindsay A.; Ducey, Elizabeth J.; Seed, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of alpha-tocopherol succinate (TS)- and AMD3100-mobilized progenitors in mitigating combined injury associated with acute radiation exposure in combination with secondary physical wounding. CD2F1 mice were exposed to high doses of cobalt-60 gamma-radiation and then transfused intravenously with 5 million peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from TS- and AMD3100-injected mice after irradiation. Within 1 h after irradiation, mice were exposed to secondary wounding. Mice were observed for 30 d after irradiation and cytokine analysis was conducted by multiplex Luminex assay at various time-points after irradiation and wounding. Our results initially demonstrated that transfusion of TS-mobilized progenitors from normal mice enhanced survival of acutely irradiated mice exposed 24 h prior to transfusion to supralethal doses (11.5–12.5 Gy) of 60Co gamma-radiation. Subsequently, comparable transfusions of TS-mobilized progenitors were shown to significantly mitigate severe combined injuries in acutely irradiated mice. TS administered 24 h before irradiation was able to protect mice against combined injury as well. Cytokine results demonstrated that wounding modulates irradiation-induced cytokines. This study further supports the conclusion that the infusion of TS-mobilized progenitor-containing PBMCs acts as a bridging therapy in radiation-combined-injury mice. We suggest that this novel bridging therapeutic approach involving the infusion of TS-mobilized hematopoietic progenitors following acute radiation exposure or combined injury might be applicable to humans. PMID:23814114

  14. Alpha-tocopherol succinate- and AMD3100-mobilized progenitors mitigate radiation combined injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of alpha-tocopherol succinate (TS)- and AMD3100-mobilized progenitors in mitigating combined injury associated with acute radiation exposure in combination with secondary physical wounding. CD2F1 mice were exposed to high doses of cobalt-60 gamma-radiation and then transfused intravenously with 5 million peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from TS- and AMD3100-injected mice after irradiation. Within 1 h after irradiation, mice were exposed to secondary wounding. Mice were observed for 30 d after irradiation and cytokine analysis was conducted by multiplex Luminex assay at various time-points after irradiation and wounding. Our results initially demonstrated that transfusion of TS-mobilized progenitors from normal mice enhanced survival of acutely irradiated mice exposed 24 h prior to transfusion to supralethal doses (11.5–12.5 Gy) of 60Co gamma-radiation. Subsequently, comparable transfusions of TS-mobilized progenitors were shown to significantly mitigate severe combined injuries in acutely irradiated mice. TS administered 24 h before irradiation was able to protect mice against combined injury as well. Cytokine results demonstrated that wounding modulates irradiation-induced cytokines. This study further supports the conclusion that the infusion of TS-mobilized progenitor-containing PBMCs acts as a bridging therapy in radiation-combined-injury mice. We suggest that this novel bridging therapeutic approach involving the infusion of TS-mobilized hematopoietic progenitors following acute radiation exposure or combined injury might be applicable to humans. (author)

  15. Methods for assessing the extent of acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous radiation accidents have shown that the medical management of exposed persons cannot be performed without the use of 'biological indicators' of effect and of repair. For the clinical management of a patient with the acute radiation syndrome, it is essential to obtain information on the subjective symptomatology as well as on laboratory parameters, especially during the first 3 to 6 days after exposure. The medical doctor responsible for the clinical care of patients has to rely on the use of what has been described as 'sequential diagnosis'. This approach consists essentially of the determination of a limited number of parameters as a function of time. From the analysis of the pattern of the determined and evaluated signs and symptoms in the first hours and days, one is able to characterize patients according to type and severity of symptomatology. This has been clearly demonstrated in the Moscow - Ulm Radiation Accident Database (MURAD) developed in a collaborative project between the Institute of Biophysics in Moscow and the Department of Clinical Physiology and Occupational Medicine of the University of Ulm. On the basis of the radiation accident clinical response pattern observed early after irradiation, one is able to develop a first approach for therapeutic strategies. It is the purpose of this contribution to outline the diagnostic and prognostic significance of blood cell changes and to discuss the following problem areas: significance and elements of a sequential diagnosis; significance of blood lymphocytes for radiation accident diagnosis; significance of blood granulocyte changes for the prognosis of the acute radiation syndrome; analysis of granulocyte changes by means of regulated system models; utilization of indicators of response and repair for planning therapeutic options

  16. Early administration of IL-6RA does not prevent radiation-induced lung injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation pneumonia and subsequent radiation lung fibrosis are major dose-limiting complications for patients undergoing thoracic radiotherapy. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine and plays important roles in the regulation of immune response and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether anti-IL-6 monoclonal receptor antibody (IL-6RA) could ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury in mice. BALB/cAnNCrj mice having received thoracic irradiation of 21 Gy were injected intraperitoneally with IL-6RA (MR16-1) or control rat IgG twice, immediately and seven days after irradiation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to examine the plasma level of IL-6 and serum amyloid A (SAA). Lung injury was assessed by histological staining with haematoxylin and eosin or Azan, measuring lung weight, and hydroxyproline. The mice treated with IL-6RA did not survive significantly longer than the rat IgG control. We observed marked up-regulation of IL-6 in mice treated with IL-6RA 150 days after irradiation, whereas IL-6RA temporarily suppressed early radiation-induced increase in the IL-6 release level. Histopathologic assessment showed no differences in lung section or lung weight between mice treated with IL-6RA and control. Our findings suggest that early treatment with IL-6RA after irradiation alone does not protect against radiation-induced lung injury

  17. The simple exposure dose calculation method in interventional radiology and one case of radiation injury (alopecia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interventional radiology (IVR) is less invasive than surgery, and has rapidly become widespread due to advances in instruments and X-ray apparatuses. However, radiation exposure of long-time fluoroscopy induces the risk of radiation injury. We estimated the exposure dose in the patient who underwent IVR therapy and developed radiation injury (alopecia). The patient outcome and the method of estimating the exposure dose are reported. The estimation method of exposure dose was roughly estimated by real-time expose dose during exam. It is a useful indicator for the operator to know the exposure dose during IVR. We, radiological technologist must to know call attention to the role of radiological technicians during IVR. (author)

  18. Genetic injury from radiation and other environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer may be induced by chemicals, ionizing radiation and certain viruses. The first causal relationships between occupation and increase in cancer lave been reported two and a half centuries ago. In the meantime, many other occupational toxicants have been identified as cancer inducing agents. However, quantitative risk estimates can be established in a few cases only. On the other hand, modern epidemiological investigations have brought about the main causes of cancer in highly civilized populations as certain life-styles: approximately 35% are attributed to inadequate diet and nutrition, 30% to tobacco, 7% are hormone-related in context with human reproduction, 4% due to occupational exposures, 3% may be caused by alcohol consumption, 1,5% by UV radiation and 1% by medicines (cytostatics included). Cancer risks from radiation exposure are comparatively very low. Although radiation can be measured precisely and reliably as physical units, cancers induced by nuclear weapon fallout and precipitation from the accident of Chernobyl will never be detected by epidemiological methods due to their minimal proportions. The attribution of causes obtained in this way allows for the conclusion: human cancers are mostly due to chemically definable factors, and thus are avoidable. (orig.)

  19. Stereotactic body radiation therapy versus conventional radiation therapy in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Stefan S; Schytte, Tine; Jensen, Henrik R;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is now an accepted and patient friendly treatment, but still controversy exists about its comparability to conventional radiation therapy (RT). The purpose of this single...... SBRT predicted improved prognosis. However, staging procedure, confirmation procedure of recurrence and technical improvements of radiation treatment is likely to influence outcomes. However, SBRT seems to be as efficient as conventional RT and is a more convenient treatment for the patients....

  20. Radiation injuries of the calvaria following irradiation of some pituitary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the state of the calvarial bones in 92 patients receiving irradiation for pituitary tumors showed that massive doses can lead to radiation injury of bone. This complication was observed in 17 patients so treated (18.5 +/- 4.1 percent), and in almost one-quarter of patients treated by x-ray therapy alone. The minimal absorbed dose during x-ray therapy to produce these changes was 3,600 rad. The higher the dose, the more frequently injuries were found, and the shorter the time after irradiation at which they appeared. With an increase in the duration of radiological observation, the number of changes discovered increases

  1. Radiation injuries to bones of the thorax after irradiation of carcinoma of the breast and lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the state of 396 patients undergoing radiotherapy for carcinoma of the breast and carcinoma of the lung gave the following results. During treatment of carcinoma of the breast, radiation injuries, mainly of the ribs and clavicle, were found in 11 of 158 patients treated (7.0 +/- 2.0 percent), more frequently after x-ray therapy (in nine of 70 cases, 12.9 +/- 4.0 percent). In the case of x-ray therapy, the minimal focal dose causing radiation injury to bone was 4,500 rads. The larger the dose and the shorter the course of treatment, the more frequently these changes were found. During treatment of carcinoma of the lung, radiation injuries were discovered in the ribs in ten patients and in the spine in one (of 238 patients treated). The frequency was 4.6 +/- 1.4 percent. They occurred after treatment on a linear accelerator with a frequency of 5.1 +/- 1.6 percent, and after treatment on the γ-ray apparatus in 1 of 27 patients. The minimal focal dose causing injury to bone when a linear accelerator was used was 5,000 rad. If the skin above the region of injury remained intact, clinical manifestations of the lesion were minimal. Repeated observations over a course of several years showed that the changes developed slowly and that consolidation of a radiation fracture can take place. On the whole, the course of the process is directly dependent on the size of the dose given

  2. Adaptive Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Planning for Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Yujiao [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Zhang, Fan [Occupational and Environmental Safety Office, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Yoo, David S.; Kelsey, Chris R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Yin, Fang-Fang [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Cai, Jing, E-mail: jing.cai@duke.edu [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric effects of adaptive planning on lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Forty of 66 consecutive lung SBRT patients were selected for a retrospective adaptive planning study. CBCT images acquired at each fraction were used for treatment planning. Adaptive plans were created using the same planning parameters as the original CT-based plan, with the goal to achieve comparable comformality index (CI). For each patient, 2 cumulative plans, nonadaptive plan (P{sub NON}) and adaptive plan (P{sub ADP}), were generated and compared for the following organs-at-risks (OARs): cord, esophagus, chest wall, and the lungs. Dosimetric comparison was performed between P{sub NON} and P{sub ADP} for all 40 patients. Correlations were evaluated between changes in dosimetric metrics induced by adaptive planning and potential impacting factors, including tumor-to-OAR distances (d{sub T-OAR}), initial internal target volume (ITV{sub 1}), ITV change (ΔITV), and effective ITV diameter change (Δd{sub ITV}). Results: 34 (85%) patients showed ITV decrease and 6 (15%) patients showed ITV increase throughout the course of lung SBRT. Percentage ITV change ranged from −59.6% to 13.0%, with a mean (±SD) of −21.0% (±21.4%). On average of all patients, P{sub ADP} resulted in significantly (P=0 to .045) lower values for all dosimetric metrics. Δd{sub ITV}/d{sub T-OAR} was found to correlate with changes in dose to 5 cc (ΔD5cc) of esophagus (r=0.61) and dose to 30 cc (ΔD30cc) of chest wall (r=0.81). Stronger correlations between Δd{sub ITV}/d{sub T-OAR} and ΔD30cc of chest wall were discovered for peripheral (r=0.81) and central (r=0.84) tumors, respectively. Conclusions: Dosimetric effects of adaptive lung SBRT planning depend upon target volume changes and tumor-to-OAR distances. Adaptive lung SBRT can potentially reduce dose to adjacent OARs if patients present large tumor volume shrinkage during the treatment.

  3. Normal Tissue Protectors Against Radiation Injury (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Uma Devi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Radiation damages normal tissues that can adversely affect the success of cancer radiotherapy, safety of nuclear installation workers and military personnel, and public exposed to nuclear accidents. Certain chemicals are able to protect against the harmful effects of radiation. But more than 50 years of research has produced only one approved radioprotective drug, WR-2721 or amifostine. The general utility of WR-2721 is limited by its inherent toxicity and high cost. Efforts to find non-toxic radioprotectors have revealed the promising properties of some medicinal plants. This is an attempt to review the recent publications on radioprotectors and to identify the research needs relevant to developing countries.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(2, pp.105-112, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.829

  4. Morphometric estimation of hemopoietic tissue in radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of a series of histologic sections of femoral bone marrow combined with morphometry was used to estimate hematopoiesis of irradiated organism. The doses of 4.5 and 9.0 Gy for rats radiation exposure were used. Bone marrow was examined in epiphysis, diaphysis and in the central part of the bone. Hypoplasia of bone marrow is believed to result from decrease of endostal layer width in the main and to a lower extent from the cell density drop in the other zones. A delay in myeloid tissue cells restoration caused by stem cell death was accompanied by the increasing gialinum deposits in bone marrow, mainly in the central and lower epiphysis of femoral bone, directly depending on the dose of radiation obtained. A noted decrease in lymphoid folliculi sizes in lymphoid tissue was observed, while there were no significant changes in the other zones

  5. Possibilities and methods for biochemical assessment of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensitive review (77 references) is made of the application of biochemical diagnostic methods for assessment of radiation diseases. A brief characteristics of several biochemical indicators is given: deoxycytidine, thymidine, ρ-aminoisocarboxylic acid, DNA-ase, nucleic acids. Influence of such factors as age, sex, season etc. is studied by means of functional biochemical indicators as: creatine, triptophanic metabolites, 5-hydroxy-indolacetic acid, biogenic amines, serum proteins, enzymes, etc

  6. Therapy of radiation injuries of the rat marginal periodontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of different consistencies of food and of ionizing radiations on the marginal periodontium of female Wistar rats was studied. Microorganisms play an important part in the development of inflammatory histological reactions. Chlorhexidine and metronidazole treatment, resp., revealed a favourable effect on the inflammatory alterations of the periodontium. The evaluation was based on semiquantitative identification of plaques as well as on histological investigations of the interdental col and of the subepithelial connective tissue

  7. Associations between damage location and five main body region injuries of MAIS 3–6 injured occupants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Youming; Cao, Libo; Kan, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the damage location distribution of five main body region injuries of maximum abbreviated injury score (MAIS) 3–6 injured occupants for nearside struck vehicle in front-to-side impact crashes. Design and setting MAIS 3–6 injured occupants information was extracted from the US-National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System in the year 2007; it included the head/face/neck, chest, pelvis, upper extremity and lower extremity. Struck vehicle collision damage was classified in a three-dimensional system according to the J224 Collision Deformation Classification of SAE Surface Vehicle Standard. Participants Nearside occupants seated directly adjacent to the struck side of the vehicle with MAIS 3–6 injured, in light truck vehicles–passenger cars (LTV–PC) side impact crashes. Outcome measures Distribution of MAIS 3–6 injured occupants by body regions and specific location of damage (lateral direction, horizontal direction and vertical direction) were examined. Injury risk ratio was also assessed. Results The lateral crush zone contributed to MAIS 3–6 injured occupants (n=705) and 50th centile injury risks when extended into zone 3. When the crush extended to zone 4, the injury risk ratio of MAIS 3–6 injured occupants approached 81%. The horizontal crush zones contributing to the highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3–6 occupants were zones ‘D’ and ‘Y’, and the injury risk ratios were 25.4% and 36.9%, respectively. In contrast, the lowest injury risk ratio was 5.67% caused by zone ‘B’. The vertical crush zone which contributed to the highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3–6 occupants was zone ‘E’, whose injury risk ratio was 58%. In contrast, the lowest injury risk ratio was 0.14% caused by zone ‘G+M’. Conclusions The highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3–6 injured occupants caused by crush intrusion between 40 and 60 cm in LTV–PC nearside impact collisions and the damage region of the struck

  8. Pyruvate metabolism: A therapeutic opportunity in radiation-induced skin injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyun; Kang, Jeong Wook [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Department of Plastic Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sang Ho [Department of Dermatology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Sil [College of Pharmacy & Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewah Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun-Jung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaeho, E-mail: jjhmd@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-08

    Ionizing radiation is used to treat a range of cancers. Despite recent technological progress, radiation therapy can damage the skin at the administration site. The specific molecular mechanisms involved in this effect have not been fully characterized. In this study, the effects of pyruvate, on radiation-induced skin injury were investigated, including the role of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDK2) signaling pathway. Next generation sequencing (NGS) identified a wide range of gene expression differences between the control and irradiated mice, including reduced expression of PDK2. This was confirmed using Q-PCR. Cell culture studies demonstrated that PDK2 overexpression and a high cellular pyruvate concentration inhibited radiation-induced cytokine expression. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated radiation-induced skin thickening and gene expression changes. Oral pyruvate treatment markedly downregulated radiation-induced changes in skin thickness and inflammatory cytokine expression. These findings indicated that regulation of the pyruvate metabolic pathway could provide an effective approach to the control of radiation-induced skin damage. - Highlights: • The effects of radiation on skin thickness in mice. • Next generation sequencing revealed that radiation inhibited pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 expression. • PDK2 inhibited irradiation-induced cytokine gene expression. • Oral pyruvate treatment markedly downregulated radiation-induced changes in skin thickness.

  9. Pyruvate metabolism: A therapeutic opportunity in radiation-induced skin injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation is used to treat a range of cancers. Despite recent technological progress, radiation therapy can damage the skin at the administration site. The specific molecular mechanisms involved in this effect have not been fully characterized. In this study, the effects of pyruvate, on radiation-induced skin injury were investigated, including the role of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDK2) signaling pathway. Next generation sequencing (NGS) identified a wide range of gene expression differences between the control and irradiated mice, including reduced expression of PDK2. This was confirmed using Q-PCR. Cell culture studies demonstrated that PDK2 overexpression and a high cellular pyruvate concentration inhibited radiation-induced cytokine expression. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated radiation-induced skin thickening and gene expression changes. Oral pyruvate treatment markedly downregulated radiation-induced changes in skin thickness and inflammatory cytokine expression. These findings indicated that regulation of the pyruvate metabolic pathway could provide an effective approach to the control of radiation-induced skin damage. - Highlights: • The effects of radiation on skin thickness in mice. • Next generation sequencing revealed that radiation inhibited pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 expression. • PDK2 inhibited irradiation-induced cytokine gene expression. • Oral pyruvate treatment markedly downregulated radiation-induced changes in skin thickness

  10. Development of hypothalamus arcuate nucleus neurocytes following whole-body γ-radiation of rat neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of caryo- and cytometric studies show that γ-irradiation inhibits the growth and development of arcute nucleus neurocytes of hypothalamus. The secretory function of neurocytes is also inhibited which is particularly important with regard to the formation of adenohypophysis functions as a major regulator of the adaptation response development. A radiation-induced disturbance of the latter aggravates the radiation injury to critical organs or systems of young animals thus influencing their viability

  11. Total body fat percentage and body mass index and the association with lower extremity injuries in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Eva; Verhagen, Evert; Holst, René;

    2014-01-01

    Overweight youths are generally recognised as being at increased risk of sustaining lower extremity injuries in sports. However, previous studies are inconclusive and choices for measuring overweight are manifold....

  12. 31P MR spectroscopy of the liver showing dose dependent adenosine triphosphate decreases after radiation induced hepatic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the relationship between ATP level changes detected by hepatic 31P MRS with the pathologic changes of liver in rabbits and to investigate the diagnostic value of ATP level changes in acute hepatic radiation injury. Methods: A total of 30 rabbits received different radiation doses (ranging from 5,10,20 Gy) to establish acute hepatic injury models. Blood hepatic function tests, 31P MRS and pathological examinations were carded out 24 h after irradiation. The degree of injury was evaluated according to hepatocyte pathology. Ten healthy rabbits served as controls. The MR examination was performed on a 1.5 T imager using a 1H-31P surface coil with 2D chemical shift imaging technique. The relative quantities of phosphomonoesters (PME), phosphodiesters (PDE), inorganic phosphate (Pi) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were measured. Analysis of variance was used to compare the results of 31P MRS and histopathology under various acute hepatic radiation injuries, and SNK was used further to conduct comparison between each other if there was significant difference. Results: The ATP relative quantification in control (n=10), mild (n=12), moderate (n=11), and severe (n=7) injury groups according to pathological grading were 1.83±0.33, 1.58±0.25, 1.32±0.07 and 1.02±0.18, with significant differences among them (F=22.878, P<0.01), and it decreased progressively with the increased degree of injury. The PDE index showed no significant trend for the evaluation of hepatic radiation injury. The area under the peak of β-ATP decreased with the increased severity of radiation injury. Conclusions: The relative quantification of hepatic ATP levels can reflect the pathological severity of acute hepatic radiation injury. The decreasing hepatic ATP levels may be used as biomarker of acute liver injury following radiation. (authors)

  13. Digestive system sheep that have suffered of thyroid radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic functional studies of digestive system of sheep relocated from 30 km-zone of ChNPP have been conducted. The sheep had symptoms of hypothyreosis as a result of radiation damages of thyroid. Certain data have shown a number of functional abnormalities in the digestive system (gastrointestinal tract) of sheep. The abnormalities have been demonstrated by the reductio in gastrointestinal hormone values both of local (gastrin) and total (thyroxine) action; disfunctions of hepatobiliary system as well as delay in evacuation of gastrointestinal tract, intensifying of cavitary digestion and weakening of membrane digestion. 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. Effects of radiation on stability of triangular equilibrium points in elliptic restricted three body problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutan Singh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the stability of triangular Lagrangian points in the elliptical restricted three body problem, under the effect of radiation pressure stemming from the more massive primary on the infinitesimal. We adopted a set of rotating pulsating axes centered at the centre of mass of the two primaries Sun and Jupiter. We have exploited method of averaging used by Grebenikov, throughout the analysis of stability of the system. The critical mass ratio depends on the radiation pressure, eccentricity and the range of stability decreases as the radiation parameter increases.   Keywords: Dynamical system, elliptical restricted three body problems, lagrangian points, radiation pressure, and stability.

  15. On the thermodynamics of the conversion of partially polarized black-body radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Badescu, V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper considers a model consisting of : (i) a source of partially polarized black-body radiation (the pump), (ii) a thermally radiative or non-radiative ambient sink and (iii) two energy converters. The first converter (RH) transforms the energy of the black-body radiation into heat, while the second one (HW) (which has a non-zero entropy generation rate) uses that heat to produce work. The entropy-generation rates in the two converters are non-negative only when some conditions are sati...

  16. Prevention and Treatment of Functional and Structural Radiation Injury in the Rat Heart by Pentoxifylline and Alpha-Tocopherol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is a severe side effect of thoracic radiotherapy. This study examined the effects of pentoxifylline (PTX) and α-tocopherol on cardiac injury in a rat model of RIHD. Methods and Materials: Male Sprague-Dawley rats received fractionated local heart irradiation with a daily dose of 9 Gy for 5 days and were observed for 6 months after irradiation. Rats were treated with a combination of PTX, 100 mg/kg/day, and α-tocopherol (20 IU/kg/day) and received these compounds either from 1 week before until 6 months after irradiation or starting 3 months after irradiation, a time point at which histopathologic changes become apparent in our model of RIHD. Results: Radiation-induced increases in left ventricular diastolic pressure (in mm Hg: 35 ± 6 after sham-irradiation, 82 ± 11 after irradiation) were significantly reduced by PTX and α-tocopherol (early treatment: 48 ± 7; late treatment: 53 ± 6). PTX and α-tocopherol significantly reduced deposition of collagen types I (radiation only: 3.5 ± 0.2 μm2 per 100 μm2; early treatment: 2.7 ± 0.8; late treatment: 2.2 ± 0.2) and III (radiation only: 13.9 ± 0.8; early treatment: 11.0 ± 1.2; late treatment: 10.6 ± 0.8). On the other hand, radiation-induced alterations in heart/body weight ratios, myocardial degeneration, left ventricular mast cell densities, and most echocardiographic parameters were not significantly altered by PTX and α-tocopherol. Conclusions: Treatment with PTX and α-tocopherol may have beneficial effects on radiation-induced myocardial fibrosis and left ventricular function, both when started before irradiation and when started later during the process of RIHD

  17. Protection and therapy for radiation injuries by expression control of cytokine genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fibrocyte cell breeding factor, HST-1/FGF-4, a kind of cytokine genes was studied for development of a preventive and treatable medicine for radiation injuries. Expression parts of the factor HST-1/FGF-4 in the intestine of mice were identified using adeno virus vector. The HST-1/FGF-4 decreased an apoptosis in the intestinal cript cells due to irradiation. It was cleared that the breeding factors were important for existence support and repairing process of the intestine by operating on the promotion of wandering and breeding in intestine intraepithelial tissue. The breeding factor appeared in testes of mice, also. The cytokine gene expression, which increased by injuries due to temperature and heat in the testes, indicated a possibility of operating for protection of the tissue injuries. (M. Suetake)

  18. Advances of imaging on differential diagnosis between recurrence of glioma and radiation-induced brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiating recurrence of glioma from radiation-induced brain injury is a central challenge in neuro-oncology. The 2 very different outcomes after brain tumor treatment often appear similar on traditional imaging studies. They may even manifest with similar clinical symptoms. Distinguishing treatment injury from tumor recurrence is crucial for diagnosis and treatment planning. In this article, we reviewed the latest developments and key findings from research studies exploring the efficacy of structural and functional imaging modalities in differentiating treatment injury from tumor recurrence with DWI, MRS, DCE-MR, DSC-MR, PET, and SPECT. And we discussed the advantages and disadvantages of each approach to provide useful information for making proper diagnosis and treatment planning. (authors)

  19. New strategies for the prevention of radiation injury. Possible implications for countering radiation hazards of long-term space travel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.; Kumar, S.; Whitnall, M. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States). Radiation Casualty Management] [and others

    2002-12-01

    New strategies for the prevention of radiation injuries are currently being explored with the ultimate aim of developing globally radioprotective, nontoxic pharmacologics. The prophylactic treatments under review encompass such diverse pharmacologic classes as novel immunomodulators, nutritional antioxidants, and cytokines. An immunomodulator that shows promise is 5-androstenediol (AED), a well-tolerated, long-acting and rostene steroid with broad-spectrum radioprotective attributes that include not only protection against acute tissue injury, but also reduced susceptibility to infectious agents, as well as reduced rates of neoplastic transformation. Other potentially useful radioprotectants currently under study include the nutraceutical vitamin E and analogs, a chemically-engineered cytokine, interleukin-1{beta}, and a sustained-release formulation of an aminothiol, amifostine. Results suggest that a new paradigm is evolving for the prophylaxes of radiation injuries, based on use of newly identified, nontoxic, broad-spectrum prophylactic agents whose protective action may be leveraged by subsequent postexposure use of cytokines with organ-specific reparative functions. (author)

  20. New strategies for the prevention of radiation injury. Possible implications for countering radiation hazards of long-term space travel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New strategies for the prevention of radiation injuries are currently being explored with the ultimate aim of developing globally radioprotective, nontoxic pharmacologics. The prophylactic treatments under review encompass such diverse pharmacologic classes as novel immunomodulators, nutritional antioxidants, and cytokines. An immunomodulator that shows promise is 5-androstenediol (AED), a well-tolerated, long-acting and rostene steroid with broad-spectrum radioprotective attributes that include not only protection against acute tissue injury, but also reduced susceptibility to infectious agents, as well as reduced rates of neoplastic transformation. Other potentially useful radioprotectants currently under study include the nutraceutical vitamin E and analogs, a chemically-engineered cytokine, interleukin-1β, and a sustained-release formulation of an aminothiol, amifostine. Results suggest that a new paradigm is evolving for the prophylaxes of radiation injuries, based on use of newly identified, nontoxic, broad-spectrum prophylactic agents whose protective action may be leveraged by subsequent postexposure use of cytokines with organ-specific reparative functions. (author)

  1. Radiation-induced skin injury in the animal model of scleroderma: implications for post-radiotherapy fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy is generally contraindicated for cancer patients with collagen vascular diseases (CVD) such as scleroderma due to an increased risk of fibrosis. The tight skin (TSK) mouse has skin which, in some respects, mimics that of patients with scleroderma. The skin radiation response of TSK mice has not been previously reported. If TSK mice are shown to have radiation sensitive skin, they may prove to be a useful model to examine the mechanisms underlying skin radiation injury, protection, mitigation and treatment. The hind limbs of TSK and parental control C57BL/6 mice received a radiation exposure sufficient to cause approximately the same level of acute injury. Endpoints included skin damage scored using a non-linear, semi-quantitative scale and tissue fibrosis assessed by measuring passive leg extension. In addition, TGF-β1 cytokine levels were measured monthly in skin tissue. Contrary to our expectations, TSK mice were more resistant (i.e. 20%) to radiation than parental control mice. Although acute skin reactions were similar in both mouse strains, radiation injury in TSK mice continued to decrease with time such that several months after radiation there was significantly less skin damage and leg contraction compared to C57BL/6 mice (p < 0.05). Consistent with the expected association of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) with late tissue injury, levels of the cytokine were significantly higher in the skin of the C57BL/6 mouse compared to TSK mouse at all time points (p < 0.05). TSK mice are not recommended as a model of scleroderma involving radiation injury. The genetic and molecular basis for reduced radiation injury observed in TSK mice warrants further investigation particularly to identify mechanisms capable of reducing tissue fibrosis after radiation injury

  2. Construction and evaluation of thoracic injury risk curves for a finite element human body model in frontal car crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Vazquez, Manuel; Davidsson, Johan; Brolin, Karin

    2015-12-01

    There is a need to improve the protection to the thorax of occupants in frontal car crashes. Finite element human body models are a more detailed representation of humans than anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). On the other hand, there is no clear consensus on the injury criteria and the thresholds to use with finite element human body models to predict rib fractures. The objective of this study was to establish a set of injury risk curves to predict rib fractures using a modified Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS). Injury criteria at the global, structural and material levels were computed with a modified THUMS in matched Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHSs) tests. Finally, the quality of each injury risk curve was determined. For the included PMHS tests and the modified THUMS, DcTHOR and shear stress were the criteria at the global and material levels that reached an acceptable quality. The injury risk curves at the structural level did not reach an acceptable quality. PMID:26397197

  3. Investigations into the influence of therapeutic measures on the repair of spontaneous mechanisms of defence following radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations into the influence of therapeutic measures on the repair of spontaneous mechanisms of defence following radiation injury. The aim of this project was to develop procedures for the repair of the body's own mechanisms of defence following radiation injury and to test these on the basis of animal models. After consultation of the relevant literature and in vivo experiments as a preliminary to the in vivo studies in dogs, recombinant human colony-stimulating factor rhGM-CSF was chosen from among a series of different cytokinins. The influence of rhGM-CSF on granulocytopoiesis and monocytophoiesis was at first studied in an animal having undisturbed bone marrow function. Treatment with daily doses of 30 μg/kg on five consecutive days led to a markedly pronounced increase of granulocytopoiesis and an only modest increase of the monocyte concentration of the blood. For the studies in irradiated dogs, treatment was carried out over a period of 21 days. Each of 2 dogs received daily doses of 10 μg/kg or 30 μg/kg administered by subcutaneous injection. These were in each case divided into two equal fractions being given in the morning and at night. The results lead to the conclusion that the treatment of irradiated individuals with rhGM-CSF alone (monotherapy) may be expected to have favourable effects in respect of granulocytopoiesis and monocytopoiesis. This appears, however, to hold only for cases where the radiation damage to the bone marrow is not much more pronounced than that from homogeneous wholebody irradiation using doses in the range between 3 and 3.5 Gy. It is still open to discussion, if and to which extent such treatments with rhGM-CSF are associated with untoward effects on certain hematological parameters. (orig./MG)

  4. An athymic rat model of cutaneous radiation injury designed to study human tissue-based wound therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe a pilot study for a novel preclinical model used to test human tissue-based therapies in the setting of cutaneous radiation injury. A protocol was designed to irradiate the skin of athymic rats while sparing the body and internal organs by utilizing a non-occlusive skin clamp along with an x-ray image guided stereotactic irradiator. Each rat was irradiated both on the right and the left flank with a circular field at a 20 cm source-to-surface distance (SSD). Single fractions of 30.4 Gy, 41.5 Gy, 52.6 Gy, 65.5 Gy, and 76.5 Gy were applied in a dose-finding trial. Eight additional wounds were created using the 41.5 Gy dose level. Each wound was photographed and the percentage of the irradiated area ulcerated at given time points was analyzed using ImageJ software. No systemic or lethal sequelae occurred in any animals, and all irradiated skin areas in the multi-dose trial underwent ulceration. Greater than 60% of skin within each irradiated zone underwent ulceration within ten days, with peak ulceration ranging from 62.1% to 79.8%. Peak ulceration showed a weak correlation with radiation dose (r = 0.664). Mean ulceration rate over the study period is more closely correlated to dose (r = 0.753). With the highest dose excluded due to contraction-related distortions, correlation between dose and average ulceration showed a stronger relationship (r = 0.895). Eight additional wounds created using 41.5 Gy all reached peak ulceration above 50%, with all healing significantly but incompletely by the 65-day endpoint. We developed a functional preclinical model which is currently used to evaluate human tissue-based therapies in the setting of cutaneous radiation injury. Similar models may be widely applicable and useful the development of novel therapies which may improve radiotherapy management over a broad clinical spectrum

  5. Contribution to the pathogenesis of radiation-induced injury to large arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of a 35-year-old man who died of a brain infarct 20 months after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the tonsil with metastases to the cervical lymph nodes. Histology revealed mild atherosclerosis, necrotizing vasculitis, and occlusive thrombosis of the internal carotid artery. Significant changes were observed in the vasa vasorum; swelling and detachment of the endothelium, subendothelial oedema, hyaline change, fibrinoid necrosis of the vessel walls with mononuclear cellular infiltration, accompanied by focal haemorrhages and chronic inflammation in the periadventitial soft tissue. We believe that these changes of the vasa vasorum and necrotizing vasculitis are causally related and that vasculitis represents focal ischaemic necroses with inflammatory reaction. Our findings support the hypothesis, based on experimental studies, that injury to the vasa vasorum is an important mechanism in the development of radiation-induced vasculopathy of large arteries. They also suggest an evolution of the injury to the vasa vasorum and periadventitial tissue from the early lesions described in our patient, to late stages resulting in dense periadventitial fibrosis as reported previously. We suggest that injury to the vasa vasorum and the consequent ischaemic lesions of the arterial wall are morphological features distinguishing radiation-induced arterial injury from spontaneous atherosclerosis. (author)

  6. Clinical appearance of radiation-induced skin injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degree of locally defined cutaneous damage from exposure to radiation is determined by the amount of the single or additive dose received, irrespective of whether the individual affected was exposed to this dose only once or for a prolonged period of time. Dose-effect relationships can be predicted from the course of immediate skin reactions like erythema, loss of hair and necrosis. The length of time elapsing between the primary and secondary erythema, which is also called the latency period, permits the dose itself to be roughly estimated. During this latency period, thermographic examinations have also proved to provide a suitable basis for predictions about the site and propable degree of those cutaneous damages. In addition to a description of the clinical findings, an outline is given of the relevant pathophysiology and pathomorphology as well as of the available diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. (orig.)

  7. Radiation pressure on a moving body: beyond the Doppler effect

    OpenAIRE

    Horsley, S. A. R.; Artoni, M.; La Rocca, G. C.

    2011-01-01

    The dependence of macroscopic radiation pressure on the velocity of the object being pushed is commonly attributed to the Doppler effect. This need not be the case, and here we highlight velocity-dependent radiation pressure terms that have their origins in the mixing of s and p polarizations brought about by the Lorentz transformation between the lab and the material rest frame, rather than in the corresponding transformation of frequency and wavevector. The theory we develop may be relevant...

  8. Medical management of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical management during acute period in a case of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure includes 3 stages. During the fist stage patient got conservative treatment according to the common pathogenetic mechanisms of LRI (dis aggregating therapy, stimulation of regeneration, dis intoxication therapy, antibiotic therapy, pain relief therapy, Local anti-burn therapy-specific non-adhesive bandage with antiseptic and anti-burn medicaments); estimation of severity, deepness and area of injury by clinical picture and dates of instrumental methods of examining; defining necessity and volume of surgical treatment; preparing arrangements for surgical treatment. This stage ends with forming of demarcation line of a very hard severity of a Local Radiation Injure. The second stage includes necrectomy of the area of a very hard severity with microsurgical plastic by re vascularized flap and auto dermoplastic. The third stage - adaptation of re vascularized flap and total epithelization of injured area. (author)

  9. Hemogram and enzymatic profile in the blood plasma as indicators of radiation injury in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to investigate which parameters - hemogram or the activity of several enzymes in the blood plasma - can better serve as the help in establishing an early diagnosis of the organic or functional damage caused by ionizing radiation in the chickens. In this paper we tried to compare the radiosensitivity of bone marrow and liver in chickens, using hemogram as an indicator bone marrow injuries and enzymatic profile as an indicator of liver injuries. These data suggest that the determination of enzymatic profile in the blood plasma can serve as the help, as well as hematogram, in the early diagnosis of functional damage caused by ionizing radiation in chickens. (author). 8 refs.; 2 tabs

  10. Visual assessment of the radiation distribution in the ISS Lab module: visualization in the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saganti, P. B.; Zapp, E. N.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    The US Lab module of the International Space Station (ISS) is a primary working area where the crewmembers are expected to spend majority of their time. Because of the directionality of radiation fields caused by the Earth shadow, trapped radiation pitch angle distribution, and inherent variations in the ISS shielding, a model is needed to account for these local variations in the radiation distribution. We present the calculated radiation dose (rem/yr) values for over 3,000 different points in the working area of the Lab module and estimated radiation dose values for over 25,000 different points in the human body for a given ambient radiation environment. These estimated radiation dose values are presented in a three dimensional animated interactive visualization format. Such interactive animated visualization of the radiation distribution can be generated in near real-time to track changes in the radiation environment during the orbit precession of the ISS.

  11. Effect of ionizing radiation on the living body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Fukushima nuclear plant accident following the great East Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011, we have been warned to be careful about possible radiation exposure almost every day in newspapers and on TV. Radioactive iodine (131I) and cesium (134Cs, 137Cs) produced by nuclear reactions were released into the air during and after the accident, and have been scattered by the winds in Tohoku and in the Kanto district. Even today, 2 years after the accident, there is great public concern about possible pollution of foodstuffs and fishery products with radioactive cesium, not only in Japan, but also in other countries. On the other hand, decontamination work has been proceeding, including removal of contaminated soil near the accident site. Since the accident, many media reports have continued to tell us only that current dose levels of radiation are not dangerous to human health. But, many people are not satisfied with such vague statements, and want to understand the situation in more detail. So, it is important to provide basic education about the effects of radiation to the general public. I am a professor of the Department of Radiation Biosciences at Tokyo University of Science, and so I am very familiar with radiation and its dangers. So, in my lecture today, we would like to explain the effects of radiation and put the present situation into perspective, so that people will better understand the risks, and not be unnecessarily afraid. (author)

  12. Treatment of chronic radiation injury over the shoulder with a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report our experiences in treating chronic radiation injury about the shoulder, a complication of radiation after mastectomy. Left untreated, these can result in chronic infection and/or amputation. The coverage of a large shoulder area presents certain unique problems, which severely limit the usefulness of traditional procedures. We have found that the remarkable size and versatility of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap enables one to use it with relative simplicity and safety. A further great advantage is that it brings new permanent blood supply into this ischemic area, thus favoring rapid healing and durable coverage

  13. State and prospects of rehabilitation persons with radiation and chemical injuries in Tatarstan Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary data on complex investigation of 442 patients participating in liquidation of consequences of the Ch NPP accident, and their children, living at the territory of the Tatarstan Republic are presented. The existing system of rehabilitation of persons, injured in rehabilitation of persons, injured in the course of emergency situations, as well as the prospects of its development are considered. Special attention is paid to the program on rehabilitation of the Ch NPP accident and other radiation accident consequences liquidators, The actuality of the program on training and upgrading qualification of medical personnel and social workers, engaged in medical and social-labour rehabilitation of persons with radiation-chemical injuries is noted

  14. Estimated Risk Level of Unified Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Dose Tolerance Limits for Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Jimm; Sahgal, Arjun; Soltys, Scott G; Luxton, Gary; Patel, Ashish; Herbert, Scott; Xue, Jinyu; Ma, Lijun; Yorke, Ellen; Adler, John R; Gibbs, Iris C

    2016-04-01

    A literature review of more than 200 stereotactic body radiation therapy spine articles from the past 20 years found only a single article that provided dose-volume data and outcomes for each spinal cord of a clinical dataset: the Gibbs 2007 article (Gibbs et al, 2007(1)), which essentially contains the first 100 stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) spine treatments from Stanford University Medical Center. The dataset is modeled and compared in detail to the rest of the literature review, which found 59 dose tolerance limits for the spinal cord in 1-5 fractions. We partitioned these limits into a unified format of high-risk and low-risk dose tolerance limits. To estimate the corresponding risk level of each limit we used the Gibbs 2007 clinical spinal cord dose-volume data for 102 spinal metastases in 74 patients treated by spinal radiosurgery. In all, 50 of the patients were previously irradiated to a median dose of 40Gy in 2-3Gy fractions and 3 patients developed treatment-related myelopathy. These dose-volume data were digitized into the dose-volume histogram (DVH) Evaluator software tool where parameters of the probit dose-response model were fitted using the maximum likelihood approach (Jackson et al, 1995(3)). Based on this limited dataset, for de novo cases the unified low-risk dose tolerance limits yielded an estimated risk of spinal cord injury of ≤1% in 1-5 fractions, and the high-risk limits yielded an estimated risk of ≤3%. The QUANTEC Dmax limits of 13Gy in a single fraction and 20Gy in 3 fractions had less than 1% risk estimated from this dataset, so we consider these among the low-risk limits. In the previously irradiated cohort, the estimated risk levels for 10 and 14Gy maximum cord dose limits in 5 fractions are 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively. Longer follow-up and more patients are required to improve the risk estimates and provide more complete validation. PMID:27000514

  15. The protection of glutamine on radiation-induced intestinal mucosa injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the protection of glutamine on radiation-induced intestinal mucosa injury. Methods: Thirty rats were randomly divided into normal control group (group A), radiation control group (group B) and glutamine protection group (group C). The rats were received abdominal radiation of 1000 cGy. Feeding glutamine began since the day before radiation in group C. Four days later, the rats were killed, and the intestinal bacterial translocation, the concentration of endotoxin in blood and pathological changes of intestinal mucosa were measured or observed. Results: Bacteria translocation was not found in group A, but evident in group B, and much lighter in group C than in group B. The concentration of endotoxin in blood was very low in group A, very high in group B, but much lower in group C than in group B. The villus edema, mucosa infiltrated with informative cells and epithelial exuviation were found in group B, but these pathological changes were much lighter in group C, and not found in group A. Conclusion: Whole abdomen radiation will evidently cause intestinal mucosa injury in rats, and bacteria translocation and endotoxemia would occur. Glutamine can prevent those changes

  16. A preclinical rodent model of radiation induced lung injury for medical countermeasure screening in accordance with the FDA animal rule

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Isabel L.; Xu, Puting; Hadley, Caroline; Katz, Barry P.; McGurk, Ross; Down, Julian D.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of pre-clinical murine model development is to establish that the pathophysiological outcome of our rodent model of radiation-induced lung injury is sufficiently representative of the anticipated pulmonary response in the human population. This objective is based on concerns that the C57BL/6J strain may not be the most appropriate preclinical model of lethal radiation lung injury in humans. In this study, we assessed this issue by evaluating the relationship between morbidity (pul...

  17. Probabilities of Radiation Myelopathy Specific to Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy to Guide Safe Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Weinberg, Vivian [University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, San Francisco, California (United States); Ma, Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Chang, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California and University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Chao, Sam [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Muacevic, Alexander [European Cyberknife Center Munich in affiliation with University Hospitals of Munich, Munich (Germany); Gorgulho, Alessandra [Department of Neurosurgery, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Soltys, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Gerszten, Peter C. [Departments of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Ryu, Sam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Angelov, Lilyana [Department of Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Gibbs, Iris [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Wong, C. Shun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Larson, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Dose-volume histogram (DVH) results for 9 cases of post spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) radiation myelopathy (RM) are reported and compared with a cohort of 66 spine SBRT patients without RM. Methods and Materials: DVH data were centrally analyzed according to the thecal sac point maximum (Pmax) volume, 0.1- to 1-cc volumes in increments of 0.1 cc, and to the 2 cc volume. 2-Gy biologically equivalent doses (nBED) were calculated using an {alpha}/{beta} = 2 Gy (units = Gy{sub 2/2}). For the 2 cohorts, the nBED means and distributions were compared using the t test and Mann-Whitney test, respectively. Significance (P<.05) was defined as concordance of both tests at each specified volume. A logistic regression model was developed to estimate the probability of RM using the dose distribution for a given volume. Results: Significant differences in both the means and distributions at the Pmax and up to the 0.8-cc volume were observed. Concordant significance was greatest for the Pmax volume. At the Pmax volume the fit of the logistic regression model, summarized by the area under the curve, was 0.87. A risk of RM of 5% or less was observed when limiting the thecal sac Pmax volume doses to 12.4 Gy in a single fraction, 17.0 Gy in 2 fractions, 20.3 Gy in 3 fractions, 23.0 Gy in 4 fractions, and 25.3 Gy in 5 fractions. Conclusion: We report the first logistic regression model yielding estimates for the probability of human RM specific to SBRT.

  18. Analysis of the human body on the radiation of FM handset antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Vergés, J; Anguera, Jaume; Puente Baliarda, Carles; Aguilar, David

    2009-01-01

    A simple human body phantom model is proposed and used to demonstrate that the radiation efficiency of an internal handset antenna operating at the FM band can be improved for a particular holding position up to 10 dB. To corroborate the numerical results, an experiment using a real human body has been performed showing very good agreemen

  19. CT appearance of radiation injury of the lung and clinical symptoms after stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT appearance of radiation injury to the lung and clinical symptoms after SRT (stereotactic radiation therapy) for small lung cancers. In this analysis, 35 patients with 39 primary or metastatic lung cancers were enrolled. The follow-up at the time of evaluation ranged from 6 to 44 months (median 18 months). SRT was performed by 3D conformal method which focuses a single high dose to the tumor. We evaluated the CT appearance of acute radiation pneumonitis (within 6 months) and radiation fibrosis (after 6 months) after SRT. Clinical symptoms were evaluated by CTCAE ver.3.0. CT appearance of acute radiation pneumonitis was classified as follows; 1) diffuse consolidation in 12 lesions (30.7%), 2) patchy consolidation and ground-grass opacities (GGO) in 6 lesions (15.4%), 3) diffuse GGO in 5 patients (12.8%), 4) patchy GGO in 1 lesion (2.6%), 5) no evidence of increasing density in 15 lesions (38.5%). CT appearance of radiation fibrosis was classified as follows; 1) modified conventional pattern (consolidation, volume loss and bronchiectasis similar to, but less extensive than conventional radiation fibrosis) in 18 lesions (46.2%), 2) mass-like pattern (focal consolidation limited around the tumor) in 10 lesions (25.6%), 3) scar-like pattern (linear opacity in the region of the tumor associated with volume loss) in 11 lesions (28.2%). Eleven of 15 lesions which had no evidence of increasing density of acute radiation pneumonitis progressed to scar-like pattern of radiation fibrosis. Most of these patients had pulmonary emphysema. Patients who were diagnosed more than Grade 2 pneumonitis were significantly more in diffuse consolidation pattern than in other pattern (p=0.00085). Patients who were diagnosed more than Grade 2 pneumonitis were significantly less in no evidence of increase density pattern than in other pattern (p=0.0026). CT appearance after SRT was classified into five patterns of acute radiation pneumonitis and

  20. Radiation Injury Treatment Network®: Preparedness Through a Coalition of Cancer Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Cullen

    2016-08-01

    This article provides an overview of Radiation Injury Treatment Network® (RITN), its preparedness activities and capabilities, including training and educating over 11,500 hospital staff, coordinating over 500 exercises, developing treatment guidelines, developing standard operating procedures, and being recognized by the U.S. federal government as a national response asset. The RITN provides comprehensive evaluation and treatment for victims with marrow toxic injuries. Many of the casualties from the detonation of an improvised nuclear device (IND) (a.k.a. terrorist nuclear bomb) with only radiation injuries will be salvageable; however, they would require outpatient and/or inpatient care. Recognizing this, the U.S. National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP), U.S. Navy, and American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT) collaboratively developed RITN, which comprises medical centers with expertise in the management of bone marrow failure. The medical community will undoubtedly be taxed by the resulting medical surge from an IND despite the well-defined United States emergency medical system, the National Disaster Medical System; however, one area that is unique for radiological disasters is the care for casualties with acute radiation syndrome. Hematologists and oncologists purposefully expose their cancer patients to high doses of radiation and toxic chemicals for chemotherapy as they treat their patients, resulting in symptoms not unlike casualties with exposure to ionizing radiation from a radiological disaster. This makes the staff from cancer centers ideal for the specialized care that will be required for thousands of casualties following a mass casualty radiological incident. The RITN is a model for how a collaborative effort can fill a readiness gap-through its network of 76 hospitals, blood donor centers, and cord blood banks, the RITN is preparing to provide outpatient care and specialized supportive care to up to 63,000 radiological casualties

  1. Radiation flaw detector for testing non-uniform surface bodies of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation flaw detector for testing bodies of revolution with non-uniform surface, welded joints, etc., based on spatial filtration and differentiation of ionizing radiation flux has been described. The calculation of the most important unit of flaw detector - integrators - is made. Experimental studies of the sensitivity have shown, that the radiation flaw detector can be used for rapid testing of products with the sensitivity comparable with the sensitivity of radiographic testing of steel

  2. Radiation-induced skin injury in the animal model of scleroderma: implications for post-radiotherapy fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Stephen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation therapy is generally contraindicated for cancer patients with collagen vascular diseases (CVD such as scleroderma due to an increased risk of fibrosis. The tight skin (TSK mouse has skin which, in some respects, mimics that of patients with scleroderma. The skin radiation response of TSK mice has not been previously reported. If TSK mice are shown to have radiation sensitive skin, they may prove to be a useful model to examine the mechanisms underlying skin radiation injury, protection, mitigation and treatment. Methods The hind limbs of TSK and parental control C57BL/6 mice received a radiation exposure sufficient to cause approximately the same level of acute injury. Endpoints included skin damage scored using a non-linear, semi-quantitative scale and tissue fibrosis assessed by measuring passive leg extension. In addition, TGF-β1 cytokine levels were measured monthly in skin tissue. Results Contrary to our expectations, TSK mice were more resistant (i.e. 20% to radiation than parental control mice. Although acute skin reactions were similar in both mouse strains, radiation injury in TSK mice continued to decrease with time such that several months after radiation there was significantly less skin damage and leg contraction compared to C57BL/6 mice (p Conclusion TSK mice are not recommended as a model of scleroderma involving radiation injury. The genetic and molecular basis for reduced radiation injury observed in TSK mice warrants further investigation particularly to identify mechanisms capable of reducing tissue fibrosis after radiation injury.

  3. Anesthesia and monitoring during whole body radiation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Nilsson, A; Hök, B; Persson, M P

    1991-01-01

    ) anesthetic technique using midazolam, pancuronium, and fentanyl. With midazolam as the only hypnotic agent, the problem with scavenging is solved, and a computer simulation of the plasma concentration of midazolam is presented. A modified stethoscope for monitoring during radiation also has been developed...

  4. Anesthesia and monitoring during whole body radiation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Nilsson, A; Hök, B; Persson, M P

    1990-01-01

    ) anesthetic technique using midazolam, pancuronium, and fentanyl. With midazolam as the only hypnotic agent, the problem with scavenging is solved, and a computer simulation of the plasma concentration of midazolam is presented. A modified stethoscope for monitoring during radiation also has been developed...

  5. Musculoskeletal Extremity Injuries in School-aged Children with special focus on overuse injuries, seasonal variation and body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Eva

    Ph.d. afhandlingen “Musculoskeletal Extremity Injuries in School-aged Children” er en undersøgelse af forekomsten af skader i arme og ben relateret til fysisk aktivitet. Baggrunden for studiet er, at på trods af de mange gavnlige effekter af at børn er fysisk aktive, så kan ’bivirkningen’ være...

  6. Radiation-Induced Testicular Injury and Its Amelioration by Tinospora cordifolia (An Indian Medicinal Plant Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the deleterious effects of sub lethal gamma radiation on testes and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE. For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation to serve as the irradiated control, while the other group received TCE (75 mg/kg b. wt./day orally for 5 consecutive days half an hr before irradiation to serve as experimental. Exposure of animals to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation resulted into significant decrease in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter up to 15 days of irradiation. Cent percent mortality was recorded by day 17th in irradiated control, whereas all animals survived in experimental group. TCE pretreatment rendered significant increase in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter at various intervals as compared to irradiated group. Radiation induced histological lesions in testicular architecture were observed more severe in irradiated control then the experimental. TCE administration before irradiation significantly ameliorated radiation induced elevation in lipid peroxidation and decline in glutathione concentration in testes. These observations indicate the radio- protective potential of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in testicular constituents against gamma irradiation in mice.

  7. Location of alien bodies in a media according to the data of scattering gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locations of alien bodies in a medium are studied by the method of model experiment using scattering γ-radiation. 60Co and 137Cs were used as radiation sources. The scattering bodies were made in the form of aluminium, iron and lead cylinders of different diameters inserted inside hollow cylindrical water, aluminium and iron media. The cases are reviewed when the alien bodies are in the center of cylindrical media. The obtained data are presented in the graphical form and in the form of tables. 4 refs., 4 figs. 1 tab

  8. Cytokine profiling for prediction of symptomatic radiation-induced lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze plasma cytokine profiles before the initiation of radiation therapy to define a cytokine phenotype that correlates with risk of developing symptomatic radiation-induced lung injury (SRILI). Methods and Materials: Symptomatic radiation-induced lung injury was evaluated in 55 patients (22 with SRILI and 33 without SRILI), according to modified National Cancer Institute common toxicity criteria. These plasma samples were analyzed by the multiplex suspension bead array system (Bio-Rad Laboratories; Hercules, CA), which included the following cytokines: interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-γ, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 1β, tumor necrosis factor α, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Results: Significant differences in the median values of IL-8 were observed between patients with and without SRILI. Patients who did not develop SRILI had approximately fourfold elevated levels of IL-8 as compared with patients who did subsequently develop SRILI. Significant correlations were not found for any other cytokine in this study, including transforming growth factor β1. Conclusions: Patients with lower levels of plasma IL-8 before radiation therapy might be at increased risk for developing SRILI. Further studies are necessary to determine whether IL-8 levels are predictive of SRILI in a prospective trial and whether this marker might be used to determine patient eligibility for dose escalation

  9. GSN antibody pretreatment aggravates radiation-induced lung injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced lung injury is one of the main dose limiting factors for thoracic radiation therapy. Gelsolin (GSN) is a widespread, multifunctional regulator of cellular structure and metabolism. In this work, the roles of GSN in radiation-induced lung injury in Balb/c mice were studied. The GSN levels in plasma reduced progressively in 72 hours after irradiation, and then increased gradually. GSN contents in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid increased after thoracic irradiation, whereas mRNA levels of GSN in the lung tissue decreased significantly within 24 hours after irradiation and then increased again. Mice were intravenously injected with 50 μg GSN antibody 0.5 hour before 20 Gy of thoracic irradiation. GSN antibody pretreatment increased lung inflammation, protein concentration in the BAL fluid and leukocytes infiltration in the irradiated mice. The activities of superoxidase dismutase (SOD) in the plasma and the BAL fluid in irradiated mice injected with GSN antibody were less than that of control groups, whereas the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased. These results suggest that pretreatment of GSN antibody may aggravate radiation-induced pneumonitis. (authors)

  10. Searches for skin injury-related genes induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review describes investigations concerning the skin and radiation exposure, and molecular effects of radiation on the skin partly based on authors' studies on searches in the title and for signaling cascade. Depending on the dose and its rate, radiation induces injuries like erythema, edema, alopecia, erosion, ulcer and cancer. Comprehensive analysis of the skin injury-related genes is now possible on the human genome chips (DNA micro-array) and on RNA/protein obtained from exposed epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts using such molecular biological means as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Northern/Western blotting and cyto/histochemistry. Authors have actually revealed that mRNA of ATF3, which regulates the gene transcription, is increased depending on the dose in the exposed human keratinocytes, and ATF3 is accumulated in the nucleus. Authors have also studied the up- and down-streams of signaling cascade of ATF3 to show phosphorylations of p53 and H2AX at exposure to high dose radiation in cells above and in intact mouse. Basic findings in the skin like above can be useful in future for estimation of exposed dose and for risk assessment as well as the present hematological findings. (T.I)

  11. Radiation injuries to the facial skeleton and teeth following irradiation of oral carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After investigation of 183 patients receiving radiotherapy for carcinoma of the lower lip and of the mucous membrane of the mouth, osteomyelitis of the mandible was found in ten of these patients. Five of them also showed spreading of the recurring tumor into bone, in which case an infiltrating mass, adherent to bone, could be detected clinically. If radiation osteomyelitis alone is present as a result of radiation injury to the mandible, further irradiation is ruled out. If a clinical picture of osteomyelitis and recurrence of the tumor simultaneously is found, further radiotherapy of the tumor may be necessary. The correct interpretation of the changes observed is thus extremely important, for it determines the plan of further treatment. The development of radiation osteomyelitis of the mandible is facilitated by retention of carious teeth during the period of radiotherapy, and also by trauma of the tissues as a result of extraction of a tooth or any type of operation on the irradiated jaw. It must be borne in mind that radiation injury of the teeth is always accompanied by osteolysis of the alveolar border of the mandible at the same level, and this in turn is a factor that contributes to the development of osteomyelitis in the irradiated jaw

  12. Numerical Solutions of Inverse Black Body Radiation Problems with Gaussian-Laguerre Quadrature Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Feng, Xue-Wen; Liang, Wen-Jun; Wu, Kai-Su

    2015-02-01

    It is the main aim of this paper to investigate the numerical solutions of the inverse black body radiation problems. The inverse black body radiation problem is ill-posed. Using Gaussian-Laguerre integral formula which is a higher accuracy numerical integration formula with less node numbers to approximate the integral item of black body radiation equation, the black radiation equation is converted into a group of lower dimension algebraic equations. To solve the lower dimension algebraic equation, it only needs to use common Tikhonov regularization methods. The regularization parameter is chosen by using L-curve. Our method reduces the complexity of the algorithm, so the operability of our method is enhanced. Numerical results show that our algorithm is simple and effective, and has better calculation accuracy at the same time.

  13. Effects of radiational heating at low air temperature on water balance, cold tolerance, and visible injury of red spruce foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, J L; Amundson, R G

    1992-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that winter needle mortality in red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) is increased by exposure to direct solar radiation, possibly as a result of photo-oxidative damage, accelerated winter desiccation, or reduced cold tolerance due to heating of sun-exposed needles. In an experiment at controlled subfreezing air temperatures of -10 to -20 degrees C, visible radiation was less effective than infrared radiation in producing needle desiccation and visible injury during freeze-thaw cycles. However, visible radiation produced a red-brown color in injured needles, similar to natural winter injury, whereas injured needles exposed to infrared radiation were yellow and injured needles kept in darkness were dark brown. Thus, visible radiation was necessary to produce the red-brown color of damaged needles, but not the injury itself. Needle desiccation was not strongly correlated with visible injury, but the pattern of variation in visible injury among trees and the positive correlation between electrolyte leakage and visible injury suggested that freezing damage following freeze-thaw cycles might cause the visible injury. This was confirmed by a second experiment that showed loss of cold hardiness in needles thawed by radiational heating for six consecutive days. Even with a constant nighttime temperature of -10 degrees C, six days of radiational heating of needles to above freezing caused a small (2.8 degrees C) mean decrease in needle cold tolerance, as measured by electrolyte leakage. Continuous darkness at -10 degrees C for six days resulted in an estimated 5.6 degrees C mean increase in needle cold tolerance. Freezing injury stimulated desiccation: cooling at 4 degrees C h(-1) to -43 or -48 degrees C increased the dehydration rate of isolated shoots by a factor of two to three during the first day after thawing. Within three days at 15 to 22 degrees C and 50% relative humidity, the mean water content of these shoots fell to 60% or lower, compared to

  14. Cost-appropriateness of whole body vs limited bone imaging for suspected focal sports injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone imaging has been recognized as a useful diagnostic tool in detecting the presence of focal musculoskeletal injury when radiographs are normal. A retrospective review of bone images in a small number of amateur athletes indicates that secondary injuries were commonly detected at sites different from the site of musculoskeletal pain being evaluated for injury. While a larger study will be necessary to confirm the data, this review suggests that it is medically justified and cost-appropriate to perform imaging of the entire skeleton as opposed to imaging limited to the anatomic site of pain and suspected injury

  15. Development of Functional Foods for Body Protection Using Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously developed two herbal compositions(HemoHIM, HemoTonic) that protects immune/hematopoietic system and self-renewal tissues against radiation and enhances immune/hematopoietic functions. In this study, we tried to expand its usability by verifying its protective activity against various harmful stimuli as well as radiation. HemoHIM was shown to be highly effective in reducing immune/hematopoietic damage, particularly, normalizing the Th1/Th2 imbalance, which seemed to be a result of increased production of IL-12p70 by APC and enhanced NK cell activity. Also HemoHIM was shown to have protective activities against UV-induced skin damage, immune system damage by an anticancer drug (CP), immune depression by old age and stress, and inflammation. Finally it was confirmed in a human study that HemoHIM improves the immune cell functions and cytokine production. Based on these results, HemoHIM has been approved as a health functional food for immunomodulation by Korea FDA and succeeded in its industrialization. Meanwhile, to develop functional foods for the reduction of chronic radiation damage (carcinogenesis), we have screened natural products for inhibitory activities against carcinogenesis-related factors, and developed two anti-carcinogenic compositions. Also 6 single compounds were isolated and identified from radioprotective natural products and elucidated some synergistic protection by several single compounds and established a basis for the development of advanced technology for radioprotection. Also, to obtain the applicability of radiation technology for the safe sanitatation and distribution of functional food materials, we verified the toxicological safety, stability of activity and active components of irradiated medicinal herbs

  16. Development of Functional Foods for Body Protection Using Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, S. K.; Jung, U. H.; Park, H. R.

    2007-07-15

    We have previously developed two herbal compositions(HemoHIM, HemoTonic) that protects immune/hematopoietic system and self-renewal tissues against radiation and enhances immune/hematopoietic functions. In this study, we tried to expand its usability by verifying its protective activity against various harmful stimuli as well as radiation. HemoHIM was shown to be highly effective in reducing immune/hematopoietic damage, particularly, normalizing the Th1/Th2 imbalance, which seemed to be a result of increased production of IL-12p70 by APC and enhanced NK cell activity. Also HemoHIM was shown to have protective activities against UV-induced skin damage, immune system damage by an anticancer drug (CP), immune depression by old age and stress, and inflammation. Finally it was confirmed in a human study that HemoHIM improves the immune cell functions and cytokine production. Based on these results, HemoHIM has been approved as a health functional food for immunomodulation by Korea FDA and succeeded in its industrialization. Meanwhile, to develop functional foods for the reduction of chronic radiation damage (carcinogenesis), we have screened natural products for inhibitory activities against carcinogenesis-related factors, and developed two anti-carcinogenic compositions. Also 6 single compounds were isolated and identified from radioprotective natural products and elucidated some synergistic protection by several single compounds and established a basis for the development of advanced technology for radioprotection. Also, to obtain the applicability of radiation technology for the safe sanitatation and distribution of functional food materials, we verified the toxicological safety, stability of activity and active components of irradiated medicinal herbs

  17. Management of postoperative radiation injury of the urinary bladder by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: In many case reports the success of treatment of late complications of radiotherapy with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) has been shown. This synopsis attempts to review HBO in the treatment of chronic radiation injury of the bladder. Patients and methods: Three female patients who had developed urge-incontinence after a Wertheim operation and combined brachy-teletherapy with cobalt-60 and afterloading and did not respond to various drug therapies, were treated with HBO to a maximum of 40 applications. Results: In all patients HBO haltered and inverted the dynamic process underlying chronic bladder changes after irradiation. Rationales for the HBO are the reduction of tissue hypoxia and the induction of neoangiogenesis. Conclusions: There are no prospective trials up to date showing the benefit of HBO to urinary disorders caused by radiation cystitis. The positive results of our retrospective study should encourage clinicians to initiate prospective studies with the use of HBO in the treatment of radiation cystitis. (orig.)

  18. Acute and delayed radiation injuries in the small intestine and colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The group of patients with severe actinic intestinal injuries consists of 67 patients, 46 female and 21 male. The main indication of irradiation were gynaecologic tumours with 67%. The irradiation was carried out with a telekobalt unit combined with radium. From the pathogenetic point of view, acute inflammation and necrobiotic processes in the intestinal mucosa and a restriction of the ability to regenerate are the main radiation-induced acute injuries; delayed injuries are mainly the narrowing and rarefaction of the vessels with lacking capillary budding. The cause of the completely different intervals of up to 26 years until the manifestation of the delayed injury remained unclear. The majority of the delayed symptoms were unspecific; therefore, the danger of misinterpretation was pointed out. A resection with primary anastomosis of the ends of the intestines is the goal to be reached operation-technically. The postoperative complication rate was 45.0%. The most frequent complications were the recurrence of a fistula and the formation of a new fistula, respectively, followed by anastomotic and wound insufficiency, and gastrointestinal bleedings. The postoperative lethality was 18.3%. The causes of death were, according to their frequency, peritonitis, acute failure of the coronary circulation, pneumonia, and massive bleedings. (orig./MG)

  19. The protein PprI provides protection against radiation injury in human and mouse cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yi; Wu, Wei; Qiao, Huiping; Yue, Ling; Ren, Lili; Zhang, Shuyu; Yang, Wei; Yang, Zhanshan

    2016-01-01

    Severe acute radiation injuries are both very lethal and exceptionally difficult to treat. Though the radioresistant bacterium D. radiodurans was first characterized in 1956, genes and proteins key to its radioprotection have not yet to be applied in radiation injury therapy for humans. In this work, we express the D. radiodurans protein PprI in Pichia pastoris yeast cells transfected with the designed vector plasmid pHBM905A-pprI. We then treat human umbilical endothelial vein cells and BALB/c mouse cells with the yeast-derived PprI and elucidate the radioprotective effects the protein provides upon gamma irradiation. We see that PprI significantly increases the survival rate, antioxidant viability, and DNA-repair capacity in irradiated cells and decreases concomitant apoptosis rates and counts of damage-indicative γH2AX foci. Furthermore, we find that PprI reduces mortality and enhances bone marrow cell clone formation and white blood cell and platelet counts in irradiated mice. PprI also seems to alleviate pathological injuries to multiple organs and improve antioxidant viability in some tissues. Our results thus suggest that PprI has crucial radioprotective effects on irradiated human and mouse cells. PMID:27222438

  20. MR imaging of late radiation therapy- and chemotherapy-induced injury: a pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation to the brain and adjuvant chemotherapy may produce late delayed changes from several months to years after treatment of intracranial malignancies with a reported prevalence of 5-24%. The pattern of treatment-related injury may vary from diffuse periventricular white matter lesions to focal or multifocal lesions. Differentiation of treatment-related injury from tumor progression/recurrence may be difficult with conventional MR imaging (MRI). With both disease processes, the characteristic but nonspecific imaging features are vasogenic edema, contrast enhancement, and mass effect. This pictorial essay presents MRI spectra of late therapy-induced injuries in the brain with a particular emphasis on radiation necrosis, the most common and severe form. Novel MRI techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), proton MR spectroscopy (MRS), and perfusion MRI, improve the possibilities of better characterization of treatment-related changes. Advanced MRI techniques allow for the assessment of metabolism and physiology and may increase specificity for therapy-induced changes. (orig.)

  1. Experimental research of prednisolone in new zealand white rabbits with radiation induced lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the preventive and therapeutic effect of Prednisolone in radiation injury of lungs. Methods: 45 male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups with 15 in each; the blank group (a), the irradiation group (b) and the group with irradiation and Prednisolone (c). Group (a) has no other treatment. Group (b) was given injections Sodium Chloride on the first day of irradiation, with 0.1 ml/kg/d for 4 weeks. Group (c) was given intraperitoneal injections of Prednisolone on the first day of irradiation, with 0.4 mg/kg/d for 4 weeks. CT scanning was performs before irradiation and the 1, 3, 5 months after the irradiation. The animals were killed by cutting off the neck after 1, 3, 5 months of radiation. The right lungs were removed to give HE staining and immunohistochemical staining for the histological evaluation. Results: No significant changes were found in group a in CT scanning. The pathological changes in group c is less than serious than those in group b. Group c is less serious than in pathological changes those in group b. Immunohistochemical results; One, three, and five months after irradiation, the number of positive cells were highest in group b, and was significantly higher in group c than in group a. Conclusion: High dose irradiation of the lung of New Zealand rabbit tissue can successfully abtain the established radiation-induced lung injury animal models. Prednisolon can reduce the radiation-induced lung injury in rabbits New Zealand, and has a certain preventive effect. (authors)

  2. Confronting actual influence of radiation on human bodies and biological defense mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company, social, economical, psychological pressures on local residents and fears of radiation among the general public have not been resolved. Based on the assumption that the negligence of specialists to clearly explain the influence of radiation on human bodies to the general public is the factor for above mentioned pressures and fears, the influence of radiation from a realistic view was discussed. The topics covered are: (1) understanding the meaning of radiation regulation, (2) radiation and threshold values, (3) actual influence of low-dose radiation, (4) chemical and biological defense in defense mechanism against radiation, (5) problems raised by Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. Furthermore, the article explains the principles and the applications of biological defense function activation, and suggested that self-help efforts to fight against stress are from now on. (S.K.)

  3. Dose–Volume Metrics Associated With Radiation Pneumonitis After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify dose–volume factors associated with radiation pneumonitis (RP) after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer. Methods and Materials: This study analyzed 74 patients who underwent SBRT for primary lung cancer. The prescribed dose for SBRT was uniformly 48 Gy in four fractions at the isocenter. RP was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v.3. Symptomatic RP was defined as grade 2 or worse. Optimal cut-offs dividing the patient population into two subgroups based on the incidence of symptomatic RP were sought using the following dose–volume metrics: PTV volume (ml), mean lung dose (Gy), and V5, V10, V15, V20, V25, V30, V35, and V40 (%) of both lungs excluding the PTV. Results: With a median follow-up duration of 31.4 months, symptomatic RP was observed in 15 patients (20.3%), including 1 patient with grade 3. Optimal cut-offs for pulmonary dose–volume metrics were V25 and V20. These two factors were highly correlated with each other, and V25 was more significant. Symptomatic RP was observed in 14.8% of the patients with V25 <4.2%, and the rate was 46.2% in the remainder (p = 0.019). PTV volume was another significant factor. The symptomatic RP rate was significantly lower in the group with PTV <37.7 ml compared with the larger PTV group (11.1% vs. 34.5%, p = 0.020). The patients were divided into three subgroups (patients with PTV <37.7 ml; patients with, PTV ≥37.7 ml and V25 <4.2%; and patients with PTV ≥37.7 ml and V25 ≥4.2%); the incidence of RP grade 2 or worse was 11.1%, 23.5%, and 50.0%, respectively (p = 0.013). Conclusions: Lung V25 and PTV volume were significant factors associated with RP after SBRT.

  4. Dose-Volume Metrics Associated With Radiation Pneumonitis After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Yukinori, E-mail: ymatsuo@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Shibuya, Keiko; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Narabayashi, Masaru; Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Ueki, Nami; Miyagi, Ken; Norihisa, Yoshiki; Mizowaki, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nagata, Yasushi [Division of Radiation Oncology, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To identify dose-volume factors associated with radiation pneumonitis (RP) after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer. Methods and Materials: This study analyzed 74 patients who underwent SBRT for primary lung cancer. The prescribed dose for SBRT was uniformly 48 Gy in four fractions at the isocenter. RP was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v.3. Symptomatic RP was defined as grade 2 or worse. Optimal cut-offs dividing the patient population into two subgroups based on the incidence of symptomatic RP were sought using the following dose-volume metrics: PTV volume (ml), mean lung dose (Gy), and V5, V10, V15, V20, V25, V30, V35, and V40 (%) of both lungs excluding the PTV. Results: With a median follow-up duration of 31.4 months, symptomatic RP was observed in 15 patients (20.3%), including 1 patient with grade 3. Optimal cut-offs for pulmonary dose-volume metrics were V25 and V20. These two factors were highly correlated with each other, and V25 was more significant. Symptomatic RP was observed in 14.8% of the patients with V25 <4.2%, and the rate was 46.2% in the remainder (p = 0.019). PTV volume was another significant factor. The symptomatic RP rate was significantly lower in the group with PTV <37.7 ml compared with the larger PTV group (11.1% vs. 34.5%, p = 0.020). The patients were divided into three subgroups (patients with PTV <37.7 ml; patients with, PTV {>=}37.7 ml and V25 <4.2%; and patients with PTV {>=}37.7 ml and V25 {>=}4.2%); the incidence of RP grade 2 or worse was 11.1%, 23.5%, and 50.0%, respectively (p = 0.013). Conclusions: Lung V25 and PTV volume were significant factors associated with RP after SBRT.

  5. An experimental study on acute brain radiation injury: Dynamic changes in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the correlation with histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui, E-mail: lihui@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Jian-peng, E-mail: lijp@sysucc.org.cn [Department of Radiology, Dongguan People' s Hospital, Dongguan City (China); Lin, Cheng-guang, E-mail: linchg@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Xue-wen, E-mail: liuxw@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Geng, Zhi-jun, E-mail: gengzhj@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Mo, Yun-xian, E-mail: moyx@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Rong, E-mail: zhangr@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xie, Chuan-miao, E-mail: xchuanm@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between the alterations of single-voxel {sup 1}H MRS and the histopathological characteristics of radiation brain injury following radiation. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven rabbits were randomized into nine groups to receive radiation with a single dose of 25 Gy. The observation time points included a pre-radiation and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 wk following radiation. Each treatment group underwent conventional MRI and single-voxel {sup 1}H MRS, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr) were observed over the region of interest, and the presence or absence of lactate (Lac) and lipid (Lip) was detected. Histological specimens of each group were obtained after image acquisition. Results: The values of Cho were significantly increased in the first 3 wk, and decreased over the following 5 wk after radiation. Levels of NAA showed a trend toward a decrease 5 wk after radiation. The levels of Cr were not changed between before and after radiation. The Cho/NAA metabolic ratio was significantly increased in weeks 6, 7, and 8 following irradiation, compared to pre-radiation values. Vascular and glial injury appeared on 2 wk after RT in the histology samples, until 4 wk after RT, necrosis of the oligodendrocytes, neuronal degeneration and demyelination could be observed. Conclusions: MRS is sensitive to detect metabolic changes following radiation, and can be used in the early diagnosis of radiation brain injury.

  6. An experimental study on acute brain radiation injury: Dynamic changes in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the correlation with histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between the alterations of single-voxel 1H MRS and the histopathological characteristics of radiation brain injury following radiation. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven rabbits were randomized into nine groups to receive radiation with a single dose of 25 Gy. The observation time points included a pre-radiation and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 wk following radiation. Each treatment group underwent conventional MRI and single-voxel 1H MRS, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr) were observed over the region of interest, and the presence or absence of lactate (Lac) and lipid (Lip) was detected. Histological specimens of each group were obtained after image acquisition. Results: The values of Cho were significantly increased in the first 3 wk, and decreased over the following 5 wk after radiation. Levels of NAA showed a trend toward a decrease 5 wk after radiation. The levels of Cr were not changed between before and after radiation. The Cho/NAA metabolic ratio was significantly increased in weeks 6, 7, and 8 following irradiation, compared to pre-radiation values. Vascular and glial injury appeared on 2 wk after RT in the histology samples, until 4 wk after RT, necrosis of the oligodendrocytes, neuronal degeneration and demyelination could be observed. Conclusions: MRS is sensitive to detect metabolic changes following radiation, and can be used in the early diagnosis of radiation brain injury.

  7. Injury, imagery, and self-esteem in dance healthy minds in injured bodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M; Walker, Imogen J; Baker, Jo; Garner, Jocelyn; Hardy, Cinzia; Irvine, Sarah; Jola, Corinne; Laws, Helen; Blevins, Peta

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a selection of psychological variables (help-seeking behaviors, mental imagery, self-esteem) in relation to injury among UK dancers. We recruited 216 participants from eight dance styles and six levels of involvement. It was found that 83.5% of the participants had experienced at least one injury in the past year. The most common response to injury was to inform someone, and most continued to dance when injured, albeit carefully. Physical therapy was the most common treatment sought when an injury occurred (38.1%), and dancers seemed to follow recommendations offered. Injured and non-injured dancers did not differ in their imagery frequencies (facilitative, debilitative, or injury-related) and scored similarly (and relatively high) in self-esteem. Neither facilitative nor debilitative imagery was correlated with self-esteem, but dancers who engaged in more facilitative imagery in general also reported doing so when injured. Altogether, it appears that injury is not related to dancers' self-esteem or imagery, at least not when injuries are mild or moderate. Even so, such conclusions should be made with caution, given that most dancers do sustain at least one injury each year. PMID:21703096

  8. Speaking through the Body: The Incidence of Self-Injury, Piercing, and Tattooing among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenman, Marta; Jensen, Mary Ann Conover

    2007-01-01

    Self-injurious behaviors were compared with tattooing and piercing in a college population. Findings indicate a high prevalence of self-injury. Students who self-injured were motivated by a desire to alleviate emotional pain; students who tattooed and pierced by self-expression. Students who self-injured scored higher than students who tattooed…

  9. Evaluation of morphological changes of the skin after radiation-induced injury in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cancer covers a heterogeneous group of more than 100 diseases with different etiology and prognosis. Radiotherapy is one of the most commonly used treatment modalities, aiming at the destruction of cancer cells, using ionizing radiation. One of the limiting factors of radiotherapy is that radiation promotes the death of tumor cells in addition to injure healthy tissue neighboring the tumor, and may cause their death. Irradiation of the skin, accidental or for therapeutic purposes can trigger many injuries culminating in fibrosis, which implies functional alteration of the body. The evaluation of morphological effects associated with skin irradiation becomes essential to develop more effective radiation strategies and decreased morbidity; and in case of accidents, proper handling of the victim.Evaluate radio-induced dermal changes using a Wistar rats model irradiated with 10, 40 and 60Gy. Male Wistar rats, aged approximately three months, were pre-anesthetized with midazolam and xylazine and anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital, shaved in the back, immobilized on polystyrene support in the prone position and irradiated with doses of 10, 40 and 60 Gy, with 4MeV nominal energy electron beams. The skin was irradiated in a 3cm2 field, and used 0.5cm of tissue equivalent material, to obtain a homogeneous dose distribution. After irradiation, the animals remained on constant evaluation, and the lesions were recorded photographically. The animals were divided into groups and were killed on the irradiation day, 5, 10, 15, 25 and 100 days after irradiation. The skin was fixed in 10% formaldehyde; the samples were embedded in paraffin and cut. The sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, picrosirius red and immuno stained with antibody anti-TGF beta1. Another part of the tissue was fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde and processed for scanning electron microscopy. It was observed macroscopically the appearance of skin lesions similar to burns on the entire irradiated area

  10. Development of radiation injury model in musculocutaneous flaps used for breast reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: Occasionally it becomes necessary to treat women who have undergone a mastectomy and immediate musculocutaneous flap breast reconstruction with radiation therapy for microscopically positive margins. Radiation therapy is known to have a wide range of deleterious effects on living tissue and, specifically composite flaps. Small vessel thrombosis, necrosis, lymphedema, fibroblast dysfunction, and severe contracture are just a few of these effects that may lead to flap compromise. An animal model of the TRAM flap has been described: however, a thorough review of the literature finds a few experimental studies on the effects of radiation on musculocutaneous flaps. This study is designed to produce a reproducible and quantitative model of radiation injury that can service as a basis for further investigation. Materials and Methods: Eleven adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a standardized rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap based on the superior epigastric artery. Two control rats had flaps raised but did not receive radiation. The flaps were allowed to heal six weeks and the remaining rats were randomized to three groups of three rats each. The first group received 2000 rads in five fractions, the second 3000 rads in ten fractions, and the third 3000 rads in 15 fractions. Radiation was delivered via a dual energy clinical linear accelerator centered over the flap. The rats were sacrificed at eight weeks from the last dose of radiation. The flaps were subjected to elasticity measuring by standard Instron tensiometer, total surface area measurements and standard histology stains, as well as elastin stains and Masson Trichrome stains. Results: The total area of the flap measured by Mocha analysis decreased in all rats from the initial 30 cm2. However, the decrease in irradiated flaps was greater when compared to non-irradiated controls and the degree of contracture increased as the amount of radiation increased. Control flaps averaged 16.27 cm2

  11. Usefulness of 3D conformal radiation therapy for reduction of radiation-induced white matter injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) in decreasing radiation-induced white matter changes (WMC) was assessed. Thirty-seven patients (age 5-77 years, mean 42 years; male/female=11/26) with primary intracranial tumors received 40 Gy or more, and were followed up with MRI for more than one year. Thirty-four patients underwent chemotherapy (with a platinum drug, 16; without a platinum drug, 18). Nineteen were treated with 3DCRT (radiation dose, range 60-64 Gy, mean 60.2 Gy; maximum width of radiation field, range 7-16 cm, mean 12.5 cm) and 18 were treated with non-3DCRT (radiation dose, range 40-62.4 Gy, mean 53.4 Gy; maximum width of radiation field, range 4-19 cm, mean 12.3 cm). WMC occurred in 37% of the 3DCRT group and 50% of the non-3DCRT group. Among the patients with WMC, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) deteriorated in none of the 3DCRT group, whereas KPS deteriorated in 3 of 9 in the non-3DCRT group. All the patients with deterioration of KPS were at least 50 years of age. KPS did not strictly correlate with the severity of white matter changes on MRI. Chemotherapy with a platinum drug increased the incidence of WMC. Age (<50 years vs. ≥50 years), gender, radiation technique (3DCRT vs. non-3DCRT), radiation dose (<60 Gy vs. ≥60 Gy), maximum field-size (<12 cm vs. ≥12 cm), and maximum boost-field size (<10 cm vs. ≥10 cm) were not relevant to the incidence and severity of WMC. Though 3DCRT did not decrease the incidence and severity of white matter change on MRI, it may be useful to preserve the KPS, especially for older patients. (author)

  12. Radiation-induced changes to mammalian cells as a precipitating factor in somatic radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced inhibitions of proliferation were assessed in cell cultures examined for their colony-forming abilities as well as from changes of growth curves. The results of those measurements, along with simulating calculations, underlined the fact that the colony-forming capacity of a cell can by no means be equated with cell survival, unless due attention is given to the size of the colony formed. It is the size of the colony that provides a measure of the damage done to the irradiated cell. Cells counts are the most reliable method to ascertain the course of proliferation following radiation exposure. The difference between the two methods mentioned became particularly evident in studies with radiation protection substances. Dithiothreitol (DTT) and mercaptopropionyl glycine (MPG) were on the basis of colony formation clearly shown to offer protection against radiation. The growth curves, however, revealed that the proliferation of cells irradiated in the presence of radiation protection substances was even more strongly inhibited than that of cells influenced by irradiation alone. The neutral elution method failed to provide irrefutable evidence that the rate of double strand breaks was reduced by those two substances. Cysteamine and DTT were, however, able to inhibit radiation-induced changes to the proteins of human erythrocyte membranes. (orig./MG)

  13. Diagnostic radiation exposure of injury patients in the emergency department: a cross-sectional large scaled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Sung You

    Full Text Available In contrast to patients with underlying cancer or chronic disease, injury patients are relatively young, and can be expected to live their natural lifespan if injuries are appropriately treated. Multiple and repeated diagnostic scans might be performed in these patients during admission. Nevertheless, radiation exposure in injury patients has been overlooked and underestimated because of the emergent nature of such situations. Therefore, we tried to assess the cumulative effective dose (cED of injury patients in the emergency department. We included patients who visited the emergency department (ED of a single tertiary hospital due to injury between February 2010 and February 2011. The cED for each patient was calculated and compared across age, sex and injury mechanism. A total of 11,676 visits (mean age: 28.0 years, M:F = 6,677:4,999 were identified. Although CT consisted of only 7.8% of total radiologic examinations (n=78,025, it accounted for 87.1% of the total cED. The mean cED per visit was 2.6 mSv. A significant difference in the cED among injury mechanisms was seen (p<0.001 and patients with traffic accidents and fall down injuries showed relatively high cED values. Hence, to reduce the cED of injury patients, an age-, sex- and injury mechanism-specific dose reduction strategy should be considered.

  14. A study of radiation-induced cerebral vascular injury in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Ye

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate radiation-induced carotid and cerebral vascular injury and its relationship with radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifty eight NPC patients with radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis (TLN were recruited in the study. Duplex ultrasonography was used to scan bilateral carotid arterials to evaluate the intima-media thickness (IMT and occurrence of plaque formation. Flow velocities of bilateral middle cerebral arteries (MCAs, internal carotid arteries (ICAs and basal artery (BA were estimated through Transcranial Color Doppler (TCD. The results were compared with data from 33 patients who were free from radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis after radiotherapy and 29 healthy individuals. RESULTS: Significant differences in IMT, occurrence of plaques of ICAs and flow velocities of both MCAs and ICAs were found between patients after radiotherapy and healthy individuals (p<0.05. IMT had positive correlation with post radiation interval (p = 0.049. Compared with results from patients without radiation-induced TLN, the mean IMT was significantly thicker in patients with TLN (p<0.001. Plaques were more common in patients with TLN than patients without TLN (p = 0.038. In addition, flow velocities of MCAs and ICAs in patients with TLN were much faster (p<0.001, p<0.001. Among patients with unilateral TLN, flow velocity of MCAs was significantly different between ipsilateral and contralateral sides to the lesion (p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: Thickening of IMT, occurrence of plaque formation and hemodynamic abnormality are more common in patients after radiotherapy, especially in those with TLN, compared with healthy individuals.

  15. Intrabiliary radiation inhibits smooth muscle formation and biliary duct remodelling after balloon overstretching injury in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何贵金; 高沁怡; 莫宾; 戴显伟; 姜维国; 孙铎; 陈平健

    2004-01-01

    Background Internal metallic stents have been widely used in clinical practice, but a high postoperative restenosis rate limits its application. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intrabiliary radiation on muscle formation and biliary duct remodeling after biliary duct balloon injury in dogs. Methods Twenty male dogs (15-20 kg) were randomly divided into treatment group (n=10) and control group (n=10). Balloon overstretching injury was induced using a balloon catheter placed across the biliary duct. Subsequently, a 103Pd radioactive stent was positioned at the target site in each animal in the treatment group, providing the injured biliary duct with a radiation dose of 12.58×107 Bq. Dogs in the control group received Ni-Ti stents. All the dogs were killed one month after initial injury. The injured sections were dissected free from the dogs, and were processed for histological and morphological study. Cross-sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome, and Verhoef-van Giesen. Muscle formation area and lumen area were determined using a computer-assisted image analysis system. Results Compared with the control group, 103Pd radioactive stents significantly reduced muscle formation area (78.3%, P<0.01), and percentage area of stenosis [control stents: (60.0±21.6)%, 103Pd radioactive stents: (31.6±9.5)%]. In addition, in the treatment group, the biliary duct lumen area was significantly larger than that in the control group (P<0.01). Conclusions 103Pd radioactive stents providing a radioactive dose of 12.58×107 Bq are effective in reducing muscle formation and biliary duct remodeling after balloon overstretching injury.

  16. Expression of ICAM-1 in mice with radiation induced lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in mice with radiation induced lung injury and to study the function of ICAM-1. Methods: The thoraces of C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either sham irradiation or single fraction of 12 Gy. Two groups were defined as received sham-irradiation (C group) and underwent irradiation (X group). Mice were sacrificed at hours 1, 24, 72 and weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 after irradiation. The lung tissues were removed and processed for definitive analysis, including HE and Masson staining, the hydroxyproline content, the immunohistochemistry and the real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Results: Compared with C group, there was a significant histological and pathologic change in X group. And there was a significantly elevated level of positive cell counts of ICAM-1 and inflammatory cells in X group (P<0.01). Similarly, there was a significantly elevated level of hydroxyproline in X group(P<0.05). Moreover, the results of real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that the relative mRNA expression of cytokine ICAM-1 in X group was significantly higher than that of C group(P<0.01). Conclusions: As an important cytokine in radiation-induced lung injury, ICAM-1 can not only mediate the inflammation cells adherence and infiltration, but also be involved in radiation induced lung fibrosis. (authors)

  17. Exploration on remodeling of lung tissue in early radiation pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the roles of collagen type IV and Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) on remodeling of lung tissue in early radiation pulmonary injury. Methods: The proliferation of human lung fibroblast (Fb) was determined by MTT following irradiation with 60Co γ ray of 1-10 Gy; the alteration of collagen type IV and MMP-9 was measured by ELISA following Fb was irradiated with 5 and 7 Gy; Macrophage was isolated from alveolar lavage solution of rat irradiated by 25 Gy of γ ray, and condition medium of alveolar macrophage (CMAM) was prepared for stimulation of pulmonary Fb, and the cellular proliferation was determined by MTT, the synthesis of collagen type IV and MMP-9 was measured by ELISA. Immunohistochemical staining of collagen type IV and MMP-9 was performed with rat lung tissue at different times after irradiation. Results: Irradiation with 1-7 Gy on pulmonary Fb could promote cellular proliferation and MMP-9 synthesis, but could not promote the collagen type IV synthesis. However, the CMAM could not only promote Fb proliferation and MMP-9 synthesis, but also promote collagen type IV synthesis and release. The deposition of collagen type IV in lung tissue could be found one week after irradiation. Conclusions: Radiation can promote pulmonary Fb proliferation but can' t make it produce collagen type IV. The synthesis of collagen type IV is related to interaction between pulmonary macrophage and Fb after irradiation, and it is directly involved in pulmonary remodeling after radiation pulmonary injury. (authors)

  18. Elemental diet as prophylaxis against radiation injury. Histological and ultrastructural studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors investigated whether elemental diet feeding would protect the intestine from radiation injury. Five dogs were fed an elemental diet for three days before receiving pelvic irradiation (500 rad/day for four days) and were maintained on the diet during the days of irradiation. These dogs were compared with five dogs that were fed normal kennel ration, but were treated similarly otherwise. One day and five days following completion of the radiation treatment, the dogs were anesthetized and a biopsy specimen of terminal ileum was taken for histologic and electron microscopic studies. In the dogs fed the elemental diet, there was no significant damage to the intestine seen on histological examination, and electron microscopy disclosed elongated microvilli and no organelle damage. However, both histological and electron microscopic examination of the intestine from dogs maintained on normal kennel ration showed that severe damage had occurred from the irradiation procedure. It seems, therefore, that the feeding of an elemental diet to dogs as a prophylaxis can afford protection to the intestine from the acute phase of radiation injury

  19. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Unresectable Pancreatic Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Survival in patients with unresectable pancreatic carcinoma is poor. Studies by Mayo Clinic and the Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group (GITSG) have established combined modality treatment with chemotherapy and radiation as the standard of care. Use of gemcitabine-based chemotherapy alone has also been shown to provide a benefit, but 5‑year overall survival still remains less than 5%. Conventional radiotherapy is traditionally delivered over a six week period and high toxicity is seen with the concomitant use of chemotherapy. In contrast, SBRT can be delivered in 3–5 days and, when used as a component of combined modality therapy with gemcitabine, disruption to the timely delivery of chemotherapy is minimal. Early single-institution reports of SBRT for unresectable pancreatic carcinoma demonstrate excellent local control with acceptable toxicity. Use of SBRT in unresectable pancreatic carcinoma warrants further investigation in order to improve the survival of patients with historically poor outcomes

  20. Mitigation of radiation induced hematopoietic injury via regulation of Nrf-2 and increasing hematopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation (IR) that can be delivered to tumors are restricted due to radiation induced damage to surrounding normal tissues thereby limiting the effectiveness of radiotherapy. Strategies to develop agents that selectively protect normal cells yielded limited success in the past. There is pressing need to develop safe, syndrome specific and effective radiation countermeasures to prevent or mitigate the harmful consequences of radiation exposure. Survival of bone marrow stem cells (HSCs) play a key role in protecting against IR induced hematopoietic injury. Many studies have shown manipulation of HSC frequency and/or survival as principal mechanism of radioprotection. It is known that, Nrf-2 plays crucial role in HSC survival and maintenance under oxidative stress conditions. In the present study, we have investigated the radioprotective ability of a flavonoid baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), extracted from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, a medicinal plant traditionally used in Oriental medicine. There are numerous reports showing anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, anti-mutagenic and neuroprotective properties of baicalein. Based on these reports, we have investigated the ability of baicalein to protect against radiation induced hematopoietic injury. Baicalein administration to mice protected against WBI induced mortality. Interestingly, the stem cell frequency increased in bone marrow cells obtained from baicalein administered mice as compared to vehicle treated mice. Baicalein treatment led to increased phospho-Nrf-2 levels in lineage negative BM-MNC. Administration of mice with Nrf-2 inhibitor prior to baicalein treatment led to significant abrogation of radioprotective ability of baicalein. This result suggests that, Nrf-2 may be playing a key role in baicalein mediated radioprotection. Here, we have shown that baicalein administration augments stem cell frequency, induces

  1. Quantitative magnetic resonance and isotopic imaging: early evaluation of radiation injury to the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Using magnetic resonance (MR) and isotopic imaging to investigate the cerebral alterations after high-dose single-fraction irradiation on a pig model. We assessed the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation times as early markers of radiation injury to the healthy brain. Methods and Materials: A total of 17 animals was studied; 15 irradiated and 2 unirradiated controls. Pigs were irradiated with a 12 MeV electron beam at a rate of 2 Gy/min. Ten animals received 40 Gy at the 90% isodose, five animals received 60 Gy, and two animals were unirradiated. The follow-up intervals ranged from 2 days to 6 months. T1-weighted scans, T2-weighted scans, and scintigrams were performed on all animals to study neurological abnormalities, cerebral blood flow, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. T1 and T2 relaxation times were measured in selected regions of interest (ROIs) within the irradiated and contralateral hemispheres. A ratio T1 after irradiation/T1 before irradiation, and a ratio T2 after irradiation/T2 before irradiation, were calculated, pooled for each dose group, and followed as a function of time after irradiation. Results: Scintigraphy visualized the brain perfusion defect and BBB disruption in all irradiated brains. The ratio T2 after irradiation/T2 before irradiation was proportional to the effective dose received. The T2 ratio kinetics could be analyzed in three phases: an immediate and transient phase, two long-lasting phases, which preceded compression of the irradiated lateral ventricle, and edema and necrosis at later stages of radiation injury, respectively. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) observations correlated well with histological analysis. Conclusion: The results show that quantitative imaging is a sensitive in vivo method for early detection of cerebral radiation injury. The reliability and dose dependence of T2 relaxation time may offer new opportunities to detect and understand brain pathophysiology after high-dose single

  2. Effect of collagen type IV, MMPs and TIMPs on remodeling of radiation pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the effect of collagen type IV, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs(TIMPs) on early remodeling after radiation pulmonary injury. Methods: Right lungs of rats were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays at a dose of 20 Gy to induce radiation pulmonary injury, and the lung specimens were taken at weeks 1, 2, 4 after irradiation. Quantitative analysis was performed on pulmonary collagen type IV, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-2, TIMP-1 at the level of gene expression and protein synthesis using real-time PCR or immunohistochemistry. Results: Gene detection using real-time PCR: gene expression of collagen type IV increased at week 1 and decreased at week 2 after irradiation; MMP-2 reached peak at week 2 in which an opposed alteration trend was displayed; MMP-9 appeared a significant trend of elevation, then decrease and elevation again which was similar to those of collagen type IV; expression of TIMP-1 was lower, and there was no marked difference among all time points; TIMP-2 displayed a trend of slight elevation, then decrease and elevation again, which was opposed to MMP-2. Immunohistochemistry-image analysis: Pulmonary collagen type IV obviously increased at week 1, and began to decrease at week 2; MMP-2 decreased at week 2 and then increased; an opposed alteration trend to that of collagen type IV was displayed; alteration trend of MMP-9 was similar to that of collagen type IV but the extent was higher; gene expression of TIMP-1 slightly increased at 2 week and an opposed trend to of MMP-9 was displayed. Conclusions: Collagen type IV, MMP-2, MMP-9 and their tissue inhibitors were involved in ineffective remodeling in the early radiation pulmonary injury; MMP-2 and MMP-9 play an important role in degradation of collagen type IV; Disturbance of collagen type IV degradation might have relationship with the initiation of pulmonary fibrosis. (authors)

  3. Different imaging methods in the assessment of radiation-induced lung injury following hemithorax irradiation for pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have characterized the radiation-induced lung-injury on serial chest X-rays, CTs and ultralow field MRs and evaluated the clinical value and cost/benefit ratio of the different imaging methods in 30 patients receiving high-dose hemithorax irradiation for pleural mesothelioma. Lung injury was severe in all patients, but non-specific and essentially as described in text-books. CT provided no clinically relevant, cost effective diagnostic advantage over conventional X-rays in the detection of early or late radiation-induced lung injury, but it was necessary for the evaluation of the disease status of the mesothelioma. The possible advantage of MR over CT could not be evaluated and needs further studies. Optimal time-points for imaging CTs or MRs to detect early radiation-induced lung injury following high dose hemithorax irradiation were during the latter part of the treatment or very shortly after the end of the irradiation. Late injury or irreversible fibrosis develop rapidly after 6 months and was clearly documented by chest X-rays. The authors recommend serial chest X-rays at 1-2, 6 and 12 months following radiotherapy as a cost-effective method for the detection of radiation-induced lung injury with additional CTs to document the stage of mesothelioma, when needed. (author). 31 refs.; 4 figs

  4. β-Arrestin-2 modulates radiation-induced intestinal crypt progenitor/stem cell injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Tian, H; Jiang, J; Yang, Y; Tan, S; Lin, X; Liu, H; Wu, B

    2016-09-01

    Intestinal crypt progenitor/stem (ICPS) cell apoptosis and vascular endothelial cell apoptosis are responsible for the initiation and development of ionizing radiation (IR)-evoked gastrointestinal syndrome. The signaling mechanisms underlying IR-induced ICPS cell apoptosis remain largely unclear. Our findings provide evidence that β-arrestin-2 (βarr2)-mediated ICPS cell apoptosis is crucial for IR-stimulated intestinal injury. βArr2-deficient mice exhibited decreased ICPS cell and intestinal Lgr5(+) (leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5-positive) stem cell apoptosis, promoted crypt proliferation and reproduction, and protracted survival following lethal doses of radiation. Radioprotection in the ICPS cells isolated from βarr2-deficient mice depended on prolonged nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation via direct interaction of βarr2 with IκBα and subsequent inhibition of p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA)-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Unexpectedly, βarr2 deficiency had little effect on IR-induced intestinal vascular endothelial cell apoptosis in mice. Consistently, βarr2 knockdown also provided significant radioresistance by manipulating NF-κB/PUMA signaling in Lgr5(+) cells in vitro. Collectively, these observations show that targeting the βarr2/NF-κB/PUMA novel pathway is a potential radiomitigator for limiting the damaging effect of radiotherapy on the gastrointestinal system. Significance statement: acute injury to the intestinal mucosa is a major dose-limiting complication of abdominal radiotherapy. The issue of whether the critical factor for the initiation of radiation-induced intestinal injury is intestinal stem cell apoptosis or endothelial cell apoptosis remains unresolved. βArrs have recently been found to be multifunctional adaptor of apoptosis. Here, we found that β-arrestin-2 (βarr2) deficiency was associated with decreased radiation-induced ICPS cell apoptosis, which prolonged survival in

  5. Injuries of the sigmoid colon following radiation therapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grade 2 or 3 injuries of the sigmoid colon were observed in 4 of 42 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix who were treated by radiation therapy. The irradiation was planned as the combination of the external irradiation (whole pelvic 30 Gy and 20 Gy with central shielding by 25 fractions, 5 weeks) and the intracavitary irradiation (RALS, 19 Gy at point A by 3 fractions). To analyze the causes of the radiation sigmoiditis, we have investigated the following factors: age, dose at point A, dose at point C, grade of tandem dislocation, uterine angle, obesity score, evidence of previous surgery to the pelvic cavity and hypertension. The dose at point C and the grade of tandem dislocation were determined from the confirming X-Ps at RALS therapy and external irradiation. The superimposition of these films was performed with corrections for the angle between the projection direction of the X-Ps and the vertical magnification factor of the central shielding area. Point C was defined as a point 2 cm anterior to the intersection of the tandem axis and a curvilinear line 1 cm outside from the margin of central shield on the X-Ps. Grades of tandem disclocation were decided as the number of tandem tips outside of the central shielding area on X-Ps. The doses at point C showed very high statistical significance (p<0.001) with the evidence of radiation sigmoiditis. All the cases with radiation sigmoiditis received over 1290 cGy at point C. Age had also some significance (p<0.05) with radiation sigmoiditis. Other factors showed no significant relationship. Among the patients receiving more than 1280 cGy at point C, injury free cases had over 30% obesity score except for one case. This exceptional patient had 12% obesity score and was in special condition of hydrometra. In conclusion, the dose at point C will be an index of injuries of the sigmoid colon following radiation therapy, and obesity score and condition of the uterus seem to be additional factors. (J.P.N.)

  6. Modifying effect of nitrogen salts on the development of radiation injury to plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preirradiation of seeds with a dose of 100 Gy decreases the activity of a membrane enzyme, glucose-6-phosphates, changes the ratio of lipid components of membranes of the photosynthetic apparatus, and activates lipid peroxidation resulting in the accumulation of malonic dialdehyde and conjugated dienes. Nitrogen salts (NH4+) introduced into the incubation medium with ''irradiated'' chloroplasts reduce the radiation injury to membranes which if indicated by the increase in the oxidation resistant phospholipid fractions (for instance, phosphatidylcholine and spingomyelin), diminution of lipid peroxidation and increase in glucoso-6-phosphatase activity

  7. Whole body exposure to low-dose γ-radiation enhances the antioxidant defense system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is believed that the extent of cellular damage by low- radiation dose is proportional to the effects observed at high radiation dose as per the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) hypothesis. However, this notion may not be true at low-dose radiation exposure in the living system. Recent evidence suggest that the living organisms do not respond to ionizing radiations in a linear manner in the low dose range 0.01-0.5Gy and rather restore the homeostasis both in vivo and in vitro by normal physiological mechanisms such as cellular and DNA repair processes, immune reactions, antioxidant defense, adaptive responses, activation of immune functions, stimulation of growth etc. In this study, we have attempted to find the critical radiation dose range and the post irradiation period during which the antioxidant defense systems in the lungs, liver and kidneys remain stimulated in these organs after whole body exposure of the animals to low-dose radiation

  8. Radiation from an accelerating neutral body: The case of rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarman, Tolga; Arik, Metin; Kholmetskii, Alexander L.

    2013-11-01

    diatomic molecule, for instance). If the object reaches its final state in a given medium, say air, and "friction" is present, such as the case of a dental drill, then energy should keep being supplied to it, to overcome friction, which is present either inside the "inner mechanism of rotation" or in its surroundings. In other words, the object in the latter case, would be constantly subject to a friction force, countering its motion, and tending to make it fall to lower rotational energy states. Any fluctuations in the power supply, on the other hand, will slow down the rotating object, no matter how indiscernibly. The small decrease in the rotational velocity is yet reincreased by restoring the power supply, thus perpetually securing a stationary rotational motion. Thereby, the object in this final state, due to fluctuations in either friction or power supply, or both, shall further be expected to emit a radiation of energy , where is the final angular velocity of the object in rotation. What is more is that our team has very successfully measured what is predicted here, and they will report their experimental results in a subsequent article. The approach presented here seems to shed light on the mysterious sonoluminescence. It also triggers the possibility of sensing earthquakes due to radiation that should be emitted by the faults, on which the seismic stress keeps increasing until the crackdown. By the same token, also two colliding (neutral) objects are expected to emit radiation.

  9. Radiation exposure in body computed tomography examinations of trauma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortesniemi, M.; Kiljunen, T.; Kangasmäki, A.

    2006-06-01

    Multi-slice CT provides an efficient imaging modality for trauma imaging. The purpose of this study was to provide absorbed and effective dose data from CT taking into account the patient size and compare such doses with the standard CT dose quantities based on standard geometry. The CT examination data from abdominal and thoracic scan series were collected from 36 trauma patients. The CTDIvol, DLPw and effective dose were determined, and the influence of patient size was applied as a correction factor to calculated doses. The patient size was estimated from the patient weight as the effective radius based on the analysis from the axial images of abdominal and thoracic regions. The calculated mean CTDIvol, DLPw and effective dose were 15.2 mGy, 431 mGy cm and 6.5 mSv for the thorax scan, and 18.5 mGy, 893 mGy cm and 14.8 mSv for the abdomen scan, respectively. The doses in the thorax and abdomen scans taking the patient size into account were 34% and 9% larger than the standard dose quantities, respectively. The use of patient size in dose estimation is recommended in order to provide realistic data for evaluation of the radiation exposure in CT, especially for paediatric patients and smaller adults.

  10. Medical follow-up of the localized radiation injuries of the victim of the Peruvian radiation accident. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident happened on 20 February 1999 at the Yanango hydroelectric power plant, which is located in jungle in the San Ramon District of Junin Department, approximately 300 km east of Lima where a welder picked up the unshielded 192Ir source, with his right hand and placed it in the back right pocket of his trousers (at the time of writing the investigation has not established how the source came to be outside the camera). There are a number of unusual aspects of this accident. While the calculated doses were higher than the biological and clinical indicators would suggest, there were uncertainties in source location and duration of exposure. There were major discrepancies in the calculated organ doses and the doses assessed in biological (cytogenetic) and clinical dosimetry. One good explanation for the difference is the unstable location of the source over the thigh and the marked inhomogeneity of exposure. The bone marrow in the skull, cervical spine and upper thorax have likely had enough stems cells to prevent severe marrow depression. The local tissue reaction also was less than expected. The patient was treated with dexamethasone until approximately day 30 post-exposure. It was stopped at that time due to infection of the wound, and the necrosis and radiation induced changes around the wound and perineum. Dexamethasone appears to have played a role in decreasing the early clinical effects but it does not seem to have affect on long term outcome. It is not clear whether early hemipelvectomy would have affected the outcome, although it would have saved the patient's long, painful and expensive hospital course. This is one of the first case of local radiation injuries in which cytokines were used. Most cases of local radiation injury do not have significant bone marrow depression. G-CSF was given at day 34 post-exposure but whether this had a beneficial effect in this case is unclear for some experts. A number of authors feel that the response to cytokines

  11. Maternal Body Mass Index and Risk of Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Blomberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the association between maternal obesity and risk of three different degrees of severity of obstetric anal sphincter injury. Methods. The study population consisted of 436,482 primiparous women with singleton term vaginal cephalic births between 1998 and 2011 identified in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. Women were grouped into six categories of BMI. BMI 18.5–24.9 was set as reference. Primary outcome was third-degree perineal laceration, partial or total, and fourth-degree perineal laceration. Adjustments were made for year of delivery, maternal age, fetal head position at delivery, infant birth weight and instrumental delivery. Results. The overall prevalence of third- or four-degree anal sphincter injury was 6.6% (partial anal sphincter injury 4.6%, total anal sphincter injury 1.2%, unclassified as either partial and total 0.2%, or fourth degree lacerations 0.6%. The risk for a partial, total, or a fourth-degree anal sphincter injury decreased with increasing maternal BMI most pronounced for total anal sphincter injury where the risk among morbidly obese women was half that of normal weight women, OR 0.47 95% CI 0.28–0.78. Conclusion. Obese women had a favourable outcome compared to normal weight women concerning serious pelvic floor damages at birth.

  12. Diagnosis of Partial Body Radiation Exposure in Mice Using Peripheral Blood Gene Expression Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Meadows, Sarah K.; Dressman, Holly K.; Daher, Pamela; Himburg, Heather; Russell, J. Lauren; Doan, Phuong; Chao, Nelson J.; Lucas, Joseph; Nevins, Joseph R.; Chute, John P

    2010-01-01

    In the event of a terrorist-mediated attack in the United States using radiological or improvised nuclear weapons, it is expected that hundreds of thousands of people could be exposed to life-threatening levels of ionizing radiation. We have recently shown that genome-wide expression analysis of the peripheral blood (PB) can generate gene expression profiles that can predict radiation exposure and distinguish the dose level of exposure following total body irradiation (TBI). However, in the e...

  13. A comparison of robotic arm versus gantry linear accelerator stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zaorsky,Nicholas; Avkshtol,Vladimir; Dong, Yanqun; Hayes, Shelly; Hallman,Mark; Price, Robert; Sobczak, Mark; Horwitz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Vladimir Avkshtol, Yanqun Dong, Shelly B Hayes, Mark A Hallman, Robert A Price, Mark L Sobczak, Eric M Horwitz,* Nicholas G Zaorsky* Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer diagnosed in men in the United States besides skin cancer. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT; 6–15 ...

  14. Foreign body orbital cyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanfard, Younes; Heegard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.;

    2001-01-01

    Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology......Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology...

  15. Plasma amylase activity as a biochemical indicator of radiation injury to salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of the salivary glands produces a rapid increase of salivary amylase in serum, released by the highly radiation sensitive serous cells of the glands. Serial assays of salivary amylase in serum were performed in patients treated by radiation to the upper neck region. The changes observed were compared with the amount of salivary gland mass irradiated and with the dose fractionation modality used. The irradiated volume included either the entire salivary gland mass or less than 50 per cent of the gland. Two fractionation modalities were used: a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy per day, 5 times a week, or a multiple daily fractionation of 2 Gy, 3 times a day in two series of 4 days with a 4-day interval. Both parameters (salivary gland mass irradiated and fractionation modality used) significantly influenced the shape of the amylase curve in the serum. Serum amylase may therefore be considered a reliable biologic indicator of early injury to the salivary glands. (Auth.)

  16. Plasma amylase activity as a biochemical indicator of radiation injury to salivary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becciolini, A.; Giannardi, G.; Cionini, L.; Porciani, S.; Fallai, C.; Pirtoli, L. (Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia)

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation of the salivary glands produces a rapid increase of salivary amylase in serum, released by the highly radiation sensitive serous cells of the glands. Serial assays of salivary amylase in serum were performed in patients treated by radiation to the upper neck region. The changes observed were compared with the amount of salivary gland mass irradiated and with the dose fractionation modality used. The irradiated volume included either the entire salivary gland mass or less than 50 per cent of the gland. Two fractionation modalities were used: a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy per day, 5 times a week, or a multiple daily fractionation of 2 Gy, 3 times a day in two series of 4 days with a 4-day interval. Both parameters (salivary gland mass irradiated and fractionation modality used) significantly influenced the shape of the amylase curve in the serum. Serum amylase may therefore be considered a reliable biologic indicator of early injury to the salivary glands.

  17. Evaluation of state of circulation in radiation injury using impedance plethysmography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven patients with history of radiation burn were subjected to impedance plethysmographic investigation at Non-invasive Vascular Laboratory, K.E.M. Hospital. Impedance plethysmograms (IPG) were recorded from various locations in both the upper extremities in supine and digits of both the hands in supine as well as on hyper-abduction in sitting position. Control values of Blood Flow Index (BFI) and Differential Pulse Arrival Time (DPAT) were derived from similar data in 15 normal subjects. It was observed that digits having thinning of epidermis of skin recorded marked decrease in value of BFI and significant change in value of DPAT and these observations correlated well with thermography and vascular scintigraphy. Digits recording significant decrease in BFI, which were clinically normal, were found to have changes in the skin during follow up examination. This IPG provided a sensitive modality for detecting ischaemia in early stages in patients with history of radiation injury. (author)

  18. The surgical treatment of radiation injuries after radiotherapy for uterine carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outcome of serious radiation injuries to the pelvic viscera in 400 patients treated by radiotherapy for carcinoma of the uterus between January 1974 and December 1978 has been reviewed. Twenty-eight instances of serious radiation damage have been found, 13 of predominantly small bowel damage, 11 of predominantly large bowel damage and 4 of bladder damage. Many patients had involvement at multiple sites. Fourteen patients have died, and 9 survivors have artificial abdominal stomas. Leaking anastomoses and progressive sepsis were major problems in the postoperative period and could be related either to inadequate resection of irradiated bowel or to damage to other organs at operation. The possibilities of earlier diagnosis and better surgical procedures are discussed. (author)

  19. Alpha lipoic acid attenuates radiation-induced thyroid injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hwa Jung

    Full Text Available Exposure of the thyroid to radiation during radiotherapy of the head and neck is often unavoidable. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of α-lipoic acid (ALA on radiation-induced thyroid injury in rats. Rats were randomly assigned to four groups: healthy controls (CTL, irradiated (RT, received ALA before irradiation (ALA + RT, and received ALA only (ALA, 100 mg/kg, i.p.. ALA was treated at 24 h and 30 minutes prior to irradiation. The neck area including the thyroid gland was evenly irradiated with 2 Gy per minute (total dose of 18 Gy using a photon 6-MV linear accelerator. Greater numbers of abnormal and unusually small follicles in the irradiated thyroid tissues were observed compared to the controls and the ALA group on days 4 and 7 after irradiation. However, all pathologies were decreased by ALA pretreatment. The quantity of small follicles in the irradiated rats was greater on day 7 than day 4 after irradiation. However, in the ALA-treated irradiated rats, the numbers of small and medium follicles were significantly decreased to a similar degree as in the control and ALA-only groups. The PAS-positive density of the colloid in RT group was decreased significantly compared with all other groups and reversed by ALA pretreatment. The high activity index in the irradiated rats was lowered by ALA treatment. TGF-ß1 immunoreactivity was enhanced in irradiated rats and was more severe on the day 7 after radiation exposure than on day 4. Expression of TGF-ß1 was reduced in the thyroid that had undergone ALA pretreatment. Levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6 did not differ significantly between the all groups. This study provides that pretreatment with ALA decreased the severity of radiation-induced thyroid injury by reducing inflammation and fibrotic infiltration and lowering the activity index. Thus, ALA could be used to ameliorate radiation-induced thyroid injury.

  20. Evaluation of Possible Methods and Approaches for Registering of Non-Ionizing Radiation Emitted from the Human Body

    OpenAIRE

    Ignat Ignatov; Oleg Mosin; Hugo Niggli; Christos Drossinakis; Georg Tyminski

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of evaluation of possible biophysical methods and approaches for registering of various non-ionizing radiation (NIR) wave types of the human body in the optic and electromagnetic range. Various types of NIR (electromagnetic waves, infrared radiation, thermo radiation, bioluminiscence) emitted from the human body were reviewed. In particular the results on the spontaneous biophoton emission and the delayed luminescence from the human body were submitted along wi...

  1. Increased Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With a Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibitor (VEGFI) After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, Brandon M., E-mail: barney.brandon@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Markovic, Svetomir N. [Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Laack, Nadia N.; Miller, Robert C.; Sarkaria, Jann N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Macdonald, O. Kenneth [Therapeutic Radiologists Incorporated, Kansas City, Kansas (United States); Bauer, Heather J.; Olivier, Kenneth R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: Gastrointestinal injury occurs rarely with agents that affect the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and with abdominal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). We explored the incidence of serious bowel injury (SBI) in patients treated with SBRT with or without vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor (VEGFI) therapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-six patients with 84 primary or metastatic intra-abdominal lesions underwent SBRT (median dose, 50 Gy in 5 fractions). Of the patients, 20 (26%) received VEGFI within 2 years after SBRT (bevacizumab, n=14; sorafenib, n=4; pazopanib, n=1; sunitinib, n=1). The incidence of SBI (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0, grade 3-5 ulceration or perforation) after SBRT was obtained, and the relationship between SBI and VEGFI was examined. Results: In the combined population, 7 patients (9%) had SBI at a median of 4.6 months (range, 3-17 months) from SBRT. All 7 had received VEGFI before SBI and within 13 months of completing SBRT, and 5 received VEGFI within 3 months of SBRT. The 6-month estimate of SBI in the 26 patients receiving VEGFI within 3 months of SBRT was 38%. No SBIs were noted in the 63 patients not receiving VEGFI. The log–rank test showed a significant correlation between SBI and VEGFI within 3 months of SBRT (P=.0006) but not between SBI and radiation therapy bowel dose (P=.20). Conclusions: The combination of SBRT and VEGFI results in a higher risk of SBI than would be expected with either treatment independently. Local therapies other than SBRT may be considered if a patient is likely to receive a VEGFI in the near future.

  2. Increased Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With a Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibitor (VEGFI) After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Gastrointestinal injury occurs rarely with agents that affect the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and with abdominal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). We explored the incidence of serious bowel injury (SBI) in patients treated with SBRT with or without vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor (VEGFI) therapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-six patients with 84 primary or metastatic intra-abdominal lesions underwent SBRT (median dose, 50 Gy in 5 fractions). Of the patients, 20 (26%) received VEGFI within 2 years after SBRT (bevacizumab, n=14; sorafenib, n=4; pazopanib, n=1; sunitinib, n=1). The incidence of SBI (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0, grade 3-5 ulceration or perforation) after SBRT was obtained, and the relationship between SBI and VEGFI was examined. Results: In the combined population, 7 patients (9%) had SBI at a median of 4.6 months (range, 3-17 months) from SBRT. All 7 had received VEGFI before SBI and within 13 months of completing SBRT, and 5 received VEGFI within 3 months of SBRT. The 6-month estimate of SBI in the 26 patients receiving VEGFI within 3 months of SBRT was 38%. No SBIs were noted in the 63 patients not receiving VEGFI. The log–rank test showed a significant correlation between SBI and VEGFI within 3 months of SBRT (P=.0006) but not between SBI and radiation therapy bowel dose (P=.20). Conclusions: The combination of SBRT and VEGFI results in a higher risk of SBI than would be expected with either treatment independently. Local therapies other than SBRT may be considered if a patient is likely to receive a VEGFI in the near future

  3. Selenoprotein P Inhibits Radiation-Induced Late Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation and Normal Cell Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckers, Jaimee C.; Kalen, Amanda L.; Xiao, Wusheng; Sarsour, Ehab H.; Goswami, Prabhat C., E-mail: prabhat-goswami@uiowa.edu

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Radiation is a common mode of cancer therapy whose outcome is often limited because of normal tissue toxicity. We have shown previously that the accumulation of radiation-induced late reactive oxygen species (ROS) precedes cell death, suggesting that metabolic oxidative stress could regulate cellular radiation response. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether selenoprotein P (SEPP1), a major supplier of selenium to tissues and an antioxidant, regulates late ROS accumulation and toxicity in irradiated normal human fibroblasts (NHFs). Methods and Materials: Flow cytometry analysis of cell viability, cell cycle phase distribution, and dihydroethidium oxidation, along with clonogenic assays, were used to measure oxidative stress and toxicity. Human antioxidant mechanisms array and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were used to measure gene expression during late ROS accumulation in irradiated NHFs. Sodium selenite addition and SEPP1 overexpression were used to determine the causality of SEPP1 regulating late ROS accumulation and toxicity in irradiated NHFs. Results: Irradiated NHFs showed late ROS accumulation (4.5-fold increase from control; P<.05) that occurs after activation of the cell cycle checkpoint pathways and precedes cell death. The mRNA levels of CuZn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxiredoxin 3, and thioredoxin reductase 1 increased approximately 2- to 3-fold, whereas mRNA levels of cold shock domain containing E1 and SEPP1 increased more than 6-fold (P<.05). The addition of sodium selenite before the radiation treatment suppressed toxicity (45%; P<.05). SEPP1 overexpression suppressed radiation-induced late ROS accumulation (35%; P<.05) and protected NHFs from radiation-induced toxicity (58%; P<.05). Conclusion: SEPP1 mitigates radiation-induced late ROS accumulation and normal cell injury.

  4. Radiation-induced brain injury: low-hanging fruit for neuroregeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Terry C; Awad, Ahmed J; Li, Matthew D; Grant, Gerald A

    2016-05-01

    Brain radiation is a fundamental tool in neurooncology to improve local tumor control, but it leads to profound and progressive impairments in cognitive function. Increased attention to quality of life in neurooncology has accelerated efforts to understand and ameliorate radiation-induced cognitive sequelae. Such progress has coincided with a new understanding of the role of CNS progenitor cell populations in normal cognition and in their potential utility for the treatment of neurological diseases. The irradiated brain exhibits a host of biochemical and cellular derangements, including loss of endogenous neurogenesis, demyelination, and ablation of endogenous oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. These changes, in combination with a state of chronic neuroinflammation, underlie impairments in memory, attention, executive function, and acquisition of motor and language skills. Animal models of radiation-induced brain injury have demonstrated a robust capacity of both neural stem cells and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells to restore cognitive function after brain irradiation, likely through a combination of cell replacement and trophic effects. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells exhibit a remarkable capacity to migrate, integrate, and functionally remyelinate damaged white matter tracts in a variety of preclinical models. The authors here critically address the opportunities and challenges in translating regenerative cell therapies from rodents to humans. Although valiant attempts to translate neuroprotective therapies in recent decades have almost uniformly failed, the authors make the case that harnessing human radiation-induced brain injury as a scientific tool represents a unique opportunity to both successfully translate a neuroregenerative therapy and to acquire tools to facilitate future restorative therapies for human traumatic and degenerative diseases of the central nervous system. PMID:27132524

  5. Autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells are effective for chronic intractable radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective therapy for chronic radiation injuries, such as ulcers, is prone to infection. Stiffness is expected since the therapeutic radiation often involves wider and deeper tissues and often requires extensive debridement and reconstruction, which are not sometimes appropriate for elderly and compromised hosts. Autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) are highly yielding, forming relatively elderly aged consecutive 10 cases, 63.6±14.9 y (52-89 y), with mean radiation dose of 75.0±35.4 Gy (50-120 Gy) were included with at least 10-month follow-up. Minimal debridement and ADRC injection in the wound bed and margin along with the injection of mixture of fat and ADRCs in the periphery were tested for efficacy and regenerated tissue quality by clinically as well as imaging by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Uncultured ADRCs of 1.6±1.3 x 107 cells were obtained. All cases healed uneventfully after 6.6±3.2 weeks (2-10 weeks) post-operatively. The done site morbidity was negligible and without major complications, such as paralysis or massive haematoma. The regenerated tissue quality was significantly superior to the pre-operative one and the mixture of fat and ADRCs connected to the intact tissue was very soft and pliable. Mean follow-up at 1.9±0.8 y (0.9-2.9 y) revealed no recurrence or new ulceration after treatment. Thus, the ADRCs treatment for decades-long radiation injuries is effective, safe and improves the quality of wounds. (authors)

  6. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by ionizing radiation in body fluids and serological evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to use ionizing radiation to inactivate HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) in human body fluids was studied in an effort to reduce the risk of accidental infection to forensic science laboratory workers. Experiments conducted indicate that an X-ray absorbed dose of 25 krad was required to completely inactivate HIV. This does not alter forensically important constituents such as enzymes and proteins in body fluids. This method of inactivation of HIV cannot be used on body fluids which will be subjected to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) typing

  7. The experimental study of radiation injury on bile duct and liver tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the safety, acceptance and the effective extent of 192Ir-internal irradiation, providing theoretical guidelines for HC. Methods: Sixteen male healthy hybrid dogs enrolled in the experiment were divided into 4 groups of 4 each. The brachytherapy applicator was introduced from gall bladder into the convergence of cystic duct with common hepatic duct during the operation and a small chip of 1 cm3 liver tissue was cut off and taken for control later on. The animals in group A-D were irradiated by 192Ir-internal irradiation with 30 Gy, 40 Gy, 50 Gy arid 60 Gy at the correlative dose points respectively. Animals were put to death after 10 days subsequently, with sampling specimens obtained from radiation cystic duct and the in between liver tissue with the distant cystic duct. The radiation injury of the cystic duct and liver tissue near bile ducts were observed and studied by light microscope and transmission election microscope. Results: By the limit of the safest endurance dose(50 Gy) of Bile duct, unreversed injury of the nuclei of liver cells occurred at 0 to 15 mm from bile duct revealed by transmission electron microscope and light microscope. The whole biliary duct wall would be undergone necrosis with irradiation dose over 60 Gy. Conclusions: Normal bile duct possesses good endurance to 192Ir-internal irradiation. Within the safest endurance limit of 50 Gy the effective irradiation field could reach 15 mm from the involved bile duct. (authors)

  8. Three-dimensional dose-response models of risk for radiation injury carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of computer graphics in conjunction with three-dimensional models of dose-response relationships for chronic exposure to ionizing radiation dramaticly clarifies the separate and interactive roles of competing risks. The three dimensions are average dose rate, exposure time, and risk. As an example, the functionally injurious and carcinogenic responses after systemic uptake of Ra-226 by beagles, mice and people with consequent alpha particle irradiation of the bone are represented by three-dimensional dose-rate/time/response surfaces that demonstrate the contributions with the passage of time of the competing deleterious responses. These relationships are further evaluated by mathematical stripping with three-dimensional illustrations that graphically show the resultant separate contribution of each effect. Radiation bone injury predominates at high dose rates and bone cancer at intermediate dose rates. Low dose rates result in spontaneous deaths from natural aging, yielding a type of practical threshold for bone cancer induction. Risk assessment is benefited by the insights that become apparent with these three-dimensional models. The improved conceptualization afforded by them contributes to planning and evaluating epidemiological analyses and experimental studies

  9. Investigation of the factors disguising radiation effects on the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herein we have studied the effects of some hereditary and environmental factors on children's states of health. The factors under investigation, along with radiation, also impact the immunological status and human adaptivity, thus disguising hazardous radiation effects. The state-of-health criterion we have chosen are children's liability to a wide range of intrinsic diseases through the first three years of life. The analysis involved 626 children (326 male and 300 female) who's parents and grandparents lived in the vicinity of the Russian Federal Nuclear Centre (RFNC), a large-scale nuclear facility. Our results should preferably be taken into consideration when projecting radiation effects on the human body. (author)

  10. Radiation effects on mouse incisor teeth following whole-body doses of up to 16 Gray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed to determine the threshold dose of radiation above which macroscopic tooth damage in C57BL mice occurs, the sequence of appearance of this damage, and the extent and rate of recovery in relation to radiation dose. Protection from the acute effects of radiation doses well in excess of the LD90 was obtained by the administration of non-absorbable antibiotics and bone marrow reconstitution, without the use of radioprotective drugs. However, gross effects on the incisors were observed at doses in excess of 10 gy. Body weight changes were to some extent linked with the incidence of tooth damage. (author)

  11. An athymic rat model of cutaneous radiation injury designed to study human tissue-based wound therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifkin Lucas H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To describe a pilot study for a novel preclinical model used to test human tissue-based therapies in the setting of cutaneous radiation injury. Methods A protocol was designed to irradiate the skin of athymic rats while sparing the body and internal organs by utilizing a non-occlusive skin clamp along with an x-ray image guided stereotactic irradiator. Each rat was irradiated both on the right and the left flank with a circular field at a 20 cm source-to-surface distance (SSD. Single fractions of 30.4 Gy, 41.5 Gy, 52.6 Gy, 65.5 Gy, and 76.5 Gy were applied in a dose-finding trial. Eight additional wounds were created using the 41.5 Gy dose level. Each wound was photographed and the percentage of the irradiated area ulcerated at given time points was analyzed using ImageJ software. Results No systemic or lethal sequelae occurred in any animals, and all irradiated skin areas in the multi-dose trial underwent ulceration. Greater than 60% of skin within each irradiated zone underwent ulceration within ten days, with peak ulceration ranging from 62.1% to 79.8%. Peak ulceration showed a weak correlation with radiation dose (r = 0.664. Mean ulceration rate over the study period is more closely correlated to dose (r = 0.753. With the highest dose excluded due to contraction-related distortions, correlation between dose and average ulceration showed a stronger relationship (r = 0.895. Eight additional wounds created using 41.5 Gy all reached peak ulceration above 50%, with all healing significantly but incompletely by the 65-day endpoint. Conclusions We developed a functional preclinical model which is currently used to evaluate human tissue-based therapies in the setting of cutaneous radiation injury. Similar models may be widely applicable and useful the development of novel therapies which may improve radiotherapy management over a broad clinical spectrum.

  12. Optimizing whole-body kinematics to minimize valgus knee loading during sidestepping: implications for ACL injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, C J; Lloyd, D G; Elliott, B C; Reinbolt, J A

    2012-05-11

    The kinematic mechanisms associated with elevated externally applied valgus knee moments during non-contact sidestepping and subsequent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk are not well understood. To address this issue, the residual reduction algorithm (RRA) in OpenSim was used to create nine subject-specific, full-body (37 degrees of freedom) torque-driven simulations of athletic males performing unplanned sidestep (UnSS) sport tasks. The RRA was used again to produce an optimized kinematic solution with reduced peak valgus knee torques during the weight acceptance phase of stance. Pre-to-post kinematic optimization, mean peak valgus knee moments were significantly reduced by 44.2 Nm (p=0.045). Nine of a possible 37 upper and lower body kinematic changes in all three planes of motion were consistently used during the RRA to decrease peak valgus knee moments. The generalized kinematic strategy used by all nine simulations to reduce peak valgus knee moments and subsequent ACL injury risk during UnSS was to redirect the whole-body center of mass medially, towards the desired direction of travel. PMID:22387123

  13. Quantitative analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in acute radiation-induced liver injury: An animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Jun; Chen, Shu-Bo; WU, SHU-JUN; Sun, Ping; XIN, TIAN-YOU; CHEN, YING-ZHEN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine and assess contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the early diagnosis of acute radiation-induced liver injury in a rat model. Sixty female rats were used, with 50 rats being utilized to produce an animal model of liver injury with a single dose of stereotactic X-ray irradiation of 20 Gy. Ten rats from the injury group and 2 rats from the control group were randomly selected on days 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28, and examined by contrast-enhanced ultrasound and histo...

  14. beta1-integrin-mediated signaling essentially contributes to cell survival after radiation-induced genotoxic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordes, N; Seidler, J; Durzok, R; Geinitz, H; Brakebusch, C

    2006-01-01

    Integrin-mediated adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins confers resistance to radiation- or drug-induced genotoxic injury. To analyse the underlying mechanisms specific for beta1-integrins, wild-type beta1A-integrin-expressing GD25beta1A cells were compared to GD25beta1B cells, which express...... findings in tumor cells, human A-172 glioma cells were examined under the same conditions after siRNA-mediated silencing of beta1-integrins. We found that beta1A-integrin-mediated adhesion to fibronectin, collagen-III or beta1-IgG was essential for cell survival after radiation-induced genotoxic injury...... central role of beta1-integrins in Akt- and p130Cas/paxillin-mediated prosurvival signaling. These findings suggest beta1-integrins as critical regulators of cell survival after radiation-induced genotoxic injury. Elucidation of the molecular circuitry of prosurvival beta1-integrin-mediated signaling in...

  15. Amelioration of radiation-induced skin injury by adenovirus-mediated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) overexpression in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced skin injury remains a serious concern for radiation therapy. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, has been reported to have potential antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. However, the role of HO-1 in radiation-induced skin damage remains unclear. This study aims to elucidate the effects of HO-1 on radiation-induced skin injury in rats. A control adenovirus (Ad-EGFP) and a recombinant adenovirus (Ad-HO1-EGFP) were constructed. Rats were irradiated to the buttock skin with a single dose of 45 Gy followed by a subcutaneous injection of PBS, 5 × 109 genomic copies of Ad-EGFP or Ad-HO1-EGFP (n = 8). After treatment, the skin MDA concentration, SOD activity and apoptosis were measured. The expression of antioxidant and pro-apoptotic genes was determined by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Skin reactions were measured at regular intervals using the semi-quantitative skin injury score. Subcutaneous injection of Ad-HO1-EGFP infected both epidermal and dermal cells and could spread to the surrounding regions. Radiation exposure upregulated the transcription of the antioxidant enzyme genes, including SOD-1, GPx2 and endogenous HO-1. HO-1 overexpression decreased lipid peroxidation and inhibited the induction of ROS scavenging proteins. Moreover, HO-1 exerted an anti-apoptotic effect by suppressing FAS and FASL expression. Subcutaneous injection of Ad-HO1-EGFP demonstrated significant improvement in radiation-induced skin injury. The present study provides evidences for the protective role of HO-1 in alleviating radiation-induced skin damage in rats, which is helpful for the development of therapy for radiation-induced skin injury

  16. Protective effect of vitamin A on acute radiation injury in the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of vitamin A on the development of early radiation-induced reactions in the rat small intestine. The early effects of intraoperative gamma-radiation on the small bowel utilizing the terminal ileum of Sprague-Dawley rats and the protective effect of supplemental vitamin A on acute radiation injury were investigated. Three groups were included in the study: group I (10 rats) was the surgical control group; group II (13 rats) underwent only intraoperative irradiation; and group III (10 rats) was the vitamin A plus irradiation group. Exteriorized terminal ileal segments of groups II and III were exposed to a single fraction of 20 Gy of intraoperative gamma-irradiation. On the seventh postoperative day, terminal ileal segments of all rats were resected and histopathologically evaluated for ulceration, enteritis cystica profunda, atypical epithelial regeneration, fibrosis, vascular sclerosis, and inflammatory process. Although none of the above findings were present in the surgical control group, group III rats experienced less severe effects than group II rats. The results suggest the early side effects of radiation may be prevented by vitamin A supplementation. (author)

  17. Thrombomodulin and von Willebrand factor as markers of radiation-induced endothelial injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultured confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells were irradiated in vitro by 60Co-gamma ray at doses from 0 to 50 Gy. After irradiation Thrombomodulin in the supernatants of endothelial cell culture medium, on the surface of the cells and within the cells was measured at different times over six days. At twenty-four hours after irradiation, an increase in the release of Thrombomodulin and von Willebrand factor from irradiated endothelial cells and an increase in the number of molecules and the activity of Thrombomodulin on the surface of the cells were observed, which were radiation-dose dependent. The capacity of the cells to produce and release Thrombomodulin was decreased from two to six days after exposure to 60Co-gamma ray. Our data indicate that radiation can injure endothelial cells and that Thrombomodulin may be as a marker of radiation-induced endothelial cell injury. The relationship between dysfunction of irradiated endothelial cells and the pathological mechanisms of acute radiation sickness are discussed

  18. Radiation-induced brain injury: retrospective analysis of twelve pathologically proven cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to determine the influencing factors and clinical course of pathologically proven cases of radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI). The pathologic records of twelve patients were reviewed; these patients underwent surgery following radiotherapy due to disease progression found by follow-up imaging. However, they were finally diagnosed with RIBI. All patients had been treated with 3-dimensional conventional fractionated radiotherapy and/or radiosurgery for primary or metastatic brain tumors with or without chemotherapy. The histological distribution was as follows: two falx meningioma, six glioblastoma multiform (GBM), two anaplastic oligodendroglioma, one low grade oligodendroglioma, and one small cell lung cancer with brain metastasis. Radiation necrosis was noted in eight patients and the remaining four were diagnosed with radiation change. Gender (p 0.061) and biologically equivalent dose (BED)3 (p = 0.084) were the only marginally influencing factors of radiation necrosis. Median time to RIBI was 7.3 months (range, 0.5 to 61 months). Three prolonged survivors with GBM were observed. In the subgroup analysis of high grade gliomas, RIBI that developed <6 months after radiotherapy was associated with inferior overall survival rates compared to cases of RIBI that occurred ≥6 months (p = 0.085). Our study demonstrated that RIBI could occur in early periods after conventional fractionated brain radiotherapy within normal tolerable dose ranges. Studies with a larger number of patients are required to identify the strong influencing factors for RIBI development

  19. Radiation from perfect mirrors starting from rest and accelerating forever and the black body spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Calogeracos, A

    2002-01-01

    We address the question of radiation emission from a perfect mirror that starts from rest and follows the trajectory z=-ln(cosht) ad infinitum. We show that a correct derivation of the black body spectrum via the calculation of Bogolubov amplitudes requires consideration of the whole trajectory and not just of its asymptotic part.

  20. Radiation from perfect mirrors starting from rest and accelerating forever and the black body spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We address the question of radiation emission from a perfect mirror that starts from rest and follows the trajectory z=-ln(cosh t) until t→∞. We show that a correct derivation of the black body spectrum via the calculation of the Bogolubov amplitudes requires consideration of the whole trajectory and not just of its asymptotic part. (author)

  1. The black-body radiation inversion problem, its instability and a new universal function set method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The black-body radiation inversion (BRI) problem is ill-posed and requires special techniques to achieve stable solutions. In this Letter, the universal function set method (UFS), is developed in BRI. An improved unique existence theorem is proposed. Asymptotic behavior control (ABC) is introduced. A numerical example shows that practical calculations are possible with UFS

  2. Chromosome aberrations in relation to radiation dose following partial-body exposures in three populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural chromosome aberrations were evaluated in peripheral blood samples obtained from three populations exposed to partial-body irradiation. These included 143 persons who received radiotherapy for enlarged thymus glands during infancy and 50 sibling controls; 79 persons irradiated for enlarged tonsils and 81 persons surgically treated for the same condition during childhood; and 77 women frequently exposed as young adults to fluoroscopic chest X rays during lung collapse treatment for tuberculosis (TB) and 66 women of similar ages treated for TB with other therapies. Radiation exposures occurred 30 and more years before blood was drawn. Doses to active bone marrow averaged over the entire body were 21, 6, and 14 cGy for the exposed thymic, tonsil, and TB subjects, respectively. Two hundred metaphases were scored for each subject, and the frequencies of symmetrical (stable) and asymmetrical (unstable) chromosome aberrations were quantified in 97,200 metaphases. Cells with stable aberrations were detected with greater frequency in the irradiated subjects compared with nonirradiated subjects in all three populations, and an overall test for an association between stable aberrations and partial-body ionizing radiation was highly significant (P less than 0.001). We found no evidence that radiation-induced aberrations varied by age at exposure. These data show that exposure of children or young adults to partial-body fractionated radiation can result in detectable increased frequencies of stable chromosome aberrations in circulating lymphocytes 30 years later, and that these aberrations appear to be informative as biological markers of population exposure

  3. Relative effect of radiation dose rate on hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic lethality of total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were undertaken to determine the influence of dose rate on the toxicity of total-body irrdiation (TBI) with and without syngeneic bone-marrow rescue in mice. The results showed a much greater dose-rate dependence for death from nonhemopoietic toxicity than from bone-marrow ablation, with the ratio of LD50's increasing from 1.73 at 25 cGy/min to 2.80 at 1 cGy/min. At the higher dose rates, dose-limiting nonhemopoietic toxicity resulted from late organ injury, affecting the lungs, kidneys, and liver. At 1 cGy/min the major dose-limiting nonhemopoietic toxicity was acute gastrointestinal injury. The implications of these results in the context of TBI in preparation for bone-marrow transplantation are discussed. 15 refs., 4 figs

  4. Problems concerning the parenteral nutrition within the complex therapy of radiation injuries of the intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloventantor, V.Yu.; Kurpesheva, A.K.; Kaplan, M.A.; Bardychev, M.S.; Khmelevskii, Ya.M. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Obninsk. Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Meditsinskoj Radiologii)

    1982-01-01

    The treatment results of 52 patients with radiation enterocolitis and rectosygmoiditis are reported. The complex therapy included a partial or a complete parenteral nutrition according to the indication. The treatment caused an improvement in 86.7% of the cases, no changes in 5.7% and a deterioration of the condition in 7.6%. The additional nutritive therapy rendered it possible to hold the cell mass of the body constant and to decrease the protein losses of the gastrointestinal tract significantly.

  5. Syndesmosis injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis commonly result from high-energy ankle injuries. They can occur as isolated ligamentous injuries and can be associated with ankle fractures. Syndesmotic injuries can create a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for musculoskeletal physicians. Recent literature has added considerably to the body of knowledge pertaining to injury mechanics and treatment outcomes, but there remain a number of controversies regarding diagnostic tests, imp...

  6. Clinical study of the radioprotective effects of Amifostine (YM-08310, WR-2721) on chronic radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, I.; Nagai, T.; Miyaishi, K.; Maehara, Y.; Niibe, H.

    1986-06-01

    We have previously reported that Amifostine, a radioprotective agent, was effective in treating acute radiation mucositis in the head and neck region. We found that when a considerable amount of Amifostine accumulates in the salivary glands, it may be useful in preventing chronic disturbances of salivary secretion. We have observed an increase in the uptake of Ga-67-citrate to the salivary glands when they were irradiated. In this paper, the radioprotective effects of Amifostine, in treating chronic radiation injury of the salivary glands, were studied, using the cessation of an increase in uptake of Ga-67-citrate after radiotherapy as the criterion. The subjects were 105 patients, (280 salivary glands in Ga-scintigrams) with malignancy of the head and neck region treated by irradiation from 1978 to 1984. Ga-negative glands were recognized in 97%, that is, 36 out of 37 glands, before irradiation, and the figure decreased to 19%, seven out of 37, within 1 to 2 weeks (10Gy less than or equal to) after the start of radiotherapy. In patients who were irradiated with more than 30 Gy and in whom scintigraphy was performed at 6 months or more after radiotherapy, Ga-negative glands were recognized in 18 out of 41 glands, 44%, with Amifostine, compared with 13%, four out of 32 glands, without Amifostine. A difference was recognized between these two groups in the negative change in Ga-67 uptake after radiotherapy (p less than 0.05). These facts suggest that Amifostine may have a radioprotective effect on chronic radiation injury.

  7. The lazaroid U74389G protects normal brain from stereotactic radiosurgery-induced radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To test an established model of stereotactic radiosurgery-induced radiation injury with pretreatments of either methylprednisolone or the lazaroid U74389G. Methods and Materials: Nine cats received stereotactic radiosurgery with a linear accelerator using an animal radiosurgery device. Each received a dose of 125.0 Gy prescribed to the 84% isodose shell to the anterior limb of the right internal capsule. One animal received no pretreatment, two received citrate vehicle, three received 30 mg/kg of methylprednisolone, and three received 5 mg/kg of U74389G. After irradiation, the animals had frequent neurologic examinations, and neurologic deficits developed in all of them. Six months after the radiation treatment, the animals were anesthetized, and had gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) scans, followed by Evans blue dye perfusion, euthanasia, and brain fixation. Results: Magnetic resonance scans revealed a decrease in the size of the lesions from a mean volume of 0.45 ± 0.06 cm3 in the control, vehicle-treated, and methylprednisolone-treated animals to 0.22 ± 0.14 cm3 in the U74389G-treated group. The scans also suggested the absence of necrosis and ventricular dilatation in the lazaroid-treated group. Gross pathology revealed that lesions produced in the untreated, vehicle-treated, and methylprednisolone-treated cats were similar and were characterized by a peripheral zone of Evans blue dye staining with a central zone of a mature coagulative necrosis and focal hemorrhage. However, in the U74389G-treated animals, the lesions were found to have an area of Evans blue dye staining, but lacked discrete areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. Conclusion: These results suggest that the lazaroid U74389G protects the normal brain from radiation injury produced by stereotactic radiosurgery

  8. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors - a new paradigm for protecting normal tissue from radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Normal tissue complications after radiation therapy for cancer treatment are rare, but when they occur they can be life threatening or have devastating effects on a patient's quality of life. We present compelling evidence that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ACEi, reduce normal tissue injury after radiation exposure. ACEi inhibits the conversion of Ang I to Ang II, a potent vasoactive hormone whose overproduction stimulates a number of cytokines, including TGF-β. Radiation protection is illustrated with results from two tissue models, mouse skin, an early responding tissue and rat optic nerve, a late responding tissue. Mouse hind legs were irradiated to 60Gy in 10 equal fractions over 2 wks. Mice were given 2.5mg/kg/day of ramipril in their drinking water. ACEi treated mice demonstrated significantly less damage than the mice in the non-drug treated, radiation alone group assessed using acute (hair loss), subacute (desquamation), and late endpoints (leg contraction). In a separate study, rat brains were irradiated stereotactically with a single focused beam of 30Gy. Six months after irradiation and 1.5mg/kg/day of ramipril, rats were assessed for optic nerve damage functionally using evoked potential to a light stimulus, structurally using Mn++ contrast-enhanced MRI, and histologically using H and E and Luxol-Fast-Blue stain for myelin. Of note is that all rat groups, including ACEi treated rats demonstrated damaged optic nerve by MRI and histology. Preliminary results indicate that ramipril conferred significant functional radiation protection since rats receiving radiation alone had a two to three times delay in the duration of the visual evoked potential, whereas 75% of rats receiving ramipril and radiation had evoked potentials that resembled that of normal untreated control rats. Our studies are unique and important for at least three reasons. This is the first report of the radiation protective effects of carboxyl-containing ACEi

  9. Pathological vertebral fracture after stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung metastases. Case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a radiation technique used in patients with oligometastatic lung disease. Lung and chest wall toxicities have been described in the patients but pathological vertebral fracture is an adverse effect no reported in patients treated with SBRT for lung metastases. A 68-year-old woman with the diagnosis of a recurrence of a single lung metastatic nodule of urothelial carcinoma after third line of chemotherapy. The patient received a hypo-fractionated course of SBRT.A 3D-conformal multifield technique was used with six coplanar and one non-coplanar statics beams. A total dose of 48 Gy in three fractions over six days was prescribed to the 95% of the CTV. Ten months after the SBRT procedure, a CT scan showed complete response of the metastatic disease without signs of radiation pneumonitis. However, rib and vertebral bone toxicities were observed with the fracture-collapse of the 7th and 8th vertebral bodies and a fracture of the 7th and 8th left ribs. We report a unique case of pathological vertebral fracture appearing ten months after SBRT for an asymptomatic growing lung metastases of urothelial carcinoma. Though SBRT allows for minimization of normal tissue exposure to high radiation doses SBRT tolerance for vertebral bone tissue has been poorly evaluated in patients with lung tumors. Oncologists should be alert to the potential risk of fatal bone toxicity caused by this novel treatment. We recommend BMD testing in all woman over 65 years old with clinical risk factors that could contribute to low BMD. If low BMD is demonstrated, we should carefully restrict the maximum radiation dose in the vertebral body in order to avoid intermediate or low radiation dose to the whole vertebral body

  10. Comparative characteristics of pharmacological properties of novocaine and trimecaine in different periods after thermal, mechanical, radiation and combined injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of effectiveness of trimecaine hydrochloride as compared with novocaine after mechanic in ury, thermal injuru, radiation effect and the combination of these factors included the determination of sensitivity of animals to preparations investigated according to toxicity tests and anesthetic activity (aiesthesia duration and depth) in dfferent periods after injury. Breedless male mice and rabbits are used for eXperiments. Sensitivity of mice to novocaine and trimecaine in the toxicity test turned out to be close to xilocaine (lidocaine) 1.4 times higher; this regularity is preserved against the back-groUrd of thermal injury, radiation in ury and the combination of these two factors. The anesthetic effect of novacaine and trimecaine in the case of infiltration anesthesia in depth and duration is retained through all periods of investigation (after 1, 3, 7, and 30 days) after mechanic injury and combined radiation-mechanic imjury. Trimecaine produced more pronounced anesthetic effect in duration and depth in intact animals and animals with combined radiation injury (2). Trimecaine along with novocaine is recommended as an optional preparation for local anesthesia in cases of combined radiation in ury

  11. Genetic associations of body composition, flexibility and injury risk with ACE, ACTN3 and COL5A1 polymorphisms in Korean ballerinas

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jun Ho; Jung, Eun Sun; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Youn, Hyeon; Kim, Hwa Rye

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to exam the association of body composition, flexibility, and injury risk to genetic polymorphisms including ACE ID, ACTN3 RX, and COL5A1 polymorphisms in ballet dancers in Korea. [Methods] For the purpose of this study, elite ballerinas (n = 97) and normal female adults (n = 203) aged 18 to 39 were recruited and these participants were tested for body weight, height, body fat, fat free mass, flexibility, injury risks on the joints and gene polymorphism...

  12. Late radiation injuries of the intestine and their treatment. [Side effects of x-ray and gamma therapy of gynecologic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardychev, M.S.; Kurpesheva, A.K.; Kaplan, M.A.

    1978-12-01

    Late radiation injuries of the intestine are frequent after radiation therapy of malignant tumors of female genitalia and some other tumors in which the intestine gets into the irradiation field. On the basis of the analysis of 80 patients with late radiation injuries of intestine which developed at remote terms after radiation therapy of cervix uteri cancer and corpus uteri (65 patients) and other tumors, peculiarities of the clinical course and treatment of radiation enterocolitis, rectosigmoidites, and rectites are discussed. In 39 patients, these injuries were concomitant with late radiation injuries of the skin and subcutaneous soft tissues. The clinical course of radiation injuries of the intestine was defined by the character of the pathological process in the intestine and was more sharply marked in patients suffering from radiation enterocolites. It was established that one of the pathogenetic mechanisms of late radiation injuries of the intestine was a disorder of the absorption function of the intestine. Local treatment of radiation injuries of the intestine should be combined with a general one the important component of which is a parenteral diet.

  13. Body Mass Index, Modulated by Lateral Posterior Tibial Slope, Predicts ACL Injury Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojicic, Katherine M.; Beaulieu, Melanie L.; Krieger, Daniel Imaizumi; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Wojtys, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Intervention strategies to prevent ACL injury rely on increasing knowledge of risk factors. While several modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for ACL rupture have been identified, the interaction between them remains unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between BMI and several knee geometries as potential risk factors for ACL injury. We hypothesized that an increased BMI in the presence of an increased posterior tibial slope or middle cartilage slope would increase risk of ACL injury. We also hypothesized that an increased BMI in the presence of a decreased posterior meniscal height or meniscal bone angle would result in an increased risk of ACL injury. Methods: Sagittal knee MRI files from 76 ACL-injured and 42 non-injured subjects were gathered from the institution’s archive. The PTS, MCS, PMH, and MBA were measured using the circle method and compared with BMI from the subject demographic. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistical regression. Figure 1 details measurements made for each knee geometry. Results: Univariate analysis of PTS showed increases in PTS significantly increase the odds of ACL tear (p = 0.043, OR =1.12). Univariate analysis of MCS showed increases of MCS significantly increase the odds of ACL tear (p = 0.037, OR = 1.12). Multivariate analysis of PTS and BMI centered around the mean (PTS*cBMI) showed increases of PTS in combination with increases in cBMI significantly increases the odds of ACL rupture (p value = .050, OR = 1.03). Table 1 shows predicted increases in ACL injury risk for combinations of increases in PTS and BMI. Conclusion: An increase in BMI will increase the risk of ACL tear when an increase in lateral posterior tibial slope is present. An increase in lateral posterior tibial slope or lateral middle cartilage slope increases the risk of an ACL tear.

  14. Radiation exposure near Chernobyl based on analysis of conifer injury using thematic mapper satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced damage in conifers adjacent to the damaged Chernobyl nuclear power plant has been evaluated using LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite images. Eight images acquired between 22 April 1986 and 15 May 1987 were used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation effects on pine trees within 10 km of the reactor site. The timing and spatial extent of vegetation damaged was used to estimate the radiation doses in the near field around the Chernobyl nuclear power station and to indirectly derive the dose rates as a function of time during and after the accident. A normalized vegetation index was developed from the TM band data to visually demonstrate the damage and mortality to nearby conifer stands. The patterns of spectral change indicative of vegetation stress are consistent with changes expected for radiation injury and mortality. The extent and timing of these effects permitted the development of an integrated dose estimate, which was combined with the information regarding the characteristics of radionuclide mix, to provide an estimate of maximum dose rates during the early period of the accident. The derived peak dose rates during the 10-day release in the accident are high and are estimated at about 0.5 to 1 rad per hour. These are not considered life-threatening and would therefore require prompt but not immediate evacuation; that is, no off-site fatalities would be likely under such conditions. The methodology employed to combine remote-sensing analyses and the estimates of source term release with the known radiation effects on conifers represent a unique integration of these scientific and technical tools. The results of the study show that remote-sensing techniques can be used to develop a quantitative methodology for dosimetric applications and for future monitoring activities related to reactor safety

  15. The role of alveolar epithelium in radiation-induced lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Almeida

    Full Text Available Pneumonitis and fibrosis are major lung complications of irradiating thoracic malignancies. In the current study, we determined the effect of thoracic irradiation on the lungs of FVB/N mice. Survival data showed a dose-dependent increase in morbidity following thoracic irradiation with single (11-13 Gy and fractionated doses (24-36 Gy of (137Cs γ-rays. Histological examination showed a thickening of vessel walls, accumulation of inflammatory cells, collagen deposition, and regional fibrosis in the lungs 14 weeks after a single 12 Gy dose and a fractionated 30 Gy dose; this damage was also seen 5 months after a fractionated 24 Gy dose. After both single and fractionated doses, i] aquaporin-5 was markedly decreased, ii] E-cadherin was reduced and iii] prosurfactant Protein C (pro-SP-c, the number of pro-SP-c(+ cells and vimentin expression were increased in the lungs. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed co-localization of pro-SP-c and α-smooth muscle actin in the alveoli after a single dose of 12 Gy. These data suggest that, i] the FVB/N mouse strain is sensitive to thoracic radiation ii] aquaporin-5, E-cadherin, and pro-SP-c may serve as sensitive indicators of radiation-induced lung injury; and iii] the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition may play an important role in the development of radiation-induced lung fibrosis.

  16. Radiation injury of the developing immune system in the beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetal lymphoid organs of the beagle dog were studied to determine if the developing immune system displays an age-dependent sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Pregnant beagle dams received abdominal 60Co gamma exposures to 200R or were sham irradiated at one of three ages in gestation; 35, 40, or 45 days postcoitus. The mean calculated dose to each fetus was 1.5 Gy. Half the fetuses in each litter were harvested by hysterotomy at five days and half at ten days postirradiation (PI). The volumes of the thymus lobules and lobular cortices were significantly reduced at five and ten days PI as compared to age matched controls. Radiation damage in the developing immune system was expressed in the lymphocyte populations of fetal lymphoid organs and in thymus epithelium. Damage was qualitatively and quantitatively more severe following irradiation earlier in gestation, confirming that the developing immune system displays an age-dependent sensitivity. Prenatal radiation injury to the developing lymphoid system could compromise postnatal immunologic function and could alter immunoregulation

  17. Practical approaches to effective management of intestinal radiation injury: Benefit of resectional surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikolaos Perrakis; Evangelos Athanassiou; Dimitra Vamvakopoulou; Maria Kyriazi; Haris Kappos; Nikolaos C Vamvakopoulos; Iakovos Nomikos

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the outcome of patients undergoing surgical resection of the bowel for sustained radiation-induced damage intractable to conservative management.METHODS: During a 7-year period we operated on 17 cases (5 male, 12 female) admitted to our surgical department with intestinal radiation injury (IRI). They were originally treated for a pelvic malignancy by surgical resection followed by postoperative radiotherapy. During follow-up, they developed radiation enteritis requiring surgical treatment due to failure of conservative management.RESULTS: IRI was located in the terminal ileum in 12 patients, in the rectum in 2 patients, in the descending colon in 2 patients, and in the cecum in one patient. All patients had resection of the affected region(s). There were no postoperative deaths, while 3 cases presented with postoperative complications (17.7%). All patients remained free of symptoms without evidence of recurrence of IRI for a median follow-up period of 42 mo (range, 6-96 mo).CONCLUSION: We report a favorable outcome without IRI recurrence of 17 patients treated by resection of the diseased bowel segment.

  18. Risks of exposure to ionizing and millimeter-wave radiation from airport whole-body scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, John E

    2012-06-01

    Considerable public concern has been expressed around the world about the radiation risks posed by the backscatter (ionizing radiation) and millimeter-wave (nonionizing radiation) whole-body scanners that have been deployed at many airports. The backscatter and millimeter-wave scanners currently deployed in the U.S. almost certainly pose negligible radiation risks if used as intended, but their safety is difficult-to-impossible to prove using publicly accessible data. The scanners are widely disliked and often feared, which is a problem made worse by what appears to be a veil of secrecy that covers their specifications and dosimetry. Therefore, for these and future similar technologies to gain wide acceptance, more openness is needed, as is independent review and regulation. Publicly accessible, and preferably peer-reviewed evidence is needed that the deployed units (not just the prototypes) meet widely-accepted safety standards. It is also critical that risk-perception issues be handled more competently. PMID:22494369

  19. Nonchaotic evolution of triangular configuration due to gravitational radiation reaction in the three-body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kei; Asada, Hideki

    2016-04-01

    Continuing work initiated in an earlier publication [H. Asada, Phys. Rev. D 80, 064021 (2009)], the gravitational radiation reaction to Lagrange's equilateral triangular solution of the three-body problem is investigated in an analytic method. The previous work is based on the energy balance argument, which is sufficient for a two-body system because the number of degrees of freedom (the semimajor axis and the eccentricity in quasi-Keplerian cases, for instance) equals that of the constants of motion such as the total energy and the orbital angular momentum. In a system with three (or more) bodies, however, the number of degrees of freedom is more than that of the constants of motion. Therefore, the present paper discusses the evolution of the triangular system by directly treating the gravitational radiation reaction force to each body. The perturbed equations of motion are solved by using the Laplace transform technique. It is found that the triangular configuration is adiabatically shrinking and is kept in equilibrium by increasing the orbital frequency due to the radiation reaction if the mass ratios satisfy the Newtonian stability condition. Long-term stability involving the first post-Newtonian corrections is also discussed.

  20. Ultrastructural pathological study on skeletal muscle injury in rabbit after a high-dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish a rabbit model of radiation-induced skeletal muscle injury in order to study the ultrastructural pathological changes and underlying mechanism. Methods: 28 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups with 16 rabbits in experimental group and 12 rabbits in control group. The experimental rabbits were irradiated on hip with a single dose of 80 Gy of 9 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator. 1 month and 6 months after irradiation the pathological changes were respectively observed under light microscope and electron microscope. Results: One month after irradiation, the morphologic changes including degeneration, necrosis of muscle cells, and hemorrhage between the muscle cells were observed under light microscope and the swelling of myofibrillae, blurring of light and shade band, vacuolar degeneration of mitochondria and amorphous areas of necrosis were observed under electron microscope. Six months after irradiation, the morphologic changes of nucleolus chips, fibrous connective tissue, thickening of vascular wall and vascular congestion between the muscle cells and the amorphous areas of necrosis in the experimental group were much more serious than those of 1 month after irradiation. In addition, the myofilaments were lost in degeneration areas and the sarcomere became shorten. Observation with electron microscope showed that the mitochondrial size and its morphological changes were varied and the amounts of collagen between myofibrillaes were increased 6 months after irradiation. Conclusions: A rabbit model of high-dose irradiated skeleton muscle injury was successfully established with a single dose of 80 Gy of 9 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator. The degeneration and necrosis of muscle cells may be promoted by mitochondrial and vascular injury, degeneration of vessel and nerve fiber. (authors)

  1. An experimental study of radiation injury on oral tissue at young age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of studying radiation injury on mandibles at growth stage, the mandibles of young adult dogs were irradiated with X-ray of 200 kVp, and the irradiated intraoral tissues such as gingival membrane, teeth and mandibles were investigated macroscopically and the teeth and mandibles radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. As the injury on irradiated skin, partial epilation began two days after irradiation and ulceration (4 out of 16 cases) formed at 79 days and worsened further, and necrosis was seen in all subjects at 195 days. 2. As the injury on the intraoral tissue, pigment loss in the gingival membrane began four days after irradiation. Ulceration of gingiva (2 out of 16) formed at 30 days and worsened, and exposure of the alveolar bone was observed at 208 days. At 220 days, bone fracture (6 out of 16) was observed. 3. Formation of necrosis in the gingiva leading to necrosis of the skin corresponding to the third premolar was found in four cases. Formation of necrosis in the skin corresponding to the third premolar leading to necrosis of the gingival membrane was found in 12 cases. 4. In radiological findings, enlargement of periodontal membrane space, disappearance of lamina dura (6 out of 16), and resporption of the alveolar crest (6 out of 16) began in the subjects at 1 month. Worsening began with bone destruction (10 out of 16), bone destruction accompanied by osteosclerosis, and erosion of inferior border of the cortical bone (8 out of 16) in the subjects at 3 months. Formation of sequestrum (4 out of 16) at 6 months and bone fracture (6 out of 16) at 8 months were observed. 5. In radiological findings for the subjects with formation of ulceration, enlargement of periodontal membrane space, and resorption of the alveolar crest were the early findings and lamina dura image around the bone destruction image followed. (J.P.N.)

  2. An experimental study of radiation injuries to oral tissue of deciduous dentition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the effect of radiation on the jaw bones in growing stage, the mandibles of young dogs were irradiated with a total dose of 3,000 R of 200 kVp X-ray and macroscopic and radiological investigations were made of the skin, mucosa, gingiva, teeth, etc. The results were as follows: 1. Injuries to the third deciduous molar region appeared shortly after irradiation but regeneration began after irradiation. From the 8th to 15th day was the period in which vital reaction was the highest. 2. In the gingiva, irradiation injuries such as redness, ulceration, and easy bleeding were observed. However, findings beyond these were not observed. Ulceration was restored two months after irradiation but atrophy of the gingiva continued for eight months. 3. Prolonged retention of deciduous teeth was observed and eruption of the successional premolar teeth was not observed. The successional teeth were incomplete in crown formation but showed hypercalcification. The roots however were not formed. 4. Early radiographic findings of injuries to the alveolar bone were bone resorption and disorders in the bone trabecula(e). Spotty bone resorption was the finding thereafter. With the beginning of osteosclerosis, however, spotty bone resorption gradually decreased and indications for recovery were observed. 5. The macroscopic findings on roentogenograms and the findings on their microphotograms were generally in agreement. The findings on the microphotograms of the alveolar bone in the latter observation period showed findings of osteosclerosis which were not detected by macroscopic observations of the roentogenograms. In other words, findings in the latter period on the jaw bones in growing stage after irradiation were considered to be mainly restorative reactions to irradiation hazards. (J.P.N.)

  3. Residual radiation-induced injury in dermal tissue: implications for retreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence for residual radiation-induced injury was investigated in dermal vascular/connective tissue of pig skin at intervals of 17-52 weeks after irradiation. Primary irradiation was a single dose of 18 Gy. Re-irradiation was with graded single doses of X rays to establish dose-effect relationships for incidence of late ischaemic dermal necrosis of the skin; dose-effect curves obtained for previously irradiated skin were compared with those obtained using previously unirradiated skin. At intervals of 17, 35 and 52 weeks after primary treatment, ED50 values for dermal necrosis were not significantly different from those obtained for previously unirradiated skin, suggesting little or no effective residual injury at these intervals after a primary full ''tolerance'' dose. This was supported by the latency times for development of dermal necrosis, which were similar in re-irradiated and previously unirradiated skin. Epithelial desquamation was not induced by doses used in these studies, either after primary treatment or re-irradiation; however, early erythema reactions seen in re-irradiated skin were markedly reduced, particularly when carried out after 35 and 52 weeks, compared with skin not previously irradiated. (author)

  4. Inhibitory effect of MgSO4 on calcium overload after radiation-induced brain injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the neuroprotective effect of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 ) on radiation-induced acute brain injuries. Methods: A total of 60 mature Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: blank control group, experimental control group and experimental therapy group. The whole brain of SD rats of experimental control group and experimental therapy group was irradiated to a dose of 20 Gy using 6 MeV electrons. Magnesium sulfate was injected intraperitoneally into the rats of experimental therapy group before and after irradiation for five times. At different time points (24 h, 7 days, 14 days, 30 days after irradiation), the brain tissue was taken. Plasma direct reading spectrography was used to measure the contents of Ca2+, Mg2+ in brain tissue, and the percentage of brain water content was calculated with the wet-dry weight formula. Results: Compared with the blank control group, the percentage of brain water and content of Ca2+ in brain of the experimental control group increased markedly (P2+ decreased significantly (P2+ in brain of the experimental therapy group were significantly lower than those of the experimental control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Magnesium sulfate used in the early stage after irradiation can inhibit the calcium overload in rat brain , and attenuate brain edema and injuries. (authors)

  5. Role of MMP-12 on tissue remodeling at early stage of radiation-induced pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the role of MMP-12 on tissue remodeling at early stage of radiation- induced pulmonary injury. Methods: Wistar rats irradiated by 60Co γ-rays to the whole lungs were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4 weeks. MMP-12 mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR. MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-12 activities were determined by zymography. The degradation and collapse of elastin were determined by tissue elastin particular staining; the 'cross talking' phenomenon between alveolar type II cells and mesenchymal cells was observed under electron microscope; the expression of TGF-β1 and TNF-α in BALF was detected by ELISA. The expression of α-SMA was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results: The mRNA expression of MMP-12 displayed a significant elevation at 1, 2, 4 weeks after irradiation. MMP-12 activity increased at 2, 4 weeks after irradiation. Elastin began to degrade and collapse at 1 week, which became worst 4 weeks after irradiation. The cross talking phenomenon was found under electron microscope. The expression of TGF-β1, TNF-α and α-SMA was increased gradually as time elapse after irradiation. Conclusions: 60Co γ-ray irradiation can promote pulmonary MMP-12 expression, initiate pulmonary tissue remodeling by degradation of elastin, and make the pulmonary injury develop towards pulmonary fibrosis eventually. (authors)

  6. Radiation injury to the mandible following radiotherapy for carcinoma of the tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective radiographic survey of 133 patients was carried out to investigate radiation injury to the manidible. The patients were all treated by interstitial radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the movile tongue during 1967 to 1986. The patients were divided into two groups; 39 patients in the first group treated by interstitial radiotherapy alone (65 - 80 Gy/74 - 280 hrs) and 94 patients in the second group treated by interstitial radiotherapy (50 - 90 Gy/47 - 215 hrs) following external radiotherapy (26 - 50 Gy/3 - 5 wks). In 61 of 94 (65 %) patients of the second group, radiographic changes such as widening of the periodontal space, rarefaction and/or loss of the lamina dura, resorption of the alveolar crest, osteoporotic change, worm-eaten pattern of bone destruction, sequestration and fracture were observed, while in 12 of 39 (31 %) of the first group. In 37 patients (39 %) of the second group bone exposure developed, while in 6 (15 %) of the first group. With regard to TDF analysis, a high incidence of the radiographic change was encountered in the second group patients who received more than 160 of TDF values. Furthermore, radiographic changes were observed in 71 of 103 (69 %) patients with molars, while in 2 of 30 (7 %) without molar. Thus, a correlation between the existence of teeth in high dose area and bone injury was suggested. (author)

  7. Determinants of resistance to radiation injury in blood granulocytes from normal donors and from patients with myeloproliferative disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose-dependent injury to human blood granulocytes was measured within 2 hr of x irradiation, as changes in net 22Na influx and phagocytosing O2 consumption. Among samples from normal donors and patients with chronic myeloproliferative diseases, samples from 10 to 12 patients with chronic granulocytic leukemia exhibited increased sensitivity to injury by radiation. Selected granulocyte constituents which may contribute to inactivation of oxidant and free-radical products of radiation-activated H2O were also measured. These included glutathione and ascorbate contents; superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione proxidase, and glutathione reductase activities; and capacity to take up and reduce dehydroascorbate. Catalase activity was irregularly higher in radiation-sensitive than in radiation-resistant granulocytes (P = < 0.05). Dehydroascorbate uptake and reduction was consistently low in radiation-sensitive cells (P = < 0.001). We propose that cell capacity to maintain ascorbate in reduced form against oxidant and free-radical stress is a part of mechanisms which determine resistance to injury by ionizing radiation in human granulocytes

  8. Noncultured Autologous Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Therapy for Chronic Radiation Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadanori Akita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concern on chronic radiation injuries should be treated properly for life-saving improvement of wound management and quality of life. Recently, regenerative surgical modalities should be attempted with the use of noncultured autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs with temporal artificial dermis impregnated and sprayed with local angiogenic factor such as basic fibroblast growth factor, and secondary reconstruction can be a candidate for demarcation and saving the donor morbidity. Autologous adipose-derived stem cells, together with angiogenic and mitogenic factor of basic fibroblast growth factor and an artificial dermis, were applied over the excised irradiated skin defect and tested for Patients who were uneventfully healed with minimal donor-site morbidity, which lasts more than 1.5 years.

  9. The study of the effect of interleukin-1β against the combined radiation-thermal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments were carried out on F1 (CBA x C57B16) male-mice. It was shown that, in contrast to a therapeutic effect of IL-1 for the solely irradiated mice, a single subcutaneous injection of 100 μg/kg recombinant human IL-1β in 4 h after a combined radiation-thermal injury (CRTI) increased significantly the death rate of the animals within the first 2-4 days. Administration of 150 ng IL-1 per mouse in 4, 24 or 48 h after the CRTI decreased an average life-span of mice. A single injection of cytokine in 5 days after the CRTI increased the survival rate by 45 %. Repeated injections IL-1 with a dose of 100 pg per mouse in 2, 4 and 6 days after the CRTI did not aid in the haematological indices and did not affect the survival rate of the animals. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Experimental optimization of iodine prophylaxis for prevention of radiation injury from accidental intake of radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As is proved by nuclear disaster in Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), iodine prophylaxis may be respected as one of the most urgent and effective methods of prevention of radiation injury of the thyroid gland in the population affected. On the basis of experiments in rats, analytical ways of determination of the dietary iodine intake (iodine supply) of people living around NPP Paks (Hyngary) as well as compartment modelling, experiments it is shown, that for optimization of iodine prophylaxis in masses it is very important to increase the iodine supply upto the recommended values. Combined use of decreased doses of potassium iodide and perchlorate was found to be the optimal way for removal of radioiodine from pregnant organisms and their offsprings following accidental intake of radioiodine

  11. Effect of the synthetic carbon-mineral sorbent and antibiotics on the development of combined radiation and thermal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male Wistar rats exposed to whole-body γ-irradiation at the dose of 7.5 Gy. Full sickness thermal bum 15% of body surface inflicted immediately after irradiation. Experimental study of the therapeutic efficacy of enterosorption alone or in combination with antibiotics doxycyclin and cyprofloxacyn performed. The strong decrease of bacterial endotoxemia, toxic oligopeptides' level and general blood toxicity revealed after treatment compared with non-treated animals with combined injuries. Corrections of postirradiation intestinal disbacteriosis revealed too. The best result observed when carbon mineral sorbent and antibiotics administered daily within the first 10-14 days after combined injury. Survival of treated animals increased up to 80% (all rats of control group died during 30 days after combined injury)

  12. Radiation injury of DNA of native tissue, characterized by different radiosensitivity, as studied by the ESR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find out the mechanism of radiation-chemical injury in tissues, being characterized by different radiosensitivity in action gamma-irradiated samples of radioresistant (liver, kidneys, muscle, heart) and radiosensitive (spleen, thymus of mice, rat bone marrow) mice organs have been studied by the method of EPR-spectroscopy. Immediately after extraction organs have been cut into small pieces and frozen at -196 deg C. The irradiation have been carried out from the 60Co source with the dose of 1 Mrad. A fact of DNA injury in animal tissues at initial stages of radiation-chemical processes and the large degree of DNA injury in radiosensitive tissues in comparison with radioresistant ones

  13. Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity Score System in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Ney, Patrick H; Condliffe, Donald P; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P

    2016-08-01

    Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues. The authors present a further demonstration of the acute radiation sickness severity score system in a mouse (CD2F1, males) TBI model (1-14 Gy, Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min) based on multiple biodosimetric endpoints. This includes the acute radiation sickness severity Observational Grading System, survival rate, weight changes, temperature, peripheral blood cell counts and radiation-responsive protein expression profile: Flt-3 ligand, interleukin 6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, and serum amyloid A. Results show that use of the multiple-parameter severity score system facilitates identification of animals requiring enhanced monitoring after irradiation and that proteomics are a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposure, enhancing accuracy and discrimination index for acute radiation sickness response categories and early prediction of outcome. PMID:27356057

  14. Prediction and analysis of human thoracic impact responses and injuries in cadaver impacts using a full human body finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jesse; El-Jawahri, Raed; Chai, Li; Barbat, Saeed; Prasad, Priya

    2003-10-01

    Human thoracic dynamic responses and injuries associated with frontal impact, side impact, and belt loading were investigated and predicted using a complete human body finite element model for an average adult male. The human body model was developed to study the impact biomechanics of a vehicular occupant. Its geometry was based on the Visible Human Project (National Library of Medicine) and the topographies from human body anatomical texts. The data was then scaled to an average adult male according to available biomechanical data from the literature. The model includes details of the head, neck, ribcage, abdomen, thoracic and lumbar spine, internal organs of the chest and abdomen, pelvis, and the upper and lower extremities. The present study is focused on the dynamic response and injuries of the thorax. The model was validated at various impact speeds by comparing predicted responses with available experimental cadaver data in frontal and side pendulum impacts, as well as belt loading. Model responses were compared with similar individual cadaver tests instead of using cadaver corridors because the large differences between the upper and lower bounds of the corridors may confound the model validation. The validated model was then used to study thorax dynamic responses and injuries in various simulated impact conditions. Parameters that could induce injuries such as force, deflection, and stress were computed from model simulations and were compared with previously proposed thoracic injury criteria to assess injury potential for the thorax. It has been shown that the model exhibited speed sensitive impact characteristics, and the compressibility of the internal organs significantly influenced the overall impact response in the simulated impact conditions. This study demonstrates that the development of a validated FE human body model could be useful for injury assessment in various cadaveric impacts reported in the literature. Internal organ injuries, which are

  15. Radiation injuries of the pelvis and proximal parts of the femur after irradiation of carcinoma of the cervix uteri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data relating to 244 patients with carcinoma of the cervix uteri treated by intensive radiotherapy are given. Radiation injury of bone was diagnosed in 12 cases (4.9 +/- 1.4 percent). After x-ray therapy alone they were found in five of 59 patients treated (8.5 +/- 3.6 percent), and after γ-ray therapy in one of 171 cases (0.6 +/- 0.6 percent). The minimal focal dose of x-ray therapy causing radiation injury to bone was 5,000 rads. With an increase in dose, the frequency of injuries also increased. Radiation injury was found after γ-ray therapy with an absorbed dose of 7,000 rads. The radiological features of radiation injury of bones after irradiation of malignant tumors of the pelvis are increasing osteoporosis and the appearance of foci of sclerosis and osteolysis. Necrotic areas of various sizes may be formed. A fracture of the neck of the femur may be prevented in some cases by taking precautionary measures. Healing of an injured part depends on the size of the dose given. Large doses completely suppressed the reparative powers of the bone. Unlike changes that are traumatic in nature, radiation fractures of the pelvic bones and the proximal part of the femur have a mild clinical course; sometimes the patients continue to use the lower limb, simply complaining of pain that may vary in severity. Metastasization of tumors of the uterus to the pelvic bones is possible but infrequent. Metastases are usually associated with increasing pain

  16. Black-body radiation effects and light shifts in atomic frequency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general method is presented for calculating the higher-order terms of series in powers of the black-body radiation field for the Stark-state wavefunctions, dipole transition matrix elements and corresponding frequency shifts of hyperfine splitting in the ground states for Cs and Rb atoms. A numerical method for calculating the light shifts in Sr atoms is described. It is based on the Green function method for summation over all intermediate states and exact Dirac-Fock wavefunctions for the resonant transitions to the first excited s-, p- and d-states. By comparing the calculated Stark shift with results of measurements employing atomic frequency standards, the black-body radiation effects on the ground state are analysed

  17. The influence of hypoxia on the hematological radiation response following whole-body irradiation of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the protective effect of hypoxia in the hematopoietic radiation response 9 beagles were exposed to whole body X irradiation with 3.0 Gy medium line dosis (MLD) and after 10 weeks to a second 60Co-gamma whole-body irradiation with 6.5 Gy MLD, 5 animals being exposed under respiratory hypoxia of 7.5% O2 and 4 under normal oxygen conditions. 4 animals were sham-irradiated under 7.5% hypoxia. The effect of hypoxia found expression in a distinct decrease of neutropenia and a lesser extent of lymphopenia after 3.0 Gy MLD. The highest effect was obtained with respect to a significant increase of the effectiveness of the regenerative events. After 6.5 Gy MLD and the subsequent peracute course of the radiation syndrome the protective effect could be observed less clearly

  18. Impact of tissue heterogeneity corrections in stereotactic body radiation therapy treatment plans for lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Herman Tania De; Gabrish Heather; Herman Terence; Vlachaki Maria; Ahmad Salahuddin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the impact of tissue heterogeneity corrections on dosimetry of stereotactic body radiation therapy treatment plans. Four-dimensional computed tomography data from 15 low stage non-small cell lung cancer patients was used. Treatment planning and dose calculations were done using pencil beam convolution algorithm of Varian Eclipse system with Modified Batho Power Law for tissue heterogeneity. Patient plans were generated with 6 MV co-planar non-opposing four to six...

  19. Inter-Fraction Tumor Volume Response during Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Correlated to Patient Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Salamekh, Samer; Rong, Yi; Ayan, Ahmet S.; Mo, Xiaokui; Williams, Terence M.; Mayr, Nina A.; Grecula, John C.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Xu-Welliver, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Analyze inter-fraction volumetric changes of lung tumors treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and determine if the volume changes during treatment can be predicted and thus considered in treatment planning. Methods and Materials Kilo-voltage cone-beam CT (kV-CBCT) images obtained immediately prior to each fraction were used to monitor inter-fraction volumetric changes of 15 consecutive patients (18 lung nodules) treated with lung SBRT at our institution (45–54 Gy in...

  20. Dietary Pectin Increases Intestinal Crypt Stem Cell Survival following Radiation Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Sureban, Sripathi M.; May, Randal; Qu, Dongfeng; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Weygant, Nathaniel; Ali, Naushad; Lightfoot, Stan A.; Ding, Kai; Umar, Shahid; Schlosser, Michael J.; Houchen, Courtney W.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal damage is a devastating adverse effect of radiation therapy. We have recently reported that expression of Dclk1, a Tuft cell and tumor stem cell (TSC) marker, 24h after high dose total-body gamma-IR (TBI) can be used as a surrogate marker for crypt survival. Dietary pectin has been demonstrated to possess chemopreventive properties, whereas its radioprotective property has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary pectin on i...

  1. Problems concerning the parenteral nutrition within the complex therapy of radiation injuries of the intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment results of 52 patients with radiation enterocolitis and rectosygmoiditis are reported. The complex therapy included a partial or a complete parenteral nutrition according to the indication. The treatment caused an improvement in 86.7% of the cases, no changes in 5.7% and a deterioration of the condition in 7.6%. The additional nutritive therapy rendered it possible to hold the cell mass of the body constant and to decrease the protein losses of the gastrointestinal tract significantly. (author)

  2. Protective Effect of Vitamin E against Gamma Radiation Injury in Mice Histological and Ultrastructural Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin E has been shown to ameliorate the effect of ionising radiation. The present study was designed to study the effect of high dose of gamma-radiation on the intestinal tissue of mice and the protective effect of the natural antioxidant vitamin E; a slow acting free radical scavenger. 24 adult albino male mice were divided into 4 groups (6 animals each). The first group represents the control group. The second experimental group received orally daily doses of vitamin E (100 mg/ kg body wt for 15 days). The third experimental group were exposed to 7 Gy gamma-rays as a single dose, while the fourth experimental group received vitamin E in the same dose before being irradiated. All animals were scarified and jejunal specimens were processed and prepared for histological and ultrastructural study after one day post irradiation. The results suggested that gamma-radiation induced different histological changes in the intestine of irradiated animals. Degeneration of the intestinal cells and microvilli were seen by light microscopic examination. SEM electron microscope (SEM) revealed haemorrhagic ulcerating tissues. In addition, the mitochondria were markedly swollen and loss of cristae, thickness of the terminal web zone was seen by transmission electron microscope. On the contrary, in animals treated with vitamin E, the intestinal tissues revealed structure almost similar to the control group. We conclude that vitamin E had protective effects against gamma-radiation induced oxidative stress

  3. Pulmonary radiation injury: identification of risk factors associated with regional hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakova-Jiresova, Alena; van Luijk, Peter; van Goor, Harry; Kampinga, Harm H; Coppes, Robert P

    2005-05-01

    Effective radiation treatment of thoracic tumors is often limited by radiosensitivity of surrounding tissues. Several experimental studies have suggested variations in radiosensitivity of different pulmonary regions. Mice and rat studies in part contradict each other and urge for a more detailed analysis. This study was designed to obtain a more comprehensive insight in radiation injury development, expression, and its regional heterogeneity in lung. The latter is obviously highly critical for optimization of radiotherapy treatment plans and may shed light on the mechanisms of lung dysfunction after irradiation. Six different but volume-equal regions in rat lung were irradiated. Whereas the severity of damage, as seen in histologic analysis, was comparable in all regions, the degree of lung dysfunction, measured as breathing rates, largely varied. During the pneumonitic phase (early: 6-12 weeks), the most sensitive regions contained a substantial part of alveolar lung parenchyma. Also, a trend for hypersensitivity was observed when the heart lay in the irradiation field. In the fibrotic phase (late: 34-38 weeks), lung parenchyma and heart-encompassing regions were the most sensitive. No impact of the heart was observed during the intermediate phase (16-28 weeks). The severity of respiratory dysfunction after partial thoracic irradiation is likely governed by an interaction between pulmonary and cardiac functional deficits. As a repercussion, more severe acute and delayed toxicity should be expected after combined lung and heart irradiation. This should be considered in the process of radiotherapy treatment planning of thoracic malignancies. PMID:15867350

  4. Recent progress in defining mechanisms and potential targets for prevention of normal tissue injury after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to optimize treatments for cancer on the basis of relative risks for normal tissue injury has important implications in oncology, because higher doses of radiation might, in some diseases, improve both local control and survival. To achieve this goal, a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for radiation-induced toxicity will be essential. Recent research has demonstrated that ionizing radiation triggers a series of genetic and molecular events, which might lead to chronic persistent alterations in the microenvironment and an aberrant wound-healing response. Disrupted epithelial-stromal cell communication might also be important. With the application of a better understanding of fundamental biology to clinical practice, new approaches to treating and preventing normal tissue injury can focus on correcting these disturbed molecular processes

  5. Body potassium content and 40K radiation dose to Iranian subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study 215 Iranian subjects including 180 males and 35 females were investigated for potassium body contents, its variations with age, weight, body build index, and slenderness, as well as the radiation dose due to 40K. The average total body potassium is 147 ± 22 g for males and 100 ± 16 g for females. The average potassium concentrations for males and females are 1.98 ± 0.34 and 1.60 ± 0.29 g kg-1 body weight, respectively. The potassium content decreases with age for both sexes. The 40K concentration decreases with slenderness in both sexes, particularly in females. The total body potassium increases with body build index for males, while its value is constant for females less than 40 y, and increases for females more than 40 y. The average effective doses due to 40K are 187 ± 32 μSv y-1 for males and 150 ± 27 μSv y-1 for females. (author)

  6. Radiative heat exchange of a meteor body in the approximation of radiant heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of the thermal and dynamic destruction of large meteor bodies moving in planetary atmospheres is fundamental for the clarification of optical observations and anomalous phenomena in the atmosphere, the determination of the physicochemical properties of meteoroids, and the explanation of the fall of remnants of large meteorites. Therefore, it is important to calculate the coefficient of radiant heat exchange (which is the determining factor under these conditions) for large meteor bodies as they move with hypersonic velocities in an atmosphere. The solution of this problem enables one to find the ablation of a meteorite during its aerodynamic heating and to determine the initial conditions for the solution of problems of the breakup of large bodies and their subsequent motion and ablation. Hypersonic flow of an inviscid gas stream over an axisymmetric blunt body is analyzed with allowance for radiative transfer in a thick-thin approximation. The gas-dynamic problem of the flow of an optically thick gas over a large body is solved by the method of asymptotic joined expansions, using a hypersonic approximation and local self-similarity. An equation is obtained for the coefficient of radiant heat exchange and the peculiarities of such heat exchange for meteor bodies of large size are noted

  7. Inhaled /sup 147/Pm and/or total-body gamma radiation: Early mortality and morbidity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipy, R.E.; Lauhala, K.E.; McGee, D.R.; Cannon, W.C.; Buschbom, R.L.; Decker, J.R.; Kuffel, E.G.; Park, J.F.; Ragan, H.A.; Yaniv, S.S.; Scott, B.R.

    1989-05-01

    Rats were given doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation and/or lung burdens of /sup 147/Pm (in fused aluminosilicate particles) within lethal ranges in an experiment to determine and compare morbidity and mortality responses for the radiation insults within 1 year after exposure. Radiation-induced morbidity was assessed by measuring changes in body weights, hematologic parameters, and pulmonary-function parameters. Acute mortality and morbidity from inhaled promethium were caused primarily by radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis that occurred more than 53 days after exposure. Acute mortality and morbidity from total-body gamma irradiation occurred within 30 days of exposure and resulted from the bone-marrow radiation syndrome. Gamma radiation caused transient morbidity, reflected by immediately depressed blood cell levels and by reduced body weight gain in animals that survived the acute gamma radiation syndrome. Inhaled promethium caused a loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function, but its only effect on blood cell levels was lymphocytopenia. Combined gamma irradiation and promethium lung burdens were synergistic, in that animals receiving both radiation insults had higher morbidity and mortality rates than would be predicted based on the effect of either kind of radiation alone. Promethium lung burdens enhanced the effect of gamma radiation in rats within the first 30 days of exposure, and gamma radiation enhanced the later effect of promethium lung burdens. 70 refs., 68 figs., 21 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of lioxasol for the treatment of accidental local radiation injuries: an experimental and clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident caused the development of Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) in 134 individuals, these were either treated at Hospital 6 (Moscow) or in hospitals in Kiev. Local radiation injuries (LRI) were found in 54 patients from the 108 ARS patients treated in Moscow over the acute period; 2 additional patients from this group had combined radiation and thermal skin injuries (the total number of LRI patients was 56). The effectiveness of Lioxasol, an ethyl alcohol based product containing 2-alliloxoethanol, was investigated in these patients. The treatment group was composed of 8 survivors of ARS with a second degree LRI caused by relatively uniform gamma-beta exposure. The control group was composed of 8 patients suffering from ARS also of second degree (7 patients) or first degree (1 patient) reactions caused by external, relatively uniform, gamma-beta exposure between 1956 and 1970. The time of re-epithelisation in the treated group was 25.4±3.1 days after irradiation. This was slightly shorter than the 28.3±4.9 days in the control group. However, this difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The effectiveness of Lioxasol was further studied on pig skin. Multiple sites in the same animal were irradiated with 22.5 mm diameter 90Sr/90Y plaques. The time of onset of moist desquamation and the subsequent healing times were used as end points. Following a single dose of 35 Gy, a dose known to produce moist desquamation in all irradiated sites, Lioxasol was applied topically twice a day. Lioxasol treatment (twice daily), which started the day after irradiation, delayed the time of onset of moist desquamation significantly from 5.1±0.2 weeks to 5.5±0.2 weeks. However, the most marked effect was on the number of sites that healed within 3 weeks of the first appearance of moist desquamation. This was 80±10.3% for sites treated with lioxasol whereas in untreated sites only 26.7±11.4% of the irradiated fields were healed by this time (p3H

  9. Application of whole-body personal TL dosemeters in mixed field beta-gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of whole-body personal TL dosemeters based on a high-sensitivity LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N) in mixed field beta-gamma radiation has been characterised. The measurements were carried out with 90Sr/90Y, 85Kr and 137Cs point sources to calculate the energy response and linearity of the TLD response in a dose range of 0.1-30 mSv. From the result, calibration curves were obtained, enabling the readout of individual dose equivalent Hp(10) from gamma radiation and Hp(0.07) from beta radiation in mixed field beta-gamma. Limitation of the methodology and its application are presented and discussed. (authors)

  10. Mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium prevents radiation-induced liver injury by inhibiting inflammation and protecting sinusoidal endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current management of radiation-induced liver injury is limited. Sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) apoptosis and inflammation are considered to be initiating events in hepatic damage. We hypothesized that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory actions during hepatic irradiation, acting via paracrine mechanisms. This study aims to examine whether MSC-derived bioactive components are protective against radiation-induced liver injury in rats. MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) was generated from rat bone marrow–derived MSCs. The effect of MSC-CM on the viability of irradiated SECs was examined by flow cytometric analysis. Activation of the Akt and ERK pathways was analyzed by western blot. MSC-CM was also delivered to Sprague–Dawley rats immediately before receiving liver irradiation, followed by testing for pathological features, changes in serum hyaluronic acid, ALT, and inflammatory cytokine levels, and liver cell apoptosis. MSC-CM enhanced the viability of irradiated SECs in vitro and induced Akt and ERK phosphorylation in these cells. Infusion of MSC-CM immediately before liver irradiation provided a significant anti-apoptotic effect on SECs and improved the histopathological features of injury in the irradiated liver. MSC-CM also reduced the secretion and expression of inflammatory cytokines and increased the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. MSC-derived bioactive components could be a novel therapeutic approach for treating radiation-induced liver injury. (author)

  11. SU-E-J-247: Time Evolution of Radiation-Induced Lung Injury After Stereotactic Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Quantitative metrics to assess patient-specific radiation-induced lung injury have the potential to guide individualization of therapy and be early indicators of recurrence. Here we investigate computed tomography (CT) density changes in normal lung after stereotactic Proton Therapy. Methods: Participants in a phase-I clinical trial for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) with protons are analyzed on a rolling basis. The dataset includes 9 patients with 34 CT images to date. Follow-up images are registered to the planning CT using deformable image registration and the change in CT density is correlated to the dose to examine the time-evolution of Hounsfield Unit (HU) changes after large doses of proton radiation. Results: The lung density observed on the follow-up images increases significantly with dose for all dose levels above 5 Gy(RBE) (p<0.001) for 8/9 patients. The change per unit dose [HU/Gy] varies significantly among the patients, from 0.1 (for the one patient without significant correlation) to 5.7 ΔHU/Gy(RBE). The current population average of ΔHU/Gy(RBE) is 2.1, i.e. a 1 Gy(RBE) increase in dose leads on average to a 2.1 HU increase in CT density. The slope of the dose-response curve is constant for all timepoints investigated (from 3–24+ months). Additionally a pronounced non-linearity in the dose response curve is noted for long follow-up times (>18 months). Conclusion: CT density changes have a robust correlation with proton dose, quantitatively similar to photon dose, and may allow estimation of a patient’s intrinsic radiosensitivity after proton therapy. The stability of the correlation with time however diverges from what is known about CT response after photon irradiation. This could have important implications for clinical decision-making during proton therapy for lung cancer, especially for scheduling of follow-up CT/PET imaging and diagnosis of recurrence

  12. SU-E-J-247: Time Evolution of Radiation-Induced Lung Injury After Stereotactic Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassberger, C; Sharp, G; Fintelmann, F; Paganetti, H; Willers, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Quantitative metrics to assess patient-specific radiation-induced lung injury have the potential to guide individualization of therapy and be early indicators of recurrence. Here we investigate computed tomography (CT) density changes in normal lung after stereotactic Proton Therapy. Methods: Participants in a phase-I clinical trial for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) with protons are analyzed on a rolling basis. The dataset includes 9 patients with 34 CT images to date. Follow-up images are registered to the planning CT using deformable image registration and the change in CT density is correlated to the dose to examine the time-evolution of Hounsfield Unit (HU) changes after large doses of proton radiation. Results: The lung density observed on the follow-up images increases significantly with dose for all dose levels above 5 Gy(RBE) (p<0.001) for 8/9 patients. The change per unit dose [HU/Gy] varies significantly among the patients, from 0.1 (for the one patient without significant correlation) to 5.7 ΔHU/Gy(RBE). The current population average of ΔHU/Gy(RBE) is 2.1, i.e. a 1 Gy(RBE) increase in dose leads on average to a 2.1 HU increase in CT density. The slope of the dose-response curve is constant for all timepoints investigated (from 3–24+ months). Additionally a pronounced non-linearity in the dose response curve is noted for long follow-up times (>18 months). Conclusion: CT density changes have a robust correlation with proton dose, quantitatively similar to photon dose, and may allow estimation of a patient’s intrinsic radiosensitivity after proton therapy. The stability of the correlation with time however diverges from what is known about CT response after photon irradiation. This could have important implications for clinical decision-making during proton therapy for lung cancer, especially for scheduling of follow-up CT/PET imaging and diagnosis of recurrence.

  13. An athymic mouse model to mimic cobalt-60 cutaneous radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, Rodrigo Crespo; Ferreira, Danilo Cardenuto; Napolitano, Celia Marina; Santin, Stefany Plumeri; Dornelles, Leonardo Dalla Porta; Alvarenga, Eluara Ortigoso; Mathor, Monica Beatriz, E-mail: rcmosca@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Propose: Cutaneous wound from irradiation is the most common complication in radiotherapy treatment, and can be lead to mortality. We describe an athymic mouse model to mimic cutaneous radiation injury by Cobalt-60. Methods: A protocol was including dosimetry with silicon diodes,10x10x5 cm arrangement made by four lead bricks and PVC pipe designed to immobilize the athymic mouse in order to irradiate one clamped back skin point that was subdivided in four parts. To get the measurements of dose rates on the arrangement in Panoramic Irradiator, it was used a silicon diode encased in an opaque protection for ambient light and connected to an electric cable, forming a dosing probe. The currents generated in diode sensitive volume as a function of time of exposure to gamma radiation coming from the radiator, with dose rate of 0,015 Gy/min in positions 1, 0,021 Gy/min in position 2, 0,55 Gy/min in position 3 and 1,45 Gy/min in position four. After the dosimetry, each athymic mouse was anesthetized using Xylazine and Ketamine dilution and entered into a PVC pipe and a small portion of skin (1 cm{sup 3}) was clamped. This tube was then fixed to arrangement and the athymic mouse was irradiate for 60 min, than it was being returned to its cage. Results: The wound was visualized in all animals and photographed after 5 days of irradiation, with the emergence of ulceration after 9 days. No systemic or lethal sequelae occurred or visualized in any animals. Late clinical signs included a wound healing after 22 days. Conclusion: While still being a baseline study, we created a new functional preclinical animal model that can be used for new therapies and may improve radiotherapy management. (author)

  14. Computed Tomography Appearance of Early Radiation Injury to the Lung: Correlation With Clinical and Dosimetric Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To systematically assess the spectrum of radiologic changes in the lung after radiation therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the cases of 146 patients treated with radical radiotherapy at our institution. All patients had computed tomography (CT) scans performed 3 months after completion of therapy. Radiographic appearances were categorized using a standard grading system. The association of these abnormalities with pretreatment factors and clinical radiation pneumonitis (RP) was investigated. Results: New intrapulmonary abnormalities were seen in 92 patients (63%). These were ground-glass opacity in 16 (11%), patchy consolidation in 19 (13%), and diffuse consolidation in 57 (39%). Twenty-five patients (17%) developed clinical symptoms of RP. Although 80% of the patients with RP had areas of consolidation seen on the posttreatment CT scan, the majority (74%) of patients with such radiographic changes were asymptomatic. For patients with lung infiltrates, the minimum isodose encompassing the volume of radiologic abnormality was usually ≥27 Gy. Traditional dose-volume metrics, pulmonary function tests, and the coadministration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) were all strongly correlated with the presence of radiologic injury on univariate analysis (p ≤ 0.002). There was also an inverse correlation between prior smoking history and CT scan changes (p = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, dosimetric parameters and the use of ACE-I retained significance (p = 0.005). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there is substantial interindividual variation in lung radiosensitivity. ACE-I prevented the radiologic changes seen after high-dose radiation therapy, and their role as radioprotectants warrants further investigation.

  15. Management of postoperative radiation injury of the urinary bladder by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peusch-Dreyer, D.; Dreyer, K.H. [Zentrum fuer Tauch- und Ueberdruckmedizin (ZETUeM), Bremen (Germany); Mueller, C.D. [Druckkammerzentrum Magdeburg (Germany); Carl, U. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Aim: In many case reports the success of treatment of late complications of radiotherapy with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) has been shown. This synopsis attempts to review HBO in the treatment of chronic radiation injury of the bladder. Patients and methods: Three female patients who had developed urge-incontinence after a Wertheim operation and combined brachy-teletherapy with cobalt-60 and afterloading and did not respond to various drug therapies, were treated with HBO to a maximum of 40 applications. Results: In all patients HBO haltered and inverted the dynamic process underlying chronic bladder changes after irradiation. Rationales for the HBO are the reduction of tissue hypoxia and the induction of neoangiogenesis. Conclusions: There are no prospective trials up to date showing the benefit of HBO to urinary disorders caused by radiation cystitis. The positive results of our retrospective study should encourage clinicians to initiate prospective studies with the use of HBO in the treatment of radiation cystitis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Ueber die erfolgreiche Anwendung der hyperbaren Sauerstofftherapie (HBO) zur Behandlung von Strahlenspaetkomplikationen ist in zahlreichen Publikationen berichtet worden. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, den Einsatz der HBO bei der Behandlung von Miktionsbeschwerden bei chronisch radiogenen Harnblasenschaeden zu bewerten. Patienten und Methode: Drei Patientinnen, die nach einer kombinierten Brachyteletherapie mit Kobalt 60 und Afterloading nach Wertheim-Operation unter einer medikamentoes nicht zu beeinflussenden Urge-Inkontinenz litten, wurden der HBO mit maximal 40 Behandlungen zugefuehrt. Ergebnisse: Die HBO war bei allen Patientinnen in der Lage, den dynamischen Krankheitsprozess der Strahlenzystitis aufzuhalten und teilweise umzukehren. Grundlage hierfuer ist die Beseitigung der Gewebshypoxie. Dieses wiederum stellt die Voraussetzung fuer eine Neovaskularisation im bestrahlten Gewebe dar. Schlussfolgerung: Prospektive Studien

  16. An athymic mouse model to mimic cobalt-60 cutaneous radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propose: Cutaneous wound from irradiation is the most common complication in radiotherapy treatment, and can be lead to mortality. We describe an athymic mouse model to mimic cutaneous radiation injury by Cobalt-60. Methods: A protocol was including dosimetry with silicon diodes,10x10x5 cm arrangement made by four lead bricks and PVC pipe designed to immobilize the athymic mouse in order to irradiate one clamped back skin point that was subdivided in four parts. To get the measurements of dose rates on the arrangement in Panoramic Irradiator, it was used a silicon diode encased in an opaque protection for ambient light and connected to an electric cable, forming a dosing probe. The currents generated in diode sensitive volume as a function of time of exposure to gamma radiation coming from the radiator, with dose rate of 0,015 Gy/min in positions 1, 0,021 Gy/min in position 2, 0,55 Gy/min in position 3 and 1,45 Gy/min in position four. After the dosimetry, each athymic mouse was anesthetized using Xylazine and Ketamine dilution and entered into a PVC pipe and a small portion of skin (1 cm3) was clamped. This tube was then fixed to arrangement and the athymic mouse was irradiate for 60 min, than it was being returned to its cage. Results: The wound was visualized in all animals and photographed after 5 days of irradiation, with the emergence of ulceration after 9 days. No systemic or lethal sequelae occurred or visualized in any animals. Late clinical signs included a wound healing after 22 days. Conclusion: While still being a baseline study, we created a new functional preclinical animal model that can be used for new therapies and may improve radiotherapy management. (author)

  17. Radiation injury in the mouse kidney. I. Sequential light microscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 1 year, sequential morphologic study of radiation-induced renal disease has been carried out in 260 mice. Both kidneys were irradiated locally, either with single doses (SD) (1100 to 1900 rad) or with 10 fractions over 9 elapsed days (total doses of 3500 to 5000 rad). The most striking alterations occurred in glomeruli and consisted of progressive replacement of capillary walls and capillary lumina by an acidophilic, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive material, containing basement-membrane fragments. These lesions appeared initially at 3 months, and increased in both degree and extent as a function of time. Tubular atrophy and stromal fibrosis was not seen before 4 months, and, although progressive, they did not reach the severity of the glomerular damage. Lesions of vessels larger than capillaries were extremely rare even at the end of observation (12 months) when glomeruli were already totally obliterated. In both fractionated and single dose studies, the lesions progressed with time. The survival of the SD mice was directly related to dose and time of observation; none of the mice receiving 1900 rad SD survived beyond 10 months, while 90 percent of those receiving 1100 rad SD were alive at 12 months. Although available data are not sufficient to determine the initial site(s) of radiation injury in the renal parenchyma, this light microscopic study and preliminary electron microscopic observations suggest that at least some of the initial lesions occur in glomeruli. The late lesions in the glomeruli of these mice are identical to those seen in specimens of humans with advanced radiation nephropathy. The murine model thus appears to be appropriate for the study of the pathogenesis of this condition

  18. In vivo characterization of early-stage radiation skin injury in a mouse model by two-photon microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Won Hyuk; Shim, Sehwan; Wang, Taejun; Yoon, Yeoreum; Jang, Won-Suk; Myung, Jae Kyung; Park, Sunhoo; Kim, Ki Hean

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) injury is tissue damage caused by high energy electromagnetic waves such as X-ray and gamma ray. Diagnosis and treatment of IR injury are difficult due to its characteristics of clinically latent post-irradiation periods and the following successive and unpredictable inflammatory bursts. Skin is one of the many sensitive organs to IR and bears local injury upon exposure. Early-stage diagnosis of IR skin injury is essential in order to maximize treatment efficiency and to prevent the aggravation of IR injury. In this study, early-stage changes of the IR injured skin at the cellular level were characterized in an in vivo mouse model by two-photon microscopy (TPM). Various IR doses were applied to the mouse hind limbs and the injured skin regions were imaged daily for 6 days after IR irradiation. Changes in the morphology and distribution of the epidermal cells and damage of the sebaceous glands were observed before clinical symptoms. These results showed that TPM is sensitive to early-stage changes of IR skin injury and may be useful for its diagnosis. PMID:26755422

  19. In vivo characterization of early-stage radiation skin injury in a mouse model by two-photon microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Won Hyuk; Shim, Sehwan; Wang, Taejun; Yoon, Yeoreum; Jang, Won-Suk; Myung, Jae Kyung; Park, Sunhoo; Kim, Ki Hean

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) injury is tissue damage caused by high energy electromagnetic waves such as X-ray and gamma ray. Diagnosis and treatment of IR injury are difficult due to its characteristics of clinically latent post-irradiation periods and the following successive and unpredictable inflammatory bursts. Skin is one of the many sensitive organs to IR and bears local injury upon exposure. Early-stage diagnosis of IR skin injury is essential in order to maximize treatment efficiency and to prevent the aggravation of IR injury. In this study, early-stage changes of the IR injured skin at the cellular level were characterized in an in vivo mouse model by two-photon microscopy (TPM). Various IR doses were applied to the mouse hind limbs and the injured skin regions were imaged daily for 6 days after IR irradiation. Changes in the morphology and distribution of the epidermal cells and damage of the sebaceous glands were observed before clinical symptoms. These results showed that TPM is sensitive to early-stage changes of IR skin injury and may be useful for its diagnosis. PMID:26755422

  20. Precipitation of radiation injury in kidney epithelium reveals a low fractionation sensitivity (α/β = 12.5 Gy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first report of a fractionation response for a normally late-responding tissue being characteristic of that for early-responding tissues, when assayed acutely by precipitating the radiation injury. The data suggest that the kidney may respond much more severely than expected to cytotoxic trauma given shortly after multifractionated irradiation, because of the greater amount of injury yet to be repaired at these early times after low than after high dose-per-fraction regimens. Also, this effect may be relevant to the interpretation of the response of tissues in general to dose fractionation. (author)

  1. Prenatal and neonatal radiation injury and lymphohematopoietic development in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunologic and hematopoietic responses were studied in beagle dogs following prenatal or neonatal irradiation to evaluate the effects of ionizing radiation on the developing lymphohematopoietic system. In prenatally-irradiated dogs thymic medullary volumes were significantly reduced at birth, but had returned to control levels by 12 weeks of age. Irradiated dogs exhibited a significant reduction in primary humoral antibody responses and showed a concurrent decrease in T helper lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. In neonatally-irradiated dogs lymphocyte blastogenic responses were sharply decreased at 8 weeks, but returned to control levels by 12 weeks of age. Contact sensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene was decreased, indicating reduced cell-mediated immune responses. Alterations in peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations included decreases in B cells and increases in T cells, possibly due to increased numbers of T suppressor cells. There were significant reductions in body size and body tissue weights in all irradiated dogs, although these were more severe and persistent in the prenatally-irradiated dogs. These data show that prenatally or neonatally-irradiated dogs have significantly postnatal immunologic and hematopoietic defects. The effect on bone marrow function in prenatally-irradiated dogs was more severe and persistent than in neonatally-irradiated animals; however, the neonatally-irradiated dogs exhibited more severe alterations in lymphocyte subpopulations than did the prenatally-irradiated dogs. The observation of altered lymphocyte subpopulations suggests altered immunoregulation and raises some important questions relating to radiation-induced immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to clinical disease, including neoplasia

  2. Estimation of the temperature of a radiating body by measuring the stationary temperatures of a thermometer placed at different distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán, V. M.; Villaluenga, J. P. G.; Izquierdo-Gil, M. A.; Pérez-Cordón, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a novel method for determining the temperature of a radiating body. The experimental method requires only very common instrumentation. It is based on the measurement of the stationary temperature of an object placed at different distances from the body and on the application of the energy balance equation in a stationary state. The method allows one to obtain the temperature of an inaccessible radiating body when radiation measurements are not available. The method has been applied to the determination of the filament temperature of incandescent lamps of different powers.

  3. Protective effect of DL-3-n-Butylphthalide on radiation injury of rat brain tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect and its mechanism of DL-3-n-Butylphthalide on the brain damage in rats following whole brain irradiation. Methods: A total of 120 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-irradiation group, irradiation group and DL-3-n-Butylphthalide group. The model of whole-brain irradiation was established by exposing rat brain to 4 MeV X-rays with a single-dose of 10 Gy. The rats were intraperitoneally injected with DL-3-n-Butylphthalide at the dosages of 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg once a day. The contents of malondialdehyde and super oxide dismutase activity were measured, while the expressions of apoptosis-associated genes and the ultrastructural changes in hippocampus were examined by immunohistochemistry staining and electron microscope, respectively. Results: After irradiation, the content of malondialdehyde and the expression of apoptosis gene bax in rat brain tissue increased while the activity of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and the expression of anti-apoptosis gene bcl-2 decreased. Apoptosis was also observed in the neurons of hippocampus CA1. Compared with irradiation group, the content of malondialdehyde and the expression of bax gene in the DL-3-n-Butylphthalide group wen significantly reduced (t=-3.89 - -1.96, 2.72-3.48, P<0.05), while the activity of SOD and bcl-2 gene were significantly elevated (t=2.94-3.76, -3.18 - -2.08, P<0.05), and the injury degree of neuron structure in the DL-3-n-Butylphthalide group was slighter than that in the irradiation group. Conclusions: DL-3-n-Butylphthalide executes protective effects in a dose-dependent manner against the radiation injury in rats brain by reducing the induction of malondialdehyde, raising the activity of SOD and inhibiting the generation of apoptosis. (authors)

  4. Experimental studies on pathogenesis of the brain radiation injury in early stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Tian [Suzhou Medical Coll., Jiangsu (China). 2nd Affiliated Hospital; Shiyao Bao; Weibo Yin; Chunfeng Liu; Zhilin Zhang

    2000-05-01

    To investigate the pathogenesis of the brain radiation injury in the early stage, a series of experiments were performed as below. The SD rats halfbrain were irradiated by the single dose of 10, 20, and 30 Gy of 4 MeV electron, all those experiments were performed in 1 day to 3 months after radiation. The neurological symptoms, the weight and the skin response inside the field of all the rats were evaluated sequentially. The measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using hydrogen gas generated by electrolysis, the calculation of the brain water content percentage with wet-dry weight formula. The DNA contents and the quantities of bcl-2 protein were analyzed by flow cytometry. The brain histological sections were scanned to assess the present or absence of white matter necrosis in the region of hippocampus, and then the hippocampus region was observed for the morphological changes of the blood vessel, neuroglial, and the neurons. Some of the data were analyzed by the Student t test. Intra-portal alopecia was observed in all rats which received 30 Gy and some rats which received 20 Gy, the abnormal neurological signs were not found in all the rats, but the tend of weight increase was less pronounced in 1-3 months in the irradiated rats than those unirradiated. By comparison the unirradiated hemisphere, the rCBF of the contralateral brain decreased in most of the rats. In 20 Gy and 30 Gy groups, rCBF decreased areas expand gradually along with the prolong of observation time, from the nucleus caudate putamen, to the frontal cortex and then the hippocampus, the rCBF of whole the irradiated hemibrain was reduced significantly at 3 month after radiation. The water content of the irradiated halfbrain increased progressively, it means the brain edema exists in the meantime. By comparison the unirradiation halfbrain, the apoptosis of the hippocampus cells in the irradiated brain increased, and the expression of bcl-2 protein decreased at the meantime, and those

  5. Basic research of the relationship between irradiation dose and volume in radiation-induced pulmonary injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Qing-song; WANG Ping; WANG Jing; WANG Wei; WANG Jun; YUAN Zhi-yong

    2009-01-01

    Background Irradiation dose and volume are the major physical factors of radiation-induced lung injury.The study investigated the relationships between the irradiation dose and volume in radiation-induced lung injury by setting up a model of graded volume irradiation of the rat lung.Methods Animals were randomly assigned to three groups.The ELEKTA precise 2.03 treatment plan system was applied to calculate the irradiation dose and volume.The treatment plan for the three groups was:group 1 received a "high dose to a small volume" (25% volume group) with the mean irradiation volume being 1.748 cm3 (25% lung volume);the total dose and mean lung dose (MLD) were 4610 cGy and 2006 cGy,respectively (bilateral AP-PA fields,source to axis distance (SAD)=100 cm,6MVX,single irradiation);Group 2 received a "low dose to a large volume" (100% volume group) with the mean irradiation volume being 6.99 cm3 (100% lung volume);the total dose was 1153 cGy.MLD was 2006 cGy,which was the same as that of group 1 (bilateral AP-PA fields,SAD = 100 cm,6MVX,single irradiation);Group 3 was a control group.With the exception of receiving no irradiation,group 3 had rest steps that were the same as those of the experimental groups.After irradiation,functional,histopathological,and CT changes were compared every two weeks till the 16th week.Results Functionally,after irradiation breath rate (BR) increases were observed in both group 1 and group 2,especially during the period of 6th-8th weeks.The changes of BR in the 100% volume group were earlier and faster.For the 25% volume group,although pathology was more severe,hardly any obvious increase in BR was observed.Radiographic changes were observed during the early period (the 4th week) and the most obvious changes manifested during the mediated period (the 8th week).The extensiveness of high density and the decreased lung permeability were presented in the 100% volume group,and ground glass opacity and patchy consolidation were presented in the 25

  6. Experimental studies on pathogenesis of the brain radiation injury in early stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the pathogenesis of the brain radiation injury in the early stage, a series of experiments were performed as below. The SD rats halfbrain were irradiated by the single dose of 10, 20, and 30 Gy of 4 MeV electron, all those experiments were performed in 1 day to 3 months after radiation. The neurological symptoms, the weight and the skin response inside the field of all the rats were evaluated sequentially. The measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using hydrogen gas generated by electrolysis, the calculation of the brain water content percentage with wet-dry weight formula. The DNA contents and the quantities of bcl-2 protein were analyzed by flow cytometry. The brain histological sections were scanned to assess the present or absence of white matter necrosis in the region of hippocampus, and then the hippocampus region was observed for the morphological changes of the blood vessel, neuroglial, and the neurons. Some of the data were analyzed by the Student t test. Intra-portal alopecia was observed in all rats which received 30 Gy and some rats which received 20 Gy, the abnormal neurological signs were not found in all the rats, but the tend of weight increase was less pronounced in 1-3 months in the irradiated rats than those unirradiated. By comparison the unirradiated hemisphere, the rCBF of the contralateral brain decreased in most of the rats. In 20 Gy and 30 Gy groups, rCBF decreased areas expand gradually along with the prolong of observation time, from the nucleus caudate putamen, to the frontal cortex and then the hippocampus, the rCBF of whole the irradiated hemibrain was reduced significantly at 3 month after radiation. The water content of the irradiated halfbrain increased progressively, it means the brain edema exists in the meantime. By comparison the unirradiation halfbrain, the apoptosis of the hippocampus cells in the irradiated brain increased, and the expression of bcl-2 protein decreased at the meantime, and those

  7. Prospects for management of gastrointestinal injury associated with the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of total-body ionizing radiation on the digestive tract is dose-dependent and time-dependent. At low doses (1.5 Gy), one observes only a short prodromal syndrome consisting of nausea, vomiting, and gastric suppression. At doses greater than 6 Gy, the prodromal syndrome is more marked, and it is followed after a 2-5-day remission period by a subacute syndrome, characterized by diarrhea and hematochezia. This gastrointestinal syndrome is superimposed onto a radiation-induced bone marrow suppression. The combination of intestinal and hemopoietic syndromes results in dehydration, anemia, and infection, leading eventually to irreversible shock and death. The treatment of prodromal symptoms is based on the administration of antiemetics and gastrokinetics, although an effective treatment devoid of side effects is not yet available for human therapy. The treatment of the gastrointestinal subacute syndrome remains difficult and unsuccessful after exposure to total body doses greater than 8-10 Gy. Supportive therapy to prevent infection and dehydration may be effective if restoration or repopulation of the intestinal and bone marrow stem cells does occur. In addition, bone marrow transplantation may improve the prospect of treating the hemopoietic syndrome, although the experience gained in Chernobyl suggests that this treatment is difficult to apply in the case of nuclear accidents. Administration of radioprotectants before irradiation decreases damage to healthy cells, while not protecting cancerous tissues. In the future, stimulation of gastrointestinal and hemopoietic progenitor cells may be possible using cell growth regulators, but much remains to be done to improve the treatment of radiation damage to the gastrointestinal tract. 77 references

  8. Support of physical-technical radiation planning in patients with prostata carcinoma by means of whole-body computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every radiation field yields a standard irradiation technique in the application of megavolt-devices. For physical-technical radiation planning the adjustment with the therapy simulator is necessary. The small-field radiation therapy is to plan more easily, if whole-body-computer tomogram sections are available. In large-field radiation therapy those are not needed. This is valid especially for constant fields. In the case of irradiation with telecobalt, movement irradiation are in question, especially when whole body tomogramms are helpful. (DG)

  9. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer patients previously treated with conventional radiotherapy: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the most prevalent malignancies worldwide and is the leading cause of death in both men and women. Presently, local control rates are quite poor. Improvements in imaging and radiation treatment delivery systems however have provided radiation oncologists with new tools to better target these tumors. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is one such technique that has shown efficacy as upfront treatment for lung cancer. In addition, more recent studies have demonstrated some effectiveness in recurrent tumors in prior irradiated fields as well. This review summarizes seven recent studies of re-irradiation with SBRT in patients with thoracic recurrences treated previously with conventionally fractionated radiation therapy. Combined, 140 patients were included. The median initial thoracic radiation doses ranged from 50-87.5 Gy and median re-irradiation dose ranged from 40-80 Gy. Local control rates varied from 65-92%. Re-irradiation was well tolerated with few grade 4 and 5 complications (observed in one study). Currently, based on these published reports, re-irradiation with SBRT appears feasible for in-field thoracic recurrences, though caution must be taken in all cases of retreatment

  10. Raman spectroscopy delineates radiation-induced injury and partial rescue by amifostine in bone: a murine mandibular model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Peter A; Gong, Bo; Ahsan, Salman; Deshpande, Sagar S; Nelson, Noah S; Donneys, Alexis; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine; Morris, Michael D; Buchman, Steven R

    2015-05-01

    Despite its therapeutic role in head and neck cancer, radiation administration degrades the biomechanical properties of bone and can lead to pathologic fracture and osteoradionecrosis. Our laboratories have previously demonstrated that prophylactic amifostine administration preserves the biomechanical properties of irradiated bone and that Raman spectroscopy accurately evaluates bone composition ex vivo. As such, we hypothesize that Raman spectroscopy can offer insight into the temporal and mechanical effects of both irradiation and amifostine administration on bone to potentially predict and even prevent radiation-induced injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (350-400 g) were randomized into control, radiation exposure (XRT), and amifostine pre-treatment/radiation exposure groups (AMF-XRT). Irradiated animals received fractionated 70 Gy radiation to the left hemi-mandible, while AMF-XRT animals received amifostine just prior to radiation. Hemi-mandibles were harvested at 18 weeks after radiation, analyzed via Raman spectroscopy, and compared with specimens previously harvested at 8 weeks after radiation. Mineral (ρ958) and collagen (ρ1665) depolarization ratios were significantly lower in XRT specimens than in AMF-XRT and control specimens at both 8 and 18 weeks. amifostine administration resulted in a full return of mineral and collagen depolarization ratios to normal levels at 18 weeks. Raman spectroscopy demonstrates radiation-induced damage to the chemical composition and ultrastructure of bone while amifostine prophylaxis results in a recovery towards normal, native mineral and collagen composition and orientation. These findings have the potential to impact on clinical evaluations and interventions by preventing or detecting radiation-induced injury in patients requiring radiotherapy as part of a treatment regimen. PMID:25319554

  11. Effect of prophylactic hyperbaric oxygen treatment for radiation-induced brain injury after stereotactic radiosurgery of brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prophylactic effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy for radiation-induced brain injury in patients with brain metastasis treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: The data of 78 patients presenting with 101 brain metastases treated with SRS between October 1994 and September 2003 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 32 patients with 47 brain metastases were treated with prophylactic HBO (HBO group), which included all 21 patients who underwent subsequent or prior radiotherapy and 11 patients with common predictors of longer survival, such as inactive extracranial tumors and younger age. The other 46 patients with 54 brain metastases did not undergo HBO (non-HBO group). Radiation-induced brain injuries were divided into two categories, white matter injury (WMI) and radiation necrosis (RN), on the basis of imaging findings. Results: Radiation-induced brain injury occurred in 5 lesions (11%) in the HBO group (2 WMIs and 3 RNs) and in 11 (20%) in the non-HBO group (9 WMIs and 2 RNs). The WMI was less frequent for the HBO group than for the non-HBO group (p = 0.05), although multivariate analysis by logistic regression showed that WMI was not significantly correlated with HBO (p = 0.07). The 1-year actuarial probability of WMI was significantly better for the HBO group (2%) than for the non-HBO group (36%) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The present study showed a potential value of prophylactic HBO for Radiation-induced WMIs, which justifies further evaluation to confirm its definite benefit

  12. Assessment of disc injury in subjects exposed to long-term whole-body vibration

    OpenAIRE

    Drerup, B; Granitzka, M.; Assheuer, J; Zerlett, G.

    1999-01-01

    Long-term exposure to whole-body vibration is known to increase the risk of low back problems. The chain of events leading from repeated loading of the lumbar spine to back complaints and the exact nature of the vibration-induced damage are, however, obscure. Fluid in- and outflow as well as viscoelastic deformation are important aspects of the physiological function of the lumbar disc. Precision measurement of stature, termed ‘stadiometry’, has previously been applied in healthy subjects to ...

  13. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease stratified by body mass index categories in patients with wheelchair-dependent paraplegia after spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Flank, Peter; Wahman, Kerstin; Levi, Richard; Fahlström, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess risk factors for cardiovascular disease at different body mass index values in persons with wheelchair-dependent paraplegia after spinal cord injuries. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A total of 135 individuals, age range 18-79 years, with chronic (>= 1 year) post-traumatic paraplegia. Methods: Body mass index was stratified into 6 categorical groups. Cardiovascular disease risk factors for hypertension, diabetes mellitus and a serum lipid profile were analyse...

  14. How radionuclides are removed from the body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The handling of radioactive substance always bears the danger of contamination. The human body is neither able to tell radioactive from nonradioactive metalls nor is there any defence mechanism to protect the body against injury. Aim of the research is to make known compounds more effective and to find new methods to eliminate the radiating substances faster. (orig.)

  15. Single administration of p2TA (AB103, a CD28 antagonist peptide, prevents inflammatory and thrombotic reactions and protects against gastrointestinal injury in total-body irradiated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salida Mirzoeva

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to elucidate the action of the CD28 mimetic peptide p2TA (AB103 that attenuates an excessive inflammatory response in mitigating radiation-induced inflammatory injuries. BALB/c and A/J mice were divided into four groups: Control (C, Peptide (P; 5 mg/kg of p2TA peptide, Radiation (R; total body irradiation with 8 Gy γ-rays, and Radiation + Peptide (RP; irradiation followed by p2TA peptide 24 h later. Gastrointestinal tissue damage was evaluated by analysis of jejunum histopathology and immunohistochemistry for cell proliferation (Cyclin D1 and inflammation (COX-2 markers, as well as the presence of macrophages (F4/80. Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and KC as well as fibrinogen were quantified in plasma samples obtained from the same mice. Our results demonstrated that administration of p2TA peptide significantly reduced the irradiation-induced increase of IL-6 and fibrinogen in plasma 7 days after exposure. Seven days after total body irradiation with 8 Gy of gamma rays numbers of intestinal crypt cells were reduced and villi were shorter in irradiated animals compared to the controls. The p2TA peptide delivery 24 h after irradiation led to improved morphology of villi and crypts, increased Cyclin D1 expression, decreased COX-2 staining and decreased numbers of macrophages in small intestine of irradiated mice. Our study suggests that attenuation of CD28 signaling is a promising therapeutic approach for mitigation of radiation-induced tissue injury.

  16. Aerosol-induced lung injuries observed by synchrotron radiation X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue Weisheng [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhang Guilin [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: glzhang@sinap.ac.cn; Liu Ping; Sun Jianqi [Key Laboratory of Systems Biomedicine, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Hwu Yeukuang [Institute of Physics, Acamemia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei (China); Je, Jung Ho [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Tan Mingguang [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li Yan [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: liyan@sinap.ac.cn

    2007-09-15

    Adverse health effects are associated with the inhalation of a variety of atmospheric particles. To study the lung injuries caused by aerosol PM{sub 2.5}, synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique was used. Nude mice were inoculated with PM{sub 2.5} samples collected from suburban area (JD), industrial area (BS) and traffic tunnel (DPQ) of Shanghai. From X-ray phase-contrast images of lung tissues, apart from blood vessels and structures of alveoli, even hemorrhage spots of several microns caused by the inflammation were clearly observed. The studies showed that the PM{sub 2.5} samples collected from the traffic tunnel (DPQ) produced higher level of lung injury, followed by the aerosol samples collected from industrial area (BS) and suburban area (JD). Our studies also helped us to understand the process of lung injuries caused by aerosol particles.

  17. Aerosol-induced lung injuries observed by synchrotron radiation X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Weisheng; Zhang, Guilin; Liu, Ping; Sun, Jianqi; Hwu, Yeukuang; Je, Jung Ho; Tan, Mingguang; Li, Yan

    2007-09-01

    Adverse health effects are associated with the inhalation of a variety of atmospheric particles. To study the lung injuries caused by aerosol PM2.5, synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique was used. Nude mice were inoculated with PM2.5 samples collected from suburban area (JD), industrial area (BS) and traffic tunnel (DPQ) of Shanghai. From X-ray phase-contrast images of lung tissues, apart from blood vessels and structures of alveoli, even hemorrhage spots of several microns caused by the inflammation were clearly observed. The studies showed that the PM2.5 samples collected from the traffic tunnel (DPQ) produced higher level of lung injury, followed by the aerosol samples collected from industrial area (BS) and suburban area (JD). Our studies also helped us to understand the process of lung injuries caused by aerosol particles.

  18. Clinical results of stereotactic body frame based fractionated radiation therapy for primary or metastatic thoracic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sang Min [Univ. of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiation Oncology] (and others)

    2006-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy for treating primary or metastatic thoracic tumors using a stereotactic body frame. Between January 1998 and February 2004, 101 lesions from 91 patients with thoracic tumors were prospectively reviewed. A dose of 10-12 Gy per fraction was given three to four times over consecutive days to a total dose of 30-48 Gy (median 40 Gy). The overall response rate was 82%, with 20 (22%) complete responses and 55 (60%) partial responses. The one- and two-year local progression free survival rates were 90% and 81%, respectively. The patients who received 48 Gy showed a better local tumor control than those who received less than 48 Gy (Fisher exact test; p=0.004). No pulmonary complications greater than a RTOG toxicity criteria grade 2 were observed. The experience of stereotactic body frame based radiation therapy appears to be a safe and promising treatment modality for the local management of primary or metastatic lung tumors. The optimal total dose, fractionation schedule and treatment volume need to be determined after a further follow-up of these results.

  19. An unshielded whole body radioactivity counter for monitoring persons after a radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An unshielded chair in which the subject sits, holding a 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm NaI (Tl) detector in his lap, was evaluated for monitoring of persons suspected of internal radioactive contamination following a radiation accident. The reduction in different energy bands of the background gamma-ray spectrum due to self-shielding of the subject was studied for two postures, designated ''upright'' and ''folding'' and the data were analysed in a CDC 3600 computer to obtain the best-fit regression equation relating the reduction factor with body weight and height. The response of the counter was evaluated using an in vitro method and the ranges of under/over-estimation of body burden resulting from assumption of partial/uniform distribution of activity were determined. Counting sensitivities were derived for 13 radioisotopes having gamma-ray energies in the range 145 keV-1.46 MeV. The results are presented and discussed. The study shows that this simple system may be used not only in radiation emergencies but also for operational monitoring of radiation workers for a number of radioisotopes of low and medium radiotoxicity. (auth.)

  20. Quantitative Evaluation of Rabbit Brain Injury after Cerebral Hemisphere Radiation Exposure Using Generalized q-Sampling Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Yu Shen

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is widely used for the treatment of brain tumors and may result in cellular, vascular and axonal injury and further behavioral deficits. The non-invasive longitudinal imaging assessment of brain injury caused by radiation therapy is important for determining patient prognoses. Several rodent studies have been performed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, but further studies in rabbits and large mammals with advanced magnetic resonance (MR techniques are needed. Previously, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to evaluate radiation-induced rabbit brain injury. However, DTI is unable to resolve the complicated neural structure changes that are frequently observed during brain injury after radiation exposure. Generalized q-sampling imaging (GQI is a more accurate and sophisticated diffusion MR approach that can extract additional information about the altered diffusion environments. Therefore, herein, a longitudinal study was performed that used GQI indices, including generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA, quantitative anisotropy (QA, and the isotropic value (ISO of the orientation distribution function and DTI indices, including fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD over a period of approximately half a year to observe long-term, radiation-induced changes in the different brain compartments of a rabbit model after a hemi-brain single dose (30 Gy radiation exposure. We revealed that in the external capsule, the GFA right to left (R/L ratio showed similar trends as the FA R/L ratio, but no clear trends in the remaining three brain compartments. Both the QA and ISO R/L ratios showed similar trends in the all four different compartments during the acute to early delayed post-irradiation phase, which could be explained and reflected the histopathological changes of the complicated dynamic interactions among astrogliosis, demyelination and vasogenic edema. We suggest that GQI is a promising non-invasive technique and

  1. Comparison of mental health between individuals with spinal cord injury and able-bodied controls in Neiva, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leia A. Harper, BS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although research has investigated the mental health of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI, an overwhelming majority of this research has been conducted in the United States, Western Europe, and other developed countries. The purpose of this study was to compare the mental health of individuals with SCI with able-bodied controls in Neiva, Colombia, South America. Subjects included 40 Colombians with SCI and 42 age- and sex-matched controls (N = 82. The groups did not differ based on age, sex, years of education, or socioeconomic status. However, controls were twice as likely to be married. Four measures assessed mental health, including satisfaction with life (Satisfaction with Life Scale, depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9, self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In comparison with able-bodied controls, individuals with SCI reported significantly lower mental health on both depressive symptoms and satisfaction with life. These effect sizes were medium and large, respectively. The groups did not differ significantly on measures of self-esteem or anxiety. Mental health of individuals with SCI should be considered a central part of SCI rehabilitation interventions, particularly in Latin America.

  2. 脊髓损伤患者身体组成的研究①%Study of Body Composition in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury (review)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪甫

    2013-01-01

      脊髓损伤发病率有逐年上升的趋势,脊髓损伤患者常出现肥胖、肌肉萎缩、骨质疏松等身体组成成分改变。本文综述了近年关于脊髓损伤患者身体组成的研究进展。%There is an increasing trend in the incidence of spinal cord injury, body composition change such as obesity, muscular dystro-phy and osteoporosis, which often occur in patients with spinal cord injury. This article summarized the research progress in recent years on body composition in patients with spinal cord injury.

  3. Radiation-induced late brain injury and the protective effect of traditional Chinese medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate whether radiation-induced late injury of the brain can be ameliorated by traditional Chinese Medicine through blocking the primary events. Methods: This trial included five animal groups: sham irradiation, irradiation only, and three treatment groups. The whole brain of BALB/C mouse was irradiated with 22 Gy by using a 6 MV linear accelerator. Step down method was used to evaluate the study and memory abilities. Mouse weight was also recorded every week before and after irradiation. On D90, all mice alive were euthanized and Glee's silver dye method and Bielschousky silver dye method were used to detect the senile plaque and the neurofibrillary tangle. One-Way ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences among the groups in the various aspects of study and memory abilities as well as quality of life. Kaplan-Meier was used to evaluate the survival. Log-rank was used to detect the differences among the survival groups. Results: 1. There was no significant difference in survival among the treatment groups, even though Salvia Miltiorrhiza (SM) was able to improve the quality of life. As to the cognition function, it was shown that whole brain radiation would make a severe cognition damage with the learning and memorizing ability of the irradiated mice being worse than those of the sham irradiation group. The Traditional Chinese Medicine Salvia Miltiorrhiza possesses the role of a protective agent against cognition function damage induced by irradiation. 2. Glee's silver dye and Bielschousky silver dye show much more senile plaque and the neurofibrillary tangle in brain tissue of R group and R + 654-2 group than those in the R + SM group. Conclusions: Salvia Miltiorrhiza is able to protect the mouse from cognition function damage induced by irradiation and improve the quality of life by ameliorating the primary events, though it does not improve the survival

  4. BODY WEIGHT-SUPPORTED GAIT TRAINING FOR RESTORATION OF WALKING IN PEOPLE WITH AN INCOMPLETE SPINAL CORD INJURY : A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, Monique; Lucas, Cees; Eriks, Inge; de Groot, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of body weight-supported gait training on restoration of walking, activities of daily living, and quality of life in persons with an incomplete spinal cord injury by a systematic review of the literature. Methods: Cochrane, MEDLINE, EM BASE, CINAHL, PEDro, DocOnline

  5. Body weight-supported gait training for restoration of walking in people with an incomplete spinal cord injury: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wessels; C. Lucas; I. Eriks; S. de Groot

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of body weight-supported gait training on restoration of walking, activities of daily living, and quality of life in persons with an incomplete spinal cord injury by a systematic review of the literature. Methods: Cochrane, MEDLINE, EM BASE, CINAHL, PEDro, DocOnline

  6. Hepato protective effect of Spirulina Against Gamma Radiation and Carbon Tetrachloride induced Liver Injury in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vast biodiversity of nature provides bioactive compounds that may be useful in the fight against chronic diseases. Although there are a number of drugs available in the market, long time use may cause a number of side effects. Spirulina is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that contains essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidative components. In the present study, Spirulina platensis has been investigated as a possible modifier of radiation and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in albino rats. In the experiment, a total of 60 rats were used and divided into six groups of ten rats each: group 1, normal untreated rats; group 2, animals received only Spirulina (10 mg/kg) for 30 consecutive days; group 3, animals were exposed to 4 Gy whole body gamma radiation as a single shot dose; group 4, animals were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 in olive oil (5 ml/kg i.p.) twice a week for four weeks ; group 5, rats were given orally Spirulina (10 mg/kg) for 30 days then exposed to 4 Gy gamma radiation as a single shot dose; and group 6, rats were given orally Spirulina (10 mg/kg) for 30 days and injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 in olive oil (5 ml/kg i.p.) twice a week for four weeks. The results revealed that animals treated with CCl4 or exposed to gamma radiation showed significant increase in the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Also, a marked increase in the liver tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was observed. On the other hand, decrease in glutathione (GSH), glutathione transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was observed in liver tissues of animal treated with CCl4 or exposed to gamma radiation. Oral pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract of Spirulina counteracted the radiation or CCl4 -induced lipid

  7. Long-term administration of a small molecular weight catalytic metalloporphyrin antioxidant, AEOL 10150, protects lungs from radiation-induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether administration of a catalytic antioxidant, Mn(III) tetrakis(N,N'-diethylimidazolium-2-yl) porphyrin, AEOL 10150, with superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic properties, reduces the severity of radiation-induced injury to the lung from single-dose irradiation (RT) of 28 Gy. Methods and Materials: Rats were randomly divided into four different dose groups (0, 1, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day of AEOL 10150), receiving either short-term (1 week) or long-term (10 weeks) drug administration via osmotic pumps. Rats received single-dose irradiation (RT) of 28 Gy to the right hemithorax. Breathing rates, body weights, blood samples, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess lung damage. Results: There was no significant difference in any of the study endpoints between the irradiated controls and the three groups receiving RT and short-term administration of AEOL 10150. For the long-term administration, functional determinants of lung damage 20 weeks postradiation were significantly worse for RT + phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and RT + 1 mg/kg/day of AEOL 10150 as compared with the irradiated groups treated with higher doses of AEOL 10150 (10 or 30 mg/kg/day). Lung histology at 20 weeks revealed a significant decrease in structural damage and collagen deposition in rats receiving 10 or 30 mg/kg/day after radiation in comparison to the RT + PBS and 1 mg/kg/day groups. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a significant reduction in macrophage accumulation, oxidative stress, and hypoxia in rats receiving AEOL 10150 (10 or 30 mg/kg/day) after lung irradiation compared with the RT + PBS and 1 mg/kg/day groups. Conclusions: The chronic administration of a novel catalytic antioxidant, AEOL 10150, demonstrates a significant protective effect from radiation-induced lung injury. AEOL 10150 has its primary impact on the cascade of events after irradiation, and adding the drug before irradiation and its short-term administration have no significant

  8. Modulation of Radiation Injury in Pregnant Rats by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Work aims to point out the influence of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in protection of irradiated pregnant rats and suppression of oxidative stress. BMT was administered to rats, 1 h post gamma irradiation at the dose level of 2 Gy given at the 7th or 14th day of gestation. Rats were examined after 20 days from gestation to detect the physiological parameters of the mother and number of implantation sites and resorption as well as length of foetuses and tails. Pregnant rats irradiated at the 7th and 14th day of gestation showed reduction in live foetuses and length of foetuses and their tails and significant decrease in erythrocytes (RBCs), leucocytes (WBCs), haemoglobin content (Hb), and hematocrit percentage (Ht). Irradiation-induced an elevation in aldosterone and a drop in calcium (Ca). Glutathione levels showed significant decreases in blood while the content of serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) showed significant increases. Lipid profile exhibited an increase in the concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C) with a significant decrease in high lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C) in both groups. BMT to irradiated pregnant rats induced significant amelioration in radiation- induced changes. BMT was shown to be effective in reducing physiological disorders and oxidative stress in pregnant rats reflected on minimizing embryonic injuries

  9. Determining astrophysical three-body radiative capture reaction rates from inclusive Coulomb break-up measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, J.; Rodríguez-Gallardo, M.; Arias, J. M.; Gómez-Camacho, J.

    2016-04-01

    A relationship between the Coulomb inclusive break-up probability and the radiative capture reaction rate for weakly bound three-body systems is established. This direct link provides a robust procedure to estimate the reaction rate for nuclei of astrophysical interest by measuring inclusive break-up processes at different energies and angles. This might be an advantageous alternative to the determination of reaction rates from the measurement of B (E 1 ) distributions through exclusive Coulomb break-up experiments. In addition, it provides a reference to assess the validity of different theoretical approaches that have been used to calculate reaction rates. The procedure is applied to 11Li (9Li+n +n ) and 6He (4He+n +n ) three-body systems for which some data exist.

  10. Determining astrophysical three-body radiative capture reaction rates from inclusive Coulomb break-up measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Casal, J; Arias, J M; Gómez-Camacho, J

    2016-01-01

    A relationship between the Coulomb inclusive break-up probability and the radiative capture reaction rate for weakly-bound three-body systems is established. This direct link provides a robust procedure to estimate the reaction rate for nuclei of astrophysical interest by measuring inclusive break-up processes at different energies and angles. This might be an advantageous alternative to the determination of reaction rates from the measurement of $B(E1)$ distributions through exclusive Coulomb break-up experiments. In addition, it provides a reference to assess the validity of different theoretical approaches that have been used to calculate reaction rates. The procedure is applied to $^{11}$Li ($^{9}$Li+n+n) and $^6$He ($^{4}$He+n+n) three-body systems for which some data exist.

  11. Radiation effects of some enzymatic activities in tissues of rats subjected to whole body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the changes produced in the activity of transaminases and cholinesterase in the tissues of male rats exposed to 6 Gy whole body-irradiation. The activity of these enzymes was estimated at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days following irradiation. The results indicated that radiation induced changes in the activity of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyrovic transaminase (GPT) in liver brain and serum of white rats; as well as in the activity of liver and brain cholinesterase. Changes in the enzymatic activities are dependent on the time after irradiation and the tissue containing the enzyme. It could be concluded that each enzyme has a range of sensitivity to ionizing radiation according to its presence in the animal organ. This must serve cancer radiotherapy for patients

  12. Motions of Kepler circumbinary planets in restricted three-body problem under radiating primaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermawan, B., E-mail: budider@as.itb.ac.id; Hidayat, T., E-mail: taufiq@as.itb.ac.id [Astronomy Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Huda, I. N., E-mail: ibnu.nurul@students.itb.ac.id; Mandey, D., E-mail: mandey.de@gmail.com; Utama, J. A., E-mail: judhistira@yahoo.com; Tampubolon, I., E-mail: ihsan.tampubolon@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Wibowo, R. W., E-mail: ridlo.w.wibowo@gmail.com [Department of Computational Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    By observing continuously a single field of view in the sky, Kepler mission reveals outstanding results on discoveries of exoplanets. One of its recent progress is the discoveries of circumbinary planets. A circumbinary planet is an exoplanet that moves around a binary system. In this study we investigate motions of Kepler circumbinary planets belong to six binary systems, namely Kepler-16, -34, -35, -38, -47, and -413. The motions are considered to follow the Restricted Three-Body Problem (RTBP). Because the primaries (central massive objects) are stars, they are both radiatives, while the planet is an infinitesimal object. The primaries move in nearly circular and elliptic orbits with respect to their center of masses. We describe, in general, motions of the circumbinary planets in RTBP under radiating primaries. With respect to the averaged zero velocity curves, we show that motions of the exoplanets are stable, in accordance with their Hill stabilities.

  13. Motions of Kepler circumbinary planets in restricted three-body problem under radiating primaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By observing continuously a single field of view in the sky, Kepler mission reveals outstanding results on discoveries of exoplanets. One of its recent progress is the discoveries of circumbinary planets. A circumbinary planet is an exoplanet that moves around a binary system. In this study we investigate motions of Kepler circumbinary planets belong to six binary systems, namely Kepler-16, -34, -35, -38, -47, and -413. The motions are considered to follow the Restricted Three-Body Problem (RTBP). Because the primaries (central massive objects) are stars, they are both radiatives, while the planet is an infinitesimal object. The primaries move in nearly circular and elliptic orbits with respect to their center of masses. We describe, in general, motions of the circumbinary planets in RTBP under radiating primaries. With respect to the averaged zero velocity curves, we show that motions of the exoplanets are stable, in accordance with their Hill stabilities

  14. Jarzynski equation for the expansion of a relativistic gas and black-body radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Roman; Engel, Andreas

    2009-09-01

    Generalizing the work of Lua and Grosberg [R.C. Lua, A.Y. Grosberg, J. Phys. Chem. B 109 (2005) 6805], we verify the validity of the Jarzynski equation for the non-equilibrium expansion of an ideal relativistic gas and black-body radiation, respectively. The upper limit for the speed of the particles allows one to choose the parameters of the problem such that no multiple collisions need to be taken into account. Although related, the two cases considered differ from each other due to the quantum nature of photons. We show that bunching of photons is crucial for the Jarzynski equation to hold.

  15. Radiative characteristics of ice-covered fresh- and brackish-water bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Leppäranta, Matti; Erm, Ants; Arst, Helgi; Reinart, Anu

    2006-01-01

    The structure and optics of ice and snow overlying bodies of water were studied in the years 2000–2003. The data were collected in the northern temperate region (nine Estonian and Finnish lakes and one brackish water site, Santala Bay, in the Gulf of Finland). In the present paper we describe the results concerning the radiative characteristics of the system “snow + ice cover on the water”: albedo, attenuation of light, and planar and scalar irradiances through the ice. The basic data consist...

  16. Bone marrow transplantation rescues intestinal mucosa after whole body radiation via paracrine mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Our previous study reveals bone marrow transplantation (BMT) recruits host marrow-derived myelomonocytic cells to radiation-injured intestine, enhancing stromal proliferation, leading secondarily to epithelial regeneration. In this study, we propose BMT ameliorates intestinal damage via paracrine mechanisms. Materials and methods: Angiogenic cytokines within the intestinal mucosa of mice after whole body irradiation (WBI) with or without BMT were measured by cytokine array and ELISA. BM conditioned medium (BMCM) with or without treatment with neutralizing antibodies to angiogenic cytokines were continuously infused into mice for three days after radiation. Carrageenan was used to deplete myelomonocytic cells of mice. Results: BMT increased VEGF, bFGF and other angiogenic and chemotactic cytokines in the intestinal mucosa within 24 h after WBI. Infusion of BMCM ameliorated radiation-induced intestinal damage with improved stromal activity and prolonged survival of mice. Neutralization of bFGF, PDGF and other angiogenic cytokines within BMCM abolished the mitigating effect to the intestine. Pretreatment of carrageenan to recipient mice reversed some of the cytokine levels, including VEGF, bFGF and IGF within the intestinal mucosa after BMT. Conclusions: Our result suggests BMT recruits host myelomonocytic cells and enhances intestinal stroma proliferation after radiation by secreting cytokines enhancing angiogenesis and chemotaxis. Host myelomonocytic cells further uplift the paracrine effect to enhance intestinal mucosal recovery.

  17. Whole body [11C]-dihydrotetrabenazine imaging of baboons: biodistribution and human radiation dosimetry estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 abundance quantified using the radiotracer [11C]-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) has been used to study diagnosis and pathogenesis of dementia and psychiatric disorders in humans. In addition, it may be a surrogate marker for insulin-producing pancreatic beta cell mass, useful for longitudinal measurements using positron emission tomography to track progression of autoimmune diabetes. To support the feasibility of long-term repeated administrations, we estimate the biodistribution and dosimetry of [11C]-DTBZ in humans. Five baboon studies were acquired using a Siemens ECAT camera. After transmission scanning, 165-210 MBq of [11C]-DTBZ were injected, and dynamic whole body emission scans were conducted. Time-activity data were used to obtain residence times and estimate absorbed radiation dose according to the MIRD model. Most of the injected tracer localized to the liver and the lungs, followed by the intestines, brain, and kidneys. The highest estimated absorbed radiation dose was in the stomach wall. The largest radiation dose from [11C]-DTBZ is to the stomach wall. This dose estimate, as well as the radiation dose to other radiosensitive organs, must be considered in evaluating the risks of multiple administrations. (orig.)

  18. Whole body [{sup 11}C]-dihydrotetrabenazine imaging of baboons: biodistribution and human radiation dosimetry estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, Rajan [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Harris, Paul; Leibel, Rudolph [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Simpson, Norman; Parsey, Ramin [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Van Heertum, Ronald [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Mann, J.J. [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 abundance quantified using the radiotracer [{sup 11}C]-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) has been used to study diagnosis and pathogenesis of dementia and psychiatric disorders in humans. In addition, it may be a surrogate marker for insulin-producing pancreatic beta cell mass, useful for longitudinal measurements using positron emission tomography to track progression of autoimmune diabetes. To support the feasibility of long-term repeated administrations, we estimate the biodistribution and dosimetry of [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ in humans. Five baboon studies were acquired using a Siemens ECAT camera. After transmission scanning, 165-210 MBq of [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ were injected, and dynamic whole body emission scans were conducted. Time-activity data were used to obtain residence times and estimate absorbed radiation dose according to the MIRD model. Most of the injected tracer localized to the liver and the lungs, followed by the intestines, brain, and kidneys. The highest estimated absorbed radiation dose was in the stomach wall. The largest radiation dose from [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ is to the stomach wall. This dose estimate, as well as the radiation dose to other radiosensitive organs, must be considered in evaluating the risks of multiple administrations. (orig.)

  19. Delayed radiation injury to the retrobulbar optic nerves and chiasm. Clinical syndrome and treatment with hyperbaric oxygen and corticosteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roden, D.; Bosley, T.M.; Fowble, B.; Clark, J.; Savino, P.J.; Sergott, R.C.; Schatz, N.J. (Neuro-Ophthalmology Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Thirteen patients with delayed radiation injury to the optic nerves and chiasm were treated with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and corticosteroids. These patients experienced painless, abrupt loss of vision in one (6 patients) or both (7 patients) eyes between 4 and 35 months after receiving radiation doses of at least 4500 cGy to the region of the chiasm. Diagnostic evaluation including neuro-imaging and lumbar puncture showed no recurrent tumor and no other cause for visual loss. No patient's vision improved during treatment or follow-up lasting between 1 and 4 years. There were no serious complications of treatment.

  20. Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng, 1. Responses of x-irradiated mice to ginseng extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, A.; Yonezawa, M.; Katoh, N. (Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan))

    1981-09-01

    Radiation protection from bone marrow death by a single injection of partially purified ginseng extract after whole-body X-irradiation was confirmed in JCL-ICR mice. The extract was efficacious both by intraperitoneal and intravenous injection. The extract protected mice when it was injected from 2 days before irradiation to 2.5 hr after that. Recovery of splenic weight and splenic DNA was stimulated by the extract, but that of thymic weight was not. Stimulated recovery by the extract was also observed in thrombocyte and erythrocyte counts, while the extract did not markedly affect recovery of leukocyte counts. The extract also increased 30-day survival ratio of splenectomized mice. In splenectomized mice recovery of only thrombocyte counts was stimulated by the extract. Recovery of thrombocyte counts after exposure is assumed one of the most important factors for restoration of bone marrow death.