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Sample records for body oxidative metabolism

  1. Metabolism and Whole-Body Fat Oxidation Following Post-Exercise Carbohydrate or Protein Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ulrika Andersson; Pettersson, Stefan; Edin, Fredrik

    2018-01-01

    : Protein supplementation immediately post-exercise did not affect the doubling in whole body fat oxidation seen during a subsequent exercise trial 2 hours later. Neither did it affect resting fat oxidation during the post-exercise period despite increased insulin levels and attenuated ketosis. Carbohydrate...

  2. Effect of testosterone on insulin sensitivity, oxidative metabolism and body composition in aging men with type 2 diabetes on metformin monotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Line V; Glintborg, Dorte; Hermann, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the effect of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on body composition, insulin sensitivity, oxidative metabolism and glycaemic control in aging men with lowered bioavailable testosterone (BioT) levels and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) controlled on metformin monotherapy...... = 0.001), and HDL cholesterol (β = -0.11 mmol/L, p = 0.009) decreased after TRT compared with placebo. Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rates did not change in response to TRT compared with placebo (p = 0.18). Moreover, glycated haemoglobin, and basal and insulin-stimulated rates of EGP, lipid......- and glucose-oxidation were unaltered after TRT. CONCLUSION: TRT in aging men with lowered BioT levels and T2D controlled on metformin monotherapy improved body composition; however, glycaemic control, peripheral insulin sensitivity, EGP and substrate metabolism were unchanged....

  3. Basal insulin peglispro increases lipid oxidation, metabolic flexibility, thermogenesis and ketone bodies compared to insulin glargine in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porksen, Niels K; Linnebjerg, Helle; Lam, Eric Chen Quin; Garhyan, Parag; Pachori, Alok; Pratley, Richard E; Smith, Steven R

    2018-01-08

    When treated with basal insulin peglispro (BIL), patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) exhibit weight loss and lower prandial insulin requirements versus insulin glargine (GL), while total insulin requirements remain similar. One possible explanation is enhanced lipid oxidation and improved ability to switch between glucose and lipid metabolism with BIL. This study compared the effects of BIL and GL on glucose and lipid metabolism in subjects with T1DM. Fifteen subjects with T1DM were enrolled into this open-label, randomised, crossover study, and received once-daily stable, individualised, subcutaneous doses of BIL and GL for 4 weeks each. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured using whole-room calorimetry, and energy expenditure (EE) and concentrations of ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyrate) and acylcarnitines were assessed. Mean sleep RQ was lower during the BIL (0.822) than the GL (0.846) treatment period, indicating greater lipid metabolism during the post-absorptive period with BIL. Increases in carbohydrate oxidation following breakfast were greater during BIL than GL treatment (mean change in RQ following breakfast 0.111 for BIL, 0.063 for GL). Furthermore, BIL treatment increased total daily EE versus GL (2215.9 kcal/d for BIL, 2135.5 kcal/d for GL). Concentrations of ketone bodies and acylcarnitines appeared to be higher following BIL than GL treatment. BIL increased sleeping fat oxidation, EE, ketone bodies, acylcarnitines and post-prandial glucose metabolism when switching from conventional insulin, thus, restoring metabolic flexibility and increasing thermogenesis. These changes may explain the previously observed weight loss with BIL versus GL. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The effect of increasing body mass index on cardio-metabolic risk and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in nascent metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Roma; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Jialal, Ishwarlal

    2017-05-01

    The effect of BMI defined obesity on cardio-metabolic features and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with nascent metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is poorly defined. Hence the aim of this study was to examine the effect of increasing obesity on the cardio metabolic risk profile, pro-oxidant state and pro-inflammatory features in nascent MetS patients without Diabetes or CVD. MetS was diagnosed by ATPIII criteria using waist circumference (WC) as the measure of adiposity. Patients (n=58) were stratified into overweight, obese and extreme obesity groups using BMI cut offs of 25-29.9, 30-39.9kg/m 2 and ≥40kg/m 2 and cardio-metabolic features, circulating and cellular biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were determined and correlated with BMI. None of the main cardio-metabolic features including blood pressure, blood glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, HOMA-IR, free fatty acids were increased with increasing BMI. Also none of the biomarkers of oxidative stress (ox-LDL, nitrotyrosine and monocyte superoxide anion release) were increased with increasing BMI. However, significant increase in hsCRP, the soluble TNFR1 and sTNFR2 and leptin, were observed with increasing adiposity. Other inflammatory bio-mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, Toll-like receptors 2-4), endotoxin, LBP, sCD14 and HMGB1, adiponectin, and chemerin did not show significant increases with increasing BMI. Leptin, hsCRP, sTNFR1, and sTNFR2 correlated significantly with BMI. In conclusion, capturing the cardio-metabolic cluster of MetS that predisposed to both increased risk of diabetes and CVD, using waist circumference, as one of the 5 diagnostic criteria is sufficient and BMI does not appear to afford any major incremental benefit on the cardio-metabolic risk factors, increased oxidative stress and the majority of both cellular and circulating biomarkers of inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of testosterone on insulin sensitivity, oxidative metabolism and body composition in aging men with type 2 diabetes on metformin monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Line V; Glintborg, Dorte; Hermann, Pernille; Hougaard, David M; Højlund, Kurt; Andersen, Marianne

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on body composition, insulin sensitivity, oxidative metabolism and glycaemic control in aging men with lowered bioavailable testosterone (BioT) levels and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) controlled on metformin monotherapy. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 39 men aged 50-70 years with BioT levels testosterone gel (TRT, n = 20) or placebo (n = 19) for 24 weeks. Lean body mass (LBM), total and regional fat mass were measured using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. Whole-body peripheral insulin sensitivity, endogenous glucose production (EGP) and substrate oxidation were assessed by euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp with glucose tracer and combined with indirect calorimetry. Coefficients (β) represent the placebo-controlled mean effect of intervention. LBM (β = 1.9 kg, p = 0.001) increased after TRT, while total fat mass (β = -1.3 kg, p = 0.009), fat mass trunk (β = -0.7 kg, p = 0.043), fat mass legs (β = -0.7 kg, p = 0.025), fat mass arms (β = -0.3 kg, p = 0.001), and HDL cholesterol (β = -0.11 mmol/L, p = 0.009) decreased after TRT compared with placebo. Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rates did not change in response to TRT compared with placebo (p = 0.18). Moreover, glycated haemoglobin, and basal and insulin-stimulated rates of EGP, lipid- and glucose-oxidation were unaltered after TRT. TRT in aging men with lowered BioT levels and T2D controlled on metformin monotherapy improved body composition; however, glycaemic control, peripheral insulin sensitivity, EGP and substrate metabolism were unchanged. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Changes in body composition, substrate oxidation, and resting metabolic rate in adult celiac disease patients after a 1-y gluten-free diet treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capristo, E; Addolorato, G; Mingrone, G; De Gaetano, A; Greco, A V; Tataranni, P A; Gasbarrini, G

    2000-07-01

    The incidence of celiac disease has been on the rise in both Europe and the United States. Celiac disease patients are at high risk of undernutrition because of nutrient malabsorption. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in body composition and energy metabolism in a group of patients with celiac disease before and after consumption of a gluten-free diet (GFD). Body composition (by anthropometry and isotopic dilution), resting metabolic rate (RMR), and substrate oxidation rates (by indirect calorimetry) were assessed in 39 adult celiac disease patients (16 men and 23 women) with a mean (+/-SD) age of 29. 9 +/- 7.6 y, weight of 58.3 +/- 6.6 kg, and percentage body fat of 20.1 +/- 6.7%, and in 63 (29 men and 34 women) age- and height-matched control subjects (age: 33.2 +/- 8.1 y; weight: 66.8 +/- 6.6 kg; and percentage body fat: 25.4 +/- 3.7%). Celiac disease patients were studied twice, at diagnosis and 1 y after treatment with a GFD. Before treatment, celiac disease patients had a lower body weight (P celiac disease patients (r = 0.80, P celiac disease patients than in control subjects (P consequence of both lipid malabsorption and a high carbohydrate intake, and lipid utilization increased with the restoration of the intestinal mucosa.

  7. Influence of dietary supplementation with (L)-carnitine on metabolic rate, fatty acid oxidation, body condition, and weight loss in overweight cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, Sharon A; Warner, Karen L; Randolph, John F; Sunvold, Gregory D; Vickers, Jason R

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the influence of dietary supplementation with l-carnitine on metabolic rate, fatty acid oxidation, weight loss, and lean body mass (LBM) in overweight cats undergoing rapid weight reduction. 32 healthy adult neutered colony-housed cats. Cats fattened through unrestricted ingestion of an energy-dense diet for 6 months were randomly assigned to 4 groups and fed a weight reduction diet supplemented with 0 (control), 50, 100, or 150 μg of carnitine/g of diet (unrestricted for 1 month, then restricted). Measurements included resting energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, daily energy expenditure, LBM, and fatty acid oxidation. Following weight loss, cats were allowed unrestricted feeding of the energy-dense diet to investigate weight gain after test diet cessation. Median weekly weight loss in all groups was ≥ 1.3%, with no difference among groups in overall or cumulative percentage weight loss. During restricted feeding, the resting energy expenditure-to-LBM ratio was significantly higher in cats that received l-carnitine than in those that received the control diet. Respiratory quotient was significantly lower in each cat that received l-carnitine on day 42, compared with the value before the diet began, and in all cats that received l-carnitine, compared with the control group throughout restricted feeding. A significant increase in palmitate flux rate in cats fed the diet with 150 μg of carnitine/g relative to the flux rate in the control group on day 42 corresponded to significantly increased stoichiometric fat oxidation in the l-carnitine diet group (> 62% vs 14% for the control group). Weight gain (as high as 28%) was evident within 35 days after unrestricted feeding was reintroduced. Dietary l-carnitine supplementation appeared to have a metabolic effect in overweight cats undergoing rapid weight loss that facilitated fatty acid oxidation.

  8. Butyrylcholinesterase and γ-glutamyltransferase activities and oxidative stress markers are altered in metabolic syndrome, but are not affected by body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bona, Karine S; Bonfanti, Gabriela; Bitencourt, Paula E R; Cargnelutti, Lariane O; da Silva, Priscila S; De Lucca, Leidiane; Pimentel, Victor C; Tatsch, Etiane; Gonçalves, Thissiane L; Premaor, Melissa; Moresco, Rafael N; Moretto, Maria Beatriz

    2013-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) leads to changes in enzymatic activities, oxidative and inflammatory parameters. Adenosine deaminase (ADA), dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) activities, C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and nitric oxide levels (NOx), as well as oxidative stress markers were analyzed in 39 subjects with MetS and 48 controls. Also, the influence of body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measurements were evaluated. Disturbances in antioxidant defenses and higher γ-GT and BuChE activities, NOx and hsCRP levels were observed in subjects with MetS. These findings remained associated with MetS after adjustment for BMI, except for hsCRP. ADA was correlated with age, insulin levels and HOMA-IR index in MetS. DPP-IV and total cholesterol (TC), BuChE activity and TC, and VIT C and hsCRP levels also were correlated. The analyzed parameters may reflect the inflammatory state of the MetS, and could contribute to prevention and control of various aspects of this syndrome.

  9. Bystander signaling via oxidative metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawal HA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Humaira Aziz Sawal,1 Kashif Asghar,2 Matthias Bureik,3 Nasir Jalal4 1Healthcare Biotechnology Department, Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, 2Basic Sciences Research, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, Pakistan; 3Health Science Platform, School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China; 4Health Science Platform, Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China Abstract: The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE is the initiation of biological end points in cells (bystander cells that are not directly traversed by an incident-radiation track, but are in close proximity to cells that are receiving the radiation. RIBE has been indicted of causing DNA damage via oxidative stress, besides causing direct damage, inducing tumorigenesis, producing micronuclei, and causing apoptosis. RIBE is regulated by signaling proteins that are either endogenous or secreted by cells as a means of communication between cells, and can activate intracellular or intercellular oxidative metabolism that can further trigger signaling pathways of inflammation. Bystander signals can pass through gap junctions in attached cell lines, while the suspended cell lines transmit these signals via hormones and soluble proteins. This review provides the background information on how reactive oxygen species (ROS act as bystander signals. Although ROS have a very short half-life and have a nanometer-scale sphere of influence, the wide variety of ROS produced via various sources can exert a cumulative effect, not only in forming DNA adducts but also setting up signaling pathways of inflammation, apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, aging, and even tumorigenesis. This review outlines the sources of the bystander effect linked to ROS in a cell, and provides methods of investigation for researchers who would like to

  10. Lipid metabolism and body composition in Gclm(-/-) mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendig, Eric L. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Ying [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Krishan, Mansi; Johansson, Elisabet; Schneider, Scott N. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Genter, Mary Beth; Nebert, Daniel W. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Shertzer, Howard G., E-mail: shertzhg@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    In humans and experimental animals, high fat diets (HFD) are associated with risk factors for metabolic diseases, such as excessive weight gain and adiposity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Mice lacking the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm(-/-)) and deficient in glutathione (GSH), are resistant to HFD-mediated weight gain. Herein, we evaluated Gclm-associated regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. C57BL/6J Gclm(-/-) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls received a normal diet or an HFD for 11 weeks. HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not display a decreased respiratory quotient, suggesting that they are unable to process lipid for metabolism. Although dietary energy consumption and intestinal lipid absorption were unchanged in Gclm(-/-) mice, feeding these mice an HFD did not produce excess body weight nor fat storage. Gclm(-/-) mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates resulting from higher activities of liver mitochondrial NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, thus elevating respiration. Although Gclm(-/-) mice exhibited strong systemic and hepatic oxidative stress responses, HFD did not promote glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not develop fatty liver, likely resulting from very low expression levels of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. We conclude that Gclm is involved in the regulation of basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of dietary lipid. Although Gclm(-/-) mice display a strong oxidative stress response, they are protected from HFD-induced excessive weight gain and adipose deposition, insulin resistance and steatosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not produce body weight and fat gain in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not induce steatosis or insulin resistance in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gclm(-/-) mice have high basal metabolism and mitochondrial

  11. Body composition and basal metabolic rate in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B

    2016-01-01

    composition (e.g. abdominal fat) may be more so. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an expression of resting metabolism and may serve as a complementary tool when assessing the possibly underlying metabolism behind a persons' body composition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the body composition and basal metabolic rate.......70-105.56) (P basal metabolic rate (BMR) in HS patients may reflect...... a dysfunctional metabolism contributing to the high-fat-body composition....

  12. Metabolic syndrome and periodontitis: is oxidative stress a common link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullon, P; Morillo, J M; Ramirez-Tortosa, M C; Quiles, J L; Newman, H N; Battino, M

    2009-06-01

    A review of pathological mechanisms that can explain the relationship between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is necessary to improve the management of both conditions. Metabolic syndrome is a combination of obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia. All these have been examined in recent years in terms of their relationship to periodontitis. Reviewed data indicate an association between some of them (body mass index, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], triglycerides, high blood pressure, among others) and periodontitis. Oxidative stress may act as a potential common link to explain relationships between each component of metabolic syndrome and periodontitis. Both conditions show increased serum levels of products derived from oxidative damage, with a pro-inflammatory state likely influencing each other bidirectionally. Adipocytokines might modulate the oxidant/anti-oxidant balance in this relationship.

  13. Whole-body CO2 production as an index of the metabolic response to sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole-body carbon dioxide (CO2) production (RaCO2) is an index of substrate oxidation and energy expenditure; therefore, it may provide information about the metabolic response to sepsis. Using stable isotope techniques, we determined RaCO2 and its relationship to protein and glucose metabolism in m...

  14. Nitric oxide and mitochondria in metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, Larisa; Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Fattakhov, Nikolai; Vasilenko, Mariia; Zatolokin, Pavel; Kirienkova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders that collectively increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a crucial role in the pathogeneses of MS components and is involved in different mitochondrial signaling pathways that control respiration and apoptosis. The present review summarizes the recent information regarding the interrelations of mitochondria and NO in MS. Changes in the activities of different NO synthase isoforms lead to the formation of metabolic disorders and therefore are highlighted here. Reduced endothelial NOS activity and NO bioavailability, as the main factors underlying the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in MS, are discussed in this review in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. We also focus on potential therapeutic strategies involving NO signaling pathways that can be used to treat patients with metabolic disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The article may help researchers develop new approaches for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of MS. PMID:25741283

  15. Acute dim light at night increases body mass, alters metabolism, and shifts core body temperature circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Maurya, Santosh K; Periasamy, Muthu; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-10-01

    The circadian system is primarily entrained by the ambient light environment and is fundamentally linked to metabolism. Mounting evidence suggests a causal relationship among aberrant light exposure, shift work, and metabolic disease. Previous research has demonstrated deleterious metabolic phenotypes elicited by chronic (>4 weeks) exposure to dim light at night (DLAN) (∼ 5 lux). However, the metabolic effects of short-term (body mass, alter whole body metabolism, and display altered body temperature (Tb) and activity rhythms compared to mice maintained in dark nights. Our data largely support these predictions; DLAN mice gained significantly more mass, reduced whole body energy expenditure, increased carbohydrate over fat oxidation, and altered temperature circadian rhythms. Importantly, these alterations occurred despite similar activity locomotor levels (and rhythms) and total food intake between groups. Peripheral clocks are potently entrained by body temperature rhythms, and the deregulation of body temperature we observed may contribute to metabolic problems due to "internal desynchrony" between the central circadian oscillator and temperature sensitive peripheral clocks. We conclude that even relatively short-term exposure to low levels of nighttime light can influence metabolism to increase mass gain.

  16. Ketone Body Metabolic Enzyme OXCT1 Regulates Prostate Cancer Chemoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0314 TITLE: Ketone Body Metabolic Enzyme OXCT1 Regulates Prostate Cancer Chemoresistance PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ketone Body Metabolic Enzyme OXCT1 Regulates Prostate 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0314 Cancer Chemoresistance 5b...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT OXCT1 is a key enzyme in ketone body metabolism

  17. Metabolic implications of body fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björntorp, P

    1991-12-01

    Insulin resistance is the cornerstone for the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Free fatty acids (FFAs) cause insulin resistance in muscle and liver and increase hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipoprotein production and perhaps decrease hepatic clearance of insulin. It is suggested that the depressing effect of insulin on circulating FFA concentration is dependent on the fraction derived from visceral adipocytes, which have a low responsiveness to the antilipolytic effect of insulin. Elevated secretion of cortisol and/or testosterone induces insulin resistance in muscle. This also seems to be the case for low testosterone concentrations in men. In addition, cortisol increases hepatic gluconeogenesis. Cortisol and testosterone have "permissive" effect on adipose lipolysis and therefore amplify lipolytic stimulation; FFA, cortisol, and testosterone thus have powerful combined effects, resulting in insulin resistance and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis. All these factors promoting insulin resistance are active in abdominal visceral obesity, which is closely associated with insulin resistance, NIDDM, and the "metabolic syndrome." In addition, the endocrine aberrations may provide a cause for visceral fat accumulation, probably due to regional differences in steroid-hormone-receptor density. In addition to the increased activity along the adrenocorticosteroid axis, there also seem to be signs of increased activity from the central sympathetic nervous system. These are the established endocrine consequences of hypothalamic arousal in the defeat and defense reactions. There is some evidence that suggests an increased prevalence of psychosocial stress factors is associated with visceral distribution of body fat. Therefore, it is hypothesized that such factors might provide a background not only to a defense reaction and primary hypertension, suggested previously, but also to a defeat reaction, which contributes to an endocrine aberration

  18. Magnesium Oxide Induced Metabolic Alkalosis in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, T.H.; Butler, D.G.; Gartley, C.J.; Dohoo, I.R.

    1983-01-01

    A study was designed to compare the metabolic alkalosis produced in cattle from the use of an antacid (magnesium oxide) and a saline cathartic (magnesium sulphate). Six, mature, normal cattle were treated orally with a magnesium oxide (MgO) product and one week later given a comparable cathartic dose of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4). The mean percent dry matter content of the cattle feces changed significantly (Pmetabolic alkalosis as determined by base excess values. The base excess values remained elevated for 24 hours in the MgO treated group compared to only 12 hours after MgSO4 administration. Following MgO administration, mean hydrogen ion concentration (pH), bicarbonate ion concentration ([HCO3-]) and base excess were 7.44, 33.3 mmol/L and +8.0 respectively compared to 7.38, 27 mmol/L and +3.0 after MgSO4. Since the oral use of MgO in normal cattle causes a greater and more prolonged metabolic alkalosis compared to MgSO4, MgO is contraindicated as a cathartic in normal cattle or in cattle with abomasal abnormalities characterized by pyloric obstruction and metabolic alkalosis. PMID:6883181

  19. Body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism in lean and obese Zucker rats fed soybean oil or butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Valérie; Roseau, Suzanne; Fromentin, Gilles; Nicolaidis, Stylianos; Tomé, Daniel; Even, Patrick C

    2002-01-01

    Dietary fat composition is thought to affect body weight regulation independent of the amount of fat ingested. We analyzed the feeding behavior, body weight gain, body composition, and energy metabolism in lean and obese rats fed a diet in which fat was in the form of either butter or soybean oil. Ten lean (Fa/?) and 10 obese (fa/fa) adult Zucker rats were divided into 4 groups according to a 2 x 2 experimental design. They were fed a normally balanced diet over 11 wk in which 30% of energy was either soybean oil or butter. Food intake, body weight gain, and body composition were measured. Indirect calorimetry was used to study energy metabolism at rest and in relation to feeding and activity. Food intake increased similarly in lean and obese rats after butter feeding. Body weight gain increased in obese rats and decreased in lean rats after butter feeding. Body weight gain in obese rats was due mainly to an increase in the weight of lean tissues besides muscle, whereas adiposity and distribution of fat between the various pads did not change. Resting metabolic rates and postprandial lipid oxidation increased in butter-fed obese rats. Lipid oxidation during exercise was not significantly different between obese and lean rats. Fat oxidation increased in butter-fed lean rats during treadmill running at moderate intensity. In obese rats, basal metabolism and postprandial lipid oxidation increased during butter feeding, which appeared to prevent fat accumulation in the long term. In lean rats, butter feeding favored lipid utilization by working muscles, an observation that deserves further investigation in terms of endurance and performance.

  20. Fat oxidation at rest predicts peak fat oxidation during exercise and metabolic phenotype in overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M; Nordby, P; Nielsen, L B

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To elucidate if fat oxidation at rest predicts peak fat oxidation during exercise and/or metabolic phenotype in moderately overweight, sedentary men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.Subjects:We measured respiratory exchange ratio (RER) at rest in 44 moderately overweight, normotensive...... and normoglycemic men and selected 8 subjects with a low RER (L-RER, body mass index (BMI): 27.9+/-0.9 kg m(-2), RER: 0.76+/-0.02) and 8 with a high RER (H-RER; BMI 28.1+/-1.1 kg m(-2), RER: 0.89+/-0.02). After an overnight fast, a venous blood sample was obtained and a graded exercise test was performed. Fat...... oxidation during exercise was quantified using indirect calorimetry. RESULTS: Peak fat oxidation during exercise was higher in L-RER than in H-RER (0.333+/-0.096 vs 0.169+/-0.028 g min(-1); P

  1. Dynamics of human whole body amino acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, V.R.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism of regulation of the nitrogen metabolism in humans under various nutritional and physiological states was examined using stable isotopes. In the simultaneous continuous infusion of 1- [ 13 ] - leucine and α- [ 15 N]- lysine, their fluxed decreased when individuals received lower protein intake. The rates of oxidation and incorporation into body proteins of leucine changed in parallel with the protein intake. Such effects of diet on whole body leucine kinetics were modified by the energy state and dietary energy level. The nitrogen balance was also improved by an excess level of dietary energy. When the intake of dietary protein was lowered below the maintenance level, the whole body flux and de novo synthesis of glycine were lowered, but alanine synthesis was clearly increased. The intravenous infusion of glucose at 4 mg/kg.min, which causes increase in excess blood sugar and plasma insulin, increased the alanine flux, but had no effect on the glycine flux. The rate of albumin synthesis, determined by giving 15 N-glycine orally every 3 hr, decreased with the lowered intake of dietary protein in young men, but not in elderly men. This explains why the serum albumin synthesis increases with the increase in the intake of dietary protein in young men, but not in elderly men. The rate of whole body protein synthesis in young men receiving the L-amino acid diets providing with the required intake of specific amino acid was much lower than that in the men receiving the diets providing with generous intake of specific amino acid. Thus the control mechanism to maintain the homeostasis of body nitrogen and amino acids is related in some unknown way to the nutritional requirement of the hosts. (Kaihara, S.)

  2. Cardiomyocyte-specific deficiency of ketone body metabolism promotes accelerated pathological remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C. Schugar

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: These studies demonstrate the ability of myocardial ketone metabolism to coordinate the myocardial response to pressure overload, and suggest that the oxidation of ketone bodies may be an important contributor to free radical homeostasis and hemodynamic preservation in the injured heart.

  3. Body weight regulation and obesity: dietary strategies to improve the metabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, M J M; Saris, W H M

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses dietary strategies that may improve the metabolic profile and body weight regulation in obesity. Recent evidence demonstrated that long-term health effects seem to be more beneficial for low-glycemic index (GI) diets compared to high-protein diets. Still, these results need to be confirmed by other prospective cohort studies and long-term clinical trials, and the discrepancy between these study designs needs to be explored in more detail. Furthermore, the current literature is mixed with regard to the efficacy of increased meal frequency (or snacking) regimens in causing metabolic alterations, particularly in relation to body weight control. In conclusion, a growing body of evidence suggests that dietary strategies with the aim to reduce postprandial insulin response and increase fat oxidation, and that tend to restore metabolic flexibility, have a place in the prevention and treatment of obesity and associated metabolic disorders.

  4. Effects of independently altering body weight and body mass on the metabolic cost of running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, L.P.J.; Grabowski, A.; Kram, R.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In

  5. Role of ketone bodies in perinatal myocardial energy metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelds, B; van der Leij, FR; Kuipers, JRG

    Metabolic changes at around the time of birth are crucial for life. Here we review the energy utilization in the myocardium, emphasizing ketone body metabolism. Before birth, glucose and lactate are the major energy substrates for the myocardium. Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) are normally not

  6. Body Temperature Measurements for Metabolic Phenotyping in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola W. Meyer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Endothermic organisms rely on tightly balanced energy budgets to maintain a regulated body temperature and body mass. Metabolic phenotyping of mice, therefore, often includes the recording of body temperature. Thermometry in mice is conducted at various sites, using various devices and measurement practices, ranging from single-time probing to continuous temperature imaging. Whilst there is broad agreement that body temperature data is of value, procedural considerations of body temperature measurements in the context of metabolic phenotyping are missing. Here, we provide an overview of the various methods currently available for gathering body temperature data from mice. We explore the scope and limitations of thermometry in mice, with the hope of assisting researchers in the selection of appropriate approaches, and conditions, for comprehensive mouse phenotypic analyses.

  7. Body Temperature Measurements for Metabolic Phenotyping in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carola W.; Ootsuka, Youichirou; Romanovsky, Andrej A.

    2017-01-01

    Endothermic organisms rely on tightly balanced energy budgets to maintain a regulated body temperature and body mass. Metabolic phenotyping of mice, therefore, often includes the recording of body temperature. Thermometry in mice is conducted at various sites, using various devices and measurement practices, ranging from single-time probing to continuous temperature imaging. Whilst there is broad agreement that body temperature data is of value, procedural considerations of body temperature measurements in the context of metabolic phenotyping are missing. Here, we provide an overview of the various methods currently available for gathering body temperature data from mice. We explore the scope and limitations of thermometry in mice, with the hope of assisting researchers in the selection of appropriate approaches, and conditions, for comprehensive mouse phenotypic analyses. PMID:28824441

  8. Body fluids and salt metabolism - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettinelli Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a high frequency of diarrhea and vomiting in childhood. As a consequence the focus of the present review is to recognize the different body fluid compartments, to clinically assess the degree of dehydration, to know how the equilibrium between extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid is maintained, to calculate the effective blood osmolality and discuss both parenteral fluid maintenance and replacement.

  9. Oxidative stress among subjects with metabolic syndrome in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-20

    Aug 20, 2015 ... and HOMA‑IR. The HDL‑C was found to be lower in subjects with metabolic syndrome but not statistically significant (P = 0.48). Antioxidant levels. The oxidative stress markers and antioxidant levels of the research participants are shown in Table 3. The subjects with metabolic syndrome had significantly ...

  10. Metabolic reprogramming induced by ketone bodies diminishes pancreatic cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Surendra K; Gebregiworgis, Teklab; Purohit, Vinee; Chaika, Nina V; Gunda, Venugopal; Radhakrishnan, Prakash; Mehla, Kamiya; Pipinos, Iraklis I; Powers, Robert; Yu, Fang; Singh, Pankaj K

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant energy metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. To fulfill the increased energy requirements, tumor cells secrete cytokines/factors inducing muscle and fat degradation in cancer patients, a condition known as cancer cachexia. It accounts for nearly 20% of all cancer-related deaths. However, the mechanistic basis of cancer cachexia and therapies targeting cancer cachexia thus far remain elusive. A ketogenic diet, a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet that elevates circulating levels of ketone bodies (i.e., acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone), serves as an alternative energy source. It has also been proposed that a ketogenic diet leads to systemic metabolic changes. Keeping in view the significant role of metabolic alterations in cancer, we hypothesized that a ketogenic diet may diminish glycolytic flux in tumor cells to alleviate cachexia syndrome and, hence, may provide an efficient therapeutic strategy. We observed reduced glycolytic flux in tumor cells upon treatment with ketone bodies. Ketone bodies also diminished glutamine uptake, overall ATP content, and survival in multiple pancreatic cancer cell lines, while inducing apoptosis. A decrease in levels of c-Myc, a metabolic master regulator, and its recruitment on glycolytic gene promoters, was in part responsible for the metabolic phenotype in tumor cells. Ketone body-induced intracellular metabolomic reprogramming in pancreatic cancer cells also leads to a significantly diminished cachexia in cell line models. Our mouse orthotopic xenograft models further confirmed the effect of a ketogenic diet in diminishing tumor growth and cachexia. Thus, our studies demonstrate that the cachectic phenotype is in part due to metabolic alterations in tumor cells, which can be reverted by a ketogenic diet, causing reduced tumor growth and inhibition of muscle and body weight loss.

  11. Androgen effect on body composition and fat metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M D

    2000-01-01

    Recognizing the adverse metabolic effects of predominantly visceral body fat distribution associated with low testosterone levels, researchers have investigated the effects of androgen treatment on body fat distribution in men. This presentation reviews the results of research on acute and longer-term effects of treatment with testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Methods for investigating these results, including measurement of lipoprotein lipase activity and of radiolabeled fat uptake and turnover, are described and discussed.

  12. Metabolic reconfiguration is a regulated response to oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Chris M

    2008-01-01

    A new study reveals that, in response to oxidative stress, organisms can redirect their metabolic flux from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway, the pathway that provides the reducing power for the main cellular redox systems. This ability is conserved between yeast and animals, showing its importance in the adaptation to oxidative stress.

  13. Metabolic connectomics targeting brain pathology in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminiti, Silvia P; Tettamanti, Marco; Sala, Arianna; Presotto, Luca; Iannaccone, Sandro; Cappa, Stefano F; Magnani, Giuseppe; Perani, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies is characterized by α-synuclein accumulation and degeneration of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways. To gain an overview of brain systems affected by neurodegeneration, we characterized the [18F]FDG-PET metabolic connectivity in 42 dementia with Lewy bodies patients, as compared to 42 healthy controls, using sparse inverse covariance estimation method and graph theory. We performed whole-brain and anatomically driven analyses, targeting cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways, and the α-synuclein spreading. The first revealed substantial alterations in connectivity indexes, brain modularity, and hubs configuration. Namely, decreases in local metabolic connectivity within occipital cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum, and increases within frontal, temporal, parietal, and basal ganglia regions. There were also long-range disconnections among these brain regions, all supporting a disruption of the functional hierarchy characterizing the normal brain. The anatomically driven analysis revealed alterations within brain structures early affected by α-synuclein pathology, supporting Braak's early pathological staging in dementia with Lewy bodies. The dopaminergic striato-cortical pathway was severely affected, as well as the cholinergic networks, with an extensive decrease in connectivity in Ch1-Ch2, Ch5-Ch6 networks, and the lateral Ch4 capsular network significantly towards the occipital cortex. These altered patterns of metabolic connectivity unveil a new in vivo scenario for dementia with Lewy bodies underlying pathology in terms of changes in whole-brain metabolic connectivity, spreading of α-synuclein, and neurotransmission impairment.

  14. Electrochemical Oxidation by Square-Wave Potential Pulses in the Imitation of Oxidative Drug Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouri-Nigjeh, Eslam; Permentier, Hjalmar P.; Bischoff, Rainer; Bruins, Andries P.

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemistry combined with mass spectrometry (EC-MS) is an emerging analytical technique in the imitation of oxidative drug metabolism at the early stages of new drug development. Here, we present the benefits of electrochemical oxidation by square-wave potential pulses for the oxidation of

  15. A new model for the body size-metabolism relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael F; Lightfoot, Edwin N; Porter, Warren P

    2010-01-01

    The allometric 3/4 power relation, initially used for describing the relation between mammalian basal metabolic rate and body size, is often used as a general model for organismal design. The use of allometric regression as a model has important limitations: it is not mechanistic, it combines all physiological variables into one correlate of body size, and it combines data from several physiological states. In reassessing the use of allometric equations, we first describe problems with their use in studies of organismal design and then use a formulation for distributed net heat production and temperature distribution within the body to derive an alternative equation for the relation between basal metabolism and body size. Tests of the heat flow equation against data reported in the literature indicate that it is an accurate estimator of basal metabolism under thermoneutral conditions and suggest that the allometric equation is a special case of this mechanistic and more general model. We propose that our method is more meaningful and widely applicable for thermoneutral conditions than is a purely allometric approach.

  16. Inborn Errors of Metabolism with Acidosis: Organic Acidemias and Defects of Pyruvate and Ketone Body Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Lori-Anne P; DeBrosse, Suzanne D; McCandless, Shawn E

    2018-04-01

    When a child presents with high-anion gap metabolic acidosis, the pediatrician can proceed with confidence by recalling some basic principles. Defects of organic acid, pyruvate, and ketone body metabolism that present with acute acidosis are reviewed. Flowcharts for identifying the underlying cause and initiating life-saving therapy are provided. By evaluating electrolytes, blood sugar, lactate, ammonia, and urine ketones, the provider can determine the likelihood of an inborn error of metabolism. Freezing serum, plasma, and urine samples during the acute presentation for definitive diagnostic testing at the provider's convenience aids in the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanism of Neonicotinoid Toxicity: Impact on Oxidative Stress and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Anadón, Arturo; Wu, Qinghua; Qiao, Fang; Ares, Irma; Martínez-Larrañaga, María-Rosa; Yuan, Zonghui; Martínez, María-Aránzazu

    2018-01-06

    Thousands of tons of neonicotinoids are widely used around the world as broad-spectrum systemic insecticides and veterinary drugs. Researchers originally thought that neonicotinoids exhibited low mammalian toxicity. However, following their widespread use, it became increasingly evident that neonicotinoids could have various toxic effects on vertebrates and invertebrates. The primary focus of this review is to summarize the research progress associated with oxidative stress as a plausible mechanism for neonicotinoid-induced toxicity as well as neonicotinoid metabolism. This review summarizes the research conducted over the past decade into the production of reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and oxidative stress as aresult of neonicotinoid treatments, along with their correlation with the toxicity and metabolism of neonicotinoids. The metabolism of neonicotinoids and protection of various compounds against neonicotinoid-induced toxicity based on their antioxidative effects is also discussed. This review sheds new light on the critical roles of oxidative stress in neonicotinoid-induced toxicity to nontarget species.

  18. Integrating cellular metabolism into a multiscale whole-body model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Krauss

    Full Text Available Cellular metabolism continuously processes an enormous range of external compounds into endogenous metabolites and is as such a key element in human physiology. The multifaceted physiological role of the metabolic network fulfilling the catalytic conversions can only be fully understood from a whole-body perspective where the causal interplay of the metabolic states of individual cells, the surrounding tissue and the whole organism are simultaneously considered. We here present an approach relying on dynamic flux balance analysis that allows the integration of metabolic networks at the cellular scale into standardized physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models at the whole-body level. To evaluate our approach we integrated a genome-scale network reconstruction of a human hepatocyte into the liver tissue of a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of a human adult. The resulting multiscale model was used to investigate hyperuricemia therapy, ammonia detoxification and paracetamol-induced toxication at a systems level. The specific models simultaneously integrate multiple layers of biological organization and offer mechanistic insights into pathology and medication. The approach presented may in future support a mechanistic understanding in diagnostics and drug development.

  19. Lipid metabolism and body composition in Gclm(−/−) mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendig, Eric L.; Chen, Ying; Krishan, Mansi; Johansson, Elisabet; Schneider, Scott N.; Genter, Mary Beth; Nebert, Daniel W.; Shertzer, Howard G.

    2011-01-01

    In humans and experimental animals, high fat diets (HFD) are associated with risk factors for metabolic diseases, such as excessive weight gain and adiposity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Mice lacking the glutamate–cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm(−/−)) and deficient in glutathione (GSH), are resistant to HFD-mediated weight gain. Herein, we evaluated Gclm-associated regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. C57BL/6J Gclm(−/−) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls received a normal diet or an HFD for 11 weeks. HFD-fed Gclm(−/−) mice did not display a decreased respiratory quotient, suggesting that they are unable to process lipid for metabolism. Although dietary energy consumption and intestinal lipid absorption were unchanged in Gclm(−/−) mice, feeding these mice an HFD did not produce excess body weight nor fat storage. Gclm(−/−) mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates resulting from higher activities of liver mitochondrial NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, thus elevating respiration. Although Gclm(−/−) mice exhibited strong systemic and hepatic oxidative stress responses, HFD did not promote glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD-fed Gclm(−/−) mice did not develop fatty liver, likely resulting from very low expression levels of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. We conclude that Gclm is involved in the regulation of basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of dietary lipid. Although Gclm(−/−) mice display a strong oxidative stress response, they are protected from HFD-induced excessive weight gain and adipose deposition, insulin resistance and steatosis. -- Highlights: ► A high fat diet does not produce body weight and fat gain in Gclm(−/−) mice. ► A high fat diet does not induce steatosis or insulin resistance in Gclm(−/−) mice. ► Gclm(−/−) mice have high basal metabolism and mitochondrial oxygen consumption.

  20. Metabolic Responses in Endothelial Cells Following Exposure to Ketone Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Meroni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet based on the induction of the synthesis of ketone bodies (KB. Despite its widespread use, the systemic impact of KD is not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of physiological levels of KB on HMEC-1 endothelial cells. To this aim, DNA oxidative damage and the activation of Nrf2, a known transcriptional factor involved in cell responses to oxidative stress, were assessed. The exposure of cells to KB exerted a moderate genotoxic effect, measured by a significant increase in DNA oxidative damage. However, cells pre-treated with KB for 48 h and subjected to a secondary oxidative insult (H2O2, significantly decreased DNA damage compared to control oxidized cells. This protection occurred by the activation of Nrf2 pathway. In KB-treated cells, we found increased levels of Nrf2 in nuclear extracts and higher gene expression of HO-1, a target gene of Nrf2, compared to control cells. These results suggest that KB, by inducing moderate oxidative stress, activate the transcription factor Nrf2, which induces the transcription of target genes involved in the cellular antioxidant defense system.

  1. Metabolic Responses in Endothelial Cells Following Exposure to Ketone Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroni, Erika; Papini, Nadia; Criscuoli, Franca; Casiraghi, Maria C; Massaccesi, Luca; Basilico, Nicoletta; Erba, Daniela

    2018-02-22

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet based on the induction of the synthesis of ketone bodies (KB). Despite its widespread use, the systemic impact of KD is not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of physiological levels of KB on HMEC-1 endothelial cells. To this aim, DNA oxidative damage and the activation of Nrf2, a known transcriptional factor involved in cell responses to oxidative stress, were assessed. The exposure of cells to KB exerted a moderate genotoxic effect, measured by a significant increase in DNA oxidative damage. However, cells pre-treated with KB for 48 h and subjected to a secondary oxidative insult (H₂O₂), significantly decreased DNA damage compared to control oxidized cells. This protection occurred by the activation of Nrf2 pathway. In KB-treated cells, we found increased levels of Nrf2 in nuclear extracts and higher gene expression of HO-1, a target gene of Nrf2, compared to control cells. These results suggest that KB, by inducing moderate oxidative stress, activate the transcription factor Nrf2, which induces the transcription of target genes involved in the cellular antioxidant defense system.

  2. Carotid body, insulin and metabolic diseases: unravelling the links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia V Conde

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The carotid bodies (CB are peripheral chemoreceptors that sense changes in arterial blood O2, CO2 and pH levels. Hypoxia, hypercapnia and acidosis activate the CB, which respond by increasing the action potential frequency in their sensory nerve, the carotid sinus nerve (CSN. CSN activity is integrated in the brain stem to induce a panoply of cardiorespiratory reflexes aimed, primarily, to normalize the altered blood gases, via hyperventilation, and to regulate blood pressure and cardiac performance, via sympathetic nervous system (SNS activation. Besides its role in the cardiorespiratory control the CB has been proposed as a metabolic sensor implicated in the control of energy homeostasis and, more recently, in the regulation of whole body insulin sensitivity. Hypercaloric diets cause CB overactivation in rats, which seems to be at the origin of the development of insulin resistance and hypertension, core features of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Consistent with this notion, CB sensory denervation prevents metabolic and hemodynamic alterations in hypercaloric feed animal. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA is another chronic disorder characterized by increased CB activity and intimately related with several metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities. In this manuscript we review in a concise manner the putative pathways linking CB chemoreceptors deregulation with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and arterial hypertension. Also, the link between chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH and insulin resistance is discussed. Then, a final section is devoted to debate strategies to reduce CB activity and its use for prevention and therapeutics of metabolic diseases with an emphasis on new exciting research in the modulation of bioelectronic signals, likely to be central in the future.

  3. Sugar alcohols-induced oxidative metabolism in cotton callus culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar alcohols (mannitol and sorbitol) may cause oxidative damage in plants if used in higher concentration. Our present experiment was undertaken to study physiological and metabolic responses in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) callus against mannitol and sorbitol higher doses. Both markedly declined mean values of ...

  4. Regulation of Ketone Body Metabolism and the Role of PPARα

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabacka, Maja; Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Dean, Matthew; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Ketogenesis and ketolysis are central metabolic processes activated during the response to fasting. Ketogenesis is regulated in multiple stages, and a nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) is one of the key transcription factors taking part in this regulation. PPARα is an important element in the metabolic network, where it participates in signaling driven by the main nutrient sensors, such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), and mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) and induces hormonal mediators, such as fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). This work describes the regulation of ketogenesis and ketolysis in normal and malignant cells and briefly summarizes the positive effects of ketone bodies in various neuropathologic conditions. PMID:27983603

  5. Regulation of Ketone Body Metabolism and the Role of PPARα

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Grabacka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ketogenesis and ketolysis are central metabolic processes activated during the response to fasting. Ketogenesis is regulated in multiple stages, and a nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα is one of the key transcription factors taking part in this regulation. PPARα is an important element in the metabolic network, where it participates in signaling driven by the main nutrient sensors, such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α, and mammalian (mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR and induces hormonal mediators, such as fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21. This work describes the regulation of ketogenesis and ketolysis in normal and malignant cells and briefly summarizes the positive effects of ketone bodies in various neuropathologic conditions.

  6. Hyperpolarized ketone body metabolism in the rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jack J; Ball, Daniel R; Lau, Angus Z; Tyler, Damian J

    2018-04-10

    The aim of this work was to investigate the use of 13 C-labelled acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate as novel hyperpolarized substrates in the study of cardiac metabolism. [1- 13 C]Acetoacetate was synthesized by catalysed hydrolysis, and both it and [1- 13 C]β-hydroxybutyrate were hyperpolarized by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Their metabolism was studied in isolated, perfused rat hearts. Hyperpolarized [1- 13 C]acetoacetate metabolism was also studied in the in vivo rat heart in the fed and fasted states. Hyperpolarization of [1- 13 C]acetoacetate and [1- 13 C]β-hydroxybutyrate provided liquid state polarizations of 8 ± 2% and 3 ± 1%, respectively. The hyperpolarized T 1 values for the two substrates were 28 ± 3 s (acetoacetate) and 20 ± 1 s (β-hydroxybutyrate). Multiple downstream metabolites were observed within the perfused heart, including acetylcarnitine, citrate and glutamate. In the in vivo heart, an increase in acetylcarnitine production from acetoacetate was observed in the fed state, as well as a potential reduction in glutamate. In this work, methods for the generation of hyperpolarized [1- 13 C]acetoacetate and [1- 13 C]β-hydroxybutyrate were investigated, and their metabolism was assessed in both isolated, perfused rat hearts and in the in vivo rat heart. These preliminary investigations show that DNP can be used as an effective in vivo probe of ketone body metabolism in the heart. © 2018 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Metabolic Disturbances Independent of Body Mass in Patients with Schizophrenia Taking Atypical Antipsychotics

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Shi Hyun; Lee, Jong Il

    2015-01-01

    Objective Atypical antipsychotic (AAP) treatment is associated with weight gain and metabolic disturbances such as dyslipidemia and dysglycemia. The metabolic disturbances are usually considered to develop secondary to weight gain. We performed the comparison of metabolic disturbances of three AAP group with different risk of metabolic side effect after adjusting for body mass to investigate whether any metabolic disturbances develop independently from body mass index (BMI). Methods This cros...

  8. Body iron is a contributor to oxidative damage of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuomainen, T.P.; Loft, Steffen Huitfeldt; Nyyssonen, K.

    2007-01-01

    with daily urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine excretion, a marker of oxidative stress, in 48 mildly dyslipidemic men in East Finland. In multivariate linear regression analyses allowing for age, smoking, body mass index and physical exercise, serum ferritin concentration predicted the excretion rate at B = 0......The transition metal iron is catalytically highly active in vitro, and not surprisingly, body iron has been suggested to promote oxidative stress in vivo. In the current analysis we studied the association of serum ferritin concentration and serum soluble transferrin receptor concentration.......17 (95% CI 0.08-0.26, P = 0.001), and serum soluble transferrin receptor to ferritin concentration ratio (TfR/ferritin) predicted the excretion rate at B = - 0.13 (95% CI - 0.21 to - 0.05, P = 0.002). Our data suggest that body iron contributes to excess oxidative stress already at non-iron overload...

  9. Effect of maternal metabolism on fetal growth and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, P M; Thomas, A J; Huston, L P; Fung, C M

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this work is to examine the various maternal metabolic and parental anthropometric and demographic factors that affect fetal growth and body composition. These data are a review of previously published data evaluating 1) demographic and anthropometric factors associated with fetal growth; 2) differences in male and female neonatal body composition; 3) anthropometric and maternal metabolic factors correlated with neonatal birth weight, fat-free mass, and fat mass using stepwise logistic regression analysis; and 4) the relationship between maternal weight gain and birth weight in women with normal glucose tolerance (control subjects) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We estimated body composition in 186 neonates using anthropometry. Fat-free mass, which comprised 86% of mean birth weight, accounted for 83% of the variance in birth weight, and fat mass, which comprised only 14% of birth weight, accounted for 46% of the variance in birth weight. Male neonates were, on average, 175 g heavier than females. There was significantly (P = 0.0001) greater fat-free mass in males than in females but no significant difference in fat mass. Using stepwise logistic regression, we accounted for 29% of the variance in birth weight, 30% in fat-free mass, and 17% in fat mass. Independent variables included maternal height, pregravid weight, weight gain during pregnancy, education, parity, paternal height and weight, neonatal sex, and gestational age. Including maternal glucose insulin sensitivity in 16 additional subjects, we explained 48% of the variance in birth weight, 53% in fat-free mass, and 46% in fat mass. There was a positive (P = 0.0007) correlation between weight gain and birth weight in control subjects, but a negative (P = 0.34) correlation in women with GDM. In control subjects, the correlation was strongest in women who were lean before conception and became progressively weaker as pregravid weight for height increased. In women with GDM, there

  10. Body iron is a contributor to oxidative damage of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuomainen, T.P.; Loft, Steffen Huitfeldt; Nyyssonen, K.

    2007-01-01

    The transition metal iron is catalytically highly active in vitro, and not surprisingly, body iron has been suggested to promote oxidative stress in vivo. In the current analysis we studied the association of serum ferritin concentration and serum soluble transferrin receptor concentration.......17 (95% CI 0.08-0.26, P = 0.001), and serum soluble transferrin receptor to ferritin concentration ratio (TfR/ferritin) predicted the excretion rate at B = - 0.13 (95% CI - 0.21 to - 0.05, P = 0.002). Our data suggest that body iron contributes to excess oxidative stress already at non-iron overload...

  11. All-trans retinoic acid increases oxidative metabolism in mature adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercader, Josep; Madsen, Lise; Felipe, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In rodents, retinoic acid (RA) treatment favors loss of body fat mass and the acquisition of brown fat features in white fat depots. In this work, we sought to examine to what extent these RA effects are cell autonomous or dependent on systemic factors. METHODS: Parameters of lipid...... metabolism and related gene expression were analyzed in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes after exposure to RA or vehicle. RESULTS: Treatment with RA resulted in decreased cellular triacylglycerol content and increased basal lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation rate. At the mRNA level, RA treatment led...... to a reduced expression of adipogenic/lipogenic transcription factors (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, rexinoid receptor alpha) and two purported suppressors of lipolysis and oxidative metabolism (CIDEA and receptor-interacting protein 140...

  12. Inflammation and the metabolic syndrome: role of angiotensin II and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferder, León; Inserra, Felipe; Martínez-Maldonado, Manuel

    2006-06-01

    Excess body weight, high blood pressure, and insulin resistance together have been denominated the metabolic syndrome. In this review, we analyze the potential role of angiotensin II (Ang II) and reactive oxygen species in mediating inflammation in the metabolic syndrome. Ang II induces pro-inflammatory genes and other pro-inflammatory substances and increases oxidative stress that could damage endothelium, myocardium, and renal tissue. Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB and NAD(P)H oxidase are fundamental steps in these pro-inflammatory mechanisms in which intramitochondrial oxidative stress could play a critical role. This sequence of events might explain why reduction in Ang II synthesis by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers (ARBs) have a protective effect against cardiovascular disease.

  13. Cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism during human endotoxemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Strauss, Gitte Irene; Qvist, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), has been suggested to mediate septic encephalopathy through an effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism. The effect of an intravenous bolus of endotoxin on global CBF, metabolism, and net flux of cytokines and catech...... cerebral flux of TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 did not differ significantly from zero. Thus, high circulating levels of TNF-alpha during human endotoxemia do not induce a direct reduction in cerebral oxidative metabolism.......The proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), has been suggested to mediate septic encephalopathy through an effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism. The effect of an intravenous bolus of endotoxin on global CBF, metabolism, and net flux of cytokines...... of a reference endotoxin. Arterial TNF-alpha peaked at 90 minutes, coinciding with a peak in subjective symptoms. At this time, CBF and Paco were significantly reduced compared to baseline; the CBF decrease was readily explained by hypocapnia. The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen remained unchanged, and the net...

  14. Growth hormone enhances effects of endurance training on oxidative muscle metabolism in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Isaksson, F; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    by approximately 18% in both groups, whereas the marked increase in muscle citrate synthase activity was 50% larger in the GH group compared with the placebo group. In addition, only the GH group revealed an increase in muscle L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. Body weight remained unchanged in both...... groups, but the GH group showed significant changes in body composition with a decrease in fat mass and an increase in lean body mass. Twenty-four-hour indirect calorimetry performed in four subjects showed a marked increase in energy expenditure with increased relative and absolute fat combustion......The present study investigated whether recombinant human (rh) growth hormone (GH) combined with endurance training would have a larger effect on oxidative capacity, metabolism, and body fat than endurance training alone. Sixteen healthy, elderly women, aged 75 yr, performed closely monitored...

  15. Coordinated balancing of muscle oxidative metabolism through PGC-1α increases metabolic flexibility and preserves insulin sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summermatter, Serge; Troxler, Heinz; Santos, Gesa; Handschin, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → PGC-1α enhances muscle oxidative capacity. → PGC-1α promotes concomitantly positive and negative regulators of lipid oxidation. → Regulator abundance enhances metabolic flexibility and balances oxidative metabolism. → Balanced oxidation prevents detrimental acylcarnitine and ROS generation. → Absence of detrimental metabolites preserves insulin sensitivity -- Abstract: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) enhances oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle. Excessive lipid oxidation and electron transport chain activity can, however, lead to the accumulation of harmful metabolites and impair glucose homeostasis. Here, we investigated the effect of over-expression of PGC-1α on metabolic control and generation of insulin desensitizing agents in extensor digitorum longus (EDL), a muscle that exhibits low levels of PGC-1α in the untrained state and minimally relies on oxidative metabolism. We demonstrate that PGC-1α induces a strictly balanced substrate oxidation in EDL by concomitantly promoting the transcription of activators and inhibitors of lipid oxidation. Moreover, we show that PGC-1α enhances the potential to uncouple oxidative phosphorylation. Thereby, PGC-1α boosts elevated, yet tightly regulated oxidative metabolism devoid of side products that are detrimental for glucose homeostasis. Accordingly, PI3K activity, an early phase marker for insulin resistance, is preserved in EDL muscle. Our findings suggest that PGC-1α coordinately coactivates the simultaneous transcription of gene clusters implicated in the positive and negative regulation of oxidative metabolism and thereby increases metabolic flexibility. Thus, in mice fed a normal chow diet, over-expression of PGC-1α does not alter insulin sensitivity and the metabolic adaptations elicited by PGC-1α mimic the beneficial effects of endurance training on muscle metabolism in this context.

  16. Coordinated balancing of muscle oxidative metabolism through PGC-1{alpha} increases metabolic flexibility and preserves insulin sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summermatter, Serge [Biozentrum, Division of Pharmacology/Neurobiology, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 50-70, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Troxler, Heinz [Division of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Department of Pediatrics, University Children' s Hospital, University of Zurich, Steinwiesstrasse 75, CH-8032 Zurich (Switzerland); Santos, Gesa [Biozentrum, Division of Pharmacology/Neurobiology, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 50-70, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Handschin, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.handschin@unibas.ch [Biozentrum, Division of Pharmacology/Neurobiology, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 50-70, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} PGC-1{alpha} enhances muscle oxidative capacity. {yields} PGC-1{alpha} promotes concomitantly positive and negative regulators of lipid oxidation. {yields} Regulator abundance enhances metabolic flexibility and balances oxidative metabolism. {yields} Balanced oxidation prevents detrimental acylcarnitine and ROS generation. {yields} Absence of detrimental metabolites preserves insulin sensitivity -- Abstract: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} coactivator 1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) enhances oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle. Excessive lipid oxidation and electron transport chain activity can, however, lead to the accumulation of harmful metabolites and impair glucose homeostasis. Here, we investigated the effect of over-expression of PGC-1{alpha} on metabolic control and generation of insulin desensitizing agents in extensor digitorum longus (EDL), a muscle that exhibits low levels of PGC-1{alpha} in the untrained state and minimally relies on oxidative metabolism. We demonstrate that PGC-1{alpha} induces a strictly balanced substrate oxidation in EDL by concomitantly promoting the transcription of activators and inhibitors of lipid oxidation. Moreover, we show that PGC-1{alpha} enhances the potential to uncouple oxidative phosphorylation. Thereby, PGC-1{alpha} boosts elevated, yet tightly regulated oxidative metabolism devoid of side products that are detrimental for glucose homeostasis. Accordingly, PI3K activity, an early phase marker for insulin resistance, is preserved in EDL muscle. Our findings suggest that PGC-1{alpha} coordinately coactivates the simultaneous transcription of gene clusters implicated in the positive and negative regulation of oxidative metabolism and thereby increases metabolic flexibility. Thus, in mice fed a normal chow diet, over-expression of PGC-1{alpha} does not alter insulin sensitivity and the metabolic adaptations elicited by PGC-1{alpha} mimic the beneficial effects of endurance training

  17. Body iron is a contributor to oxidative damage of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Loft, Steffen; Nyyssönen, Kristiina

    2007-01-01

    The transition metal iron is catalytically highly active in vitro, and not surprisingly, body iron has been suggested to promote oxidative stress in vivo. In the current analysis we studied the association of serum ferritin concentration and serum soluble transferrin receptor concentration with d...

  18. Oxidative phosphorylation: unique regulatory mechanism and role in metabolic homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David F

    2017-03-01

    Oxidative phosphorylation is the primary source of metabolic energy, in the form of ATP, in higher plants and animals, but its regulation in vivo is not well understood. A model has been developed for oxidative phosphorylation in vivo that predicts behavior patterns that are both distinctive and consistent with experimental measurements of metabolism in intact cells and tissues. A major regulatory parameter is the energy state ([ATP]/[ADP][P i ], where brackets denote concentration). Under physiological conditions, the [ATP] and [P i ] are ~100 times that of [ADP], and most of the change in energy state is through change in [ADP]. The rate of oxidative phosphorylation ( y -axis) increases slowly with increasing [ADP] until a threshold is reached and then increases very rapidly and linearly with further increase in [ADP]. The dependence on [ADP] can be characterized by a threshold [ADP] (T) and control strength (CS), the normalized slope above threshold (Δ y /(Δ x /T). For normoxic cells without creatine kinase, T is ~30 µM and CS is ~10 s -1 Myocytes and cells with larger ranges of rates of ATP utilization, however, have the same [ADP]- and [AMP]-dependent mechanisms regulating metabolism and gene expression. To compensate, these cells have creatine kinase, and hydrolysis/synthesis of creatine phosphate increases the change in [P i ] and thereby CS. Cells with creatine kinase have [ADP] and [AMP], which are similar to cells without creatine kinase, despite the large differences in metabolic rate. 31 P measurements in human muscles during work-to-rest and rest-to-work transitions are consistent with predictions of the model. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A model developed for oxidative phosphorylation in vivo is shown to predict behavior patterns that are both novel and consistent with experimental measurements of metabolism in working muscle and other cells. The dependence of the rate on ADP concentration shows a pronounced threshold with a steep, nearly linear increase

  19. Body fat distribution and inflammation among obese older adults with and without metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A.; Stenholm, S.; Alley, D.E.; Kim, L.J.; Simonsick, E.M.; Kanaya, A.M.; Visser, M.; Houston, D.K.; Nicklas, B.J.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Satterfield, S.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Ferrucci, L.; Harris, T.B.

    2010-01-01

    The protective mechanisms by which some obese individuals escape the detrimental metabolic consequences of obesity are not understood. This study examined differences in body fat distribution and adipocytokines in obese older persons with and without metabolic syndrome. Additionally, we examined

  20. Copper oxide nanoparticles inhibit the metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashock, Michael J; Kappell, Anthony D; Hallaj, Nadia; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2016-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are used increasingly in industrial applications and consumer products and thus may pose risk to human and environmental health. The interaction of CuO NPs with complex media and the impact on cell metabolism when exposed to sublethal concentrations are largely unknown. In the present study, the short-term effects of 2 different sized manufactured CuO NPs on metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. The role of released Cu(2+) during dissolution of NPs in the growth media and the CuO nanostructure were considered. Characterization showed that the 28 nm and 64 nm CuO NPs used in the present study have different primary diameter, similar hydrodynamic diameter, and significantly different concentrations of dissolved Cu(2+) ions in the growth media released from the same initial NP mass. Exposures to CuO NPs or the released Cu(2+) fraction, at doses that do not have impact on cell viability, showed significant inhibition on S. cerevisiae cellular metabolic activity. A greater CuO NP effect on the metabolic activity of S. cerevisiae growth under respiring conditions was observed. Under the tested conditions the observed metabolic inhibition from the NPs was not explained fully by the released Cu ions from the dissolving NPs. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx palliates insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative rout in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Raji, Hikmat O; Adeleye, Abdulwasiu O; Adigun, Nurudeen S; Giwa, Oluwayemisi B; Ojewuyi, Oluwayemisi B; Oladiji, Adenike T

    2016-03-30

    The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract was evaluated in high-fructose-induced metabolic syndrome rats. Insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative rout were induced in rats using high-fructose diet. High-fructose diet-fed rats were administered 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) body weight of H. sabdariffa extract for 3 weeks, starting from week 7 of high-fructose diet treatment. High-fructose diet significantly (P Hibiscus extract. Overall, aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa palliates insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative rout in high-fructose-induced metabolic syndrome rats. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Electrochemical oxidation by square-wave potential pulses in the imitation of oxidative drug metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri-Nigjeh, Eslam; Permentier, Hjalmar P; Bischoff, Rainer; Bruins, Andries P

    2011-07-15

    Electrochemistry combined with mass spectrometry (EC-MS) is an emerging analytical technique in the imitation of oxidative drug metabolism at the early stages of new drug development. Here, we present the benefits of electrochemical oxidation by square-wave potential pulses for the oxidation of lidocaine, a test drug compound, on a platinum electrode. Lidocaine was oxidized at constant potential and by square-wave potential pulses with different cycle times, and the reaction products were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry [LC-MS(/MS)]. Application of constant potentials of up to +5.0 V resulted in relatively low yields of N-dealkylation and 4-hydroxylation products, while oxidation by square-wave potential pulses generated up to 50 times more of the 4-hydroxylation product at cycle times between 0.2 and 12 s (estimated yield of 10%). The highest yield of the N-dealkylation product was obtained at cycle times shorter than 0.2 s. Tuning of the cycle time is thus an important parameter to modulate the selectivity of electrochemical oxidation reactions. The N-oxidation product was only obtained by electrochemical oxidation under air atmosphere due to reaction with electrogenerated hydrogen peroxide. Square-wave potential pulses may also be applicable to modulate the selectivity of electrochemical reactions with other drug compounds in order to generate oxidation products with greater selectivity and higher yield based on the optimization of cycle times and potentials. This considerably widens the scope of direct electrochemistry-based oxidation reactions for the imitation of in vivo oxidative drug metabolism.

  3. Body weight setpoint, metabolic adaption and human starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozusko, F P

    2001-03-01

    A biological setpoint for fatness has been proposed in the medical literature. This body weight setpoint functions as a point of stable equilibrium. In an underfed state, with resulting weight loss, the body will reduce the relative energy expenditure by metabolic adaption which reduces the rate of weight loss. Previous mathematical models of energy expenditure and weight loss dynamics have not addressed this setpoint mechanism. The setpoint model has been proposed to quantify this biological process and is unique in predicting energy expenditure during weight loss as a function of the setpoint fat-free mass ratio and setpoint energy expenditure, eliminating the various controlling characteristics such as age, gender and heredity. The model is applied to the seminal Minnesota human semistarvation experiment and is used to predict weight vs time on an individual basis and the caloric requirements for weight maintenance at the reduced weight. Comparison is made with the Harris-Benedict equations and the Brody-Kleiber (W3/4) law.

  4. The nucleic acid metabolism in rat liver after single and long-term administration of tritium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorokhova, V.B.

    1984-01-01

    It was shown that after a single administration of tritiUm oxide in a dose of 22.2 MBq/g body mass the liver mass increased, the concentration of nucleic acids decreased and the biosynthesjs rate increased dUring a one-month observation. By the end of the observation period (the first year) the parameters under study were normalized. The long-term administration of tritium oxide in daily doses of 0.37, 0.925 and 1.85 MBq/g body mass caused changes in the nucleac acid metabolism which were less manifest (at early times), than in the case of a single injection. At the same time, the long-term administration of tritium oxide in the dose of 0.925 MBq/g caused a substantial disturbance of the nucleic acid metabolism at later times (after 2-9 months)

  5. Cerebral Metabolic Changes Related to Oxidative Metabolism in a Model of Bacterial Meningitis Induced by Lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, M; Poulsen, F R; Larsen, L; Nordström, C H; Nielsen, T H

    2018-03-05

    Cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction is prominent in the pathophysiology of severe bacterial meningitis. In the present study, we hypothesize that the metabolic changes seen after intracisternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection in a piglet model of meningitis is compatible with mitochondrial dysfunction and resembles the metabolic patterns seen in patients with bacterial meningitis. Eight pigs received LPS injection in cisterna magna, and four pigs received NaCl in cisterna magna as a control. Biochemical variables related to energy metabolism were monitored by intracerebral microdialysis technique and included interstitial glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, and glycerol. The intracranial pressure (ICP) and brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO 2 ) were also monitored along with physiological variables including mean arterial pressure, blood glucose, lactate, and partial pressure of O 2 and CO 2 . Pigs were monitored for 60 min at baseline and 240 min after LPS/NaCl injection. After LPS injection, a significant increase in cerebral lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR) compared to control group was registered (p = 0.01). This increase was due to a significant increased lactate with stable and normal values of pyruvate. No significant change in PbtO 2 or ICP was registered. No changes in physiological variables were observed. The metabolic changes after intracisternal LPS injection is compatible with disturbance in the oxidative metabolism and partly due to mitochondrial dysfunction with increasing cerebral LPR due to increased lactate and normal pyruvate, PbtO 2 , and ICP. The metabolic pattern resembles the one observed in patients with bacterial meningitis. Metabolic monitoring in these patients is feasible to monitor for cerebral metabolic derangements otherwise missed by conventional intensive care monitoring.

  6. Altered oxidative stress and carbohydrate metabolism in canine mammary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jayasri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mammary tumors are the most prevalent type of neoplasms in canines. Even though cancer induced metabolic alterations are well established, the clinical data describing the metabolic profiles of animal tumors is not available. Hence, our present investigation was carried out with the aim of studying changes in carbohydrate metabolism along with the level of oxidative stress in canine mammary tumors. Materials and Methods: Fresh mammary tumor tissues along with the adjacent healthy tissues were collected from the college surgical ward. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, glutathione, protein, hexose, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD were analyzed in all the tissues. The results were analyzed statistically. Results: More than two-fold increase in TBARS and three-fold increase in glutathione levels were observed in neoplastic tissues. Hexokinase activity and hexose concentration (175% was found to be increased, whereas glucose-6-phosphatase (33%, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (42%, and G6PD (5 fold activities were reduced in tumor mass compared to control. Conclusion: Finally, it was revealed that lipid peroxidation was increased with differentially altered carbohydrate metabolism in canine mammary tumors.

  7. Comparison of Nitrogen Oxide Metabolism among Diverse Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Jessica A; Kits, K Dimitri; Stein, Lisa Y

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have well characterized genes that encode and express nitrite reductases (NIR) and nitric oxide reductases (NOR). However, the connection between presence or absence of these and other genes for nitrogen transformations with the physiological production of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) has not been tested across AOB isolated from various trophic states, with diverse phylogeny, and with closed genomes. It is therefore unclear if genomic content for nitrogen oxide metabolism is predictive of net N2O production. Instantaneous microrespirometry experiments were utilized to measure NO and N2O emitted by AOB during active oxidation of ammonia (NH3) or hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and through a period of anoxia. This data was used in concert with genomic content and phylogeny to assess whether taxonomic factors were predictive of nitrogen oxide metabolism. Results showed that two oligotrophic AOB strains lacking annotated NOR-encoding genes released large quantities of NO and produced N2O abiologically at the onset of anoxia following NH3-oxidation. Furthermore, high concentrations of N2O were measured during active O2-dependent NH2OH oxidation by the two oligotrophic AOB in contrast to non-oligotrophic strains that only produced N2O at the onset of anoxia. Therefore, complete nitrifier denitrification did not occur in the two oligotrophic strains, but did occur in meso- and eutrophic strains, even in Nitrosomonas communis Nm2 that lacks an annotated NIR-encoding gene. Regardless of mechanism, all AOB strains produced measureable N2O under tested conditions. This work further confirms that AOB require NOR activity to enzymatically reduce NO to N2O in the nitrifier denitrification pathway, and also that abiotic reactions play an important role in N2O formation, in oligotrophic AOB lacking NOR activity.

  8. Increasing NADH oxidation reduces overflow metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vemuri, Goutham; Eiteman, M.A; McEwen, J.E

    2007-01-01

    Crabtree effect.’’ The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has served as an important model organism for studying the Crabtree effect. When subjected to increasing glycolytic fluxes under aerobic conditions, there is a threshold value of the glucose uptake rate at which the metabolism shifts from purely...... effect is due to limited respiratory capacity or is caused by glucose-mediated repression of respiration. When respiration in S. cerevisiae was increased by introducing a heterologous alternative oxidase, we observed reduced aerobic ethanol formation. In contrast, increasing nonrespiratory NADH oxidation...

  9. Anesthesia with halothane and nitrous oxide alters protein and amino acid metabolism in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horber, F.F.; Krayer, S.; Rehder, K.; Haymond, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    General anesthesia in combination with surgery is known to result in negative nitrogen balance. To determine whether general anesthesia without concomitant surgery decreases whole body protein synthesis and/or increases whole body protein breakdown, two groups of dogs were studied: Group 1 (n = 6) in the conscious state and Group 2 (n = 8) during general anesthesia employing halothane (1.5 MAC) in 50% nitrous oxide and oxygen. Changes in protein metabolism were estimated by isotope dilution techniques employing simultaneous infusions of [4,53H]leucine and alpha-[1-14C]-ketoisocaproate (KIC). Total leucine carbon flux was unchanged or slightly increased in the anesthetized animals when compared to the conscious controls, indicating only a slight increase in the rate of proteolysis. However, leucine oxidation was increased (P less than 0.001) by more than 80% in the anesthetized animals when compared with their conscious controls, whereas whole body nonoxidative leucine disappearance, an indicator of whole body protein synthesis, was decreased. The ratio of leucine oxidation to the nonoxidative rate of leucine disappearance, which provides an index of the catabolism of at least one essential amino acid in the postabsorptive state, was more than twofold increased (P less than 0.001) in the anesthetized animals regardless of the tracer employed. These studies suggest that the administration of anesthesia alone, without concomitant surgery, is associated with a decreased rate of whole body protein synthesis and increased leucine oxidation, resulting in increased leucine and protein catabolism, which may be underlying or initiating some of the protein wasting known to occur in patients undergoing surgery

  10. Nitrate-Dependent Iron Oxidation: A Potential Mars Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alex; Pearson, Victoria K.; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Miot, Jennyfer; Olsson-Francis, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This work considers the hypothetical viability of microbial nitrate-dependent Fe2+ oxidation (NDFO) for supporting simple life in the context of the early Mars environment. This draws on knowledge built up over several decades of remote and in situ observation, as well as recent discoveries that have shaped current understanding of early Mars. Our current understanding is that certain early martian environments fulfill several of the key requirements for microbes with NDFO metabolism. First, abundant Fe2+ has been identified on Mars and provides evidence of an accessible electron donor; evidence of anoxia suggests that abiotic Fe2+ oxidation by molecular oxygen would not have interfered and competed with microbial iron metabolism in these environments. Second, nitrate, which can be used by some iron oxidizing microorganisms as an electron acceptor, has also been confirmed in modern aeolian and ancient sediment deposits on Mars. In addition to redox substrates, reservoirs of both organic and inorganic carbon are available for biosynthesis, and geochemical evidence suggests that lacustrine systems during the hydrologically active Noachian period (4.1–3.7 Ga) match the circumneutral pH requirements of nitrate-dependent iron-oxidizing microorganisms. As well as potentially acting as a primary producer in early martian lakes and fluvial systems, the light-independent nature of NDFO suggests that such microbes could have persisted in sub-surface aquifers long after the desiccation of the surface, provided that adequate carbon and nitrates sources were prevalent. Traces of NDFO microorganisms may be preserved in the rock record by biomineralization and cellular encrustation in zones of high Fe2+ concentrations. These processes could produce morphological biosignatures, preserve distinctive Fe-isotope variation patterns, and enhance preservation of biological organic compounds. Such biosignatures could be detectable by future missions to Mars with appropriate

  11. Nitrate-Dependent Iron Oxidation: A Potential Mars Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Price

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work considers the hypothetical viability of microbial nitrate-dependent Fe2+ oxidation (NDFO for supporting simple life in the context of the early Mars environment. This draws on knowledge built up over several decades of remote and in situ observation, as well as recent discoveries that have shaped current understanding of early Mars. Our current understanding is that certain early martian environments fulfill several of the key requirements for microbes with NDFO metabolism. First, abundant Fe2+ has been identified on Mars and provides evidence of an accessible electron donor; evidence of anoxia suggests that abiotic Fe2+ oxidation by molecular oxygen would not have interfered and competed with microbial iron metabolism in these environments. Second, nitrate, which can be used by some iron oxidizing microorganisms as an electron acceptor, has also been confirmed in modern aeolian and ancient sediment deposits on Mars. In addition to redox substrates, reservoirs of both organic and inorganic carbon are available for biosynthesis, and geochemical evidence suggests that lacustrine systems during the hydrologically active Noachian period (4.1–3.7 Ga match the circumneutral pH requirements of nitrate-dependent iron-oxidizing microorganisms. As well as potentially acting as a primary producer in early martian lakes and fluvial systems, the light-independent nature of NDFO suggests that such microbes could have persisted in sub-surface aquifers long after the desiccation of the surface, provided that adequate carbon and nitrates sources were prevalent. Traces of NDFO microorganisms may be preserved in the rock record by biomineralization and cellular encrustation in zones of high Fe2+ concentrations. These processes could produce morphological biosignatures, preserve distinctive Fe-isotope variation patterns, and enhance preservation of biological organic compounds. Such biosignatures could be detectable by future missions to Mars with

  12. The Mediterranean diet adoption improves metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory abnormalities in Algerian metabolic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkouche, L; Bouchenak, M; Malaisse, W J; Yahia, D Ait

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effects of Mediterranean diet (MD) adoption on insulin resistance, oxidative, and inflammatory status in metabolic syndrome (MS) patients. Eighty four patients with MS were randomly recruited in the medical centers of Oran, Algeria. Eighteen healthy participants were selected as a control group. Among these 84 patients, only 36 patients completed the nutritional advices for 3 months. Patients were instructed to follow a Mediterranean-style diet and received some other selected nutritional and physical activity instructions. Anthropometric measurements were performed and a questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and after 3 months of nutritional intervention from all subjects. At baseline, the MS patients were obese and had altered anthropometric parameters, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, urea, creatinine, uric acid, and lower albumin compared to healthy subjects. A decrease in plasma, erythrocyte, and platelet antioxidant enzymes, and a rise in lipid and protein oxidation, plasma CRP, and fibrinogen were noted in the MS patients. Moreover, they had an unbalanced dietary pattern when compared to Mediterranean recommendations. Patients following the Mediterranean-style diet had significantly reduced weight, BMI, waist circumference, waist/hip circumference ratio, decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, cholesterol, triacylglycerols, CRP, urea, creatinine, creatinine clearance, lipid and protein oxidation, and higher plasma, erythrocyte, and platelet antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, a lifestyle intervention based mainly on nutritional advices improves metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory abnormalities of metabolic syndrome. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Body condition score (BCS and metabolic status of shelter dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Andrighetto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A group of 147 shelter dogs were weighted and assigned a body condition score (BCS using a 9 point scale system, in order to evaluate the prevalence of obesity in the kennel. More than 60% of the animals showed a BCS³6 (overweight and obese and this condition was mainly attributed to an excess of carbohydrates and fat in the diet. In 67/147 dogs, a blood sample was drawn and the effects of BCS, age and time spent in the shelter were evaluated on biochemical parameters. Obese dogs showed significantly higher levels of triglycerides (P<0.01, while increasing BCS determined only an increasing non significant trend on cholesterol values. Age influenced creatinine (P<0.05 and the oldest dogs scoring BCS³6 registered significant higher NEFA (P<0.05 and CK (P=0.01 levels. Time spent in the shelter did not affect any parameter. The dogs’ metabolic condition reflects the need of taking more care of the quality of feed administered in the shelters to avoid the negative health effects caused by chronic obesity.

  14. Amino acid metabolism and whole-body protein turnover in lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of protein supplementation of a wheat straw diet on the metabolism of lysine, leucine, methionine and urea, and on whole-body protein turnover rate was investigated in lambs. The metabolism of lysine and leucine is reported elsewhere (Cronje et aI., 1992); in this paper methionine metabolism is discussed, and ...

  15. Metabolic Aspects of Caloric Restriction (500 Calories): Body Composition Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    adjusted to Increased caloric intake. Allen and Musgrave (20) felt that decreases in body fat and water in a two-component system were adequate for...about 73% of body muscle weight). Body water - The total amount of water in the body, 72% of the lean body mass. Creatinine - Urinary excretory product

  16. Techniques for determining total body water using deuterium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Phillip A.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of total body water (TBW) is fundamental to the study of body fluid changes consequent to microgravity exposure or treatment with microgravity countermeasures. Often, the use of radioactive isotopes is prohibited for safety or other reasons. It was selected and implemented for use by some Johnson Space Center (JCS) laboratories, which permitted serial measurements over a 14 day period which was accurate enough to serve as a criterion method for validating new techniques. These requirements resulted in the selection of deuterium oxide dilution as the method of choice for TBW measurement. The development of this technique at JSC is reviewed. The recommended dosage, body fluid sampling techniques, and deuterium assay options are described.

  17. Metabolic oxidative stress in cancer biology and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells (relative to normal cells) exhibit increased glycolysis and pentose cycle activity. These metabolic alterations were thought to arise from damage to the respiratory mechanism and cancer cells were thought to compensate for this defect by increasing glycolysis (Science 132:309). In addition to its role in ATP production, glucose metabolism results in the formation of pyruvate and NADPH which both play an integral role in peroxide detoxification (Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 899:349). Recently, cancer cells have been shown to have enhanced susceptibility to glucose deprivation-induced oxidative stress, relative to normal cells, that is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS; Biochem.J. 418:29-37). These results support the hypothesis that cancer cells may have a defect in mitochondrial respiration leading to increased steady-state levels of ROS (i.e., O 2 and H 2 O 2 ) and glucose metabolism may be increased to provide reducing equivalents to compensate for this defect. The application of these findings to developing new combined modality cancer therapy protocols will be discussed. (author)

  18. Remodeling of Oxidative Energy Metabolism by Galactose Improves Glucose Handling and Metabolic Switching in Human Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Eili Tranheim; Nikolić, Nataša; Bakke, Siril Skaret; Bogen, Kaja Kamilla; Aas, Vigdis; Thoresen, G. Hege; Rustan, Arild Christian

    2013-01-01

    Cultured human myotubes have a low mitochondrial oxidative potential. This study aims to remodel energy metabolism in myotubes by replacing glucose with galactose during growth and differentiation to ultimately examine the consequences for fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Exposure to galactose showed an increased [14C]oleic acid oxidation, whereas cellular uptake of oleic acid uptake was unchanged. On the other hand, both cellular uptake and oxidation of [14C]glucose increased in myotubes exposed to galactose. In the presence of the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonylcyanide p-trifluormethoxy-phenylhydrazone (FCCP) the reserve capacity for glucose oxidation was increased in cells grown with galactose. Staining and live imaging of the cells showed that myotubes exposed to galactose had a significant increase in mitochondrial and neutral lipid content. Suppressibility of fatty acid oxidation by acute addition of glucose was increased compared to cells grown in presence of glucose. In summary, we show that cells grown in galactose were more oxidative, had increased oxidative capacity and higher mitochondrial content, and showed an increased glucose handling. Interestingly, cells exposed to galactose showed an increased suppressibility of fatty acid metabolism. Thus, galactose improved glucose metabolism and metabolic switching of myotubes, representing a cell model that may be valuable for metabolic studies related to insulin resistance and disorders involving mitochondrial impairments. PMID:23560061

  19. Cellular metabolic rates from primary dermal fibroblast cells isolated from birds of different body masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-10-01

    The rate of metabolism is the speed at which organisms use energy, an integration of energy transformations within the body; it governs biological processes that influence rates of growth and reproduction. Progress at understanding functional linkages between whole organism metabolic rate and underlying mechanisms that influence its magnitude has been slow despite the central role this issue plays in evolutionary and physiological ecology. Previous studies that have attempted to relate how cellular processes translate into whole-organism physiology have done so over a range of body masses of subjects. However, the data still remains controversial when observing metabolic rates at the cellular level. To bridge the gap between these ideas, we examined cellular metabolic rate of primary dermal fibroblasts isolated from 49 species of birds representing a 32,000-fold range in body masses to test the hypothesis that metabolic rate of cultured cells scales with body size. We used a Seahorse XF-96 Extracellular flux analyzer to measure cellular respiration in fibroblasts. Additionally, we measured fibroblast size and mitochondrial content. We found no significant correlation between cellular metabolic rate, cell size, or mitochondrial content and body mass. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between cellular basal metabolic rate and proton leak in these cells. We conclude that metabolic rate of cells isolated in culture does not scale with body mass, but cellular metabolic rate is correlated to growth rate in birds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Common variants near MC4R in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Holst, C; Toubro, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure....

  1. Body Composition and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    de Figueiredo Ferreira, Marina; Detrano, Filipe; Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Barros, Maria Elisa; Serrão Lanzillotti, Regina; Firmino Nogueira Neto, José; Portella, Emilson Souza; Serrão Lanzillotti, Haydée; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine which of the seven selected equations used to predict basal metabolic rate most accurately estimated the measured basal metabolic rate. Methods. Twenty-eight adult women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were measured as well as body composition (by absorptiometry dual X-ray emission) and basal metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry); basal metabolic rate was als...

  2. Oxidative Inactivation of Liver Mitochondria in High Fructose Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats: Effect of Glycyrrhizin Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Rajarshi; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a serious health problem in the present world. Glycyrrhizin, a triterpenoid saponin of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root, has been reported to ameliorate the primary complications and hepatocellular damage in rats with the syndrome. In this study, we have explored metabolic syndrome-induced changes in liver mitochondrial function and effect of glycyrrhizin against the changes. Metabolic syndrome was induced in rats by high fructose (60%) diet for 6 weeks. The rats were then treated with glycyrrhizin (50 mg/kg body weight) by single intra-peritoneal injection. After 2 weeks of the treatment, the rats were sacrificed to collect liver tissue. Elevated mitochondrial ROS, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl, and decreased reduced glutathione content indicated oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome. Loss of mitochondrial inner membrane cardiolipin was observed. Mitochondrial complex I activity did not change but complex IV activity decreased significantly. Mitochondrial MTT reduction ability, membrane potential, phosphate utilisation and oxygen consumption decreased in metabolic syndrome. Reduced mitochondrial aconitase activity and increased aconitase carbonyl content suggested oxidative damage of the enzyme. Elevated Fe(2+) ion level in mitochondria might be associated with increased ROS generation in metabolic syndrome. Glycyrrhizin effectively attenuated mitochondrial oxidative stress and aconitase degradation, and improved electron transport chain activity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A study of passive weight-bearing lower limb exercise effects on local muscles and whole body oxidative metabolism: a comparison with simulated horse riding, bicycle, and walking exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Kohsuke; Murase, Norio; Osada, Takuya; Kime, Ryotaro; Anjo, Mikiko; Esaki, Kazuki; Shiroishi, Kiyoshi; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2009-11-10

    We have developed an exercise machine prototype for increasing exercise intensity by means of passively exercising lower limb muscles. The purpose of the present study was to compare the passive exercise intensity of our newly-developed machine with the intensities of different types of exercises. We also attempted to measure muscle activity to study how these forms of exercise affected individual parts of the body. Subjects were 14 healthy men with the following demographics: age 30 years, height 171.5 cm, weight 68.3 kg. They performed 4 types of exercise: Passive weight-bearing lower limb exercise (PWLLE), Simulated horse riding exercise (SHRE), Bicycle exercise, and Walking exercise, as described below at an interval of one week or longer. Oxygen uptake, blood pressure, heart rate, and electromyogram (EMG) were measured or recorded during exercise. At rest prior to exercise and immediately after the end of each exercise intensity, the oxygenated hemoglobin levels of the lower limb muscles were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy to calculate the rate of decline. This rate of decline was obtained immediately after exercise as well as at rest to calculate oxygen consumption of the lower limb muscles as expressed as a ratio of a post-exercise rate of decline to a resting one. The heart rate and oxygen uptake observed in PWLLE during maximal intensity were comparable to that of a 20-watt bicycle exercise or 2 km/hr walking exercise. Maximal intensity PWLLE was found to provoke muscle activity comparable to an 80-watt bicycle or 6 km/hr walking exercise. As was the case with the EMG results, during maximal intensity PWLLE, the rectus femoris muscle consumed oxygen in amounts identical to that of an 80-watt bicycle or a 6 km/hr walking exercise. Passive weight-bearing lower limb exercise using our trial machine could provide approximately 3 MET of exercise and the thigh exhibited muscle activity equivalent to that of 80-watt bicycle or 6 km/hr walking exercise

  4. Regulation of myocardial ketone body metabolism by the gut microbiota during nutrient deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Peter A.; Crowley, Jan R.; Sambandam, Nandakumar; Muegge, Brian D.; Costello, Elizabeth K.; Hamady, Micah; Knight, Rob; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2009-01-01

    Studies in mice indicate that the gut microbiota promotes energy harvest and storage from components of the diet when these components are plentiful. Here we examine how the microbiota shapes host metabolic and physiologic adaptations to periods of nutrient deprivation. Germ-free (GF) mice and mice who had received a gut microbiota transplant from conventionally raised donors were compared in the fed and fasted states by using functional genomic, biochemical, and physiologic assays. A 24-h fast produces a marked change in gut microbial ecology. Short-chain fatty acids generated from microbial fermentation of available glycans are maintained at higher levels compared with GF controls. During fasting, a microbiota-dependent, Pparα-regulated increase in hepatic ketogenesis occurs, and myocardial metabolism is directed to ketone body utilization. Analyses of heart rate, hydraulic work, and output, mitochondrial morphology, number, and respiration, plus ketone body, fatty acid, and glucose oxidation in isolated perfused working hearts from GF and colonized animals (combined with in vivo assessments of myocardial physiology) revealed that the fasted GF heart is able to sustain its performance by increasing glucose utilization, but heart weight, measured echocardiographically or as wet mass and normalized to tibial length or lean body weight, is significantly reduced in both fasted and fed mice. This myocardial-mass phenotype is completely reversed in GF mice by consumption of a ketogenic diet. Together, these results illustrate benefits provided by the gut microbiota during periods of nutrient deprivation, and emphasize the importance of further exploring the relationship between gut microbes and cardiovascular health. PMID:19549860

  5. Relationships between inflammation, adiponectin, and oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ju Chen

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS represents a cluster of physiological and anthropometric abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the levels of inflammation, adiponectin, and oxidative stress in subjects with MS. The inclusion criteria for MS, according to the Taiwan Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, were applied to the case group (n = 72. The control group (n = 105 comprised healthy individuals with normal blood biochemical values. The levels of inflammatory markers [high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6, adiponectin, an oxidative stress marker (malondialdehyde, and antioxidant enzymes activities [catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx] were measured. Subjects with MS had significantly higher concentrations of inflammatory markers and lower adiponectin level, and lower antioxidant enzymes activities than the control subjects. The levels of inflammatory markers and adiponectin were significantly correlated with the components of MS. The level of hs-CRP was significantly correlated with the oxidative stress marker. The IL-6 level was significantly correlated with the SOD and GPx activities, and the adiponectin level was significantly correlated with the GPx activity. A higher level of hs-CRP (≥1.00 mg/L, or IL-6 (≥1.50 pg/mL or a lower level of adiponectin (<7.90 µg/mL were associated with a significantly greater risk of MS. In conclusion, subjects suffering from MS may have a higher inflammation status and a higher level of oxidative stress. A higher inflammation status was significantly correlated with decreases in the levels of antioxidant enzymes and adiponectin and an increase in the risk of MS.

  6. Hibernation in black bears: independence of metabolic suppression from body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøien, Øivind; Blake, John; Edgar, Dale M; Grahn, Dennis A; Heller, H Craig; Barnes, Brian M

    2011-02-18

    Black bears hibernate for 5 to 7 months a year and, during this time, do not eat, drink, urinate, or defecate. We measured metabolic rate and body temperature in hibernating black bears and found that they suppress metabolism to 25% of basal rates while regulating body temperature from 30° to 36°C, in multiday cycles. Heart rates were reduced from 55 to as few as 9 beats per minute, with profound sinus arrhythmia. After returning to normal body temperature and emerging from dens, bears maintained a reduced metabolic rate for up to 3 weeks. The pronounced reduction and delayed recovery of metabolic rate in hibernating bears suggest that the majority of metabolic suppression during hibernation is independent of lowered body temperature.

  7. The effect of fractionated plasma separation and adsorption on cerebral amino acid metabolism and oxidative metabolism during acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Peter Nissen; Hauerberg, John; Frederiksen, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Patients with acute liver failure have a disturbed amino acid metabolism and a compromised oxidative metabolism in the brain. A limited number of clinically neuroprotective interventions are available. This study aimed at assessing the effect of fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (FPSA......), an extracorporeal liver support system, on cerebral amino acids and lactate to pyruvate ratio....

  8. Avian basal metabolic rates : their association with body composition and energy expenditure in nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Masman, Dirkjan; Groenewold, Alex

    Measurements of basal metabolic rate (BMR), body water, fat, and lean dry mass of different organs were obtained in 22 bird species, ranging from 10.8 to 1,253 g body mass. Residuals of BMR (after subtracting BMR allometrically predicted from body mass) were positively correlated with residuals of

  9. Associations between Body Composition Indices and Metabolic Disorders in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: This study identified positive associations between all evaluated body composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults. Among the body composition indices, BMI predicted four of the five evaluated metabolic disorders in both gender groups.

  10. Distal, not proximal, colonic acetate infusions promote fat oxidation and improve metabolic markers in overweight/obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Beek, Christina M; Canfora, Emanuel E; Lenaerts, Kaatje

    2016-01-01

    . In this randomized, double-blind crossover trial, six overweight/obese men [body mass index (BMI) 25-35 kg/m(2)] underwent two experimental periods: one with distal and one with proximal colonic sodium acetate infusions. A feeding catheter was endoscopically positioned at the beginning of each period and remained......Gut microbial-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are believed to affect host metabolism and cardiometabolic risk factors. The present study aim was to investigate the effects of proximal and distal colonic infusions with the SCFA acetate on fat oxidation and other metabolic parameters in men...

  11. Metabolic and body composition changes in first year following traumatic amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckard, Carly S; Pruziner, Alison L; Sanchez, Allison D; Andrews, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    Body composition and metabolism may change considerably after traumatic amputation because of muscle atrophy and an increase in adiposity. The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in weight, body composition, and metabolic rate during the first year following traumatic amputation in military servicemembers. Servicemembers without amputation were included for comparison. Participants were measured within the first 12 wk after amputation (baseline) and at 6, 9, and 12 mo after amputation. Muscle mass, fat mass, weight, and metabolic rate were measured at each time point. There was a significant increase in weight and body mass index in the unilateral group between baseline and all follow-up visits (p amputation.

  12. Body composition and energy metabolism in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes several studies related to the three components of energy balance in elderly people: body composition, energy expenditure, and energy intake.

    Body composition. The applicability of the body mass index, skinfold thickness method, and

  13. A ketogenic diet increases transport and oxidation of ketone bodies in RG2 and 9L gliomas without affecting tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feyter, Henk M; Behar, Kevin L; Rao, Jyotsna U; Madden-Hennessey, Kirby; Ip, Kevan L; Hyder, Fahmeed; Drewes, Lester R; Geschwind, Jean-François; de Graaf, Robin A; Rothman, Douglas L

    2016-08-01

    The dependence of tumor cells, particularly those originating in the brain, on glucose is the target of the ketogenic diet, which creates a plasma nutrient profile similar to fasting: increased levels of ketone bodies and reduced plasma glucose concentrations. The use of ketogenic diets has been of particular interest for therapy in brain tumors, which reportedly lack the ability to oxidize ketone bodies and therefore would be starved during ketosis. Because studies assessing the tumors' ability to oxidize ketone bodies are lacking, we investigated in vivo the extent of ketone body oxidation in 2 rodent glioma models. Ketone body oxidation was studied using (13)C MR spectroscopy in combination with infusion of a (13)C-labeled ketone body (beta-hydroxybutyrate) in RG2 and 9L glioma models. The level of ketone body oxidation was compared with nontumorous cortical brain tissue. The level of (13)C-beta-hydroxybutyrate oxidation in 2 rat glioma models was similar to that of contralateral brain. In addition, when glioma-bearing animals were fed a ketogenic diet, the ketone body monocarboxylate transporter was upregulated, facilitating uptake and oxidation of ketone bodies in the gliomas. These results demonstrate that rat gliomas can oxidize ketone bodies and indicate upregulation of ketone body transport when fed a ketogenic diet. Our findings contradict the hypothesis that brain tumors are metabolically inflexible and show the need for additional research on the use of ketogenic diets as therapy targeting brain tumor metabolism. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Reduction of Energetic Demands through Modification of Body Size and Routine Metabolic Rates in Extremophile Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, Courtney N; Greenway, Ryan; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Jeyasingh, Punidan D; Tobler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Variation in energy availability or maintenance costs in extreme environments can exert selection for efficient energy use, and reductions in organismal energy demand can be achieved in two ways: reducing body mass or metabolic suppression. Whether long-term exposure to extreme environmental conditions drives adaptive shifts in body mass or metabolic rates remains an open question. We studied body size variation and variation in routine metabolic rates in locally adapted populations of extremophile fish (Poecilia mexicana) living in toxic, hydrogen sulfide-rich springs and caves. We quantified size distributions and routine metabolic rates in wild-caught individuals from four habitat types. Compared with ancestral populations in nonsulfidic surface habitats, extremophile populations were characterized by significant reductions in body size. Despite elevated metabolic rates in cave fish, the body size reduction precipitated in significantly reduced energy demands in all extremophile populations. Laboratory experiments on common garden-raised fish indicated that elevated routine metabolic rates in cave fish likely have a genetic basis. The results of this study indicate that adaptation to extreme environments directly impacts energy metabolism, with fish living in cave and sulfide spring environments expending less energy overall during routine metabolism.

  15. Whole-body fat oxidation determined by graded exercise and indirect calorimetry: a role for muscle oxidative capacity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, P; Saltin, B; Helge, J W

    2006-01-01

    During whole-body exercise, peak fat oxidation occurs at a moderate intensity. This study investigated whole-body peak fat oxidation in untrained and trained subjects, and the presence of a relation between skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity and whole-body peak fat oxidation. Healthy male...... subjects were recruited and categorized into an untrained (N=8, VO(2max) 3.5+/-0.1 L/min) and a trained (N=8, VO(2max) 4.6+/-0.2 L/min) group. Subjects performed a graded exercise test commencing at 60 W for 8 min followed by 35 W increments every 3 min. On a separate day, muscle biopsies were obtained...... oxidation was determined. The body composition was determined by DEXA. Whole-body peak fat oxidation (250+/-25 and 462+/-33 mg/min) was higher (Ptrained compared with untrained subjects, respectively. Muscle...

  16. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... functions: Anabolism (uh-NAB-uh-liz-um), or constructive metabolism, is all about building and storing. It ... in infants and young children. Hypothyroidism slows body processes and causes fatigue (tiredness), slow heart rate, excessive ...

  17. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a particular food provides to the body. A chocolate bar has more calories than an apple, so ... acid phenylalanine, needed for normal growth and protein production). Inborn errors of metabolism can sometimes lead to ...

  18. Toxicity and metabolism of 3'-deoxyadenosine N*O1-oxide in mice and Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Karsten Ramløv; Overgaard-Hansen, Kay; Frederiksen, Sune

    1992-01-01

    Medicinsk biokemi, 3'-deoxyadenosine N*O1-oxide, metabolism, Ehrlich ascites cells, toxicity, mice......Medicinsk biokemi, 3'-deoxyadenosine N*O1-oxide, metabolism, Ehrlich ascites cells, toxicity, mice...

  19. Body shape shifting during growth permits tests that distinguish between competing geometric theories of metabolic scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Glazier, Douglas S.; Atkinson, David

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism fuels all of life’s activities, from biochemical reactions to ecological interactions. According to two intensely debated theories, body size affects metabolism via geometrical influences on the transport of resources and wastes. However, these theories differ crucially in whether...... theory, but contradicting the negative correlations predicted by resource-transport network models. This finding explains strong deviations from predictions of widely adopted theory, and underpins a new explanation for mass-invariant metabolic scaling during ontogeny in animals and plants...

  20. Newborn Body Fat: Associations with Maternal Metabolic State and Placental Size

    OpenAIRE

    Friis, Camilla M.; Qvigstad, Elisabeth; Paasche Roland, Marie Cecilie; Godang, Kristin; Voldner, Nanna; Bollerslev, Jens; Henriksen, Tore

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neonatal body composition has implications for the health of the newborn both in short and long term perspective. The objective of the current study was first to explore the association between maternal BMI and metabolic parameters associated with BMI and neonatal percentage body fat and to determine to which extent any associations were modified if adjusting for placental weight. Secondly, we examined the relations between maternal metabolic parameters associated with BMI and pla...

  1. Is higher dairy consumption associated with lower body weight and fewer metabolic disturbances? The Hoorn study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, Marieke B.; Van Der Heijden, Amber A W A; Van Dam, Rob M.; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hiddink, Gerrit J.; Nijpels, Giel; Heine, Robert J.; Bouter, Lex M.; Dekker, Jacqueline M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dairy consumption has been postulated to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic disturbances. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of dairy consumption with body weight and other components of the metabolic syndrome. DESIGN: We used cross-sectional data for

  2. Is higher dairy consumption associated with lower body weight and fewer metabolic disturbances? The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M.B.; Heijden, van der A.A.; Dam, van R.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Hiddink, G.J.; Nijpels, Giel; Heine, R.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Dekker, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of dairy consumption with body weight and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Design:We used cross-sectional data for 2064 men and women aged 50¿75 y who participated in the Hoorn Study. The metabolic syndrome was defined

  3. Association of vegan diet with RMR, body composition and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimi, Hoda; Yousefi Nejad, Abbas; Djazayery, Abolghasem; Hosseini, Mostafa; Hosseini, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that a vegetarian diet low in fat and high in complex carbohydrates offers the potential for decreasing the risk of chronic disease. However, there is little information about the effect of vegetarian diets on resting metabolic rate (RMR). The objective of this study was to determine the association of vegan diet with RMR and body composition and oxidative stress. This research is a cross-sectional descriptive analytic study in which two groups of vegetarians and non vegetarians were compared. RMR was determined by indirect calorimetry, the amount of body fat mass (FM), the percentage of free fat mass (FFM), the markers of oxidative stress (MAD), poteins (PCO) and total anti-oxidatant capacity were measured in 20 vegetarians and 20 non-vegetarians. The two groups were matched with regard to body mass index, sex and menstrual cycle. Energy and macronutrient intakes were determined using a 3-day food record and body composition was determined by bioelectric impedance. VEG reported a lower relative intake of protein (40.45 ± 19.41 g, 56.96 ± 11.94 g, p = 0.04), whereas no differences were observed in daily energy, carbohydrate or fat intakes and body composition. NVEG exhibited a higher absolute RMR (1354.7 ± 192.6, 1569.10 ± 348.24 Kcal/24 h, p = 0.02). PCO plasma density was seen significantly higher among non-vegetarians (1.09 ± 3.6, 0.81 ± 0.42, p = 0.02). No significant differences were seen in plasma density of TAC between two groups and MAD was higher amoung vegetarians. These results suggest that the lower RMR observed in VEG is partially mediated by differences in dietary macronutrient composition.

  4. Quantitative combination of natural anti-oxidants prevents metabolic syndrome by reducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingjing; Zhao, Zhen; Lv, Pengyu; Li, YuFang; Gao, Juntao; Zhang, Michael; Zhao, Baolu

    2015-12-01

    Insulin resistance and abdominal obesity are present in the majority of people with the metabolic syndrome. Antioxidant therapy might be a useful strategy for type 2 diabetes and other insulin-resistant states. The combination of vitamin C (Vc) and vitamin E has synthetic scavenging effect on free radicals and inhibition effect on lipid peroxidation. However, there are few studies about how to define the best combination of more than three anti-oxidants as it is difficult or impossible to test the anti-oxidant effect of the combination of every concentration of each ingredient experimentally. Here we present a math model, which is based on the classical Hill equation to determine the best combination, called Fixed Dose Combination (FDC), of several natural anti-oxidants, including Vc, green tea polyphenols (GTP) and grape seed extract proanthocyanidin (GSEP). Then we investigated the effects of FDC on oxidative stress, blood glucose and serum lipid levels in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats which serve as obesity model, and KK-ay mice as diabetic model. The level of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) in the treated rats was studied and Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining or Oil red slices of liver and adipose tissue in the rats were examined as well. FDC shows excellent antioxidant and anti-glycation activity by attenuating lipid peroxidation. FDC determined in this investigation can become a potential solution to reduce obesity, to improve insulin sensitivity and be beneficial for the treatment of fat and diabetic patients. It is the first time to use the math model to determine the best ratio of three anti-oxidants, which can save much more time and chemical materials than traditional experimental method. This quantitative method represents a potentially new and useful strategy to screen all possible combinations of many natural anti-oxidants, therefore may help develop novel therapeutics with the potential to ameliorate the worldwide metabolic

  5. Obesity, body composition and metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Fog; Nilas, Lisbeth; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the impact of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity on glucose and lipid metabolism and beta-cell function in women with PCOS. METHODS: In 35 women with PCOS (17 lean, lean PCOS and 18 obese, obese PCOS) and 25 control women (9 lean, lean controls and 16 obese...

  6. Inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) enhances skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeuwes, W F; Gosker, H R; Langen, R C J; Verhees, K J P; Pansters, N A M; Schols, A M W J; Remels, A H V

    2017-12-01

    Aberrant skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative metabolism is a debilitating feature of chronic diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic heart failure. Evidence in non-muscle cells suggests that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) represses mitochondrial biogenesis and inhibits PPAR-γ co-activator 1 (PGC-1), a master regulator of cellular oxidative metabolism. The role of GSK-3β in the regulation of skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism is unknown. We hypothesized that inactivation of GSK-3β stimulates muscle oxidative metabolism by activating PGC-1 signaling and explored if GSK-3β inactivation could protect against physical inactivity-induced alterations in skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism. GSK-3β was modulated genetically and pharmacologically in C2C12 myotubes in vitro and in skeletal muscle in vivo. Wild-type and muscle-specific GSK-3β knock-out (KO) mice were subjected to hind limb suspension for 14days. Key constituents of oxidative metabolism and PGC-1 signaling were investigated. In vitro, knock-down of GSK-3β increased mitochondrial DNA copy number, protein and mRNA abundance of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes and activity of oxidative metabolic enzymes but also enhanced protein and mRNA abundance of key PGC-1 signaling constituents. Similarly, pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3β increased transcript and protein abundance of key constituents and regulators of mitochondrial energy metabolism. Furthermore, GSK-3β KO animals were protected against unloading-induced decrements in expression levels of these constituents. Inactivation of GSK-3β up-regulates skeletal muscle mitochondrial metabolism and increases expression levels of PGC-1 signaling constituents. In vivo, GSK-3β KO protects against inactivity-induced reductions in muscle metabolic gene expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modulation of lipid metabolism by Centella asiatica in oxidative stress rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, M; Hamid, A A; Mohamad, S; Saari, N; Bakar, F; Dek, S P

    2009-03-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the effects of Centella asiatica leaf on lipid metabolism of oxidative stress rats. The rats were fed 0.1% hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) with either 0.3% (w/w) C. asiatica extract, 5%C. asiatica powder (w/w), or 0.3% (w/w) alpha-tocopherol for 25 wk. Results of the study showed that C. asiatica powder significantly (P asiatica-fed rats were also found to have significantly (P asiatica extract and powder was found to be significantly (P asiatica significantly decreased body and liver weights of the rats. Histological examinations revealed no obvious changes in all rats studied. Quantitative analysis of C. asiatica leaf revealed high concentration of total phenolic compounds, in particular, catechin, quercetin, and rutin.

  8. Investigation of protein and lipid metabolism in thyroid pathology using whole-body radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorobets, V.F.; Matveenko, E.G.

    1987-01-01

    Radiometry of the whole body and its organs was employed to study certain aspects of protein-aminoacid and lipid metabolism in patients with thyroid diseases. Metabolism of human serum 131 I-albumin was studied in 12 patients with neurocirculatory dystonia, in 13 patients with diffuse toxic goiter (in 10 before and after drug therapy) and in 9 controls. 75 Se-methionine aminoacid metabolism was investigated in 9 patients with toxic thyroid adenoma and in 13 controls. The body cell mass was determined in 82 patients with thyrotoxicosis by a measurable amount of 40 K. These data were compared with those of 249 healthy persons. An increase in catabolism of labeled albumin, intensification of labeled methionine metabolism at the tissue level, signs of a decrease in the total amount of metabolic albumin in the body were revealed. Intensification of protein metabolism resulted in a decrease in the body cell mass of these patients. After adequate therapy the above indices of protein metabolism in patients with thyrotoxicosis returned to normal. The assimilation of fatty acids and neutral fat was disturbed both in thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism

  9. Basal metabolic rate scaled to body mass within species by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basal metabolic rate scaled to body mass within species by the fractal dimension of the vascular system and body composition. ... The postulate bd = c is shown to hold for both these species within the limits of experimental error, with the crucian carp evidence being especially convincing, since b, c and d are estimated from ...

  10. Neuroendocrine Mechanisms Involved in Regulation of Body Weight, Food Intake and Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffens, A.B.; Strubbe, J.H.; Balkan, B.; Scheurink, A.J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Body weight regulation is the result of food intake and energy expenditure. The central nervous system (CNS), and in particular, the hypothalamus, controls food intake as well as metabolism, the latter mainly by autonomic effects on the islet of Langerhans, hepatocytes and adipocytes. Body weight,

  11. Regulation of egg quality and lipids metabolism by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ding, Zhao-Peng; Wang, Shi-Wen; Shen, Wei; Min, Ling-Jiang; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2016-04-01

    This investigation was designed to explore the effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NP) on egg quality and the mechanism of decreasing of yolk lipids. Different concentration of ZnO NP and ZnSO4 were used to treat hens for 24 weeks. The body weight and egg laying frequency were recorded and analyzed. Albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk color score were analyzed by an Egg Multi Tester. Breaking strength was determined by an Egg Force Reader. Egg shell thickness was measured using an Egg Shell Thickness Gouge. Shell color was detected by a spectrophotometer. Egg shape index was measured by Egg Form Coefficient Measuring Instrument. Albumen and yolk protein was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Amino acids were determined by an amino acids analyzer. Trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, and P (mg/kg wet mass) were determined in digested solutions using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. TC and TG were measured using commercial analytical kits. Yolk triglyceride, total cholesterol, pancreatic lipase, and phospholipids were determined by appropriate kits. β-carotene was determined by spectrophotometry. Lipid metabolism was also investigated with liver, plasma, and ovary samples. ZnO NP did not change the body weight of hens during the treatment period. ZnO NP slowed down egg laying frequency at the beginning of egg laying period but not at later time. ZnO NP did not affect egg protein or water contents, slightly decreased egg physical parameters (12 to 30%) and trace elements (20 to 35%) after 24 weeks treatment. However, yolk lipids content were significantly decreased by ZnO NP (20 to 35%). The mechanism of Zinc oxide nanoparticles decreasing yolk lipids was that they decreased the synthesis of lipids and increased lipid digestion. These data suggested ZnO NP affected egg quality and specifically regulated lipids metabolism in hens through altering the function of hen's ovary and liver. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Metabolic Differences between Dogs of Different Body Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondo P. Middleton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The domesticated dog, Canis lupus familiaris, has been selectively bred to produce extreme diversity in phenotype and genotype. Dogs have an immense diversity in weight and height. Specific differences in metabolism have not been characterized in small dogs as compared to larger dogs. Objectives. This study aims to identify metabolic, clinical, and microbiota differences between small and larger dogs. Methods. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, clinical chemistry analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and 16S pyrosequencing were used to characterize blood metabolic, clinical, and fecal microbiome systems, respectively. Eighty-three canines from seven different breeds, fed the same kibble diet for 5 weeks, were used in the study. Results. 449 metabolites, 16 clinical parameters, and 6 bacteria (at the genus level were significantly different between small and larger dogs. Hierarchical clustering of the metabolites yielded 8 modules associated with small dog size. Conclusion. Small dogs had a lower antioxidant status and differences in circulating amino acids. Some of the amino acid differences could be attributed to differences in microflora. Additionally, analysis of small dog metabolites and clinical parameters reflected a network which strongly associates with kidney function.

  13. The Significance of Epidermal Lipid Metabolism in Whole-Body Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Vibeke; Neess, Ditte; Færgeman, Nils J

    2017-01-01

    The skin is the largest sensory organ of the human body. The skin not only prevents loss of water and other components of the body, but also is involved in regulation of body temperature and serves as an essential barrier, protecting mammals from both routine and extreme environments. Given...... the importance of the skin in temperature regulation, it is surprising that adaptive alterations in skin functions and morphology only vaguely have been associated with systemic physiological responses. Despite that impaired lipid metabolism in the skin often impairs the epidermal permeability barrier...... and insulation properties of the skin, its role in regulating systemic physiology and metabolism is yet to be recognized....

  14. Investigation of cytokines, oxidative stress, metabolic, and inflammatory biomarkers after orange juice consumption by normal and overweight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace K. Z. S. Dourado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal adiposity has been linked to metabolic abnormalities, including dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, and low-grade inflammation. Objective: To test the hypothesis that consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ would improve metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory biomarkers and cytokine levels in normal and overweight subjects with increased waist circumference. Design: Subjects were divided into two groups in accordance with their body mass index: normal and overweight. Both groups of individuals consumed 750 mL of OJ daily for 8 weeks. Body composition (weight, height, percentage of fat mass, and waist circumference; metabolic biomarkers (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], triglycerides, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and glycated hemoglobin; oxidative biomarkers (malondialdehyde and DPPH•; inflammatory biomarkers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]; cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, and IFN-γ; and diet were evaluated before and after consumption of OJ for 8 weeks. Results: The major findings of this study were: 1 no alteration in body composition in either group; 2 improvement of the lipid profile, evidenced by a reduction in total cholesterol and LDL-C; 3 a potential stimulation of the immune response due to increase in IL-12; 4 anti-inflammatory effect as a result of a marked reduction in hsCRP; and 5 antioxidant action by the enhancement of total antioxidant capacity and the reduction of lipid peroxidation, in both normal and overweight subjects. Conclusions: OJ consumption has a positive effect on important biomarkers of health status in normal and overweight subjects, thereby supporting evidence that OJ acts as functional food and could be consumed as part of a healthy diet to prevent metabolic and chronic diseases.

  15. Histological changes, lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in the liver of Bufo gargarizans exposed to cadmium concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Zhang, Yuhui; Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan

    2017-07-01

    Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (5, 50, 100, 200 and 500 μg Cd L -1 ) from Gosner stage 3-42. Metamorphosis rate, body weight, total length and body length were measured. Histological alterations in thyroid gland and liver were examined. Changes in hepatocyte were also examined using Transmission electron microscopic. In addition, the mRNA expression of several genes involved in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and thyroid hormones signaling pathways were also measured. Our results showed that 200 and 500 μg Cd L -1 decreased the metamorphosis rate and inhibited the body size of B. gargarizans larvae at G42. Moreover, histological examinations have clearly exhibited that cadmium caused liver damage. Ultrastructural examination revealed lipid accumulation and abnormal mitochondria. Exposure to 200 and 500 μg Cd L -1 significantly up-regulated mRNA expression of D2, SOD, GPx, ACC and FAE, but down-regulated mRNA expression of TRα, TRβ, PPARα, ACOX, CPT and SCP. However, low Cd concentration (5, 50 and 100) exposure did not cause any effect in genes expression. Thus, we conclude that high Cd concentrations could affect the normal processes of lipid metabolism though increasing lipid synthesis and reducing the ability of fatty acid β-oxidation, and disturb thyroid hormone pathways in liver, and induced oxidative stress. In addition, lipid metabolism might be regulated by THs. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to report the influence of cadmium on hepatic lipid metabolism in B. gargarizans and will greatly provide new insights into cadmium hepatotoxicity in amphibian. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Are the surface areas of the gills and body involved with changing metabolic scaling with temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ge; Lv, Xiao; Zhou, Jing; Shen, Cong; Xia, Danyang; Xie, Hang; Luo, Yiping

    2018-03-20

    The metabolic-level boundaries (MLB) hypothesis proposes that metabolic level mediates the relative influence of surface area (SA) vs volume related metabolic processes on the body-mass scaling of metabolic rate in organisms. The variation in the scaling of SA may affect how metabolic level affects the metabolic scaling exponent. This study aimed to determine the influence of increasing metabolic level at a higher temperature on the metabolic scaling exponent of the crucian carp and determine the link between metabolic scaling exponents and SA parameters of both gills and body. The SA of gills and body and the resting metabolic rate (RMR) of the crucian carp were assessed at 15 o C and 25 o C, and their mass scaling exponents were analyzed. The results showed a significantly higher RMR, with a lower scaling exponent, in the crucian carp at a higher temperature. The gills SA and the total SA of the fish (TSA) are reduced with the increasing temperature. The b RMR tends to be close to that of the TSA at a higher temperature. This suggests that temperature positively affects metabolic level but negatively affects the scaling exponent of RMR ( b RMR ). The findings support the MLB hypothesis. The lower scaling exponent at a higher temperature can be alternatively explained as that the higher viscosity of cold water impedes respiratory ventilation and oxygen uptake and reduces MR more in smaller individuals than in larger individuals at lower temperature, thus resulting in a negative association between temperature and b RMR . © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Chronic oxidative-nitrosative stress impairs coronary vasodilation in metabolic syndrome model rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagota, Satomi; Maruyama, Kana; Tada, Yukari; Fukushima, Kazuhito; Umetani, Keiji; Wakuda, Hirokazu; Shinozuka, Kazumasa

    2013-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of clinical disorders that together increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. SHRSP.Z-Lepr(fa)/IzmDmcr (SHRSP.ZF) rats with MetS show impaired nitric oxide-mediated relaxation in coronary and mesenteric arteries, and angiotensin II receptor type 1 blockers protect against dysfunction and oxidative-nitrosative stress independently of metabolic effects. We hypothesize that superoxide contributes to functional deterioration in SHRSP.ZF rats. To test our hypothesis, we studied effects of treatment with tempol, a membrane-permeable radical scavenger, on impaired vasodilation in SHRSP.ZF rats. Tempol did not alter body weight, high blood pressure, or metabolic abnormalities, but prevented impairment of acetylcholine-induced and nitroprusside-induced vasodilation in the coronary and mesenteric arteries. Furthermore, tempol reduced the levels of serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and 3-nitrotyrosine content in mesenteric arteries. Systemic administration of tempol elevated the expression of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) above basal levels in mesenteric arteries of SHRSP.ZF rats. However, acute treatment with tempol or ebselen, a peroxynitrite scavenger, did not ameliorate impaired relaxation of isolated mesenteric arteries. No nitration of tyrosine residues in sGC was observed; however, sGC mRNA expression levels in the arteries of SHRSP.ZF rats were lower than those in the arteries of Wistar-Kyoto rats. Levels of Thr(496)- and Ser(1177)-phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were lower in arteries of SHRSP.ZF rats, and acetylcholine decreased Thr(496)-phosphorylated eNOS levels. These results indicated that prolonged superoxide production, leading to oxidative-nitrosative stress, was associated with impaired vasodilation in SHRSP.ZF rats with MetS. Down-regulated sGC expression may be linked to dysfunction, while reduced NO bioavailability/eNOS activity and modified s

  18. Effect of Feeding Oxidized Soybean Oil against Antioxidant role of Pomegranate Seed on Physiology and Metabolism of Periparturient Saanen Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ehsan Ghiasi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oxidative stress is metabolic and physiologic status caused by imbalance between free radical production and antioxidant defense of body. In some physiological status such as rapid growth, parturition, disease and high production rate that imbalance would occur. High producing dairy animals are suspected to oxidative stress and require to antioxidant supplementation. Negative energy balance in early lactation force the nutrition specialist to apply oil and high NFC diet to exceed the requirement of high producing dairy animals such as Holstein cows and Saanen goats. In recent years, the attention to the use of herbal or organic antioxidant in animal nutrition has increased. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of feeding oxidized soybean oil (OSO plus pomegranate seed (PS as a natural antioxidant, on metabolism and physiology of Preparturient Saanen Goats. Materials and Methods Eighteen Saanen dairy goats with initial body weight of 47 ± 9 kg were assigned to three dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with repeated measurements for 21 days before anticipated parturition. Experimental treatments including: 1 base diet and 4% fresh soybean oil (FSO, 2 base diet and 4% oxidized soybean oil (DM basis respectively, and 3 base diet plus 4% OSO and 8% Pomegranate seed (OSO-PS. After 2 weeks of feeding trial diets, goats were sampled for blood, rumen liquor, faeces and urine for measuring parameters of blood glucose, BHBA, lipid and nitrogen profile, rumen liquor ammonia nitrogen, urine pH and volume, faeces qualitative and quantitative variables and other responses such as nutrients digestibility. The GLM procedure of SAS software v.9.2 were used for statistical analysis. Initial body weight and metabolic variables were used as covariate in the model. Results and discussion All nutrients digestibility, Ruminal ammonia nitrogen and voluntary feed intake were decreased by OSO (p

  19. Body Composition and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Figueiredo Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine which of the seven selected equations used to predict basal metabolic rate most accurately estimated the measured basal metabolic rate. Methods. Twenty-eight adult women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were measured as well as body composition (by absorptiometry dual X-ray emission and basal metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry; basal metabolic rate was also estimated by prediction equations. Results. There was a significant difference between the measured and the estimated basal metabolic rate determined by the FAO/WHO/UNU (Pvalue<0.021 and Huang et al. (Pvalue≤0.005 equations. Conclusion. The calculations using Owen et al’s. equation were the closest to the measured basal metabolic rate.

  20. Metabolic rate and body temperature of an African sun bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oxygen consumption (VO2) of the lesser double-collared sunbird, Nectarinia chalybea, was measured at ambient temperatures (Ta) from 7 to 35°C. The diel variation in body temperature (Tb) and wet thermal conductance (C) was also determined. The sunbirds (mean mass 8.36 g ± S.E. 0.21 g) showed a pronounced ...

  1. Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens Trigger the Formation of U Small Nuclear RNA Bodies (U Bodies) through Metabolic Stress Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsalikis, Jessica; Tattoli, Ivan; Ling, Arthur; Sorbara, Matthew T; Croitoru, David O; Philpott, Dana J; Girardin, Stephen E

    2015-08-21

    Invasive bacterial pathogens induce an amino acid starvation (AAS) response in infected host cells that controls host defense in part by promoting autophagy. However, whether AAS has additional significant effects on the host response to intracellular bacteria remains poorly characterized. Here we showed that Shigella, Salmonella, and Listeria interfere with spliceosomal U snRNA maturation in the cytosol. Bacterial infection resulted in the rerouting of U snRNAs and their cytoplasmic escort, the survival motor neuron (SMN) complex, to processing bodies, thus forming U snRNA bodies (U bodies). This process likely contributes to the decline in the cytosolic levels of U snRNAs and of the SMN complex proteins SMN and DDX20 that we observed in infected cells. U body formation was triggered by membrane damage in infected cells and was associated with the induction of metabolic stresses, such as AAS or endoplasmic reticulum stress. Mechanistically, targeting of U snRNAs to U bodies was regulated by translation initiation inhibition and the ATF4/ATF3 pathway, and U bodies rapidly disappeared upon removal of the stress, suggesting that their accumulation represented an adaptive response to metabolic stress. Importantly, this process likely contributed to shape the host response to invasive bacteria because down-regulation of DDX20 expression using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) amplified ATF3- and NF-κB-dependent signaling. Together, these results identify a critical role for metabolic stress and invasive bacterial pathogens in U body formation and suggest that this process contributes to host defense. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. The metabolism of inorganic arsenic oxides, gallium arsenide, and arsine: a toxicochemical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, Dean E.; Aposhian, H. Vasken; Gandolfi, A. Jay

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this review is to compare the metabolism, chemistry, and biological effects to determine if either of the industrial arsenicals (arsine and gallium arsenide) act like the environmental arsenic oxides (arsenite and arsenate). The metabolism of the arsenic oxides has been extensively investigated in the past 4 years and the differences between the arsenic metabolites in the oxidation states +III versus +V and with one or two methyl groups added have shown increased importance. The arsenic oxide metabolism has been compared with arsine (oxidation state -III) and arsenide (oxidation state between 0 to -III). The different metabolites appear to have different strengths of reaction for binding aresenic (III) to thiol groups, their oxidation-reduction reactions and their forming an arsenic-carbon bond. It is unclear if the differences in parameters such as the presence or absence of methyl metabolities, the rates of AsV reduction compared to the rates of AsIII oxidation, or the competition of phosphate and arsenate for cellular uptake are large enough to change biological effects. The arsine rate of decomposition, products of metabolism, target organ of toxic action, and protein binding appeared to support an oxidized arsenic metabolite. This arsine metabolite was very different from anything made by the arsenic oxides. The gallium arsenide had a lower solubility than any other arsenic compound and it had a disproportionate intensity of lung damage to suggest that the GaAs had a site of contact interaction and that oxidation reactions were important in its toxicity. The urinary metabolites after GaAs exposure were the same as excreted by arsenic oxides but the chemical compounds responsible for the toxic effects of GaAs are different from the aresnic oxides. The review concludes that there is insufficient evidence to equate the different arsenic compounds. There are several differences in the toxicity of the arsenic compounds that will require substantial

  3. Ghrelin in the regulation of body weight and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, T R; Tong, J; Datta, R; Culler, M; Tschöp, M H

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin, a peptide hormone predominantly produced by the stomach, was isolated as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin is a potent stimulator of growth hormone (GH) secretion and is the only circulatory hormone known to potently enhance feeding and weight gain and to regulate energy homeostasis following central and systemic administration. Therapeutic intervention with ghrelin in catabolic situations may induce a combination of enhanced food intake, increased gastric emptying and nutrient storage, coupled with an increase in GH thereby linking nutrient partitioning with growth and repair processes. These qualities have fostered the idea that ghrelin-based compounds may have therapeutic utility in treating malnutrition and wasting induced by various sub-acute and chronic disorders. Conversely, compounds that inhibit ghrelin action may be useful for the prevention or treatment of metabolic syndrome components such as obesity, impaired lipid metabolism or insulin resistance. In recent years, the effects of ghrelin on glucose homeostasis, memory function and gastrointestinal motility have attracted considerable amount of attention and revealed novel therapeutic targets in treating a wide range of pathologic conditions. Furthermore, discovery of ghrelin O-acyltransferase has also opened new research opportunities that could lead to major understanding of ghrelin physiology. This review summarizes the current knowledge on ghrelin synthesis, secretion, mechanism of action and biological functions with an additional focus on potential for ghrelin-based pharmacotherapies. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbiological Diversity Demonstrates the Potential which Collaboratively Metabolize Nitrogen Oxides ( NOx) under Smog Environmental Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. Z.; Zhao, X. H.; Chen, X. P.

    2018-03-01

    Recently, smoggy weather has become a daily in large part of China because of rapidly economic growth and accelerative urbanization. Stressed on the smoggy situation and economic growth, the green and environment-friendly technology is necessary to reduce or eliminate the smog and promote the sustainable development of economy. Previous studies had confirmed that nitrogen oxides ( NOx ) is one of crucial factors which forms smog. Microorganisms have the advantages of quickly growth and reproduction and metabolic diversity which can collaboratively Metabolize various NOx. This study will design a kind of bacteria & algae cultivation system which can metabolize collaboratively nitrogen oxides in air and intervene in the local nitrogen cycle. Furthermore, the nitrogen oxides can be transformed into nitrogen gas or assembled in protein in microorganism cell by regulating the microorganism types and quantities and metabolic pathways in the system. Finally, the smog will be alleviated or eliminated because of reduction of nitrogen oxides emission. This study will produce the green developmental methodology.

  5. Body size, body composition, and metabolic profile explain higher energy expenditure in overweight children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower relative rates of energy expenditure (EE), increased energetic efficiency, and altered fuel utilization purportedly associated with obesity have not been demonstrated indisputably in overweight children. We hypothesized that differences in energy metabolism between nonoverweight and overweight...

  6. Oxidative modifications of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase regulate metabolic reprogramming of stored red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisz, Julie A; Wither, Matthew J; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Nemkov, Travis; Issaian, Aaron; Yoshida, Tatsuro; Dunham, Andrew J; Hill, Ryan C; Hansen, Kirk C; D'Alessandro, Angelo

    2016-09-22

    Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) plays a key regulatory function in glucose oxidation by mediating fluxes through glycolysis or the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in an oxidative stress-dependent fashion. Previous studies documented metabolic reprogramming in stored red blood cells (RBCs) and oxidation of GAPDH at functional residues upon exposure to pro-oxidants diamide and H2O2 Here we hypothesize that routine storage of erythrocyte concentrates promotes metabolic modulation of stored RBCs by targeting functional thiol residues of GAPDH. Progressive increases in PPP/glycolysis ratios were determined via metabolic flux analysis after spiking (13)C1,2,3-glucose in erythrocyte concentrates stored in Additive Solution-3 under blood bank conditions for up to 42 days. Proteomics analyses revealed a storage-dependent oxidation of GAPDH at functional Cys152, 156, 247, and His179. Activity loss by oxidation occurred with increasing storage duration and was progressively irreversible. Irreversibly oxidized GAPDH accumulated in stored erythrocyte membranes and supernatants through storage day 42. By combining state-of-the-art ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolic flux analysis with redox and switch-tag proteomics, we identify for the first time ex vivo functionally relevant reversible and irreversible (sulfinic acid; Cys to dehydroalanine) oxidations of GAPDH without exogenous supplementation of excess pro-oxidant compounds in clinically relevant blood products. Oxidative and metabolic lesions, exacerbated by storage under hyperoxic conditions, were ameliorated by hypoxic storage. Storage-dependent reversible oxidation of GAPDH represents a mechanistic adaptation in stored erythrocytes to promote PPP activation and generate reducing equivalents. Removal of irreversibly oxidized, functionally compromised GAPDH identifies enhanced vesiculation as a self-protective mechanism in ex vivo aging erythrocytes. © 2016 by The American

  7. Glutamate dehydrogenase is essential to sustain neuronal oxidative energy metabolism during stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnholt, Michaela C; Andersen, Vibe H; Andersen, Jens V

    2017-01-01

    precursor used by neurons to sustain the pool of glutamate, but glutamine is also vividly oxidized for support of energy metabolism. This study investigates the role of GDH in neuronal metabolism by employing the Cns- Glud1-/- mouse, lacking GDH in the brain (GDH KO) and metabolic mapping using 13C......-labelled glutamine and glucose. We observed a severely reduced oxidative glutamine metabolism during glucose deprivation in synaptosomes and cultured neurons not expressing GDH. In contrast, in the presence of glucose, glutamine metabolism was not affected by the lack of GDH expression. Respiration fuelled...... by glutamate was significantly lower in brain mitochondria from GDH KO mice and synaptosomes were not able to increase their respiration upon an elevated energy demand. The role of GDH for metabolism of glutamine and the respiratory capacity underscore the importance of GDH for neurons particularly during...

  8. Fermented kimchi reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight and obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Kyoung; An, So-Yeon; Lee, Min-Seok; Kim, Tae Ho; Lee, Hye-Kyoung; Hwang, Won Sun; Choe, Sun Jung; Kim, Tae-Young; Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Dae Jung; Lee, Kwan-Woo

    2011-06-01

    Kimchi is a traditional fermented Korean food that has garnered international interest due to its various beneficial effects. Focusing on the effect of fermentation, this study hypothesized that consumption of fermented kimchi would have more beneficial effects compared with that of fresh kimchi on metabolic parameters that are related to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome risks in overweight and obese subjects. Twenty-two overweight and obese patients with body mass indexes greater than 25 kg/m(2) were randomly assigned to two 4-week diet phases separated by a 2-week washout period (crossover design). During each diet phase, the subjects consumed either fresh or fermented kimchi. Anthropometric data showed significant decreases in body weight, body mass index, and body fat in both groups, and the fermented kimchi group showed a significant decrease in the waist-hip ratio and fasting blood glucose. Net differences in the systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, percent body fat, fasting glucose, and total cholesterol in the fermented kimchi group were significantly greater than those in the fresh kimchi group. There was also a tendency for a decrease in fasting insulin after consumption of fermented kimchi. Therefore, the ingestion of fermented kimchi had positive effects on various factors associated with metabolic syndrome, including systolic and diastolic blood pressures, percent body fat, fasting glucose, and total cholesterol, compared with the fresh kimchi. These results suggest that the maturity of kimchi (fresh vs fermented) may affect obesity, lipid metabolism, and inflammatory processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrochemical and enzymatic synthesis of oxidative drug metabolites for metabolism studies : Exploring selectivity and yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gül, Turan

    2017-01-01

    Metabolism studies of drug molecules play a crucial role in drug discovery and development since the early detection of possibly toxic drug metabolites can save time and money. During the metabolic biotransformation process, oxidation of a drug molecule is catalyzed by specific enzymes which can

  10. Supercritical water oxidation of products of human metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, Jefferson W.; Orge A. achelling, Richard K. ADTHOMASSON; Orge A. achelling, Richard K. ADTHOMASSON

    1986-01-01

    Although the efficient destruction of organic material was demonstrated in the supercritical water oxidation process, the reaction kinetics and mechanisms are unknown. The kinetics and mechanisms of carbon monoxide and ammonia oxidation in and reaction with supercritical water were studied experimentally. Experimental oxidation of urine and feces in a microprocessor controlled system was performed. A minaturized supercritical water oxidation process for space applications was design, including preliminary mass and energy balances, power, space and weight requirements.

  11. Hypoxia, gas narcosis, and metabolic response to argon and nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Studies of the mechanism of inert gas influence on metabolism are reported. The studies reported include: metabolic response of hamsters to argon and nitrous oxide, membrane fatty acids and susceptability to narcotic gas influence, narcosis-induced histotoxic hypoxia, biochemical study of inert gas narcosis, hypoxia-induced protection against cardiovascular deterioration in the weightless state, and acute metabolic and physiologic response of goats to narcosis.

  12. The Metabolic Syndrome and Mind-Body Therapies: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel G. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome, affecting a substantial and increasing percentage of the worldwide population, is comprised of a cluster of symptoms associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic conditions. Mind-body modalities based on Eastern philosophy, such as yoga, tai chi, qigong, and meditation, have become increasingly popular worldwide. These complementary therapies have many reported benefits for improving symptoms and physiological measures associated with the metabolic syndrome. However, clinical trial data concerning the effectiveness of these practices on the syndrome as a whole have not been evaluated using a systematic and synthesizing approach. A systematic review was conducted to critically evaluate the data from clinical trials examining the efficacy of mind-body therapies as supportive care modalities for management of the metabolic syndrome. Three clinical trials addressing the use of mind-body therapies for management of the metabolic syndrome were identified. Findings from the studies reviewed support the potential clinical effectiveness of mind-body practices in improving indices of the metabolic syndrome.

  13. Military training elicits marked increases in plasma metabolomic signatures of energy metabolism, lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; Carrigan, Christopher T; Castellani, John W; Madslien, Elisabeth H; Teien, Hilde-Kristin; Martini, Svein; Montain, Scott J; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2017-09-01

    Military training studies provide unique insight into metabolic responses to extreme physiologic stress induced by multiple stressor environments, and the impacts of nutrition in mediating these responses. Advances in metabolomics have provided new approaches for extending current understanding of factors modulating dynamic metabolic responses in these environments. In this study, whole-body metabolic responses to strenuous military training were explored in relation to energy balance and macronutrient intake by performing nontargeted global metabolite profiling on plasma collected from 25 male soldiers before and after completing a 4-day, 51-km cross-country ski march that produced high total daily energy expenditures (25.4 MJ/day [SD 2.3]) and severe energy deficits (13.6 MJ/day [SD 2.5]). Of 737 identified metabolites, 478 changed during the training. Increases in 88% of the free fatty acids and 91% of the acylcarnitines, and decreases in 88% of the mono- and diacylglycerols detected within lipid metabolism pathways were observed. Smaller increases in 75% of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, and 50% of the branched-chain amino acid metabolites detected were also observed. Changes in multiple metabolites related to lipid metabolism were correlated with body mass loss and energy balance, but not with energy and macronutrient intakes or energy expenditure. These findings are consistent with an increase in energy metabolism, lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, and branched-chain amino acid catabolism during strenuous military training. The magnitude of the energy deficit induced by undereating relative to high energy expenditure, rather than macronutrient intake, appeared to drive these changes, particularly within lipid metabolism pathways. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  14. Cardiovascular disease-related parameters and oxidative stress in SHROB rats, a model for metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Molinar-Toribio

    Full Text Available SHROB rats have been suggested as a model for metabolic syndrome (MetS as a situation prior to the onset of CVD or type-2 diabetes, but information on descriptive biochemical parameters for this model is limited. Here, we extensively evaluate parameters related to CVD and oxidative stress (OS in SHROB rats. SHROB rats were monitored for 15 weeks and compared to a control group of Wistar rats. Body weight was recorded weekly. At the end of the study, parameters related to CVD and OS were evaluated in plasma, urine and different organs. SHROB rats presented statistically significant differences from Wistar rats in CVD risk factors: total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, apoA1, apoB100, abdominal fat, insulin, blood pressure, C-reactive protein, ICAM-1 and PAI-1. In adipose tissue, liver and brain, the endogenous antioxidant systems were activated, yet there was no significant oxidative damage to lipids (MDA or proteins (carbonylation. We conclude that SHROB rats present significant alterations in parameters related to inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, thrombotic activity, insulin resistance and OS measured in plasma as well as enhanced redox defence systems in vital organs that will be useful as markers of MetS and CVD for nutrition interventions.

  15. Exploring methane-oxidizing communities for the co-metabolic degradation of organic micropollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benner, Jessica; De Smet, Delfien; Ho, Adrian; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Heylen, Kim; Boon, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Methane-oxidizing cultures from five different inocula were enriched to be used for co-metabolic degradation of micropollutants. In a first screening, 18 different compounds were tested for degradation with the cultures as well as with four pure methane-oxidizing bacterial (MOB) strains. The tested

  16. Elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress impairs metabolic adaptations to exercise in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin D Crane

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial oxidative stress is a complex phenomenon that is inherently tied to energy provision and is implicated in many metabolic disorders. Exercise training increases mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle yet it remains unclear if oxidative stress plays a role in regulating these adaptations. We demonstrate that the chronic elevation in mitochondrial oxidative stress present in Sod2 (+/- mice impairs the functional and biochemical mitochondrial adaptations to exercise. Following exercise training Sod2 (+/- mice fail to increase maximal work capacity, mitochondrial enzyme activity and mtDNA copy number, despite a normal augmentation of mitochondrial proteins. Additionally, exercised Sod2 (+/- mice cannot compensate for their higher amount of basal mitochondrial oxidative damage and exhibit poor electron transport chain complex assembly that accounts for their compromised adaptation. Overall, these results demonstrate that chronic skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative stress does not impact exercise induced mitochondrial biogenesis, but impairs the resulting mitochondrial protein function and can limit metabolic plasticity.

  17. Elevated Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress Impairs Metabolic Adaptations to Exercise in Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Justin D.; Abadi, Arkan; Hettinga, Bart P.; Ogborn, Daniel I.; MacNeil, Lauren G.; Steinberg, Gregory R.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress is a complex phenomenon that is inherently tied to energy provision and is implicated in many metabolic disorders. Exercise training increases mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle yet it remains unclear if oxidative stress plays a role in regulating these adaptations. We demonstrate that the chronic elevation in mitochondrial oxidative stress present in Sod2 +/- mice impairs the functional and biochemical mitochondrial adaptations to exercise. Following exercise training Sod2 +/- mice fail to increase maximal work capacity, mitochondrial enzyme activity and mtDNA copy number, despite a normal augmentation of mitochondrial proteins. Additionally, exercised Sod2 +/- mice cannot compensate for their higher amount of basal mitochondrial oxidative damage and exhibit poor electron transport chain complex assembly that accounts for their compromised adaptation. Overall, these results demonstrate that chronic skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative stress does not impact exercise induced mitochondrial biogenesis, but impairs the resulting mitochondrial protein function and can limit metabolic plasticity. PMID:24324727

  18. Effects of hydroxy trace minerals on oxidative metabolism, cytological endometritis, and performance of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, T; Ryan, C M; Gilbert, R O; Perryman, K R; Overton, T R

    2014-01-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=60) were used to determine effects of supplementing hydroxy forms of Zn, Cu, and Mn compared with 2 other common supplementation strategies on oxidative metabolism, cytological endometritis, and performance of transition cows. After a 1-wk pretreatment period, cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 dietary treatments from 21 d before expected calving through 84 d postcalving. Dietary treatments administered by daily top-dressing included (1) inorganic sulfate forms of Zn, Cu, and Mn (ITM); (2) a blend (75:25) of sulfates and organic complexes of Zn, Cu, and Mn (ITM/OTM); and (3) hydroxy trace minerals (HTM) of Zn, Cu, and Mn. The resulting dietary concentrations of supplemental Zn, Cu, and Mn were similar among treatments and averaged 40, 10, and 27 mg/kg, respectively, before calving and 59, 15, and 40 mg/kg, respectively, after calving. Total concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Mn averaged 80, 16, and 62 mg/kg during the prepartum period and 102, 23, and 75 mg/kg, respectively, during the postpartum period. Overall, effects of treatment on milk yield and milk composition were not significant. Cows fed HTM during the prepartum period had higher body weight (BW) than those fed ITM during the prepartum period and had higher BW during the postpartum period than those fed the other treatments; however, BW change, body condition score, and body condition score change were not affected by treatment. Plasma total antioxidant capacity was lower in cows fed HTM than ITM but was not different from cows fed ITM/OTM. Cows fed HTM tended to have lower concentrations of plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances than those fed ITM during the whole study period, but plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were not different between HTM and ITM/OTM. Plasma haptoglobin was lower in cows fed HTM than ITM/OTM at 1 wk postpartum. Endometrial cytology 7d postcalving and cytological endometritis as assessed on 1d between 40 and 60 d postcalving was not

  19. Analyzing lipid metabolism: activation and beta-oxidation of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Paul Robert

    2009-01-01

    There is massive gene replication predicted for the activation of fatty acids and their entry into the beta-oxidation cycle for fatty acid oxidation. These two steps in fatty acid metabolism are catalyzed by FadD and FadE enzymes with 36 genes predicted for each of these respective activities in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we present methods for the cell-free assay of types of enzymes in live bacteria, as well as for fatty acid oxidation overall.

  20. Study on the Effect of Asparagus Extracts on Promoting Metabolism of the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaohong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the effective ingredients of asparagus extracts and the changes of vitamins content in mice body after the intake of asparagus extracts, thus to conclude the effect of asparagus extracts on body metabolism during exercises. Extracts were made into different concentrations of solution and given to the mice by intragastric administration. The content of micro-elements and vitamin groups in the mice body before and after the drug administration were detected respectively and biochemical index parameter values before and after swimming were measured respectively. Results showed that, 20 min after the drug administration, the content of blood lactic acid of the mice in the swimming experiment group decreased significantly. Besides, the content of muscle glycogen decreased and correspondingly the content of hepatic glycogen increased significantly (experiment group one and two: p < 0.01; experiment group 3: p < 0.05. Thus the ethanol extract solution of asparagus can effectively improve body metabolism.

  1. Level of satiety: In vitro energy metabolism in brain during hypophagic and hyperphagic body weight recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasser, T.R.; Harris, R.B.; Martin, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Rates of in vitro glucose and fatty acid oxidation were examined in four brain sites during hypophagic and hyperphagic recovery of normal body weight. Rats were fed 40, 100, or 160% of normal intake, via gastric intubation, for 3 wk. Another group of rats was starved until body weight loss was equivalent to weight loss in 40%-fed rats. Groups of rats were killed at the conclusion of tube feeding or fasting and at specific periods during recovery of body weight. Brain sites examined were the ventrolateral hypothalamus (VLH), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), a caudal brain stem site encompassing the area postrema-nucleus of the solitary tract (AP-NTS), and cortex. During recovery, rats previously fed 160% of normal intake (anorectic) maintained low rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation and were hypophagic until most excess fat was depleted. Conversely, rats previously fed 40% of normal intake (hungry) maintained high rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation and were hyperphagic until most deficient fat was repleted. Rats previously starved maintained high rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation during hyperphagic recovery, although levels of VLH fatty acid oxidation and food intake were initially low on refeeding. Rates of glucose oxidation in the brain sites examined did not relate well to energy balance status and the needed adjustments in food intake. The results indicated that the level of glucose oxidation in the VLH and AP-NTS responded to the level of energy immediately coming into the system (food intake)

  2. The performing animal: causes and consequences of body remodeling and metabolic adjustments in red knots facing contrasting thermal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vézina, François; Gerson, Alexander R; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Piersma, Theunis

    2017-08-01

    Using red knots ( Calidris canutus ) as a model, we determined how changes in mass and metabolic activity of organs relate to temperature-induced variation in metabolic performance. In cold-acclimated birds, we expected large muscles and heart as well as improved oxidative capacity and lipid transport, and we predicted that this would explain variation in maximal thermogenic capacity (M sum ). We also expected larger digestive and excretory organs in these same birds and predicted that this would explain most of the variation in basal metabolic rate (BMR). Knots kept at 5°C were 20% heavier and maintained 1.5 times more body fat than individuals kept in thermoneutral conditions (25°C). The birds in the cold also had a BMR up to 32% higher and a M sum 16% higher than birds at 25°C. Organs were larger in the cold, with muscles and heart being 9-20% heavier and digestive and excretory organs being 21-36% larger than at thermoneutrality. Rather than the predicted digestive and excretory organs, the cold-induced increase in BMR correlated with changes in mass of the heart, pectoralis, and carcass. M sum varied positively with the mass of the pectoralis, supracoracoideus, and heart, highlighting the importance of muscles and cardiac function in cold endurance. Cold-acclimated knots also expressed upregulated capacity for lipid transport across mitochondrial membranes [carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT)] in their pectoralis and leg muscles, higher lipid catabolism capacity in their pectoralis muscles [β-hydroxyacyl CoA-dehydrogenase (HOAD)], and elevated oxidative capacity in their liver and kidney (citrate synthase). These adjustments may have contributed to BMR through changes in metabolic intensity. Positive relationships among M sum , CPT, and HOAD in the heart also suggest indirect constraints on thermogenic capacity through limited cardiac capacity. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. [Association of metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress with ischemic heart disease in middle-aged persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerniauskiene, Liucija Rita; Luksiene, Dalia Ieva; Tamosiūnas, Abdonas; Reklaitiene, Regina; Margeviciene, Lilija

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress with ischemic heart disease in middle-aged persons (men and women aged 45-64 years). In this study, we have used data of 533 persons (247 men and 286 women) aged 45-64 years from Kaunas population cohort investigated according to WHO MONICA study protocol during 2001-2002 in whom concentrations of malondialdehyde, a marker of lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant vitamin E in blood serum were determined. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the criteria of Adult Treatment Panel III. Oxidative stress was determined in the presence of increased level of malondialdehyde (> or =5 micromol/L) and decreased level of lipid-standardized vitamin E (Ischemic heart disease was diagnosed in 19.8% of men and 21.3% of women. The frequency of ischemic heart disease among persons (men and women) with metabolic syndrome was significantly higher than among persons without metabolic syndrome (27.4% vs. 17.8%, respectively; odds ratio, 1.63; P=0.032). The frequency of ischemic heart disease among persons with oxidative stress was significantly higher than among persons without oxidative stress (29.1% vs. 17.6%, respectively; odds ratio, 1.88; P=0.029). The highest prevalence of ischemic heart disease (30.0%) was among persons with metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress, and the lowest prevalence of this disease (13.8%) was among persons without metabolic syndrome and without oxidative stress (odds ratio, 2.54; P=0.017). These data were adjusted by sex and age. Metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress are significantly associated with ischemic heart disease among 45-64-year-old persons.

  4. An insight into the metabolic responses of ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide using metabonomic analysis of biofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jianghua; Liu Huili; Zhang Limin; Bhakoo, Kishore; Lu Lehui

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been developed as intravenous organ/tissue-targeted contrast agents to improve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo. However, their potential toxicity and effects on metabolism have attracted particular attention. In the present study, uncoated and dextran-coated USPIO were investigated by analyzing both rat urine and plasma metabonomes using high-resolution NMR-based metabonomic analysis in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. The wealth of information gathered on the metabolic profiles from rat urine and plasma has revealed subtle metabolic changes in response to USPIO administration. The metabolic changes include the elevation of urinary α-hydroxy-n-valerate, o- and p-HPA, PAG, nicotinate and hippurate accompanied by decreases in the levels of urinary α-ketoglutarate, succinate, citrate, N-methylnicotinamide, NAG, DMA, allantoin and acetate following USPIO administration. The changes associated with USPIO administration included a gradual increase in plasma glucose, N-acetyl glycoprotein, saturated fatty acid, citrate, succinate, acetate, GPC, ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and acetoacetate) and individual amino acids, such as phenylalanine, lysine, isoleucine, glycine, glutamine and glutamate and a gradual decrease of myo-inositol, unsaturated fatty acid and triacylglycerol. Hence USPIO administration effects are reflected in changes in a number of metabolic pathways including energy, lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. The size- and surface chemistry-dependent metabolic responses and possible toxicity were observed using NMR analysis of biofluids. These changes may be attributed to the disturbances of hepatic, renal and cardiac functions following USPIO administrations. The potential biotoxicity can be derived from metabonomic analysis and serum biochemistry analysis. Metabonomic strategy offers a promising approach for the detection of subtle

  5. An insight into the metabolic responses of ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide using metabonomic analysis of biofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jianghua [Department of Physics, Fujian Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Liu Huili; Zhang Limin [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Bhakoo, Kishore [Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR) 138667 (Singapore); Lu Lehui, E-mail: jianghua.feng@hotmail.com, E-mail: jianghua.feng@wipm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2010-10-01

    Ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been developed as intravenous organ/tissue-targeted contrast agents to improve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo. However, their potential toxicity and effects on metabolism have attracted particular attention. In the present study, uncoated and dextran-coated USPIO were investigated by analyzing both rat urine and plasma metabonomes using high-resolution NMR-based metabonomic analysis in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. The wealth of information gathered on the metabolic profiles from rat urine and plasma has revealed subtle metabolic changes in response to USPIO administration. The metabolic changes include the elevation of urinary {alpha}-hydroxy-n-valerate, o- and p-HPA, PAG, nicotinate and hippurate accompanied by decreases in the levels of urinary {alpha}-ketoglutarate, succinate, citrate, N-methylnicotinamide, NAG, DMA, allantoin and acetate following USPIO administration. The changes associated with USPIO administration included a gradual increase in plasma glucose, N-acetyl glycoprotein, saturated fatty acid, citrate, succinate, acetate, GPC, ketone bodies ({beta}-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and acetoacetate) and individual amino acids, such as phenylalanine, lysine, isoleucine, glycine, glutamine and glutamate and a gradual decrease of myo-inositol, unsaturated fatty acid and triacylglycerol. Hence USPIO administration effects are reflected in changes in a number of metabolic pathways including energy, lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. The size- and surface chemistry-dependent metabolic responses and possible toxicity were observed using NMR analysis of biofluids. These changes may be attributed to the disturbances of hepatic, renal and cardiac functions following USPIO administrations. The potential biotoxicity can be derived from metabonomic analysis and serum biochemistry analysis. Metabonomic strategy offers a promising approach for the detection of

  6. An insight into the metabolic responses of ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide using metabonomic analysis of biofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianghua; Liu, Huili; Zhang, Limin; Bhakoo, Kishore; Lu, Lehui

    2010-10-01

    Ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been developed as intravenous organ/tissue-targeted contrast agents to improve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo. However, their potential toxicity and effects on metabolism have attracted particular attention. In the present study, uncoated and dextran-coated USPIO were investigated by analyzing both rat urine and plasma metabonomes using high-resolution NMR-based metabonomic analysis in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. The wealth of information gathered on the metabolic profiles from rat urine and plasma has revealed subtle metabolic changes in response to USPIO administration. The metabolic changes include the elevation of urinary alpha-hydroxy-n-valerate, o- and p-HPA, PAG, nicotinate and hippurate accompanied by decreases in the levels of urinary alpha-ketoglutarate, succinate, citrate, N-methylnicotinamide, NAG, DMA, allantoin and acetate following USPIO administration. The changes associated with USPIO administration included a gradual increase in plasma glucose, N-acetyl glycoprotein, saturated fatty acid, citrate, succinate, acetate, GPC, ketone bodies (beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and acetoacetate) and individual amino acids, such as phenylalanine, lysine, isoleucine, glycine, glutamine and glutamate and a gradual decrease of myo-inositol, unsaturated fatty acid and triacylglycerol. Hence USPIO administration effects are reflected in changes in a number of metabolic pathways including energy, lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. The size- and surface chemistry-dependent metabolic responses and possible toxicity were observed using NMR analysis of biofluids. These changes may be attributed to the disturbances of hepatic, renal and cardiac functions following USPIO administrations. The potential biotoxicity can be derived from metabonomic analysis and serum biochemistry analysis. Metabonomic strategy offers a promising approach for the detection of subtle

  7. Weekend ethanol consumption and high-sucrose diet: resveratrol effects on energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, lipid profile, oxidative stress and hepatic energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Katiucha Karolina Honório Ribeiro; Souza, Gisele Aparecida; Seiva, Fábio Rodrigues Ferreira; Ebaid, Geovana Xavier; Novelli, Ethel Lourenzi Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    The present study analyzed the association between weekend ethanol and high-sucrose diet on oxygen consumption, lipid profile, oxidative stress and hepatic energy metabolism. Because resveratrol (RS, 3,5,4'-trans-trihydroxystilbene) has been implicated as a modulator of alcohol-independent cardiovascular protection attributed to red wine, we also determined whether RS could change the damage done by this lifestyle. Male Wistar 24 rats receiving standard chow were divided into four groups (n = 6/group): (C) water throughout the experimental period; (E) 30% ethanol 3 days/week, water 4 days/week; (ES) a mixture of 30% ethanol and 30% sucrose 3 days/week, drinking 30% sucrose 4 days/week; (ESR) 30% ethanol and 30% sucrose containing 6 mg/l RS 3 days/week, drinking 30% sucrose 4 days/week. After 70 days the body weight was highest in ESR rats. E rats had higher energy expenditure (resting metabolic rate), oxygen consumption (VO(2)), fat oxidation, serum triacylglycerol (TG) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) than C. ES rats normalized calorimetric parameters and enhanced carbohydrate oxidation. ESR ameliorated calorimetric parameters, reduced TG, VLDL and lipid hydroperoxide/total antioxidant substances, as well enhanced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL/TG ratio. Hepatic hydroxyacyl coenzyme-A dehydrogenase (OHADH)/citrate synthase ratio was lower in E and ES rats than in C. OHADH was highest in ESR rats. The present study brought new insights on weekend alcohol consumption, demonstrating for the first time, that this pattern of ethanol exposure induced dyslipidemic profile, calorimetric and hepatic metabolic changes which resemble that of the alcoholism. No synergistic effects were found with weekend ethanol and high-sucrose intake. RS was advantageous in weekend drinking and high-sucrose intake condition ameliorating hepatic metabolism and improving risk factors for cardiovascular damage.

  8. Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrogen peroxide on a platinum electrode in the imitation of oxidative drug metabolism of lidocaine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouri-Nigjeh, Eslam; Bruins, Andries P.; Bischoff, Rainer; Permentier, Hjalmar P.

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemistry in combination with mass spectrometry has shown promise as a versatile technique not only in the analytical assessment of oxidative drug metabolism, but also for small-scale synthesis of drug metabolites. However, electrochemistry is generally limited to reactions initiated by

  9. Oxidative metabolism of the trifluoromethoxy moiety of OSI-930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dihel, Larry; Kittleson, Christine; Mulvihill, Kristen; Johnson, William W

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 can catalyze a wide array of remarkable oxidations, including O-dealkylations, which are performed via oxidation of the alpha-carbon of the ether. When C-H bonds are replaced with C-F bonds, however, the bond strength is much greater, and it significantly deters oxidation at the carbon. Another recently elucidated reaction catalyzed by P450, ipso substitution, results in displacement of aromatic ring substituents such as an alkoxy group via hydroxyl substitution. Through LC/MS/MS, we show the CYP-mediated oxidative displacement of the trifluoromethoxy group from the phenyl constituent in OSI-930, a novel small molecule c-Kit/VEGF-r inhibitor in clinical studies to treat cancer. Based on C-F bond strength, reported phenacetin studies, and alpha-quaternary alkylphenol studies, we propose an ipso-substitution mechanism for this oxidative biotransformation. In vivo, this hydroxylated metabolite goes on to form the ether conjugate with glucuronide.

  10. Intermittent fasting does not affect whole-body glucose, lipid, or protein metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeters, Maarten R.; Lammers, Nicolette M.; Dubbelhuis, Peter F.; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; Jonkers-Schuitema, Cora F.; Fliers, Eric; Sauerwein, Hans P.; Aerts, Johannes M.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Intermittent fasting (IF) was shown to increase whole-body insulin sensitivity, but it is uncertain whether IF selectively influences intermediary metabolism. Such selectivity might be advantageous when adapting to periods of food abundance and food shortage. Objective: The objective was

  11. The effects of intermittent, CD4-guided antiretroviral therapy on body composition and metabolic parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, Esteban; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Grund, Birgit; Thomas, Avis; Gibert, Cynthia; Shlay, Judith; Drummond, Fraser; Pearce, Daniel; Edwards, Simon; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Carr, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of decreased antiretroviral therapy exposure on body fat and metabolic parameters. Design: Substudy of the Strategies for Management of Anti-Retroviral Therapy study, in which participants were randomized to intermittent CD4-guided [Drug Conservation (DC) group] or

  12. Resting metabolic rate in Italians : relation with body composition and anthropometric parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo, de A.; Andreoli, A.; Bertoli, S.; Testolin, G.; Oriani, G.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain values for resting metabolic rate in Italians in relation to parameters of body composition, and to compare them to predicted values using the FAO/WHO/UNU equation. We performed a cross-sectional observational study of 131 healthy subjects (46 males and 85

  13. Basal metabolic rate scaled to body mass between species by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The principal reason that basal metabolic rate (BMR) and MMR scale with different power exponents to whole body mass is that MMR is due mainly to respiration in skeletal muscle during exercise and BMR to respiration in the viscera during rest. It follows, therefore, from the self-similarity of the vascular system that BMR is ...

  14. Variation in genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism and changes in waist circumference and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meidtner, Karina; Fisher, Eva; Angquist, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variability of six candidate genes (ATF6, FABP1, LPIN2, LPIN3, MLXIPL and MTTP) involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, an important regulatory site of energy balance for associations with body mass index (BMI...

  15. The effect of psoriasis treatment on body composition, components of metabolic syndrome and psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Tamer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory immun mediated skin disorder with unknown etiology. The chronic inflammation in psoriasis have role in the development of metabolic and vascular disorders related with associating comorbidities. Recent studies have suggested a strong association exists between metabolic syndrome, obesity and complexity of the association between psoriasis, body mass index (BMI and psoriasis tratment. In this study, our aim was to investigate the effect of psoriasis treatment with methotrexate, cyclosporine and biological agents on body composition, comorbidities and associated laboratory findings. Materials and Methods: Seventy-nine patients treated with methotrexate, cyclosporin and biological agents were included in our study. Demographic characteristics, body composition analysis, psoriasis related comorbidities and laboratory examinations were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of systemic treatment. Results: Comorbidities and metabolic syndrome tended to be more frequent in the anti tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α treated group. Increase in body fat and weight detected in patiens receiving biologic drug therapy. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that severe psoriasis patients with longer disease duration were more likely to have metabolic syndrome because of severe and long term inflammation in pathogenesis of comorbidities.

  16. Amino acid metabolism and whole-body protein turnover in lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    but all estimates for the high-protein diet were significantly different (P < 0.06). The same trend was apparent in the case of whole-body protein synthesis, but leucine and methionine provided similar estimates for the high-protein diet. It was suggested that, although much stands to be gained from studies of the metabolism of ...

  17. Cerebral Metabolic Changes Related to Oxidative Metabolism in a Model of Bacterial Meningitis Induced by Lipopolysaccharide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Michael; Rom Poulsen, Frantz; Larsen, Lykke

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction is prominent in the pathophysiology of severe bacterial meningitis. In the present study, we hypothesize that the metabolic changes seen after intracisternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection in a piglet model of meningitis is compatible...... with mitochondrial dysfunction and resembles the metabolic patterns seen in patients with bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Eight pigs received LPS injection in cisterna magna, and four pigs received NaCl in cisterna magna as a control. Biochemical variables related to energy metabolism were monitored by intracerebral...... dysfunction with increasing cerebral LPR due to increased lactate and normal pyruvate, PbtO2, and ICP. The metabolic pattern resembles the one observed in patients with bacterial meningitis. Metabolic monitoring in these patients is feasible to monitor for cerebral metabolic derangements otherwise missed...

  18. Arsenic triggers the nitric oxide (NO) and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) metabolism in Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leterrier, Marina; Airaki, Morad; Palma, José M.; Chaki, Mounira; Barroso, Juan B.; Corpas, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental contamination by arsenic constitutes a problem in many countries, and its accumulation in food crops may pose health complications for humans. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are involved at various levels in the mechanism of responding to environmental stress in higher plants. Using Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to different arsenate concentrations, physiological and biochemical parameters were analyzed to determine the status of ROS and RNS metabolisms. Arsenate provoked a significant reduction in growth parameters and an increase in lipid oxidation. These changes were accompanied by an alteration in antioxidative enzymes and the nitric oxide (NO) metabolism, with a significant increase in NO content, S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activity and protein tyrosine nitration as well as a concomitant reduction in glutathione and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) content. Our results indicate that 500 μM arsenate (AsV) causes nitro-oxidative stress in Arabidopsis, being the glutathione reductase and the GSNOR activities clearly affected. - Highlights: ► In Arabidopsis, arsenate provokes damages in the membrane integrity of root cells. ► As induces an oxidative stress according to an increase in lipid oxidation. ► NO content and protein tyrosine nitration increases under arsenate stress. ► Arsenate provokes a reduction of GSH, GSSG and GSNO content. ► Arsenate induces a nitro-oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. - Arsenic stress affects nitric oxide (NO) and glutathione (GSH) metabolism which provokes a nitro-oxidative stress.

  19. Metabolism. Part III: Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, George M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the metabolic processes of complex lipids, including saponification, activation and transport, and the beta-oxidation spiral. Discusses fatty acid degradation in regard to biochemical energy and ketone bodies. (TW)

  20. Lifestyle modifications supported by regional health nurses lowered insulin resistance, oxidative stress and central blood pressure in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoichi; Miyazaki, Takashi; Sato, Makiko; Araki, Ryuichiro; Takahashi, Sachiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Shibazaki, Satomi

    2015-01-01

    This study was attempted to investigate whether lifestyle modifications supported by regional health nurses should improve cardio-metabolic factors--including adipocytokines, oxidative stress, and arterial stiffness--in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Thirty-six subjects with metabolic syndrome were enrolled, 28 of whom completed the 6-month lifestyle modifications (male:female=19:9). Blood and urine test results were examined in relation to metabolic factors before and after 6-month nutritional and physical activity modifications. In addition, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed and arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and radial augmentation index before and after them. Six-month lifestyle modifications significantly reduced body weight, homeostasis model assessment index, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). They significantly attenuated oxidative stress measured by the urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine/creatinine ratio. They also lowered brachial and central systolic blood pressure. They tended to decrease waist circumferences and the levels of C-reactive protein. However they did not significantly change the levels of adipocytokines, including tumour necrosis factor, soluble tumour necrosis factor receptors, and interleukin 6, or arterial stiffness measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and radial augmentation index. Six-month lifestyle modifications supported by regional health nurses lowered body weight, insulin resistance, LDL-C, oxidative stress, and peripheral and central blood pressure in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Body composition and metabolic profile in adults with vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Murari ROCHA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the body composition and metabolic profile in individuals in terms of different concentrations of serum vitamin D, ranging from deficiency to sufficiency. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 106 adults of both genders, who were divided into three groups according to vitamin D levels: deficiency: <20ng/mL; insufficiency: 20-29.9ng/mL; and sufficiency: 30-100ng/mL. Anthropometric evaluation included weight, height, and body circumferences. Fat mass and lean mass were assessed using the Tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance method. Clinical and biochemical evaluations were also carried out. Insulin resistance was estimated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin index. Results: The analysis showed that the main alterations in individuals in the vitamin D deficiency group were higher triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein - cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, body mass index, body fat percentage, lean mass percentage, waist circumference, and Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin than those of the vitamin D sufficient group (p<0.05. Conclusion: It was found that vitamin D deficiency causes important body composition and metabolic changes, which may lead to diseases such as diabetes Mellitus and metabolic syndrome.

  2. Effects of intermittent fasting and chronic swimming exercise on body composition and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Ruan Carlos Macedo de; Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Ferraz, Alex Soares Marreiros; da Silva, Tiago Eugênio Oliveira; Marocolo, Moacir

    2017-12-01

    Intermittent fasting protocol (IFP) has been suggested as a strategy to change body metabolism and improve health. The effects of IFP seem to be similar to aerobic exercise, having a hormetic adaptation according to intensity and frequency. However, the effects of combining both interventions are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of IFP with and without endurance-exercise training on body composition, food behavior, and lipid metabolism. Twenty-week-old Wistar rats were kept under an inverted circadian cycle of 12 h with water ad libitum and assigned to 4 different groups: control group (ad libitum feeding and sedentary), exercise group (ad libitum feeding and endurance training), intermittent fasting group (IF; intermittent fasting and sedentary), and intermittent fasting and exercise group (IFEX; intermittent fasting and endurance training). After 6 weeks, the body weight of IF and IFEX animals decreased without changes in food consumption. Yet, the body composition between the 2 groups was different, with the IFEX animals containing higher total protein and lower total fat content than the IF animals. The IFEX group also showed increases in total high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased intramuscular lipid content. The amount of brown adipose tissue was higher in IF and IFEX groups; however, the IFEX group showed higher expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 in this tissue, indicating a greater thermogenesis. The IFP combined with endurance training is an efficient method for decreasing body mass and altering fat metabolism, without inflicting losses in protein content.

  3. Hepatic mTORC1 controls locomotor activity, body temperature, and lipid metabolism through FGF21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Marion; Oppliger, Wolfgang; Albert, Verena; Robitaille, Aaron M.; Trapani, Francesca; Quagliata, Luca; Fuhrer, Tobias; Sauer, Uwe; Terracciano, Luigi; Hall, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a key metabolic organ that controls whole-body physiology in response to nutrient availability. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a nutrient-activated kinase and central controller of growth and metabolism that is negatively regulated by the tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1). To investigate the role of hepatic mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in whole-body physiology, we generated liver-specific Tsc1 (L-Tsc1 KO) knockout mice. L-Tsc1 KO mice displayed reduced locomotor activity, body temperature, and hepatic triglyceride content in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. Ectopic activation of mTORC1 also caused depletion of hepatic and plasma glutamine, leading to peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)–dependent fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) expression in the liver. Injection of glutamine or knockdown of PGC-1α or FGF21 in the liver suppressed the behavioral and metabolic defects due to mTORC1 activation. Thus, mTORC1 in the liver controls whole-body physiology through PGC-1α and FGF21. Finally, mTORC1 signaling correlated with FGF21 expression in human liver tumors, suggesting that treatment of glutamine-addicted cancers with mTOR inhibitors might have beneficial effects at both the tumor and whole-body level. PMID:25082895

  4. Effects of L-arginine pretreatment on nitric oxide metabolism and hepatosplanchnic perfusion during porcine endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeze, Martijn; Bruins, Maaike J; Kessels, Fons; Luiking, Yvette C; Lamers, Wouter H; Deutz, Nicolaas E P

    2011-06-01

    Sepsis is accompanied by an increased need for and a decreased supply of arginine, reflecting a condition of arginine deficiency. The objective was to evaluate the effects of l-arginine pretreatment on arginine-nitric oxide (NO) production and hepatosplanchnic perfusion during subsequent endotoxemia. In a randomized controlled trial, pigs (20-25 kg) received 3 μg . kg(-1) . min(-1) lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 endotoxin units/ng) intravenously and saline resuscitation. l-Arginine (n = 8; 5.3 μmol . kg(-1) . min(-1)) or saline (n = 8) was infused starting 12 h before LPS infusion and continued for 24 h after the endotoxin infusion ended. Whole-body appearance rates, portal-drained viscera (PDV), and liver fluxes of arginine, citrulline, NO, and arginine de novo synthesis were measured by using stable-isotope infusion of [(15)N(2)]arginine and [(13)C-(2)H(2)]citrulline. Hepatosplanchnic perfusion was assessed by using a primed continuous infusion of para-aminohippuric acid and jejunal intramucosal partial pressure of carbon dioxide and was related to systemic hemodynamics. Arginine supplementation before LPS increased whole-body NO production in the PDV but not in the liver. Furthermore, it increased blood flow in the portal vein but not in the aorta and hepatic artery. During endotoxin infusion, arginine pretreatment was associated with an increased whole-body arginine appearance and NO production in the gut. Additional effects included a preserved mean arterial pressure, the prevention of an increase in pulmonary arterial pressure, an attenuated metabolic acidosis, and an attenuated increase in the intramucosal partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Arginine treatment starting before endotoxemia appears to be beneficial because it improves hepatosplanchnic perfusion and oxygenation during prolonged endotoxemia, probably through an enhancement in NO synthesis, without causing deleterious systemic side effects.

  5. Effects of Contingency versus Constraints on the Body-Mass Scaling of Metabolic Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Glazier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available I illustrate the effects of both contingency and constraints on the body-mass scaling of metabolic rate by analyzing the significantly different influences of ambient temperature (Ta on metabolic scaling in ectothermic versus endothermic animals. Interspecific comparisons show that increasing Ta results in decreasing metabolic scaling slopes in ectotherms, but increasing slopes in endotherms, a pattern uniquely predicted by the metabolic-level boundaries hypothesis, as amended to include effects of the scaling of thermal conductance in endotherms outside their thermoneutral zone. No other published theoretical model explicitly predicts this striking variation in metabolic scaling, which I explain in terms of contingent effects of Ta and thermoregulatory strategy in the context of physical and geometric constraints related to the scaling of surface area, volume, and heat flow across surfaces. My analysis shows that theoretical models focused on an ideal 3/4-power law, as explained by a single universally applicable mechanism, are clearly inadequate for explaining the diversity and environmental sensitivity of metabolic scaling. An important challenge is to develop a theory of metabolic scaling that recognizes the contingent effects of multiple mechanisms that are modulated by several extrinsic and intrinsic factors within specified constraints.

  6. Offspring body size and metabolic profile - effects of lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, Mette; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    2014-01-01

    outcomes, with special emphasis on the effects of lifestyle intervention during pregnancy. The thesis is based on a literature review, description of own studies and three original papers/manuscripts (I, II and III). In paper I, we used data from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. The aim of this paper...... disturbances in the offspring. Pregnancy offers the opportunity to modify the intrauterine environment, and maternal lifestyle changes during gestation may confer health benefits to the child. The overall aim with this PhD thesis was to study the effects of maternal obesity on offspring body size and metabolic...... of metabolic outcomes. In paper II the effect of the maternal intervention on offspring body composition and anthropometric outcomes was studied. The primary outcome was BMI Z-score and secondary outcomes were: body composition values by DEXA (fat mass, lean mass and fat percentage), BMI, percentage...

  7. The Significance of Epidermal Lipid Metabolism in Whole-Body Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Vibeke; Neess, Ditte; Færgeman, Nils J

    2017-09-01

    The skin is the largest sensory organ of the human body. The skin not only prevents loss of water and other components of the body, but also is involved in regulation of body temperature and serves as an essential barrier, protecting mammals from both routine and extreme environments. Given the importance of the skin in temperature regulation, it is surprising that adaptive alterations in skin functions and morphology only vaguely have been associated with systemic physiological responses. Despite that impaired lipid metabolism in the skin often impairs the epidermal permeability barrier and insulation properties of the skin, its role in regulating systemic physiology and metabolism is yet to be recognized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Migrant Asian Indians in New Zealand; prediction of metabolic syndrome using body weights and measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowitt, Ljiljana M; Lu, Louise Weiwei; Rush, Elaine C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study of Asian Indian migrants in New Zealand was to determine cut-off points for body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio that best discriminate for increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One hundred and seventy-five (90F, 85M) Asian Indian volunteers (aged >50 y) were recruited from urban Auckland, New Zealand. Body weight, height and waist and hip circumferences were measured using standard techniques. Waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio and body mass index were derived. Total and percent body fat by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting glucose, insulin and lipids were measured. Three measures of metabolic risk were determined: the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, the McAuley score for insulin sensitivity and metabolic syndrome by International Diabetes Federation criteria. Body mass index, percent body fat and anthropometric measurements of central adiposity generally did not perform well as indicators of metabolic risk in this high risk population of Asian Indian migrants. Our data support the use of lower ethnic specific body mass index and waist circumference for Asian Indian women and men. The discriminatory power of waist-to-height ratio was similar to that of body mass index. Hence, waist-to-height ratio could be used as a simple screening tool. A recommendation, of a waist-to- height ratio of less than 0.5 that would underpin the simple public health message of "your waist circumference should be less than half your height".

  9. The effect of body fat on basal metabolic rate in adult harp seals (Phoca groenlandica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarseth, J J; Nordøy, E S; Blix, A S

    1999-09-01

    Three adult harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) were fed different daily amounts of capelin (Mallotus villosus), and their body composition determined by use of the tritiated water method at different levels of fattening. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was measured after 5 days of fasting by indirect calorimetry, and was on average 1.1 W.kg-1 when 45% of body mass (BM) was fat and 2.3 W.kg-1 when body fat was reduced to 13% of BM. This suggests that body fat contributes little to BMR in these animals. It follows, that predictions of BMR on the basis of BM is questionable in seals, in which body fat may change seasonally between 20 and 60% of BM.

  10. Changes in bone mineral density, body composition, and lipid metabolism during growth hormone (GH) treatment in children with GH deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); M.A. Engels (Melanie); G.J.M. Boerma (Geert); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAdults with childhood onset GH deficiency (GHD) have reduced bone mass, increased fat mass, and disorders of lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, body composition, and lipid metabolism in

  11. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and calf circumference are protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinari Takamura

    2017-07-01

    Interpretation: Weight-adjusted lean body mass and skeletal muscle area are protective against weight-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities. The calf circumference reflects lean body mass and may be useful as a protective marker against obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities.

  12. N-Oxide-N-oxide interactions and Cl...Cl halogen bonds in pentachloropyridine N-oxide: the many-body approach to interactions in the crystal state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wzgarda-Raj, Kinga; Rybarczyk-Pirek, Agnieszka J; Wojtulewski, Sławomir; Palusiak, Marcin

    2018-02-01

    Pentachloropyridine N-oxide, C 5 Cl 5 NO, crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2 1 /c. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked by C-Cl...Cl halogen bonds into infinite ribbons extending along the crystallographic [100] direction. These molecular aggregates are further stabilized by very short intermolecular N-oxide-N-oxide interactions into herringbone motifs. Computations based on quantum chemistry methods allowed for a more detailed description of the N-oxide-N-oxide interactions and Cl...Cl halogen bonds. For this purpose, Hirshfeld surface analysis and the many-body approach to interaction energy were applied.

  13. All-trans retinoic acid increases oxidative metabolism in mature adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercader, Josep; Madsen, Lise; Felipe, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    metabolism and related gene expression were analyzed in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes after exposure to RA or vehicle. RESULTS: Treatment with RA resulted in decreased cellular triacylglycerol content and increased basal lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation rate. At the mRNA level, RA treatment led...... to a reduced expression of adipogenic/lipogenic transcription factors (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, rexinoid receptor alpha) and two purported suppressors of lipolysis and oxidative metabolism (CIDEA and receptor-interacting protein 140...... preceded by an early RA-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. UCP1 expression was not induced. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that RA directly favors remodeling of mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes in culture toward increased oxidative metabolism....

  14. Preschool Weight and Body Mass Index in Relation to Central Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Lise; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Petersen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If preschool measures of body size routinely collected at preventive health examinations are associated with adult central obesity and metabolic syndrome, a focused use of these data for the identification of high risk children is possible. The aim of this study was to test the associ......BACKGROUND: If preschool measures of body size routinely collected at preventive health examinations are associated with adult central obesity and metabolic syndrome, a focused use of these data for the identification of high risk children is possible. The aim of this study was to test...... the associations between preschool weight and body mass index (BMI) and adult BMI, central obesity and metabolic alterations. METHODS: The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966) (N = 4111) is a population-based cohort. Preschool weight (age 5 months and 1 year) and BMI (age 2-5 years) were studied...... in relation to metabolic syndrome as well as BMI, waist circumference, lipoproteins, blood pressure, and fasting glucose at the age of 31 years. Linear regression models and generalized linear regression models with log link were used. RESULTS: Throughout preschool ages, weight and BMI were significantly...

  15. Pre- and Postoperative Body Composition and Metabolic Characteristics in Patients with Acromegaly: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the preoperative body composition, metabolic characteristics, and postoperative changes in patients with active acromegaly and analyze the effects of gender and age. Methods. We included 36 patients with untreated acromegaly and 37 patients with nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. Adipose tissue (AT, the visceral fat index (VFI, sclerotin, protein, skeletal muscle, total body water (TBW, intracellular water (ICW, and extracellular water (ECW were measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Total energy expenditure (TEE and basal metabolism (BM were measured with a cardiopulmonary and metabolic analyzer (CMA. Tricep skinfold thickness (TST, bicep circumference, waistline, hipline, and calf circumference were measured with a skinfold caliper and tape. These indices were measured before surgery and 3 months and 1 year after surgery. Results. Overall, AT, VFI, and TST were lower, whereas sclerotin, protein, skeletal muscle, TBW, ICW, ECW, TEE, and BM were higher in acromegaly patients. Postoperatively, TST rose initially and then decreased, the waistline increased, and sclerotin, skeletal muscle, TEE, and BM decreased. Changes in these indices differed with gender and age in unique patterns. Conclusions. Body composition and metabolism in acromegaly patients changed after surgery, and gender and age influenced these changes.

  16. Adenylate Kinase and AMP Signaling Networks: Metabolic Monitoring, Signal Communication and Body Energy Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Terzic

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Adenylate kinase and downstream AMP signaling is an integrated metabolic monitoring system which reads the cellular energy state in order to tune and report signals to metabolic sensors. A network of adenylate kinase isoforms (AK1-AK7 are distributed throughout intracellular compartments, interstitial space and body fluids to regulate energetic and metabolic signaling circuits, securing efficient cell energy economy, signal communication and stress response. The dynamics of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer regulates multiple intracellular and extracellular energy-dependent and nucleotide signaling processes, including excitation-contraction coupling, hormone secretion, cell and ciliary motility, nuclear transport, energetics of cell cycle, DNA synthesis and repair, and developmental programming. Metabolomic analyses indicate that cellular, interstitial and blood AMP levels are potential metabolic signals associated with vital functions including body energy sensing, sleep, hibernation and food intake. Either low or excess AMP signaling has been linked to human disease such as diabetes, obesity and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Recent studies indicate that derangements in adenylate kinase-mediated energetic signaling due to mutations in AK1, AK2 or AK7 isoforms are associated with hemolytic anemia, reticular dysgenesis and ciliary dyskinesia. Moreover, hormonal, food and antidiabetic drug actions are frequently coupled to alterations of cellular AMP levels and associated signaling. Thus, by monitoring energy state and generating and distributing AMP metabolic signals adenylate kinase represents a unique hub within the cellular homeostatic network.

  17. Effect of hyperglucagonemia on whole-body leucine metabolism in immature pigs before and during a meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostaszewski, P.; Nissen, S.

    1988-01-01

    Leucine metabolism was measured isotopically in 12 immature female pigs to assess the effect of acute hyperglucagonemia on leucine kinetics in both the fed and fasting states. After an overnight fast, immature pigs were infused with α-[ 3 H]ketoisocaproate and [ 14 C]leucine. After a 2-h equilibration period, an infusion of either saline or 7 pg · kg -1 · min -1 of glucagon was begun, which increased plasma glucagon from ∼140 to ∼640 pg/ml and doubled the insulin concentrations. Two hours later, pigs were fed small meals to which [5,5,5- 2 H 3 ]leucine was added to trace absorption. By subtracting absorption from total leucine flux, an estimate of endogenous proteolysis during the meal was made. In the fasting state, glucagon increased proteolysis and increased oxidation. No significant glucagon-related changes in any other flux parameters occurred in the fasting state. Ingestion of the meals caused oxidation to increase 41% in control animals, whereas in glucagon-infused animals, oxidation increased 84%. Additional, animals infused with glucagon suppressed endogenous proteolysis 43% after the meal compared with 55% decrease in control animals. These data indicate that glucagon stimulates whole-body proteolysis in both the fasting and fed states

  18. Nitrogen metabolism and kinetics of ammonia-oxidizing archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens-Habbena, Willm; Stahl, David A

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of ammonia-oxidizing mesophilic and thermophilic Group I archaea changed the century-old paradigm that aerobic ammonia oxidation is solely mediated by two small clades of Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria. Group I archaea are extremely diverse and ubiquitous in marine and terrestrial environments, accounting for 20-30% of the microbial plankton in the global oceans. Recent studies indicated that many of these organisms carry putative ammonia monooxygenase genes and are more abundant than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in most natural environments suggesting a potentially significant role in the nitrogen cycle. The isolation of Nitrosopumilus maritimus strain SCM1 provided the first direct evidence that Group I archaea indeed gain energy from ammonia oxidation. To characterize the physiology of this archaeal nitrifier, we developed a respirometry setup particularly suited for activity measurements in dilute microbial cultures with extremely low oxygen uptake rates. Here, we describe the setup and review the kinetic experiments conducted with N. maritimus and other nitrifying microorganisms. These experiments demonstrated that N. maritimus is adapted to grow on ammonia concentrations found in oligotrophic open ocean environments, far below the survival threshold of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. The described setup and experimental procedures should facilitate physiological studies on other nitrifying archaea and oligotrophic microorganisms in general. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Body composition and metabolic risk in small for gestational age children treated with growth hormone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurensanz Clemente, Esther; Samper Villagrasa, Pilar; Ayerza Casas, Ariadna; Ruiz Frontera, Pablo; Moreno Aznar, Luis Alberto; Bueno Lozano, Gloria

    2016-09-16

    Small for gestational age (SGA) children are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Our objective is to evaluate changes in body composition produced by growth hormone (GH) treatment. A group of 28 SGA children without catch-up growth and undergoing treatment with GH was selected for evaluation. Over the course of 3 years from the beginning of the treatment with GH, the children's body composition variables (bone mineral density [BMD], fat and lean body mass proportion) were evaluated annually with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A study of correlation between metabolic and body composition variables was also made. Treatment with GH produces a reduction in fat mass proportion in relation to lean body mass, decreasing from 25.94±6.09 to 22.88±5.38% (P=.034). In the abdominal regions we observe an increase in lean mass, from 1,356,91±426,71 to 2,570,96±814,36g (P=.000) and a tendency for visceral fat deposits to decrease. BMD in lumbar vertebrae improved from -1.55±0.68 to -0.90±0.79Z (P=.019). Treatment with GH produces changes in body composition, improving BMD and increasing the proportion of lean body mass with a reduction in fat mass. If these changes persisted into adulthood, they may cause a reduction in the metabolic and cardiovascular risk in this group of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Naringin Reverses Hepatocyte Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress Associated with HIV-1 Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors-Induced Metabolic Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafeyisetan O. Adebiyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs have not only improved therapeutic outcomes in the treatment of HIV infection but have also led to an increase in associated metabolic complications of NRTIs. Naringin’s effects in mitigating NRTI-induced complications were investigated in this study. Wistar rats, randomly allotted into seven groups (n = 7 were orally treated daily for 56 days with 100 mg/kg zidovudine (AZT (groups I, II III, 50 mg/kg stavudine (d4T (groups IV, V, VI and 3 mL/kg of distilled water (group VII. Additionally, rats in groups II and V were similarly treated with 50 mg/kg naringin, while groups III and VI were treated with 45 mg/kg vitamin E. AZT or d4T treatment significantly reduced body weight and plasma high density lipoprotein concentrations but increased liver weights, plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol compared to controls, respectively. Furthermore, AZT or d4T treatment significantly increased oxidative stress, adiposity index and expression of Bax protein, but reduced Bcl-2 protein expression compared to controls, respectively. However, either naringin or vitamin E significantly mitigated AZT- or d4T-induced weight loss, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis compared to AZT- or d4T-only treated rats. Our results suggest that naringin reverses metabolic complications associated with NRTIs by ameliorating oxidative stress and apoptosis. This implies that naringin supplements could mitigate lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia associated with NRTI therapy.

  1. Metabolic costs of capital energy storage in a small-bodied ectotherm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffen, Blaine D

    2017-04-01

    Reproduction is energetically financed using strategies that fall along a continuum from animals that rely on stored energy acquired prior to reproduction (i.e., capital breeders) to those that rely on energy acquired during reproduction (i.e., income breeders). Energy storage incurs a metabolic cost. However, previous studies suggest that this cost may be minimal for small-bodied ectotherms. Here I test this assumption. I use a laboratory feeding experiment with the European green crab Carcinus maenas to establish individuals with different amounts of energy storage. I then demonstrate that differences in energy storage account for 26% of the variation in basal metabolic costs. The magnitudes of these costs for any individual crab vary through time depending on the amount of energy it has stored, as well as on temperature-dependent metabolism. I use previously established relationships between temperature- and mass-dependent metabolic rates, combined with a feasible annual pattern of energy storage in the Gulf of Maine and annual sea surface temperature patterns in this region, to estimate potential annual metabolic costs expected for mature female green crabs. Results indicate that energy storage should incur an ~8% increase in metabolic costs for female crabs, relative to a hypothetical crab that did not store any energy. Translated into feeding, for a medium-sized mature female (45 mm carapace width), this requires the consumption of an additional ~156 mussels annually to support the metabolic cost of energy storage. These results indicate, contrary to previous assumptions, that the cost of energy storage for small-bodied ectotherms may represent a considerable portion of their basic operating energy budget. An inability to meet these additional costs of energy storage may help explain the recent decline of green crabs in the Gulf of Maine where reduced prey availability and increased consumer competition have combined to hamper green crab foraging success in

  2. Yogurt consumption, body composition, and metabolic health in the Québec Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Shirin; Doyon, Caroline Y; Després, Jean-Pierre; Pérusse, Louis; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo

    2017-06-02

    The aim was to compare the anthropometric and metabolic profiles and lifestyle behaviours of yogurt consumers and non-consumers and to determine if the observed differences persisted after adjustment for diet quality and related variables. Using cross-sectional and follow-up data from the Québec Family Study, men and women were classified into yogurt consumers (n = 269; 96 men and 173 women) and non-consumers (n = 570; 279 men and 291 women), and their anthropometric measurements, metabolic profiles, and lifestyle factors were compared. Men yogurt consumers had a lower body weight, BMI, % body fat, waist circumference and lower plasma insulin, and C-peptide concentrations in response to oral glucose, while women yogurt consumers had lower waist circumference, BMI, % body fat, plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide compared with non-consumers (P composition. Yogurt consumption is associated with body composition and metabolic health benefits that are not entirely explained by a global effect of diet quality.

  3. The Association between Breakfast Skipping and Body Weight, Nutrient Intake, and Metabolic Measures among Participants with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Cordeiro, Lorraine S; Liu, Jinghua; Ma, Yunsheng

    2017-04-14

    The effect of skipping breakfast on health, especially in adults, remains a controversial topic. A secondary data analysis was conducted to examine associations between breakfast eating patterns and weight loss, nutrient intake, and metabolic parameters among participants with metabolic syndrome (MetS) ( n = 240). Three randomly selected 24-h dietary recalls were collected from each participant at baseline and at the one-year visit. Skipped breakfast was seen in 32.9% at baseline and in 17.4% at the one-year visit, respectively. At baseline, after adjustment for demographics and physical activity, participants who ate breakfast had a higher thiamin, niacin, and folate intake than did breakfast skippers ( p breakfast skippers in comparison to the 1.2% decrease observed in breakfast eaters (95% CI: -3.4, 1.1%) ( p = 0.02). Mean changes in other selected parameters showed no significant differences between breakfast skippers and eaters ( p > 0.05). This study did not support the hypothesis that skipping breakfast has impact on body weight, nutrient intakes, and selected metabolic measures in participants with MetS.

  4. Carbon dioxide fixation in the metabolism of propylene and propylene oxide by Xanthobacter strain Py2.

    OpenAIRE

    Small, F J; Ensign, S A

    1995-01-01

    Evidence for a requirement for CO2 in the productive metabolism of aliphatic alkenes and epoxides by the propylene-oxidizing bacterium Xanthobacter strain Py2 is presented. In the absence of CO2, whole-cell suspensions of propylene-grown cells catalyzed the isomerization of propylene oxide (epoxypropane) to acetone. In the presence of CO2, no acetone was produced. Acetone was not metabolized by suspensions of propylene-grown cells, in either the absence or presence of CO2. The degradation of ...

  5. Metabolic responses of upper-body accelerometer-controlled video games in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Leah C; Amonette, William E; Dupler, Terry L

    2010-10-01

    Historically, video games required little physical exertion, but new systems utilize handheld accelerometers that require upper-body movement. It is not fully understood if the metabolic workload while playing these games is sufficient to replace routine physical activity. The purpose of this study was to quantify metabolic workloads and estimate caloric expenditure while playing upper-body accelerometer-controlled and classic seated video games. Nineteen adults completed a peak oxygen consumption treadmill test followed by an experimental session where exercising metabolism and ventilation were measured while playing 3 video games: control (CON), low activity (LOW) and high activity (HI). Resting metabolic measures (REST) were also acquired. Caloric expenditure was estimated using the Weir equation. Mean oxygen consumption normalized to body weight for HI condition was greater than LOW, CON, and REST. Mean oxygen consumption normalized to body weight for LOW condition was also greater than CON and REST. Mean exercise intensities of oxygen consumption reserve for HI, LOW, and CON were 25.8% ± 5.1%, 6.4% ± 4.8%, and 0.8% ± 2.4%, respectively. Estimated caloric expenditure during the HI was significantly related to aerobic fitness, but not during other conditions. An active video game significantly elevated oxygen consumption and heart rate, but the increase was dependent on the type of game. The mean oxygen consumption reserve during the HI video game was below recommended international standards for moderate and vigorous activity. Although upper-body accelerometer-controlled video games provided a greater exercising stimulus than classic seated video games, these data suggest they should not replace routine moderate or vigorous exercise.

  6. How safe is bisphenol A? Fundamentals of toxicity: metabolism, electron transfer and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The FDA recently announced concern about the safety of bisphenol A (BPA) and the need for more research. In the current controversy, scant attention is being paid to toxicity at the fundamental, molecular level, which is the topic of this report. Important information is provided by extensive studies on metabolism. The principal pathway is detoxification, mainly by conjugation leading to a glucuronide. A minor route entails oxidation by hydroxylation to a catechol followed by further transformation to an o-quinone. The catechol-o-quinone couple is capable of redox cycling with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress (OS). o-Quinones are highly electron affinic with very favorable reduction potentials that permit electron transfer (ET) under physiological conditions. Only small amounts are sufficient to generate large quantities of ROS catalytically. There is extensive evidence for production of ROS, which buttresses ET by o-quinone as a plausible source. In addition, there are numerous reports on toxicity to body constituents by BPA. Those adversely affected include the liver, DNA, genes, CNS, reproductive system and kidney. Since a plethora of prior studies links ROS-OS with toxicity, it is reasonable to propose a similar connection for BPA. Cell signaling also plays a role. There are various other factors involved with toxic responses, including age, with the fetus and infants being the most vulnerable. A report concludes that human exposure to BPA is not negligible. The present overview represents a novel, integrated approach to BPA toxicity. A similar article was recently published in this journal which deals with toxicity of prevalent phthalate plasticizers. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidative stress among subjects with metabolic syndrome in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice ... Two hundred subjects (96 males and 104 females) were recruited for the study using a multi.stage sampling technique. ... Evaluation of anthropometric variables, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, lipid profiles, plasma insulin levels, total antioxidant status, and oxidative stress ...

  8. Arginine, citrulline and nitric oxide metabolism in sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arginine has vasodilatory effects, via its conversion by nitric oxide (NO) synthase into NO, and immunomodulatory actions that play important roles in sepsis. Protein breakdown affects arginine availability, and the release of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an inhibitor of NO synthase, may therefore a...

  9. Mechanisms of TiO2 NPs-induced phoxim metabolism in silkworm (Bombyx mori) fat body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J S; Li, F C; Xu, K Z; Ni, M; Wang, B B; Tian, J H; Li, Y Y; Shen, W D; Li, B

    2016-05-01

    Silkworm is an important economic insect. Abuse of organophosphorus pesticides in recent years often leads to poisoning of silkworms, which significantly affects sericulture development by reducing silk production. Previous studies have shown that TiO2 NPs can effectively mitigate the damages caused by organophosphorus pesticides in silk glands and nerve tissues. The fat body is an important metabolic detoxification organ of silkworms, but it is unknown whether TiO2 NPs affect pesticide metabolism in fat body. In this study, we characterized the transcription of antioxidant genes and enzyme activity in fat body after TiO2 NPs and phoxim treatments using transcriptome sequencing, real-time PCR, and enzyme activity assay. Transcriptome sequencing detected 10 720, 10 641, 10 403, and 10 489 genes for control group, TiO2 NPs group, phoxim group, and TiO2 NPs+phoxim group, respectively. The TiO2 NPs+phoxim group had 705 genes with significantly differential expression (FDR<0.001), among which the antioxidant genes thioredoxin reductase 1 and glutathione S-transferase omega 3 were significantly upregulated. In phoxim group, the expression levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase delta (GSTd), and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx) were increased by 1.365 -fold, 1.335 -fold, 1.642 -fold, and 1.765 -fold, respectively. The level changes of SOD, CAT, GSTd, and TPx were validated by real time PCR. The contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were increased by 1.598 -fold, 1.946 -fold, and 1.506 -fold, respectively, indicating that TiO2 NPs treatment can relieve phoxim-induced oxidative stress. To clarify the mechanism of TiO2 NPs's effect, the transcription levels of P450 gene family were measured for the TiO2 NPs+phoxim group; the expression levels of CYP4M5, CYP6AB4, CYP6A8, and CYP9G3 were elevated by 2.784 -fold, 3.047 -fold, 2.254 -fold, and 4.253 -fold, respectively, suggesting that

  10. Modeling the Genetic Regulation of Cancer Metabolism: Interplay Between Glycolysis and Oxidative Phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Linglin; Lu, Mingyang; Jia, Dongya; Ma, Jianpeng; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Levine, Herbert; Kaipparettu, Benny Abraham; Onuchic, José N.

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, yet its regulation remains poorly understood. Cancer cells were considered to utilize primarily glycolysis for ATP production, referred to as the Warburg effect. However, recent evidence suggests that oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) plays a crucial role during cancer progression. Here we utilized a systems biology approach to decipher the regulatory principle of glycolysis and OXPHOS. Integrating information from literature, we constructed a regulatory network of genes and metabolites from which we extracted a core circuit containing HIF-1, AMPK, and ROS. Our circuit analysis showed that while normal cells have an oxidative state and a glycolytic state, cancer cells can access a hybrid state with both metabolic modes coexisting. This was due to higher ROS production and/or oncogene activation, such as RAS, MYC, and c-SRC. Guided by the model, we developed two signatures consisting of AMPK and HIF-1 downstream genes, respectively, to quantify the activity of glycolysis and OXPHOS. By applying the AMPK and HIF-1 signatures to TCGA patient transcriptomics data of multiple cancer types and single-cell RNA-seq data of lung adenocarcinoma, we confirmed an anti-correlation between AMPK and HIF-1 activities and the association of metabolic states with oncogenes. We propose that the hybrid phenotype contributes to metabolic plasticity, allowing cancer cells to adapt to various microenvironments. Using model simulations, our theoretical framework of metabolism can serve as a platform to decode cancer metabolic plasticity and design cancer therapies targeting metabolism. PMID:28202516

  11. Effects of Body Weight Reduction on Serum Irisin and Metabolic Parameters in Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaeko Fukushima

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIrisin is a myokine implicated in lipid and glucose metabolism. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of a body weight reduction on the serum irisin level and physical indicators in obese Japanese patients without diabetes.MethodsThe subjects were 22 patients (male/female, 5/17; age, 46.1±16.0 years; body mass index [BMI], 36.9±5.0 kg/m2 who completed a 6-month body weight reduction program at our clinic. The program included diet, exercise therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. Blood parameters, body composition, exercise tolerance, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and serum irisin were determined before and after intervention, and relationships among changes in these data were examined.ResultsThere were significant decreases in body weight and BMI after the intervention. Irisin before the intervention was significantly positively correlated with HOMA-IR (r=0.434, P<0.05. The mean irisin level showed no significant change after the intervention in all participants. However, improvements in % body fat, subcutaneous fat area, triglycerides, and fasting glucose were significantly greater in patients with an increase in irisin compared to those with a decrease in irisin after the intervention. Patients with an increase in irisin also had significantly lower fasting insulin (9.7±4.8 vs. 16.4±8.2, P<0.05 and HOMA-IR (2.2±1.1 vs. 3.7±1.6, P<0.05 after the intervention, compared to patients with a decrease in irisin.ConclusionBody weight reduction did not alter irisin levels. However, irisin may play important roles in fat and glucose metabolism and insulin resistance, and the effects of body weight reduction on irisin kinetics may be a key for obesity treatment.

  12. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on nutrition metabolism in silkworm fat body

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    J. H. Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Silkworm (Bombyx mori is an important economic insect with a fat body that plays a crucial role in the storage and transfer of nutrients. It is also known that TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs can improve feed efficiency and promote silk protein synthesis in the silkworm. In this study, we profiled gene expression in the silkworm fat body after TiO2 NP treatment, validated the major RNA-seq findings, and determined the contents of trehalose and triglyceride, the activity of lipase, and the amount of total proteins. RNA-seq analysis revealed that TiO2 NP treatment caused significant expression changes in 341 genes (P≤0.01, 138 of which were upregulated while the other 203 were downregulated. The expression levels of two target genes in the insulin signaling pathway and two protein metabolism-related target genes, three lipid metabolism-associated target genes, two carbohydrate metabolism related target genes and expression levels of seven heat shock protein genes were increased, and that of threonine dehydratase gene and fatty acid transport protein gene were decreased. The RNA-seq results of 16 genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The lipase activity, content of trehalose, and amount of total proteins were elevated by 3.86-fold, 1.34-fold, and 1.21-fold, respectively, and the content of triglyceride was decreased by 0.94-fold after TiO2 NP treatment. These results indicated that TiO2 NPs activated the insulin signaling pathway, promoted the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate, and improved nutrition metabolism. Our study provides new support for the understanding of the beneficial effect of TiO2 NPs on silkworm nutrient metabolism.

  13. Newborn body fat: associations with maternal metabolic state and placental size.

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    Camilla M Friis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neonatal body composition has implications for the health of the newborn both in short and long term perspective. The objective of the current study was first to explore the association between maternal BMI and metabolic parameters associated with BMI and neonatal percentage body fat and to determine to which extent any associations were modified if adjusting for placental weight. Secondly, we examined the relations between maternal metabolic parameters associated with BMI and placental weight. METHODS: The present work was performed in a subcohort (n = 207 of the STORK study, an observational, prospective study on the determinants of fetal growth and birthweight in healthy pregnancies at Oslo University Hospital, Norway. Fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acids, HDL- and total cholesterol were measured at week 30-32. Newborn body composition was determined by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA. Placenta was weighed at birth. Linear regression models were used with newborn fat percentage and placental weight as main outcomes. RESULTS: Maternal BMI, fasting glucose and gestational age were independently associated with neonatal fat percentage. However, if placental weight was introduced as a covariate, only placental weight and gestational age remained significant. In the univariate model, the determinants of placenta weight included BMI, insulin, triglycerides, total- and HDL-cholesterol (negatively, gestational weight gain and parity. In the multivariable model, BMI, total cholesterol HDL-cholesterol, gestational weight gain and parity remained independent covariates. CONCLUSION: Maternal BMI and fasting glucose were independently associated with newborn percentage fat. This effect disappeared by introducing placental weight as a covariate. Several metabolic factors associated with maternal BMI were associated with placental weight, but not with neonatal body fat. Our findings are consistent with a concept

  14. Newborn body fat: associations with maternal metabolic state and placental size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Camilla M; Qvigstad, Elisabeth; Paasche Roland, Marie Cecilie; Godang, Kristin; Voldner, Nanna; Bollerslev, Jens; Henriksen, Tore

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal body composition has implications for the health of the newborn both in short and long term perspective. The objective of the current study was first to explore the association between maternal BMI and metabolic parameters associated with BMI and neonatal percentage body fat and to determine to which extent any associations were modified if adjusting for placental weight. Secondly, we examined the relations between maternal metabolic parameters associated with BMI and placental weight. The present work was performed in a subcohort (n = 207) of the STORK study, an observational, prospective study on the determinants of fetal growth and birthweight in healthy pregnancies at Oslo University Hospital, Norway. Fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acids, HDL- and total cholesterol were measured at week 30-32. Newborn body composition was determined by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Placenta was weighed at birth. Linear regression models were used with newborn fat percentage and placental weight as main outcomes. Maternal BMI, fasting glucose and gestational age were independently associated with neonatal fat percentage. However, if placental weight was introduced as a covariate, only placental weight and gestational age remained significant. In the univariate model, the determinants of placenta weight included BMI, insulin, triglycerides, total- and HDL-cholesterol (negatively), gestational weight gain and parity. In the multivariable model, BMI, total cholesterol HDL-cholesterol, gestational weight gain and parity remained independent covariates. Maternal BMI and fasting glucose were independently associated with newborn percentage fat. This effect disappeared by introducing placental weight as a covariate. Several metabolic factors associated with maternal BMI were associated with placental weight, but not with neonatal body fat. Our findings are consistent with a concept that the effects of maternal BMI and a number of BMI

  15. Myocardial metabolism during hypoxia: maintained lactate oxidation during increased glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, C D; Stanley, W C; Hickey, R F; Neese, R A; Cason, B A; Demas, K A; Wisneski, J A; Gertz, E W

    1990-09-01

    In the intact animal, myocardial lactate utilization and oxidation during hypoxia are not well understood. Nine dogs were chronically instrumented with flow probes on the left anterior descending coronary artery and with a coronary sinus sampling catheter. [14C]lactate and [13C]glucose tracers, or [13C]lactate and [14C]glucose were administered to quantitate lactate and glucose oxidation, lactate conversion to glucose, and simultaneous lactate extraction and release. The animals were anesthetized and exposed to 90 minutes of severe hypoxia (PO2 = 25 +/- 4 torr). Hypoxia resulted in significant increases in heart rate, cardiac output and myocardial blood flow, but no significant change in myocardial oxygen consumption. The arterial/coronary sinus differences for glucose and lactate did not change from normoxia to hypoxia; however, the rate of glucose uptake increased significantly due to the increase in myocardial blood flow. Tracer-measured lactate extraction did not decrease with hypoxia, despite a 250% increase in lactate release. During hypoxia, 90% +/- 4% of the extracted 14C-lactate was accounted for by the appearance of 14CO2 in the coronary sinus, compared with 88% +/- 4% during normoxia. Thus, in addition to the expected increase in glucose uptake and lactate production, we observed an increase in lactate oxidation during hypoxia.

  16. Myocardial metabolism during hypoxia: Maintained lactate oxidation during increased glycolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazer, C.D.; Stanley, W.C.; Hickey, R.F.; Neese, R.A.; Cason, B.A.; Demas, K.A.; Wisneski, J.A.; Gertz, E.W. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1990-09-01

    In the intact animal, myocardial lactate utilization and oxidation during hypoxia are not well understood. Nine dogs were chronically instrumented with flow probes on the left anterior descending coronary artery and with a coronary sinus sampling catheter. ({sup 14}C)lactate and ({sup 13}C)glucose tracers, or ({sup 13}C)lactate and ({sup 14}C)glucose were administered to quantitate lactate and glucose oxidation, lactate conversion to glucose, and simultaneous lactate extraction and release. The animals were anesthetized and exposed to 90 minutes of severe hypoxia (PO2 = 25 +/- 4 torr). Hypoxia resulted in significant increases in heart rate, cardiac output and myocardial blood flow, but no significant change in myocardial oxygen consumption. The arterial/coronary sinus differences for glucose and lactate did not change from normoxia to hypoxia; however, the rate of glucose uptake increased significantly due to the increase in myocardial blood flow. Tracer-measured lactate extraction did not decrease with hypoxia, despite a 250% increase in lactate release. During hypoxia, 90% +/- 4% of the extracted {sup 14}C-lactate was accounted for by the appearance of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in the coronary sinus, compared with 88% +/- 4% during normoxia. Thus, in addition to the expected increase in glucose uptake and lactate production, we observed an increase in lactate oxidation during hypoxia.

  17. Calcium metabolism in fluorosis and endemic genu valgum using radioactive tracer, whole body counting and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasinga Rao, B.

    1979-11-01

    Endemic fluorosis with extensive skeletal changes has been reported from several parts of India. In recent years a new condition, endemic genu valgum, has been recognized in one of these areas. In both conditions osteosclerosis, particularly of the spine, has been observed, but in genu valgum the most distinctive pathology is osteoporosis in bones of the extremities and presumably as a result the ''knock knees'' that give the syndrome its name. In this project certain aspects of calcium metabolism were investigated in endemic fluorosis and genu valgum and in appropriate control subjects. Calcium kinetics were studied by intravenously injecting a tracer dose of 47 Ca and following for 10 days thereafter the concentration of the tracer in serum and excreta, as well as its total retention in the body (the latter measured by whole body counting). In addition calcium balance was measured on some of the subjects while resident in a metabolic ward. Statistical analysis of the results showed in general a higher metabolic activity of calcium in the fluorosis and genu valgum cases than in the controls (specifically, higher ''turnover'' of calcium in the blood pool and an apparently elevated bone mineralization rate). Whole body retention was somewhat greater in the patients than in the controls. Several measurements were also performed relative to blood chemistry, and in particular the serum concentration of 25-OHD 3 (a metabolite of vitamin D) was measured. There was no evidence that vitamin D deficiency played a significant role in the causation of genu valgum

  18. Meal replacement based on Human Ration modulates metabolic risk factors during body weight loss: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Natalia Elizabeth Galdino; Enes, Bárbara Nery; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha

    2014-04-01

    A meal replacement may be an effective strategy in the management of obesity to increase antioxidant intake, attenuating oxidative stress and inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of a new nutritional supplement to reduce metabolic risk parameters in obese women. In a randomized controlled crossover study (2 × 2), 22 women (percentage body fat 40.52 ± 3.75%; body mass index-BMI 28.72 ± 2.87 kg/m²; 35.04 ± 5.6 years old) were allocated into two treatments: hypocaloric diet and drink containing "Human Ration" (HR) consumption (CRHR), and hypocaloric diet and control drink consumption (CR). The study consisted of 2 periods of 5 weeks with 1 week of washout in two orders (CR → CRHR and CRHR → CR). Caloric restriction was 15%, based on estimated energy requirement. Anthropometric, clinical and metabolic risk parameters were assessed at baseline and at the end of each period. Some metabolic risk factors were favorably modulated in both interventions: reduction in body weight (CR -0.74 ± 1.27 kg; p = 0.01; CRHR -0.77 ± 1.3 kg; p = 0.02), body mass index (BMI) (CR -0.27 ± 0.51 kg/m²; p = 0.02; CRHR -0.30 ± 0.52 kg/m²; p = 0.01) and HOMA-IR (CR -0.35 ± 0.82; p = 0.02, CRHR -0.41 ± 0.83; p = 0.03). However, CRHR reduced waist circumference (-2.54 ± 2.74 cm; p < 0.01) and gynoid fat (-0.264 ± 0.28 g; p < 0.01), and increased HDL-c levels (0.08 ± 0.15 mmol/l; p = 0.04). Associated with hypocaloric diet, the intake of a nutritional supplement rich in phytochemicals as a breakfast substitute for 5 weeks had no additional effect on weight reduction than caloric restriction alone, but increased central lipolysis and improved the lipoprotein profile.

  19. Evaluation of oxidative stress parameters and metabolic activities of nurses working day and night shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Ulas

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidative stress and metabolic activities of nurses working day and night shifts. Intensive care unit (ICU (n=70 and ordinary service (OS nurses (n=70 were enrolled in the study. Just before and the end of the shifts, blood samples were obtained to measure the participants' oxidative stress parameters. Metabolic activities were analyzed using the SenseWear Armband. Oxidative stress parameters were increased at the end of the shifts for all OS and ICU nurses compared to the beginning of the shifts. Compared to the OS nurses, the ICU nurses' TAS, TOS, and OSI levels were not significantly different at the end of the day and night shifts. The metabolic activities of the OS and ICU nurses were found to be similar. As a result, the OS and ICU nurses' oxidative stress parameters and metabolic activities were not different, and all of the nurses experienced similar effects from both the day and night shifts.

  20. Metabolic mechanisms of methanol/formaldehyde in isolated rat hepatocytes: carbonyl-metabolizing enzymes versus oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllister, Stephanie L; Choi, Joanna; Dedina, Liana; O'Brien, Peter J

    2011-05-30

    Methanol (CH(3)OH), a common industrial solvent, is metabolized to toxic compounds by several enzymatic as well as free radical pathways. Identifying which process best enhances or prevents CH(3)OH-induced cytotoxicity could provide insight into the molecular basis for acute CH(3)OH-induced hepatoxicity. Metabolic pathways studied include those found in 1) an isolated hepatocyte system and 2) cell-free systems. Accelerated Cytotoxicity Mechanism Screening (ACMS) techniques demonstrated that CH(3)OH had little toxicity towards rat hepatocytes in 95% O(2), even at 2M concentration, whereas 50 mM was the estimated LC(50) (2h) in 1% O(2), estimated to be the physiological concentration in the centrilobular region of the liver and also the target region for ethanol toxicity. Cytotoxicity was attributed to increased NADH levels caused by CH(3)OH metabolism, catalyzed by ADH1, resulting in reductive stress, which reduced and released ferrous iron from Ferritin causing oxygen activation. A similar cytotoxic mechanism at 1% O(2) was previous found for ethanol. With 95% O(2), the addition of Fe(II)/H(2)O(2), at non-toxic concentrations were the most effective agents for increasing hepatocyte toxicity induced by 1M CH(3)OH, with a 3-fold increase in cytotoxicity and ROS formation. Iron chelators, desferoxamine, and NADH oxidizers and ATP generators, e.g. fructose, also protected hepatocytes and decreased ROS formation and cytotoxicity. Hepatocyte protein carbonylation induced by formaldehyde (HCHO) formation was also increased about 4-fold, when CH(3)OH was oxidized by the Fenton-like system, Fe(II)/H(2)O(2), and correlated with increased cytotoxicity. In a cell-free bovine serum albumin system, Fe(II)/H(2)O(2) also increased CH(3)OH oxidation as well as HCHO protein carbonylation. Nontoxic ferrous iron and a H(2)O(2) generating system increased HCHO-induced cytotoxicity and hepatocyte protein carbonylation. In addition, HCHO cytotoxicity was markedly increased by ADH1 and

  1. Sodium acetate induces a metabolic alkalosis but not the increase in fatty acid oxidation observed following bicarbonate ingestion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon I; Jeukendrup, Asker E; Ball, Derek

    2007-07-01

    We conducted this study to quantify the oxidation of exogenous acetate and to determine the effect of increased acetate availability upon fat and carbohydrate utilization in humans at rest. Eight healthy volunteers (6 males and 2 females) completed 2 separate trials, 7 d apart in a single-blind, randomized, crossover design. On each occasion, respiratory gas and arterialized venous blood samples were taken before and during 180 min following consumption of a drink containing either sodium acetate (NaAc) or NaHCO3 at a dose of 2 mmol/kg body mass. Labeled [1,2 -13C] NaAc was added to the NaAc drink to quantify acetate oxidation. Both sodium salts induced a mild metabolic alkalosis and increased energy expenditure (P bicarbonate trial. We determined that 80.1 +/- 2.3% of an exogenous source of acetate is oxidized in humans at rest. Whereas NaHCO3 ingestion increased fat oxidation, a similar response did not occur following NaAc ingestion despite the fact both sodium salts induced a similar increase in energy expenditure and shift in acid-base balance.

  2. Expanded metabolic versatility of ubiquitous nitrite-oxidizing bacteria from the genus Nitrospira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Hanna; Lücker, Sebastian; Albertsen, Mads; Kitzinger, Katharina; Herbold, Craig; Spieck, Eva; Nielsen, Per Halkjaer; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger

    2015-09-08

    Nitrospira are a diverse group of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and among the environmentally most widespread nitrifiers. However, they remain scarcely studied and mostly uncultured. Based on genomic and experimental data from Nitrospira moscoviensis representing the ubiquitous Nitrospira lineage II, we identified ecophysiological traits that contribute to the ecological success of Nitrospira. Unexpectedly, N. moscoviensis possesses genes coding for a urease and cleaves urea to ammonia and CO2. Ureolysis was not observed yet in nitrite oxidizers and enables N. moscoviensis to supply ammonia oxidizers lacking urease with ammonia from urea, which is fully nitrified by this consortium through reciprocal feeding. The presence of highly similar urease genes in Nitrospira lenta from activated sludge, in metagenomes from soils and freshwater habitats, and of other ureases in marine nitrite oxidizers, suggests a wide distribution of this extended interaction between ammonia and nitrite oxidizers, which enables nitrite-oxidizing bacteria to indirectly use urea as a source of energy. A soluble formate dehydrogenase lends additional ecophysiological flexibility and allows N. moscoviensis to use formate, with or without concomitant nitrite oxidation, using oxygen, nitrate, or both compounds as terminal electron acceptors. Compared with Nitrospira defluvii from lineage I, N. moscoviensis shares the Nitrospira core metabolism but shows substantial genomic dissimilarity including genes for adaptations to elevated oxygen concentrations. Reciprocal feeding and metabolic versatility, including the participation in different nitrogen cycling processes, likely are key factors for the niche partitioning, the ubiquity, and the high diversity of Nitrospira in natural and engineered ecosystems.

  3. Changes in oxidative properties of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana leaf mitochondria during development of Crassulacean acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustin, P; Queiroz-Claret, C

    1985-06-01

    Kalanchoe blossfeldiana plants grown under long days (16 h light) exhibit a C3-type photosynthetic metabolism. Switching to short days (9 h light) leads to a gradual development of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Under the latter conditions, dark CO2 fixation produces large amounts of malate. During the first hours of the day, malate is rapidly decarboxylated into pyruvate through the action of a cytosolic NADP(+)-or a mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent malic enzyme. Mitochondria were isolated from leaves of plants grown under long days or after treatment by an increasing number of short days. Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates as well as exogenous NADH and NADPH were readily oxidized by mitochondria isolated from the two types of plants. Glycine, known to be oxidized by C3-plant mitochondria, was still oxidized after CAM establishment. The experiments showed a marked parallelism in the increase of CAM level and the increase in substrate-oxidation capacity of the isolated mitochondria, particularly the capacity to oxidize malate in the presence of cyanide. These simultaneous variations in CAM level and in mitochondrial properties indicate that the mitochondrial NAD(+)-malic enzyme could account at least for a part of the oxidation of malate. The studies of whole-leaf respiration establish that mitochondria are implicated in malate degradation in vivo. Moreover, an increase in cyanide resistance of the leaf respiration has been observed during the first daylight hours, when malate was oxidized to pyruvate by cytosolic and mitochondrial malic enzymes.

  4. Asian Americans have greater prevalence of metabolic syndrome despite lower body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, L P; Wong, E C; Shin, J J; Fortmann, S P; Lauderdale, D S

    2011-03-01

    To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome for Asian Americans and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), given that existing evidence shows racial/ethnic heterogeneity exists in how BMI predicts metabolic syndrome. Electronic health records of 43,507 primary care patients aged 35 years and older with self-identified race/ethnicity of interest (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese or NHW) were analyzed in a mixed-payer, outpatient-focused health-care organization in the San Francisco Bay Area. Metabolic syndrome prevalence is significantly higher in Asians compared with NHWs for every BMI category. For women at the mean age of 55 and BMI of 25  kg  m(-2), the predicted prevalence of metabolic syndrome is 12% for NHW women compared with 30% for Asians; similarly for men, the predicted prevalence of metabolic syndrome is 22% for NHWs compared with 43% of Asians. Compared with NHW women and men with a BMI of 25  kg  m(-2), comparable prevalence of metabolic syndrome was observed at BMI of 19.6  kg  m(-2) for Asian women and 19.9  kg  m(-2) for Asian men. A similar pattern was observed in disaggregated Asian subgroups. In spite of the lower BMI values and lower prevalence of overweight/obesity than NHWs, Asian Americans have higher rates of metabolic syndrome over the range of BMI. Our results indicate that BMI ranges for defining overweight/obesity in Asian populations should be lower than for NHWs.

  5. Metabolomics reveals reduction of metabolic oxidation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome after pioglitazone-flutamide-metformin polytherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vinaixa

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a variable disorder characterized by a broad spectrum of anomalies, including hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, body adiposity, low-grade inflammation and increased cardiovascular disease risks. Recently, a new polytherapy consisting of low-dose flutamide, metformin and pioglitazone in combination with an estro-progestagen resulted in the regulation of endocrine clinical markers in young and non-obese PCOS women. However, the metabolic processes involved in this phenotypic amelioration remain unidentified. In this work, we used NMR and MS-based untargeted metabolomics to study serum samples of young non-obese PCOS women prior to and at the end of a 30 months polytherapy receiving low-dose flutamide, metformin and pioglitazone in combination with an estro-progestagen. Our results reveal that the treatment decreased the levels of oxidized LDL particles in serum, as well as downstream metabolic oxidation products of LDL particles such as 9- and 13-HODE, azelaic acid and glutaric acid. In contrast, the radiuses of small dense LDL and large HDL particles were substantially increased after the treatment. Clinical and endocrine-metabolic markers were also monitored, showing that the level of HDL cholesterol was increased after the treatment, whereas the level of androgens and the carotid intima-media thickness were reduced. Significantly, the abundance of azelaic acid and the carotid intima-media thickness resulted in a high degree of correlation. Altogether, our results reveal that this new polytherapy markedly reverts the oxidant status of untreated PCOS women, and potentially improves the pro-atherosclerosis condition in these patients.

  6. Whole body UVA irradiation lowers systemic blood pressure by release of nitric oxide from intracutaneous photolabile nitric oxide derivates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opländer, C.; Volkmar, C.M.; Paunel-Görgülü, A.; van Faassen, E.E.H.; Heiss, C.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Human skin contains photolabile nitric oxide derivates like nitrite and S-nitroso thiols, which after UVA irradiation, decompose and lead to the formation of vasoactive NO. Objective: Here, we investigated whether whole body UVA irradiation influences the blood pressure of healthy

  7. Urinary F2-Isoprostanes and Metabolic Markers of Fat Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Il’yasova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomic studies of increased fat oxidation showed increase in circulating acylcarnitines C2, C8, C10, and C12 and decrease in C3, C4, and C5. We hypothesize that urinary F2-isoprostanes reflect intensity of fatty acid oxidation and are associated with circulating C2, C8, C10, and C12 directly and with C3, C4, and C5 inversely. Four urinary F2-isoprostane isomers and serum acylcarnitines are quantified using LC-MS/MS within the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study nondiabetic cohort (n = 682. Cross-sectional associations between fasting urinary F2-isoprostanes (summarized as a composite index and the selected acylcarnitines are examined using generalized linear models. F2-isoprostane index is associated with C2 and C12 directly and with C5 inversely: the adjusted beta coefficients are 0.109, 0.072, and −0.094, respectively (P < 0.05. For these acylcarnitines and for F2-isoprostanes, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs of incident diabetes are calculated from logistic regression models: the ORs (95% CI are 0.77 (0.60–0.97, 0.79 (0.62–1.01, 1.18 (0.92–1.53, and 0.51 (0.35–0.76 for C2, C12, C5, and F2-isoprostanes, respectively. The direction of the associations between urinary F2-isoprostanes and three acylcarnitines (C2, C5, and C12 supports our hypothesis. The inverse associations of C2 and C12 and with incident diabetes are consistent with the suggested protective role of efficient fat oxidation.

  8. How hydrogen peroxide is metabolized by oxidized cytochrome c oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancura, Daniel; Stanicova, Jana; Palmer, Graham; Fabian, Marian

    2014-06-10

    In the absence of external electron donors, oxidized bovine cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) exhibits the ability to decompose excess H2O2. Depending on the concentration of peroxide, two mechanisms of degradation were identified. At submillimolar peroxide concentrations, decomposition proceeds with virtually no production of superoxide and oxygen. In contrast, in the millimolar H2O2 concentration range, CcO generates superoxide from peroxide. At submillimolar concentrations, the decomposition of H2O2 occurs at least at two sites. One is the catalytic heme a3-CuB center where H2O2 is reduced to water. During the interaction of the enzyme with H2O2, this center cycles back to oxidized CcO via the intermediate presence of two oxoferryl states. We show that at pH 8.0 two molecules of H2O2 react with the catalytic center accomplishing one cycle. In addition, the reactions at the heme a3-CuB center generate the surface-exposed lipid-based radical(s) that participates in the decomposition of peroxide. It is also found that the irreversible decline of the catalytic activity of the enzyme treated with submillimolar H2O2 concentrations results specifically from the decrease in the rate of electron transfer from heme a to the heme a3-CuB center during the reductive phase of the catalytic cycle. The rates of electron transfer from ferrocytochrome c to heme a and the kinetics of the oxidation of the fully reduced CcO with O2 were not affected in the peroxide-modified CcO.

  9. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and calf circumference are protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Toshinari; Kita, Yuki; Nakagen, Masatoshi; Sakurai, Masaru; Isobe, Yuki; Takeshita, Yumie; Kawai, Kohzo; Urabe, Takeshi; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2017-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that preserved muscle mass is protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities, we analyzed the relationship of lean body mass and computed tomography-assessed sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles with insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities in a healthy cohort. A total of 195 subjects without diabetes who had completed a medical examination were included in this study. Various anthropometric indices such as circumferences of the arm, waist, hip, thigh, and calf were measured. Body composition (fat and lean body mass) was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles (iliopsoas, erector spinae, gluteus, femoris, and rectus abdominis muscles) were measured using computed tomography. Fat and lean body mass were significantly correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. When adjusted by weight, relationships of fat and lean body mass with metabolic parameters were mirror images of each other. The weight-adjusted lean body mass negatively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures; fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase, and triglyceride, and insulin levels; and hepatic insulin resistance indices, and positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels and muscle insulin sensitivity indices. Compared with weight-adjusted lean body mass, weight-adjusted sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles showed similar, but not as strong, correlations with metabolic parameters. Among anthropometric measures, the calf circumference best reflected lean body mass, and weight-adjusted calf circumference negatively correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and skeletal muscle area are protective against weight-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities. The calf circumference reflects lean body mass and may be useful as a protective

  10. Characterization of toluene metabolism by methanotroph and its effect on methane oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruo; Su, Yao; Ma, Ruo-Chan; Zhuang, Shulin

    2018-04-03

    Methanotrophs not only oxidize CH 4 , but also can oxidize a relatively broad range of other substrates, including trichloroethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatic compounds. In this study, Methylosinus sporium was used as a model organism to characterize toluene metabolism by methanotrophs. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR analysis showed that toluene enhanced the mmoX expression of M. sporium. When the toluene concentration was below 2000 mg m -3 , the kinetics of toluene metabolism by M. sporium conformed to the Michaelis-Menten equation (V max  = 0.238 g g dry weight -1  h -1 , K m  = 545.2 mg m -3 ). The use of a solid-phase extraction technique followed by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and molecular docking calculation showed that toluene was likely to primarily bind the di-iron center structural region of soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) hydroxylase and then be oxidized to o-cresol. Although M. sporium oxidized toluene, it did not incorporate toluene into its biomass. The coexistence of toluene and CH 4 could influence CH 4 oxidation, the growth of methanotrophs, and the distribution of CH 4 -derived carbon, which were related to the ratio of the toluene concentration to biomass. These results would be helpful to understand the metabolism of CH 4 and non-methane volatile organic compounds in the environment.

  11. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass lead to equal changes in body composition and energy metabolism 17 months postoperatively: a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Julia; Peterli, Ralph; Gass, Markus; Slawik, Marc; Peters, Thomas; Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K

    2016-01-01

    Weight loss is the sum of fat and lean mass loss. The aim of this study was to examine whether there are differences between 2 surgical procedures, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), in terms of their effect on body composition and energy metabolism. In addition, the predictive value of preoperative body composition and energy metabolism on postoperative outcome was evaluated. All procedures were performed by the same surgeon (RP) at the St. Claraspital Basel in Switzerland. Calorimetry and DEXA were carried out at the same institution (Interdisciplinary Center of Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases, St. Claraspital Basel). Forty-two morbidly obese, mainly female (85%), nondiabetic and diabetic (50%) patients (body mass index [BMI]: 43.9 kg/m(2)±1.3) before and 17±5.6 months after LSG (n = 23) and LRYGB (n = 19) were examined. Body composition was analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and resting energy expenditure (REE); fat and carbohydrate oxidation was determined by indirect calorimetry. Follow-up was 100%. Excessive BMI loss (EBMIL) was 64.4% in the LSG group and 76.4% in the LRYGB group (PSurgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Metabolic Syndrome, Oxidative Stress, Environment, and Cardiovascular Disease: The Great Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Rebecca; Rocic, Petra

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome affects 30% of the US population with increasing prevalence. In this paper, we explore the relationship between the metabolic syndrome and the incidence and severity of cardiovascular disease in general and coronary artery disease (CAD) in particular. Furthermore, we look at the impact of metabolic syndrome on outcomes of coronary revascularization therapies including CABG, PTCA, and coronary collateral development. We also examine the association between the metabolic syndrome and its individual component pathologies and oxidative stress. Related, we explore the interaction between the main external sources of oxidative stress, cigarette smoke and air pollution, and metabolic syndrome and the effect of this interaction on CAD. We discuss the apparent lack of positive effect of antioxidants on cardiovascular outcomes in large clinical trials with emphasis on some of the limitations of these trials. Finally, we present evidence for successful use of antioxidant properties of pharmacological agents, including metformin, statins, angiotensin II type I receptor blockers (ARBs), and angiotensin II converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, for prevention and treatment of the cardiovascular complications of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22829804

  13. Body fat distribution in pre-and post-menopausal women: metabolic and anthropometric variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, M; Pérez-Llamas, F; Baraza, J C; Garcia-Prieto, M D; Fardy, P S; Tébar, F J; Zamora, S

    2002-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with coronary risk although the causality is not well established. To compare body fat distribution and metabolic variables in obese pre- and post- menopausal women. The study was conducted in 55 obese female subjects (22 pre- and 33 post- menopausal) with body mass indices (BMI) from 27 to 35 Kg/m2. Body fat distribution was measured using waist and hip circumference and computerized tomography. Hormones such as estradiol, testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, as well as plasma lipids such as triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, apoproteins A and B, were also determined. No significant differences were found between the two groups in BMI, percentage of body fat, waist circumference, triceps, biceps, suprailiac and abdominal skinfolds. Hip circumference, subscapular skinfold and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue area were significantly lower, and waist-hip ratio, visceral area and visceral to subcutaneous area ratios significantly higher in post- menopausal women (P low density lipoprotein, values were significantly higher in the post-menopausal group (P fat distribution changes according to menopausal status, with central obesity more pronounced in post- menopausal women. Metabolic abnormalities are related more to visceral adipose tissue and estrogen plasma levels than to BMI.

  14. Impaired metabolism of senescent muscle satellite cells is associated with oxidative modifications of glycolytic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraibar, Martin; Hyzewicz, Janek; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2014-01-01

    lipids for energy production. Such changes reflect alterations in membrane composition and dysregulation of sphingolipids signaling during senescence. This study establishes a new concept connecting oxidative protein modifications with the altered cellular metabolism associated with the senescent...... is assured by resident adult stem cells known as satellite cells. During senescence their replication and differentiation is compromised contributing to sarcopenia. In this study we have addressed the impact of oxidatively modified proteins in the impaired metabolism of senescent human satellite cells....... By using a targeted proteomics analysis we have found that proteins involved in protein quality control and glycolytic enzymes are the main targets of oxidation (carbonylation) and modification with advanced glycation/lipid peroxidation end products during replicative senescence of satellite cells...

  15. Metabolic Imbalance Associated with Methylation Dysregulation and Oxidative Damage in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Stepan; Fuchs, George J.; Schulz, Eldon; Lopez, Maya; Kahler, Stephen G.; Fussell, Jill J.; Bellando, Jayne; Pavliv, Oleksandra; Rose, Shannon; Seidel, Lisa; Gaylor, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and abnormal DNA methylation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of autism. We investigated the dynamics of an integrated metabolic pathway essential for cellular antioxidant and methylation capacity in 68 children with autism, 54 age-matched control children and 40 unaffected siblings. The metabolic profile of unaffected siblings differed significantly from case siblings but not from controls. Oxidative protein/DNA damage and DNA hypomethylation (epigenetic alteration) were found in autistic children but not paired siblings or controls. These data indicate that the deficit in antioxidant and methylation capacity is specific for autism and may promote cellular damage and altered epigenetic gene expression. Further, these results suggest a plausible mechanism by which pro-oxidant environmental stressors may modulate genetic predisposition to autism. PMID:21519954

  16. 14C-carbaril metabolism in soils modified by organic matter oxidation and addition of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, R.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1984-01-01

    Carbaril behaviour is studied in samples of Brunizen and Dark Red Latosol soils from Parana, using radiometric techniques, with the objective of determining the role of oxidation fo its organic components, and enrichment with glucose, in the metabolism of the insecticide. Lots of autoclaved soils, oxidized and with no previous treatment, with and without glucose addition, are incubated with 14 C-carbaril and analysed during eight weeks. Its was noted that, as a result of oxidation both soils showed a marked improvement in the metabolism of the agrochemical while addition of glucose exerted litlle influence on the degrading processes. Three metabolites were detected with R sub(f) 0.23, 0.40 and 0.70. (Author) [pt

  17. Glutamate availability is important in intramuscular amino acid metabolism and TCA cycle intermediates but does not affect peak oxidative metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourtzakis, M.; Graham, T.E.; Gonzalez-Alonso, J.

    2008-01-01

    declines in early exercise. To investigate the physiological relationship between glutamate, oxidative metabolism, and TCA cycle intermediates (i.e., fumarate, malate, 2-oxoglutarate), healthy subjects trained (T) the quadriceps of one thigh on the single-legged knee extensor ergometer (1 h/day at 70......% maximum workload for 5 days/wk), while their contralateral quadriceps remained untrained (UT). After 5 wk of training, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) in the T thigh was greater than that in the UT thigh (P...peak in either trained or untrained muscle Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...

  18. Seasonal variation in metabolic rate, flight activity and body size of Anopheles gambiae in the Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Diana L; Yaro, Alpha S; Traoré, Adama I; Dieter, Kathryne L; Nwagbara, Juliette I; Bowie, Aleah C; Adamou, Abdoulaye; Kassogué, Yaya; Diallo, Moussa; Timbiné, Seydou; Dao, Adama; Lehmann, Tovi

    2012-06-15

    Malaria in Africa is vectored primarily by the Anopheles gambiae complex. Although the mechanisms of population persistence during the dry season are not yet known, targeting dry season mosquitoes could provide opportunities for vector control. In the Sahel, it appears likely that M-form A. gambiae survive by aestivation (entering a dormant state). To assess the role of eco-physiological changes associated with dry season survival, we measured body size, flight activity and metabolic rate of wild-caught mosquitoes throughout 1 year in a Sahelian locality, far from permanent water sources, and at a riparian location adjacent to the Niger River. We found significant seasonal variation in body size at both the Sahelian and riparian sites, although the magnitude of the variation was greater in the Sahel. For flight activity, significant seasonality was only observed in the Sahel, with increased flight activity in the wet season when compared with that just prior to and throughout the dry season. Whole-organism metabolic rate was affected by numerous biotic and abiotic factors, and a significant seasonal component was found at both locations. However, assay temperature accounted completely for seasonality at the riparian location, while significant seasonal variation remained after accounting for all measured variables in the Sahel. Interestingly, we did not find that mean metabolic rate was lowest during the dry season at either location, contrary to our expectation that mosquitoes would conserve energy and increase longevity by reducing metabolism during this time. These results indicate that mosquitoes may use mechanisms besides reduced metabolic rate to enable survival during the Sahelian dry season.

  19. Metabolism of ketone bodies during exercise and training: physiological basis for exogenous supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark; Cogan, Karl E; Egan, Brendan

    2017-05-01

    Optimising training and performance through nutrition strategies is central to supporting elite sportspeople, much of which has focused on manipulating the relative intake of carbohydrate and fat and their contributions as fuels for energy provision. The ketone bodies, namely acetoacetate, acetone and β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), are produced in the liver during conditions of reduced carbohydrate availability and serve as an alternative fuel source for peripheral tissues including brain, heart and skeletal muscle. Ketone bodies are oxidised as a fuel source during exercise, are markedly elevated during the post-exercise recovery period, and the ability to utilise ketone bodies is higher in exercise-trained skeletal muscle. The metabolic actions of ketone bodies can alter fuel selection through attenuating glucose utilisation in peripheral tissues, anti-lipolytic effects on adipose tissue, and attenuation of proteolysis in skeletal muscle. Moreover, ketone bodies can act as signalling metabolites, with βHB acting as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, an important regulator of the adaptive response to exercise in skeletal muscle. Recent development of ketone esters facilitates acute ingestion of βHB that results in nutritional ketosis without necessitating restrictive dietary practices. Initial reports suggest this strategy alters the metabolic response to exercise and improves exercise performance, while other lines of evidence suggest roles in recovery from exercise. The present review focuses on the physiology of ketone bodies during and after exercise and in response to training, with specific interest in exploring the physiological basis for exogenous ketone supplementation and potential benefits for performance and recovery in athletes. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  20. Unchanged cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism after acclimatization to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Paulson, Olaf B; Hornbein, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    . Global cerebral blood flow at rest and during exercise on a bicycle ergometer was measured by the Kety-Schmidt technique. Cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen, glucose, and lactate were calculated by the Fick principle. Cerebral function was assessed by a computer-based measurement of reaction time...... and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen and glucose also remained unchanged, whereas cerebral metabolic rates of lactate increased slightly but nonsignificantly at high altitude during exercise compared with high altitude at rest. Reaction time was unchanged. The data indicate that cerebral blood flow......The authors investigated the effect of acclimatization to high altitude on cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism at rest and during exercise. Nine healthy, native sea-level residents were studied 3 weeks after arrival at Chacaltaya, Bolivia (5,260 m) and after reacclimatization to sea level...

  1. Major facilitator superfamily domain-containing protein 2a (MFSD2A has roles in body growth, motor function, and lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin H Berger

    Full Text Available The metabolic adaptations to fasting in the liver are largely controlled by the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα, where PPARα upregulates genes encoding the biochemical pathway for β-oxidation of fatty acids and ketogenesis. As part of an effort to identify and characterize nutritionally regulated genes that play physiological roles in the adaptation to fasting, we identified Major facilitator superfamily domain-containing protein 2a (Mfsd2a as a fasting-induced gene regulated by both PPARα and glucagon signaling in the liver. MFSD2A is a cell-surface protein homologous to bacterial sodium-melibiose transporters. Hepatic expression and turnover of MFSD2A is acutely regulated by fasting/refeeding, but expression in the brain is constitutive. Relative to wildtype mice, gene-targeted Mfsd2a knockout mice are smaller, leaner, and have decreased serum, liver and brown adipose triglycerides. Mfsd2a knockout mice have normal liver lipid metabolism but increased whole body energy expenditure, likely due to increased β-oxidation in brown adipose tissue and significantly increased voluntary movement, but surprisingly exhibited a form of ataxia. Together, these results indicate that MFSD2A is a nutritionally regulated gene that plays myriad roles in body growth and development, motor function, and lipid metabolism. Moreover, these data suggest that the ligand(s that are transported by MFSD2A play important roles in these physiological processes and await future identification.

  2. UCP1 and UCP3 Expression Is Associated with Lipid and Carbohydrate Oxidation and Body Composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno A P Oliveira

    Full Text Available Uncoupling proteins (UCPs are located in the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins participate in thermogenesis and energy expenditure. This study aimed to evaluate how UCP1 and UCP3 expression influences substrate oxidation and elicits possible changes in body composition in patients submitted to bariatric surgery.This is a longitudinal study comprising 13 women with obesity grade III that underwent bariatric surgery and 10 healthy weight individuals (control group. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation was determined by indirect calorimetry. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was collected for gene expression analysis. QPCR was used to evaluate UCP1 and UCP3 expression.Obese patients and the control group differed significantly in terms of lipid and carbohydrate oxidation. Six months after bariatric surgery, the differences disappeared. Lipid oxidation correlated with the percentage of fat mass in the postoperative period. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the UCP1 and UCP3 genes contributed to lipid and carbohydrate oxidation. Additionally, UCP3 expression was associated with BMI, percentage of lean body mass, and percentage of mass in the postoperative period.UCP1 and UCP3 expression is associated with lipid and carbohydrate oxidation in patients submitted to bariatric surgery. In addition, UCP3 participates in body composition modulation six months postoperatively.

  3. Erectile dysfunction and diabetes: Association with the impairment of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belba, Arben; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Andrea, Giansanti; Durante, Jacopo; Nigi, Laura; Dotta, Francesco; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello; Leoncini, Roberto; Guerranti, Roberto; Ponchietti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that exists an association of non-diabetic and diabetic patients suffering from erectile dysfunction (ED) with lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. Clinical and laboratory characteristics in non-diabetic (n = 30, middle age range: 41–55.5 years; n = 25, old age range: 55.5–73), diabetic ED patients (n = 30, age range: 55.5–75 years) and diabetic patients (n = 25, age range: 56–73.25), were investigated. Proteomic analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed plasma proteins and to evaluate their oxidative posttranslational modifications. A decreased level of high-density lipoproteins in all ED patients (P < 0.001, C.I. 0.046–0.10), was detected by routine laboratory tests. Proteomic analysis showed a significant decreased expression (P < 0.05) of 5 apolipoproteins (i.e. apolipoprotein H, apolipoprotein A4, apolipoprotein J, apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein A1) and zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, 50% of which are more oxidized proteins. Exclusively for diabetic ED patients, oxidative posttranslational modifications for prealbumin, serum albumin, serum transferrin and haptoglobin markedly increased. Showing evidence for decreased expression of apolipoproteins in ED and the remarkable enhancement of oxidative posttranslational modifications in diabetes-associated ED, considering type 2 diabetes mellitus and age as independent risk factors involved in the ED pathogenesis, lipid metabolism and oxidative stress appear to exert a complex interplay in the disease.

  4. Hepatocyte growth factor protects hepatocytes against oxidative injury induced by ethanol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Arzate, Argelia; Luna, Armando; Bucio, Leticia; Licona, Cynthia; Clemens, Dahn L; Souza, Verónica; Hernandez, Elizabeth; Kershenobich, David; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María Concepción; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique

    2009-08-15

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is involved in many cellular responses, such as mitogenesis and apoptosis protection; however, its effect against oxidative injury induced by ethanol metabolism is not well understood. The aim of this work was to address the mechanism of HGF-induced protection against ethanol-generated oxidative stress damage in the human cell line VL-17A (cytochrome P450 2E1/alcohol dehydrogenase-transfected HepG2 cells). Cells were pretreated with 50 ng/ml HGF for 12 h and then treated with 100 mM ethanol for 0-48 h. Some parameters of oxidative damage were evaluated. We found that ethanol induced peroxide formation (3.3-fold) and oxidative damage as judged by lipid peroxidation (5.4-fold). Damage was prevented by HGF. To address the mechanisms of HGF-induced protection we investigated the cellular antioxidant system. We found that HGF increased the GSH/GSSG ratio, as well as SOD1, catalase, and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase expression. To explore the signaling pathways involved in this process, VL-17A cells were pretreated with inhibitors against PI3K, Akt, and NF-kappaB. We found that all treatments decreased the expression of the antioxidant enzymes, thus abrogating the HGF-induced protection against oxidative stress. Our results demonstrate that HGF protects cells from the oxidative damage induced by ethanol metabolism by a mechanism driven by NF-kappaB and PI3K/Akt signaling.

  5. Metabolic features of Protochlamydia amoebophila elementary bodies--a link between activity and infectivity in Chlamydiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara S Sixt

    Full Text Available The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB, has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS, ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from (13C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila

  6. Maternal carbohydrate metabolism and its relationship to fetal growth and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, P M; Drago, N M; Amini, S B

    1995-05-01

    Our purpose was to correlate maternal carbohydrate metabolism and parental morphometric measurements with neonatal birth weight, body composition, and placental weight. Sixteen singleton (six control and 10 abnormal glucose tolerance) infants had placental weight, birth weight, and estimates of body composition performed within 24 hours of birth. Independent variables considered were (1) maternal and paternal demographic and morphometric measures, (2) neonatal sex and gestational age, and (3) estimates of maternal carbohydrate metabolism, including basal hepatic glucose production, insulin response, and insulin sensitivity. All metabolic measurements were performed before conception and in early (12 to 14 weeks) and late (34 to 36 weeks) gestation. Best-fit stepwise regression analysis was used to relate the independent variables with placental weight, neonatal birth weight, fat-free mass, and fat mass. Insulin sensitivity in late gestation had the strongest correlation with placental weight (R2 = 0.28), neonatal birth weight (R2 = 0.28), and fat-free mass (R2 = 0.33). In contrast, insulin sensitivity before conception had the best correlation with neonatal fat mass (R2 = 0.15). Including all significant independent variables in the model improved the correlations for placental weight (R2 = 0.58), birth weight (R2 = 0.48), fat-free mass (R2 = 0.53), and fat mass (R2 = 0.46). Maternal insulin sensitivity had stronger correlations with fetoplacental growth in comparison with maternal demographic or morphometric factors.

  7. Metabolic profiles and free radical scavenging activity of Cordyceps bassiana fruiting bodies according to developmental stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Hee Hyun

    Full Text Available The metabolic profiles of Cordyceps bassiana according to fruiting body developmental stage were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to detect 62 metabolites, including 48 metabolites from 70% methanol extracts and 14 metabolites from 100% n-hexane extracts. These metabolites were classified as alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, phosphoric acids, purine nucleosides and bases, sugars, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, or fatty amides. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found according to developmental stage. Relative levels of amino acids, purine nucleosides, and sugars were higher in development stage 3 than in the other stages. Among the amino acids, valine, isoleucine, lysine, histidine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, which are associated with ABC transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, also showed higher levels in stage 3 samples. The free radical scavenging activities, which were significantly higher in stage 3 than in the other stages, showed a positive correlation with purine nucleoside metabolites such as adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. These results not only show metabolic profiles, but also suggest the metabolic pathways associated with fruiting body development stages in cultivated C. bassiana.

  8. Effects of coconut oil consumption on energy metabolism, cardiometabolic risk markers, and appetitive responses in women with excess body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Flávia Xavier; Cândido, Flávia Galvão; Lopes, Lílian Lelis; Dias, Desirrê Morais; Carvalho, Samantha Dalbosco Lins; Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Bressan, Josefina

    2017-04-12

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is a medium-chain fatty acid source with popularly attributed benefits on obesity management. However, its role on obesity requires elucidation due to its saturated nature. In the study herein, we investigated acute effects of VCO consumption on energy metabolism, cardiometabolic risk markers, and appetitive responses in women with excess body fat. Fifteen adult women with excess body fat (37.43 ± 0.83%) participated in this randomized, crossover, controlled study. Two isocaloric mixed breakfasts containing 25 mL of VCO or control (extra-virgin olive oil-C) were evaluated. Resting energy expenditure (REE), fat oxidation rate (FOR), diet induced thermogenesis (DIT) and appetitive subjective responses were assessed at fasting and postprandial periods (up to 240 min). Cardiometabolic risk markers were assessed at fasting and up to 180 min postprandially. VCO did not affect REE, FOR, and DIT compared to C. In addition, VCO did not cause deleterious change in triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, triglycerides/HDL-c ratio, uric acid, glucose and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance Index (HOMA-IR) (P time×treatment  > 0.05). However, VCO suppressed less hunger (P time×treatment  = 0.003), total satiety (P iAUC  = 0.021) and total fullness (P iAUC  = 0.035) responses than C. VCO consumption did not acutely change energy metabolism and cardiometabolic risk markers when added to a mixed breakfast but promoted less appetitive responses.

  9. Proline metabolism increases katG expression and oxidative stress resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Alfano, James R; Becker, Donald F

    2015-02-01

    The oxidation of l-proline to glutamate in Gram-negative bacteria is catalyzed by the proline utilization A (PutA) flavoenzyme, which contains proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) dehydrogenase domains in a single polypeptide. Previous studies have suggested that aside from providing energy, proline metabolism influences oxidative stress resistance in different organisms. To explore this potential role and the mechanism, we characterized the oxidative stress resistance of wild-type and putA mutant strains of Escherichia coli. Initial stress assays revealed that the putA mutant strain was significantly more sensitive to oxidative stress than the parental wild-type strain. Expression of PutA in the putA mutant strain restored oxidative stress resistance, confirming that depletion of PutA was responsible for the oxidative stress phenotype. Treatment of wild-type cells with proline significantly increased hydroperoxidase I (encoded by katG) expression and activity. Furthermore, the ΔkatG strain failed to respond to proline, indicating a critical role for hydroperoxidase I in the mechanism of proline protection. The global regulator OxyR activates the expression of katG along with several other genes involved in oxidative stress defense. In addition to katG, proline increased the expression of grxA (glutaredoxin 1) and trxC (thioredoxin 2) of the OxyR regulon, implicating OxyR in proline protection. Proline oxidative metabolism was shown to generate hydrogen peroxide, indicating that proline increases oxidative stress tolerance in E. coli via a preadaptive effect involving endogenous hydrogen peroxide production and enhanced catalase-peroxidase activity. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Comparison of body composition, basal metabolic rate and metabolic outcomes of adults with Prader Willi syndrome or lesional hypothalamic disease, with primary obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret-Linares, C; Faucher, P; Coupaye, M; Alili, R; Green, A; Basdevant, A; Clément, K; Poitou, C

    2013-09-01

    The care of patients with hypothalamic obesity is challenging. To compare body composition, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and metabolic outcomes of adults, with lesional or genetic hypothalamic obesity, with obese patients suffering from primary obesity, once matched for body mass index (BMI). Adults with hypothalamic obesity of genetic origin (Prader Willi syndrome (PWS)) or acquired hypothalamic damage (HD), such as craniopharygioma, were compared with obese control candidates awaiting bariatric surgery (C), with a BMI between 35 and 65 kg m(-)(2), and aged between 18 and 50 years. Body composition measured by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning, BMR using indirect calorimetry, hormonal and metabolic assessments. A total of 27 adults with a genetic diagnosis of PWS, 15 obese subjects with HD and 206 obese controls with similar BMI were studied. Compared with the control group, PWS patients had an increased percentage of fat mass (FM), and a decreased percentage of android FM. The BMR of PWS patients was significantly lower than controls and highly correlated with lean body mass in PWS and C patients. Body composition of HD was similar with those of obese patients. A trend toward an increased prevalence of diabetes in HD patients and of cytolysis in PWS was observed in comparison with primary obese patients. Genetic and lesional hypothalamic obesities have different consequences for phenotypic features such as body composition or BMR compared with primary obese patients. The mechanisms of adipose tissue development and metabolic complications may be different between genetic and lesional obesities.

  11. Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Syndrome: Cause or Consequence of Alzheimer's Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Luque-Contreras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a major neurodegenerative disease affecting the elderly. Clinically, it is characterized by a progressive loss of memory and cognitive function. Neuropathologically, it is characterized by the presence of extracellular β-amyloid (Aβ deposited as neuritic plaques (NP and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT made of abnormal and hyperphosphorylated tau protein. These lesions are capable of generating the neuronal damage that leads to cell death and cognitive failure through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Evidence indicates the critical role of Aβ metabolism in prompting the oxidative stress observed in AD patients. However, it has also been proposed that oxidative damage precedes the onset of clinical and pathological AD symptoms, including amyloid-β deposition, neurofibrillary tangle formation, vascular malfunction, metabolic syndrome, and cognitive decline. This paper provides a brief description of the three main proteins associated with the development of the disease (Aβ, tau, and ApoE and describes their role in the generation of oxidative stress. Finally, we describe the mitochondrial alterations that are generated by Aβ and examine the relationship of vascular damage which is a potential prognostic tool of metabolic syndrome. In addition, new therapeutic approaches targeting ROS sources and metabolic support were reported.

  12. Intestinal glutathione: determinant of mucosal peroxide transport, metabolism, and oxidative susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aw, Tak Yee

    2005-01-01

    The intestine is a primary site of nutrient absorption and a critical defense barrier against dietary-derived mutagens, carcinogens, and oxidants. Accumulation of oxidants like peroxidized lipids in the gut lumen can contribute to impairment of mucosal metabolic pathways, enterocyte dysfunction independent of cell injury, and development of gut pathologies, such as inflammation and cancer. Despite this recognition, we know little of the pathways of intestinal transport, metabolism, and luminal disposition of dietary peroxides in vivo or of the underlying mechanisms of lipid peroxide-induced genesis of intestinal disease processes. This chapter summarizes our current understanding of the determinants of intestinal absorption and metabolism of peroxidized lipids. I will review experimental evidence from our laboratory and others (Table 1) supporting the pivotal role that glutathione (GSH) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) play in mucosal transport and metabolism of lipid hydroperoxides and how reductant availability can be compromised under chronic stress such as hypoxia, and the influence of GSH on oxidative susceptibility, and redox contribution to genesis of gut disorders. The discussion is pertinent to understanding dietary lipid peroxides and GSH redox balance in intestinal physiology and pathophysiology and the significance of luminal GSH in preserving the integrity of the intestinal epithelium

  13. Deuterium oxide dilution kinetics to predict body composition in dairy goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.L.; Taylor, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Body composition and D2O dilution kinetics were studied in 15 female goats ranging from 38.0 to 70.1 kg live weight. Infrared spectrophotometric analyses of blood samples drawn during the 4 d following D2O injections were used to estimate D2O space. All does were slaughtered without shrinking and analyzed for dry matter, fat, nitrogen, and ash content. Estimates of D2O space from the late slope of the dilution curve, together with live weight, were used to predict body composition. Conclusions were 1) deuterium oxide space with live body weight accounts for about 90% of the variation in dairy goat empty body fat, empty body nitrogen, and empty body dry matter; 2) less than half the variation in empty body ash is related to live weight and D2O space; and 3) D2O space estimates would be biased by accelerations in water turnover

  14. Noninvasive assessment of canine myocardial oxidative metabolism with carbon-11 acetate and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.A.; Myears, D.W.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    Noninvasive quantification of regional myocardial metabolism would be highly desirable to evaluate pathogenetic mechanisms of heart disease and their response to therapy. It was previously demonstrated that the metabolism of radiolabeled acetate, a readily utilized myocardial substrate predominantly metabolized to carbon dioxide (CO2) by way of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, provides a good index of oxidative metabolism in isolated perfused rabbit hearts because of tight coupling between the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. In the present study, in a prelude to human studies, the relation between myocardial clearance of carbon-11 (11C)-labeled acetate and myocardial oxygen consumption was characterized in eight intact dogs using positron emission tomography. Anesthetized dogs were studied during baseline conditions and again during either high or low work states induced pharmacologically. High myocardial extraction and rapid blood clearance of tracer yielded myocardial images of excellent quality. The turnover (clearance) of 11C radioactivity from the myocardium was biexponential with the mean half-time of the dominant rapid phase averaging 5.4 +/- 2.2, 2.8 +/- 1.3 and 11.1 +/- 1.3 min in control, high and low work load studies, respectively. No significant difference was found between the rate of clearance of 11C radioactivity from the myocardium measured noninvasively with positron emission tomography and the myocardial efflux of 11CO2 measured directly from the coronary sinus. The rate of clearance of the 11C radioactivity from the heart correlated closely with myocardial oxygen consumption (r = 0.90, p less than 0.001) as well as with the rate-pressure product (r = 0.95, p less than 0.001). Hence, the rate of oxidation of 11C-acetate can be determined noninvasively with positron emission tomography, providing a quantitative index of oxidative metabolism under diverse conditions

  15. Oral absorption and oxidative metabolism of atrazine in rats evaluated by physiological modeling approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullin, Tami S.; Hanneman, William H.; Cranmer, Brian K.; Tessari, John D.; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2007-01-01

    Atrazine (ATRA) is metabolized by cytochrome P450s to the chlorinated metabolites, 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-amino-1,3,5-triazine (ETHYL), 2-chloro-4-amino-6-isopropylamino-1, 3, 5-triazine (ISO), and diaminochlorotriazine (DACT). Here, we develop a set of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models that describe the influence of oral absorption and oxidative metabolism on the blood time course curves of individual chlorotriazines (Cl-TRIs) in rat after oral dosing of ATRA. These models first incorporated in vitro metabolic parameters to describe time course plasma concentrations of DACT, ETHYL, and ISO after dosing with each compound. Parameters from each individual model were linked together into a final composite model in order to describe the time course of all 4 Cl-TRIs after ATRA dosing. Oral administration of ISO, ETHYL and ATRA produced double peaks of the compounds in plasma time courses that were described by multiple absorption phases from gut. An adequate description of the uptake and bioavailability of absorbed ATRA also required inclusion of additional oxidative metabolic clearance of ATRA to the mono-dealkylated metabolites occurring in GI a tract compartment. These complex processes regulating tissue dosimetry of atrazine and its chlorinated metabolites likely reflect limited compound solubility in the gut from dosing with an emulsion, and sequential absorption and metabolism along the GI tract at these high oral doses

  16. Chronic antiepileptic monotherapy, bone metabolism, and body composition in non-institutionalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchenzauner, Markus; Griesmacher, Andrea; Tatarczyk, Tobias; Haberlandt, Edda; Strasak, Alexander; Zimmerhackl, Lothar-Bernd; Falkensammer, Gerda; Luef, Gerhard; Högler, Wolfgang

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of chronic monotherapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on vitamin D levels, bone metabolism, and body composition. Eighty-five children (38 males, 47 females; mean age 12 y 5 mo, SD 3 y 4 mo) were treated with valproate and 40 children (28 males, 12 females; mean age 11 y 10 mo, SD 3 y) were treated with other AEDs (lamotrigine, sulthiame, or oxcarbazepine), comprising the non-valproate group. Forty-one healthy children (29 males 12 females; mean age 12 y 1 mo, SD 3 y 5 mo) served as a comparison group. Height, weight, body impedance analysis, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, phosphate, two bone resorption markers (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand [RANKL] and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b [TRAP5b]), osteoprotegerin, and leptin were measured. No child was vitamin D deficient as defined by a 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level of less than 25 nmol/l (children than in the non-valproate group, as were calcium (p=0.027) and RANKL (p=0.007) concentrations. Similarly, leptin was significantly higher in the valproate group than in control participants (pchildren with epilepsy. Valproate therapy is associated with increases in weight, body fat, and leptin concentration, as well as with a bone metabolic profile that resembles slightly increased parathyroid hormone action.

  17. Effects of carbohydrate quantity and glycemic index on resting metabolic rate and body composition during weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To examine the effects of diets varying in carbohydrate and glycemic index (GI) on changes in body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and metabolic adaptation during and after weight loss. Methods: Adults with obesity (n = 91) were randomized to one of four provided-food diets f...

  18. Quantitative genetics parameters show partial independent evolutionary potential for body mass and metabolism in stonechats from different populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, B. I.; Versteegh, M. A.; Helm, B.; Dingemanse, N. J.; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Phenotypic variation in physiological traits, such as energy metabolism, is commonly subjected to adaptive interpretations, but little is known about the heritable basis or genetic correlations among physiological traits in non-domesticated species. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass are

  19. Skeletal Muscle Thermogenesis and Its Role in Whole Body Energy Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Periasamy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and diabetes has become a major epidemic across the globe. Controlling obesity has been a challenge since this would require either increased physical activity or reduced caloric intake; both are difficult to enforce. There has been renewed interest in exploiting pathways such as uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1-mediated uncoupling in brown adipose tissue (BAT and white adipose tissue to increase energy expenditure to control weight gain. However, relying on UCP1-based thermogenesis alone may not be sufficient to control obesity in humans. On the other hand, skeletal muscle is the largest organ and a major contributor to basal metabolic rate and increasing energy expenditure in muscle through nonshivering thermogenic mechanisms, which can substantially affect whole body metabolism and weight gain. In this review we will describe the role of Sarcolipin-mediated uncoupling of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase (SERCA as a potential mechanism for increased energy expenditure both during cold and diet-induced thermogenesis.

  20. Modulation of Protein Metabolism to Mitigate Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emission from Excreta of Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangyong

    2017-01-01

    Dietary protein is the main source of the body needed protein for animals. A great number of domestic animals including cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and chicken and other species are raised in the world to supply meat, milk and eggs that contain high quality of protein for human consumption. Domestic animals consume a great amount of feeds and water and excrete a large amount of faeces and urine. The conversion rate of dietary nitrogen (N, mainly dietary protein) to product N in livestock is low and the amount of N excretion is high and the nitrogenous compounds in excreta can be used as materials for nitrous oxide (N2O) formation in the processes of nitrification and denitrification in storage of excreta. Hence livestock farms and grazing pastures are important sources of N2O. N2O is a potent greenhouse gas and the key factor that damages the ozonosphere of the earth. Therefore, it is urgent to reveal the dietary protein metabolism processes and the regulation mechanism, which will help to reduce N2O emission. The nutritional options to reduce N excretion from livestock and consequently N2O emission include feeding low N rations and supplementing essential amino acid (AA) such as lysine and methionine to balance the AA profile of rations for pigs and ruminants. Other options include regulating partition of N excretion from urine to faeces and urinary nitrogenous constituents by decreasing urea N and increasing hippuric acid in ruminants. Supplementing tannic acid in the ration of ruminants has the potential to decrease the ratio of urinary N/faecal N and regulate the urinary nitrogenous components of ruminants and possibly reduce N2O emission in storage of excreta. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Oxidative bioelectrocatalysis: From natural metabolic pathways to synthetic metabolons and minimal enzyme cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Shelley D

    2016-05-01

    Anodic bioelectrodes for biofuel cells are more complex than cathodic bioelectrodes for biofuel cells, because laccase and bilirubin oxidase can individually catalyze four electron reduction of oxygen to water, whereas most anodic enzymes only do a single two electron oxidation of a complex fuel (i.e. glucose oxidase oxidizing glucose to gluconolactone while generating 2 electrons of the total 24 electrons), so enzyme cascades are typically needed for complete oxidation of the fuel. This review article will discuss the lessons learned from natural metabolic pathways about multi-step oxidation and how those lessons have been applied to minimal or artificial enzyme cascades. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics--the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Basal metabolic rate and body composition of elite Japanese male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, Takako; Matsushima, Yoshiko; Yokota, Yukari; Yanagisawa, Kae; Nagai, Satsuki; Okamura, Koji; Komatsu, Yutaka; Kawahara, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The estimated energy requirement is important for adequate nutritional management in athletes. The energy requirement can be estimated from the basal metabolic rate (BMR). However, there is little data regarding the BMR of Japanese athletes. This study measured the BMR and body composition of 81 elite Japanese male athletes in different sports categories: endurance (E), strength, power and sprint (S) and ball game (B). The factors influencing the BMR were also investigated. The BMR and body composition were measured by indirect calorimetry and an air-displacement plentysmograph device (the BOD POD), respectively. The BMR per lean body mass (LBM) differed significantly among the three groups. The BMR was significantly correlated with the body weight (BW) and LBM in all groups. A multiple-regression analysis showed that the LBM was the most powerful predictor in the E and S groups, whereas the BW was the most powerful predictor in the B group. The BW appears to become an important predictor as the BW of athletes increases. Additionally, height was the second explanatory variable in the S and B groups, thus suggesting that height needs to be considered for the BMR in these groups. Therefore, the BMR in elite athletes needs to be estimated according to their body composition.

  3. Resting metabolic rate, pulmonary functions, and body composition parameters in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ucok, Kagan; Coşkun, Kerem Şenol; Genc, Abdurrahman; Karabacak, Hatice; Guzel, Halil Ibrahim

    2017-03-01

    Several studies of school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have found a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity compared with the general population. However, the scientific literature contains insufficient evidence to establish clear conclusions on pulmonary functions, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and body composition in children with ADHD. This study therefore investigates the pulmonary functions tests (PFTs), RMR, and body composition parameters in children with ADHD and evaluates their quality of life. Forty children with ADHD and 40 healthy controls participated in the study. The children's parents completed Conners' parent rating scale (CPRS) and the pediatric quality of life (PedsQL), and their teachers completed Conners' Teacher rating scale (CTRS). The child participants also completed the PedsQL. RMR, PFTs, and body composition parameters were investigated. No significant differences in age, gender, and socioeconomic level were found. All CPRS subscales, except anxiety and psychosomatic conditions, were significantly different (p ADHD group. The results showed that the ADHD group's quality of life is worse than the control group. Body mass index, body composition parameters, RMR, and PFTs were not statistically different between the children with ADHD and the healthy controls. Further studies with complex designs are needed to confirm the results.

  4. Changes in body composition and metabolic profile during interleukin 6 inhibition in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournadre, Anne; Pereira, Bruno; Dutheil, Fréderic; Giraud, Charlotte; Courteix, Daniel; Sapin, Vincent; Frayssac, Thomas; Mathieu, Sylvain; Malochet-Guinamand, Sandrine; Soubrier, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by increased mortality associated with cardiometabolic disorders including dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and cachectic obesity. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors and interleukin 6 receptor blocker licensed for the treatment of RA decrease inflammation and could thus improve cardiovascular risk, but their effects on body composition and metabolic profile need to be clarified. We investigated the effects of tocilizumab (TCZ), a humanized anti-interleukin 6 receptor antibody, on body composition and metabolic profile in patients treated for RA. Twenty-one active RA patients treated with TCZ were included in a 1 year open follow-up study. Waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure, lipid profile, fasting glucose, insulin, serum levels of adipokines and pancreatic/gastrointestinal hormones, and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were measured at baseline and 6 and 12 months of treatment. At baseline, RA patients were compared with 21 non-RA controls matched for age, sex, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome. Compared with controls, body composition was altered in RA with a decrease in total and appendicular lean mass, whereas fat composition was not modified. Among RA patients, 28.6% had a skeletal muscle mass index below the cut-off point for sarcopaenia (4.8% of controls). After 1 year of treatment with TCZ, there was a significant weight gain without changes for fat mass. In contrast, an increase in lean mass was observed with a significant gain in appendicular lean mass and skeletal muscle mass index between 6 and 12 months. Distribution of the fat was modified with a decrease in trunk/peripheral fat ratio and an increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue. No changes for waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, and atherogenic index were observed. Despite weight gain during treatment with TCZ, no increase in fat but a modification in fat

  5. Metabolic syndrome: Differences for Asian Americans is in their percentage of body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alpert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Asian Americans are not frequently thought of as being obese or overweight yet some of the Asian American subgroups have a disproportionate risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although the standardized body mass index (BMI assessment is an adequate tool for reporting secular prevalence trends for overweight/obesity across populations, it falls short in accuracy when assessing Asian Americans. In recent years more has been written about the re-evaluation of BMI cut points for normal weight, overweight, or obese Asian Americans. Additionally, the waist circumference norm was modified to indicate a smaller waist size is a risk for metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the research literature on BMI and percentage of body fat as it relates to health risk for metabolic syndrome for Asian American subgroups. Three databases were used to identify articles for this review: Google Scholar, CINHAL, and PubMed. Seven hundred twenty-six articles were initially identified as meeting the criteria; 690 articles were eliminated after a review of the article titles revealed the content did not meet the focus of this review. Of the remaining articles, 19 were eliminated after a review of the abstracts indicated they were meta-analyses, review articles, or case studies. The remaining 18 articles were included in this review. Three common themes emerged. (1 The differences in BMI and body fat percentage are evident between Asian Americans and other ethnic groups. (2 Differences in the percentage of body fat exist between Asian American subgroups, and between Asian Americans and Asian immigrants. (3 There are differences in disease development end points when comparing Asian American subgroups and Asian immigrant subgroups. There are differences in body fat distribution and body fat percentages as well as BMI compared to other ethnic groups for metabolic syndrome. There are also differences between Asian

  6. Unchanged cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism after acclimatization to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Paulson, Olaf B; Hornbein, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of acclimatization to high altitude on cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism at rest and during exercise. Nine healthy, native sea-level residents were studied 3 weeks after arrival at Chacaltaya, Bolivia (5,260 m) and after reacclimatization to sea level....... Global cerebral blood flow at rest and during exercise on a bicycle ergometer was measured by the Kety-Schmidt technique. Cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen, glucose, and lactate were calculated by the Fick principle. Cerebral function was assessed by a computer-based measurement of reaction time...

  7. The Effects Of Two Fitness Programs With Different Metabolic Demands On Oxidative Stress In The Blood Of Young Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordjevic Dusica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two metabolically different exercise programs on the redox state of women who were physically inactive before the beginning of the study. For this purpose, participants (women 25±5 years old chose one of two popular fitness programs, Pilates or Tae Bo, and attended it 3 times a week for 12 weeks. At the beginning and end of the study, body composition analysis and venous blood sampling were performed. The levels of superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation were measured in plasma, and the levels of reduced glutathione and the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase were measured in erythrocytes. Only the Tae Bo program induced changes (positive in body composition, whereas both exercise programs induced slight oxidative stress in exercisers. In the Tae Bo group, the levels of hydrogen peroxide were significantly increased, whereas the levels of reduced glutathione were decreased after three months of training. In the Pilates group, hydrogen peroxide and catalase activity were increased, and nitrites decreased. However, at the end of the study, those two groups had no significantly different values for any pro/antioxidant compared with the subjects who served as controls. This finding suggests that moderate physical activity, such as recreational fitness programs, may induce the increased production of reactive oxygen species but do not lead to a serious disturbance of the redox homeostasis of exercisers.

  8. Oxidative metabolism of 5-o-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid), a bioactive natural product, by metalloporphyrin and rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Michel D; Martins, Patrícia R; dos Santos, Pierre A; Bortocan, Renato; Iamamoto, Y; Lopes, Norberto P

    2005-09-01

    Synthetic metalloporphyrins, in the presence of monooxygen donors, are known to mimic the various reactions of cytochrome P450 enzymes systems in the oxidation and oxygenation of various drugs and biologically active compounds. This paper reports an HPLC-MS-MS investigation of chlorogenic acid (CGA) oxidation by iodosylbenzene using iron(III) tetraphenylporphyrin chloride as catalyst. The oxidation products have been detected by sequential MS analyses. In addition, CGA was submitted to an in vitro metabolism assay employing isolated rat liver mitochondria. The single oxidized product obtained from mitochondrial metabolism corresponds to the major product formed by the metalloporphyrin-catalyzed reaction. These results indicate that biomimetic oxidation reactions, in addition to in vitro metabolism assays employing isolated organs/organelles, could replace some in vivo metabolism studies, thus minimizing the problems related to the use of a large number of living animals in experimental research.

  9. Daily Manganese Intake Status and Its Relationship with Oxidative Stress Biomarkers under Different Body Mass Index Categories in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, So-Young; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2012-07-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient for human and plays an important role as a cofactor for several enzymes involving fatty acid synthesis, hepatic gluconeogenesis, and oxidative stresses. Also, Mn intake status has been reported to have beneficial effects in reversing metabolic dysfunction including obesity and nonalcoholic steatosis which is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses, however, information on dietary Mn intake in Koreans are limited. Hence we investigated the relationship between dietary Mn intake and antioxidant defense factors in healthy and obese subjects. Total of 333 healthy subjects were recruited in the study and were assigned to one of three study groups: a normal group (18.5-22.9), a overweight group (23-24.9), and a obesity group (>25) according to their body mass index (BMI). We assessed Mn intakes (24-hr recall method) and several indicators for antioxidative defenses such as glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and urinary malonaldehyde (MDA). Results showed that body weight and blood pressure of study subjects were increased in dependent of their BMI (p stress biomarkers (GSH, GPx, and MDA) were not significantly different by groups defined by BMI. In correlation analysis adjusting for age, sex and energy intake, dietary Mn intake of the subjects in different BMI categories were not significantly correlated with GSH, GPx, MDA and showed a weak or no association with these oxidative stress markers. In conclusion dietary Mn intake at least in this study has a little or no influence on markers of oxidative status in both healthy and obese subjects.

  10. Metabolic flux ratio analysis and multi-objective optimization revealed a globally conserved and coordinated metabolic response of E. coli to paraquat-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tie; Rui, Bin; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Ximing; Yi, Yin; Wen, Han; Zheng, Haoran; Wu, Jihui; Shi, Yunyu

    2013-01-27

    The ability of a microorganism to adapt to changes in the environment, such as in nutrient or oxygen availability, is essential for its competitive fitness and survival. The cellular objective and the strategy of the metabolic response to an extreme environment are therefore of tremendous interest and, thus, have been increasingly explored. However, the cellular objective of the complex regulatory structure of the metabolic changes has not yet been fully elucidated and more details regarding the quantitative behaviour of the metabolic flux redistribution are required to understand the systems-wide biological significance of this response. In this study, the intracellular metabolic flux ratios involved in the central carbon metabolism were determined by fractional (13)C-labeling and metabolic flux ratio analysis (MetaFoR) of the wild-type E. coli strain JM101 at an oxidative environment in a chemostat. We observed a significant increase in the flux through phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), malic enzyme (MEZ) and serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT). We applied an ε-constraint based multi-objective optimization to investigate the trade-off relationships between the biomass yield and the generation of reductive power using the in silico iJR904 genome-scale model of E. coli K-12. The theoretical metabolic redistribution supports that the trans-hydrogenase pathway should not play a direct role in the defence mounted by E. coli against oxidative stress. The agreement between the measured ratio and the theoretical redistribution established the significance of NADPH synthesis as the goal of the metabolic reprogramming that occurs in response to oxidative stress. Our work presents a framework that combines metabolic flux ratio analysis and multi-objective optimization to investigate the metabolic trade-offs that occur under varied environmental conditions. Our results led to the proposal that the metabolic response of E

  11. Protective Role of Flaxseed Oil and Flaxseed Lignan Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside Against Oxidative Stress in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilar, Bruna; Güllich, Angélica; Oliveira, Patrícia; Ströher, Deise; Piccoli, Jacqueline; Manfredini, Vanusa

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the protective effect of flaxseed oil (FO) and flaxseed lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) against oxidative stress in rats with metabolic syndrome (MS). 48 rats were allocated into the following 6 groups: Groups 1 (control), 5 (FO), and 6 (SDG) received water and were treated daily orally with saline, FO, and SDG, respectively. Groups 2 (MS), 3 (MS+FO), and 4 (MS+SDG) received 30% fructose in drinking water for MS induction and were treated daily orally with saline, FO, and SDG, respectively. After 30 d, animals were sacrificed, and blood was collected for biochemical and oxidative analysis. Body weight was recorded weekly. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured before and after treatment. Fructose could produce MS and oxidative stress. FO and SDG prevented changes in SBP, lipids, and glucose. FO and SDG prevented oxidative damage to lipids, and only FO prevented oxidative damage to proteins associated to MS. FO and SDG improved enzymatic antioxidants defenses and reduced glutathione levels, which was greater with SDG. Total polyphenol levels were enhanced in groups that received SDG. Thus, the results of this study demonstrated that treatment with a 30% fructose solution for 30 d is effective for MS induction and the oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of MS induced by fructose-rich diets. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the antioxidant effects attributed to flaxseed are mainly due to its high lignan content especially that of SDG, suggesting that this compound can be used in isolation to prevent oxidative stress associated with MS. We report that the antioxidant effects attributed to flaxseed are mainly due to its high lignan content, especially that of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside. This is significant because suggests that this compound can be used in isolation to prevent oxidative stress associated with MS. Furthermore, this study was the only one to perform a comparison of the abilities of 2 components

  12. Vascular affection in relation to oxidative DNA damage in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Aziz, Rokayaa; Fawzy, Mary Wadie; Khalil, Noha; Abdel Atty, Sahar; Sabra, Zainab

    2018-02-01

    Obesity has become an important issue affecting both males and females. Obesity is now regarded as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis-related diseases. Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk for development of cardiovascular disease. Urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration has been used to express oxidation status. Twenty-seven obese patients with metabolic syndrome, 25 obese patients without metabolic syndrome and 31 healthy subjects were included in our study. They were subjected to full history and clinical examination; fasting blood sugar (FBS), 2 hour post prandial blood sugar (2HPP), lipid profile, urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and carotid duplex, A/B index and tibial diameters were all assessed. There was a statistically significant difference ( p = 0.027) in diameter of the right anterior tibial artery among the studied groups, with decreased diameter of the right anterior tibial artery in obese patients with metabolic syndrome compared to those without metabolic syndrome; the ankle brachial index revealed a lower index in obese patients with metabolic syndrome compared to those without metabolic syndrome. There was a statistically insignificant difference ( p = 0.668) in the 8-oxodG in the studied groups. In obese patients with metabolic syndrome there was a positive correlation between 8-oxodG and total cholesterol and LDL. Urinary 8-oxodG is correlated to total cholesterol and LDL in obese patients with metabolic syndrome; signifying its role in the mechanism of dyslipidemia in those patients. Our study highlights the importance of anterior tibial artery diameter measurement and ankle brachial index as an early marker of atherosclerosis, and how it may be an earlier marker than carotid intima-media thickness.

  13. Metabolic constraint imposes tradeoff between body size and number of brain neurons in human evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca-Azevedo, Karina; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2012-01-01

    Despite a general trend for larger mammals to have larger brains, humans are the primates with the largest brain and number of neurons, but not the largest body mass. Why are great apes, the largest primates, not also those endowed with the largest brains? Recently, we showed that the energetic cost of the brain is a linear function of its numbers of neurons. Here we show that metabolic limitations that result from the number of hours available for feeding and the low caloric yield of raw foo...

  14. Sugar metabolism, redox balance and oxidative stress response in the respiratory yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Siso, M Isabel; García-Leiro, Ana; Tarrío, Nuria; Cerdán, M Esperanza

    2009-08-30

    A lot of studies have been carried out on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an yeast with a predominant fermentative metabolism under aerobic conditions, which allows exploring the complex response induced by oxidative stress. S. cerevisiae is considered a eukaryote model for these studies. We propose Kluyveromyces lactis as a good alternative model to analyse variants in the oxidative stress response, since the respiratory metabolism in this yeast is predominant under aerobic conditions and it shows other important differences with S. cerevisiae in catabolic repression and carbohydrate utilization. The knowledge of oxidative stress response in K. lactis is still a developing field. In this article, we summarize the state of the art derived from experimental approaches and we provide a global vision on the characteristics of the putative K. lactis components of the oxidative stress response pathway, inferred from their sequence homology with the S. cerevisiae counterparts. Since K. lactis is also a well-established alternative host for industrial production of native enzymes and heterologous proteins, relevant differences in the oxidative stress response pathway and their potential in biotechnological uses of this yeast are also reviewed.

  15. Sugar metabolism, redox balance and oxidative stress response in the respiratory yeast Kluyveromyces lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerdán M Esperanza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A lot of studies have been carried out on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an yeast with a predominant fermentative metabolism under aerobic conditions, which allows exploring the complex response induced by oxidative stress. S. cerevisiae is considered a eukaryote model for these studies. We propose Kluyveromyces lactis as a good alternative model to analyse variants in the oxidative stress response, since the respiratory metabolism in this yeast is predominant under aerobic conditions and it shows other important differences with S. cerevisiae in catabolic repression and carbohydrate utilization. The knowledge of oxidative stress response in K. lactis is still a developing field. In this article, we summarize the state of the art derived from experimental approaches and we provide a global vision on the characteristics of the putative K. lactis components of the oxidative stress response pathway, inferred from their sequence homology with the S. cerevisiae counterparts. Since K. lactis is also a well-established alternative host for industrial production of native enzymes and heterologous proteins, relevant differences in the oxidative stress response pathway and their potential in biotechnological uses of this yeast are also reviewed.

  16. Metabolism of fatty acids and lipid hydroperoxides in human body monitoring with Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qin-Zeng

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolism of dietary fatty acids in human has been measured so far using human blood cells and stable-isotope labeled fatty acids, however, no direct data was available for human peripheral tissues and other major organs. To realize the role of dietary fatty acids in human health and diseases, it would be eager to develop convenient and suitable method to monitor fatty acid metabolism in human. Results We have developed the measurement system in situ for human lip surface lipids using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR – attenuated total reflection (ATR detection system with special adaptor to monitor metabolic changes of lipids in human body. As human lip surface lipids may not be much affected by skin sebum constituents and may be affected directly by the lipid constituents of diet, we could detect changes of FTIR-ATR spectra, especially at 3005~3015 cm-1, of lip surface polyunsaturated fatty acids in a duration time-dependent manner after intake of the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA-containing triglyceride diet. The ingested DHA appeared on the lip surface and was detected by FTIR-ATR directly and non-invasively. It was found that the metabolic rates of DHA for male volunteer subjects with age 60s were much lower than those with age 20s. Lipid hydroperoxides were found in lip lipids which were extracted from the lip surface using a mixture of ethanol/ethylpropionate/iso-octane solvents, and were the highest in the content just before noon. The changes of lipid hydroperoxides were detected also in situ with FTIR-ATR at 968 cm-1. Conclusion The measurements of lip surface lipids with FTIR-ATR technique may advance the investigation of human lipid metabolism in situ non-invasively.

  17. Severe Brain Metabolic Decreases Associated with REM Sleep Behavior Disorder in Dementia with Lewy Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaccarino, Leonardo; Marelli, Sara; Iannaccone, Sandro; Magnani, Giuseppe; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Perani, Daniela

    2016-04-05

    To evaluate the prevalence of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in a sample of Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients and compare the patterns of brain glucose metabolism in DLB patients with or without the sleep disturbances. In this retrospective study, the presence of probable RBD was ascertained for 27 clinically diagnosed DLB patients and 11 AD patients by a self-administered RBD Single-Question Screen (RBD1Q), followed by a sleep structured interview by experts in sleep disorders blinded to clinical information. For 18F-FDG-PET metabolic comparisons, we considered an additional 13 DLB patients with negative history for sleep disturbance. We performed DLB within-group comparisons covarying for age and disease duration. The RBD1Q questionnaire identified 20 out of 27 DLB RBD+ and 7 out of 27 DLB RBD-. None of the AD patients was positive to RBD1Q test. 18F-FDG-PET hypometabolism at the single- and group-level tested by means of an optimized SPM approach revealed the typical DLB metabolic pattern. Each DLB patient showed a predominant occipital hypometabolism. The SPM voxel-based comparisons revealed significant brain metabolic differences, namely a more severe metabolic decrease in DLB RBD+ in the dorsolateral and medial frontal regions, left precuneus, bilateral superior parietal lobule and rolandic operculum, and amygdala. We found a high prevalence of RBD in DLB and none in AD, as identified by the RBD1Q questionnaire, indicating its utility in clinical practice. DLB patients with or without RBD show different hypometabolism patterns that might reflect differences in underlying pathology.

  18. Body composition, nutritional status, and endothelial function in physically active men without metabolic syndrome--a 25 year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigłowska, Małgorzata; Kostka, Tomasz; Drygas, Wojciech; Jegier, Anna; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Bill-Bielecka, Mirosława; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena

    2016-04-27

    The purpose of this analysis was to investigate the relationship between body composition, metabolic parameters and endothelial function among physically active healthy middle-aged and older men. Out of 101 asymptomatic men prospectively tracked for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (mean observation period 25.1 years), 55 metabolically healthy individuals who maintained stable leisure time physical activity (LTPA) level throughout the observation and agreed to participate in the body composition assessment were recruited (mean age 60.3 ± 9.9 years). Body composition and raw bioelectrical parameters were measured with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Microvascular endothelial function was evaluated by means of the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) using Endo-PAT2000 system. Strong correlations were observed between lifetime physical activity (PA), aerobic fitness and most of analyzed body composition parameters. The strongest inverse correlation was found for fat mass (p metabolic parameters, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and uric acid were significantly associated with most body composition indicators. Regarding endothelial function, a negative correlation was found for RHI and body mass (p metabolic profile. Maintaining regular high PA level and metabolically healthy status through young and middle adulthood may have beneficial influence on body composition parameters and may prevent age-related decrease of fat-free mass and endothelial dysfunction.

  19. Associations between Body Composition Indices and Metabolic Disorders in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Wang, Fei; Ma, Cong; Zhao, Xiao-Lan; Zeng, Qiang; Fei, Ao

    2018-02-20

    Obesity induces dyslipidemia, hypertension, glucose intolerance, and inflammatory state, which results in atherogenic processes, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We usually use body composition indices, such as body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP), waist circumference-height ratio (WHtR), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) to reflect the obesity. The aim of this large population-based cross-sectional study was to investigate the associations between body composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults. A total of 12,018 Chinese adults were included. Body composition indices, such as BMI, BFP, WHtR, and WHR, and metabolic parameters, such as systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (2h PBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting insulin (FINS), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and white blood cell count (WBC), were measured and analyzed. All analyses were stratified by gender. All body composition indices and metabolic parameters except 2h PBG differed significantly between males and females (all P composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults. Among the body composition indices, BMI predicted four of the five evaluated metabolic disorders in both gender groups.

  20. Correction factors for 13C-labelled substrate oxidation at whole-body and muscle level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit

    1999-01-01

    for the proportion of labelled CO2 that is produced via oxidation but not excreted. Furthermore, depending on the substrate and position of the C label(s), there may also be a need to correct for labelled C from the metabolized substrate that does not appear as CO2, but rather becomes temporarily fixed in other...... acid cycle. Changes in metabolic rate induced, for example, by feeding, hormonal changes and physical activity, as well as infusion time, have been shown to affect both correction factors. The present paper explains the theoretical and physiological basis of these correction factors and makes...

  1. Role of NAD, Oxidative Stress, and Tryptophan Metabolism in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musthafa Mohamed Essa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a pervasive neuro-developmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, reduced/absent verbal and non-verbal communication, and repetitive behavior during early childhood. The etiology of this developmental disorder is poorly understood, and no biomarkers have been identified. Identification of novel biochemical markers related to autism would be advantageous for earlier clinical diagnosis and intervention. Studies suggest that oxidative stress-induced mechanisms and reduced antioxidant defense, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired energy metabolism (NAD + , NADH, ATP, pyruvate, and lactate, are major causes of ASD. This review provides renewed insight regarding current autism research related to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and altered tryptophan metabolism in ASD.

  2. Developmental Ethanol Exposure Leads to Dysregulation of Lipid Metabolism and Oxidative Stress in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan-Garbisch, Theresa; Bortolazzo, Anthony; Luu, Peter; Ford, Audrey; Do, David; Khodabakhshi, Payam; French, Rachael L.

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during development causes an array of developmental abnormalities, both physiological and behavioral. In mammals, these abnormalities are collectively known as fetal alcohol effects (FAE) or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). We have established a Drosophila melanogaster model of FASD and have previously shown that developmental ethanol exposure in flies leads to reduced expression of insulin-like peptides (dILPs) and their receptor. In this work, we link that observation to dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism and lipid accumulation. Further, we show that developmental ethanol exposure in Drosophila causes oxidative stress, that this stress is a primary cause of the developmental lethality and delay associated with ethanol exposure, and, finally, that one of the mechanisms by which ethanol increases oxidative stress is through abnormal fatty acid metabolism. These data suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism by which ethanol causes the symptoms associated with FASD. PMID:25387828

  3. Whole-body substrate metabolism is associated with disease severity in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croci, Ilaria; Byrne, Nuala M; Choquette, Stéphane; Hills, Andrew P; Chachay, Veronique S; Clouston, Andrew D; O'Moore-Sullivan, Trisha M; Macdonald, Graeme A; Prins, Johannes B; Hickman, Ingrid J

    2013-11-01

    In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatic steatosis is intricately linked with a number of metabolic alterations. We studied substrate utilisation in NAFLD during basal, insulin-stimulated and exercise conditions, and correlated these outcomes with disease severity. 20 patients with NAFLD (mean ± SD body mass index (BMI) 34.1 ± 6.7 kg/m(2)) and 15 healthy controls (BMI 23.4 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) were assessed. Respiratory quotient (RQ), whole-body fat (Fat ox) and carbohydrate (CHO ox) oxidation rates were determined by indirect calorimetry in three conditions: basal (resting and fasted), insulin-stimulated (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp) and exercise (cycling at an intensity to elicit maximal Fat ox). Severity of disease and steatosis were determined by liver histology, hepatic Fat ox from plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, aerobic fitness expressed as VO2 peak, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) measured by computed tomography. Within the overweight/obese NAFLD cohort, basal RQ correlated positively with steatosis (r=0.57, p=0.01) and was higher (indicating smaller contribution of Fat ox to energy expenditure) in patients with NAFLD activity score (NAS) ≥ 5 vs hepatic Fat ox (ie, β-hydroxybutyrate, p=0.004). During exercise, they achieved lower maximal Fat ox (2.5 ± 1.4 vs. 5.8 ± 3.7 mg/kg FFM/min, p=0.002) and lower VO2 peak (phepatic Fat ox and reduced whole-body Fat ox under basal and exercise conditions. There was an inverse relationship between ability to oxidise fat in basal conditions and histological features of NAFLD including severity of steatosis and NAS.

  4. Effect on oxidative stress, hepatic chemical metabolizing parameters, and genotoxic damage of mad honey intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraslan, G; Kanbur, M; Karabacak, M; Arslan, K; Siliğ, Y; Soyer Sarica, Z; Tekeli, M Y; Taş, A

    2017-01-01

    A total of 66 male Wistar rats were used and six groups (control: 10 animals and experimental: 12 animals) were formed. While a separate control group was established for each study period, mad honey application to the animals in the experimental group was carried out with a single dose (12.5 g kg -1 body weight (b.w.); acute stage), at a dose of 7.5 g kg -1 b.w. for 21 days (subacute stage), and at a dose of 5 g kg -1 b.w. for 60 days (chronic stage). Tissue and blood oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione (GSH) peroxidase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), hepatic chemical metabolizing parameters in the liver (cytochrome P450 2E1, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-cytochrome b5 reductase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-cytochrome c reductase (CYTC), GSH S-transferase (GST), and GSH), and micronucleus and comet test in some samples were examined. Findings from the study showed that single and repeated doses given over the period increased MDA, NO, and HNE levels while decreasing/increasing tissue and blood antioxidant enzyme activities. From hepatic chemical metabolizing parameters, GST activity increased in the subacute and chronic stages and CYTC activity increased in the acute period, whereas GSH level decreased in the subacute stage. Changes in tail and head intensities were found in most of the comet results. Mad honey caused oxidative stresses for each exposure period and made some significant changes on the comet test in certain periods for some samples obtained. In other words, according to the available research results obtained, careless consumption of mad honey for different medical purposes is not appropriate.

  5. Chronic maternal vitamin B12 restriction induced changes in body composition & glucose metabolism in the Wistar rat offspring are partly correctable by rehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Anand Kumar

    Full Text Available Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM, fat free mass (FFM, muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30 were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n = 6 or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R (n = 24; after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF% in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring.

  6. Oxidative metabolism of astrocytes is not reduced in hepatic encephalopathy: A PET study with [11C]acetate in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eIversen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In patients with impaired liver function and hepatic encephalopathy (HE, consistent elevations of blood ammonia concentration suggest a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HE. Ammonia and acetate are metabolized in brain both primarily in astrocytes. Here, we used dynamic [11C]acetate PET of the brain to measure the contribution of astrocytes to the previously observed reduction of brain oxidative metabolism in patients with liver cirrhosis and HE, compared to patients with cirrhosis without HE, and to healthy subjects. We used a new kinetic model to estimate uptake from blood to astrocytes and astrocyte metabolism of [11C]acetate. No significant differences of the rate constant of oxidation of [11C]acetate (k3 were found among the three groups of subjects. The net metabolic clearance of [11C]acetate from blood was lower in the group of patients with cirrhosis and HE than in the group of healthy subjects (P<0.05, which we interpret to be an effect of reduced cerebral blood flow rather than a reflection of low [11C]acetate metabolism. We conclude that the characteristic decline of whole-brain oxidative metabolism in patients with cirrhosis with HE is not due to malfunction of oxidative metabolism in astrocytes. Thus, the observed decline of brain oxidative metabolism implicates changes of neurons and their energy turnover in patients with HE.

  7. Quantitative analysis of drug effects at the whole-body level: a case study for glucose metabolism in malaria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoep, Jacky L; Green, Kathleen; Eicher, Johann; Palm, Daniel C; Penkler, Gerald; du Toit, Francois; Walters, Nicolas; Burger, Robert; Westerhoff, Hans V; van Niekerk, David D

    2015-12-01

    We propose a hierarchical modelling approach to construct models for disease states at the whole-body level. Such models can simulate effects of drug-induced inhibition of reaction steps on the whole-body physiology. We illustrate the approach for glucose metabolism in malaria patients, by merging two detailed kinetic models for glucose metabolism in the parasite Plasmodium falciparum and the human red blood cell with a coarse-grained model for whole-body glucose metabolism. In addition we use a genome-scale metabolic model for the parasite to predict amino acid production profiles by the malaria parasite that can be used as a complex biomarker. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  8. Intraspecific Allometry of Basal Metabolic Rate : Relations with Body Size, Temperature, Composition, and Circadian Phase in the Kestrel, Falco tinnunculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Masman, Dirkjan; Strijkstra, Arjen; Verhulst, Simon

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between body size and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in homeotherms has been treated in the literature primarily by comparison between species of mammals or birds. This paper focuses on the intraindividual changes in BMR when body mass (W) varies with different maintenance regimens. BMR

  9. Total Body Capacitance for Estimating Human Basal Metabolic Rate in an Egyptian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Abdel-Mageed, Samir; I. Mohamed, Ehab

    2016-01-01

    Determining basal metabolic rate (BMR) is important for estimating total energy needs in the human being yet, concerns have been raised regarding the suitability of sex-specific equations based on age and weight for its calculation on an individual or population basis. It has been shown that body cell mass (BCM) is the body compartment responsible for BMR. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between total body capacitance (TBC), which is considered as an expression for BCM, and BMR and to develop a formula for calculating BMR in comparison with widely used equations. Fifty healthy nonsmoking male volunteers [mean age (± SD): 24.93 ± 4.15 year and body mass index (BMI): 25.63 ± 3.59 kg/m2] and an equal number of healthy nonsmoking females matched for age and BMI were recruited for the study. TBC and BMR were measured for all participants using octopolar bioelectric impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry techniques, respectively. A significant regressing equation based on the covariates: sex, weight, and TBC for estimating BMR was derived (R=0.96, SEE=48.59 kcal, and P<0.0001), which will be useful for nutritional and health status assessment for both individuals and populations. PMID:27127453

  10. Metformin decreases glucose oxidation and increases the dependency of prostate cancer cells on reductive glutamine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Bell, Eric L; Keibler, Mark A; Davidson, Shawn M; Wirth, Gregory J; Fiske, Brian; Mayers, Jared R; Schwab, Matthias; Bellinger, Gary; Csibi, Alfredo; Patnaik, Akash; Blouin, Marie Jose; Cantley, Lewis C; Guarente, Leonard; Blenis, John; Pollak, Michael N; Olumi, Aria F; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2013-07-15

    Metformin inhibits cancer cell proliferation, and epidemiology studies suggest an association with increased survival in patients with cancer taking metformin; however, the mechanism by which metformin improves cancer outcomes remains controversial. To explore how metformin might directly affect cancer cells, we analyzed how metformin altered the metabolism of prostate cancer cells and tumors. We found that metformin decreased glucose oxidation and increased dependency on reductive glutamine metabolism in both cancer cell lines and in a mouse model of prostate cancer. Inhibition of glutamine anaplerosis in the presence of metformin further attenuated proliferation, whereas increasing glutamine metabolism rescued the proliferative defect induced by metformin. These data suggest that interfering with glutamine may synergize with metformin to improve outcomes in patients with prostate cancer. ©2013 AACR.

  11. The role of oxidative stress on the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Valentini Francisqueti

    Full Text Available Summary Metabolic syndrome (MetS has a high prevalence around the world. Considering the components used to classify MetS, it is clear that it is closely related to obesity. These two conditions begin with an increase in abdominal adipose tissue, which is metabolically more active, containing a greater amount of resident macrophages compared to other fat deposits. Abdominal adiposity promotes inflammation and oxidative stress, which are precursors of various complications involving MetS components, namely insulin resistance, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. One way to block the effects of oxidative stress would be through the antioxidant defense system, which offsets the excess free radicals. It is known that individuals with metabolic syndrome and obesity have high consumption of fats and sugars originated from processed foods containing high levels of sodium as well as low intake of fruits and vegetables, thus maintaining a state of oxidative stress, that can speed up the onset of MetS. Healthy eating habits could prevent or delay MetS by adding antioxidant-rich foods into the diet.

  12. Alzheimer's disease and metabolic syndrome: A link from oxidative stress and inflammation to neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Gutierrez, Eduardo; Muñoz-Arenas, Guadalupe; Treviño, Samuel; Espinosa, Blanca; Chavez, Raúl; Rojas, Karla; Flores, Gonzalo; Díaz, Alfonso; Guevara, Jorge

    2017-06-26

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality among the aging population. AD diagnosis is made post-mortem, and the two pathologic hallmarks, particularly evident in the end stages of the illness, are amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Currently, there is no curative treatment for AD. Additionally, there is a strong relation between oxidative stress, metabolic syndrome, and AD. The high levels of circulating lipids and glucose imbalances amplify lipid peroxidation that gradually diminishes the antioxidant systems, causing high levels of oxidative metabolism that affects cell structure, leading to neuronal damage. Accumulating evidence suggests that AD is closely related to a dysfunction of both insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in the brain, leading to an insulin-resistant brain state. Four drugs are currently used for this pathology: Three FDA-approved cholinesterase inhibitors and one NMDA receptor antagonist. However, wide varieties of antioxidants are promissory to delay or prevent the symptoms of AD and may help in treating the disease. Therefore, therapeutic efforts to achieve attenuation of oxidative stress could be beneficial in AD treatment, attenuating Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and improve neurological outcomes in AD. The term inflammaging characterizes a widely accepted paradigm that aging is accompanied by a low-grade chronic up-regulation of certain pro-inflammatory responses in the absence of overt infection, and is a highly significant risk factor for both morbidity and mortality in the elderly. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. UREMIC TOXIN GUANIDINE ACETIC ACID INHIBITS THE OXIDATIVE METABOLISM OF NEUTROPHILS IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Preve Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Among the uremic toxins proven to affect the neutrophil function in humans with chronic kidney disease (CKD, guanidine compounds stand out. To achieve a clearer understanding of the mechanisms that affect the immunity of uremic patients, the hypothesis that guanidine acetic acid (GAA contributes to the inhibition of oxidative metabolism and an increase in neutrophil apoptosis in healthy dogs was investigated in vitro. To this end, neutrophils isolated from ten healthy dogs were incubated in pure RPMI 1640 (control and enriched with 5 mg/L of GAA. Capillary flow cytometry was used to quantify superoxide production in neutrophils with the probe (hydroethidine, in the presence and absence of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA, in order to assess oxidative metabolism. Apoptotic indices were quantified using the Annexin V-PE system, with and without the inductive effect of camptothecin. Neutrophils isolated and incubated in a GAA-enriched medium produced smaller amounts of superoxide (p<0.001 when activated with PMA, however, this inhibition of oxidative metabolism occurred without significantly altering their viability or rate of apoptosis. Thus, the results show guanidine compounds contribute to immunosuppression in dogs with CKD.

  14. The role of oxidative stress on the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisqueti, Fabiane Valentini; Chiaverini, Lidiana Camargo Talon; Santos, Klinsmann Carolo Dos; Minatel, Igor Otávio; Ronchi, Carolina Berchieri; Ferron, Artur Junio Togneri; Ferreira, Ana Lúcia A; Corrêa, Camila Renata

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has a high prevalence around the world. Considering the components used to classify MetS, it is clear that it is closely related to obesity. These two conditions begin with an increase in abdominal adipose tissue, which is metabolically more active, containing a greater amount of resident macrophages compared to other fat deposits. Abdominal adiposity promotes inflammation and oxidative stress, which are precursors of various complications involving MetS components, namely insulin resistance, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. One way to block the effects of oxidative stress would be through the antioxidant defense system, which offsets the excess free radicals. It is known that individuals with metabolic syndrome and obesity have high consumption of fats and sugars originated from processed foods containing high levels of sodium as well as low intake of fruits and vegetables, thus maintaining a state of oxidative stress, that can speed up the onset of MetS. Healthy eating habits could prevent or delay MetS by adding antioxidant-rich foods into the diet.

  15. Hormonal Regulation of Nitric Oxide (NO) in Cardio-metabolic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudar-Milovanovic, Emina; Zafirovic, Sonja; Jovanovic, Aleksandra; Trebaljevac, Jovana; Obradovic, Milan; Cenic-Milosevic, Desanka; Isenovic, Esma R

    2017-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potential biochemical, cardio-metabolic risk marker. The production of NO is catalyzed by different isoforms of enzymes, NO synthases (NOS). An altered NO level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance (IR), diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Activity of NOS and NO production are regulated by various hormones under physiological and pathophysiological condition. Data used for this review were obtained by searching the electronic database [PUBMED/MEDLINE 1984 - May 2016]. Additionally, abstracts from national and international diabetes and cardiovascular related meetings were searched. The main data search terms were: nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase, cardio-metabolic risk, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, estradiol and insulin-like growth factor-1. In this review, we summarize the recent literature data related to the regulation of endothelial NOS (eNOS), inducible (iNOS) activity/expression, and thereby NO production by the hormones: estradiol (E2), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Understanding the regulation of NO production by different hormones such as E2, and IGF-1 may provide novel and useful knowledge regarding how endothelial dysfunction (ED) is linked with cardio-metabolic alterations and diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. A novel strategy involved in [corrected] anti-oxidative defense: the conversion of NADH into NADPH by a metabolic network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranji Singh

    Full Text Available The reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH is pivotal to the cellular anti-oxidative defence strategies in most organisms. Although its production mediated by different enzyme systems has been relatively well-studied, metabolic networks dedicated to the biogenesis of NADPH have not been fully characterized. In this report, a metabolic pathway that promotes the conversion of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, a pro-oxidant into NADPH has been uncovered in Pseudomonas fluorescens exposed to oxidative stress. Enzymes such as pyruvate carboxylase (PC, malic enzyme (ME, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, malate synthase (MS, and isocitrate lyase (ICL that are involved in disparate metabolic modules, converged to create a metabolic network aimed at the transformation of NADH into NADPH. The downregulation of phosphoenol carboxykinase (PEPCK and the upregulation of pyruvate kinase (PK ensured that this metabolic cycle fixed NADH into NADPH to combat the oxidative stress triggered by the menadione insult. This is the first demonstration of a metabolic network invoked to generate NADPH from NADH, a process that may be very effective in combating oxidative stress as the increase of an anti-oxidant is coupled to the decrease of a pro-oxidant.

  17. HIV lipodystrophy diagnosis and management. Body composition and metabolic alterations: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelson, Ellen S

    2003-04-01

    Body composition alterations are common in HIV infection and include AIDS wasting and lipodystrophy. Both are associated with metabolic alterations, including hypertriglyceridemia and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels; insulin resistance and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are also associated with lipodystrophy. However, there is no accepted case definition for HIV-associated lipodystrophy, and patients may have one or all aspects at any given time. The inability of cross-sectional studies to capture the dynamic process of these alterations has hindered the search for a case definition. In the meantime, there are several approaches to treatment of the resulting abnormalities. Switching antiretrovirals has been most successful for improving metabolism, with little or not effect on fat distribution. Growth hormone treatment has successfully reduced visceral fat and buffalo humps but is not FDA-approved for this indication. Metformin and rosiglitazone have produced some improvement in fat distribution as well as glucose metabolism. Other methods that have been tried with varying degrees of success (and little published data) include treatment with testosterone and its derivatives, weight reduction through diet and exercise, and plastic surgery.

  18. Increasing NAD synthesis in muscle via nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase is not sufficient to promote oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David W; Davis, James G; Dávila, Antonio; Agarwal, Beamon; Michan, Shaday; Puchowicz, Michelle A; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Baur, Joseph A

    2015-01-16

    The NAD biosynthetic precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside are reported to confer resistance to metabolic defects induced by high fat feeding in part by promoting oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle. Similar effects are obtained by germ line deletion of major NAD-consuming enzymes, suggesting that the bioavailability of NAD is limiting for maximal oxidative capacity. However, because of their systemic nature, the degree to which these interventions exert cell- or tissue-autonomous effects is unclear. Here, we report a tissue-specific approach to increase NAD biosynthesis only in muscle by overexpressing nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the salvage pathway that converts nicotinamide to NAD (mNAMPT mice). These mice display a ∼50% increase in skeletal muscle NAD levels, comparable with the effects of dietary NAD precursors, exercise regimens, or loss of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases yet surprisingly do not exhibit changes in muscle mitochondrial biogenesis or mitochondrial function and are equally susceptible to the metabolic consequences of high fat feeding. We further report that chronic elevation of muscle NAD in vivo does not perturb the NAD/NADH redox ratio. These studies reveal for the first time the metabolic effects of tissue-specific increases in NAD synthesis and suggest that critical sites of action for supplemental NAD precursors reside outside of the heart and skeletal muscle. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Calorie restriction hysteretically primes aging Saccharomyces cerevisiae toward more effective oxidative metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich B Tahara

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR is an intervention known to extend the lifespan of a wide variety of organisms. In S. cerevisiae, chronological lifespan is prolonged by decreasing glucose availability in the culture media, a model for CR. The mechanism has been proposed to involve an increase in the oxidative (versus fermentative metabolism of glucose. Here, we measured wild-type and respiratory incompetent (ρ(0 S. cerevisiae biomass formation, pH, oxygen and glucose consumption, and the evolution of ethanol, glycerol, acetate, pyruvate and succinate levels during the course of 28 days of chronological aging, aiming to identify metabolic changes responsible for the effects of CR. The concomitant and quantitative measurements allowed for calculations of conversion factors between different pairs of substrates and products, maximum specific substrate consumption and product formation rates and maximum specific growth rates. Interestingly, we found that the limitation of glucose availability in CR S. cerevisiae cultures hysteretically increases oxygen consumption rates many hours after the complete exhaustion of glucose from the media. Surprisingly, glucose-to-ethanol conversion and cellular growth supported by glucose were not quantitatively altered by CR. Instead, we found that CR primed the cells for earlier, faster and more efficient metabolism of respiratory substrates, especially ethanol. Since lifespan-enhancing effects of CR are absent in respiratory incompetent ρ(0 cells, we propose that the hysteretic effect of glucose limitation on oxidative metabolism is central toward chronological lifespan extension by CR in this yeast.

  20. Metabolic pathways regulated by TAp73 in response to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Massimiliano; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; Melino, Gerry; Rufini, Alessandro

    2016-05-24

    Reactive oxygen species are involved in both physiological and pathological processes including neurodegeneration and cancer. Therefore, cells have developed scavenging mechanisms to maintain redox homeostasis under control. Tumor suppressor genes play a critical role in the regulation of antioxidant genes. Here, we investigated whether the tumor suppressor gene TAp73 is involved in the regulation of metabolic adaptations triggered in response to oxidative stress. H2O2 treatment resulted in numerous biochemical changes in both control and TAp73 knockout (TAp73-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts, however the extent of these changes was more pronounced in TAp73-/- cells when compared to control cells. In particular, loss of TAp73 led to alterations in glucose, nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. In addition, H2O2 treatment resulted in increased pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) activity in null mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Overall, our results suggest that in the absence of TAp73, H2O2 treatment results in an enhanced oxidative environment, and at the same time in an increased pro-anabolic phenotype. In conclusion, the metabolic profile observed reinforces the role of TAp73 as tumor suppressor and indicates that TAp73 exerts this function, at least partially, by regulation of cellular metabolism.

  1. Exploring methane-oxidizing communities for the co-metabolic degradation of organic micropollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Jessica; De Smet, Delfien; Ho, Adrian; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Heylen, Kim; Boon, Nico

    2015-04-01

    Methane-oxidizing cultures from five different inocula were enriched to be used for co-metabolic degradation of micropollutants. In a first screening, 18 different compounds were tested for degradation with the cultures as well as with four pure methane-oxidizing bacterial (MOB) strains. The tested compounds included pharmaceuticals, chemical additives, pesticides, and their degradation products. All enriched cultures were successful in the degradation of at least four different pollutants, but the compounds degraded most often were sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and benzotriazole (BTZ). Addition of acetylene, a specific methane monooxygenase (MMO) inhibitor, revealed that SMX and BTZ were mainly degraded co-metabolically by the present MOB. The pure MOB cultures exhibited less degradation potential, while SMX and BTZ were also degraded by three of the four tested pure strains. For MOB, copper (Cu(2+)) concentration is often an important factor, as several species have the ability to express a soluble MMO (sMMO) if the Cu(2+) concentration is low. In literature, this enzyme is often described to have a broader compound range for co-metabolic degradation of pollutants, in particular when it comes to aromatic structures. However, this study indicated that co-metabolic degradation of the aromatic compounds SMX and BTZ was possible at high Cu(2+) concentration, most probably catalyzed by pMMO.

  2. Comparison between BMI and Inverted BMI in Evaluating Metabolic Risk and Body Composition in Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Saki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare BMI and inverted BMI in evaluating body measurement, resting blood pressure, Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA parameters of fat mass and metabolic risk factors in Iranian children Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study on 477 children aged 9-18 yearsin the South of Iran. Weight, height, resting blood pressure, waist and hip circumference and pubertal stage of all participants was measured with standard methods. DEXA was used to determine body composition index. Blood samples were checked for serum lipid profiles and fasting blood sugar (FBS. Metabolic risk score (MRS was calculated by the summation of the Z-scores for TC, TG/HDL, LDL, systolic blood pressure, and waist circumference minus HDL Z-score. Results: BMI did not have a normal distribution in our participants but iBMI had a normal distribution. IBMI had more significant correlation with waist to hip ratio and systolic blood pressure (r2=0.053 and r2=0.182 than BMI (r2=0.041 and r2=0.101. MRS had a positive correlation with BMI (P

  3. Caloric restriction increases ketone bodies metabolism and preserves blood flow in aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiaoli; Watts, Lora

    2015-07-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase the life span and health span of a broad range of species. However, CR effects on in vivo brain functions are far from explored. In this study, we used multimetric neuroimaging methods to characterize the CR-induced changes of brain metabolic and vascular functions in aging rats. We found that old rats (24 months of age) with CR diet had reduced glucose uptake and lactate concentration, but increased ketone bodies level, compared with the age-matched and young (5 months of age) controls. The shifted metabolism was associated with preserved vascular function: old CR rats also had maintained cerebral blood flow relative to the age-matched controls. When investigating the metabolites in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, we found that citrate and α-ketoglutarate were preserved in the old CR rats. We suggest that CR is neuroprotective; ketone bodies, cerebral blood flow, and α-ketoglutarate may play important roles in preserving brain physiology in aging. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydroxylated bisabolol oxides: evidence for secondary oxidative metabolism in Matricaria chamomilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) is one of the most popular medicinal plants used in Western medicine. Among the various phytochemicals present in essential oils of German chamomile, bisabolol and its oxidative metabolites are considered as marker compounds for distinguishing different chem...

  5. Effects of season, temperature, and body mass on the standard metabolic rate of tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Luís F; Brito, Simone P; Milsom, William K; Abe, Augusto S; Andrade, Denis V

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This study examined how the standard metabolic rate of tegu lizards, a species that undergoes large ontogenetic changes in body weight with associated changes in life-history traits, is affected by changes in body mass, body temperature, season, and life-history traits. We measured rates of oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) in 90 individuals ranging in body mass from 10.4 g to 3.75 kg at three experimental temperatures (17 degrees , 25 degrees , and 30 degrees C) over the four seasons. We found that standard metabolic rate scaled to the power of 0.84 of body mass at all experimental temperatures in all seasons and that thermal sensitivity of metabolism was relatively low (Q(10) approximately 2.0-2.5) over the range from 17 degrees to 30 degrees C regardless of body size or season. Metabolic rates did vary seasonally, being higher in spring and summer than in autumn and winter at the same temperatures, and this was true regardless of animal size. Finally, in this study, the changes in life-history traits that occurred ontogenetically were not accompanied by significant changes in metabolic rate.

  6. PPAR-α agonism improves whole body and muscle mitochondrial fat oxidation, but does not alter intracellular fat concentrations in burn trauma children in a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohm G Lynis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin resistance is often associated with increased levels of intracellular triglycerides, diacylglycerol and decreased fat β-oxidation. It was unknown if this relationship was present in patients with acute insulin resistance induced by trauma. Methods A double blind placebo controlled trial was conducted in 18 children with severe burn injury. Metabolic studies to assess whole body palmitate oxidation and insulin sensitivity, muscle biopsies for mitochondrial palmitate oxidation, diacylglycerol, fatty acyl Co-A and fatty acyl carnitine concentrations, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy for muscle and liver triglycerides were compared before and after two weeks of placebo or PPAR-α agonist treatment. Results Insulin sensitivity and basal whole body palmitate oxidation as measured with an isotope tracer increased significantly (P = 0.003 and P = 0.004, respectively after PPAR-α agonist treatment compared to placebo. Mitochondrial palmitate oxidation rates in muscle samples increased significantly after PPAR-α treatment (P = 0.002. However, the concentrations of muscle triglyceride, diacylglycerol, fatty acyl CoA, fatty acyl carnitine, and liver triglycerides did not change with either treatment. PKC-θ activation during hyper-insulinemia decreased significantly following PPAR-α treatment. Conclusion PPAR-α agonist treatment increases palmitate oxidation and decreases PKC activity along with reduced insulin sensitivity in acute trauma, However, a direct link between these responses cannot be attributed to alterations in intracellular lipid concentrations.

  7. PPAR-alpha agonism improves whole body and muscle mitochondrial fat oxidation, but does not alter intracellular fat concentrations in burn trauma children in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cree, Melanie G; Newcomer, Bradley R; Herndon, David N; Qian, Ting; Sun, Dayoung; Morio, Beatrice; Zwetsloot, Jennifer J; Dohm, G Lynis; Fram, Ricki Y; Mlcak, Ronald P; Aarsland, Asle; Wolfe, Robert R

    2007-04-23

    Insulin resistance is often associated with increased levels of intracellular triglycerides, diacylglycerol and decreased fat beta-oxidation. It was unknown if this relationship was present in patients with acute insulin resistance induced by trauma. A double blind placebo controlled trial was conducted in 18 children with severe burn injury. Metabolic studies to assess whole body palmitate oxidation and insulin sensitivity, muscle biopsies for mitochondrial palmitate oxidation, diacylglycerol, fatty acyl Co-A and fatty acyl carnitine concentrations, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy for muscle and liver triglycerides were compared before and after two weeks of placebo or PPAR-alpha agonist treatment. Insulin sensitivity and basal whole body palmitate oxidation as measured with an isotope tracer increased significantly (P = 0.003 and P = 0.004, respectively) after PPAR-alpha agonist treatment compared to placebo. Mitochondrial palmitate oxidation rates in muscle samples increased significantly after PPAR-alpha treatment (P = 0.002). However, the concentrations of muscle triglyceride, diacylglycerol, fatty acyl CoA, fatty acyl carnitine, and liver triglycerides did not change with either treatment. PKC-theta activation during hyper-insulinemia decreased significantly following PPAR-alpha treatment. PPAR-alpha agonist treatment increases palmitate oxidation and decreases PKC activity along with reduced insulin sensitivity in acute trauma, However, a direct link between these responses cannot be attributed to alterations in intracellular lipid concentrations.

  8. An Abnormal Nitric Oxide Metabolism Contributes to Brain Oxidative Stress in the Mouse Model for the Fragile X Syndrome, a Possible Role in Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lima-Cabello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fragile X syndrome is the most common genetic cause of mental disability. Although many research has been performed, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis is unclear and needs further investigation. Oxidative stress played major roles in the syndrome. The aim was to investigate the nitric oxide metabolism, protein nitration level, the expression of NOS isoforms, and furthermore the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 subunit in different brain areas on the fragile X mouse model. Methods. This study involved adult male Fmr1-knockout and wild-type mice as controls. We detected nitric oxide metabolism and the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κBp65 subunit, comparing the mRNA expression and protein content of the three NOS isoforms in different brain areas. Results. Fmr1-KO mice showed an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism and increased levels of protein tyrosine nitrosylation. Besides that, nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly increased in the Fmr1-knockout mice. mRNA and protein levels of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly decreased in the knockout mice. However, the epithelial nitric oxide synthase isoform displayed no significant changes. Conclusions. These data suggest the potential involvement of an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism in the pathogenesis of the fragile X syndrome.

  9. An Abnormal Nitric Oxide Metabolism Contributes to Brain Oxidative Stress in the Mouse Model for the Fragile X Syndrome, a Possible Role in Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Cabello, Elena; Garcia-Guirado, Francisco; Calvo-Medina, Rocio; el Bekay, Rajaa; Perez-Costillas, Lucia; Quintero-Navarro, Carolina; Sanchez-Salido, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fragile X syndrome is the most common genetic cause of mental disability. Although many research has been performed, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis is unclear and needs further investigation. Oxidative stress played major roles in the syndrome. The aim was to investigate the nitric oxide metabolism, protein nitration level, the expression of NOS isoforms, and furthermore the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 subunit in different brain areas on the fragile X mouse model. Methods. This study involved adult male Fmr1-knockout and wild-type mice as controls. We detected nitric oxide metabolism and the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κBp65 subunit, comparing the mRNA expression and protein content of the three NOS isoforms in different brain areas. Results. Fmr1-KO mice showed an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism and increased levels of protein tyrosine nitrosylation. Besides that, nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly increased in the Fmr1-knockout mice. mRNA and protein levels of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly decreased in the knockout mice. However, the epithelial nitric oxide synthase isoform displayed no significant changes. Conclusions. These data suggest the potential involvement of an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism in the pathogenesis of the fragile X syndrome. PMID:26788253

  10. An Abnormal Nitric Oxide Metabolism Contributes to Brain Oxidative Stress in the Mouse Model for the Fragile X Syndrome, a Possible Role in Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Cabello, Elena; Garcia-Guirado, Francisco; Calvo-Medina, Rocio; el Bekay, Rajaa; Perez-Costillas, Lucia; Quintero-Navarro, Carolina; Sanchez-Salido, Lourdes; de Diego-Otero, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common genetic cause of mental disability. Although many research has been performed, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis is unclear and needs further investigation. Oxidative stress played major roles in the syndrome. The aim was to investigate the nitric oxide metabolism, protein nitration level, the expression of NOS isoforms, and furthermore the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 subunit in different brain areas on the fragile X mouse model. This study involved adult male Fmr1-knockout and wild-type mice as controls. We detected nitric oxide metabolism and the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κBp65 subunit, comparing the mRNA expression and protein content of the three NOS isoforms in different brain areas. Fmr1-KO mice showed an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism and increased levels of protein tyrosine nitrosylation. Besides that, nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly increased in the Fmr1-knockout mice. mRNA and protein levels of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly decreased in the knockout mice. However, the epithelial nitric oxide synthase isoform displayed no significant changes. These data suggest the potential involvement of an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism in the pathogenesis of the fragile X syndrome.

  11. The effect of body weight changes and endurance training on 24h substrate oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Saris, W.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of body weight changes and endurance training on 24h substrate oxidation. Pasman WJ, Westerterp MS, Saris WH. Maastricht University, Department of Human Biology, The Netherlands. Pasman@voeding.tno.nl OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of exercise training and dietary macronutrient

  12. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J

    2013-01-01

    biking at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps muscle were obtained before and immediately after the exercise bout. Postmenopausal women had 33% [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 12-55] lower whole body fat oxidation (P = 0.005) and 19% (CI...

  13. Similar metabolic response to lower- versus upper-body interval exercise or endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Monique E; Graham, Matthew J; Parr, Evelyn B; Rehrer, Nancy J; Lucas, Samuel J E; Stavrianeas, Stasinos; Cotter, James D

    2017-03-01

    To compare energy use and substrate partitioning arising from repeated lower- versus upper-body sprints, or endurance exercise, across a 24-h period. Twelve untrained males (24±4 y) completed three trials in randomized order: (1) repeated sprints (five 30-s Wingate, 4.5-min recovery) on a cycle ergometer (SIT Legs ); (2) 50-min continuous cycling at 65% V̇O 2 max (END); (3) repeated sprints on an arm-crank ergometer (SIT Arms ). Respiratory gas exchange was assessed before and during exercise, and at eight points across 22h of recovery. Metabolic rate was elevated to greater extent in the first 8h after SIT Legs than SIT Arms (by 0.8±1.1kJ/min, p=0.03), and tended to be greater than END (by 0.7±1.3kJ/min, p=0.08). Total 24-h energy use (exercise+recovery) was equivalent between SIT Legs and END (p = 0.55), and SIT Legs and SIT Arms (p=0.13), but 24-h fat use was higher with SIT Legs than END (by 26±38g, p=0.04) and SIT Arms (by 27±43g, p=0.05), whereas carbohydrate use was higher with SIT Arms than SIT Legs (by 32±51g, p=0.05). Plasma volume-corrected post-exercise and fasting glucose and lipid concentrations were unchanged. Despite much lower energy use during five sprints than 50-min continuous exercise, 24-h energy use was not reliably different. However, (i) fat metabolism was greater after sprints, and (ii) carbohydrate metabolism was greater in the hours after sprints with arms than legs, while 24-h energy usage was comparable. Thus, sprints using arms or legs may be an important adjunct exercise mode for metabolic health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of oral cinnamon intervention on metabolic profile and body composition of Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome: a randomized double -blind control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta Jain, Sonal; Puri, Seema; Misra, Anoop; Gulati, Seema; Mani, Kalaivani

    2017-06-12

    Nutritional modulation remains central to the management of metabolic syndrome. Intervention with cinnamon in individuals with metabolic syndrome remains sparsely researched. We investigated the effect of oral cinnamon consumption on body composition and metabolic parameters of Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome. In this 16-week double blind randomized control trial, 116 individuals with metabolic syndrome were randomized to two dietary intervention groups, cinnamon [6 capsules (3 g) daily] or wheat flour [6 capsules (2.5 g) daily]. Body composition, blood pressure and metabolic parameters were assessed. Significantly greater decrease [difference between means, (95% CI)] in fasting blood glucose (mmol/L) [0.3 (0.2, 0.5) p = 0.001], glycosylated haemoglobin (mmol/mol) [2.6 (0.4, 4.9) p = 0.023], waist circumference (cm) [4.8 (1.9, 7.7) p = 0.002] and body mass index (kg/m2 ) [1.3 (0.9, 1.5) p = 0.001] was observed in the cinnamon group compared to placebo group. Other parameters which showed significantly greater improvement were: waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Prevalence of defined metabolic syndrome was significantly reduced in the intervention group (34.5%) vs. the placebo group (5.2%). A single supplement intervention with 3 g cinnamon for 16 weeks resulted in significant improvements in all components of metabolic syndrome in a sample of Asian Indians in north India. The clinical trial was retrospectively registered (after the recruitment of the participants) in ClinicalTrial.gov under the identification number: NCT02455778 on 25th May 2015.

  15. Effect of increasing maternal body mass index on oxidative and nitrative stress in the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, V H J; Smith, J; McLea, S A; Heizer, A B; Richardson, J L; Myatt, L

    2009-02-01

    Maternal obesity is an increasing problem in obstetrics associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and delivery complications. As an inflammatory state, where elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are found, obesity can lead to the increased incidence of oxidative and nitrative stress. These stresses may result in protein oxidation and protein nitration respectively, which are post- translational covalent modifications that can modify the structure and subsequently alter the function of a protein. The objective of this study was to examine whether placental oxidative and nitrative stress increase with increasing maternal body mass index. Placental tissue was collected from three groups of patients categorized as lean, overweight and obese. The presence of nitrotyrosine residues, a marker of nitrative stress, and antioxidant enzymes, as markers of oxidative stress, were assessed by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and ELISA. Protein carbonyl formation, a specific measure of protein oxidation, was measured by OxyBlot kit. Nitrotyrosine residues were increased in obese compared to lean and overweight groups although localization was unaltered across the three groups. Superoxide dismutase enzyme expression, localization and activity was unaltered between the groups. Protein carbonyl formation was greater in the lean compared to the overweight individuals. This study demonstrates that with increasing maternal body mass index there is an increase in placental nitrative stress. There does not appear to be a corresponding increase in oxidative stress and indeed we demonstrate some evidence of a decrease in oxidative effects in these placenta samples. Potentially the formation of peroxynitrite may be consuming reactive oxygen species and reducing oxidative stress. There may be a shift in the balance between nitrative and oxidative stress, which may be a protective mechanism for the placenta.

  16. Chemical oxidation and metabolism of N-methyl-N-formylhydrazine. Evidence for diazenium and radical intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannett, P M; Garrett, C; Lawson, T; Toth, B

    1991-01-01

    N-Methyl N-formlhydrazine (1), a component of the mushroom Gyromitra esculenta, is a carcinogen. Its mode of action, however, is poorly understood. To determine the intermediates that may form during the metabolism of 1, we examined its oxidative chemistry, identified the products and inferred the intermediates on the basis of these products. The incubation of 1 with rat liver microsomes was also studied and the metabolites determined and quantified. Both the chemical and the microsome-mediated oxidation of 1 yielded formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The formation of acetaldehyde requires (i) the oxidation of 1 to a diazenium ion (I) or diazene (II) and (ii) fragmentation of I/II to formyl and methyl radicals. It is suggested that these radical intermediates may be important in understanding and elucidating carcinogenesis by 1.

  17. Expanded metabolic versatility of ubiquitous nitrite-oxidizing bacteria from the genus Nitrospira

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Hanna; Lücker, Sebastian; Albertsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    , with or without concomitant nitrite oxidation, using oxygen, nitrate, or both compounds as terminal electron acceptors. Compared with Nitrospira defluvii from lineage I, N. moscoviensis shares the Nitrospira core metabolism but shows substantial genomic dissimilarity including genes for adaptations to elevated......Nitrospira are a diverse group of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and among the environmentally most widespread nitrifiers. However, they remain scarcely studied and mostly uncultured. Based on genomic and experimental data from Nitrospira moscoviensis representing the ubiquitous Nitrospira lineage II......, we identified ecophysiological traits that contribute to the ecological success of Nitrospira. Unexpectedly, N. moscoviensis possesses genes coding for a urease and cleaves urea to ammonia and CO2. Ureolysis was not observed yet in nitrite oxidizers and enables N. moscoviensis to supply ammonia...

  18. Beneficial Effects of the RESMENA Dietary Pattern on Oxidative Stress in Patients Suffering from Metabolic Syndrome with Hyperglycemia Are Associated to Dietary TAC and Fruit Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alfredo Martinez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia and oxidative stress are conditions directly related to the metabolic syndrome (MetS, whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a new weight-loss dietary pattern on improving the oxidative stress status on patients suffering MetS with hyperglycemia. Seventy-nine volunteers were randomly assigned to two low-calorie diets (−30% Energy: the control diet based on the American Health Association criteria and the RESMENA diet based on a different macronutrient distribution (30% proteins, 30% lipids, 40% carbohydrates, which was characterized by an increase of the meal frequency (seven-times/day, low glycemic load, high antioxidant capacity (TAC and high n-3 fatty acids content. Dietary records, anthropometrical measurements, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed before and after the six-month-long study. The RESMENA (Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra diet specifically reduced the android fat mass and demonstrated more effectiveness on improving general oxidative stress through a greater decrease of oxidized LDL (oxLDL values and protection against arylesterase depletion. Interestingly, oxLDL values were associated with dietary TAC and fruit consumption and with changes on body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, fat mass and triacilglyceride (TG levels. In conclusion, the antioxidant properties of the RESMENA diet provide further benefits to those attributable to weight loss on patients suffering Mets with hyperglycemia.

  19. Topographical body fat distribution links to amino acid and lipid metabolism in healthy obese women [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Pierre J Martin

    Full Text Available Visceral adiposity is increasingly recognized as a key condition for the development of obesity related disorders, with the ratio between visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT reported as the best correlate of cardiometabolic risk. In this study, using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 y, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2 under healthy clinical conditions and monitored over a 2 weeks period we examined the relationships between different body composition parameters, estimates of visceral adiposity and blood/urine metabolic profiles. Metabonomics and lipidomics analysis of blood plasma and urine were employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of body composition and abdominal fat distribution using iDXA and computerized tomography. Of the various visceral fat estimates, VAT/SAT and VAT/total abdominal fat ratios exhibited significant associations with regio-specific body lean and fat composition. The integration of these visceral fat estimates with metabolic profiles of blood and urine described a distinct amino acid, diacyl and ether phospholipid phenotype in women with higher visceral fat. Metabolites important in predicting visceral fat adiposity as assessed by Random forest analysis highlighted 7 most robust markers, including tyrosine, glutamine, PC-O 44∶6, PC-O 44∶4, PC-O 42∶4, PC-O 40∶4, and PC-O 40∶3 lipid species. Unexpectedly, the visceral fat associated inflammatory profiles were shown to be highly influenced by inter-days and between-subject variations. Nevertheless, the visceral fat associated amino acid and lipid signature is proposed to be further validated for future patient stratification and cardiometabolic health diagnostics.

  20. Type 2 Diabetes and Breast Cancer: The Interplay between Impaired Glucose Metabolism and Oxidant Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Ferroni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders, especially type 2 diabetes and its associated complications, represent a growing public health problem. Epidemiological findings indicate a close relationship between diabetes and many types of cancer (including breast cancer risk, which regards not only the dysmetabolic condition, but also its underlying risk factors and therapeutic interventions. This review discusses the advances in understanding of the mechanisms linking metabolic disorders and breast cancer. Among the proposed mechanisms to explain such an association, a major role is played by the dysregulated glucose metabolism, which concurs with a chronic proinflammatory condition and an associated oxidative stress to promote tumour initiation and progression. As regards the altered glucose metabolism, hyperinsulinaemia, both endogenous due to insulin-resistance and drug-induced, appears to promote tumour cell growth through the involvement of innate immune activation, platelet activation, increased reactive oxygen species, exposure to protumorigenic and proangiogenic cytokines, and increased substrate availability to neoplastic cells. In this context, understanding the relationship between metabolic disorders and cancer is becoming imperative, and an accurate analysis of these associations could be used to identify biomarkers able to predict disease risk and/or prognosis and to help in the choice of proper evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic protocols.

  1. Role of glucose and ketone bodies in the metabolic control of experimental brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, T N; Sanderson, T M; El-Abbadi, M M; McGowan, R; Mukherjee, P

    2003-10-06

    Brain tumours lack metabolic versatility and are dependent largely on glucose for energy. This contrasts with normal brain tissue that can derive energy from both glucose and ketone bodies. We examined for the first time the potential efficacy of dietary therapies that reduce plasma glucose and elevate ketone bodies in the CT-2A syngeneic malignant mouse astrocytoma. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a standard diet unrestricted (SD-UR), a ketogenic diet unrestricted (KD-UR), the SD restricted to 40% (SD-R), or the KD restricted to 40% of the control standard diet (KD-R). Body weights, tumour weights, plasma glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured 13 days after tumour implantation. CT-2A growth was rapid in both the SD-UR and KD-UR groups, but was significantly reduced in both the SD-R and KD-R groups by about 80%. The results indicate that plasma glucose predicts CT-2A growth and that growth is dependent more on the amount than on the origin of dietary calories. Also, restriction of either diet significantly reduced the plasma levels of IGF-1, a biomarker for angiogenesis and tumour progression. Owing to a dependence on plasma glucose, IGF-1 was also predictive of CT-2A growth. Ketone bodies are proposed to reduce stromal inflammatory activities, while providing normal brain cells with a nonglycolytic high-energy substrate. Our results in a mouse astrocytoma suggest that malignant brain tumours are potentially manageable with dietary therapies that reduce glucose and elevate ketone bodies.

  2. Role of ring oxidation in the metabolic activation of 1-nitropyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, F A

    1991-12-01

    Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are wide-spread environmental pollutants that have been detected in photocopier toners, airborne particulates, coal fly ash, and diesel engine exhaust emissions. 1-Nitropyrene, a representative nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon present in diesel particulates, is a mutagen in Salmonella typhimurium and a tumorigen in laboratory animals. The activation of 1-nitropyrene to a bacterial mutagen has been attributed to nitroreduction; however, the metabolic pathways involved in its metabolism to a tumorigen are not known, but may involve nitroreduction, ring oxidation, or a combination of the two. In these experiments, we examined the importance of ring oxidation in the activation of 1-nitropyrene (99.85 to 99.98 percent 1-nitropyrene, 0.15 to 0.02 percent 1,3-, 1,6-, and 1,8-dinitropyrene by mass spectral analyses) to a mammalian-cell mutagen and carcinogen. Chinese hamster ovary cells were used to assess the mutagenicity of ring-oxidized 1-nitropyrene metabolites. In the absence of a rat liver 9,000 x g supernatant, 6-hydroxy-1-nitropyrene, 1-nitropyrene-9,10-oxide, and pyrene-4,5-oxide were the most mutagenic compounds tested. 3-Hydroxy-1-nitropyrene, 8-hydroxy-1-nitropyrene, and 1-nitropyrene-4,5-oxide were weaker mutagens, whereas pyrene and 1-nitropyrene were essentially nonmutagenic. The order of mutagenic potency with S9 was: 1-nitropyrene-4,5-oxide greater than 6-hydroxy-1-nitropyrene approximately 1-nitropyrene-9,10-oxide greater than 1-nitropyrene approximately 3-hydroxy-1-nitropyrene approximately 8-hydroxy-1-nitropyrene greater than pyrene approximately pyrene-4,5-oxide, with the last two compounds being nearly nonmutagenic. The epoxide hydrase inhibitor 1,2-epoxy-3,3,3-trichloropropane increased the mutation frequency fivefold. In addition, guinea pig liver microsomes and Aroclor-induced rat liver microsomes, which increased the formation of 1-nitropyrene-4,5-oxide and 1-nitropyrene-9,10-oxide, increased the

  3. Evaluation of electrical broad bandwidth impedance spectroscopy as a tool for body composition measurement in cows in comparison with body measurements and the deuterium oxide dilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäff, C T; Pliquett, U; Tuchscherer, A; Pfuhl, R; Görs, S; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M; Kröger-Koch, C

    2017-05-01

    Body fatness and degree of body fat mobilization in cows vary enormously during their reproduction cycle and influence energy partitioning and metabolic adaptation. The objective of the study was to test bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) as a method for predicting fat depot mass (FDM), in living cows. The FDM is defined as the sum of subcutaneous, omental, mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and carcass fat mass. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is compared with the prediction of FDM from the deuterium oxide (DO) dilution method and from body conformation measurements. Charolais × Holstein Friesian (HF; = 18; 30 d in milk) crossbred cows and 2 HF (lactating and nonlactating) cows were assessed by body conformation measurements, BIS, and the DO dilution method. The BCS of cows was a mean of 3.68 (SE 0.64). For the DO dilution method, a bolus of 0.23 g/kg BW DO (60 atom%) was intravenously injected and deuterium (D) enrichment was analyzed in plasma and whey by stabile isotope mass spectrometry, and total body water content was calculated. Impedance measurement was performed using a 4-electrode interface and time domain-based measurement system consisting of a voltage/current converter for applying current stimulus and an amplifier for monitoring voltage across the sensor electrodes. For the BIS, we used complex impedances over three frequency decades that delivers information on intra- and extracellular water and capacity of cell membranes. Impedance data (resistance of extra- and intracellular space, cell membrane capacity, and phase angle) were extracted 1) by simple curve fit to extract the resistance at direct current and high frequency and 2) by using an electrical equivalent circuit. Cows were slaughtered 7 d after BIS and D enrichment measurements and dissected for the measurement of FDM. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to predict FDM based on data obtained from body conformation measurements, BIS, and D enrichment, and applied

  4. Body mass, Thermogenesis and energy metabolism in Tupaia belangeri during cold acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-long Zhu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the relationship between energy strategies and environmental temperature, basal metabolic rate (BMR, nonshivering thermogenesis (NST, the total protein contents, mitochondrial protein contents, state and state respiratory ability, cytochrome C oxidase activity Ⅲ Ⅳ of liver, heart, diaphragm, gastrocnemius and brown adipose tissue (BAT, serum leptin level and serum thyroid hormone levels were measured in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri during cold exposure (5±1oC for 1 day, 7 days,14days,21 days. The results showed that body mass increased, BMR and NST increased, the change of liver mitochondrial protein content was more acutely than total protein. The mitochondrial protein content of heart and BAT were significantly increased during cold-exposed, however the skeletal muscle more moderate reaction. The state Ⅲ and state Ⅳ mitochondrial respiration of these tissues were enhanced significantly than the control. The cytochrome C oxidase activity with cold acclimation also significantly increased except the gastrocnemius. Liver, muscle, BAT, heart and other organs were concerned with thermoregulation during the thermal regulation process above cold-exposed. There is a negative correlation between leptin level and body mass. These results suggested that T. belangeri enhanced thermogenic capacity during cold acclimation, and leptin participated in the regulation of energy balance and body weight in T. belangeri.

  5. Metabolism via arginase or nitric oxide synthase: two competing arginine pathways in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera eRath

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages play a major role in the immune system, both as antimicrobial effector cells and as immunoregulatory cells, which induce, suppress or modulate adaptive immune responses. These key aspects of macrophage biology are fundamentally driven by the phenotype of macrophage arginine metabolism that is prevalent in an evolving or ongoing immune response. M1 macrophages express the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS, which metabolizes arginine to nitric oxide (NO and citrulline. NO can be metabolized to further downstream reactive nitrogen species, while citrulline might be reused for efficient NO synthesis via the citrulline-NO cycle. M2 macrophages are characterized by expression of the enzyme arginase, which hydrolyzes arginine to ornithine and urea. The arginase pathway limits arginine availability for NO synthesis and ornithine itself can further feed into the important downstream pathways of polyamine and proline syntheses, which are important for cellular proliferation and tissue repair. M1 versus M2 polarization leads to opposing outcomes of inflammatory reactions, but depending on the context, M1 and M2 macrophages can be both pro- and antiinflammatory. Notably, M1/M2 macrophage polarization can be driven by microbial infection or innate danger signals without any influence of adaptive immune cells, secondarily driving the T helper (Th1/Th2 polarization of the evolving adaptive immune response. Since both arginine metabolic pathways cross-inhibit each other on the level of the respective arginine break-down products and Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes can drive or amplify macrophage M1/M2 dichotomy via cytokine activation, this forms the basis of a self-sustaining M1/M2 polarization of the whole immune response. Understanding the arginine metabolism of M1/M2 macrophage phenotypes is therefore central to find new possibilities to manipulate immune responses in infection, autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammatory conditions and cancer.

  6. Weight loss is associated with improved endothelial dysfunction via NOX2-generated oxidative stress down-regulation in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelico, Francesco; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Augelletti, Teresa; Carnevale, Roberto; Pacella, Antonio; Albanese, Fabiana; Mancini, Ilaria; Di Santo, Serena; Del Ben, Maria; Violi, Francesco

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether adherence to a restricted-calorie, Mediterranean-type diet improves endothelial dysfunction and markers of oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome. A moderately low-calorie (600 calories/day negative energy balance), low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet (fat, fat and 55% from carbohydrate) was prescribed to 53 outpatients with the metabolic syndrome. Participants were divided into two groups according to body weight loss > or weight (-6.8%), body-mass-index (-4.6%), waist circumference (-4.8%), HOMA-IR (-27.2%), plasma glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, total and LDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, serum NOX2 (the catalytic core of NADPH oxidase) (-22.2%) and urinary8-isoprostanes (-39.0%) and an increase of serum NOx (Nitrite/Nitrate) (+116.8%) and adiponectine (+125.5%) as compared with those in group B (n = 30). A statistically significant increase in brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation was observed in group A (+24.7%; p weight loss is able to improve endothelial dysfunction in patients with the metabolic syndrome. The coexistent decrease of NOX2 activation suggests a role for oxidative stress in eliciting artery dysfunction.

  7. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water in Soccer Players: a Deuterium Oxide Dilution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminice, R; Rosa, F T; Pfrimer, K; Ferrioli, E; Jordao, A A; Freitas, E

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in total body water (TBW) in soccer athletes using a deuterium oxide dilution method and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) formulas after 7 days of creatine supplementation. In a double-blind controlled manner, 13 healthy (under-20) soccer players were divided randomly in 2 supplementation groups: Placebo (Pla, n=6) and creatine supplementation (CR, n=7). Before and after the supplementation period (0.3 g/kg/d during 7 days), TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution and BIA methods. 7 days of creatine supplementation lead to a large increase in TBW (2.3±1.0 L) determined by deuterium oxide dilution, and a small but significant increase in total body weight (1.0±0.4 kg) in Cr group compared to Pla. The Pla group did not experience any significant changes in TBW or body weight. Although 5 of 6 BIA equations were sensitive to determine TBW changes induced by creatine supplementation, the Kushner et al. 16 method presented the best concordance levels when compared to deuterium dilution method. In conclusion, 7-days of creatine supplementation increased TBW determined by deuterium oxide dilution or BIA formulas. BIA can be useful to determine TBW changes promoted by creatine supplementation in soccer athletes, with special concern for formula choice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Narciclasine attenuates diet-induced obesity by promoting oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofi G Julien

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity develops when caloric intake exceeds metabolic needs. Promoting energy expenditure represents an attractive approach in the prevention of this fast-spreading epidemic. Here, we report a novel pharmacological strategy in which a natural compound, narciclasine (ncls, attenuates diet-induced obesity (DIO in mice by promoting energy expenditure. Moreover, ncls promotes fat clearance from peripheral metabolic tissues, improves blood metabolic parameters in DIO mice, and protects these mice from the loss of voluntary physical activity. Further investigation suggested that ncls achieves these beneficial effects by promoting a shift from glycolytic to oxidative muscle fibers in the DIO mice thereby enhancing mitochondrial respiration and fatty acid oxidation (FAO in the skeletal muscle. Moreover, ncls strongly activates AMPK signaling specifically in the skeletal muscle. The beneficial effects of ncls treatment in fat clearance and AMPK activation were faithfully reproduced in vitro in cultured murine and human primary myotubes. Mechanistically, ncls increases cellular cAMP concentration and ADP/ATP ratio, which further lead to the activation of AMPK signaling. Blocking AMPK signaling through a specific inhibitor significantly reduces FAO in myotubes. Finally, ncls also enhances mitochondrial membrane potential and reduces the formation of reactive oxygen species in cultured myotubes.

  9. Narciclasine attenuates diet-induced obesity by promoting oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnakannu, Joanna R.; Ge, Xiaojia; Ma, Wei; Velan, Sendhil S.; Röder, Pia V.; Zhang, Qiongyi; Sim, Choon Kiat; Wu, Jingyi; Garcia-Miralles, Marta; Xie, Wei; McFarlane, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Obesity develops when caloric intake exceeds metabolic needs. Promoting energy expenditure represents an attractive approach in the prevention of this fast-spreading epidemic. Here, we report a novel pharmacological strategy in which a natural compound, narciclasine (ncls), attenuates diet-induced obesity (DIO) in mice by promoting energy expenditure. Moreover, ncls promotes fat clearance from peripheral metabolic tissues, improves blood metabolic parameters in DIO mice, and protects these mice from the loss of voluntary physical activity. Further investigation suggested that ncls achieves these beneficial effects by promoting a shift from glycolytic to oxidative muscle fibers in the DIO mice thereby enhancing mitochondrial respiration and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in the skeletal muscle. Moreover, ncls strongly activates AMPK signaling specifically in the skeletal muscle. The beneficial effects of ncls treatment in fat clearance and AMPK activation were faithfully reproduced in vitro in cultured murine and human primary myotubes. Mechanistically, ncls increases cellular cAMP concentration and ADP/ATP ratio, which further lead to the activation of AMPK signaling. Blocking AMPK signaling through a specific inhibitor significantly reduces FAO in myotubes. Finally, ncls also enhances mitochondrial membrane potential and reduces the formation of reactive oxygen species in cultured myotubes. PMID:28207742

  10. Induction of oxidative metabolism by mitochondrial frataxin inhibits cancer growth: Otto Warburg revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Tim J; Thierbach, René; Voigt, Anja; Drewes, Gunnar; Mietzner, Brun; Steinberg, Pablo; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Ristow, Michael

    2006-01-13

    More than 80 years ago Otto Warburg suggested that cancer might be caused by a decrease in mitochondrial energy metabolism paralleled by an increase in glycolytic flux. In later years, it was shown that cancer cells exhibit multiple alterations in mitochondrial content, structure, function, and activity. We have stably overexpressed the Friedreich ataxia-associated protein frataxin in several colon cancer cell lines. These cells have increased oxidative metabolism, as shown by concurrent increases in aconitase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, cellular respiration, and ATP content. Consistent with Warburg's hypothesis, we found that frataxin-overexpressing cells also have decreased growth rates and increased population doubling times, show inhibited colony formation capacity in soft agar assays, and exhibit a reduced capacity for tumor formation when injected into nude mice. Furthermore, overexpression of frataxin leads to an increased phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, as well as decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Taken together, these results support the view that an increase in oxidative metabolism induced by mitochondrial frataxin may inhibit cancer growth in mammals.

  11. Effects of pistachios on body weight in Chinese subjects with metabolic syndrome

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    Wang Xin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that pistachios can improve blood lipid profiles in subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia which could reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, there is also a widely perceived view that eating nuts can lead to body weight gain due to their high fat content. Purpose To investigate the impact of different dosages of pistachios on body weight, blood pressure, blood lipids, blood glucose and insulin in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Methods Ninety subjects with metabolic syndrome (consistent with 2005 International Diabetes Federation metabolic syndrome standard without diabetes were enrolled in three endocrinology outpatient clinics in Beijing. All subjects received dietary counseling according to the guidelines of the American Heart Association Step I diet. After a 4 week run-in, subjects were randomized to consume either the recommended daily serving of 42 g pistachios (RSG, a higher daily serving of 70 g pistachio (HSG or no pistachios (DCG for 12 weeks. Results Subjects in all three groups were matched at baseline for BMI: DCG 28.03 ± 4.3; RSG 28.12 ± 3.22; and HSG 28.01 ± 4.51 kg/m2. There were no significant changes in body weight or BMI in any groups during the study nor any change from baseline at any time point in any group. During the entire study, there were no significant differences in waist-to-hip ratio among the groups or any change from baseline in any group (DCG -0.00 ± 0.03, RSG -0.01 ± 0.02 and HSG 0.01 ± 0.04. There were no significant differences detected among groups in triglycerides, fasting glucose and 2 hour postprandial glucose following a 75 gram glucose challenge. Exploratory analyses demonstrated that glucose values 2 h after a 75 gm glucose challenge were significantly lower at week 12 compared with baseline values in the HSG group (-1.13 ± 2.58 mmol/L, p = 0.02, and a similar trend was noted in the RSG group (-0.77 ± 2.07 mmol/L, p = 0.06, while no

  12. Oxidative Damage Compromises Energy Metabolism in the Axonal Degeneration Mouse Model of X-Adrenoleukodystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galino, Jorge; Ruiz, Montserrat; Fourcade, Stéphane; Schlüter, Agatha; López-Erauskin, Jone; Guilera, Cristina; Jove, Mariona; Naudi, Alba; García-Arumí, Elena; Andreu, Antoni L.; Starkov, Anatoly A.; Pamplona, Reinald; Ferrer, Isidre; Portero-Otin, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims Chronic metabolic impairment and oxidative stress are associated with the pathogenesis of axonal dysfunction in a growing number of neurodegenerative conditions. To investigate the intertwining of both noxious factors, we have chosen the mouse model of adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), which exhibits axonal degeneration in spinal cords and motor disability. The disease is caused by loss of function of the ABCD1 transporter, involved in the import and degradation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in peroxisomes. Oxidative stress due to VLCFA excess appears early in the neurodegenerative cascade. Results In this study, we demonstrate by redox proteomics that oxidative damage to proteins specifically affects five key enzymes of glycolysis and TCA (Tricarboxylic acid) cycle in spinal cords of Abcd1− mice and pyruvate kinase in human X-ALD fibroblasts. We also show that NADH and ATP levels are significantly diminished in these samples, together with decrease of pyruvate kinase activities and GSH levels, and increase of NADPH. Innovation Treating Abcd1− mice with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and α-lipoic acid (LA) prevents protein oxidation; preserves NADH, NADPH, ATP, and GSH levels; and normalizes pyruvate kinase activity, which implies that oxidative stress provoked by VLCFA results in bioenergetic dysfunction, at a presymptomatic stage. Conclusion Our results provide mechanistic insight into the beneficial effects of antioxidants and enhance the rationale for translation into clinical trials for X-adrenoleukodystrophy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2095–2107. PMID:21453200

  13. Nitrated type III collagen as a biological marker of nitric oxide-mediated synovial tissue metabolism in osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardot, P; Charni-Ben Tabassi, N; Toh, L

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Nitric oxide (NO) is a major mediator of joint tissue inflammation and damage in osteoarthritis (OA) and mediates the nitration of tyrosine (Y*) residues in proteins. We investigated the nitration of type III collagen, a major constituent of synovial membrane, in knee OA. METHODS: A p...... investigation of oxidative-related alterations of synovial tissue metabolism in OA....

  14. Ordovas-Oxidized LDL is associated with metabolic syndrome traits independently of central obesity and insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assesses whether oxidative stress, using oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) as a proxy, is associated with metabolic syndrome (MS), whether ox-LDL mediates the association between central obesity and MS, and whether insulin resistance mediates the association between ox-LDL and MS. We examined baselin...

  15. Maternal fuels and metabolic measures during pregnancy and neonatal body composition: the healthy start study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crume, Tessa L; Shapiro, Allison L; Brinton, John T; Glueck, Deborah H; Martinez, Mercedes; Kohn, Mary; Harrod, Curtis; Friedman, Jacob E; Dabelea, Dana

    2015-04-01

    The impact of specific maternal fuels and metabolic measures during early and late gestation on neonatal body composition is not well defined. To determine how circulating maternal glucose, lipids, and insulin resistance in the first and second halves of pregnancy influence neonatal body composition. A prospective pre-birth cohort enrolling pregnant women, the Healthy Start Study, was conducted, in which fasting maternal serum samples were collected twice during pregnancy to measure glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and free fatty acids. Neonatal body composition was measured with air displacement plethysmography. An observational epidemiology study of pregnant women attending obstetric clinics at the University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Center. This analysis includes 804 maternal-neonate pairs. A strong positive linear relationship between maternal estimated insulin resistance (homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance) in the first half of pregnancy and neonatal fat mass (FM) and FM percentage (FM%) was detected, independent of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). In the second half of pregnancy, positive linear relationships between maternal glucose levels and offspring FM and FM% were observed, independent of prepregnancy BMI. An inverse relationship was detected between high-density lipoprotein in the first half of pregnancy and FM, independent of prepregnancy BMI. Free fatty acid levels in the second half of pregnancy were positively associated with higher birth weight, independent of prepregnancy BMI. Maternal insulin resistance in the first half of pregnancy is highly predictive of neonatal FM%, whereas maternal glycemia, even within the normal range, is an important driver of neonatal adiposity in later pregnancy, independent of prepregnancy BMI. Our data provide additional insights on potential maternal factors responsible for fetal fat accretion and early development of adiposity.

  16. Offspring body size and metabolic profile - effects of lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, Mette; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    2014-01-01

    of normal weight mothers all outcomes were similar. We speculate that obese mothers entering a lifestyle intervention RCT regardless of the intervention have a high motivation to focus on healthy lifestyle during pregnancy, which makes it difficult to determine the effects of the randomized lifestyle....... The obesity epidemic is not simply a consequence of poor diet or sedentary lifestyles. Obesity is a multifactorial condition in which environmental, biological and genetic factors all play essential roles. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DoHaD) hypothesis has highlighted the link between...... disturbances in the offspring. Pregnancy offers the opportunity to modify the intrauterine environment, and maternal lifestyle changes during gestation may confer health benefits to the child. The overall aim with this PhD thesis was to study the effects of maternal obesity on offspring body size and metabolic...

  17. Tumor glucose metabolism imaged in vivo in small animals with whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Xia, Jun; Sohn, Rebecca; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Kun; Xia, Younan; Anastasio, Mark; Arbeit, Jeffrey; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing use of small animals for human disease studies, small-animal whole-body molecular imaging plays an important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose molecular information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image co-registration, the spatial resolution of the molecular imaging modality is not improved. Utilizing a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system, we demonstrate, for the first time, that both anatomy and glucose uptake can be imaged in a single modality. Anatomy was imaged with the endogenous hemoglobin contrast, and glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose.

  18. In vitro metabolic engineering of bioelectricity generation by the complete oxidation of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2017-01-01

    The direct generation of electricity from the most abundant renewable sugar, glucose, is an appealing alternative to the production of liquid biofuels and biohydrogen. However, enzyme-catalyzed bioelectricity generation from glucose suffers from low yields due to the incomplete oxidation of the six-carbon compound glucose via one or few enzymes. Here, we demonstrate a synthetic ATP- and CoA-free 12-enzyme pathway to implement the complete oxidation of glucose in vitro. This pathway is comprised of glucose phosphorylation via polyphosphate glucokinase, NADH generation catalyzed by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), electron transfer from NADH to the anode, and glucose 6-phosphate regeneration via the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and gluconeogenesis. The faraday efficiency from glucose to electrons via this pathway was as high as 98.8%, suggesting the generation of nearly 24 electrons per molecule of glucose. The generated current density was greatly increased from 2.8 to 6.9mAcm -2 by replacing a low-activity G6PDH with a high-activity G6PDH and introducing a new enzyme, 6-phosphogluconolactonase, between G6PDH and 6PGDH. These results suggest the great potential of high-yield bioelectricity generation through in vitro metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Metatranscriptomic and metagenomic description of the bacterial nitrogen metabolism in waste water wet oxidation effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Crovadore

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is a common method for reducing the amount of sludge solids in used waters and enabling biogas production. The wet oxidation process (WOX improves anaerobic digestion by converting carbon into methane through oxidation of organic compounds. WOX produces effluents rich in ammonia, which must be removed to maintain the activity of methanogens. Ammonia removal from WOX could be biologically operated by aerobic granules. To this end, granulation experiments were conducted in 2 bioreactors containing an activated sludge (AS. For the first time, the dynamics of the microbial community structure and the expression levels of 7 enzymes of the nitrogen metabolism in such active microbial communities were followed in regard to time by metagenomics and metatranscriptomics. It was shown that bacterial communities adapt to the wet oxidation effluent by increasing the expression level of the nitrogen metabolism, suggesting that these biological activities could be a less costly alternative for the elimination of ammonia, resulting in a reduction of the use of chemicals and energy consumption in sewage plants. This study reached a strong sequencing depth (from 4.4 to 7.6 Gb and enlightened a yet unknown diversity of the microorganisms involved in the nitrogen pathway. Moreover, this approach revealed the abundance and expression levels of specialised enzymes involved in nitrification, denitrification, ammonification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA and nitrogen fixation processes in AS. Keywords: Applied sciences, Biological sciences, Environmental science, Genetics, Microbiology

  20. Different cerebral metabolic features in dementia with lewy bodies with/without visual hallucination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bom Sahn; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yang, Young Soon; Park, Eun Kyung; Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Sang Yun; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Reduction of glucose metabolism in the occipital cortex is well known in dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). The aim of this study was to evaluate the different nature of FDG PET in DLB patients who had visual hallucination or not. Thirteen patients (729 yrs, m:f=6:7) with DLB participated. DLB patient were classified into two groups according to the presence of visual hallucination; seven DLB patients with visual hallucination and 6 patients without visual hallucination. No differences between patient with and without visual hallucination was found in their cognitive function measured by mini mental status exam (MMSE) and clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale. Age and gender matched 30 healthy subjects (age; 715 yrs, m: f = 13:17) served as controls for comparison purpose. Regional metabolic differences on FDG PET among the groups were tested using SPM. In DLB patients groups regardless of visual hallucination, significant regional hypometabolism were observed in the bilateral occipital cortices as well as bilateral parietotemporal and frontal association cortices when compared with healthy controls, as expected. In DLB patients with visual hallucination compared to patients without hallucination, regional hypometabolism over primary and secondary visual cortex (BA17, BA18) was more significant. Moreover, lower regional metabolism in the paracentral area (BA 6) and cerebellar vermis was also observed in DLB with visual hallucination than without hallucination. Profound hypometabolism in the visual cortex may be a feature in DLB patients with visual hallucination. Also, relative hypometabolism in the paracentral area and cerebellum could be neurobiological characteristics related with abnormal cognitive and motor process response to hallucination

  1. Predicting success of metabolic surgery: age, body mass index, C-peptide, and duration score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Jei; Hur, Kyung Yul; Lakadawala, Muffazal; Kasama, Kazunori; Wong, Simon K H; Chen, Shu-Chun; Lee, Yi-Chih; Ser, Kong-Han

    2013-01-01

    Surgery is the most effective treatment of morbid obesity and leads to dramatic improvements in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Gastrointestinal metabolic surgery has been proposed as a treatment option for T2DM. However, a grading system to categorize and predict the outcome of metabolic surgery is lacking. The study setting was a tertiary referral hospital (Taoyuan City, Taoyuan County, Taiwan). We first evaluated 63 patients and identified 4 factors that predicted the success of T2DM remission after bariatric surgery in this cohort: body mass index, C-peptide level, T2DM duration, and patient age. We used these variables to construct the Diabetes Surgery Score, a multidimensional 10-point scale along which greater scores indicate a better chance of T2DM remission. We then validated the index in a prospective collected cohort of 176 patients, using remission of T2DM at 1 year after surgery as the outcome variable. A total of 48 T2DM remissions occurred among the 63 patients and 115 remissions (65.3%) in the validation cohort. Patients with T2DM remission after surgery had a greater Diabetes Surgery Score than those without (8 ± 4 versus 4 ± 4, P Surgery Score also had a greater rate of success with T2DM remission (from 33% at score 0 to 100% at score 10); A 1-point increase in the Diabetes Surgery Score translated to an absolute 6.7% in the success rate. The Diabetes Surgery Score is a simple multidimensional grading system that can predict the success of T2DM treatment using bariatric surgery among patients with inadequately controlled T2DM. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Different cerebral metabolic features in dementia with lewy bodies with/without visual hallucination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bom Sahn; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yang, Young Soon; Park, Eun Kyung; Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Sang Yun; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Reduction of glucose metabolism in the occipital cortex is well known in dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). The aim of this study was to evaluate the different nature of FDG PET in DLB patients who had visual hallucination or not. Thirteen patients (729 yrs, m:f=6:7) with DLB participated. DLB patient were classified into two groups according to the presence of visual hallucination; seven DLB patients with visual hallucination and 6 patients without visual hallucination. No differences between patient with and without visual hallucination was found in their cognitive function measured by mini mental status exam (MMSE) and clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale. Age and gender matched 30 healthy subjects (age; 715 yrs, m: f = 13:17) served as controls for comparison purpose. Regional metabolic differences on FDG PET among the groups were tested using SPM. In DLB patients groups regardless of visual hallucination, significant regional hypometabolism were observed in the bilateral occipital cortices as well as bilateral parietotemporal and frontal association cortices when compared with healthy controls, as expected. In DLB patients with visual hallucination compared to patients without hallucination, regional hypometabolism over primary and secondary visual cortex (BA17, BA18) was more significant. Moreover, lower regional metabolism in the paracentral area (BA 6) and cerebellar vermis was also observed in DLB with visual hallucination than without hallucination. Profound hypometabolism in the visual cortex may be a feature in DLB patients with visual hallucination. Also, relative hypometabolism in the paracentral area and cerebellum could be neurobiological characteristics related with abnormal cognitive and motor process response to hallucination.

  3. Cerebral ketone body oxidation is facilitated by a high fat diet enriched with advanced glycation end products in normal and diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Martimbianco De Assis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM causes important modifications in the availability and use of different energy substrates in various organs and tissues. Similarly, dietary manipulations such as high fat diets also affect systemic energy metabolism. However, how the brain adapts to these situations remains unclear. To investigate these issues, control and alloxan-induced type I diabetic rats were fed either a standard or a high fat diet enriched with advanced glycation end products (AGEs (HAGE diet. The HAGE diet increased their levels of blood ketone bodies, and this effect was exacerbated by DM induction. To determine the effects of diet and/or DM induction on key cerebral bioenergetic parameters, both ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyric acid and lactate oxidation were measured. In parallel, the expression of Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 (MCT1 and 2 (MCT2 isoforms in hippocampal and cortical slices from rats submitted to these diets was assessed. Ketone body oxidation increased while lactate oxidation decreased in hippocampal and cortical slices in both control and diabetic rats fed a HAGE diet. In parallel, the expression of both MCT1 and MCT2 increased only in the cerebral cortex in diabetic rats fed a HAGE diet. These results suggest that a shift in the preferential cerebral energy substrate utilization in favor of ketone bodies in animals fed a HAGE diet, an effect that, in DM animals, is accompanied by the enhanced expression of the related transporters.

  4. Effects of Reductions of Body Fat and Regional Adipose Tissue on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Among Eldery Japanese

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeto, Kazuhiro; Koyama, Hiroshi; Takemoto, Tai-Ichiro

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate effects of improvement of obesity on glucose and lipid metabolism, changes of body weight, skinfolds and biochemical parameters in glucose and lipid metabolism were examined through a six month health education on excercise and diet. Subjects were 20 men and 36 women aged from 48 to 87, who had overweight and/or glucose intolerance. Weight, relative weight and fat mass were significantly reduced after the program in both sexes. Circumference ratios were reduced only in women. The ...

  5. Impact of Orexin-A Treatment on Food Intake, Energy Metabolism and Body Weight in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Blais

    Full Text Available Orexin-A and -B are hypothalamic neuropeptides of 33 and 28-amino acids, which regulate many homeostatic systems including sleep/wakefulness states, energy balance, energy homeostasis, reward seeking and drug addiction. Orexin-A treatment was also shown to reduce tumor development in xenografted nude mice and is thus a potential treatment for carcinogenesis. The aim of this work was to explore in healthy mice the consequences on energy expenditure components of an orexin-A treatment at a dose previously shown to be efficient to reduce tumor development. Physiological approaches were used to evaluate the effect of orexin-A on food intake pattern, energy metabolism body weight and body adiposity. Modulation of the expression of brain neuropeptides and receptors including NPY, POMC, AgRP, cocaine- and amphetamine related transcript (CART, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH and prepro-orexin (HCRT, and Y2 and Y5 neuropeptide Y, MC4 (melanocortin, OX1 and OX2 orexin receptors (Y2R, Y5R, MC4R, OX1R and OX2R, respectively was also explored. Our results show that orexin-A treatment does not significantly affect the components of energy expenditure, and glucose metabolism but reduces intraperitoneal fat deposit, adiposity and the expression of several brain neuropeptide receptors suggesting that peripheral orexin-A was able to reach the central nervous system. These findings establish that orexin-A treatment which is known for its activity as an inducer of tumor cell death, do have minor parallel consequence on energy homeostasis control.

  6. Impact of Orexin-A Treatment on Food Intake, Energy Metabolism and Body Weight in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Anne; Drouin, Gaëtan; Chaumontet, Catherine; Voisin, Thierry; Couvelard, Anne; Even, Patrick Christian; Couvineau, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Orexin-A and -B are hypothalamic neuropeptides of 33 and 28-amino acids, which regulate many homeostatic systems including sleep/wakefulness states, energy balance, energy homeostasis, reward seeking and drug addiction. Orexin-A treatment was also shown to reduce tumor development in xenografted nude mice and is thus a potential treatment for carcinogenesis. The aim of this work was to explore in healthy mice the consequences on energy expenditure components of an orexin-A treatment at a dose previously shown to be efficient to reduce tumor development. Physiological approaches were used to evaluate the effect of orexin-A on food intake pattern, energy metabolism body weight and body adiposity. Modulation of the expression of brain neuropeptides and receptors including NPY, POMC, AgRP, cocaine- and amphetamine related transcript (CART), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and prepro-orexin (HCRT), and Y2 and Y5 neuropeptide Y, MC4 (melanocortin), OX1 and OX2 orexin receptors (Y2R, Y5R, MC4R, OX1R and OX2R, respectively) was also explored. Our results show that orexin-A treatment does not significantly affect the components of energy expenditure, and glucose metabolism but reduces intraperitoneal fat deposit, adiposity and the expression of several brain neuropeptide receptors suggesting that peripheral orexin-A was able to reach the central nervous system. These findings establish that orexin-A treatment which is known for its activity as an inducer of tumor cell death, do have minor parallel consequence on energy homeostasis control. PMID:28085909

  7. [Relationship between leptin and body mass and metabolic syndrome in an adult population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria do Carmo; Lima Faleiro, Luís; Fonseca, Aidil

    2012-11-01

    To analyze the relationship between leptin and obesity expressed as body mass index (BMI) and certain components of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in an adult population. The study included 103 subjects, 42 men and 61 women, aged over 30 years, clinically defined as non-diabetic but with personal or family history of cardiovascular disease. All subjects underwent fasting blood measurements of leptin, insulin, glucose, glucose after ingestion of 75g glucose, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, and insulin resistance (IR) and BMI were calculated. BMI as an index of overall adiposity was strongly associated with serum leptin. BMI rose as serum leptin levels increased from the first to the third tertile; the correlation between leptin and BMI was strong, r=0.524 in men and r=0.603 in women, with high statistical significance (pcorrelations between leptin and IR, and leptin and insulinemia, were strong in both sexes. With regard to MS components, increased serum levels of the study variables were observed as leptin concentrations rose from the first to the third tertile (with the exception of HDL cholesterol, which decreased). Elevated serum leptin, particularly in obese individuals, should be taken as a warning sign of energy imbalance, poor diet, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, or changes in other metabolic risk factors that are strongly associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in dementia with Lewy bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yoshitomo; Takahashi, Satoshi; Yonezawa, Hisashi [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-06-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), oxygen metabolism (rCMRO{sub 2}) and the oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) were measured using the steady-state {sup 15}O technique and positron emission tomography (PET) in six patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and compared with ten patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and six normal controls. In the AD patients, rCBF and rCMRO{sub 2} were significantly decreased in the frontal, parietal, and temporal cortices compared with controls. In DLB patients, rCBF and rCMRO{sub 2} were decreased in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital cortices compared with controls, and were decreased more diffusely than in AD patients. rCBF and rCMRO{sub 2} were significantly decreased in occipital cortex compared with AD patients. rOEF was significantly increased in the parieto-temporal cortex in AD patients compared with controls. In DLB patients, rOEF was significantly increased not only in the parieto-temporal cortex but also in the occipital and frontal cortices compared with controls, and was significantly increased in the occipital cortex compared with AD patients. The diffuse reduction of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism including the occipital cortex may be related to visual hallucination and other visuospatial deficits frequently seen in DLB patients. The increase in rOEF may be mainly due to the reduction in the vascular bed associated with decreased activity in the vasodilatory cholinergic system. (author)

  9. Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy: A whole-body nuclear MRI and metabolic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laforet, Pascal; Stojkovic, Tanya; Wahbi, Karim; Eymard, Bruno; Bassez, Guillaume; Carlier, Pierre G.; Clement, Karine; Petit, Francois M.; Carlier, Robert-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) is caused by a mutation in the gene encoding adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and is characterized by the presence of numerous triglyceride-containing cytoplasmic droplets in type I muscle fibers. Major clinical manifestations concern the heart and skeletal muscle, and some patients also present diabetes mellitus. We report the clinical, metabolic, and whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance imaging findings of three patients with NLSDM. Muscle MRI study was consistent with previous descriptions, and allowed to show a common pattern of fatty replacement. Muscle changes predominated in the paravertebral muscles, both compartments of legs, and posterior compartment of the thighs. A more variable distribution of muscle involvement was observed on upper limbs, with marked asymmetry in one patient, and alterations predominating on supra and infra spinatus, biceps brachialis and anterior compartment of arms. Cardiac NMR studies revealed anomalies despite normal echocardiography in two patients. Endocrine studies showed low leptin and adiponectine levels, a moderate increase in insulin levels at fasting state, and even greater increase after oral glucose tolerance test in one patient. Two patients had elevated triglycerides and low cholesterol-HDL. Based on these analyses, regular control of cardio-metabolic risks appear mandatory in the clinical follow-up of these subjects. (authors)

  10. Body condition score at calving affects systemic and hepatic transcriptome indicators of inflammation and nutrient metabolism in grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, H; Grala, T M; Vailati Riboni, M; Cardoso, F C; Verkerk, G; McGowan, J; Macdonald, K; Webster, J; Schutz, K; Meier, S; Matthews, L; Roche, J R; Loor, J J

    2015-02-01

    Calving body condition score (BCS) is an important determinant of early-lactation dry matter intake, milk yield, and disease incidence. The current study investigated the metabolic and molecular changes induced by the change in BCS. A group of cows of mixed age and breed were managed from the second half of the previous lactation to achieve mean group BCS (10-point scale) that were high (HBCS, 5.5; n=20), medium (MBCS, 4.5; n=18), or low (LBCS, 3.5; n=19). Blood was sampled at wk -4, -3, -2, 1, 3, 5, and 6 relative to parturition to measure biomarkers of energy balance, inflammation, and liver function. Liver was biopsied on wk 1, 3, and 5 relative to parturition, and 10 cows per BCS group were used for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR. Cows in HBCS and MBCS produced more milk and had greater concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate postpartum than LBCS. Peak concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate and greater hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations were recorded in HBCS at wk 3. Consistent with blood biomarkers, HBCS and MBCS had greater expression of genes associated with fatty acid oxidation (CPT1A, ACOX1), ketogenesis (HMGCS2), and hepatokines (FGF21, ANGPTL4), whereas HBCS had the lowest expression of APOB (lipoprotein transport). Greater expression during early lactation of BBOX1 in MBCS and LBCS suggested greater de novo carnitine synthesis. The greater BCS was associated with lower expression of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling axis genes (GHR1A, IGF1, and IGFALS) and greater expression of gluconeogenic genes. These likely contributed to the higher milk production and greater gluconeogenesis. Despite greater serum haptoglobin around calving, cows in HBCS and MBCS had greater blood albumin. Cows in MBCS, however, had a higher albumin:globulin ratio, probably indicating a less pronounced inflammatory status and better liver function. The marked decrease in expression of NFKB1

  11. Genomic insights into metabolic versatility of a lithotrophic sulfur-oxidizing diazotrophic Alphaproteobacterium Azospirillum thiophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Maria V; Tarlachkov, Sergey V; Dubinina, Galina A; Belousova, Elena V; Tutukina, Maria N; Grabovich, Margarita Y

    2016-12-01

    Diazotrophic Alphaproteobacteria of the genus Azospirillum are usually organotrophs, although some strains of Azospirillum lipoferum are capable of hydrogen-dependent autotrophic growth. Azospirillum thiophilum strain was isolated from a mineral sulfide spring, a biotope highly unusual for azospirilla. Here, the metabolic pathways utilized by A. thiophilum were revealed based on comprehensive analysis of its genomic organization, together with physiological and biochemical approaches. The A. thiophilum genome contained all the genes encoding the enzymes of carbon metabolism via glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle and glyoxylate cycle. Genes for a complete set of enzymes responsible for autotrophic growth, with an active Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle, were also revealed, and activity of the key enzymes was determined. Microaerobic chemolithoautotrophic growth of A. thiophilum was detected in the presence of thiosulfate and molecular hydrogen, being in line with the discovery of the genes encoding the two enzymes involved in dissimilatory thiosulfate oxidation, the Sox-complex and thiosulfate dehydrogenase and Ni-Fe hydrogenases. Azospirillum thiophilum utilizes methanol and formate, producing CO 2 that can further be metabolized via the Calvin cycle. Finally, it is capable of anaerobic respiration, using tetrathionate as a terminal electron acceptor. Such metabolic versatility is of great importance for adaptation of A. thiophilum to constantly changing physicochemical environment. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Metabolic reprogramming during neuronal differentiation from aerobic glycolysis to neuronal oxidative phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinde; Boyer, Leah; Jin, Mingji; Mertens, Jerome; Kim, Yongsung; Ma, Li; Ma, Li; Hamm, Michael; Gage, Fred H; Hunter, Tony

    2016-01-01

    How metabolism is reprogrammed during neuronal differentiation is unknown. We found that the loss of hexokinase (HK2) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDHA) expression, together with a switch in pyruvate kinase gene splicing from PKM2 to PKM1, marks the transition from aerobic glycolysis in neural progenitor cells (NPC) to neuronal oxidative phosphorylation. The protein levels of c-MYC and N-MYC, transcriptional activators of the HK2 and LDHA genes, decrease dramatically. Constitutive expression of HK2 and LDHA during differentiation leads to neuronal cell death, indicating that the shut-off aerobic glycolysis is essential for neuronal survival. The metabolic regulators PGC-1α and ERRγ increase significantly upon neuronal differentiation to sustain the transcription of metabolic and mitochondrial genes, whose levels are unchanged compared to NPCs, revealing distinct transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes in the proliferation and post-mitotic differentiation states. Mitochondrial mass increases proportionally with neuronal mass growth, indicating an unknown mechanism linking mitochondrial biogenesis to cell size. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13374.001 PMID:27282387

  13. Direct measurement of oxidative metabolism in the living brain by microdialysis - Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielke, H. Ronald; Zielke, Carol L.; Baab, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    This review summarizes microdialysis studies that address the question of which compounds serve as energy sources in the brain. Microdialysis was used to introduce 14C-labeled glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, glutamine and acetate into the interstitial fluid of the brain to observe their metabolism to 14CO2. Although glucose uptake from the systemic system supplies the carbon source for these compounds, compounds synthesized from glucose by the brain are subject to recycling, including complete metabolism to CO2. Therefore, the brain utilizes multiple compounds in its domain to provide the energy needed to fulfill its function. The physiological conditions controlling metabolism and the contribution of compartmentation into different brain regions, cell types and subcellular spaces are still unresolved. The aconitase inhibitor fluorocitrate, with a lower inhibition threshold in glial cells, was used to identify the proportion of lactate and glucose that was oxidized in glial cells versus neurons. The fluorocitrate data suggest that glial and neuronal cells are capable of utilizing both lactate and glucose for energy metabolism. PMID:19393005

  14. The effects of equal caloric high fat and western diet on metabolic syndrome, oxidative stress and vascular endothelial function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, I; Rinne, P; Ruohonen, S T; Ruohonen, S; Ahotupa, M; Savontaus, E

    2014-07-01

    Nutrition contributes to increased adiposity, but it remains to be determined whether high fat rather than Western diet exacerbates the development of obesity and other characteristics of metabolic syndrome and vascular function. We studied the effects of high fat (45% kcal) diet (HFD) and equal caloric Western diet (WD) high in fat, sucrose and cholesterol for 8 weeks in male C57B1/6N mice. Mice fed with HFD and WD showed substantially higher body adiposity (body fat %) compared with control mice receiving low fat (10%) diet (LFD). However, total body weight was higher only in HFD mice compared with other groups. The amount of liver triglycerides, cholesterol and oxidative damage was higher in WD mice compared with mice on LFD. There were no significant differences in fasting blood glucose or serum insulin, serum or muscle triglycerides, glucose tolerance or systolic blood pressure between the groups, but serum free fatty acids were increased in HFD mice compared with LFD. Increased levels of tissue and serum diene conjugation as a marker of oxidative stress were evident especially in WD mice. The endothelium-dependent relaxations were significantly impaired in the small mesenteric arteries of HFD mice, but not in the aorta. Maximal relaxations correlated negatively with body adiposity in WD but not in HFD mice. The major finding in the present study is that without changing body weight, Western diet induces marked whole-body oxidative stress and elevates body adiposity, which associates with the endothelial function of resistance arteries. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effects of nitrous oxide on cerebral haemodynamics and metabolism during isoflurane anaesthesia in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algotsson, L.; Messeter, K.; Rosen, I.; Holmin. T.

    1992-01-01

    Seven normoventilated and five hyperventilated healthy adults undergoing cholecystectomy and anaesthetized with methohexitone, fentanyl and pancuronium were studied with measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cereal metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRo 2 ), and quantified electroencephalography (EEG) under two sets of conditions: 1) 1.7% end-tidal concentration of isoflurane in air/oxygen: 2) 0.85% end-tidal concentration of isoflurane in nitrous oxide (N 2 O)/oxygen. The object was to study the effects of N 2 O during isoflurane anaesthesia on cerebral circulation, metabolism and neuroelectric activity. N 2 O in the anaesthetic gas mixture caused a 43% (P 2 was not significantly altered by N 2 O. EEG demonstrated an activated pattern with decreased low frequency activity and increased high frequency activity. The results confirm that N 2 O is a potent cerebral vasodilator in man, although the mechanisms underlying the effects on CBF are still unclear. (au)

  16. Vest Chest Physiotherapy Airway Clearance is Associated with Nitric Oxide Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H. Sisson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vest chest physiotherapy (VCPT enhances airway clearance in cystic fibrosis (CF by an unknown mechanism. Because cilia are sensitive to nitric oxide (NO, we hypothesized that VCPT enhances clearance by changing NO metabolism. Methods. Both normal subjects and stable CF subjects had pre- and post-VCPT airway clearance assessed using nasal saccharin transit time (NSTT followed by a collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC analyzed for NO metabolites (. Results. VCPT shorted NSTT by 35% in normal and stable CF subjects with no difference observed between the groups. EBC concentrations decreased 68% in control subjects after VCPT (before = 115 ± 32 μM versus after = 37 ± 17 μM; . CF subjects had a trend toward lower EBC . Conclusion. We found an association between VCPT-stimulated clearance and exhaled levels in human subjects. We speculate that VCPT stimulates clearance via increased NO metabolism.

  17. Highly proliferative primitive fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells are fueled by oxidative metabolic pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed K. Manesia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs in the fetal liver (FL unlike adult bone marrow (BM proliferate extensively, posing different metabolic demands. However, metabolic pathways responsible for the production of energy and cellular building blocks in FL HSCs have not been described. Here, we report that FL HSCs use oxygen dependent energy generating pathways significantly more than their BM counterparts. RNA-Seq analysis of E14.5 FL versus BM derived HSCs identified increased expression levels of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos and the citric acid cycle (TCA. We demonstrated that FL HSCs contain more mitochondria than BM HSCs, which resulted in increased levels of oxygen consumption and reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Higher levels of DNA repair and antioxidant pathway gene expression may prevent ROS-mediated (genotoxicity in FL HSCs. Thus, we here for the first time highlight the underestimated importance of oxygen dependent pathways for generating energy and building blocks in FL HSCs.

  18. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic and whole-body glucose metabolism in periparturient dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2009-01-01

    Six periparturient Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic and whole-body glucose metabolism.......Six periparturient Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic and whole-body glucose metabolism....

  19. Ionizing radiation-induced metabolic oxidative stress and prolonged cell injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Edouard I.; Jay-Gerin, Jean-Paul; Pain, Debkumar

    2013-01-01

    Cellular exposure to ionizing radiation leads to oxidizing events that alter atomic structure through direct interactions of radiation with target macromolecules or via products of water radiolysis. Further, the oxidative damage may spread from the targeted to neighboring, non-targeted bystander cells through redox-modulated intercellular communication mechanisms. To cope with the induced stress and the changes in the redox environment, organisms elicit transient responses at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels to counteract toxic effects of radiation. Metabolic pathways are induced during and shortly after the exposure. Depending on radiation dose, dose-rate and quality, these protective mechanisms may or may not be sufficient to cope with the stress. When the harmful effects exceed those of homeostatic biochemical processes, induced biological changes persist and may be propagated to progeny cells. Physiological levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species play critical roles in many cellular functions. In irradiated cells, levels of these reactive species may be increased due to perturbations in oxidative metabolism and chronic inflammatory responses, thereby contributing to the long-term effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on genomic stability. Here, in addition to immediate biological effects of water radiolysis on DNA damage, we also discuss the role of mitochondria in the delayed outcomes of ionization radiation. Defects in mitochondrial functions lead to accelerated aging and numerous pathological conditions. Different types of radiation vary in their linear energy transfer (LET) properties, and we discuss their effects on various aspects of mitochondrial physiology. These include short and long-term in vitro and in vivo effects on mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial protein import and metabolic and antioxidant enzymes. PMID:22182453

  20. Relation of Oxidative Stress and Impaired Fibrinolysis with HDL Biogenesis in Indonesian Men with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Paulina Sormin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biogenesis of HDL involves factors that regulate the synthesis, intravascular remodeling, and catabolism of HDL. Disturbance of these factors can lead to low concentration of HDL-C. Metabolic syndrome (MetS is characterized by low concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. In MetS occur several pathological conditions including oxidative stress and impaired fibrinolysis, which contribute to the risk of atherosclerosis process. The correlation between oxidative stress and impaired fibrinolysis with HDL biogenesis dysfunction and its correlation with low concentration of HDL-C has not been well understood and therefore needs to be further investigated. METHODS: This study was an observational study with crosssectional design, involving 163 adult men, aged 25-60 years with metabolic syndrome. Concentration of apoA-1, prebeta-1 HDL, CETP, F2-isoprostan, PAI-1, and HDL-C were measured. The apo A1/HDL ratio indicated HDL maturation, whereas the CETP/HDL-C and CETP/TG ratios indicated HDL catabolism. RESULTS: The study showed that there were a positive correlation between PAI-1 with apoA1/HDL-C ratios (r=0.226, p=0.005 and a negative correlation with the CETP/TG ratios (r=-0.215, p=0.007, whereas F2-isoprostan did not have correlation with HDL biogenesis factors. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that there was correlation between impaired fibrinolysis with decreased HDL maturation and there was increased HDL catabolism leading to low HDL-C concentration in men with metabolic syndrome. KEYWORDS: F2-isoprostan, PAI-1, apoA-1, prebeta-1 HDL, CETP, metabolic syndrome.

  1. Longer Food Chains in Pelagic Ecosystems: Trophic Energetics of Animal Body Size and Metabolic Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Richard; Dowling, Natalie; Cohen, Joel E

    2016-07-01

    Factors constraining the structure of food webs can be investigated by comparing classes of ecosystems. We find that pelagic ecosystems, those based on one-celled primary producers, have longer food chains than terrestrial ecosystems. Yet pelagic ecosystems have lower primary productivity, contrary to the hypothesis that greater energy flows permit higher trophic levels. We hypothesize that longer food chain length in pelagic ecosystems, compared with terrestrial ecosystems, is associated with smaller pelagic animal body size permitting more rapid trophic energy transfer. Assuming negative allometric dependence of biomass production rate on body mass at each trophic level, the lowest three pelagic animal trophic levels are estimated to add biomass more rapidly than their terrestrial counterparts by factors of 12, 4.8, and 2.6. Pelagic animals consequently transport primary production to a fifth trophic level 50-190 times more rapidly than animals in terrestrial webs. This difference overcomes the approximately fivefold slower pelagic basal productivity, energetically explaining longer pelagic food chains. In addition, ectotherms, dominant at lower pelagic animal trophic levels, have high metabolic efficiency, also favoring higher rates of trophic energy transfer in pelagic ecosystems. These two animal trophic flow mechanisms imply longer pelagic food chains, reestablishing an important role for energetics in food web structure.

  2. Mechanisms of Body Weight Reduction and Metabolic Syndrome Alleviation by Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S.; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Le; Huang, Jinbao; Wang, Yijun

    2016-01-01

    Tea, a popular beverage made from leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has been shown to reduce body weight, alleviate metabolic syndrome, and prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in animal models and humans. Such beneficial effects have generally been observed in most human studies when the level of tea consumption was 3 to 4 cups (600–900 mg tea catechins) or more per day. Green tea is more effective than black tea. In spite of numerous studies, the fundamental mechanisms for these actions still remain unclear. From a review of the literature, we propose that the two major mechanisms are: 1) decreasing absorption of lipids and proteins by tea constituents in the intestine, thus reducing calorie intake; and 2) activating AMPK by tea polyphenols that are bioavailable in the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues. The relative importance of these two mechanisms depends on the types of tea and diet consumed by individuals. The activated AMPK would decrease gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis and increase catabolism, leading to body weight reduction and MetS alleviation. Other mechanisms and the health relevance of these beneficial effects of tea consumption remain to be further investigated. PMID:26577614

  3. Positron emission tomography with [11C]-acetate for evaluation of myocardial oxidative metabolism. Clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinova, I.S.; Litvinov, M.M.; Rozhkova, G.G.; Leont'eva, I.V.; Sebeleva, I.A.; Tumanyan, M.R.; Koledinskij, D.G.; Sukhorukov, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    The diagnostic potentials of positron emission tomography (PET) with [ 11 C]-acetate as applied to mitochondrial disorders in children with cardiomyopathies (CMP) are evaluated. PET examinations are performed in 17 patients of the mean age of 7.5 ± 3.1 years with CMP. A dynamic study with [ 11 C]-acetate is conducted to evaluate the Krebs cycle activity. The experiments have indicated to a fewer accumulation of [ 11 C]-acetate and to its slower clearance in the ischemic zone as compared with the normal myocardium. The Krebs cycle activity has been reduced. By means of PET with [ 11 C]-acetate the oxidation rate constant of the Krebs cycle and the [ 11 C]-acetate-activity clearance half-time can be quantified. This makes possible to assess the extent of oxidative metabolism malfunction, including the case of perfusion reduction [ru

  4. COPPER AND COPPER-CONTAINING PESTICIDES: METABOLISM, TOXICITY AND OXIDATIVE STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Husak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief review of the current knowledge regarding metabolism and toxicity of copper and copper-based pesticides in living organisms. Copper is an essential trace element in all living organisms (bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals, because it participates in different metabolic processes and maintain functions of organisms. The transport and metabolism of copper in living organisms is currently the subject of many studies. Copper is absorbed, transported, distributed, stored, and excreted in the body via the complex of homeostatic processes, which provide organisms with a needed constant level of this micronutrient and avoid excessive amounts. Many aspects of copper homeostasis were studied at the molecular level. Copper based-pesticides, in particularly fungicides, bacteriocides and herbicides, are widely used in agricultural practice throughout the world. Copper is an integral part of antioxidant enzymes, particularly copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD, and plays prominent roles in iron homeostasis. On the other hand, excess of copper in organism has deleterious effect, because it stimulates free radical production in the cell, induces lipid peroxidation, and disturbs the total antioxidant capacity of the body. The mechanisms of copper toxicity are discussed in this review also.

  5. Early Effects of a Low Fat, Fructose-Rich Diet on Liver Metabolism, Insulin Signaling, and Oxidative Stress in Young and Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the use of refined food, which is rich in fructose, is of particular concern in children and adolescents, since the total caloric intake and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome are increasing continuously in these populations. Nevertheless, the effects of high fructose diet have been mostly investigated in adults, by focusing on the effect of a long-term fructose intake. Notably, some reports evidenced that even short-term fructose intake exerts detrimental effects on metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the metabolic changes induced by the fructose-rich diet in rats of different age, i.e., young (30 days old and adult (90 days old rats. The fructose-rich diet increased whole body lipid content in adult, but not in young rats. The analysis of liver markers of inflammation suggests that different mechanisms depending on the age might be activated after the fructose-rich diet. In fact, a pro-inflammatory gene-expression analysis showed just a minor activation of macrophages in young rats compared to adult rats, while other markers of low-grade metabolic inflammation (TNF-alpha, myeloperoxidase, lipocalin, haptoglobin significantly increased. Inflammation was associated with oxidative damage to hepatic lipids in young and adult rats, while increased levels of hepatic nitrotyrosine and ceramides were detected only in young rats. Interestingly, fructose-induced hepatic insulin resistance was evident in young but not in adult rats, while whole body insulin sensitivity decreased both in fructose-fed young and adult rats. Taken together, the present data indicate that young rats do not increase their body lipids but are exposed to metabolic perturbations, such as hepatic insulin resistance and hepatic oxidative stress, in line with the finding that increased fructose intake may be an important predictor of metabolic risk in young people, independently of weight status. These results indicate the need of corrective

  6. Serum chemerin in children with excess body weight may be associated with ongoing metabolic complications - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledzińska, Marta; Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka; Brzezinski, Michał; Kaźmierska, Katarzyna; Sledziński, Tomasz; Kamińska, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if serum chemerin in children correlates with body weight, fat mass, selected inflammatory markers, parameters of liver function, lipid and glucose metabolism. The study included children aged 5-17 years with normal body weight (body weight presented with significantly higher serum concentrations of chemerin. Serum chemerin correlated positively with body weight, absolute BMI and its percentile, fat mass, systolic blood pressure, CRP, ALT, insulin and HOMA-IR. Serum level of chemerin may serve as a measure of ongoing obesity-related inflammation, early marker of subclinical liver dysfunction and metabolic syndrome in overweight pediatric patients. Copyright © 2017 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulatory landscape of AGE-RAGE-oxidative stress axis and its modulation by PPARγ activation in high fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzaro, Luca; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Savi, Federica; Altomare, Alessandra; Marinello, Cristina; Saethang, Thammakorn; Carini, Marina; Payne, D Michael; Pisitkun, Trairak; Aldini, Giancarlo; Leelahavanichkul, Asada

    2017-01-01

    The AGE-RAGE-oxidative stress (AROS) axis is involved in the onset and progression of metabolic syndrome induced by a high-fructose diet (HFD). PPARγ activation is known to modulate metabolic syndrome; however a systems-level investigation looking at the protective effects of PPARγ activation as related to the AROS axis has not been performed. The aim of this work is to simultaneously characterize multiple molecular parameters within the AROS axis, using samples taken from different body fluids and tissues of a rat model of HFD-induced metabolic syndrome, in the presence or absence of a PPARγ agonist, Rosiglitazone (RGZ). Rats were fed with 60% HFD for the first half of the treatment duration (21 days) then continued with either HFD alone or HFD plus RGZ for the second half. Rats receiving HFD alone showed metabolic syndrome manifestations including hypertension, dyslipidemia, increased glucose levels and insulin resistance, as well as abnormal kidney and inflammatory parameters. Systolic blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose levels, plasma creatinine, and albuminuria were significantly improved in the presence of RGZ. The following molecular parameters of the AROS axis were significantly upregulated in our rat model: carboxymethyl lysine (CML) in urine and liver; carboxyethyl lysine (CEL) in urine; advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in plasma; receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in liver and kidney; advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in plasma; and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) in plasma, liver, and kidney. Conversely, with RGZ administration, the upregulation of AOPP and AGEs in plasma, CML and CEL in urine, RAGE in liver as well as HNE in plasma and liver was significantly counteracted/prevented. Our data demonstrate (i) the systems-level regulatory landscape of HFD-induced metabolic syndrome involving multiple molecular parameters, including HNE, AGEs and their receptor RAGE, and (ii) attenuation of metabolic syndrome by

  8. Fasting substrate oxidation in relation to habitual dietary fat intake and insulin resistance in non-diabetic women: a case for metabolic flexibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Madelaine T; Goedecke, Julia H; Dugas, Lara; Evans, Juliet; Kroff, Jacolene; Levitt, Naomi S; Lambert, Estelle V

    2013-01-14

    Metabolic flexibility described as "the capacity of the body to match fuel oxidation to fuel availability" has been implicated in insulin resistance. We examined fasting substrate oxidation in relation to dietary macronutrient intake, and markers of insulin resistance in otherwise healthy women, with and without a family history of diabetes mellitus (FH DM). We measured body composition (dual x-ray absorptiometry), visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue area (VAT, SAT, using Computerised Tomography), fasting [glucose], [insulin], [free fatty acids], [blood lipids], insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), resting energy expenditure (REE), respiratory exchange ratio(RER) and self-reported physical activity in a convenience sample of 180 women (18-45 yrs). A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess energy intake (EI) and calculate the RER: Food Quotient (FQ) ratio. Only those with EI:REE (1.05 -2.28) were included (N=140). Insulin resistance was defined HOMA-IR (>1.95). The Insulin Resistant (IR) group had higher energy, carbohydrate and protein intakes (p < 0.05) and lower PA levels than Insulin Sensitive (IS) group (P < 0.001), but there were no differences in RER or RER:FQ between groups. However, nearly 50% of the variance in HOMA-IR was explained by age, body fat %, VAT, RER:FQ and FH DM (adjusted R2 = 0.50, p < 0.0001). Insulin-resistant women, and those with FH DM had a higher RER:FQ than their counterparts (p < 0.01), independent of body fat % or distribution. In these apparently healthy, weight-stable women, insulin resistance and FH DM were associated with lower fat oxidation in relation to dietary fat intake, suggesting lower metabolic flexibility.

  9. Changes in maternal body composition and metabolism of dairy goats during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas de Souza Castagnino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the mobilization of nutrients in goats of different gestation types and pregnancy stages. Forty-four Saanen and Oberhasli goats were studied. The goats of each breed and gestation type (single or twin were slaughtered at different gestational ages (80, 110, and 140 days of pregnancy, forming a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (two breeds, three gestational ages, and two types of pregnancy. The slaughter procedure involved separating the empty body, mammary glands, uterus with membranes and fetal fluid, and fetus(es. For the females slaughtered at 140 days of pregnancy, blood was collected to analyze metabolites and hormones every 15 days during gestation. The dry matter (DM intake was lower in goats with twin pregnancies. The relative daily retention rate of the nutrients in the body was positive at 100 days of pregnancy but became negative at 140 days (-0.18±0.25 g DM kg-1 of maternal body d-1 and did not differ with breed or number of fetuses. Fetal growth in twin pregnancies was 66% higher than in single pregnancies. The highest levels of ß-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids were observed beginning at 100 days of gestation. Serum total protein and albumin levels decreased after 125 days of gestation. Serum urea levels were reduced after 80 days of gestation. Plasma 17ß-estradiol levels increased with the advance of pregnancy, and IGF-1 was highest between 60 and 80 days of gestation. The maternal metabolism throughout pregnancy does not vary with the type of pregnancy, and pregnant goats need greater nutritional intake during the final third of the gestational period regardless of the breed or type of pregnancy.

  10. Body size and metabolic differences in Maine Coon cats with and without hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Lisa M; Rush, John E; Meurs, Kathryn M; Bulmer, Barret J; Cunningham, Suzanne M

    2013-02-01

    An interplay between growth, glucose regulation and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) may exist, but has not been studied in detail. The purpose of this study was to characterize morphometric features, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose metabolism in Maine Coon cats with HCM. Body weight, body condition score (BCS), head length and width, and abdominal circumference were measured in Maine Coon cats >2 years of age. Echocardiography and thoracic radiography (for measurement of humerus length, and fourth and twelfth vertebrae length) were also performed. Blood was collected for biochemistry profile, DNA testing, insulin and IGF-1. Sixteen of 63 cats had HCM [myosin binding protein C (MYBPC)+, n = 3 and MYBPC-, n = 13] and 47/63 were echocardiographically normal (MYBPC+, n = 17 and MYBPC-, n = 30). There were no significant differences in any measured parameter between MYBPC+ and MYBPC- cats. Cats with HCM were significantly older (P Cats with HCM also had higher serum glucose (P = 0.01), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and IGF-1 (P = 0.01) concentrations, were from smaller litters (P = 0.04), and were larger at 6 months (P = 0.02) and at 1 year of age (P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis revealed that age (P <0.001), BCS (P = 0.03) and HOMA (P = 0.047) remained significantly associated with HCM. These results support the hypothesis that early growth and nutrition, larger body size and obesity may be environmental modifiers of genetic predisposition to HCM. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effects of early nutrition on the phenotypic expression of HCM.

  11. Study of Body Composition and Metabolic Parameters in HIV-1 Male Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudath Gundurao Sreekantamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. HIV patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART containing protease inhibitors (PIs had been often associated with lipodystrophy. However, there are only few studies on association of nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI and NNRTI with lipodystrophy. Study Design. One hundred and one HIV male patients were categorised into ART naïve (n=22, zidovudine (n=22, stavudine (n=18, tenofovir (n=15, and PIs (n=24 based HAART. Their clinicoepidemiological data had been entered in preformed pro forma. The body composition, using TANITA machine and metabolic parameters like lipid profile, blood sugars was analysed. Results. Clinically, lipoatrophy of face was most prevalent in HIV patients on stavudine (15 patients, 83.3% and PIs (20 patients, 83.3% based HAART. The mean BMI among study population was in normal range. Excess visceral fat was most prevalent among patients on PIs, 4 patients (16.7%. The waist-hip ratio was significantly higher in PIs (P=0.01 based HAART. There was no significant difference among different study populations in terms of BMI (P=0.917, body water (P=0.318, body fat (P=0.172, bone mass (P=0.200, and muscle mass (P=0.070. Hypertriglyceridiemia was found in stavudine, tenofovir, and protease inhibitors regimens. Low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL was found zidovudine, stavudine, and PIs regimens. Fasting and postprandial hyperglycaemia was found PIs and impaired glucose tolerance in stavudine regimen. Conclusion. Patients on PIs were associated with truncal obesity and lipoatrophy of face, along with dyslipidemia and hyperglycaemia. Stavudine based regimen is associated with hypertriglyceridiemia and low HDL along with lipoatrophy of face.

  12. Change in Body Weight from Age 20 Years Is a Powerful Determinant of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Lars; Elmståhl, Sölve; Ärnlöv, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Higher body weight is a well-known determinant of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. It is however less well studied how the change in weight from age 20 years to middle age or old age affects MetS development. In the community-based EpiHealth (n = 19,000, age range 45 to 75 years, 56% females) and PIVUS (n = 1000, all aged 70 years, 50% females) studies, the participants were asked about their body weight at age 20 years. Data were collected to determine MetS prevalence (NCEP ATP III criteria). In EpiHealth, the probability of having MetS increased fairly linearly with increasing weight from age 20 in the obese [odds ratios (OR) 1.04 per kg change in weight, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.05, P weight (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.14-1.21, P body mass index (BMI) at age 20, alcohol intake, smoking, education, and exercise habits. Also in the PIVUS study, the change in weight over 50 years was related to prevalent MetS (OR 1.08 per kg change in weight, 95% CI 1.06-1.10, P weight gain from age 20 was strongly and independently associated with prevalent MetS both in middle age or old age. Interestingly, this relationship was not restricted only to obese subjects. Our data provide additional support for the importance of maintaining a stable weight throughout life.

  13. Endoscopic Sleeve Gastroplasty Significantly Reduces Body Mass Index and Metabolic Complications in Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaiha, Reem Z; Kumta, Nikhil A; Saumoy, Monica; Desai, Amit P; Sarkisian, Alex M; Benevenuto, Andrea; Tyberg, Amy; Kumar, Rekha; Igel, Leon; Verna, Elizabeth C; Schwartz, Robert; Frissora, Christina; Shukla, Alpana; Aronne, Louis J; Kahaleh, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) is an incisionless, minimally invasive bariatric procedure that reduces the length and width of the gastric cavity to facilitate weight loss. We performed a prospective study to evaluate the effects of ESG on total body weight loss and obesity-related comorbidities. We collected data from 91 consecutive patients (mean age, 43.86 ± 11.26 years; 68% female) undergoing ESG from August 2013 through March 2016. All patients had a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/m 2 and had failed noninvasive weight-loss measures or had a BMI greater than 40 kg/m 2 and were not considered as surgical candidates or refused surgery. All procedures were performed with a cap-based flexible endoscopic suturing system to facilitate a triangular pattern of sutures to imbricate the greater curvature of the stomach. Patients were evaluated after 6 months (n = 73), 12 months (n = 53), and 24 months (n = 12) for anthropometric features (BMI, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure) and underwent serologic (hemoglobin A1c), lipid panel, serum triglycerides, and liver function tests. The primary outcomes were total body weight loss at 6, 12, and 24 months. Secondary outcomes were the effects of ESG on metabolic factors (blood pressure, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, steatohepatitis) and safety. The patients' mean BMI before the procedure was 40.7 ± 7.0 kg/m 2 . Patients had lost 14.4% of their total body weight at 6 months (80% follow-up rate), 17.6% at 12 months (76% follow-up rate), and 20.9% at 24 months (66% follow-up rate) after ESG. At 12 months after ESG, patients had statistically significant reductions in levels of hemoglobin A1c (P = .01), systolic blood pressure (P = .02), waist circumference (P ESG (P = .79). There was one serious adverse event (1.1%) (perigastric leak) that occurred that was managed non-operatively. ESG is a minimally invasive and effective endoscopic weight loss intervention. In addition to sustained total body weight

  14. Metabolism, body size and life span: a case study in evolutionarily divergent populations of the garter snake (Thamnophis elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, Anne; Vleck, David

    2010-11-01

    We present a case study of metabolism, life history and aging in the western terrestrial garter snake (Thamnophis elegans). Early research in the field supported the rate-of-living hypothesis as an explanation of aging, which was based on an apparent negative relationship between mass-specific metabolic rate and lifespan in endotherms. This hypothesis in its original form has not withstood additional tests and comparisons between the two main lineages of endotherms-birds and mammals, but there is still much to be discovered of the causative links among rate of oxygen consumption, physiology and life history, particularly in ectothermic reptiles. We present data that show adult short-lived snakes, from naturally occurring ecotypes of garter snakes, have higher mass-specific resting metabolic rates at any given body mass (metabolic intensity) across a series of normal activity temperatures (15-32°C). The short-lived ecotype in this geographic region reaches a larger body size, and has life-history traits that place it at the fast end of a pace-of-life continuum (fast growth, early maturation, high reproductive output) relative to individuals of the small-bodied long-lived ecotype. The difference between ecotypes in metabolic intensity, even after acclimation to identical conditions, may reflect evolutionary divergence and genetic differences between ecotypes. The difference in metabolic intensity is not, however, present at birth, so an alternative is that developmental environment may permanently influence metabolic rate and life history. Such developmental canalization could lead to altered gene expression via environmental influences on the epigenome and result in altered metabolic trajectories in the snakes' natural habitats.

  15. Nitric oxide metabolism and indole acetic acid biosynthesis cross-talk in Azospirillum brasilense SM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Vatsala; Tripathi, Chandrakant; Adholeya, Alok; Kochar, Mandira

    2015-04-01

    Production of nitric oxide (NO) and the presence of NO metabolism genes, nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ), nitrous oxide reductase regulator (nosR) and nitric oxide reductase (norB) were identified in the plant-associated bacterium (PAB) Azospirillum brasilense SM. NO presence was confirmed in all overexpressing strains, while improvement in the plant growth response of these strains was mediated by increased NO and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels in the strains. Electron microscopy showed random distribution to biofilm, with surface colonization of pleiomorphic Azospirilla. Quantitative IAA estimation highlighted a crucial role of nosR and norBC in regulating IAA biosynthesis. The NO quencher and donor reduced/blocked IAA biosynthesis by all strains, indicating their common regulatory role in IAA biosynthesis. Tryptophan (Trp) and l-Arginine (Arg) showed higher expression of NO genes tested, while in the case of ipdC, only Trp and IAA increased expression, while Arg had no significant effect. The highest nosR expression in SMnosR in the presence of IAA and Trp, along with its 2-fold IAA level, confirmed the relationship of nosR overexpression with Trp in increasing IAA. These results indicate a strong correlation between IAA and NO in A. brasilense SM and suggest the existence of cross-talk or shared signaling mechanisms in these two growth regulators. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. High basal metabolic rate does not elevate oxidative stress during reproduction in laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzęk, Paweł; Książek, Aneta; Ołdakowski, Łukasz; Konarzewski, Marek

    2014-05-01

    Increased oxidative stress (OS) has been suggested as a physiological cost of reproduction. However, previous studies reported ambiguous results, with some even showing a reduction of oxidative damage during reproduction. We tested whether the link between reproduction and OS is mediated by basal metabolic rate (BMR), which has been hypothesized to affect both the rate of radical oxygen species production and antioxidative capacity. We studied the effect of reproduction on OS in females of laboratory mice divergently selected for high (H-BMR) and low (L-BMR) BMR, previously shown to differ with respect to parental investment. Non-reproducing L-BMR females showed higher oxidative damage to lipids (quantified as the level of malondialdehyde in internal organ tissues) and DNA (quantified as the level of 8-oxodG in blood serum) than H-BMR females. Reproduction did not affect oxidative damage to lipids in either line; however, it reduced damage to DNA in L-BMR females. Reproduction increased catalase activity in liver (significantly stronger in L-BMR females) and decreased it in kidneys. We conclude that the effect of reproduction on OS depends on the initial variation in BMR and varies between studied internal organs and markers of OS.

  17. Advanced oxidation protein products are more related to metabolic syndrome components than biomarkers of lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Danielle; Simão, Andréa Name Colado; Dichi, Isaias

    2015-09-01

    Although advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) have been reported as the most appropriate parameter for determination of oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), a direct comparison between protein and lipid peroxidation has not been performed yet. The aim of this study was to compare protein peroxidation with lipid peroxidation measured by 2 different methodologies (tert-butyl hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence and ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange assay). The hypothesis of this study was that AOPPs would be more related to MetS than to oxidative markers of lipid peroxidation. This cross-sectional study evaluated 76 patients with MetS and 20 healthy subjects. Prooxidant-antioxidant index (PAI) assessed as AOPP/total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter ratio progressively increased (P protein (r = 0.275, P protein (r = 0.278, P protein peroxidation determined by AOPPs, and especially by PAI, is more related to MetS components than lipid peroxidation. In addition, PAI progressively increased with the number of MetS components. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Protein intake induced an increase in exercise stimulated fat oxidation during stable body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Plasqui, Guy; Smeets, Astrid J; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-12-02

    Protein-rich weight-loss diets spare fat-free mass at the cost of fat mass. The objective was to examine if there is a change in stimulated fat oxidation related to protein intake during stable body weight. Subjects' (BMI 22±2kg/m(2), age 25±8 years) maximal fat oxidation (Fat(max)) was assessed during a graded bicycle test, before and after a 3-month dietary-intervention of 2MJ/day supplements exchanged with 2MJ/d of habitual energy intake. The parallel design consisted of protein-rich supplements in the protein group and an isocaloric combination of carbohydrate and fat supplements in the control group. Daily protein intake was determined according to 24-h urine nitrogen. Body composition was measured according to a 4-compartment model by a combination of underwater-weighing technique, deuterium-dilution technique and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects were weight stable and did not change their physical activity. The protein group (n=12) increased protein intake (11±14g, Pbody weight (Pbody composition or VO(2)max. Increased stimulated fat oxidation was related to increased protein intake. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential oxidative stress in the bodies of electric arc welding operators: effect of photochemical smog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, You-Gen; Zhou, Jun-Fu; Shan, Wei-Ying; Zhou, Pei-Su; Tong, Gui-Zhong

    2004-12-01

    To investigate whether photochemical smog emitted during the process of electric arc welding might cause oxidative stress and potential oxidative damage in the bodies of welding operators. Seventy electric arc welding operators (WOs) and 70 healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled in a randomized controlled study design, in which the levels of vitamin C (VC) and vitamin E (VE) in plasma as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and the level of lipoperoxide (LPO) in erythrocytes were determined by spectrophotometry. Compared with the average values of the above experimental parameters in the HVs group, the average values of VC and VE in plasma as well as those of SOD, CAT and GPX in erythrocytes in the WOs group were significantly decreased (P smog the values of VC, VE, SOD, and GPX, except for CAT, in the WOs were decreased gradually (P smog in the bodies of WOs, thereby causing potential oxidative and lipoperoxidative damages in their bodies.

  20. Cytochrome P450s: mechanisms and biological implications in drug metabolism and its interaction with oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Sinha, Krishnendu; Sil, Parames C

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome monooxygenases P450 enzymes (CYPs) are terminal oxidases, belonging to the multi-gene family of heme-thiolate enzymes and located in multiple sites of ER, cytosol and mitochondria. CYPs act as catalysts in drugs metabolism. This review highlights the mitochondrial and microsomal CYPs metabolic functions, CYPs mediated ROS generation and its feedback, bioactivation of drugs and related hypersensitivity, metabolic disposition as well as the therapeutic approaches. CYPs mediated drugs bioactivation may trigger oxidative stress and cause pathophysiology. Almost all drugs show some adverse reactions at high doses or accidental overdoses. Drugs lead to hypersensitivity reactions while metabolic predisposition to drug hypersensitivity exaggerates it. Mostly different intermediate bioactive products of CYPs mediated drug metabolism is the principal issue in this respect. On the other hand, CYPs are the main source of ROS. Their generation and feedback are of major concern of this review. Besides drug metabolism, CYPs also contribute significantly to carcinogen metabolism. Ultimately other enzymes in drug metabolism and antioxidant therapy are indispensible. Importance of this field: In a global sense, understanding of exact mechanism can facilitate pharmaceutical industries' challenge of developing drugs without toxicity. Ultimate message: This review would accentuate the recent advances in molecular mechanism of CYPs mediated drug metabolism and complex cross-talks between various restorative novel strategies evolved by CYPs to sustain the redox balance and limit the source of oxidative stress.

  1. Glutamate availability is important in intramuscular amino acid metabolism and TCA cycle intermediates but does not affect peak oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourtzakis, M; Graham, T E; González-Alonso, J; Saltin, B

    2008-08-01

    Muscle glutamate is central to reactions producing 2-oxoglutarate, a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate that essentially expands the TCA cycle intermediate pool during exercise. Paradoxically, muscle glutamate drops approximately 40-80% with the onset of exercise and 2-oxoglutarate declines in early exercise. To investigate the physiological relationship between glutamate, oxidative metabolism, and TCA cycle intermediates (i.e., fumarate, malate, 2-oxoglutarate), healthy subjects trained (T) the quadriceps of one thigh on the single-legged knee extensor ergometer (1 h/day at 70% maximum workload for 5 days/wk), while their contralateral quadriceps remained untrained (UT). After 5 wk of training, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) in the T thigh was greater than that in the UT thigh (PTCA cycle intermediates. In the UT thigh, peak exercise (vs. rest) induced an increase in fumarate (0.33+/-0.07 vs. 0.02+/-0.01 mmol/kg dry wt (dw), PTCA cycle, glutamate and TCA cycle intermediates do not directly affect VO2peak in either trained or untrained muscle.

  2. The Impact of Rapid Weight Loss on Oxidative Stress Markers and the Expression of the Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tumova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Obesity is linked with a state of increased oxidative stress, which plays an important role in the etiology of atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of rapid weight loss on oxidative stress markers in obese individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Design and Methods. We measured oxidative stress markers in 40 obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS+, 40 obese subjects without metabolic syndrome (MetS−, and 20 lean controls (LC at baseline and after three months of very low caloric diet. Results. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL levels decreased by 12% in MetS+ subjects, associated with a reduction in total cholesterol (TC, even after adjustment for age and sex. Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 activity decreased by 4.7% in MetS+ subjects, associated with a drop in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, TC, and insulin levels. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a model including ox-LDL, LpPLA2 activity, and myeloperoxidase (MPO improved prediction of MetS status among obese individuals compared to each oxidative stress marker alone. Conclusions. Oxidative stress markers were predictive of MetS in obese subjects, suggesting a higher oxidative stress. Rapid weight loss resulted in a decline in oxidative stress markers, especially in MetS+ patients.

  3. Paracetamol: overdose-induced oxidative stress toxicity, metabolism, and protective effects of various compounds in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Wu, Qinghua; Liu, Aimei; Anadón, Arturo; Rodríguez, José-Luis; Martínez-Larrañaga, María-Rosa; Yuan, Zonghui; Martínez, María-Aránzazu

    2017-11-01

    Paracetamol (APAP) is one of the most widely used and popular over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic drugs in the world when used at therapeutic doses. APAP overdose can cause severe liver injury, liver necrosis and kidney damage in human beings and animals. Many studies indicate that oxidative stress is involved in the various toxicities associated with APAP, and various antioxidants were evaluated to investigate their protective roles against APAP-induced liver and kidney toxicities. To date, almost no review has addressed the APAP toxicity in relation to oxidative stress. This review updates the research conducted over the past decades into the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and oxidative stress as a result of APAP treatments, and ultimately their correlation with the toxicity and metabolism of APAP. The metabolism of APAP involves various CYP450 enzymes, through which oxidative stress might occur, and such metabolic factors are reviewed within. The therapeutics of a variety of compounds against APAP-induced organ damage based on their anti-oxidative effects is also discussed, in order to further understand the role of oxidative stress in APAP-induced toxicity. This review will throw new light on the critical roles of oxidative stress in APAP-induced toxicity, as well as on the contradictions and blind spots that still exist in the understanding of APAP toxicity, the cellular effects in terms of organ injury and cell signaling pathways, and finally strategies to help remedy such against oxidative damage.

  4. Effects of temperature, swimming speed and body mass on standard and active metabolic rate in vendace (Coregonus albula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlberger, Jan; Staaks, Georg; Hölker, Franz

    2007-11-01

    This study gives an integrated analysis of the effects of temperature, swimming speed and body mass on standard metabolism and aerobic swimming performance in vendace (Coregonus albula (L.)). The metabolic rate was investigated at 4, 8 and 15 degrees C using one flow-through respirometer and two intermittent-flow swim tunnels. We found that the standard metabolic rate (SMR), which increased significantly with temperature, accounted for up to 2/3 of the total swimming costs at optimum speed (U (opt)), although mean U (opt) was high, ranging from 2.0 to 2.8 body lengths per second. Net swimming costs increased with swimming speed, but showed no clear trend with temperature. The influence of body mass on the metabolic rate varied with temperature and activity level resulting in scaling exponents (b) of 0.71-0.94. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to integrate the effects of temperature, speed and mass (AMR = 0.82M (0.93) exp(0.07T) + 0.43M (0.93) U (2.03)). The regression analysis showed that temperature affects standard but not net active metabolic costs in this species. Further, we conclude that a low speed exponent, high optimum speeds and high ratios of standard to activity costs suggest a remarkably efficient swimming performance in vendace.

  5. Antioxidant defenses and metabolic depression. The hypothesis of preparation for oxidative stress in land snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes-Lima, M; Storey, J M; Storey, K B

    1998-07-01

    The roles of enzymatic antioxidant defenses in the natural tolerance of environmental stresses that impose changes in oxygen availability and oxygen consumption on animals is discussed with a particular focus on the biochemistry of estivation and metabolic depression in pulmonate land snails. Despite reduced oxygen consumption and PO2 during estivation, which should also mean reduced production of oxyradicals, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, increased in 30 day-estivating snails. This appears to be an adaptation that allows the snails to deal with oxidative stress that takes place during arousal when PO2 and oxygen consumption rise rapidly. Indeed, oxidative stress was indicated by increased levels of lipid peroxidation damage products accumulating in hepatopancreas within minutes after arousal was initiated. The various metabolic sites responsible for free radical generation during arousal are still unknown but it seems unlikely that the enzyme xanthine oxidase plays any substantial role in this despite being implicated in oxidative stress in mammalian models of ischemia/reperfusion. We propose that the activation of antioxidant defenses in the organs of Otala lactea during estivation is a preparative mechanism against oxidative stress during arousal. Increased activities of antioxidant enzymes have also observed under other stress situations in which the actual production of oxyradicals should decrease. For example, antioxidant defenses are enhanced during anoxia exposure in garter snakes Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis (10 h at 5 degrees C) and leopard frogs Rana pipiens (30 h at 5 degrees C) and during freezing exposure (an ischemic condition due to plasma freezing) in T. sirtalis parietalis and wood frogs Rana sylvatica. It seems that enhancement of antioxidant enzymes during either anoxia or freezing is used as a preparatory mechanism to deal with a physiological oxidative stress that occurs rapidly within the

  6. Basking hamsters reduce resting metabolism, body temperature and energy costs during rewarming from torpor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Fritz; Gasch, Kristina; Bieber, Claudia; Stalder, Gabrielle L; Gerritsmann, Hanno; Ruf, Thomas

    2016-07-15

    Basking can substantially reduce thermoregulatory energy expenditure of mammals. We tested the hypothesis that the largely white winter fur of hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), originating from Asian steppes, may be related to camouflage to permit sun basking on or near snow. Winter-acclimated hamsters in our study were largely white and had a high proclivity to bask when resting and torpid. Resting hamsters reduced metabolic rate (MR) significantly (>30%) when basking at ambient temperatures (Ta) of ∼15 and 0°C. Interestingly, body temperature (Tb) also was significantly reduced from 34.7±0.6°C (Ta 15°C, not basking) to 30.4±2.0°C (Ta 0°C, basking), which resulted in an extremely low (thermal conductance. Induced torpor (food withheld) during respirometry at Ta 15°C occurred on 83.3±36.0% of days and the minimum torpor MR was 36% of basal MR at an average Tb of 22.0±2.6°C; movement to the basking lamp occurred at Tb50%) during radiant heat-assisted rewarming; however, radiant heat per se without an endogenous contribution by animals did not strongly affect metabolism and Tb during torpor. Our data show that basking substantially modifies thermal energetics in hamsters, with a drop of resting Tb and MR not previously observed and a reduction of rewarming costs. The energy savings afforded by basking in hamsters suggest that this behaviour is of energetic significance not only for mammals living in deserts, where basking is common, but also for P. sungorus and probably other cold-climate mammals. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Fasting ameliorates metabolism, immunity, and oxidative stress in carbon tetrachloride-intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Km; Saleh, Ea

    2014-12-01

    Fasting has been recently discovered to improve overall health, but its beneficial effects in the presence of hepatic insufficiency have not been proven. The influence of fasting on the metabolism, immunological aspects, and oxidative stress of 40 male carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-intoxicated Wistar rats was investigated in the present study. The rats were divided into four groups, including a placebo group, CCl4-intoxicated rats, which were injected subcutaneously with 1.0 ml/kg of CCl4 solution, a fasting group, which was fasted 12 h/day for 30 days, and a fourth group, which was injected with CCl4 and fasted. The metabolism, immunity, and oxidative stress improved in CCl4-intoxicated rats fasted for 12 h/day for 30 days, as evidenced in significant increase (p immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG levels, and total antioxidant capacity. In contrast, significant decrease (p stress in CCl4-intoxicated rats. Thus, fasting during Ramadan is safe for patients with hepatic disorders, as the prophet Mohammed (S) said "Keep the fast, keep your health". © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Elevated nitrogen metabolism and nitric oxide production are involved in Arabidopsis resistance to acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Fang; Zhang, Xi-Min; Liu, Xiang; Chen, Juan; Hu, Wen-Jun; Liu, Ting-Wu; Liu, Ji-Yun; Zhu, Chun-Quan; Ghoto, Kabir; Zhu, Xue-Yi; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2018-03-26

    Acid rain (AR) can induce great damages to plants and could be classified into different types according to the different SO 4 2- /NO 3 - ratio. However, the mechanism of plants' responding to different types of AR has not been elucidated clearly. Here, we found that nitric-rich simulated AR (N-SiAR) induced less leaves injury as lower necrosis percentage, better physiological parameters and reduced oxidative damage in the leaves of N-SiAR treated Arabidopsis thaliana compared with sulfate and nitrate mixed (SN-SiAR) or sulfuric-rich (S-SiAR) simulated AR treated ones. Of these three types of SiAR, N-SiAR treated Arabidopsis maintained the highest of nitrogen (N) content, nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NiR) activity as well as N metabolism related genes expression level. Nitric oxide (NO) content showed that N-SiAR treated seedlings had a higher NO level compared to SN-SiAR or S-SiAR treated ones. A series of NO production and elimination related reagents and three NO production-related mutants were used to further confirm the role of NO in regulating acid rain resistance in N-SiAR treated Arabidopsis seedlings. Taken together, we concluded that an elevated N metabolism and enhanced NO production are involved in the tolerance to different types of AR in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolic syndrome enhances endoplasmic reticulum, oxidative stress and leukocyte-endothelium interactions in PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuls, Celia; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Martinez de Marañon, Aranzazu; Veses, Silvia; Jover, Ana; Gomez, Marcelino; Rocha, Milagros; Hernandez-Mijares, Antonio; Victor, Victor M

    2017-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance, which can lead to metabolic syndrome (MetS). Oxidative stress and leukocyte-endothelium interactions are related to PCOS. Our aim was to evaluate whether the presence of MetS in PCOS patients can influence endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress and leukocyte-endothelium interactions. This was a prospective controlled study conducted in an academic medical center. The study population consisted of 148 PCOS women (116 without/32 with MetS) and 112 control subjects (87 without / 25 with MetS). Metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, ER stress markers (GRP78, sXBP1, ATF6), leukocyte-endothelium interactions, adhesion molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-Selectin), TNF-α and IL-6 were determined. Total ROS, inflammatory parameters and adhesion molecules were enhanced in the presence of MetS (pPCOS+MetS group showed higher levels of IL-6 and ICAM-1 than controls (pPCOS and PCOS+MetS groups vs their respective controls (pPCOS groups (pPCOS+MetS patients exhibited higher GRP78 and ATF6 levels than controls and PCOS patients without MetS (pPCOS women, HOMA-IR was positively correlated with ICAM-1 (r=0.501; pPCOS, all of which are related to vascular complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of l-arginine pretreatment on nitric oxide metabolism and hepatosplanchnic perfusion during porcine endotoxemia1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruins, Maaike J; Kessels, Fons; Luiking, Yvette C; Lamers, Wouter H; Deutz, Nicolaas EP

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sepsis is accompanied by an increased need for and a decreased supply of arginine, reflecting a condition of arginine deficiency. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effects of l-arginine pretreatment on arginine–nitric oxide (NO) production and hepatosplanchnic perfusion during subsequent endotoxemia. Design: In a randomized controlled trial, pigs (20–25 kg) received 3 μg ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 endotoxin units/ng) intravenously and saline resuscitation. l-Arginine (n = 8; 5.3 μmol ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1) or saline (n = 8) was infused starting 12 h before LPS infusion and continued for 24 h after the endotoxin infusion ended. Whole-body appearance rates, portal-drained viscera (PDV), and liver fluxes of arginine, citrulline, NO, and arginine de novo synthesis were measured by using stable-isotope infusion of [15N2]arginine and [13C-2H2]citrulline. Hepatosplanchnic perfusion was assessed by using a primed continuous infusion of para-aminohippuric acid and jejunal intramucosal partial pressure of carbon dioxide and was related to systemic hemodynamics. Results: Arginine supplementation before LPS increased whole-body NO production in the PDV but not in the liver. Furthermore, it increased blood flow in the portal vein but not in the aorta and hepatic artery. During endotoxin infusion, arginine pretreatment was associated with an increased whole-body arginine appearance and NO production in the gut. Additional effects included a preserved mean arterial pressure, the prevention of an increase in pulmonary arterial pressure, an attenuated metabolic acidosis, and an attenuated increase in the intramucosal partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Conclusion: Arginine treatment starting before endotoxemia appears to be beneficial because it improves hepatosplanchnic perfusion and oxygenation during prolonged endotoxemia, probably through an enhancement in NO synthesis, without causing deleterious systemic side effects. PMID

  11. Quantitative lipidomics reveals age-dependent perturbations of whole-body lipid metabolism in ACBP deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallego, Sandra F; Sprenger, Richard R; Neess, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    and delayed weaning, the physiological process where newborns transit from a fat-based milk diet to a carbohydrate-rich diet. To gain insights into how ACBP impinges on weaning and the concomitant remodeling of whole-body lipid metabolism we performed a comparative lipidomics analysis charting the absolute...

  12. Thermodynamics of the living organisms. Allometric relationship between the total metabolic energy, chemical energy and body temperature in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2017-11-01

    The study present relationship between the total metabolic energy (ETME(c), J) derived as a function of body chemical energy (Gchem, J) and absolute temperature (Tb, K) in mammals: ETME(c) =Gchem (Tb/Tn). In formula the temperature Tn =2.73K appears normalization temperature. The calculated total metabolic energy ETME(c) differs negligible from the total metabolic energy ETME(J), received as a product between the basal metabolic rate (Pm, J/s) and the lifespan (Tls, s) of mammals: ETME = Pm×Tls. The physical nature and biological mean of the normalization temperature (Tn, K) is unclear. It is made the hypothesis that the kTn energy (where k= 1.3806×10-23 J/K -Boltzmann constant) presents energy of excitation states (modes) in biomolecules and body structures that could be in equilibrium with chemical energy accumulated in body. This means that the accumulated chemical energy allows trough all body molecules and structures to propagate excitations states with kTn energy with wavelength in the rage of width of biological membranes. The accumulated in biomolecules chemical energy maintains spread of the excited states through biomolecules without loss of energy.

  13. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already...

  14. IMPACT OF GENETIC STRAIN ON BODY FAT LOSS, FOOD CONSUMPTION, METABOLISM, VENTILATION, AND MOTOR ACTIVITY IN FREE RUNNING FEMALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiologic data associated with different strains of common laboratory rat strains.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Gordon , C., P. Phillips , and A. Johnstone. Impact of Genetic Strain on Body Fat Loss, Food Consumption, Metabolism, Ventilation, and Motor Activity in Free Running Female Rats. PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 153: 56-63, (2016).

  15. Serum uric acid: A strong and independent predictor of metabolic syndrome after adjusting for body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tae Yang; Jee, Jae Hwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Jin, Sang-Man; Baek, Jong-Ha; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2016-04-01

    Some observational studies have suggested that serum uric acid (SUA) levels are one of the determinants of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, previous studies reported combined results for men and women after adjusting for sex and few studies take body composition into consideration. Therefore, we performed this sex-specific longitudinal study to investigate how baseline SUA levels influence incident MetS, including body composition as an adjusting factor in a large number of subjects. A total of 14,442 participants (8715 men and 5727 women) participating in a medical health check-up program without diagnosed MetS at baseline were enrolled. Separate analyses were performed for men and women including body composition as a confounding factor. Cox proportional hazards models were used to quantify independent associations between SUA levels and incident MetS. During 63,940person-years of follow-up, there were 4215 (2974 men, 1241 women) incident cases of MetS between 2006 and 2012. After adjustments for age, systolic BP, diastolic BP, BMI, eGFR, smoking status, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, fasting glucose, and proportion of fat-free mass (100-fat mass, %), the hazard ratios (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for incident MetS comparing the second, the third, and the fourth quartiles to the first quartile of SUA levels were 0.862 (0.770-0.965), 1.102 (0.991-1.225), and 1.246 (1.121-1.385) in men (p for trend<0.001), and 1.045 (0.862-1.266), 1.251 (1.050-1.490), and 1.321 (1.109-1.574) in women (p for trend<0.001), respectively. As a continuous variable, in fully-adjusted models, the HRs (95% CI) for incident MetS associated with each increase of 1mg/dl of SUA levels were 1.094 (1.060-1.130) in men (p<0.001) and 1.148 (1.072-1.228) in women (p<0.001), respectively. We demonstrated that SUA levels are strong and independent predictors of MetS. This relationship remained significant after full adjustments for multiple associated confounders including body composition in both

  16. Mechanisms of formation and function of eosinophil lipid bodies: inducible intracellular sites involved in arachidonic acid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozza Patricia T

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid bodies, inducible lipid-rich cytoplasmic inclusions, are characteristically abundant in cells associated with inflammation, including eosinophils. Here we reviewed the formation and function of lipid bodies in human eosinophils. We now have evidence that the formation of lipid bodies is not attributable to adverse mechanisms, but is centrally mediated by specific signal transduction pathways. Arachidonic acid and other cis fatty acids by an NSAID-inhibitable process, diglycerides, and PAF by a 5-lipoxygenase dependent pathway are potent stimulators of lipid body induction. Lipid body formation develops rapidly by processes that involve PKC, PLC, and de novo mRNA and protein synthesis. These structures clearly serve as repositoires of arachidonyl-phospholipids and are more than inert depots. Specific enzymes, including cytosolic phospholipase A2, MAP kinases, lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases, associate with lipid bodies. Lipid bodies appear to be dynamic, organelle-like structures involved in intracellular pathways of lipid mobilization and metabolism. Indeed, increases in lipid body numbers correlated with enhanced production of both lipoxygenase- and cyclooxygenase-derived eicosanoids. We hypothesize that lipid bodies are distinct inducible sites for generating eicosanoids as paracrine mediators with varied activities in inflammation. The capacity of lipid body formation to be specifically and rapidly induced in leukocytes enhances eicosanoid mediator formation, and conversely pharmacologic inhibition of lipid body induction represents a potential novel and specific target for anti-inflammatory therapy.

  17. "Predictability of body mass index for diabetes: Affected by the presence of metabolic syndrome?"

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    Khalili Davood

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS and body mass index (BMI, kg.m-2 are established independent risk factors in the development of diabetes; we prospectively examined their relative contributions and joint relationship with incident diabetes in a Middle Eastern cohort. Method participants of the ongoing Tehran lipid and glucose study are followed on a triennial basis. Among non-diabetic participants aged≥ 20 years at baseline (8,121 those with at least one follow-up examination (5,250 were included for the current study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate sex-specific adjusted odd ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of baseline BMI-MetS categories (normal weight without MetS as reference group for incident diabetes among 2186 men and 3064 women, aged ≥ 20 years, free of diabetes at baseline. Result During follow up (median 6.5 years; there were 369 incident diabetes (147 in men. In women without MetS, the multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs for overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m2 and obese (BMI≥30 participants were 2.3 (1.2-4.3 and 2.2 (1.0-4.7, respectively. The corresponding ORs for men without MetS were 1.6 (0.9-2.9 and 3.6 (1.5-8.4 respectively. As compared to the normal-weight/without MetS, normal-weight women and men with MetS, had a multivariate-adjusted ORs for incident diabetes of 8.8 (3.7-21.2 and 3.1 (1.3-7.0, respectively. The corresponding ORs for overweight and obese women with MetS reached to 7.7 (4.0-14.9 and 12.6 (6.9-23.2 and for men reached to 3.4(2.0-5.8 and 5.7(3.9-9.9, respectively. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of screening for MetS in normal weight individuals. Obesity increases diabetes risk in the absence of MetS, underscores the need for more stringent criteria to define healthy metabolic state among obese individuals. Weight reduction measures, thus, should be encouraged in conjunction with achieving metabolic targets not addressed by current definition of

  18. Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species mediate metabolic changes in barley seed embryo during germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenguo eMa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The levels of nitric oxide (NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS, ATP/ADP ratios, reduction levels of ascorbate and glutathione, expression of the genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism of NO and activities of the enzymes involved in fermentation and in metabolism of NO and ROS were studied in the embryos of germinating seeds of two barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivars differing in dormancy level. The level of NO production continuously increased after imbibition while the level of nitrosylated SH-groups in proteins increased. This corresponded to the decrease of free SH-groups in proteins. At early stage of germination (0-48 h postimbibition the genes encoding class 1 phytoglobin (the protein scavenging NO and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (scavenging S-nitrosoglutathione were markedly expressed. More dormant cultivar exhibited lower ATP/ADP and ascorbate/dehydroascorbate ratios and lower lactate and alcohol dehydrogenase activities, while the production of NO and nitrosylation of proteins was higher as compared to the non-dormant cultivar. The obtained data indicate that at the onset of germination NO is actively generated causing nitrosylation of SH-groups and a switch from respiration to fermentation. After radicle protrusion the metabolism changes in a more reducing type as recorded by ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione and ascorbate. The turnover of NO by the scavenging systems (phytoglobin, S-nitrosoglutathione reductase and interaction with ROS might contribute to the maintenance of redox and energy balance of germinating seeds and lead to alleviation of dormancy.

  19. Effect of diesel exhaust inhalation on antioxidant and oxidative stress responses in adults with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jason; Trenga, Carol A; Peretz, Alon; Sullivan, Jeffrey H; Carlsten, Christopher C; Kaufman, Joel D

    2009-11-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the biological mechanisms are not well understood, oxidative stress may be a primary pathway. Subpopulations, such as individuals with metabolic syndrome (MeS), may be at increased risk of adverse effects associated with air pollution. Our aim was to assess the relationship between exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and indicators of systemic antioxidant and oxidative responses in adults with MeS. We hypothesized that DE exposure would result in greater oxidative stress and antioxidant responses compared with filtered air (FA). Ten adult subjects with MeS were exposed on separate days for two hours to FA or DE (at 200microg/m3), in a double blind, crossover experiment. Urinary 8-isoPGF2alpha (F2-isoprostanes), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were assessed as markers of oxidative stress at 3 hrs and 22 hrs, respectively, after exposure initiation. To assess the short-term antioxidant response we analyzed plasma ascorbic acid (AA) 90 minutes after exposure initiation. All outcomes were compared to pre-exposure levels, and mean changes were compared between FA and DE exposures. Mean changes in urinary F2-isoprostanes (ng/mg creatinine), (-0.05 [95% CI = -0.29, 0.15]), and 8-OHdG (microg/g creatinine) (-0.09 [-0.13, 0.31]), were not statistically significant. Mean changes in plasma AA (mg/dl) were also not significant (-0.02 [-0.78, 0.04]). In this carefully controlled experiment, we did not detect significant changes in oxidative stress or systemic antioxidant responses in subjects with MeS exposed to 200microg/m3 DE.

  20. The effect of normobaric hypoxic confinement on metabolism, gut hormones and body composition

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    Igor B. Mekjavic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effect of normobaric hypoxia on metabolism, gut hormones and body composition, eleven normal weight, aerobically trained ( O2peak: 60.6±9.5 ml·kg-1·min-1 men (73.0±7.7 kg; 23.7±4.0 yrs, BMI 22.2±2.4 kg·m-2 were confined to a normobaric (altitude⋍940m normoxic (NORMOXIA; PIO2⋍133.2 mmHg or normobaric hypoxic (HYPOXIA; PIO was reduced from 105.6 to 97.7 mmHg over 10 days environment for 10 days in a randomized cross-over design. The wash-out period between confinements was 3 weeks. During each 10-day period, subjects avoided strenuous physical activity and were under continuous nutritional control. Before, and at the end of each exposure, subjects completed a meal tolerance test, during which blood glucose, insulin, GLP-1, ghrelin, peptide-YY, adrenaline, noradrenaline, leptin, and gastro-intestinal blood flow and appetite sensations were measured. There was no significant change in body weight in either of the confinements (NORMOXIA: -0.7±0.2 kg; HYPOXIA: -0.9±0.2 kg, but a significant increase in fat mass in NORMOXIA (0.23±0.45 kg, but not in HYPOXIA (0.08±0.08 kg. HYPOXIA confinement increased fasting noradrenaline and decreased energy intake, the latter most likely associated with increased fasting leptin. The majority of all other measured variables/responses were similar in NORMOXIA and HYPOXIA. To conclude, normobaric hypoxic confinement without exercise training results in negative energy balance due to primarily reduced energy intake.

  1. Dietary flaxseed oil supplementation mitigates the effect of lead on the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane, and oxidative stress in rat kidney tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Sana; Naqshbandi, Ashreeb; Khan, Farah

    2013-06-01

    Lead is a heavy metal widely distributed in the environment. Lead is a ubiquitous environmental toxin that is capable of causing numerous acute and chronic illnesses. Human and animal exposure demonstrates that lead is nephrotoxic. However, attempts to reduce lead-induced nephrotoxicity were not found suitable for clinical use. Recently, flaxseed oil (FXO), a rich source of ω-3 fatty acids and lignans, has been shown to prevent/reduce the progression of certain types of cardiovascular and renal disorders. In view of this, the present study investigates the protective effect of FXO on lead acetate (PbAc)-induced renal damage. Rats were pre-fed normal diet and the diet rich in FXO for 14 days, and then, four doses of lead acetate (25 mg/kg body weight) were administered intraperitoneally while still on diet. Various serum parameters, enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane (BBM), and oxidative stress were analyzed in rat kidney. PbAc nephrotoxicity was characterized by increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. PbAc increased the activities of lactate dehydrogenase and NADP-malic enzyme, whereas it decreased malate and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, and BBM enzyme activities. PbAc caused oxidant/antioxidant imbalances as reflected by increased lipid peroxidation and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. In contrast, FXO alone enhanced the enzyme activities of carbohydrate metabolism, BBM, and antioxidant defense system. FXO feeding to PbAc-treated rats markedly enhanced resistance to PbAc-elicited deleterious effects. In conclusion, dietary FXO supplementation ameliorated PbAc-induced specific metabolic alterations and oxidative damage by empowering antioxidant defense mechanism and improving BBM integrity and energy metabolism.

  2. Deuterium oxide dilution and body composition in overweight and obese schoolchildren aged 6-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bila, Wendell Costa; Freitas, André Everton de; Galdino, Alexsandro Sobreira; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Pfrimer, Karina; Lamounier, Joel Alves

    2016-01-01

    To correlate different methods of body composition assessment in overweight or obese schoolchildren, using deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution as a reference. Percentage of total body water (%TBW), fat free mass (%FFM), and body fat (%BF) were assessed by D2O and tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA) in 54 obese and overweight students aged 6-9 years. Skinfold thickness (ST), body mass index (BMI), conicity index (CI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and waist-to-hip (WHR) ratio were also used. Mean values for body composition were 38.4%±8.4% BF, 44.9%±6.1% TBW and 61.6%±8.4% FFM. There was no significant difference in body weight, body fat mass (FM), TBW, and FFM between genders. Regarding D2O, ST underestimated %BF, and overestimated %FFM in both genders (p<0.05). BIA overestimated %TBW in the group as a whole and in males (p<0.05). The only positive and strong correlations occurred in females regarding the WC (σ=0.679), CI (r=0.634), and WHtR (r=0.666). In this sample of obese and overweight children, there were strong correlations between body composition measured by D2O and some indices and anthropometric indicators in females, but there was no positive and strong correlation of fat tissue with the indices/indicators at all ages and in both genders. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Xanthine Oxidase Activity Is Associated with Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease and Inflammatory and Oxidative Status Markers in Metabolic Syndrome: Effects of a Single Exercise Session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pandolfo Feoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the xanthine oxidase (XO activity in metabolic syndrome in subjects submitted to a single exercise session. We also investigated parameters of oxidative and inflammatory status. Materials/Methods. A case-control study (9 healthy and 8 MS volunteers was performed to measure XO, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase activities, lipid peroxidation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP content, glucose levels, and lipid profile. Body mass indices, abdominal circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and TG levels were also determined. The exercise session consisted of 3 minutes of stretching, 3 minutes of warm-up, 30 minutes at a constant dynamic workload at a moderate intensity, and 3 minutes at a low speed. The blood samples were collected before and 15 minutes after the exercise session. Results. Serum XO activity was higher in MS group compared to control group. SOD activity was lower in MS subjects. XO activity was correlated with SOD, abdominal circumference, body mass indices, and hsCRP. The single exercise session reduced the SOD activity in the control group. Conclusions. Our data support the association between oxidative stress and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and suggest XO is present in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.

  4. Tang-Nai-Kang alleviates pre-diabetes and metabolic disorders and induces a gene expression switch toward fatty acid oxidation in SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linyi; Yoshitomi, Hisae; Wei, Ying; Qin, Lingling; Zhou, Jingxin; Xu, Tunhai; Wu, Xinli; Zhou, Tian; Sun, Wen; Guo, Xiangyu; Wu, Lili; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Yan; Li, Chunna; Liu, Tonghua; Gao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Increased energy intake and reduced physical activity can lead to obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Transcriptional modulation of metabolic networks has become a focus of current drug discovery research into the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders associated with energy surplus and obesity. Tang-Nai-Kang (TNK), a mixture of five herbal plant extracts, has been shown to improve abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with pre-diabetes. Here, we report the metabolic phenotype of SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr (SHR/cp) rats treated with TNK. Pre-diabetic SHR/cp rats were randomly divided into control, TNK low-dose (1.67 g/kg) and TNK high-dose (3.24 g/kg) groups. After high-dose treatment for 2 weeks, the serum triglycerides and free fatty acids in SHR/cp rats were markedly reduced compared to controls. After 3 weeks of administration, the high dose of TNK significantly reduced the body weight and fat mass of SHR/cp rats without affecting food consumption. Serum fasting glucose and insulin levels in the TNK-treated groups decreased after 6 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, TNK-treated rats exhibited obvious improvements in glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The improved glucose metabolism may be caused by the substantial reduction in serum lipids and body weight observed in SHR/cp rats starting at 3 weeks of TNK treatment. The mRNA expression of NAD+-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and genes related to fatty acid oxidation was markedly up-regulated in the muscle, liver and adipose tissue after TNK treatment. Furthermore, TNK promoted the deacetylation of two well-established SIRT1 targets, PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) and forkhead transcription factor 1 (FOXO1), and induced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in different tissues. These observations suggested that TNK may be an alternative treatment for pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome by inducing a gene expression switch toward fat

  5. The Role of Interleukin-18, Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Syndrome in Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Johanna O. Ojala

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of interleukins (ILs and oxidative stress (OS in precipitating neurodegenerative diseases including sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD, requires further clarification. In addition to neuropathological hallmarks—extracellular neuritic amyloid-β (Aβ plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT containing hyperphosphorylated tau and neuronal loss—chronic inflammation, as well as oxidative and excitotoxic damage, are present in the AD brain. The pathological sequelae and the interaction of these events during the course of AD need further investigation. The brain is particularly sensitive to OS, due to the richness of its peroxidation-sensitive fatty acids, coupled with its high oxygen demand. At the same time, the brain lack robust antioxidant systems. Among the multiple mechanisms and triggers by which OS can accumulate, inflammatory cytokines can sustain oxidative and nitrosative stress, leading eventually to cellular damage. Understanding the consequences of inflammation and OS may clarify the initial events underlying AD, including in interaction with genetic factors. Inflammatory cytokines are potential inducers of aberrant gene expression through transcription factors. Susceptibility disorders for AD, including obesity, type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome have been linked to increases in the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-18, which also regulates multiple AD related proteins. The association of IL-18 with AD and AD-linked medical conditions are reviewed in the article. Such data indicates that an active lifestyle, coupled to a healthy diet can ameliorate inflammation and reduce the risk of sporadic AD.

  6. The Role of Interleukin-18, Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Syndrome in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Johanna O; Sutinen, Elina M

    2017-05-21

    The role of interleukins (ILs) and oxidative stress (OS) in precipitating neurodegenerative diseases including sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), requires further clarification. In addition to neuropathological hallmarks-extracellular neuritic amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) containing hyperphosphorylated tau and neuronal loss-chronic inflammation, as well as oxidative and excitotoxic damage, are present in the AD brain. The pathological sequelae and the interaction of these events during the course of AD need further investigation. The brain is particularly sensitive to OS, due to the richness of its peroxidation-sensitive fatty acids, coupled with its high oxygen demand. At the same time, the brain lack robust antioxidant systems. Among the multiple mechanisms and triggers by which OS can accumulate, inflammatory cytokines can sustain oxidative and nitrosative stress, leading eventually to cellular damage. Understanding the consequences of inflammation and OS may clarify the initial events underlying AD, including in interaction with genetic factors. Inflammatory cytokines are potential inducers of aberrant gene expression through transcription factors. Susceptibility disorders for AD, including obesity, type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome have been linked to increases in the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-18, which also regulates multiple AD related proteins. The association of IL-18 with AD and AD-linked medical conditions are reviewed in the article. Such data indicates that an active lifestyle, coupled to a healthy diet can ameliorate inflammation and reduce the risk of sporadic AD.

  7. Chromium uptake and consequences for metabolism and oxidative stress in chamomile plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Babula, Petr; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Hedbavny, Josef

    2013-08-21

    Chromium Cr(III) toxicity toward chamomile metabolism and oxidative stress-related parameters after 7 days of exposure was studied. Cr preferentially accumulated in the roots and evoked extensive both dose-dependent and dose-independent increase in fluorescence signals of ROS, NO and thiols. Superoxide increased mainly at the highest Cr dose, whereas H2O2 accumulation revealed a discontinuous trend in relation to external Cr supply, and this could be owing to variation in activities of peroxidases. Glutathione and ascorbate quantification, using LC-MS/MS equipment, revealed strong stimulation despite low shoot Cr amounts. Phenolic enzyme activities, except for PAL, were depressed by Cr presence, whereas phenolic metabolites were stimulated, indicating various time dynamics. Among free amino acids, their sum and even proline decreased in the roots, whereas soluble proteins increased. Mineral nutrients showed negligible responses with only Zn and Cu being depleted in both shoots and roots. Cr staining using Cr(III)-specific (naphthalimide-rhodamine) and metal nonspecific (Phen Green) dyes indicated that the former correlated well with AAS quantification of Cr amount. Use of Phen Green is also discussed. These data indicate that Cr-induced oxidative stress is not simply a function of exposure time and applied concentration. Microscopic observations in terms of oxidative stress and chromium uptake are presented here for the first time.

  8. Sleep duration independently influences metabolic body size phenotype in children and adolescents: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Han Hyuk

    2018-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have found an association between sleep duration and obesity. However, the relationship between sleep duration and metabolic body size phenotype in children and adolescents remains unknown. In this cross-sectional study, 3650 participants (1946 boys and 1704 girls) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012 were classified into four phenotypes according to body mass index and metabolic heath status based on the definition of metabolic syndrome by NCEP-ATP III or the International Diabetes Federation. The four phenotypes were: metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW), metabolically healthy overweight (MHO), and metabolically unhealthy overweight (MUO). The associations between the four metabolic body size phenotypes and sleep duration, categorized as very short (≤5 h), short (6-7 h), normal (8-10 h), or long (≥11 h), were evaluated. Sleep duration was shorter in the MUO group (7.0 ± 1.5 h) than in the MHNW (7.3 ± 1.4 h) or MUNW (7.8 ± 1.6 h) groups. After adjusting for age, sex, household income, and physical activity, compared with a normal sleep duration, very short sleep duration (≤5 h) was associated with a higher prevalence of being overweight/obese (26.4% vs 17.4%, p = 0.001), lower risk of being MHNW (0.711 (0.538-0.940), p = 0.017) or MUNW (0.478 (0.237-0.962), p = 0.039), and higher risk of being MHO (1.702 (1.193-2.428), p = 0.003). By contrast, long sleep duration (≥11 h) was associated with a higher risk of being MUNW (2.581 (1.124-5.928), p = 0.025). Sleep duration may be independently associated with metabolic body size phenotype in children and adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Does vagal nerve stimulation affect body composition and metabolism? Experimental study of a new potential technique in bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobocki, Jacek; Fourtanier, Gilles; Estany, Joan; Otal, Phillipe

    2006-02-01

    It has been shown that vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) can affect body mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of VNS on body mass, body composition, metabolic rate, and plasma leptin and IGF-I levels. Eight female pigs were included in the study. Under general anesthesia, a bipolar electrode was implanted on the anterior vagal nerve by laparoscopy. Group A was treated by VNS, and group B was the control. After 4 weeks, stimulation was discontinued in group A and started in group B. The following parameters were evaluated: body mass, body composition, metabolic rate, plasma leptin and IGF-1 levels and intramuscular fat content (IMF). VNS attenuated body weight gain (2.28 +/- 3.47 kg vs 14.04 +/- 6.75 kg; P = .0112, for stimulation and nonstimulation periods, respectively), backfat gain (0.04 +/- 0.26 mm vs 2.31 +/- 1.12 mm) and IMF gain (-3.76 +/- 6.06 mg/g MS vs 7.24 +/- 12.90 mg/g MS; P = .0281). VNS resulted in lower backfat depth/loin muscle area ratio (0.33 +/- 0.017 vs 0.38 +/- 0.35; P = .0476). Lower plasma IGF-I concentration was found after VNS (-3.67 +/- -11.55 ng/mL vs 9.86 +/- 10.74 ng/mL; P = .0312). No significant changes in other parameters were observed. VNS affects body weight mainly at the expense of body fat resources; however, metabolic rate is not affected.

  10. Association between benign prostatic hyperplasia, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome in Chinese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Yin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have showed that men suffering from diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome (MetS and obesity have a higher risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. The present study aimed to examine the association between BPH, obesity, and features of MetS among men of the Hunan area of China. For this cross-sectional study, 904 males (aged 50-59 years were included. MetS parameters, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels, total prostate volume (TPV, postvoid residual volume (PVR and maximum urine flow rate (Qmax were measured. Results showed that MetS was associated with TPV (P = 0.048, PVR (P = 0.004 and IPSS (P = 0.011, but not with other indicators of BPH progression such as PSA levels or Qmax. MetS was associated with the voiding symptoms score (P < 0.05, but not with the storage symptom score. In addition, body mass index and fasting blood glucose positively correlated with TPV (r = 0.416, P< 0.001; and r = 0.310, P= 0.011, respectively. In conclusion, results suggest that MetS is associated with higher prostatic volume, prostate symptom score and voiding symptoms, but not with other features of prostatic hyperplasia such as PSA levels or Qmax. Changes in lifestyle factors, including physical activity and prevention of MetS, might be useful to prevent BPH and its progression, but further studies are needed.

  11. Whole Body Vibration Exercises and the Improvement of the Flexibility in Patient with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danúbia da Cunha Sá-Caputo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrations produced in oscillating/vibratory platform generate whole body vibration (WBV exercises, which are important in sports, as well as in treating diseases, promoting rehabilitation, and improving the quality of life. WBV exercises relevantly increase the muscle strength, muscle power, and the bone mineral density, as well as improving the postural control, the balance, and the gait. An important number of publications are found in the PubMed database with the keyword “flexibility” and eight of the analyzed papers involving WBV and flexibility reached a level of evidence II. The biggest distance between the third finger of the hand to the floor (DBTFF of a patient with metabolic syndrome (MS was found before the first session and was considered to be 100%. The percentages to the other measurements in the different sessions were determined to be related to the 100%. It is possible to see an immediate improvement after each session with a decrease of the %DBTFF. As the presence of MS is associated with poorer physical performance, a simple and safe protocol using WBV exercises promoted an improvement of the flexibility in a patient with MS.

  12. The choice of label and measurement technique in tracer studies of body protein metabolism in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.P.T.; Sender, P.M.; Garlick, P.J.; Waterlow, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    The turnover of non-serum proteins in man has had limited study despite the physiological importance of maintaining the balance between synthesis and breakdown of body proteins. Body protein is usually considered as a single pool and breakdown rates are often measured by monitoring excreted label at intervals after pulse labelling with radioactive or 15 N amino acids. No label has yet been used for measuring tissue protein breakdown in man which is free from the major problem of label re-utilization. All measurements of breakdown rates, eg. with 75 Se-selenomethionine, 15 N- or 14 C-glycine, give rate constants which are too low. The heterogeneity of body proteins also means that an estimate of the weighted average breakdown rate can only be obtained after following the excretion of isotope for a long period, perhaps of the order of 3-4 half-lives which, for man, would be 100 days after labelling. We therefore use infusions with either 14 C- or 15 N-labelled amino acids to measure breakdown and synthesis rates: these values are less affected by problems of protein heterogeneity. Single injection techniques are subject to more error than constant infusions of label because of the difficulty of defining the precursor activity. 15 N labelling need not be confined to essential amino acids if total protein rather than amino acid turnover is studied: the latter involves measurements of the labelled amino acid itself which is difficult with 15 N because of the small amounts of free amino acid nitrogen available. Carbon labelling of non-essential amino acids is unsuitable for studies of protein turnover and the choice of the position of the label on the molecule is important when labelled essential amino acids are employed. Short-term changes in protein metabolism are evaluated better with amino acids with a small pool size; the equilibration time in the excretory bicarbonate pool is also shorter than in the urea pool so that 15 N is less useful than carbon labelling. We

  13. Effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid- and one-carbon-metabolism in psychiatric and cardiovascular disease comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assies, J; Mocking, R J T; Lok, A; Ruhé, H G; Pouwer, F; Schene, A H

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in severe psychiatric disorders (depression, schizophrenia). Here, we provide evidence of how the effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid (FA) and one-carbon (1-C) cycle metabolism, which may initially represent adaptive responses, might underlie comorbidity between CVD and psychiatric disorders. We conducted a literature search and integrated data in a narrative review. Oxidative stress, mainly generated in mitochondria, is implicated in both psychiatric and cardiovascular pathophysiology. Oxidative stress affects the intrinsically linked FA and 1-C cycle metabolism: FAs decrease in chain length and unsaturation (particularly omega-3 polyunsaturated FAs), and lipid peroxidation products increase; the 1-C cycle shifts from the methylation to transsulfuration pathway (lower folate and higher homocysteine and antioxidant glutathione). Interestingly, corresponding alterations were reported in psychiatric disorders and CVD. Potential mechanisms through which FA and 1-C cycle metabolism may be involved in brain (neurocognition, mood regulation) and cardiovascular system functioning (inflammation, thrombosis) include membrane peroxidizability and fluidity, eicosanoid synthesis, neuroprotection and epigenetics. While oxidative-stress-induced alterations in FA and 1-C metabolism may initially enhance oxidative stress resistance, persisting chronically, they may cause damage possibly underlying (co-occurrence of) psychiatric disorders and CVD. This might have implications for research into diagnosis and (preventive) treatment of (CVD in) psychiatric patients. © 2014 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Waterborne cadmium and nickel impact oxidative stress responses and retinoid metabolism in yellow perch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defo, Michel A. [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bernatchez, Louis [Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C. [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada); Couture, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.couture@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Cd and Ni affected indicators of retinoid metabolism and oxidative stress in fish. • Liver rdh-2 transcription levels increase in fish exposed to waterborne Cd. • Liver REH and LdRAT activities increase with increasing kidney Cd concentration. • Changes at molecular levels do not always mean changes at the functional levels. • Multi-level biological approaches are needed when assessing fish metal toxicology. - Abstract: In this experiment, we studied the transcriptional and functional (enzymatic) responses of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) to metal stress, with a focus on oxidative stress and vitamin A metabolism. Juvenile yellow perch were exposed to two environmentally relevant concentrations of waterborne cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) for a period of 6 weeks. Kidney Cd and Ni bioaccumulation significantly increased with increasing metal exposure. The major retinoid metabolites analyzed in liver and muscle decreased with metal exposure except at high Cd exposure where no variation was reported in liver. A decrease in free plasma dehydroretinol was also observed with metal exposure. In the liver of Cd-exposed fish, both epidermal retinol dehydrogenase 2 transcription level and corresponding enzyme activities retinyl ester hydrolase and lecithin dehydroretinyl acyl transferase increased. In contrast, muscle epidermal retinol dehydrogenase 2 transcription level decreased with Cd exposure. Among antioxidant defences, liver transcription levels of catalase, microsomal glutathione-S-transferase-3 and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were generally enhanced in Cd-exposed fish and this up-regulation was accompanied by an increase in the activities of corresponding enzymes, except for microsomal glutathione-S-transferase. No consistent pattern in antioxidant defence responses was observed between molecular and biochemical response when fish were exposed to Ni, suggesting a non-synchronous response of antioxidant defence in fish exposed to

  15. Exposure to lead in water and cysteine non-oxidative metabolism in Pelophylax ridibundus tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczor, Marta [Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7, 31-034 Krakow (Poland); Sura, Piotr [Department of Human Developmental Biology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7, 31-034 Krakow (Poland); Bronowicka-Adamska, Patrycja [Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7, 31-034 Krakow (Poland); Wrobel, Maria, E-mail: mbwrobel@cyf-kr.edu.pl [Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7, 31-034 Krakow (Poland)

    2013-02-15

    Chronic, low-level exposure to metals is an increasing global problem. Lead is an environmentally persistent toxin that causes many lead-related pathologies, directly affects tissues and cellular components or exerts an effect of the generation of reactive oxygen species causing a diminished level of available sulfhydryl antioxidant reserves. Cysteine is one of substrates in the synthesis of glutathione - the most important cellular antioxidant, and it may also undergo non-oxidative desulfuration that produces compounds containing sulfane sulfur atoms. The aim of the experiment was to examine changes of the non-oxidative metabolism of cysteine and the levels of cysteine and glutathione in the kidneys, heart, brain, liver and muscle of Marsh frogs (Pelophylax ridibundus) exposed to 28 mg/L Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} for 10 days. The activities of sulfurtransferases, enzymes related to the sulfane sulfur metabolism - 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransfearse, {gamma}-cystathionase and rhodanese - were detected in tissue homogenates. The activity of sulfurtransferases was much higher in the kidneys of frogs exposed to lead in comparison to control frogs, not exposed to lead. The level of sulfane sulfur remained unchanged. Similarly, the total level of cysteine did not change significantly. The total levels of glutathione and the cysteine/cystine and GSH/GSSG ratios were elevated. Thus, it seems that the exposure to lead intensified the metabolism of sulfane sulfur and glutathione synthesis in the kidneys. The results presented in this work not only confirm the participation of GSH in the detoxification of lead ions and/or products appearing in response to their presence, such as reactive oxygen species, but also indicate the involvement of sulfane sulfur and rhodanese in this process (e.g. brain). As long as the expression of enzymatic proteins (rhodanese, MPST and CST) is not examined, no answer will be provided to the question whether changes in their activity are due to

  16. The Effect of Dietary Fish Oil in addition to Lifestyle Counselling on Lipid Oxidation and Body Composition in Slightly Overweight Teenage Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maiken Højgaard; Mølgaard, C.; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    /d) or vegetable oil for 16 weeks. All boys were counselled to improve diet and exercise habits. Results. Lifestyle counselling resulted in decreased sugar intake but did not change the physical activity level. Whole-body fat% decreased 0.7 ± 2.5% and 0.6 ± 2.2%, resting metabolic rate after the intervention......Objective. n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have shown potential to increase lipid oxidation and prevent obesity. Subjects. Seventy-eight boys aged 13–15 y with whole-body fat% of 30 ± 9% were randomly assigned to consume bread with fish oil (FO) (1.5 g n-3 LCPUFA...

  17. Oxidative metabolism of astrocytes is not reduced in hepatic encephalopathy: a PET study with [11C]acetate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Mouridsen, Kim; Hansen, Mikkel Bo

    2014-01-01

    In patients with impaired liver function and hepatic encephalopathy (HE), consistent elevations of blood ammonia concentration suggest a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HE. Ammonia and acetate are metabolized in brain both primarily in astrocytes. Here, we used dynamic [(11)C]acetate PET...... of healthy subjects (P effect of reduced cerebral blood flow rather than a reflection of low [(11)C]acetate metabolism. We conclude that the characteristic decline of whole-brain oxidative metabolism in patients with cirrhosis with HE is not due to malfunction...

  18. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Sang Woon; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2012-04-01

    Excessive oxidative stress and abnormal blood lipids may cause chronic diseases. This risk can be reduced by consuming an antioxidant- and fiber-rich vegetarian diet. We compared biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and lipid profiles of sex- and age-matched long-term vegetarians and omnivores in Korea. Forty-five vegetarians (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 49.5 ± 5.3 years), who had maintained a vegetarian diet for a minimum of 15 years, and 30 omnivores (15 men and 15 women; mean age, 48.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Their 1-day, 24-h recall, and 2-day dietary records were analyzed. Oxidative stress was measured by the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Antioxidant status was determined by the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We observed that vegetarians had a significantly lower body fat percentage (21.6 ± 6.4%) than that of omnivores (25.4 ± 4.6%; P vegetarians than those in omnivores (331.82 ± 77.96 and 375.80 ± 67.26 Carratelli units; P vegetarians and omnivores were 173.73 ± 31.42 mg/dL and 193.17 ± 37.89 mg/dL, respectively (P vegetarians and omnivores, respectively, indicating that vegetarians had significantly lower lipid levels. Thus, oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels were lower in long-term vegetarians than those in omnivores.

  19. Metabolic syndrome in HD patients: association with body composition, nutritional status, inflammation and serum iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasic-Milutinovic, Zorica; Perunicic, Gordana; Pljesa, Steva; Gluvic, Zoran; Ilic, Mirka; Stokić, Edith

    2007-01-01

    Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MeS) are common in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Such metabolic and clinical abnormalities may lead to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The study group included 22 well-nourished and 20 middle- to moderate-malnourished, stable ESRD patients, with median dialysis duration of 48 months (IQR 24.5-82.0). To determine nutritional status, body composition, inflammatory biomarkers and the presence of MeS subjective global assessment (SGA), anthropometrical measurements (BMI and waist circumference), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and biochemical parameters [the levels of serum albumin, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, hematocrit, hemoglobin, iron, TIBC, transferrin saturation (TSAT), ferritin, calcium, phosphorus, intact parathormone (i-PTH), TNF-alpha, IL-6 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)] were used. All parameters were evaluated by comparisons between two groups, with MeS (Group 2) and without it (Group 1). Logistical regression analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between measured variables and the presence of MeS in HD patients. Independent variables for MeS were identified by backward multivariate regression analysis. To identify the independent predictors for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) multivariate regression analysis was conducted, after linear regression analysis. After adjustment for confounding variables, a model consisting of serum levels of iron, transferrin saturation (TSAT), and BMI which accounted for 62% of the variance in MeS, determined only BMI as an independent marker (according to ATP-III criteria). But, serum glucose level, iron, waist and total fat mass accounted for 68% of the variance in MeS, according to IDF criteria. Glucose level was an independent predictor. BMI and iron, as independent variables, contributed to 29% of the variance in IR HOMA, the sensitive marker of MeS. The present study

  20. Dissimilatory Metabolism of Nitrogen Oxides in Bacteria:Comparative Reconstruction of Transcriptional Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Dubchak, Inna L.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, EricJ.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

    2005-09-01

    Bacterial response to nitric oxide (NO) is of major importance since NO is an obligatory intermediate of the nitrogen cycle. Transcriptional regulation of the dissimilatory nitric oxides metabolism in bacteria is diverse and involves FNR-like transcription factors HcpR, DNR and NnrR, two-component systems NarXL and NarQP, NO-responsive activator NorR, and nitrite sensitive repressor NsrR. Using comparative genomics approaches we predict DNA-binding signals for these transcriptional factors and describe corresponding regulons in available bacterial genomes. Within the FNR family of regulators, we observed a correlation of two specificity-determining amino acids and contacting bases in corresponding DNA signal. Highly conserved regulon HcpR for the hybrid cluster protein and some other redox enzymes is present in diverse anaerobic bacteria including Clostridia, Thermotogales and delta-proteobacteria. NnrR and DNR control denitrification in alpha- and beta-proteobacteria, respectively. Sigma-54-dependent NorR regulon found in some gamma- and beta-proteobacteria contains various enzymes involved in the NO detoxification. Repressor NsrR, which was previously known to control only nitrite reductase operon in Nitrosomonas spp., appears to be the master regulator of the nitric oxides metabolism not only in most gamma- and beta-proteobacteria (including well-studied species like Escherichia coli), but also in Gram-positive Bacillus and Streptomyces species. Positional analysis and comparison of regulatory regions of NO detoxification genes allows us to propose the candidate NsrR-binding signal. The most conserved member of the predicted NsrR regulon is the NO-detoxifying flavohemoglobin Hmp. In enterobacteria, the regulon includes also two nitrite-responsive loci, nipAB (hcp-hcr) and nipC(dnrN), thus confirming the identity of the effector, i.e., nitrite. The proposed NsrR regulons in Neisseria and some other species are extended to include denitrification genes. As the

  1. Dissimilatory metabolism of nitrogen oxides in bacteria: comparative reconstruction of transcriptional networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial response to nitric oxide (NO is of major importance since NO is an obligatory intermediate of the nitrogen cycle. Transcriptional regulation of the dissimilatory nitric oxides metabolism in bacteria is diverse and involves FNR-like transcription factors HcpR, DNR, and NnrR; two-component systems NarXL and NarQP; NO-responsive activator NorR; and nitrite-sensitive repressor NsrR. Using comparative genomics approaches, we predict DNA-binding motifs for these transcriptional factors and describe corresponding regulons in available bacterial genomes. Within the FNR family of regulators, we observed a correlation of two specificity-determining amino acids and contacting bases in corresponding DNA recognition motif. Highly conserved regulon HcpR for the hybrid cluster protein and some other redox enzymes is present in diverse anaerobic bacteria, including Clostridia, Thermotogales, and delta-proteobacteria. NnrR and DNR control denitrification in alpha- and beta-proteobacteria, respectively. Sigma-54-dependent NorR regulon found in some gamma- and beta-proteobacteria contains various enzymes involved in the NO detoxification. Repressor NsrR, which was previously known to control only nitrite reductase operon in Nitrosomonas spp., appears to be the master regulator of the nitric oxides' metabolism, not only in most gamma- and beta-proteobacteria (including well-studied species such as Escherichia coli, but also in Gram-positive Bacillus and Streptomyces species. Positional analysis and comparison of regulatory regions of NO detoxification genes allows us to propose the candidate NsrR-binding motif. The most conserved member of the predicted NsrR regulon is the NO-detoxifying flavohemoglobin Hmp. In enterobacteria, the regulon also includes two nitrite-responsive loci, nipAB (hcp-hcr and nipC (dnrN, thus confirming the identity of the effector, i.e. nitrite. The proposed NsrR regulons in Neisseria and some other species are extended to include

  2. Elevational variation in adult body size and growth rate but not in metabolic rate in the tree weta Hemideina crassidens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarella, Mariana; Trewick, Steven A; Godfrey, A Jonathan R; Sinclair, Brent J; Morgan-Richards, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Populations of the same species inhabiting distinct localities experience different ecological and climatic pressures that might result in differentiation in traits, particularly those related to temperature. We compared metabolic rate (and its thermal sensitivity), growth rate, and body size among nine high- and low-elevation populations of the Wellington tree weta, Hemideina crassidens, distributed from 9 to 1171 m a.s.l across New Zealand. Our results did not indicate elevational compensation in metabolic rates (metabolic cold adaptation). Cold acclimation decreased metabolic rate compared to warm-acclimated individuals from both high- and low-elevation populations. However, we did find countergradient variation in growth rates, with individuals from high-elevation populations growing faster and to a larger final size than individuals from low-elevation populations. Females grew faster to a larger size than males, although as adults their metabolic rates did not differ significantly. The combined physiological and morphological data suggest that high-elevation individuals grow quickly and achieve larger size while maintaining metabolic rates at levels not significantly different from low-elevation individuals. Thus, morphological differentiation among tree weta populations, in concert with genetic variation, might provide the material required for adaptation to changing conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Low dose/low fluence ionizing radiation-induced biological effects: The role of intercellular communication and oxidative metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Edouard

    Mechanistic investigations have been considered critical to understanding the health risks of exposure to ionizing radiation. To gain greater insight in the biological effects of exposure to low dose/low fluence space radiations with different linear energy transfer (LET) properties, we examined short and long-term biological responses to energetic protons and high charge (Z) and high energy (E) ions (HZE particles) in human cells maintained in culture and in targeted and non-targeted tissues of irradiated rodents. Particular focus of the studies has been on mod-ulation of gene expression, proliferative capacity, induction of DNA damage and perturbations in oxidative metabolism. Exposure to mean doses of 1000 MeV/nucleon iron ions, by which a small to moderate proportion of cells in an exposed population is targeted through the nucleus by an HZE particle, induced stressful effects in the irradiated and non-irradiated cells in the population. Direct intercellular communication via gap-junctions was a primary mediator of the propagation of stressful effects from irradiated to non-irradiated cells. Compromised prolif-erative capacity, elevated level of DNA damage and oxidative stress evaluated by measurements of protein carbonylation, lipid peroxidation and activity of metabolic enzymes persisted in the progeny of irradiated and non-irradiated cells. In contrast, progeny of cells exposed to high or low doses from 150-1000 MeV protons retained the ability to form colonies and harbored similar levels of micronuclei, a surrogate form of DNA damage, as control, which correlated with normal reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Importantly, a significant increase in the spontaneous neoplastic transformation frequency was observed in progeny of bystander mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) co-cultured with MEFs irradiated with energetic iron ions but not protons. Of particular significance, stressful effects were detected in non-targeted tissues of rats that received partial

  4. Impaired cross-talk between mesolimbic food reward processing and metabolic signaling predicts body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe J Simon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The anticipation of the pleasure derived from food intake drives the motivation to eat, and hence facilitate overconsumption of food which ultimately results in obesity. Brain imaging studies provide evidence that mesolimbic brain regions underlie both general as well as food related anticipatory reward processing. In light of this knowledge, the present study examined the neural responsiveness of the ventral striatum in participants with a broad BMI spectrum. The study differentiated between general (i.e. monetary and food related anticipatory reward processing. We recruited a sample of volunteers with greatly varying body weights, ranging from a low BMI (below 20 kg/m² over a normal (20 to 25 kg/m² and overweight (25 to 30 kg/m² BMI, to class I (30 to 35 kg/m² and class II (35 to 40 kg/m² obesity. A total of 24 participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging whilst performing both a food and monetary incentive delay task, which allows to measure neural activation during the anticipation of rewards. After the presentation of a cue indicating the amount of food or money to be won, participants had to react correctly in order to earn snack points or money coins which could then be exchanged for real food or money, respectively, at the end of the experiment. During the anticipation of both types of rewards, participants displayed activity in the ventral striatum, a region that plays a pivotal role in the anticipation of rewards. Additionally, we observed that specifically anticipatory food reward processing predicted the individual BMI (current and maximum lifetime. This relation was found to be mediated by impaired hormonal satiety signaling, i.e. increased leptin levels and insulin resistance. These findings suggest that heightened food reward motivation contributes to obesity through impaired metabolic signaling.

  5. Effects of nitrous oxide on cerebral haemodynamics and metabolism during isoflurane anaesthesia in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algotsson, L.; Messeter, K. (Department of Anaesthesiology, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)); Rosen, I. (Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)); Holmin, T. (Department of Surgery, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden))

    1992-01-01

    Seven normoventilated and five hyperventilated healthy adults undergoing cholecystectomy and anaesthetized with methohexitone, fentanyl and pancuronium were studied with measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cereal metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRo[sub 2]), and quantified electroencephalography (EEG) under two sets of conditions: (1) 1.7% end-tidal concentration of isoflurane in air/oxygen: (2) 0.85% end-tidal concentration of isoflurane in nitrous oxide (N[sub 2]O)/oxygen. The object was to study the effects of N[sub 2]O during isoflurane anaesthesia on cerebral circulation, metabolism and neuroelectric activity. N[sub 2]O in the anaesthetic gas mixture caused a 43% (P<0.05) increase in CBF during normocarbic conditions but no significant change during hypocapnia. CMRo[sub 2] was not significantly altered by N[sub 2]O. EEG demonstrated an activated pattern with decreased low frequency activity and increased high frequency activity. The results confirm that N[sub 2]O is a potent cerebral vasodilator in man, although the mechanisms underlying the effects on CBF are still unclear. (au).

  6. Effect of Centella asiatica on oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemic animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Shu, Ping; Zhang, Youzhi; Lin, Limin; Zhou, Haihong; Xu, Zhentian; Suo, Daqin; Xie, Anzhi; Jin, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia and many other metabolic diseases are related to oxidative stress. Centella asiatica is a traditional Chinese medicine whose antioxidant effect in vitro has been reported. We are interested in whether it possesses this effect in vivo and hence modulates lipid metabolism. Therefore, experiments were carried out on mice and golden hamsters regarding its antioxidant and hypolipidemic effect. We observed that a fraction (CAF3) of the ethanol extract (CAE) of Centella asiatica had a cholesterol decrease of 79% and a triglyceride decrease of 95% in acute mice model, so CAF3 was further investigated in high-fat-fed hamster model. It was shown that CAF3 increased SOD and GSH-Px activities and decreased MDA level, and it also improved TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, AST, and ALT levels. L-CAT and SR-BI gene expression in hamsters were increased. Taken together, our data suggest that the CAF3 fraction of Centella asiatica has antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties.

  7. Effect of Centella asiatica on Oxidative Stress and Lipid Metabolism in Hyperlipidemic Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia and many other metabolic diseases are related to oxidative stress. Centella asiatica is a traditional Chinese medicine whose antioxidant effect in vitro has been reported. We are interested in whether it possesses this effect in vivo and hence modulates lipid metabolism. Therefore, experiments were carried out on mice and golden hamsters regarding its antioxidant and hypolipidemic effect. We observed that a fraction (CAF3 of the ethanol extract (CAE of Centella asiatica had a cholesterol decrease of 79% and a triglyceride decrease of 95% in acute mice model, so CAF3 was further investigated in high-fat-fed hamster model. It was shown that CAF3 increased SOD and GSH-Px activities and decreased MDA level, and it also improved TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, AST, and ALT levels. L-CAT and SR-BI gene expression in hamsters were increased. Taken together, our data suggest that the CAF3 fraction of Centella asiatica has antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties.

  8. Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Perturbations in Wooden Breast Disorder in Chickens.

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    Behnam Abasht

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to characterize metabolic features of the breast muscle (pectoralis major in chickens affected with the Wooden Breast myopathy. Live birds from two purebred chicken lines and one crossbred commercial broiler population were clinically examined by manual palpation of the breast muscle (pectoralis major at 47-48 days of age. Metabolite abundance was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS using breast muscle tissue samples from 16 affected and 16 unaffected chickens. Muscle glycogen content was also quantified in breast muscle tissue samples from affected and unaffected chickens. In total, levels of 140 biochemicals were significantly different (FDR1.3 or <0.77 between affected and unaffected chickens. Glycogen content measurements were considerably lower (1.7-fold in samples taken from Wooden Breast affected birds when compared with samples from unaffected birds. Affected tissues exhibited biomarkers related to increased oxidative stress, elevated protein levels, muscle degradation, and altered glucose utilization. Affected muscle also showed elevated levels of hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate molecules, the generation of which can contribute to altered redox homeostasis. In conclusion, our findings show that Wooden Breast affected tissues possess a unique metabolic signature. This unique profile may identify candidate biomarkers for diagnostic utilization and provide mechanistic insight into altered biochemical processes contributing to tissue hardening associated with the Wooden Breast myopathy in commercial chickens.

  9. Synergistic effects between catalase inhibitors and modulators of nitric oxide metabolism on tumor cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheit, Katrin; Bauer, Georg

    2014-10-01

    Inhibitors of catalase (such as ascorbate, methyldopa, salicylic acid and neutralizing antibodies) synergize with modulators of nitric oxide (NO) metabolism (such as arginine, arginase inhibitor, NO synthase-inducing interferons and NO dioxygenase inhibitors) in the singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase. This is followed by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent apoptosis induction. TGF-beta, NADPH oxidase-1, NO synthase, dual oxidase-1 and caspase-9 are characterized as essential catalysts in this process. The FAS receptor and caspase-8 are required for amplification of ROS signaling triggered by individual compounds, but are dispensable when the synergistic effect is established. Our findings explain the antitumor effects of catalase inhibitors and of compounds that target NO metabolism, as well as their synergy. These data may have an impact on epidemiological studies related to secondary plant compounds and open new perspectives for the establishment of novel antitumor drugs and for the improvement of established chemotherapeutics. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Mammalian Tissue Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation: The Role of Oxidative Metabolism and Intercellular Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzam, Edouard I

    2013-01-16

    The objective of the project was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose/low dose rate ionizing radiation in organs/tissues of irradiated mice that differ in their susceptibility to ionizing radiation, and in human cells grown under conditions that mimic the natural in vivo environment. The focus was on the effects of sparsely ionizing cesium-137 gamma rays and the role of oxidative metabolism and intercellular communication in these effects. Four Specific Aims were proposed. The integrated outcome of the experiments performed to investigate these aims has been significant towards developing a scientific basis to more accurately estimate human health risks from exposures to low doses ionizing radiation. By understanding the biochemical and molecular changes induced by low dose radiation, several novel markers associated with mitochondrial functions were identified, which has opened new avenues to investigate metabolic processes that may be affected by such exposure. In particular, a sensitive biomarker that is differentially modulated by low and high dose gamma rays was discovered.

  11. Imitation of phase I oxidative metabolism of anabolic steroids by titanium dioxide photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruokolainen, Miina; Valkonen, Minna; Sikanen, Tiina; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto

    2014-12-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysis for oxidation of anabolic steroids and for imitation of their phase I metabolism. The photocatalytic reaction products of five anabolic steroids were compared to their phase I in vitro metabolites produced by human liver microsomes (HLM). The same main reaction types - hydroxylation, dehydrogenation and combination of these two - were observed both in TiO2 photocatalysis and in microsomal incubations. Several isomers of each product type were formed in both systems. Based on the same mass, retention time and similarity of the product ion spectra, many of the products observed in HLM reactions were also formed in TiO2 photocatalytic reactions. However, products characteristic to only either one of the systems were also formed. In conclusion, TiO2 photocatalysis is a rapid, simple and inexpensive method for imitation of phase I metabolism of anabolic steroids and production of metabolite standards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxicity of graphene oxide on growth and metabolism of Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combarros, R G; Collado, S; Díaz, M

    2016-06-05

    The increasing consumption of graphene derivatives leads to greater presence of these materials in wastewater treatment plants and ecological systems. The toxicity effect of graphene oxide (GO) on the microbial functions involved in the biological wastewater treatment process is studied, using Pseudomonas putida and salicylic acid (SA) as bacterial and pollutant models. A multiparametric flow cytometry (FC) method has been developed to measure the metabolic activity and viability of P. putida in contact with GO. A continuous reduction in the percentages of viable cells and a slight increase, lower than 5%, in the percentages of damaged and dead cells, suggest that P. putida in contact with GO loses the membrane integrity but preserves metabolic activity. The growth of P. putida was strongly inhibited by GO, since 0.05mgmL(-1) of GO reduced the maximum growth by a third, and the inhibition was considerably greater for GO concentrations higher than 0.1mgmL(-1). The specific SA removal rate decreased with GO concentration up to 0.1mgmL(-1) indicating that while GO always reduces the growth of P. putida, for concentrations higher than 0.1mgmL(-1), it also reduces its activity. Similar behaviour is observed using simulated urban and industrial wastewaters, the observed effects being more acute in the industrial wastewaters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between metabolic syndrome components and oxidative stress in elderly community-dwelling Mexicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Martínez-Cruz, Mauricio; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2010-01-01

    To determine the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and oxidative stress (OxS) in elderly community-dwelling Mexicans. We carried out a comparative cross-sectional study on 113 elderly subjects (> or =60 years old); 50 of them did not have MetS and 63 did have MetS (based on Adult Treatment Panel III criteria). We measured total antioxidant status (TAS), plasma lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and calculated the SOD/GPx ratio. High blood pressure (HBP) was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) > or =140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > or =90 mm Hg. We found a statistically significant increase in the percentage of cases of severe OxS in elderly subjects with MetS in comparison to healthy elderly (17 vs. 8%, OR: 7.33, 95% CI: 1.38-42.39; p < 0.01). It was observed that subjects with 5 MetS components had a 10-fold higher risk of developing OxS than subjects with 1 component (OR: 11.00, 95% CI: 1.72-115.17; p < 0.01). A positive correlation between SBP and LPO (r = 0.202, p < 0.05), and a negative correlation of SBP and DBP with TAS activity (r = -0.232, p < 0.05; r = -0.211, p < 0.05) were also observed. Our findings suggest that MetS is linked to severe OxS, that the number of metabolic syndrome components is a significant risk factor in the development of OxS, and that HBP is the most important metabolic syndrome component linked to OxS in the elderly.

  14. The impact of body weight gain on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome during earlier and later adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shanshan; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Wei; Li, Chunlong; Li, Yanchuan; Feng, Rennan; Sun, Changhao

    2016-06-01

    Body weight gain adds risk for metabolic disorders and there are different metabolic changes in earlier and later adulthood. However, its impact on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was indeterminate. The aim of current study was to evaluate the impact of body weight gain on NAFLD and metabolic syndrome (MetS) during overall, earlier (25-40y) and later (over 40y) adulthood. 1119 subjects were selected to calculate changes in body weight (ΔBW), body mass index (BMI) (ΔBMI) and bodyweight per year (ΔBW/y) to analysis their impact on NAFLD and MetS in multi-variable regression models, and explored the potential mediators that associated ΔBMI with NAFLD by mediation analysis. ΔBMI, ΔBW and ΔBW/y in whole adulthood were all positively associated with NAFLD and MetS. Body weight gain during earlier adulthood was more strongly associated with NAFLD than those during later adulthood. In NAFLD, the ORs of ΔBMI (third trisection), ΔBW and ΔBW/y were 3.86 (2.25, 6.57), 1.05 (1.02, 1.09) and 2.05 (1.29, 3.24) during earlier adulthood, and 1.47 (1.09, 2.02), 1.02 (1.00, 1.06), and 1.04 (.99, 1.13) over 40y. Insulin and HOMA-IR were important intermediates that associated ΔBMI with NAFLD. ΔBMI in earlier adulthood increased higher insulin and insulin resistance (IR) than later adulthood. Body weight gain in adulthood was positively associated with NAFLD and MetS, and the association was stronger in earlier than later adulthood. Insulin and IR were important mediators that contributed to the association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. From whole body to cellular models of hepatic triglyceride metabolism: man has got to know his limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Charlotte J; Pramfalk, Camilla; Morten, Karl J; Hodson, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a main metabolic organ in the human body and carries out a vital role in lipid metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases, encompassing a spectrum of conditions from simple fatty liver (hepatic steatosis) through to cirrhosis. Although obesity is a known risk factor for hepatic steatosis, it remains unclear what factor(s) is/are responsible for the primary event leading to retention of intrahepatocellular fat. Studying hepatic processes and the etiology and progression of disease in vivo in humans is challenging, not least as NAFLD may take years to develop. We present here a review of experimental models and approaches that have been used to assess liver triglyceride metabolism and discuss their usefulness in helping to understand the aetiology and development of NAFLD. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Changes in cerebral oxidative metabolism during neonatal seizures following hypoxic ischemic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhabrata Mitra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seizures are common following hypoxic ischemic brain injury in newborn infants. Prolonged or recurrent seizures have been shown to exacerbate neuronal damage in the developing brain, however the precise mechanism is not fully understood. Cytochrome-c-oxidase is responsible for more than 90% of ATP production inside mitochondria. Using a novel broadband near-infrared spectroscopy system we measured the concentration changes in the oxidation state of cerebral cytochrome-c-oxidase (Δ[oxCCO] and hemodynamics during recurrent neonatal seizures following hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in a newborn infant. A rapid increase in Δ[oxCCO] was noted at the onset of seizures along with a rise in the baseline of amplitude integrated electro-encephalogram (aEEG. Cerebral oxygenation and cerebral blood volume fell just prior to the seizure onset but recovered rapidly during seizures. Δ[oxCCO] during seizures correlated with changes in mean EEG voltage indicating an increase in neuronal activation and energy demand. The progressive decline in the Δ[oxCCO] baseline during seizures suggests a progressive decrease of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.

  17. Association of Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers with Metabolic Syndrome in Asian Indians in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena S. Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is associated with a proinflammatory state. Here, we assessed the contribution of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers towards prediction of MetS. A total of 2316 individuals were recruited in Phase I of the Indian Atherosclerosis Research Study (IARS. Modified ATPIII guidelines were used for classification of subjects with MetS. Among the inflammatory and oxidative stress markers studied, levels of hsCRP (P<.0001, Neopterin (P=.036, and oxLDL (P<.0001 were significantly higher among subjects with MetS. Among the markers we tested, oxLDL stood out as a robust predictor of MetS in the IARS population (OR 4.956 95% CI 2.504–9.810; P<.0001 followed by hsCRP (OR 1.324 95% CI 1.070–1.638; P=.010. In conclusion, oxLDL is a candidate predictor for MetS in the Asian Indian population.

  18. Proteomic Characterization of Armillaria mellea Reveals Oxidative Stress Response Mechanisms and Altered Secondary Metabolism Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Collins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Armillaria mellea is a major plant pathogen. Yet, the strategies the organism uses to infect susceptible species, degrade lignocellulose and other plant material and protect itself against plant defences and its own glycodegradative arsenal are largely unknown. Here, we use a combination of gel and MS-based proteomics to profile A. mellea under conditions of oxidative stress and changes in growth matrix. 2-DE and LC-MS/MS were used to investigate the response of A. mellea to H2O2 and menadione/FeCl3 exposure, respectively. Several proteins were detected with altered abundance in response to H2O2, but not menadione/FeCl3 (i.e., valosin-containing protein, indicating distinct responses to these different forms of oxidative stress. One protein, cobalamin-independent methionine synthase, demonstrated a common response in both conditions, which may be a marker for a more general stress response mechanism. Further changes to the A. mellea proteome were investigated using MS-based proteomics, which identified changes to putative secondary metabolism (SM enzymes upon growth in agar compared to liquid cultures. Metabolomic analyses revealed distinct profiles, highlighting the effect of growth matrix on SM production. This establishes robust methods by which to utilize comparative proteomics to characterize this important phytopathogen.

  19. Proteomic Characterization of Armillaria mellea Reveals Oxidative Stress Response Mechanisms and Altered Secondary Metabolism Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Cassandra; Hurley, Rachel; Almutlaqah, Nada; O'Keeffe, Grainne; Keane, Thomas M; Fitzpatrick, David A; Owens, Rebecca A

    2017-09-17

    Armillaria mellea is a major plant pathogen. Yet, the strategies the organism uses to infect susceptible species, degrade lignocellulose and other plant material and protect itself against plant defences and its own glycodegradative arsenal are largely unknown. Here, we use a combination of gel and MS-based proteomics to profile A. mellea under conditions of oxidative stress and changes in growth matrix. 2-DE and LC-MS/MS were used to investigate the response of A. mellea to H₂O₂ and menadione/FeCl₃ exposure, respectively. Several proteins were detected with altered abundance in response to H₂O₂, but not menadione/FeCl₃ (i.e., valosin-containing protein), indicating distinct responses to these different forms of oxidative stress. One protein, cobalamin-independent methionine synthase, demonstrated a common response in both conditions, which may be a marker for a more general stress response mechanism. Further changes to the A. mellea proteome were investigated using MS-based proteomics, which identified changes to putative secondary metabolism (SM) enzymes upon growth in agar compared to liquid cultures. Metabolomic analyses revealed distinct profiles, highlighting the effect of growth matrix on SM production. This establishes robust methods by which to utilize comparative proteomics to characterize this important phytopathogen.

  20. Oxidative metabolism is associated with physiological disorders in fruits stored under multiple environmental stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Geoffrey B; Shelp, Barry J; DeEll, Jennifer R; Bozzo, Gale G

    2016-04-01

    In combination with low temperature, controlled atmosphere storage and 1-methylcyclopropene (ethylene antagonist) application are used to delay senescence of many fruits and vegetables. Controlled atmosphere consists of low O2 and elevated CO2. When sub-optimal partial pressures are used, these practices represent multiple abiotic stresses that can promote the development of physiological disorders in pome fruit, including flesh browning and cavities, although there is some evidence for genetic differences in susceptibility. In the absence of surface disorders, fruit with flesh injuries are not easily distinguished from asymptomatic fruit until these are consumed. Oxidative stress metabolites tend to accumulate (e.g., γ-aminobutyrate) or rapidly decline (e.g., ascorbate and glutathione) in vegetative tissues exposed to hypoxic and/or elevated CO2 environments. Moreover, these phenomena can be associated with altered energy and redox status. Biochemical investigations of Arabidopsis and tomato plants with genetically-altered levels of enzymes associated with the γ-aminobutyrate shunt and the ascorbate-glutathione pathway indicate that these metabolic processes are functionally related and critical for dampening the oxidative burst in vegetative and fruit tissues, respectively. Here, we hypothesize that γ-aminobutyrate accumulation, as well energy and antioxidant depletion are associated with the development of physiological injury in pome fruit under multiple environmental stresses. An improved understanding of this relationship could assist in maintaining the quality of stored fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oxidative stress and imbalance of mineral metabolism contribute to lameness in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Jun; Wang, Xin-Yu; Wang, Jun-Hong; Wang, Zhen-Yong; Wang, Lin; Wang, Zhong-Hua

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate correlations between oxidative stress, metabolism of mineral elements, and lameness in dairy cows. Forty multiparous Chinese Holstein dairy cows were selected and divided into two groups (healthy vs lame, n = 20) by gait score. The experiment lasted for 60 days and samples of hair, blood, and hoof were collected at days 0, 30, and 60 of experiment period, individually. Compared with healthy cows, elevation of MDA, CTX-II, COMP levels, and GSSG/GSH ratio together with depletion of SOD and MT levels in the serum were revealed in lame cows. Simultaneously, significant decreased contents of Zn, Cu, and Mn in the serum, hair, and hoof samples were shown in lame cows, but there was no obvious difference in contents of P, Mg, and Ca (except hoof Ca) in the serum, hair, and hoof between healthy and lame cows. In addition, histological examination and the hardness test demonstrated a poor hoof quality in lame cows. In summary, oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of lameness caused by imbalance of nutrients (especially selective minerals promoting healthy hoof growth) in dairy cows.

  2. Cut-off value of body fat in association with metabolic syndrome in Thai peri- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintvihok, W; Chaikittisilpa, S; Panyakamlerd, K; Jaisamrarn, U; Taechakraichana, N

    2013-06-01

    Pathophysiologic changes during the menopause transition may contribute to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Body fat composition, particularly visceral fat, is highly associated with increased insulin resistance, abnormal carbohydrate metabolism and high blood pressure. We purposefully wished to determine the optimal cut-off values of body fat composition, including visceral fat, in order to predict MetS and to assess the prevalence of MetS in peri- and postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a population-based, prospective cohort at the Menopause and Gynecology clinics, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Body fat percentage and visceral fat rating were measured by a bioelectrical impedance analyzer (Tanita SC 330). MetS was diagnosed using the Harmonizing criteria of A Joint Interim Statement of IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO 2009. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to determine the optimal cut-off values of body fat, visceral fat, waist circumference and body mass index to identify peri- and postmenopausal women at risk of MetS. Ninety-two perimenopausal and 446 postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years were recruited for the analyses. The optimal cut-off values for body fat percentage, visceral fat rating, waist circumference and body mass index for identifying women at risk of MetS were 34%, 7, 88 cm and 24 kg/m(2), respectively. The prevalence of MetS in this study was 27.9%. The optimal cut-off values to predict MetS of body fat percentage, visceral fat and waist circumference were established. Using the Harmonizing 2009 criteria, we found that approximately one out of four peri- and postmenopausal women in this study had MetS.

  3. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among Chinese professional athletes of strength sports with different body weight categories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is an increasing concern on cardiometabolic health in young professional athletes at heavy-weight class. OBJECTIVE: Our cross-sectional survey aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and clustering of metabolic risk factors in a population of young and active professional athletes of strength sports in China. METHODS: From July 2006 to December 2008, a total of 131 male and 130 female athletes of strength sports were enrolled. We used two criteria provided by the Chinese Diabetes Society (2004 and the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (2002 to define the metabolic syndrome and its individual components, respectively. RESULTS: Regardless of their similar ages (mean: 21 years and exercise levels, athletes in the heaviest-weight-class with unlimited maximum body weight (UBW boundaries (mean weight and BMI: 130 kg and 38 kg/m(2 for men, 110 kg and 37 kg/m(2 for women had significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than did those in all other body-weight-class with limited body weight (LBW boundaries (mean weight and BMI: 105 kg and 32 kg/m(2 for men, 70 kg and 26 kg/m(2 for women. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using CDS criteria (UBW vs. LBW: 89% vs. 18% for men, 47% vs. 0% for women and its individual components, including central obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and impaired fasting glucose, were all significantly higher in athletes at the heaviest weight group with UBW than all other weight groups with LBW. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that professional athletes of strength sports at the heaviest-weight-class are at a significant increased risk of cardiometabolic disease compared with those at all other weight categories. The findings support the importance of developing and implementing the strategy of early screening, awareness, and interventions for weight-related health among young athletes.

  4. Metabolic Rather Than Body Composition Measurements Are Associated With Lower Serum Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations in Normal Weight and Obese Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla L; Nielsen, Søren J; Andersen, Ulrik B

    2014-01-01

    men (BMI ≥ 30kg/m(2)), we determined body composition (total, android, and gynoid fat mass) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning, and we measured fasting serum concentrations of midregional proatrial NP (MR-proANP) and insulin, as well as fasting plasma glucose concentrations. RESULTS: Mean.......0001) and plasma glucose concentrations (β = -0.21; P = 0.02) but not with total (β = 0.00), android (β = -0.01), or gynoid (β = 0.03) fat mass percentage (P > 0.76). No significant interaction effects between metabolic measurements or body composition measurements and weight status on MR-proANP concentrations...

  5. Methylphenidate treatment causes oxidative stress and alters energetic metabolism in an animal model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comim, Clarissa M; Gomes, Karin M; Réus, Gislaine Z; Petronilho, Fabrícia; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Streck, Emílio L; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate oxidative damage through the thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) and protein carbonyl groups; antioxidant enzymatic system - superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT); and energetic metabolism in the brain of spontaneously hypertensive adult rats (SHR) after both acute and chronic treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH). Adult (60 days old) SHRs were treated during 28 days (chronic treatment), or 1 day (acute treatment). The rats received one i.p. injection per day of either saline or MPH (2 mg/kg). Two hours after the last injection, oxidative damage parameters and energetic metabolism in the cerebellum, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cortex were evaluated. We observed that both acute and/or chronic treatment increased TBARS and carbonyl groups, and decreased SOD and CAT activities in many of the brain structures evaluated. Regarding the energetic metabolism evaluation, the acute and chronic treatment altered the energetic metabolism in many of the brain structures evaluated. We observed that both acute and chronic use of methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH) in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) was associated with increased oxidative stress and energetic metabolism alterations. These data also reinforce the importance of the SHR animal model in further studies regarding MPH.

  6. Metabolic coronary-flow regulation and exogenous nitric oxide in human coronary artery disease: assessment by intravenous administration of nitroglycerin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kal, J. E.; van Wezel, H. B.; Porsius, M.; Vergroesen, I.; Spaan, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the effect of intravenous administration of the nitric oxide--donor substance nitroglycerin (NTG) on metabolic coronary-flow regulation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). In 12 patients with stable CAD, we measured coronary sinus blood flow and myocardial oxygen

  7. Chloroguanide metabolism in relation to the efficacy in malaria prophylaxis and the S-mephenytoin oxidation in Tanzanians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjelbo, E; Mutabingwa, T K; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    1996-01-01

    S-Mephenytoin and chloroguanide (proguanil) oxidation was studied in 216 tanzanians. The mephenytoin S/R ratio in urine ranged from 0.9, were arbitrarily defined as poor metabolizers of mephenytoin. The chloroguanide/cycloguanil ratio ranged from 0.82 to 249. There was a significant correlation b...

  8. LLC-PK(1) cells maintained in a new perfusion cell culture system exhibit an improved oxidative metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felder, Edward; Jennings, Paul; Seppi, Thomas; Pfaller, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Cultured renal proximal tubule cells dedifferentiate from an oxidative metabolism to high rates of glycolysis over time. There are many reasons why cells in culture dedifferentiate, not least being a lack of homogenous nutrient supply and poor oxygenation. To this end we have developed a new cell

  9. The NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide riboside enhances oxidative metabolism and protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantó, Carles; Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; Pirinen, Eija; Youn, Dou Y.; Oosterveer, Maaike H.; Cen, Yana; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J.; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Andreux, Pénélope A.; Cettour-Rose, Philippe; Gademann, Karl; Rinsch, Chris; Schoonjans, Kristina; Sauve, Anthony A.; Auwerx, Johan

    2012-01-01

    As NAD(+) is a rate-limiting cosubstrate for the sirtuin enzymes, its modulation is emerging as a valuable tool to regulate sirtuin function and, consequently, oxidative metabolism. In line with this premise, decreased activity of PARP-1 or CD38-both NAD(+) consumers-increases NAD(+)

  10. An antiinflammatory dietary mix modulates inflammation and oxidative and metabolic stress in overweight men: A nutrigenomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, G.C.M.; Erk, M.J. van; Pellis, L.; Wopereis, S.; Rubingh, C.M.; Cnubben, N.H.P.; Kooistra, T.; Ommen, B. van; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low-grade chronic inflammation in overweight subjects is thought to play an important role in disease development. Objective: It was hypothesized that specific dietary components are able to reduce low-grade inflammation as well as metabolic and oxidative stress. Design: Dietary products

  11. Asiatic Acid Alleviates Hemodynamic and Metabolic Alterations via Restoring eNOS/iNOS Expression, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poungrat Pakdeechote

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asiatic acid is a triterpenoid isolated from Centella asiatica. The present study aimed to investigate whether asiatic acid could lessen the metabolic, cardiovascular complications in rats with metabolic syndrome (MS induced by a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (HCHF diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with HCHF diet with 15% fructose in drinking water for 12 weeks to induce MS. MS rats were treated with asiatic acid (10 or 20 mg/kg/day or vehicle for a further three weeks. MS rats had an impairment of oral glucose tolerance, increases in fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and hindlimb vascular resistance; these were related to the augmentation of vascular superoxide anion production, plasma malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α levels (p < 0.05. Plasma nitrate and nitrite (NOx were markedly high with upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression, but dowregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression (p < 0.05. Asiatic acid significantly improved insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, hemodynamic parameters, oxidative stress markers, plasma TNF-α, NOx, and recovered abnormality of eNOS/iNOS expressions in MS rats (p < 0.05. In conclusion, asiatic acid improved metabolic, hemodynamic abnormalities in MS rats that could be associated with its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effects and recovering regulation of eNOS/iNOS expression.

  12. Modulator Effect of Turmeric on Oxidative Damage in Whole Body Gamma Irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, H.H.; Abdou, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Because of its penetrating power and its ability to travel great distances, gamma rays are considered the primary hazard to the population during most radiological emergencies. So, there is a need to develop medical countermeasures to protect the first responders and remediation workers from biomedical effect of ionizing radiation. Turmeric has been reported to have many beneficial health effects, including a strong anti-oxidant effect, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. In the present study, turmeric was investigated as a therapeutic agent against hazards induced by ionizing radiation on kidney, liver, urinary and serum calcium levels and blood counts. A daily dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight was used in whole body gamma irradiated female rats with 3 Gy. Radiation effects were followed up for four weeks post irradiation. The results revealed that the administration of turmeric post-irradiation resulted in a significant inhibition in the frequency of radiation induced oxidative damage. It could be concluded that definite turmeric dose exerts a vital modulator role against gamma irradiation hazard

  13. Concurrent and aerobic exercise training promote similar benefits in body composition and metabolic profiles in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Paula Alves; Chen, Kong Y; Lira, Fabio Santos; Saraiva, Bruna Thamyres Cicotti; Antunes, Barbara Moura Mello; Campos, Eduardo Zapaterra; Freitas, Ismael Forte

    2015-11-26

    The prevalence of obesity in pediatric population is increasing at an accelerated rate in many countries, and has become a major public health concern. Physical activity, particularly exercise training, remains to be a cornerstone of pediatric obesity interventions. The purpose of our current randomized intervention trial was to compare the effects of two types of training matched for training volume, aerobic and concurrent, on body composition and metabolic profile in obese adolescents. Thus the aim of the study was compare the effects of two types of training matched for training volume, aerobic and concurrent, on body composition and metabolic profile in obese adolescents. 32 obese adolescents participated in two randomized training groups, concurrent or aerobic, for 20 weeks (50 mins x 3 per week, supervised), and were compared to a 16-subject control group. We measured the percentage body fat (%BF, primary outcome), fat-free mass, percentage of android fat by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and others metabolic profiles at baseline and after interventions, and compared them between groups using the Intent-to-treat design. In 20 weeks, both exercise training groups significantly reduced %BF by 2.9-3.6% as compare to no change in the control group (p = 0.042). There were also positive changes in lipid levels in exercise groups. No noticeable changes were found between aerobic and concurrent training groups. The benefits of exercise in reducing body fat and metabolic risk profiles can be achieved by performing either type of training in obese adolescents. RBR-4HN597.

  14. Fluoride Intensifies Hypercaloric Diet-Induced ER Oxidative Stress and Alters Lipid Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Aparecida Barbosa Silva Pereira

    Full Text Available Here, we evaluated the relationship of diet and F-induced oxidative stress to lipid metabolism in the liver of rats eating normocaloric or hypercaloric diets for two time periods (20 or 60 days.Seventy-two 21-day-old Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups (n = 36 based on the type of diet they were eating; each of these groups was then further divided into another two groups (n = 18 based on the time periods of either 20 or 60 days, for a total of four groups. Each of these was divided into 3 subgroups (n = 6 animals/subgroup, dependent on the dose of F administered in the drinking water (0 mg/L(control, 15 mg/L or 50 mg/L. After the experimental period, blood samples and the liver were collected. Plasma samples were analyzed for HDL, cholesterol and triglycerides. Western blots were performed to probe for GRP78, Erp29, SOD2, Apo-E and SREBP in hepatic tissues.As expected,the expression of target proteins involved in oxidative stress increased in the F-treated groups, especially in liver tissue obtained from animals eating a hypercaloric diet. Most changes in the lipid levels and pathological conditions were seen earlier in the time period, at day 20. The morphometric analyses showed a reduction in steatosis in groups on ahypercaloric diet and treated with 50 mg F/L compared to the control, while no changes were obtained in normocaloric-fed rats. Accordingly, plasma TG was reduced in the F-treated group. The reduced expression of Apo-E in a time- and diet-dependent pattern may account for the particular decrease in steatosis in hypercaloric-fed F-treated rats.These results suggest that F changes liver lipid homeostasis, possibly because of the induction of oxidative stress, which seems to be higher in animals fed hypercaloric diets.

  15. Sulfur amino acid metabolism in the whole body and mammary gland of the lactating Saanen goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.J.; Knutson, R.J.; Louie, K.; Harris, P.M.; Davis, S.R.; Mackenzie, D.D.S.

    1999-01-01

    Five multiparous Saanen goats in late lactation were infused with 35 S-cysteine into the mammary gland via the external pudic artery. A further 2 goats were infused with 35 S-methionine via the same artery and later with 35 S-methionine into the jugular vein. Total uptake of cysteine from the arterial blood supply by the mammary gland was approximately 6% of the 35 S-cysteine flux past the gland, whereas uptake of methionine was 30-40%. Total mammary uptake of cysteine was also lower than that of methionine when expressed as a percentage of whole body utilisation (6.5 and 14%, respectively). The uptake from the blood did not account for output in the milk for either cysteine or methionine. Both amino acids were highly conserved by the gland as shown by little release of any degraded constitutive protein amino acids and no evidence of oxidation products of either cysteine or methionine being released into the blood. Comparison of 35 S activity in the milk from the infused and non-infused sides of the gland showed up to 10% trans-sulfuration of methionine to cysteine within the gland, none of which was exported in the venous drainage. Total ATP production by one side of the gland was 12.1 mol/day or 13 mmol/min.kg mammary tissue, of which 15% was required for gland protein synthesis. The experimental measurements from both the cysteine and methionine infusions were used to solve a model of gland amino acid uptake and partitioning. Modelling radioactivity of both amino acids in the blood, intracellular free pool, and milk protein suggested that a single intracellular pool cannot be the only source of amino acid for protein synthesis. The model also provides support for the hypothesis that a significant proportion of the uptake of at least some amino acids by the mammary gland is from intracellular hydrolysis of extracellularly derived peptides. Copyright (2001) CSIRO Australia

  16. Assessing the Cost of Helping: The Roles of Body Condition and Oxidative Balance in the Seychelles Warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Crommenacker, Janske; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S.

    2011-01-01

    In cooperatively breeding species, helping close relatives may provide important fitness benefits. However, helping can be energetically expensive and may result in increased generation of reactive oxygen species. Consequently, an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance can lead to higher oxidative stress susceptibility. Given the potential costs of helping, it may be that only individuals with a sufficiently good body condition and/or stable oxidative balance can afford to help. Knowledge about relationships between social status and oxidative balance in cooperatively breeding systems is still limited. Studying these relationships is important for understanding the costs of helping and physiological pressures of reproduction. Here we evaluate the relationship between helping behaviour, body condition and oxidative balance in a wild population of the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). In this species, some subordinate individuals help dominant birds with the rearing of young, while others refrain from any assistance. We assessed body condition and oxidative parameters of birds of different social status caught during different breeding stages. We found that, prior to breeding, female subordinates that did not subsequently help (non-helpers) had significantly lower body condition and higher ROMs (reactive oxygen metabolites) than helpers and dominants. During the later stages of breeding, body condition was low in dominants and helpers, but high in non-helpers. Differences in oxidative balance between individuals of different social status were found only during nest care: Dominant males occupied with guarding behaviours tended to have relatively high oxidative stress susceptibility. Furthermore, dominant and helper females showed elevated antioxidant capacity (measured as OXY) in the weeks just prior to egg-laying, possibly representing a change in their reproductive physiology. The results imply that an individuals' oxidative balance may

  17. Whole-Body Vibration Mimics the Metabolic Effects of Exercise in Male Leptin Receptor-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wenger, Karl H; Misra, Sudipta; Davis, Catherine L; Pollock, Norman K; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Ding, Kehong; Isales, Carlos M; Hamrick, Mark W; Wosiski-Kuhn, Marlena; Arounleut, Phonepasong; Mattson, Mark P; Cutler, Roy G; Yu, Jack C; Stranahan, Alexis M

    2017-05-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has gained attention as a potential exercise mimetic, but direct comparisons with the metabolic effects of exercise are scarce. To determine whether WBV recapitulates the metabolic and osteogenic effects of physical activity, we exposed male wild-type (WT) and leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice to daily treadmill exercise (TE) or WBV for 3 months. Body weights were analyzed and compared with WT and db/db mice that remained sedentary. Glucose and insulin tolerance testing revealed comparable attenuation of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in db/db mice following TE or WBV. Both interventions reduced body weight in db/db mice and normalized muscle fiber diameter. TE or WBV also attenuated adipocyte hypertrophy in visceral adipose tissue and reduced hepatic lipid content in db/db mice. Although the effects of leptin receptor deficiency on cortical bone structure were not eliminated by either intervention, exercise and WBV increased circulating levels of osteocalcin in db/db mice. In the context of increased serum osteocalcin, the modest effects of TE and WBV on bone geometry, mineralization, and biomechanics may reflect subtle increases in osteoblast activity in multiple areas of the skeleton. Taken together, these observations indicate that WBV recapitulates the effects of exercise on metabolism in type 2 diabetes.

  18. Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central postulation of the present approach to metabolic rate scaling is that exercise-induced maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) is proportional to the fractal extent (V) of an animal. Total fractal extent can be calculated from the sum of the fractal extents of the capillary service units, as specified by the formula V ...

  19. Using in vitro derived enzymatic reaction rates of metabolism to inform pesticide body burdens in amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. To assess the potential metabolic activation of broad use pesticides in amphibians, in vitro and in vivo metabolic rate cons...

  20. Immunological and biochemical parameters of patients with metabolic syndrome and the participation of oxidative and nitroactive stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N.C. Simão

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS is a multifactorial disease involving inflammatory activity and endothelial dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the changes in lipoperoxidation, in immunological and biochemical parameters and nitric oxide metabolite (NOx levels in MS patients. Fifty patients with MS (4 males/46 females and 50 controls (3 males/47 females were studied. Compared to control (Mann-Whitney test, MS patients presented higher serum levels (P < 0.05 of fibrinogen: 314 (185-489 vs 262 (188-314 mg/dL, C-reactive protein (CRP: 7.80 (1.10-46.50 vs 0.70 (0.16-5.20 mg/dL, interleukin-6: 3.96 (3.04-28.18 vs 3.33 (2.55-9.63 pg/mL, uric acid: 5.45 (3.15-9.65 vs 3.81 (2.70-5.90 mg/dL, and hydroperoxides: 20,689 (19,076-67,182 vs 18,636 (15,926-19,731 cpm. In contrast, they presented lower (P < 0.05 adiponectin: 7.11 (3.19-18.22 vs 12.31 (9.11-27.27 µg/mL, and NOx levels: 5.69 (2.36-8.18 vs 6.72 (5.14-12.43 µM. NOx was inversely associated (Spearman’s rank correlation with body mass index (r = -0.2858, P = 0.0191, insulin resistance determined by the homeostasis model assessment (r = -0.2530, P = 0.0315, CRP (r = -0.2843, P = 0.0171 and fibrinogen (r = -0.2464, P = 0.0413, and positively correlated with hydroperoxides (r = 0.2506, P = 0.0408. In conclusion, NOx levels are associated with obesity, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers. The high uric acid levels together with reactive oxygen species generation may be responsible for the reduced NO levels, which in turn lead to endothelial dysfunction. The elevated plasma chemiluminescence reflecting both increased plasma oxidation and reduced antioxidant capacity may play a role in the MS mechanism.

  1. Oxidative stress and metabolic syndrome: Effects of a natural antioxidants enriched diet on insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Antonio; Martorana, Giuseppe Ettore; Magini, Marinella; Festa, Roberto; Raimondo, Sebastiano; Silvestrini, Andrea; Nicolotti, Nicola; Mordente, Alvaro; Mele, Maria Cristina; Miggiano, Giacinto Abele Donato; Meucci, Elisabetta

    2015-04-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) could play a role in metabolic syndrome-related manifestations contributing to insulin resistance (IR). The aim of the present study was to gain insight the relationships between OS, IR and other hormones involved in caloric balance, explaining the effects of a natural antioxidant-enriched diet in patients affected by metabolic syndrome. We investigated the effects of dietary antioxidants on IR, studying 53 obese (20 males and 33 females, 18-66 years old, BMI 36.3 ± 5.5 kg/m 2 ), with IR evaluated by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA)-index, comparing 4 treatments: hypocaloric diet alone (group A) or plus metformin 1000 mg/daily (group B), natural antioxidants-enriched hypocaloric diet alone (group C) or plus metformin (group D). A personalized program, with calculated antioxidant intake of 800-1000 mg/daily, from fruit and vegetables, was administered to group C and D. The glycemic and insulinemic response to oral glucose load, and concentrations of total-, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, C reactive protein, fT3, fT4, TSH, insulin-like growth factor 1 were evaluated before and after 3-months. Plasma Total antioxidant capacity was determined by H 2 O 2 -metmyoglobin system, which interacting with the chromogen ABTS generates a radical with latency time (LAG) proportional to antioxidant content. Despite a similar BMI decrease, we found a significant decrease of HOMA and insulin peak only in group B and D. Insulin response (AUC) showed the greatest decrease in group D (25.60  ±  8.96%) and was significantly lower in group D vs B. No differences were observed in glucose response, lipid metabolism and TAC (expressed as LAG values). TSH values were significantly suppressed in group D vs B. These data suggest that dietary antioxidants ameliorate insulin-sensitivity in obese subjects with IR by enhancing the effect of insulin-sensitizing drugs albeit with molecular mechanisms which remain yet to be elucidated

  2. A metabolic and body-size scaling framework for parasite within-host abundance, biomass, and energy flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechinger, Ryan F

    2013-08-01

    Energetics may provide a useful currency for studying the ecology of parasite assemblages within individual hosts. Parasite assemblages may also provide powerful models to study general principles of ecological energetics. Yet there has been little ecological research on parasite-host energetics, probably due to methodological difficulties. However, the scaling relationships of individual metabolic rate with body or cell size and temperature may permit us to tackle the energetics of parasite assemblages in hosts. This article offers the foundations and initial testing of a metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) framework for parasites in hosts. I first provide equations to estimate energetic flux through observed parasite assemblages. I then develop metabolic scaling theory for parasite abundance, energetics, and biomass in individual hosts. In contrast to previous efforts, the theory factors in both host and parasite metabolic scaling, how parasites use host space, and whether energy or space dictates carrying capacity. Empirical tests indicate that host energetic flux can set parasite carrying capacity, which decreases as predicted considering the scaling of host and parasite metabolic rates. The theory and results also highlight that the phenomenon of "energetic equivalence" is not an assumption of MTE but a possible outcome contingent on how species partition resources. Hence, applying MTE to parasites can lend mechanistic, quantitative, predictive insight into the nature of parasitism and can inform general ecological theory.

  3. The metabolic cost of nesting: body condition and blood parameters of Caiman crocodilus and Melanosuchus niger in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão-Nóbrega, José António Lemos; Marioni, Boris; Botero-Arias, Robinson; Nogueira, António José Arsénia; Lima, Emerson Silva; Magnusson, William Ernest; Da Silveira, Ronis; Marcon, Jaydione Luiz

    2018-01-01

    Although nesting ecology is well studied in several crocodilian species, it is not known how nest attendance influences physiology and body condition of nesting females. In this study, we describe body condition and serum biochemical values of nesting female, non-nesting female and male spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) and black caiman (Melanosuchus niger) in two areas of Central Amazonia. We also evaluated the effect of nest age and nest distance to water on body condition and blood parameters of nesting females. Body condition and plasmatic concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, lactate and uric acid of nesting females were significantly different from those of non-nesting females and males in C. crocodilus, but not in M. niger. Our study also demonstrated that nest age and distance to water had a negative effect on female body condition in C. crocodilus, but not in M. niger. Female C. crocodilus attending older nests or nests built further away from permanent water bodies tended to have lower body condition. Our results demonstrate that the nesting strategy of C. crocodilus has a metabolic cost associated with nest attendance for nesting females, which appear to depend on accumulated energetic reserves during nest attendance. In contrast, nest attendance had little effect on the physiology of female M. niger.

  4. Probiotics during weaning: a follow-up study on effects on body composition and metabolic markers at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson Videhult, Frida; Öhlund, Inger; Stenlund, Hans; Hernell, Olle; West, Christina E

    2015-04-01

    An aberrant gut microbiome has been suggested to contribute to the worldwide epidemic of obesity. In animal models, the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei F19 (LF19) induced upregulation of genes involved in energy homoeostasis, reduced body fat and altered the serum (S) lipoprotein profile. In our previous report, feeding LF19 to infants during weaning impacted the global plasma metabolome. LF19 lowered palmitoleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid associated with hypertriglyceridemia and increased visceral adiposity. Therefore, we assessed if feeding LF19 from 4 to 13 months of age would have long-term effects on body composition, growth and metabolic markers. Of 179 children included in our baseline study, 120 entered the follow-up at 8-9 years of age, n = 58 in the probiotic and n = 62 in the placebo group. Body composition was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Anthropometrics of the child and accompanying parent(s) were assessed. S-lipids, insulin, glucose and transaminases were determined after overnight fasting. LF19 did not affect body mass index z-score, sagittal abdominal diameter, fat-free mass, fat mass index, truncal fat %, android or gynoid fat % and had no long-term impact on any of the assessed metabolic markers (p > 0.05). Feeding LF19 during infancy did not modulate body composition, growth or any of the assessed metabolic markers at school age. The steady increase in probiotic products targeting infants and children calls for long-term follow-up of initiated probiotic intervention studies.

  5. Knockout of arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase is associated with adverse metabolic phenotype in mice: the role of sex and arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillet, Christelle; Huang, Madelyn C; Saunders, R Jesse; Dover, Ellen N; Zhang, Chongben; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2017-07-01

    Susceptibility to toxic effects of inorganic arsenic (iAs) depends, in part, on efficiency of iAs methylation by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT). As3mt-knockout (KO) mice that cannot efficiently methylate iAs represent an ideal model to study the association between iAs metabolism and adverse effects of iAs exposure, including effects on metabolic phenotype. The present study compared measures of glucose metabolism, insulin resistance and obesity in male and female wild-type (WT) and As3mt-KO mice during a 24-week exposure to iAs in drinking water (0.1 or 1 mg As/L) and in control WT and As3mt-KO mice drinking deionized water. Results show that effects of iAs exposure on fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glucose tolerance in either WT or KO mice were relatively minor and varied during the exposure. The major effects were associated with As3mt KO. Both male and female control KO mice had higher body mass with higher percentage of fat than their respective WT controls. However, only male KO mice were insulin resistant as indicated by high FBG, and high plasma insulin at fasting state and 15 min after glucose challenge. Exposure to iAs increased fat mass and insulin resistance in both male and female KO mice, but had no significant effects on body composition or insulin resistance in WT mice. These data suggest that As3mt KO is associated with an adverse metabolic phenotype that is characterized by obesity and insulin resistance, and that the extent of the impairment depends on sex and exposure to iAs, including exposure to iAs from mouse diet.

  6. Nitric oxide alleviated arsenic toxicity by modulation of antioxidants and thiol metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Pal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide is a gaseous signalling molecule and has a profound impact on plant growth and development. It is reported to serve as pro oxidant as well as antioxidant in plant system. In present study, we evaluated the protective role of nitric oxide against AsV toxicity in rice plants. Arsenate exposure has hampered the plant growth, reduced the chlorophyll content and enhanced the oxidative stress while the exogenous NO supplementation has reverted these symptoms. Nitric oxide supplementation has reduced the As accumulation in root as well as shoot. Nitric oxide supplementation to AsV exposed plants has reduced the gene expression level of OsLsi1 and OsLsi2. Arsenate stress significantly impacted thiol metabolism, it reduced GSH content and GSH/GSSG ratio and enhanced the level of PCs. Nitric oxide supplementation maintained the GSH/GSSG ratio and reduced the level of PCs. Nitric oxide supplementation reverted AsV induced iron deficiency in shoot and had significant impact of gene expression level of various iron transporters (OsYSL2, OsFRDL1, OsIRT1 and OsIRO2. Conclusively, exogenous application of nitric oxide could be advantageous against AsV toxicity and could confer the tolerance to AsV stress in rice.

  7. A Model of Oxidative Stress Management: Moderation of Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes in SOD1-Null Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Kristine E.; Parkes, Tony L.; Merritt, Thomas J. S.

    2011-01-01

    The response to oxidative stress involves numerous genes and mutations in these genes often manifest in pleiotropic ways that presumably reflect perturbations in ROS-mediated physiology. The Drosophila melanogaster SOD1-null allele (cSODn108) is proposed to result in oxidative stress by preventing superoxide breakdown. In SOD1-null flies, oxidative stress management is thought to be reliant on the glutathione-dependent antioxidants that utilize NADPH to cycle between reduced and oxidized form. Previous studies suggest that SOD1-null Drosophila rely on lipid catabolism for energy rather than carbohydrate metabolism. We tested these connections by comparing the activity of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, lipid and triglyceride concentration, and steady state NADPH:NADP+ in SOD1-null and control transgenic rescue flies. We find a negative shift in the activity of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes in SOD1-nulls and the NADP+-reducing enzymes were found to have significantly lower activity than the other enzymes assayed. Little evidence for the catabolism of lipids as preferential energy source was found, as the concentration of lipids and triglycerides were not significantly lower in SOD1-nulls compared with controls. Using a starvation assay to impact lipids and triglycerides, we found that lipids were indeed depleted in both genotypes when under starvation stress, suggesting that oxidative damage was not preventing the catabolism of lipids in SOD1-null flies. Remarkably, SOD1-nulls were also found to be relatively resistant to starvation. Age profiles of enzyme activity, triglyceride and lipid concentration indicates that the trends observed are consistent over the average lifespan of the SOD1-nulls. Based on our results, we propose a model of physiological response in which organisms under oxidative stress limit the production of ROS through the down-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in order to moderate the products exiting the electron transport chain. PMID

  8. Metabolic Modulation by Medium-Chain Triglycerides Reduces Oxidative Stress and Ameliorates CD36-Mediated Cardiac Remodeling in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat in the Initial and Established Stages of Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifudeen, Ismael; Subhadra, Lakshmi; Konnottil, Remani; Nair, R Renuka

    2017-03-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is characterized by a decrease in oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, possibly mediated by reduced expression of the cell-surface protein cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36). Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were therefore supplemented with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), a substrate that bypasses CD36, based on the assumption that the metabolic modulation will ameliorate ventricular remodeling. The diet of 2-month-old and 6-month-old SHRs was supplemented with 5% MCT (Tricaprylin), for 4 months. Metabolic modulation was assessed by mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Blood pressure was measured noninvasively. LVH was assessed with the use of hypertrophy index, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area, mRNA expression of B-type natriuretic peptide, cardiac fibrosis, and calcineurin-A levels. Oxidative stress indicators (cardiac malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, and 3-nitrotyrosine levels), myocardial energy level (ATP, phosphocreatine), and lipid profile were determined. Supplementation of MCT stimulated fatty acid oxidation in animals of both age groups, reduced hypertrophy and oxidative stress along with the maintenance of energy level. Blood pressure, body weight, and lipid profile were unaffected by the treatment. The results indicate that modulation of myocardial fatty acid metabolism by MCT prevents progressive cardiac remodeling in SHRs, possibly by maintenance of energy level and decrease in oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Winter reduction in body mass in a very small, nonhibernating mammal: consequences for heat loss and metabolic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jan R E; Rychlik, Leszek; Churchfield, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Low temperatures in northern winters are energetically challenging for mammals, and a special energetic burden is expected for diminutive species like shrews, which are among the smallest of mammals. Surprisingly, shrews shrink their body size in winter and reduce body and brain mass, an effect known as Dehnel's phenomenon, which is suggested to lower absolute energy intake requirements and thereby enhance survival when food availability is low. Yet reduced body size coupled with higher body-surface-to-mass ratio in these tiny mammals may result in thermoregulatory heat production at a given temperature constituting a larger proportion of the total energy expenditure. To evaluate energetic consequences of reduced body size in winter, we investigated common shrews Sorex araneus in northeastern Poland. Average body mass decreased by 19.0% from summer to winter, and mean skull depth decreased by 13.1%. There was no difference in Dehnel's phenomenon between years despite different weather conditions. The whole-animal thermal conductance (proportional to absolute heat loss) in shrews was 19% lower in winter than in summer; the difference between the two seasons remained significant after correcting for body mass and was caused by improved fur insulation in winter. Thermogenic capacity of shrews, although much enhanced in winter, did not reach its full potential of increase, and this corresponded with relatively mild subnivean temperatures. These findings indicate that, despite their small body size, shrews effectively decrease their costs of thermoregulation. The recorded decrease in body mass from summer to winter resulted in a reduction of overall resting metabolic rate (in thermoneutrality) by 18%. This, combined with the reduced heat loss, should translate to food requirements that are substantially lower than would be the case if shrews did not undergo seasonal decrease in body mass.

  10. Studies on the effect of sodium arsenate on the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane, and oxidative stress in the rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Faaiza; Rizwan, Sana; Khan, Md Wasim; Khan, Sara Anees; Naqshbandi, Ashreeb; Yusufi, Ahad Noor Khan

    2014-03-01

    Arsenic is an environmental pollutant and its contamination in drinking water poses serious world wide environmental health threats. It produces multiple adverse effects in various tissues, including the kidney. However, biochemical mechanism and renal response to its toxic insult are not completely elucidated. We hypothesized that sodium arsenate (ARS) induces oxidative stress and alters the structure and metabolic functions of kidney. Male Wistar rats were administered ARS (10 mg/kg body weight/day), intraperitoneally daily for 10 days. ARS administration increased blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, cholesterol, glucose, and phospholipids but decreased inorganic phosphate, indicating kidney toxicity. The activity of brush border membrane (BBM) enzymes significantly lowered in both cortex and medulla. Activity of hexokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases, and NADP-malic enzyme significantly increased whereas malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and fructose 1,6 bis phosphatase decreased by ARS exposure. The activity of superoxide dismutase, GSH-peroxidase, and catalase were selectively altered in renal tissues along with an increase in lipid peroxidation. The present results indicated that ARS induced oxidative stress caused severe renal damage that resulted in altered levels of carbohydrate metabolism and BBM enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Curcumin improves the metabolic syndrome in high-fructose-diet-fed rats: role of TNF-α, NF-κB, and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelany, Mohamed Elsayed; Hakami, Tahir M; Omar, Adel H

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate effects of curcumin on high fructose diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MetS) in rats and the possible mechanisms involved. MetS was induced in male albino rats (n = 20), over 8 weeks, by 65% HFD. For 8-week experiment period, rats were assigned to 2 equal groups: curcumin-treated rats received curcumin (200 mg/kg, p.o, once daily) along with HFD, and untreated rats were fed with HFD only. We evaluated body mass (BM), systolic blood pressure (SBP), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and serum levels of glucose, insulin, leptin, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), uric acid, malondialdehyde (MDA; lipid peroxidation product), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; inflammatory cytokine), and serum catalase (endogenous antioxidant) activity and immunohistochemical expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB; inflammation-related transcription factor) in hepatocytes. HFD produced increases in BM, SBP, HOMA-IR, and serum levels of glucose, insulin, leptin, TC, TGs, uric acid, MDA, and TNF-α, a decrease in catalase activity, and strong positive expression of NF-κB in hepatocytes. Curcumin, in presence of HFD, produced significant improvements in all glucose and fat metabolism parameters, and in oxidative stress and inflammation biomarkers. Curcumin may potentially be useful in the treatment of MetS through its ability to modulate oxidation stress status and inflammation cascades.

  12. Association between Metabolic Syndrome Criteria and Body-composition Components in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Saki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Metabolic syndrome (MES consists of central obesity, hypertension, reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL, elevated serum triglycerides and high Fasting blood sugar (FBS. They are susceptible to cardio-vascular disease, and insulin resistance. The goal of present research was to assess any relation between the composition of the body in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM children and having components of metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods This cross sectional study included all T1DM children who were referred to the pediatric clinic of diabetes, affiliated to the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran during Jul 2013 to Aug 2014. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids and body mass indices like android and gynoid fat mass was done by one physician with standard scale and techniques. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS-18. Results Overall 87cases with definite diagnosis of T1DM were admitted in this duration (2013-2014.There was a positive correlation appeared between hypertriglyceridemia and Android fat mass (r=0.1 and P =0.046.  Otherwise, there wasn’t any relation between body composition criteria and the reduced HDL level, high blood pressure, Abdominal obesity and elevated FBS (P>0.05 . Conclusion It was revealed that hypertriglyceridemia was associated with Android fat mass. However, more pathophysiological research is needed to reveal the association of MES components and body-composition in T1DM children.

  13. Correlation of serum homocysteine metabolism and oxidative stress level with peripheral nerve damage in patients with Parkinson's disease

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    Wei-Xia Gu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the correlation of serum homocysteine metabolism and oxidative stress level with peripheral nerve damage in patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods: A total of 58 patients with Parkinson's disease and 67 normal human beings were included in the study, levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD, GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA and other oxidative stress indexes were detected, and common peroneal nerve motor conduction velocity (MCV, latent period (LP and amplitude (Amp were determined. Results: Serum Hcy level of observation group was higher than that of control group while folic acid and vitamin B6 levels were lower than those of control group; serum oxidative indexes LHP, H2O2, AOPP and MDA levels were higher than those of control group while antioxidant indexes SOD T, SOD Mn, SOD Cu-Zn, GSH-PX, T-AOC and CAT levels were lower than those of control group; common peroneal nerve MCV and Amp values were lower than those of control group while LP value was higher than that of control group. Peripheral nerve damage parameter values in patients with Parkinson's disease were directly correlated with serum levels of Hcy metabolism indexes and oxidative stress indexes. Conclusions: Peripheral nerve damage in patients with Parkinson's disease is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia and oxidative stress disorder, and intervention in serum levels of Hcy and oxidative stress indexes is expected to become a new way for treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  14. Investigation of relationship of visceral body fat and inflammatory markers with metabolic syndrome and its components among apparently healthy individuals.

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    Turker, Yasemin; Baltaci, Davut; Turker, Yasin; Ozturk, Serkan; Sonmez, Cemil Isik; Deler, Mehmet Harun; Sariguzel, Yunus Cem; Sariguzel, Feyza; Ankarali, Handan

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of disorders and great risk for cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate association between severity of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and anthropometric measurements, and to evaluate correlation of MetS and its components with metabolic deterioration and inflammatory indexes. The cross-sectional study enrolled 1474 patients with obesity and overweight. The patients were grouped as MetS and Non-MetS, and were sub-grouped as group 1 (three criteria), 2 (four criteria) and 3 (≥ five criteria) according to NCEP ATP III. Mean age was 38.7 ± 11.9 years and BMI was 35.1 ± 6.3 kg/m(2). Lipid profile, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, liver function tests, bioelectric impedance body fat compositions, insulin resistance and HbA1c, and spot urinary albumin-creatinine ratio were significantly different between groups of MetS and Non-MetS. Age, lipid profile, bioelectric impedance fat analyses, BMI, blood pressure values, glucose, insulin resistance, uric acid and hs-CRP levels were significantly different between groups of MetS component groups. ROC analysis revealed that hs-CRP was found to be more predictive for severity of metabolic syndrome components 3 and 4 (P=0.030); uric acid and visceral fat were more actual to predict severity of metabolic syndrome between 3 and 5 MetS components, (P=0.006) and uric acid was detected as more actual to predict severity of MetS between 4 and 5 components (P=0.023). In conclusion, uric acid, hs-CRP and visceral body fat composition were useful to predict to severity of MetS in primary care.

  15. The postabsorptive and postprandial metabolic rates of praying mantises: Comparisons across species, body masses, and meal sizes.

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    McCue, Marshall D; Salinas, Isabella; Ramirez, Gabriella; Wilder, Shawn

    The metabolic rate of an animal affects the amount of energy available for its growth, activity and reproduction and, ultimately, shapes how energy and nutrients flow through ecosystems. Standard metabolic rate (SMR; when animals are post-absorptive and at rest) and specific dynamic action (SDA; the cost of digesting and processing food) are two major components of animal metabolism. SMR has been studied in hundreds of species of insects, but very little is known about the SMR of praying mantises. We measured the rates of CO 2 production as a proxy for metabolic rate and tested the prediction that the SMR of mantises more closely resembles the low SMR of spiders - a characteristic generally believed to be related to their sit-and-wait foraging strategy. Although few studies have examined SDA in insects we also tested the prediction that mantises would exhibit comparatively large SDA responses characteristic of other types of predators (e.g., snakes) known to consume enormous, protein-rich meals. The SMR of the mantises was positively correlated with body mass and did not differ among the four species we examined. Their SMR was best described by the equation μW=1526*g 0.745 and was not significantly different from that predicted by the standard 'insect-curve'; but it was significantly higher than that of spiders to which mantises are ecologically more similar than other insects. Mantises consumed meals as large as 138% of their body mass and within 6-12h of feeding and their metabolic rates doubled before gradually returning to prefeeding rates over the subsequent four days. We found that the SDA responses were isometrically correlated with meal size and the relative cost of digestion was 38% of the energy in each meal. We conclude that mantises provide a promising model to investigate nutritional physiology of insect predators as well as nutrient cycling within their ecological communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of daily gain in pre- and postpubertal replacement dairy heifers on body condition score, body size, metabolic profile, and future milk production.

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    Abeni, F; Calamari, L; Stefanini, L; Pirlo, G

    2000-07-01

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of moderate (0.7 kg) and accelerated (0.9 kg) average daily gain before (trial 1) and after (trial 2) puberty on body condition, metabolic profile, and first lactation milk production of Italian Holstein-Friesian heifers. There were 20 heifers in trial 1 and 22 in trial 2. Trials started when heifers averaged 150 and 300 kg of body weight in trial 1 and 2, respectively, and lasted 7 mo (experimental period). Across diet groups, half of the heifers were mated at first estrus after 370 kg and the other half after 420 kg of body weight gain. Actual average daily gains were 0.667 and 0.775 kg in trial 1 and 0.748 and 0.824 kg in trial 2 for moderate and accelerated experimental groups, respectively. Diets for high average daily gain did not affect body condition during growing phase in trial 1, whereas it did in trial 2. High average daily gain increased plasma glucose in trial 1 and plasma urea concentration in trial 2. Rearing diet did not affect milk production and milk protein percent; age in both trials. High average daily gain decreased milk fat percentage in trial 2. Early calving negatively influenced milk production in both trials and milk fat percentage in trial 1. Early calving heifers showed higher protein percentage than those with late calving only in trial 1.

  17. Effect of high-fat diets on body composition, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and the role of exercise on these parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Coelho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fat composition can interfere in the development of obesity due to the specific roles of some fatty acids that have different metabolic activities, which can alter both fat oxidation and deposition rates, resulting in changes in body weight and/or composition. High-fat diets in general are associated with hyperphagia, but the type of dietary fat seems to be more important since saturated fats are linked to a positive fat balance and omental adipose tissue accumulation when compared to other types of fat, while polyunsaturated fats, omega-3 and omega-6, seem to increase energy expenditure and decrease energy intake by specific mechanisms involving hormone-sensitive lipase, activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα and others. Saturated fat intake can also impair insulin sensitivity compared to omega-3 fat, which has the opposite effect due to alterations in cell membranes. Obesity is also associated with impaired mitochondrial function. Fat excess favors the production of malonyl-CoA, which reduces GLUT4 efficiency. The tricarboxylic acid cycle and beta-oxidation are temporarily uncoupled, forming metabolite byproducts that augment reactive oxygen species production. Exercise can restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity, which may be crucial for a better prognosis in treating or preventing obesity.

  18. Deficiency of leptin receptor in myeloid cells disrupts hypothalamic metabolic circuits and causes body weight increase

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    Yuanqing Gao

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Myeloid cell leptin receptor deficient mice partially replicate the db/db phenotype. Leptin signaling in hypothalamic microglia is important for microglial function and a correct formation of the hypothalamic neuronal circuit regulating metabolism.

  19. Successful Management of Pregnancies in Patients with Inherited Disorders of Ketone Body Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Raashda Ainuddin; Al-Nemer, Maha; Khan, Rubina; Almasned, Munirah; Handoum, Bedour S; Al-Hassnan, Zuhair N

    2018-01-01

    Patients with succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT) deficiency and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA lyase deficiency are at increased risk of developing metabolic acidosis and hypoglycemia during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum period. This can be fatal if not treated appropriately. Pregnancy in such patients should be managed in a specialist center by a multidisciplinary team including metabolic physician, high-risk obstetrician, and metabolic dietician. We report two pregnancies in women with SCOT deficiency and HMG-CoA lyase deficiency, which were successfully managed at this tertiary care center. The patient with SCOT deficiency had recurrent ketoacidosis due to severe nausea and vomiting requiring several hospital admissions during pregnancy, while the patient with HMG-CoA lyase deficiency remained metabolically stable. Both patients, nevertheless, had normal delivery of live-born infants and had uneventful postpartum period.

  20. Fe biomineralization mirrors individual metabolic activity in a nitrate-dependent Fe(II-oxidizer

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    Jennyfer eMIOT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biomineralization sometimes leads to periplasmic encrustation, which is predicted to enhance microorganism preservation in the fossil record. Mineral precipitation within the periplasm is however thought to induce death, as a result of permeability loss preventing nutrient and waste transit across the cell wall. This hypothesis had however never been investigated down to the single cell level. Here, we cultured the nitrate reducing Fe(II oxidizing bacteria Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1 that have been previously shown to promote the precipitation of a diversity of Fe minerals (lepidocrocite, goethite, Fe phosphate encrusting the periplasm. We investigated the connection of Fe biomineralization with carbon assimilation at the single cell level, using a combination of electron microscopy and Nano-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS. Our analyses revealed strong individual heterogeneities of Fe biomineralization. Noteworthy, a small proportion of cells remaining free of any precipitate persisted even at advanced stages of biomineralization. Using pulse chase experiments with 13C-acetate, we provide evidences of individual phenotypic heterogeneities of carbon assimilation, correlated with the level of Fe biomineralization. Whereas non- and moderately encrusted cells were able to assimilate acetate, higher levels of periplasm encrustation prevented any carbon incorporation. Carbon assimilation only depended on the level of Fe encrustation and not on the nature of Fe minerals precipitated in the cell wall. Carbon assimilation decreased exponentially with increasing cell-associated Fe content. Persistence of a small proportion of non-mineralized and metabolically active cells might constitute a strategy of survival in highly ferruginous environments. Eventually, our results suggest that periplasmic Fe biomineralization may provide a signature of individual metabolic status, which could be looked for in the fossil record and in modern

  1. Sympathetic, Metabolic Adaptations, and Oxidative Stress in Autism Spectrum Disorders: How Far From Physiology?

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    Antonietta Messina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD is a complex and multifaceted neurobehavioral syndrome with no specific cause still identified, despite the worldwide increasing (prevalence for 1,000 children from 6.7 to 14.6, between 2000 and 2012. Many biological and instrumental markers have been suggested as potential predictive factors for the precocious diagnosis during infancy and/or pediatric age. Many studies reported structural and functional abnormalities in the autonomic system in subjects with ASD. Sleep problems in ASD are a prominent feature, having an impact on the social interaction of the patient. Considering the role of orexins (A and B in wake-sleep circadian rhythm, we could speculate that ASD subjects may present a dysregulation in orexinergic neurotransmission. Conversely, oxidative stress is implicated in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders. Nonetheless, little is known about the linkage between oxidative stress and the occurrence or the progress of autism and autonomic functioning; some markers, such as heart rate (HR, heart rate variability (HRV, body temperature, and galvanic skin response (GSR, may be altered in the patient with this so complex disorder. In the present paper, we analyzed an autism case report, focusing on the rule of the sympathetic activity with the aim to suggest that it may be considered an important tool in ASD evaluation. The results of this case confirm our hypothesis even if further studies needed.

  2. Body composition changes and cardiometabolic benefits of a balanced Italian Mediterranean Diet in obese patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Daniele, Nicola; Petramala, Luigi; Di Renzo, Laura; Sarlo, Francesca; Della Rocca, Domenico Giovanni; Rizzo, Mariagiovanna; Fondacaro, Valentina; Iacopino, Leonardo; Pepine, Carl J; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2013-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic alteration associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and overall mortality than the single alterations alone. The Italian Mediterranean Diet (IMD) can exert a positive effect on cardiovascular risk and related morbidity and mortality. The aim was to evaluate the benefits of dietary intervention based on a typical IMD on body composition, cardiometabolic changes and reduction in cardiovascular disease in patients with MS. Eighty White Italian subjects with MS were prescribed a balanced hypocaloric IMD. We investigated dietary habits and impact of the diet on health status, blood biochemical markers, anthropometric measurements and body composition during a 6-month follow-up period. Body composition, fat mass and distribution were assessed by Dual X-ray absorptiometry. Adherence to the IMD led to a decrease in body weight (102.59 ± 16.82 to 92.39 ± 15.94 kg, p < 0.001), body mass index (BMI) (38.57 ± 6.94 to 35.10 ± 6.76, <0.001) and waist circumference (112.23 ± 12.55 vs 92.42 ± 18.17 cm, p < 0.001). A significant loss of total body fat especially in waist region was observed. The MS was resolved in 52 % of the patients. Significant improvements in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and fasting glucose occurred. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was reduced from 128.74 ± 33.18 to 108.76 ± 38.61 mg/dl (p < 0.001), triglycerides from 169.81 ± 80.80 to 131.02 ± 63.88 mg/dl (p < 0.001). The present results suggest that a dietary intervention based on a typical IMD effectively promotes weight loss and reduces the growing burden of cardiovascular risk factors that typifies patients with MS.

  3. The impact of