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Sample records for body negative pressure

  1. Proposed application of lower body negative pressure to cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, E. V.; Debusk, R. F.; Popp, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Potential medical applications are presented of lower body negative pressure to the evaluation and treatment of cardiac patients. The essential features of an LBNP unit and the basic cardiovascular physiology of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) testing are described. Some of the results of previous spaceflight experiences and bedrest studies are summarized. The deconditioning effects of weightlessness experienced by orbiting astronauts are compared with the effects of bedrest restrictions prescribed for convalescing cardiac patients. The potential of LBNP for evaluating both pharmacological and physical activity regimens was examined, particularly in relation to post-myocardial infarction and coronary artery bypass patients. Applications of LBNP to the cardiac catheterization laboratory and the out-patient follow-up of cardiac patients are proposed.

  2. Cardiovascular responses of women to lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, M. A. B.; Mathes, K. L.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) on the cardiovascular response of 20 women between 23-43 years are evaluated. Calf circumference and cardiovascular data were recorded for women in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle at -30, -40, and -50 mm Hg LBNP. The data reveal that the two menstrual phases did not cause differences in the way women respond to LBNP. It is observed that during LBNP calf circumference is enlarged; transthoracic impedance, and heart rate are increased; stroke volume, left ventricular ejection time, the Heather Index of contractility and systolic pressure, and cardiac output are reduced; and total peripheral resistance is elevated. The experimental data are compared to Montgomery et al. (1979). It is noted that the response of women to -50 mm Hg LBNP is similar to that of men; however, women adapt to stresses on the cardiovascular system with greater heart rate adjustments.

  3. Physical fitness and cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, P. B.; Rohm-Young, D.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    Klein et al. (1977) have questioned the concept of endurance training as an appropriate means of preparing for prolonged space flights. Their opinion was mainly based on reports of endurance athletes who had a decreased tolerance to orthostatic or gravitational stress induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP), upright tilt, or whole body water immersion. The present investigation had the objective to determine if the hemodynamic response to LBNP is different between a high and average fit group of subjects. In addition, the discrete aspect of cardiovascular function which had been altered by chronic training was to be identified. On the basis of the results of experiments conducted with 14 young male volunteers, it is concluded that the reflex response to central hypovolemia is altered by endurance exercise training.

  4. Mechanisms of lower body negative pressure-induced syncope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davrath, Linda Ruble

    Although extensively investigated, the mechanisms of post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance have not been elucidated. The working hypothesis was that a markedly reduced left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) would be achieved during progressive, presyncopal-limited LBNP and would cause bradycardia and a fall in blood pressure, thus triggering syncope. Eight healthy men, age 25.1 ± 1.3 years, volunteered for the study. Subjects were exposed to graded levels of LBNP on two separate occasions. Changes in left ventricular end-diastolic volume and LVESV were measured, using two-dimensional echocardiography, at each stage of LBNP from rest to presyncope. Plasma venous blood samples were withdrawn at the end of each stage of the LBNP protocol for the measurement of plasma venous catecholamines and plasma renin activity (PRA). Catecholamines were analyzed by HPLC with electro-chemical detection, and PRA was determined by radioimmunoassay. All subjects reached presyncope during the LBNP. LVESV decreased by 28% at presyncope with no evidence of ventricular cavity obliteration. Norepinephrine (NE) increased by 44% from rest to presyncope, but no epinephrine surge was detected (35% increase from rest to presyncope). These data indicate that it is possible to initiate syncope with only a 28% decrease in LVESV, and that sympatho-inhibition and bradycardia are not required elements for syncope to occur. To investigate the effect of moderate sodium restriction on cardiovascular hemodynamics and orthostatic tolerance, presyncopal LBNP testing was performed. Urinary sodium excretion was significantly higher on the normal-sodium diet when compared with the sodium-restricted diet, but urinary potassium was not different. Cumulative stress index (655 ± 460 on normal-sodium diet vs. 639 ± 388 on sodium-restricted diet) scores were not different. Cardiac volumes, blood pressure and total peripheral resistance were not different at any stage of the LBNP between the diets, nor

  5. Dynamic Leg Exercise Improves Tolerance to Lower Body Negative Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Stout, M. S.; Murthy, G.; Whalen, R. T.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    These results clearly demonstrate that dynamic leg exercise against the footward force produced by LBNP substantially improves tolerance to LBNP, and that even cyclic ankle flexion without load bearing also increases tolerance. This exercise-induced increase of tolerance was actually an underestimate, because subjects who completed the tolerance test while exercising could have continued for longer periods. Exercise probably increases LBNP tolerance by multiple mechanisms. Tolerance was increased in part by skeletal muscle pumping venous blood from the legs. Rosenhamer and Linnarsson and Rosenhamer also deduced this for subjects cycling during centrifugation, although no measurements of leg volume were made in those studies: they found that male subjects cycling at 98 W could endure 3 Gz centrifugation longer than when they remained relaxed during centrifugation. Skeletal muscle pumping helps maintain cardiac filling pressure by opposing gravity-, centrifugation-, or LBNP-induced accumulation of blood and extravascular fluid in the legs.

  6. A cardiovascular system model for lower-body negative pressure response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, B. A., Jr.; Giese, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    Mathematical models used to study complex physiological control systems are discussed. Efforts were made to modify a model of the cardiovascular system for use in studying lower body negative pressure. A computer program was written which allows orderly, straightforward expansion to include exercise, metabolism (thermal stress), respiration, and other body functions.

  7. Cardiovascular regulatory response to lower body negative pressure following blood volume loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M.; Ghista, D. N.; Sandler, H.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the cardiovascular regulatory responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) stress, both in the absence of and following blood or plasma volume loss, the latter being factors regularly observed with short- or long-term recumbency or weightlessness and associated with resulting cardiovascular deconditioning. Analytical expressions are derived for the responses of mean venous pressure and blood volume pooled in the lower body due to LBNP. An analysis is presented for determining the HR change due to LBNP stress following blood volume loss. It is concluded that the reduced orthostatic tolerance following long-term space flight or recumbency can be mainly attributed to blood volume loss, and that the associated cardiovascular responses characterizing this orthostatic intolerance is elicited by the associated central venous pressure response.

  8. Effects of regional hemoconcentration during LBNP on plasma volume determinations. [Lower Body Negative Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Kobayashi, Y.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.

    1979-01-01

    Blood samples were obtained from forearm vein or artery with indwelling cannula (1) before, (2) during the last min, and (3) about 2 min after lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in 16 experiments to determine whether plasma volume (PV) estimates were affected by regional hemoconcentration in the lower body. Total hemoglobin (THb) was estimated with the CO method prior to LBNP. Hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) values from (2) gave only a 3% (87 ml) loss in PV due to LBNP, assuming no change in THb. However, Hb and Hct values from (3) showed an 11% loss in PV (313 ml). This 72% underestimation of PV loss with (2) must have resulted from the sequestration of blood and subsequent hemoconcentration in the lower body during LBNP. The effects of LBNP on PV should be estimated 1-3 min after exposure, after mixing but before extravascular fluid returns to the circulation.

  9. Historical Review of Lower Body Negative Pressure Research in Space Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Mark R; Charles, John B

    2015-07-01

    Cephalad redistribution of intravascular and extravascular fluid occurs as a result of weightlessness during spaceflight. This provokes cardiovascular, cardiopulmonary, and autonomic nervous system responses. The resulting altered functional state can result in orthostatic hypotension and intolerance upon landing and return to a gravity environment. In-flight lower body negative pressure (LBNP) transiently restores normal body fluid distribution. Early in the U.S. space program, LBNP was devised as a way to test for orthostatic intolerance. With the development of the Skylab Program and longer duration spaceflight, it was realized that it could provide a method of monitoring orthostatic intolerance in flight and predicting the post-landing orthostatic response. LBNP was also investigated not only as an in-flight cardiovascular orthostatic stress test, but also as a countermeasure to cardiovascular deconditioning on Soviet space stations, Skylab, and the Shuttle. It is still being used by the Russian program on the International Space Station as an end-of-flight countermeasure.

  10. Effect of hindlimb suspension on cardiovascular responses to sympathomimetics and lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, J. Michael; Tipton, Charles M.

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether hindlimb suspension is associated with the development of cardiovascular deconditioning, male rats were studied before and after undergoing one of three treatment conditions for 9 days: (1) cage control (n = 15, CON), (2) horizontal suspension (n = 15, HOZ), and (3) head-down suspension (n = 18, HDS). Testing included lower body negative pressure administered during chloralose-urethan anesthesia and graded doses of sympathomimetic agents (norepinephrine, phenylephrine, and tyramine) administered to conscious unrestrained animals. Both HDS and HOZ were associated with a small decrease in the hypotensive response to lower body negative pressure. The HOZ group, but not the HDS group, exhibited augmented reflex tachycardia. Furthermore, both HDS and HOZ groups manifested reduced pressor responses to phenylephrine after treatment. These reductions were associated with significantly attenuated increases in mesenteric vascular resistance. However, baroreflex control of heart rate was not altered by the treatment conditions. Collectively, these results indicate that 9 days of HDS in rats does not elicit hemodynamic response patterns generally associated with cardiovascular deconditioning induced by hypogravic conditions.

  11. Non-linear Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Interaction in Response to Lower-Body Negative Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay K. Verma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of hemorrhage remains an open problem. In this regard, blood pressure has been an ineffective measure of blood loss due to numerous compensatory mechanisms sustaining arterial blood pressure homeostasis. Here, we investigate the feasibility of causality detection in the heart rate and blood pressure interaction, a closed-loop control system, for early detection of hemorrhage. The hemorrhage was simulated via graded lower-body negative pressure (LBNP from 0 to −40 mmHg. The research hypothesis was that a significant elevation of causal control in the direction of blood pressure to heart rate (i.e., baroreflex response is an early indicator of central hypovolemia. Five minutes of continuous blood pressure and electrocardiogram (ECG signals were acquired simultaneously from young, healthy participants (27 ± 1 years, N = 27 during each LBNP stage, from which heart rate (represented by RR interval, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and mean arterial pressure (MAP were derived. The heart rate and blood pressure causal interaction (RR↔SBP and RR↔MAP was studied during the last 3 min of each LBNP stage. At supine rest, the non-baroreflex arm (RR→SBP and RR→MAP showed a significantly (p < 0.001 higher causal drive toward blood pressure regulation compared to the baroreflex arm (SBP→RR and MAP→RR. In response to moderate category hemorrhage (−30 mmHg LBNP, no change was observed in the traditional marker of blood loss i.e., pulse pressure (p = 0.10 along with the RR→SBP (p = 0.76, RR→MAP (p = 0.60, and SBP→RR (p = 0.07 causality compared to the resting stage. Contrarily, a significant elevation in the MAP→RR (p = 0.004 causality was observed. In accordance with our hypothesis, the outcomes of the research underscored the potential of compensatory baroreflex arm (MAP→RR of the heart rate and blood pressure interaction toward differentiating a simulated moderate category hemorrhage from

  12. Cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure stimulation before, during, and after space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisch, F.; Beck, L.; Blomqvist, G.; Wolfram, G.; Drescher, J.; Rome, J. L.; Drummer, C.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that space travel cause post-flight orthostatic hypotension and it was assumed that autonomic cardiovascular control deteriorates in space. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) was used to assess autonomic function of the cardiovascular system. METHODS: LBNP tests were performed on six crew-members before and on the first days post-flight in a series of three space missions. Additionally, two of the subjects performed LBNP tests in-flight. LBNP mimics fluid distribution of upright posture in a gravity independent way. It causes an artificial sequestration of blood, reduces preload, and filtrates plasma into the lower part of the body. Fluid distribution was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric measurements. RESULTS: Heart rate, blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance increased significantly during LBNP experiments in-flight. The decrease in stroke volume, the increased pooling of blood, and the increased filtration of plasma into the lower limbs during LBNP indicated that a plasma volume reduction and a deficit of the interstitial volume of lower limbs rather than a change in cardiovascular control was responsible for the in-flight response. Post-flight LBNP showed no signs of cardiovascular deterioration. The still more pronounced haemodynamic changes during LBNP reflected the expected behaviour of cardiovascular control faced with less intravascular volume. In-flight, the status of an intra-and extravascular fluid deficit increases sympathetic activity, the release of vasoactive substances and consequently blood pressure. Post-flight, blood pressure decreases significantly below pre-flight values after restoration of volume deficits. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the cardiovascular changes in-flight are a consequence of a fluid deficit rather than a consequence of changes in autonomic signal processing.

  13. Increase in vagal activity during hypotensive lower-body negative pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander-Jensen, K; Mehlsen, J; Stadeager, C

    1988-01-01

    Progressive central hypovolemia is characterized by a normotensive, tachycardic stage followed by a reversible, hypotensive stage with slowing of the heart rate (HR). We investigated circulatory changes and arterial hormone concentrations in response to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) in six...... volunteers before and after atropine administration. LBNP of 55 mmHg initially resulted in an increase in HR from 55 +/- 4 to 90 +/- 5 beats/min and decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 94 +/- 4 to 81 +/- 5 mmHg, in central venous pressure from 7 +/- 1 to -3 +/- 1 mmHg, and in cardiac output from 6.......1 +/- 0.5 to 3.7 +/- 0.11/min. Concomitantly, epinephrine and norepinephrine levels increased. After 8.2 +/- 2.3 min of LBNP, the MAP had decreased to 41 +/- 7 mmHg and HR had decreased to 57 +/- 3 beats/min. Vasopressin increased from 1.2 +/- 0.3 to 137 +/- 45 pg/ml and renin activity increased from 1...

  14. Validation of lower body negative pressure as an experimental model of hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shade, Robert E.; Muniz, Gary W.; Bauer, Cassondra; Goei, Kathleen A.; Pidcoke, Heather F.; Chung, Kevin K.; Cap, Andrew P.; Convertino, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    Lower body negative pressure (LBNP), a model of hemorrhage (Hem), shifts blood to the legs and elicits central hypovolemia. This study compared responses to LBNP and actual Hem in sedated baboons. Arterial pressure, pulse pressure (PP), central venous pressure (CVP), heart rate, stroke volume (SV), and +dP/dt were measured. Hem steps were 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75%, and 25% of total estimated blood volume. Shed blood was returned, and 4 wk after Hem, the same animals were subjected to four LBNP levels which elicited equivalent changes in PP and CVP observed during Hem. Blood gases, hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb), plasma renin activity (PRA), vasopressin (AVP), epinephrine (EPI), and norepinephrine (NE) were measured at baseline and maximum Hem or LBNP. LBNP levels matched with 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75%, and 25% hemorrhage were −22 ± 6, −41 ± 7, −54 ± 10, and −71 ± 7 mmHg, respectively (mean ± SD). Hemodynamic responses to Hem and LBNP were similar. SV decreased linearly such that 25% Hem and matching LBNP caused a 50% reduction in SV. Hem caused a decrease in Hct, Hb, and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2). In contrast, LBNP increased Hct and Hb, while ScvO2 remained unchanged. Hem caused greater elevations in AVP and NE than LBNP, while PRA, EPI, and other hematologic indexes did not differ between studies. These results indicate that while LBNP does not elicit the same effect on blood cell loss as Hem, LBNP mimics the integrative cardiovascular response to Hem, and validates the use of LBNP as an experimental model of central hypovolemia associated with Hem. PMID:24356525

  15. Cardiovascular responses of men and women to lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, L. D.; Kirk, P. J.; Payne, P. A.; Gerber, R. L.; Newton, S. D.; Williams, B. A.

    1977-01-01

    Changes in blood flow and blood redistribution were measured by impedance plethysmography in the pelvic and leg regions of six male and four female subjects during three 5-min exposures to -20, -40, and -60 mm Hg lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Female subjects demonstrated significantly higher mean heart rate and lower leg blood flow indices than the male subjects during the recumbent control periods. Men had slightly higher mean resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures and higher mean control pelvic blood indices. Women demonstrated significantly less blood pooling in the legs and slightly less in the pelvic region than the men. All of the 18 tests with male subjects at -60 mm Hg were completed without initial signs of syncope, while only two of the tests with women were completed successfully without the subject exhibiting presyncopal conditions. Results indicate that impedance plethysmography can be used to measure segmental cardiovascular responses during LBNP and that females may be less tolerant to -60 mm Hg LBNP than males.

  16. Fluid Shifts: Otoacoustical Emission Changes in Response to Posture and Lower Body Negative Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgoza, R.; Kemp, D.; Ebert, D.; Danielson, R.; Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the NASA Fluid Shifts Study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. Due to the invasive nature of direct measures of ICP, a noninvasive technique of monitoring ICP is desired for use during spaceflight. The phase angle and amplitude of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) have been shown to be sensitive to posture change and ICP (1, 2), therefore use of OAEs is an attractive option. OAEs are low-level sounds produced by the sensory cells of the cochlea in response to auditory stimulation. These sounds travel peripherally from the cochlea, through the oval window, to the ear canal where they can be recorded. OAE transmission is sensitive to changes in the stiffness of the oval window, occurring as a result of changes in cochlear pressure. Increased stiffness of the oval window largely affects the transmission of sound from the cochlea at frequencies between 800 Hz and 1600 Hz. OAEs can be self-recorded in the laboratory or on the ISS using a handheld device. Our primary objectives regarding OAE measures in this experiment were to 1) validate this method during preflight testing of each crewmember (while sitting, supine and in head-down tilt position), and 2) determine if OAE measures (and presumably ICP) are responsive to lower body negative pressure and to spaceflight. METHODS: Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were recorded preflight using the Otoport Advance OAE system (Otodynamics Ltd., Hatfield, UK). Data were collected in four conditions (seated

  17. Cardiovascular regulation in humans in response to oscillatory lower body negative pressure

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    Levenhagen, D. K.; Evans, J. M.; Wang, M.; Knapp, C. F.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency response characteristics of human cardiovascular regulation during hypotensive stress have not been determined. We therefore exposed 10 male volunteers to seven frequencies (0.004-0.1 Hz) of oscillatory lower body negative pressure (OLBNP; 0-50 mmHg). Fourier spectra of arterial pressure (AP), central venous pressure (CVP), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were determined and first harmonic mean, amplitude, and phase angles with respect to OLBNP are presented. AP was relatively well regulated as demonstrated by small oscillations in half amplitude (3.5 mmHg) that were independent of OLBNP frequency and similar to unstressed control spectra. Due to the biomechanics of the system, the magnitudes of oscillations in calf circumference (CC) and CVP decreased with increasing frequency; therefore, we normalized responses by these indexes of the fluid volume shifted. The ratios of oscillations in AP to oscillations in CC increased by an order of magnitude, whereas oscillations in CVP to oscillations in CC and oscillations in AP to oscillations in CVP both tripled between 0.004 and 0.1 Hz. Therefore, even though the amount of fluid shifted by OLBNP decreased with increasing frequency, the magnitude of both CVP and AP oscillations per volume of fluid shifted increased (peaking at 0.08 Hz). The phase relationships between variables, particularly the increasing lags in SV and TPR, but not CVP, indicated that efferent responses with lags of 5-6 s could account for the observed responses. We conclude that, at frequencies below 0.02 Hz, the neural system of humans functioned optimally in regulating AP; OLBNP-induced decreases in SV (by as much as 50%) were counteracted by appropriate oscillations in HR and TPR responses. As OLBNP frequency increased, SV, TPR, and HR oscillations increasingly lagged the input and became less optimally timed for AP regulation.

  18. Comparison of compensatory reserve during lower-body negative pressure and hemorrhage in nonhuman primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeffrey T.; Mulligan, Jane; Grudic, Greg Z.; Convertino, Victor A.

    2016-01-01

    Compensatory reserve was measured in baboons (n = 13) during hemorrhage (Hem) and lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) using a machine-learning algorithm developed to estimate compensatory reserve by detecting reductions in central blood volume during LBNP. The algorithm calculates compensatory reserve index (CRI) from normovolemia (CRI = 1) to cardiovascular decompensation (CRI = 0). The hypothesis was that Hem and LBNP will elicit similar CRI values and that CRI would have higher specificity than stroke volume (SV) in predicting decompensation. Blood was removed in four steps: 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75%, and 25% of total blood volume. Four weeks after Hem, the same animals were subjected to four levels of LBNP that was matched on the basis of their central venous pressure. Data (mean ± 95% confidence interval) indicate that CRI decreased (P < 0.001) from baseline during Hem (0.69 ± 0.10, 0.57 ± 0.09, 0.36 ± 0.10, 0.16 ± 0.08, and 0.08 ± 0.03) and LBNP (0.76 ± 0.05, 0.66 ± 0.08, 0.36 ± 0.13, 0.23 ± 0.11, and 0.14 ± 0.09). CRI was not different between Hem and LBNP (P = 0.20). Linear regression analysis between Hem CRI and LBNP CRI revealed a slope of 1.03 and a correlation coefficient of 0.96. CRI exhibited greater specificity than SV in both Hem (92.3 vs. 82.1) and LBNP (94.8 vs. 83.1) and greater ROC AUC in Hem (0.94 vs. 0.84) and LBNP (0.94 vs. 0.92). These data support the hypothesis that Hem and LBNP elicited the same CRI response, suggesting that measurement of compensatory reserve is superior to SV as a predictor of cardiovascular decompensation PMID:27030667

  19. Coagulation changes during lower body negative pressure and blood loss in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helmond, Noud; Johnson, Blair D; Curry, Timothy B; Cap, Andrew P; Convertino, Victor A; Joyner, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that markers of coagulation activation are greater during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) than those obtained during blood loss (BL). We assessed coagulation using both standard clinical tests and thrombelastography (TEG) in 12 men who performed a LBNP and BL protocol in a randomized order. LBNP consisted of 5-min stages at 0, -15, -30, and -45 mmHg of suction. BL included 5 min at baseline and following three stages of 333 ml of blood removal (up to 1,000 ml total). Arterial blood draws were performed at baseline and after the last stage of each protocol. We found that LBNP to -45 mmHg is a greater central hypovolemic stimulus versus BL; therefore, the coagulation markers were plotted against central venous pressure (CVP) to obtain stimulus-response relationships using the linear regression line slopes for both protocols. Paired t-tests were used to determine whether the slopes of these regression lines fell on similar trajectories for each protocol. Mean regression line slopes for coagulation markers versus CVP fell on similar trajectories during both protocols, except for TEG α° angle (-0.42 ± 0.96 during LBNP vs. -2.41 ± 1.13°/mmHg during BL; P coagulation was accelerated as evidenced by shortened R-times (LBNP, 9.9 ± 2.4 to 6.2 ± 1.1; BL, 8.7 ± 1.3 to 6.4 ± 0.4 min; both P coagulation markers observed during BL. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Changes in body core temperatures and heat balance after an abrupt release of lower body negative pressure in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Minoru; Shido, Osamu

    1994-03-01

    Changes in body core temperature ( T cor) and heat balance after an abrupt release of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) were investigated in 5 volunteers under the following conditions: (1) an ambient temperature ( T a) of 20 °C or (2) 35 °C, and (3) T a of 25 °C with a leg skin temperature of 30°C or (4) 35°C. The leg skin temperature was controlled with water perfusion devices wound around the legs. Rectal ( T re), tympanic ( T ty) and esophageal ( T es) temperatures, skin temperatures (7 sites) and oxygen consumption were measured. The intensity of LBNP was adjusted so that the amount of blood pooled in the legs was the same under all conditions. When a thermal balance was attained during LBNP, application of LBNP was suddenly halted. The skin temperatures increased significantly after the release of LBNP under all conditions, while oxygen consumption hardly changed. The release of LBNP caused significant falls in T cor s under conditions (1) and (3), but lowered T cor s very slightly under conditions (2) and (4). The changes in T es were always more rapid and greater than those of T ty and T re. The falls in T ty and T re appeared to be explained by changes in heat balance, whereas the sharp drop of T es could not be explained especially during the first 8 min after the release of LBNP. The results suggest that a fall in T cor after a release of LBNP is attributed to an increase in heat loss due to reflexive skin vasodilation and is dependent on the temperature of venous blood returning from the lower body. It is presumed that T es may not be an appropriate indicator for T cor when venous return changes rapidly.

  1. Peripheral Microvascular Responses to Whole-Body Tilting, G(z) Centrifugation, and Lower Body Negative Pressure Stresses in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, G. A.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Buckley, T. M.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The response of the cutaneous microcirculation to orthostatic stress varies along the length of the body due to the interaction of central controls with regional responses to local blood pressure. We hypothesize that artificial orthostatic stresses such as Gz centrifugation and LBNP differ from whole-body tilting in terms of the distribution of microvascular blood flow. Cutaneous microvascular flows were measured by laser Doppler flowmetry at the neck, thigh, and leg of 15 normal subjects. Volunteers underwent stepwise head-up tilt (HUT) and short- and long-arm centrifugation protocols from supine control (0 Gz) to 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2, and 0 Gz at the feet, for 30-s periods with 10-s transitions between levels. The same subjects underwent a corresponding supine LBNP protocol, up to 100 mmHg (in 20 mmHg increments) and back to zero pressure, which produced transmural pressure across blood vessels in the foot approximately equal to the HUT protocol. In general, application of all orthostatic stresses produced significant flow reductions in the lower body (p less than 0.05) and inconsistent changes in the neck. At low levels of each stress (0.4 Gz, 40 mmHg), LBNP generated the greatest relative reduction in flow in the lower body (-66.9+/-5.7%, thigh; -60.6 +/-5.7%, leg, mean +/- SE). HUT caused a less severe flow reduction than LBNP at the thigh and leg (-39.9 +/- 8.1% and -55.9+/-4.8%), while the effects induced by both forms of centrifugation were the least profound. Higher levels of each stress generally resulted in similar responses. These responses exhibit a consistent relationship to hypothesized changes in local microvascular transmural pressure, suggesting that myogenic and veno-arteriolar reflexes play a significant role in determining microvascular perfusion during orthostatic stress.

  2. Hemodynamic responses to seated and supine lower body negative pressure - Comparison with +Gz acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Alvese; Sandler, Harold; Montgomery, Leslie D.

    1992-01-01

    The hemodynamic responses to LBNP in seated subjects and in subjects in supine body positions were compared and were correlated with hemodynamic changes which occurred during a simulated (by centrifugation) Shuttle reentry acceleration with a slow onset rate of 0.002 G/s and during gradual onset exposures to +3 Gz and +4 Gz. Results demonstrate that seated LBNP at a level of -40 mm Hg can serve as a static simulator for changes in the heart rate and in mean blood pressure induced by gradual onset acceleration stress occurring during Shuttle reentry. The findings also provide a rationale for using LBNP during weightlessness as a means of imposing G-loading on the circulation prior to reentry.

  3. Circulatory responses to lower body negative pressure in young Afghans and Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: We have previously shown that Afghans residing in Denmark for at least 12 years exhibit a lower 24-h ambulatory blood pressure compared to Danes. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the lower blood pressure reflects attenuated compensatory baroreflex responses...

  4. [Negative pressure therapy: NPT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, H

    2015-01-01

    Negative pressure therapy or treatment (NPT) is used very frequently in hospitals in both surgical and medical departments. NPT consists of maintaining the wound surface at a pressure below ambient atmospheric pressure by means of a specially designed dressing attached to a depressurisation device as well as a system to drain exudate. NPT has been shown to be beneficial in increasing blood flow, thanks to feedback resulting from the decreased oxygen pressure, angiogenesis and reduction of the wound surface area. The French Health Authority (HAS) has issued recommendations for good use in a specific and limited series of applications. NPT may be used in post-traumatic or post-surgical wounds, burns, and in chronic wounds, such as bedsores and ulcers. It is also effective as an adjuvant treatment for infected wounds. In recent years, various different NPT devices have become commercially available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of blood volume loss on cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure using a mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, E. H.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Fortney, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Different mathematical models of varying complexity have been proposed in recent years to study the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, only a few of them specifically address the response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP), a stress that can be applied in weightlessness to predict changes in orthostatic tolerance. Also, the simulated results produced by these models agree only partially with experimental observations. In contrast, the model proposed by Melchior et al., and modified by Karam et al. is a simple representation of the CV system capable of accurately reproducing observed LBNP responses up to presyncopal levels. There are significant changes in LBNP response due to a loss of blood volume and other alterations that occur in weightlessness and related one-g conditions such as bedrest. A few days of bedrest can cause up to 15% blood volume loss (BVL), with consequent decreases in both stroke volume and cardiac output, and increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance. These changes are more pronounced at higher levels of LBNP. This paper presents the results of a simulation study using our CV model to examine the effect of BVL on LBNP response.

  6. RESTING SYMPATHETIC BAROREFLEX SENSITIVITY IN SUBJECTS WITH LOW AND HIGH TOLERANCE TO CENTRAL HYPOVOLEMIA INDUCED BY LOWER BODY NEGATIVE PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eHinojosa-Laborde

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Central hypovolemia elicited by orthostasis or hemorrhage triggers sympathetically-mediated baroreflex responses to maintain organ perfusion; these reflexes are less sensitive in patients with orthostatic intolerance, and during conditions of severe blood loss, may result in cardiovascular collapse (decompensatory or circulatory shock. The ability to tolerate central hypovolemia is variable and physiological factors contributing to tolerance are emerging. We tested the hypothesis that resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA and sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity (BRS are attenuated in male and female subjects who have low tolerance (LT to central hypovolemia induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP. MSNA and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP were recorded in 47 human subjects who subsequently underwent LBNP to tolerance (onset of presyncopal symptoms. LT subjects experienced presyncopal symptoms prior to completing LBNP of -60 mm Hg, and subjects with high tolerance (HT experienced presyncopal symptoms after completing LBNP after -60 mmHg. Contrary to our hypothesis, resting MSNA burst incidence was not different between LT and HT subjects, and was not related to time to presyncope. BRS was assessed as the slope of the relationship between spontaneous fluctuations in DAP and MSNA during 5 min of supine rest. MSNA burst incidence/DAP correlations were greater than or equal to 0.5 in 37 subjects (LT: n= 9; HT: n=28, and BRS was not different between LT and HT (-1.8 ± 0.3 vs. -2.2 ± 0.2 bursts•(100 beats-1•mmHg-1, p=0.29. We conclude that tolerance to central hypovolemia is not related to either resting MSNA or sympathetic BRS.

  7. In-flight Assessment of Lower Body Negative Pressure as a Countermeasure for Post-flight Orthostatic Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, J. B.; Stenger, M. B.; Phillips, T. R.; Arzeno, N. M.; Lee, S. M. C.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. We investigated the efficacy of combining fluid loading with sustained lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to reverse orthostatic intolerance associated with weightlessness during and immediately after Space Shuttle missions. Methods. Shuttle astronauts (n=13) underwent 4 hours of LBNP at -30 mm(Hg) and ingested water and salt ( soak treatment) during flight in two complementary studies. In the first study (n=8), pre-flight heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) responses to an LBNP ramp (5-min stages of -10 mm(Hg) steps to -50 mm(Hg) were compared to responses in-flight one and two days after LBNP soak treatment. In the second study (n=5), the soak was performed 24 hr before landing, and post-flight stand test results of soak subjects were compared with those of an untreated cohort (n=7). In both studies, the soak was scheduled late in the mission and was preceded by LBNP ramp tests at approximately 3-day intervals to document the in-flight loss of orthostatic tolerance. Results. Increased HR and decreased BP responses to LBNP were evident early in-flight. In-flight, one day after LBNP soak, HR and BP responses to LBNP were not different from pre-flight, but the effect was absent the second day after treatment. Post-flight there were no between-group differences in HR and BP responses to standing, but all 5 treatment subjects completed the 5-minute stand test whereas 2 of 7 untreated cohort subjects did not. Discussion. Exaggerated HR and BP responses to LBNP were evident within the first few days of space flight, extending results from Skylab. The combined LBNP and fluid ingestion countermeasure restored in-flight LBNP HR and BP responses to pre-flight levels and provided protection of post-landing orthostatic function. Unfortunately, any benefits of the combined countermeasure were offset by the complexity of its implementation, making it inappropriate for routine application during Shuttle flights.

  8. Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-03-01

    The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)

  9. Fluid Redistribution and Heart Rate in Humans During Whole-Body Tilting, G(z) Centrifugation, and Lower Body Negative Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Breit, G. A.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity creates blood pressure gradients which redistribute body fluids towards the feet. Positive G(z) centrifugation and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have been proposed to simulate these and other effects of gravity during long-term existence in microgravity. We hypothesized that the magnitude of upper-to-lower body fluid redistribution would increase according to the following order: short-arm centrifugation (SAC), long-arm centrifugation (LAC), head-up tilt (HUT), and LBNP. To test this hypothesis, we employed strain gauge plethysmography of the neck, thigh and calf during HUT and supine SAC and LAC up to lG(z) at the feet, and during supine LBNP to 100 mm Hg. Supine 100 mm Hg LBNP generates footward force and produces transmural blood pressures in the foot approximately equal to 1 G(z) (90 deg) HUT. Heart rate was measured via cardiotachometry. Control measurements were made while supine. SAC and LAC elicited similar increases in thigh volume at 1 G(z) (2.3 +/- 0.4 and 2.1 +/- 0.1%, respectively; mean +/- se, n greater than or equal to 7). At 100 mm Hg LBNP, thigh volume increased (3.4 +/- 0.3%) significantly more than during l G(z) centrifugation (p less than 0.05). Surprisingly, due to a paradoxical 0.6% reduction of thigh volume between 0.8 and 1.0 G(z) HUT, thigh volume was increased only 0.6 +/- 0.3% at 1 G(z) HUT. The calf demonstrated similar, although less definitive, responses to the various gravitational stimuli. Neck volume tended to decrease less during HUT than during the other stimuli. Heart rate increased similarly during HUT (18 +/- 2 beats/min) and LAC (12 +/- 2 beats/min), and exhibited still greater elevation during LBNP (29 +/- 4 beats/min), yet did not increase during SAC. These results suggest upright posture activates mechanisms that counteract footward fluid redistribution which are not activated during supine applications of simulated gravity. LAC more closely approximated effects of normal gravity (HUT) than LBNP. Therefore

  10. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana

    a randomised controlled trial in two tertiary and three teaching hospitals in three regions of Denmark, the Happy Belly Study, investigating the effectiveness of iNPWT in a population of obese women after caesarean section. The Happy Belly Study has demonstrated that prophylactic iNPWT significantly reduced......-risk population of obese women giving birth by caesarean section. The Happy Belly Study is ongoing and thus this thesis presents preliminary results based on data from the first two-thirds of the scheduled study participants. Nonetheless, the results in this thesis are convincing. Accordingly, i......Women with a pre-gestational body mass index (BMI) above 30 kg/m2 giving birth by caesarean section are at high risk of surgical wound infection compared with women with a BMI below 30 kg/m2. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (iNPWT) is one strategy to reduce the rate of surgical wound...

  11. Spectral components of human cardiovascular responses to step changes in Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) before and after 22 hour of 6 deg head down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, C. F.; Evans, J. M.; Grande, K. J.; Murphy, C. D.; Patwardhan, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in autonomic outflow to peripheral organs during the development of bedrest induced orthostatic intolerance have not been determined. Recent studies have indicated that spectral analysis provides an indirect assessment of these changes. Eight male subjects were studied before and after 22 hours of 6 degree head down bedrest plus Lasix (40 mg. P.P.). Cardiovascular spectra (using an autoregressive technique) were determined for heart rate (HR, ECG), arterial pressure (AP, Finapres), radial artery flow (RF, Hokansen) and respiration rate (RR, BoMed). Spectra were obtained from 2.5 minute segments during control, lower body negative pressure (minus 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mmHg) and recovery. Bedrest increased HR spectra power in the low frequency (.001 to .041 Hz) range, increased RF power in the low and mid (.04 to .18 Hz) range and increased AP power in the high (.18 to .50 Hz) frequency range. Increasing levels of lower body negative pressure decreased HR power and increased RF power in the high frequency range and decreased AP power in the low frequency range. Since spectral power of HR in the high frequency range has been shown to indicate parasympathetically mediated regulation and power in the low and mid frequency ranges indicates a sympathetic / parasympathetic mixture, then both bedrest and lower body negative pressure appeared to shift sympathetic / parasympathetic balance toward sympathetic regulation of HR. The interpretation of the spectral content of AP and RF with respect to their autonomic origins remains unclear.

  12. [APPLICATION OF NEGATIVE PRESSURE THERAPY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laginja, S; Marinović, M

    2016-01-01

    Negative pressure therapy is gradually taking an increasingly important role in the treatment of chronic wound healing because of its simple application in hospital or outpatient setting and good comfort with no pain for the patient. Chronic wound healing is accelerated in comparison with other conservative treatments. The level of negative pressure is between 40 and 125 mm Hg below ambient. Direct and indirect effect of the negative pressure therapy helps in wound healing and provides good preparation for definitive surgical management of wounds.

  13. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana; Birke-Sorensen, Hanne; Kruse, Marie

    Aim: Postoperative wound complications make many surgical procedures unnecessarily complex, particularly in high-risk patients. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy is well recognized in the management of open wounds. In recent years, it has been introduced as well in the management of closed surgical...... incisions to reduce postoperative wound complications, though the evidence base to support this intervention is limited. The aim of this study was to assess if Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) reduces postoperative complications when applied on closed surgical incisions. Method: A systematic review...

  14. Negative-Pressure Pulmonary Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Mallar; Kallet, Richard H; Ware, Lorraine B; Matthay, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Negative-pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) or postobstructive pulmonary edema is a well-described cause of acute respiratory failure that occurs after intense inspiratory effort against an obstructed airway, usually from upper airway infection, tumor, or laryngospasm. Patients with NPPE generate very negative airway pressures, which augment transvascular fluid filtration and precipitate interstitial and alveolar edema. Pulmonary edema fluid collected from most patients with NPPE has a low protein concentration, suggesting hydrostatic forces as the primary mechanism for the pathogenesis of NPPE. Supportive care should be directed at relieving the upper airway obstruction by endotracheal intubation or cricothyroidotomy, institution of lung-protective positive-pressure ventilation, and diuresis unless the patient is in shock. Resolution of the pulmonary edema is usually rapid, in part because alveolar fluid clearance mechanisms are intact. In this review, we discuss the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and management of negative-pressure or postobstructive pulmonary edema. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Basal electric and magnetic fields of celestial bodies come from positive-negative charge separation caused by gravitation of quasi-Casimir pressure in weak interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    According to f =d(mv)/dt=m(dv/dt)+ v(dm/dt), a same gravitational formula had been de-duced from the variance in physical mass of QFT and from the variance in mass of inductive energy-transfer of GR respectively: f QF T = f GR = -G (mM/r2 )((r/r)+(v/c)) when their interaction-constants are all taken the experimental values (H05-0029-08, E15-0039-08). f QF T is the quasi-Casimir pressure. f GR is equivalent to Einstein's equation, then more easy to solve it. The hypothesis of the equivalent principle is not used in f QF T , but required by f GR . The predictions of f QF T and f GR are identical except that f QF T has quantum effects but f GR has not and f GR has Lense-Thirring effect but f QF T has not. The quantum effects of gravitation had been verified by Nesvizhevsky et al with the ultracold neutrons falling in the earth's gravitational field in 2002. Yet Lense-Thirring effect had not been measured by GP-B. It shows that f QF T is essential but f GR is phenomenological. The macro-f QF T is the statistic average pressure collided by net virtual neutrinos ν 0 flux (after self-offset in opposite directions) and in direct proportion to the mass. But micro-f QF T is in direct proportion to the scattering section. The electric mass (in inverse proportion to de Broglie wavelength λ) far less than nucleonic mass and the electric scattering section (in direct proportion to λ2 ) far large than that of nucleon, then the net ν 0 flux pressure exerted to electron far large than that to nucleon and the electric displacement far large than that of nucleon, it causes the gravitational polarization of positive-negative charge center separation. Because the gravity far less than the electromagnetic binding force, in atoms the gravitational polarization only produces a little separation. But the net ν 0 flux can press a part freedom electrons in plasma of ionosphere into the earth's surface, the static electric force of redundant positive ions prevents electrons from further

  16. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in Maxillofacial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Mellott

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Negative pressure wound therapy has greatly advanced the field of wound healing for nearly two decades, by providing a robust surgical adjunct technique for accelerating wound closure in acute and chronic wounds. However, the application of negative pressure wound therapy in maxillofacial applications has been relatively under utilized as a result of the physical articulations and contours of the head and neck that make it challenging to obtain an airtight seal for different negative pressure wound therapy systems. Adapting negative pressure wound therapies for maxillofacial applications could yield significant enhancement of wound closure in maxillofacial applications. The current review summarizes the basic science underlying negative pressure wound therapy, as well as specific maxillofacial procedures that could benefit from negative pressure wound therapy.

  17. Negative pressure pulmonary oedema after septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Hombre, Alina M; Cuffini, Alejandro; Bonadeo, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Negative pressure pulmonary oedema (NPPO) is an anaesthetic complication due to acute obstruction of the upper airway, whose main cause is laryngospasm. The pathophysiology involves a strong negative intrapleural pressure during inspiration against a closed glottis, which triggers excessive pressure in the pulmonary microvasculature. Although its diagnosis can be difficult, its recognition helps to minimise morbidity and mortality. This article presents a case of NPPO due to postextubation laryngospasm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST

  19. Effects of 10 days 6 degrees head-down tilt on the responses to fluid loading and lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisch, F.; Heer, M.; Beck, L.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Kropp, J.; Schulz, H.; Hillebrecht, A.; Meyer, M.

    1991-01-01

    In an international collaborative project six normal male subjects were studied before, during and after 10 days 6 degrees HDT. Fluid intake was controlled at 40 ml/(kgbw day). Urine volume and body weight were determined daily. Fluid loading and LBNP were performed in all three phases of the study. Body weight diminished by 2.6% because of fluid loss. Blood volume diminished by 13%. The responses to fluid loading were similar in the three phases of the study. Sixty minutes after end of infusion only 5.5% of the infused saline remained in the intravascular compartment. Excess interstitial fluid was eliminated in the next 24 hs but a negative balance was recorded also in the following day. The compliance of the lower limbs expressed as the rate of limb volume change/unit LBNP change was increased at the end of the HDT phase and during the post HDT phase. The set point of intravascular volume was defended, as shown by the response to FL. HDT increased the compliance of the lower limbs.

  20. Experience with the use of negative pressure bolster dressing for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: This was a prospective study of consecutive patients from January 2009 to December 2010, with wounds over uneven and highly mobile anatomic regions that had their skin grafts stabilized using negative pressure wound dressing. Data on patients' age, sex, region of the body that was skin grafted, size of ...

  1. Active Intracystic Negative Pressure Could Induce Osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Núñez, Jaime

    2018-02-23

    Based on previous findings, the author introduces the term "sugosteogenesis," a biological phenomenon that occurs by using the Evocyst, a device that exerts active intracystic negative pressure. The term "sugosteogenesis" comes from the Latin word "sugo-," meaning "suck," and Greek words "osteo-," meaning "bone," and genesis, "origin."

  2. Negative pressure wound therapy: clinical utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoz H

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Heidi Sandoz Accelerate CIC, Mile End Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT, also known as topical negative pressure therapy, has been increasingly used in health care for the management of a wide variety of wounds over the last 2–3 decades. It is an advanced therapy that can be helpful to accelerate wound healing in both acute and chronic wounds by delivering negative pressure (suction to the wound bed. More recent advancements in the application of NPWT have provided clinicians with wider choices of utilization. There are now devices available that can deliver irrigation to the wound bed, be used for closed surgical incisions, or are disposable and highly portable. Systematic reviews considering NPWT have been published previously. These usually focus on one wound group or device and fail to offer practical clinical guidance due to the scrutiny offered to the evidence via a systematic review process. Here, an overview of the history of NPWT, the varieties of device available, their wide clinical application, and the evidence to support its use are explored in a pragmatic way. Keywords: negative pressure, wound, incision, healing, pain 

  3. Topical negative pressure therapy: mechanisms and indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Paul E; Musgrave, Melinda

    2004-06-01

    Topical negative pressure (TNP) therapy has emerged as a high-technology, microprocessor-controlled physical wound-healing modality. Complex effects at the wound-dressing interface following application of a controlled vacuum force have been documented. These include changes on a microscopic, molecular level and on a macroscopic, tissue level: interstitial fluid flow and exudate management, oedema reduction, effects on wound perfusion, protease profiles, growth factor and cytokine expression and cellular activity, all leading to enhanced granulation tissue formation and improved wound-healing parameters. Primary indications for clinical use have been documented and include traumatic wounds, open abdominal wounds, infected sternotomy wounds, wound bed preparation, complex diabetic wounds and skin-graft fixation. Whilst this therapy now forms an essential part of the wound healing armamentarium, extensive clinical trials are recommended to confirm efficacy and delineate its optimum use.

  4. Negative pressure wound therapy and nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Amy

    2017-08-10

    there can be serious consequences for patients if negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is performed incorrectly and patient safety must be paramount. The existing literature was found to mainly concentrate on the use of the technology from the patient perspective. This article examines the opinions of nurses who apply the therapy. five staff nurses from different areas with differing experience levels were interviewed in a semi-structured manner. The transcribed interviews were coded, sorted into themes and analysed. the themes were: enhancing knowledge and understanding, managing problematic pumps, formalised and interactive training, and efficacy and healing. There was a lack of standardised training provided for the nurses interviewed. Overall the nurses were aware of the basic evidence behind the treatment but would have liked additional support in this area as well as some practical, less pressured training. This complements the existing literature. nurses are expected to learn difficult and highly specialised skills quickly within a busy ward environment, often with no prior training or preparation. As things can go wrong, with the potential for patient harm, it is vital that nurses get these skills right first time, but it is difficult to do this in a practical, fast and cost-effective way. There is scope for future research in the area and perhaps the development of an online training tool to assist nurses in understanding and undertaking a new procedure.

  5. Evaluation of continuous and intermittent myocardial topical negative pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstedt, Sandra; Malmsjö, Malin; Gesslein, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    Topical negative pressure, commonly used in wound therapy, has been shown to increase blood flow and stimulate angiogenesis in subcutaneous tissue and skeletal muscle. In wound therapy, intermittent negative pressure is often preferred to continuous negative pressure as tissue exposed to intermit...

  6. Renal effects of continuous negative pressure breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    Continuous negative pressure breathing (CNPB) was utilized to simulate the thoracic vascular distension of zero G in 11 anesthetized rats. The animals underwent renal clearance and micropuncture renal nephron studies before, during, and after CNPB. Four rats were pretreated with a high salt diet and I-M desoxycorticosterone (DOCA) in excess. None of these rats diuresed with CNPB. In contrast, five of the seven remaining rats increased the fraction of the filtered sodium excreted and their urinary flow rate. Potassium excretion increased. End proximal tubular fluid specimen's TF/P inulin ratios were unchanged. Whole kidney and single nephron glomerular filtration rates fell 10%. CNPB, a mechanism for atrial distension, appears to cause in the rat a decrease in distal tubular sodium and water reabsorption. Exogenous mineral-corticoid prevents the diuresis, saluresis, and kaluresis. The adequacy of other nonatrial volume control mechanisms in regulating renal salt and water conservation in opposition to the studied atrial-renal (Henry-Gauer) reflex of thoracic vascular distension is confirmed.

  7. Seeing ghosts: Negative body evaluation predicts overestimation of negative social feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alleva, J.M.; Lange, W.G.; Jansen, A.T.M.; Martijn, C.

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated whether negative body evaluation predicts women's overestimation of negative social feedback related to their own body (i.e., covariation bias). Sixty-five female university students completed a computer task where photos of their own body, of a control woman's body,

  8. Capillarity Induced Negative Pressure of Water Plugs in Nanochannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Niels Roelof; Mela, P.; Kramer, Tobias; Berenschot, Johan W.; van den Berg, Albert

    2003-01-01

    We have found evidence that water plugs in hydrophilic nanochannels can be at significant negative pressure due to tensile capillary forces. The negative pressure of water plugs in nanochannels induces bending of the thin channel capping layer, which results in a visible curvature of the liquid

  9. 21 CFR 868.5935 - External negative pressure ventilator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External negative pressure ventilator. 868.5935 Section 868.5935 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ventilator. (a) Identification. An external negative pressure ventilator (e.g., iron lung, cuirass) is a...

  10. Pressure Field Around Underwater Negative Streamers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoffer, Petr; Koláček, Karel; Lukeš, Petr; Stelmashuk, Vitaliy

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2015), s. 1787-1792 ISSN 0093-3813 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12987S Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100431203 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Interferometry * plasma generation * pressure measurement * water Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.958, year: 2015

  11. Cardiovascular regulation during body unweighting by lower body positive pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joyce M; Mohney, Lindsay; Wang, Siqi; Moore, Rachel K; Elayi, Samy-Claude; Stenger, Michael B; Moore, Fritz B; Knapp, Charles F

    2013-11-01

    We hypothesized that human cardiovascular responses to standing in reduced gravity environments, as on the Moon or Mars, could be modeled using a lower body positive pressure (LBPP) chamber. Heart rate, blood pressure, body segment fluid shifts, ECG, indexes of sympathetic, parasympathetic balance, and baroreflex control of the heart and periphery plus echocardiographic measures of cardiac function were recorded from seven men and seven women supine and standing at 100% (Earth), 40% (-Mars), and 20% (-Moon) bodyweights (BW). The fluid shifted from the chest was greater when standing at 100% BW than at 20% and 40% BW, while fluid pooled in the abdomen was similar at all BWs. Compared to moving from supine to standing at 100% BW, moving to 20% and 40% BW resulted in smaller decreases in stroke volume and pulse pressure, smaller increases in heart rate and smaller decreases in parasympathetic control of heart rate, baroreflex slope, numbers of blood pressure ramps, and much reduced indexes of sympathetic drive to the heart and periphery. However, peripheral vascular resistance, systolic pressure, and baroreflex effectiveness were elevated during 20% and 40% BW, compared to supine and standing at 100% BW. Standing at reduced bodyweight suppressed indexes of sympathetic control of heart rate and peripheral vasomotion. Regulatory responses indicated a combination of arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflex control: mean heart rate, vasomotion, and baroreflex sensitivity appeared to be more under cardiopulmonary control while baroreflex effectiveness appeared to be driven more by the arterial baroreflex.

  12. Negative pressure ventilation enhances acinar perfusion in isolated rat lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kal E; Segal, Gilad S; Conhaim, Robert L

    2018-01-01

    We compared acinar perfusion in isolated rat lungs ventilated using positive or negative pressures. The lungs were ventilated with air at transpulmomary pressures of 15/5 cm H 2 O, at 25 breaths/min, and perfused with a hetastarch solution at P pulm art /P LA pressures of 10/0 cm H 2 O. We evaluated overall perfusability from perfusate flows, and from the venous concentrations of 4-µm diameter fluorescent latex particles infused into the pulmonary circulation during perfusion. We measured perfusion distribution from the trapping patterns of those particles within the lung. We infused approximately 9 million red fluorescent particles into each lung, followed 20 min later by an infusion of an equal number of green particles. In positive pressure lungs, 94.7 ± 2.4% of the infused particles remained trapped within the lungs, compared to 86.8 ± 5.6% in negative pressure lungs ( P ≤ 0.05). Perfusate flows averaged 2.5 ± 0.1 mL/min in lungs ventilated with positive pressures, compared to 5.6 ± 01 mL/min in lungs ventilated with negative pressures ( P ≤ 0.05). Particle infusions had little effect on perfusate flows. In confocal images of dried sections of each lung, red and green particles were co-localized in clusters in positive pressure lungs, suggesting that acinar vessels that lacked particles were collapsed by these pressures thereby preventing perfusion through them. Particles were more broadly and uniformly distributed in negative pressure lungs, suggesting that perfusion in these lungs was also more uniformly distributed. Our results suggest that the acinar circulation is organized as a web, and further suggest that portions of this web are collapsed by positive pressure ventilation.

  13. Negative pressure pulmonary edema revisited: Pathophysiology and review of management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balu Bhaskar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE is a dangerous and potentially fatal condition with a multifactorial pathogenesis. Frequently, NPPE is a manifestation of upper airway obstruction, the large negative intrathoracic pressure generated by forced inspiration against an obstructed airway is thought to be the principal mechanism involved. This negative pressure leads to an increase in pulmonary vascular volume and pulmonary capillary transmural pressure, creating a risk of disruption of the alveolar-capillary membrane. The early detection of the signs of this syndrome is vital to the treatment and to patient outcome. The purpose of this review is to highlight the available literature on NPPE, while probing the pathophysiological mechanisms relevant in both the development of this condition and that involved in its resolution.

  14. Negative Mood Increases Selective Attention to Negatively Valenced Body Parts in Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svaldi, Jennifer; Bender, Caroline; Caffier, Detlef; Ivanova, Viliana; Mies, Nina; Fleischhaker, Christian; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN), especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation. Method In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12) and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12) were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded. Results After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants’ attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive) mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG. Discussion The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients’ body image disturbance. PMID:27123587

  15. Negative Mood Increases Selective Attention to Negatively Valenced Body Parts in Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Svaldi

    Full Text Available Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN, especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation.In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12 and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12 were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded.After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants' attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG.The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients' body image disturbance.

  16. Body image related negative interpretation bias in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Anderle, Alisa; Schmidt, Hagen; Febry, Stephanie; Wünsch-Leiteritz, Wally; Leiteritz, Andreas; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2018-03-14

    A distorted body image and pronounced body dissatisfaction are hallmarks of anorexia nervosa (AN) that typically result in dietary restraint and compensatory behaviours. Cognitive biases such as negative interpretation bias are considered key maintaining factors of these maladaptive cognitions and behaviours. However, little attention has been paid to empirical tests whether negative interpretation bias exists in AN and to what degree it is associated with symptom severity. Participants in the present study were 40 women with AN and 40 healthy women with no history of an eating disorder. Body-related negative interpretation bias (i.e., a tendency to interpret ambiguous information about the own body in a negative way) was measured by a Scrambled Sentences Task. Patients with AN showed a stronger body-related negative interpretation bias than healthy controls. Within both groups, negative interpretation bias correlated strongly and positively with AN symptom severity and these effects were not moderated by levels of depressive symptoms. The findings support the idea that biased interpretation of body-related information is associated with the specific psychopathology of AN. Targeted, computerised interventions (e.g. interpretation bias modification) may help to alter these dysfunctional cognitive schemas that lie at the heart of AN. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Negative pressure characteristics of an evaporating meniscus at nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroo Shalabh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims at understanding the characteristics of negative liquid pressures at the nanoscale using molecular dynamics simulation. A nano-meniscus is formed by placing liquid argon on a platinum wall between two nano-channels filled with the same liquid. Evaporation is simulated in the meniscus by increasing the temperature of the platinum wall for two different cases. Non-evaporating films are obtained at the center of the meniscus. The liquid film in the non-evaporating and adjacent regions is found to be under high absolute negative pressures. Cavitation cannot occur in these regions as the capillary height is smaller than the critical cavitation radius. Factors which determine the critical film thickness for rupture are discussed. Thus, high negative liquid pressures can be stable at the nanoscale, and utilized to create passive pumping devices as well as significantly enhance heat transfer rates.

  18. An Intervention for the Negative Influence of Media on Body Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Cheryl J.; Pawlow, Laura A.; Pettibone, Jon; Segrist, Dan J.

    2012-01-01

    Since research suggests that media pressure to be thin causes individuals to have negative feelings about their appearances, this research aimed to test whether exposing college students to some common myths about female images in the media may be part of the solution to fostering a healthier body image. In this study, a 2 (Group: Experimental or…

  19. An Affordable Custom-Built Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a well- established modality for treating complex wounds (1). There are several proposed mechanisms of action of. NPWT (2). The main disadvantage of NPWT is that it is expensive, a drawback that makes this modality of treatment not available in limited-resources countries.

  20. An Affordable Custom-Built Negative Pressure Wound Therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a wellestablished and effective method for treating complex wounds. However, this modality of treatment may not be available in limited resource countries due to the high cost. We describe a simple and cheap method of NPWT using gauze swabs, a naso-gastric tube, adhesive ...

  1. Negative pressure treatment for necrotizing fasciitis after chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraia Melchionda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe 2 cases of children with malignant disease who developed severe mucositis with perineal necrotizing fasciitis during severe neutropenia after chemotherapy. Treatment with topical negative pressure therapy with silver foam dressing, together with large spectrum antibiotics, resolved the problem with complete closure of the wound after 30 and 36 days of treatment, respectively.

  2. Controlling a negative loaded hydraulic cylinder using pressure feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.R.; Andersen, T.O.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the inherent oscillatory nature of pressure compensated velocity control of a hydraulic cylinder subjected to a negative load and suspended by means of an over-center valve. Initially, a linearized stability analysis of such a hydraulic circuit is carried out clearly ...... in a nonlinear time domain simulation model validating the linear stability analysis....

  3. Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema Following use of Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim Bayraktar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE following upper airway obstruction is a non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. The first cause in the etiology of NPPE is developed laryngospasm after intubation or extubation, while the other causes are epiglotitis, croup, hiccups, foreign body aspiration, pharyngeal hematoma and oropharyngeal tumors.The Late diagnosis and treatment causes high morbidity and mortality. The protection of the airway and maintainance of arterial oxygenation will be life saving.In this article we aimed to report  a case of negative pressure pulmonary edema, resolved succesfully after treatment, following use of laryngeal mask airway (LMA.

  4. Negative interstitial pressure in the peritendinous region during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D; Bülow, J

    1999-01-01

    of these observations, microdialysis was performed in the peritendinous region with a colloid osmotic active substance (Dextran 70, 0.1 g/ml) added to the perfusate with the aim of counteracting the negative tissue pressure. Dialysate volume was found to be fully restored (100 +/- 4%) during exercise. It is concluded......In the present study, tissue pressure in the peritendinous area ventral to the human Achilles tendon was determined. The pressure was measured during rest and intermittent isometric calf muscle exercise at three torques (56, 112, and 168 Nm) 20, 40 and 50 mm proximal to the insertion of the tendon...... in 11 healthy, young individuals. In all experiments a linear significant decrease in pressure was obtained with increasing torque [e.g., at 40 mm: -0.4 +/- 0.3 mmHg (rest) to -135 +/- 12 mmHg (168 Nm)]. No significant differences were obtained among the three areas measured. On the basis...

  5. Body indices and basic vital signs in Helicobacter pylori positive and negative persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopacova, Marcela; Bures, Jan; Koupil, Ilona; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Vorisek, Viktor; Seifert, Bohumil; Pozler, Oldrich; Zivny, Pavel; Douda, Tomas; Palicka, Vladimir; Holcik, Jan

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection may contribute to reduced stature, risk of hypertension or obesity. The aim was to evaluate body indices in Hp positive and negative persons. A total of 2436 subjects (4-100 years old) were tested for Hp status by 13 C-urea breath test. Data on height and weight were collected for 84%, and blood pressure for 80% of the study subjects. The prevalence of Hp infection was 41.6%. The odds ratio for a 10-year increase in age was 1.21 (95% CI 1.17-1.25, p-value <0.001). Statistically significant negative association of Hp positivity with body height was most pronounced in the younger age groups, while a positive association of Hp positivity with body mass index was only seen in those aged 15+ years. There was a negative effect of Hp positivity on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subjects below 25 and a relatively strong positive effect on blood pressure in subjects over 65 years. Residual confounding by social characteristics as a possible explanation for the associations of Hp positivity with height and blood pressure cannot be excluded. Unmeasured factors related to social and family environment may cause the apparent association between Hp positivity and children's growth and blood pressure

  6. Rapid Onset Acute Epiglottitis Leading to Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Saraswat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary edema is a potentially life-threatening complication of acute airway obstruction. It develops rapidly, without warning, in young healthy individuals. Two forms of post-obstructive pulmonary edema (POPE (also known as negative pressure pulmonary edema, NPPE have been identified. POPE I follows sudden, severe upper airway obstruction. POPE II occurs following surgical relief of chronic upper airway obstruction. Treatment for both is supportive. Full and rapid recovery can be expected with appropriate management. A case report of a middle aged man with acute onset epiglottitis who developed negative pressure pulmonary edema after intubation is presented. The report includes a brief discussion on etiology, clinical features and management dilemma of acute upper airway obstruction.

  7. Rapid Onset Acute Epiglottitis Leading to Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema

    OpenAIRE

    V Saraswat; P V Madhu; Suresh S Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary edema is a potentially life-threatening complication of acute airway obstruction. It develops rapidly, without warning, in young healthy individuals. Two forms of post-obstructive pulmonary edema (POPE) (also known as negative pressure pulmonary edema, NPPE) have been identified. POPE I follows sudden, severe upper airway obstruction. POPE II occurs following surgical relief of chronic upper airway obstruction. Treatment for both is supportive. Full and rapid recovery can be expecte...

  8. Negative chemical pressure effects induced by Y substitution for Ca ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Negative chemical pressure effects on Ca3Co2O6. Figure 3. Inverse of magnetic susceptibility (χ) as a function of tempera- ture (30–300 K) for Ca3−xYxCo2O6, obtained in a field of 5 kOe. A straight line is drawn through the high-temperature linear region to highlight the x-dependence of θp. The low-temperature data ...

  9. Negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation: international consensus guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul J; Attinger, Christopher E; Steinberg, John S; Evans, Karen K; Lehner, Burkhard; Willy, Christian; Lavery, Larry; Wolvos, Tom; Orgill, Dennis; Ennis, William; Lantis, John; Gabriel, Allen; Schultz, Gregory

    2013-12-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation is increasingly utilized as an adjunct therapy for a wide variety of wounds. Despite its growing popularity, there is a paucity of evidence and lack of guidance to provide effective use of this therapy. A panel of experts was convened to provide guidance regarding the appropriate use of negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation. A face-to-face meeting was held where the available evidence was discussed and individual clinical experience with this therapy was shared. Follow-up communication among the panelists continued until consensus was achieved. The final consensus recommendations were derived through more than 80 percent agreement among the panelists. Nine consensus statements were generated that address the appropriate use of negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation. The question of clinical effectiveness of this therapy was not directly addressed by the consensus panel. This document serves as preliminary guidelines until more robust evidence emerges that will support or modify these consensus recommendations.

  10. Perceived social pressure not to experience negative emotion is linked to selective attention for negative information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Brock; Pe, Madeline Lee; Kuppens, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Social norms and values may be important predictors of how people engage with and regulate their negative emotional experiences. Previous research has shown that social expectancies (the perceived social pressure not to feel negative emotion (NE)) exacerbate feelings of sadness. In the current research, we examined whether social expectancies may be linked to how people process emotional information. Using a modified classical flanker task involving emotional rather than non-emotional stimuli, we found that, for those who experienced low levels of NE, social expectancies were linked to the selective avoidance of negative emotional information. Those who experienced high levels of NE did not show a selective avoidance of negative emotional information. The findings suggest that, for people who experience many NEs, social expectancies may lead to discrepancies between how they think they ought to feel and the kind of emotional information they pay attention to.

  11. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Michihiro; Imai, Ryota; Ueta, Kozo; Nobusako, Satoshi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (pappearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  12. An anesthetic management of negative pressure pulmonary edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Raj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE is one of the common complications of upper airway obstruction seen by anesthesiologist during either in induction or emergence sometimes both. Patients who have experienced NPPE are generally healthy without comorbidities. NPPE is a result of marked decrease in intrathoracic pressure caused by ventilator efforts against a closed glottis resulting in disruption of normal intravascular Starling mechanism, leading to transudation of intravascular protein, and fluids into the pulmonary interstitium. The onset of NPPE is usually rapid and without prompt recognition and intervention, the outcome can be fatal. This case report is of a 40-year-old female adult, who underwent right-sided percutaneous nephrolithotomy for stone in the right kidney otherwise uncomplicated surgical procedure.

  13. Body Size Predicts Cardiac and Vascular Resistance Effects on Men's and Women's Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce M. Evans

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Key Points SummaryWe report how blood pressure, cardiac output and vascular resistance are related to height, weight, body surface area (BSA, and body mass index (BMI in healthy young adults at supine rest and standing.Much inter-subject variability in young adult's blood pressure, currently attributed to health status, may actually result from inter-individual body size differences.Each cardiovascular variable is linearly related to height, weight and/or BSA (more than to BMI.When supine, cardiac output is positively related, while vascular resistance is negatively related, to body size. Upon standing, the change in vascular resistance is positively related to size.The height/weight relationships of cardiac output and vascular resistance to body size are responsible for blood pressure relationships to body size.These basic components of blood pressure could help distinguish normal from abnormal blood pressures in young adults by providing a more effective scaling mechanism.Introduction: Effects of body size on inter-subject blood pressure (BP variability are not well established in adults. We hypothesized that relationships linking stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, and total peripheral resistance (TPR with body size would account for a significant fraction of inter-subject BP variability.Methods: Thirty-four young, healthy adults (19 men, 15 women participated in 38 stand tests during which brachial artery BP, heart rate, SV, CO, TPR, and indexes of body size were measured/calculated.Results: Steady state diastolic arterial BP was not significantly correlated with any index of body size when subjects were supine. However, upon standing, the more the subject weighed, or the taller s/he was, the greater the increase in diastolic pressure. Systolic pressure strongly correlated with body weight and height both supine and standing. Diastolic and systolic BP were more strongly related to height, weight and body surface area than to body mass

  14. Study on the hydrogen negative ion in low pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneteau, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    A new use of negative hydrogen ions is the production of intense fast neutral atom beams useful in plasma heating in thermonuclear heating. That is one of the reasons that started this study. The density of negative hydrogen ions in diffusion, and multipole-type low pressure (10 -3 - 10-2 Torr) discharges is deduced from the various formation and destruction processes of the species present in these discharges. The H - ions are essentially produced by dissociative attachment to vibrationally excited molecules and destroyed by processes the relative importance of which is discussed as a function of the discharge parameters. The experimental study of the density of the H - ions, measured by photodetachment, as a function of these parameters, coroborates the theoretical model [fr

  15. Dynamic isolation technologies in negative pressure isolation wards

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhonglin

    2017-01-01

    This book presents novel design principles and technologies for dynamic isolation based on experimental studies. These approaches have now become the local standard in Beijing and are currently being promoted for use nationwide. Further, the book provides details of measures and guidelines for the design process. Departing from the traditional understanding that isolation wards should be designed with high negative pressure, airtight doors and fresh air, it establishes the basis for designing biological clean rooms, including isolation wards, using a simple and convenient scientific approach. This book is intended for designers, engineers, researchers, hospital management staff and graduate students in heating ventilation air conditioning (HVAC), air cleaning technologies and related areas.

  16. Negative pressure pulmonary edema in healthy cosmetic surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieu, Tam; Upjohn, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Anesthetic complications are uncommon in young and healthy patients undergoing cosmetic surgery. We report 2 cases of negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) in young patients, 1 who underwent rhinoplasty and another who underwent augmentation mammaplasty and suction-assisted lipoplasty of the thighs and buttocks This rare and potentially fatal complication requires admission to an intensive-care unit and delayed discharge. Although cases of NPPE have been reported in the medical and anesthetic literature, NPPE in plastic surgery has never been reported previously.

  17. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Osumi

    Full Text Available Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (p<0.001. The pain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (p<0.001. We conclude that a negative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  18. Solvation pressure as real pressure: I. Ethanol and starch under negative pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Uden, N W A V; Faux, D A; Tanczos, A C; Howlin, B; Dunstan, D J

    2003-01-01

    The reality of the solvation pressure generated by the cohesive energy density of liquids is demonstrated by three methods. Firstly, the Raman spectrum of ethanol as a function of cohesive energy density (solvation pressure) in ethanol-water and ethanol-chloroform mixtures is compared with the Raman spectrum of pure ethanol under external hydrostatic pressure and the solvation pressure and hydrostatic pressure are found to be equivalent for some transitions. Secondly, the bond lengths of ethanol are calculated by molecular dynamics modelling for liquid ethanol under pressure and for ethanol vapour. The difference in bond lengths between vapour and liquid are found to be equivalent to the solvation pressure for the C-H sub 3 , C-H sub 2 and O-H bond lengths, with discrepancies for the C-C and C-O bond lengths. Thirdly, the pressure-induced gelation of potato starch is measured in pure water and in mixtures of water and ethanol. The phase transition pressure varies in accordance with the change in solvation pre...

  19. Apical Negative Pressure irrigation presents tissue compatibility in immature teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Maschietto Pucinelli

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: To compare the apical negative pressure irrigation (ANP with conventional irrigation in the teeth of immature dogs with apical periodontitis. Methods: Fifty-two immature pre-molar root canals were randomly assigned into 4 groups: ANP (n=15; conventional irrigation (n=17; healthy teeth (control (n = 10; and teeth with untreated apical periodontitis (control (n=10. After induction of apical periodontitis, teeth were instrumented using EndoVac® (apical negative pressure irrigation or conventional irrigation. The animals were euthanized after 90 days. The sections were stained by HE and analyzed under conventional and fluorescence microscopy. TRAP histoenzymology was also performed. Statistical analyses were performed with the significance level set at 5%. Results: There was difference in the histopathological parameters between ANP and conventional groups (p0.05. However, a lower number of osteoclasts was observed in the ANP group (p<0.05. Conclusion: The EndoVac® irrigation system presented better biological results and more advanced repair process in immature teeth with apical periodontitis than the conventional irrigation system, confirming the hypothesis.

  20. Management of Pharyngocutaneous Fistula With Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Sérgio; Costa, Joana; Bartosch, Isabel; Correia, Bernardo; Silva, Álvaro

    2017-06-01

    Pharyngocutaneous fistula is a common complication of laryngopharyngeal surgery and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Beyond the classical management, negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) can be an alternative and effective treatment. Two patients with pT3N0M0 squamous cell carcinoma of pyriform sinus were subjected to total laryngectomy and pharyngoesophageal reconstruction of a circular (patient 1) and an anterior wall defect (patient 2) with radial forearm free flap and pectoralis major muscle flap, respectively. Both developed a pharyngocutaneous fistula and NPWT was used.A significant decrease of the fistula aperture and exudate was observed after 22 and 21 days of NPWT in patients 1 and 2, respectively. After that standard wound care was instituted and closure of the fistulae was accomplished in 5 and 7 days, respectively. Negative-pressure wound therapy can be an effective treatment for pharyngocutaneous fistula closure, either in the setting of fistulae that persist besides multiple surgical revisions using muscle flaps or as a first-line therapy when fistulae develops.

  1. Relationship between blood pressure, body mass index and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Globally, studies have shown that the trend of overweight and obesity has increased astronomically and there is a close link between body mass index and blood pressure. This study determined the link between the body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and health promoting practices of women in rural and ...

  2. Negative pressure wound therapy for treating leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumville, Jo C; Land, Lucy; Evans, Debra; Peinemann, Frank

    2015-07-14

    Leg ulcers are open skin wounds that occur between the ankle and the knee that can last weeks, months or even years and are a consequence of arterial or venous valvular insufficiency. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a technology that is currently used widely in wound care and is promoted for use on wounds. NPWT involves the application of a wound dressing to the wound, to which a machine is attached. The machine applies a carefully controlled negative pressure (or vacuum), which sucks any wound and tissue fluid away from the treated area into a canister. To assess the effects of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) for treating leg ulcers in any care setting. For this review, in May 2015 we searched the following databases: the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 21 May 2015); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 4); Ovid MEDLINE (1946 to 20 May 2015); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations 20 May 2015); Ovid EMBASE (1974 to 20 May 2015); EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 21 May 2015). There were no restrictions based on language or date of publication. Published or unpublished randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of NPWT with alternative treatments or different types of NPWT in the treatment of leg ulcers. Two review authors independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We included one study, with 60 randomized participants, in the review. The study population had a range of ulcer types that were venous arteriolosclerotic and venous/arterial in origin. Study participants had recalcitrant ulcers that had not healed after treatment over a six-month period. Participants allocated to NPWT received continuous negative pressure until they achieved 100% granulation (wound preparation stage). A punch skin-graft transplantation was conducted and the wound then exposed to further NPWT for four days followed by standard care

  3. Homogeneous nucleation in liquid nitrogen at negative pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baidakov, V. G., E-mail: baidakov@itp.uran.ru; Vinogradov, V. E.; Pavlov, P. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Thermal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    The kinetics of spontaneous cavitation in liquid nitrogen at positive and negative pressures has been studied in a tension wave formed by a compression pulse reflected from the liquid–vapor interface on a thin platinum wire heated by a current pulse. The limiting tensile stresses (Δp = p{sub s}–p, where p{sub s} is the saturation pressure), the corresponding bubble nucleation frequencies J (10{sup 20}–10{sup 22} s{sup –1} m{sup –3}), and temperature induced nucleation frequency growth rate G{sub T} = dlnJ/dT have been experimentally determined. At T = 90 K, the limiting tensile stress was Δp = 8.3 MPa, which was 4.9 MPa lower than the value corresponding to the boundary of thermodynamic stability of the liquid phase (spinodal). The measurement results were compared to classical (homogeneous) nucleation theory (CNT) with and without neglect of the dependence of the surface tension of critical bubbles on their dimensions. In the latter case, the properties of new phase nuclei were described in terms of the Van der Waals theory of capillarity. The experimental data agree well with the CNT theory when it takes into account the “size effect.”.

  4. Negative pressure wound therapy in patients with diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusal, Ali Engin; Sahin, M Sükrü; Ulusal, Betül; Cakmak, Gökhan; Tuncay, Cengiz

    2011-01-01

    In this study our aim was to compare the results of standard dressing treatment to negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) performed with a vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. We assessed the results of 35 patients treated for diabetic foot ulcer between 2006 and 2008. Of these cases, 20 (4 women and 16 men; mean age: 66 years; range: 52-90 years) were treated with standard wet dressings and 16 feet in 15 patients (10 men, 5 women; mean age: 58.9 years; range: 42-83 years) with VAC therapy. The success of treatment was evaluated in terms of hospitalization length and rate of limb salvation. The average hospitalization period with VAC treatment was 32 days compared to 59 days with standard dressing treatment. All patients treated with standard dressings eventually had to undergo amputation. However, the amputation rate was 37% in the VAC treated group and 88% of patients had a functional extremity at the end of treatment. VAC therapy, together with debridement and appropriate antibiotic therapy, enables a higher rate of limb salvage, especially in Wagner Grade 3 and Grade 4 ulcers.

  5. Negative Body Attitudes and Sexual Dissatisfaction in Men: The Mediating Role of Body Self-Consciousness During Physical Intimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Femke; Vollmann, Manja; Sternheim, Lot C; Berkhout, Lotte J; Zomerdijk, Renée A; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2018-04-01

    Previous research indicated that negative attitudes about the body and appearance are common among men and demonstrated that negative body attitudes are associated with negative sexual experiences. The present study investigated the association between body attitudes and sexual dissatisfaction and the mediating role of body self-consciousness during physical intimacy. In a cross-sectional design, 201 Dutch men completed an online survey regarding body attitudes toward muscularity, body fat, height, and genitals, body self-consciousness during physical intimacy, and sexual dissatisfaction. Hypotheses were tested using correlation analyses and a mediation analysis with body attitudes as predictors, body self-consciousness as mediator, and sexual dissatisfaction as outcome. Correlation analyses showed that negative body attitudes and body self-consciousness during physical intimacy were significantly related to sexual dissatisfaction. The mediation analysis revealed that negative attitudes toward muscularity, body fat, and genitals had indirect effects on sexual dissatisfaction through body self-consciousness during physical intimacy. Negative attitudes toward genitals additionally had a direct effect on sexual dissatisfaction. These findings indicate that body image interventions focused on male body attitudes may be beneficial in improving men's body image, which may ultimately increase sexual satisfaction.

  6. Negative pressure therapy for the treatment of complex wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Renan Victor Kümpel Schmidt; Coltro, Pedro Soler; Farina, Jayme Adriano

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of negative pressure therapy (NPT) in the treatment of complex wounds, with emphasis on its mechanisms of action and main therapeutic indications. We searched the Pubmed / Medline database for articles published from 1997 to 2016, and selected the most relevant ones. The mechanisms of action of NPT involveboth physical effects, such as increased perfusion, control of edema and exudate, reduction of wound dimensions and bacterial clearance, and biological ones, such as the stimulation of granulation tissue formation, microdeformations and reduction of Inflammatory response. The main indications of NPT are complex wounds, such as pressure ulcers, traumatic wounds, operative wound dehiscences, burns, necrotizing wounds, venous ulcers, diabetic wounds, skin grafts, open abdomen, prevention of complications in closed incisions and in the association with instillation of solutions in infected wounds. RESUMO O objetivo desse estudo é avaliar a eficácia da terapia por pressão negativa (TPN) no tratamento de feridas complexas, com ênfase em seus mecanismos de ação e principais indicações terapêuticas. Foi realizada revisão na base de dados Pubmed / Medline, em artigos publicados de 1997 a 2016, e selecionados os mais relevantes. O mecanismo de ação da TPN envolve efeitos físicos, como o aumento da perfusão, controle do edema e do exsudato, redução das dimensões da ferida e depuração bacteriana, e biológicos, como o estímulo à formação de tecido de granulação, microdeformações e redução da resposta inflamatória local. As principais indicações da TPN são as feridas complexas como úlceras por pressão, feridas traumáticas, deiscências de ferida operatória, queimaduras, feridas necrotizantes, úlceras venosas, feridas diabéticas, os enxertos de pele, o abdome aberto, na prevenção de complicações em incisões fechadas e na associação com instilação de soluções em feridas

  7. Association between blood pressure, measures of body composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease develop early in life and track into adulthood. This study investigated the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and measures of body composition in adolescents. The study participants were 307 adolescents. Blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric parameters: ...

  8. Physical activity, body mass index and blood pressure in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Working Group on high blood pressure in children and adolescents: Fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure in children and ad- olescents. Paediatrics 2004; 114: 555 – 566. 21. Owa JA, Adejuyigbe O. Fat mass, fat mass percentage, body mass index and upper mid arm circumference ...

  9. Assessment of Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body Mass Index (BMI) has been described as a significant predictor of Blood Pressure (B.P) but few studies have demonstrated this association in our environment. The study aims to determine the pattern of relationship between BMI and blood pressure in our environment Two thousand and ninety six (2096) students in ...

  10. A portable, disposable system for negative-pressure wound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Tanya

    Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) imparts a number of clinical effects that promote a healing response and, as such, is a well-established means of treating a variety of wound types. Historically, the technique has been primarily used in the hospital setting; however, the introduction of more portable devices has led to an increase in the use of NPWT in the homecare setting, thereby facilitating early discharge of patients from hospital and continuity of care in the community. Portable NPWT devices also have the potential to impact positively on patients' quality of life, allowing increased mobility and freedom to undertake normal activities of daily living. Following the development of its standard Avance® NPWT system and associated dressing kits, Mölnlycke Health Care (Gothenburg, Sweden) has introduced a single-patient-use, disposable NPWT system; Avance Solo. This has been developed with a view to maximising patient freedom and mobility, providing a single-patient-use NPWT solution for multi-week treatment to allow quick and easy discharge of patients from hospital to home, and reducing some of the challenges of logistics and administration associated with the provision of NPWT for the caregiver. As with the standard NPWT system, the single-patient use system is supplied with a number of products incorporating Safetac® adhesive technology to minimise the risk of patients suffering unnecessary pain and trauma associated with dressing changes. This article presents a series of case studies describing procedures and outcomes following the application of the Avance Solo single-patient-use system.

  11. Active Negative Pressure Peritoneal Therapy After Abbreviated Laparotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Derek J.; Faris, Peter D.; Ball, Chad G.; Kubes, Paul; Tiruta, Corina; Xiao, Zhengwen; Holodinsky, Jessalyn K.; McBeth, Paul B.; Doig, Christopher J.; Jenne, Craig N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether active negative pressure peritoneal therapy with the ABThera temporary abdominal closure device reduces systemic inflammation after abbreviated laparotomy. Background: Excessive systemic inflammation after abdominal injury or intra-abdominal sepsis is associated with poor outcomes. Methods: We conducted a single-center, randomized controlled trial. Forty-five adults with abdominal injury (46.7%) or intra-abdominal sepsis (52.3%) were randomly allocated to the ABThera (n = 23) or Barker's vacuum pack (n = 22). On study days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 28, blood and peritoneal fluid were collected. The primary endpoint was the difference in the plasma concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) 24 and 48 hours after temporary abdominal closure application. Results: There was a significantly lower peritoneal fluid drainage from the ABThera at 48 hours after randomization. Despite this, there was no difference in plasma concentration of IL-6 at baseline versus 24 (P = 0.52) or 48 hours (P = 0.82) between the groups. There was also no significant intergroup difference in the plasma concentrations of IL-1β, −8, −10, or −12 p70 or tumor necrosis factor α between these time points. The cumulative incidence of primary fascial closure at 90 days was similar between groups (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.82–3.0; P = 0.17). However, 90-day mortality was improved in the ABThera group (hazard ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.11–0.93; P = 0.04). Conclusions: This trial observed a survival difference between patients randomized to the ABThera versus Barker's vacuum pack that did not seem to be mediated by an improvement in peritoneal fluid drainage, fascial closure rates, or markers of systemic inflammation. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01355094. PMID:25536308

  12. Running on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter C; Hovgaard-Hansen, Line; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and time to exhaustion while running on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill (LBPPT) at normal body weight (BW) as well as how BW support affects respiratory responses, ground reaction forces, and stride characteristics....

  13. Calibration methods for negative gauge pressure down to  ‑100 kPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentouati, Djilali; Durgut, Yasin; Otal, Pierre; Plimmer, Mark; Pražák, Dominik; Sabuga, Wladimir; Ehlers, Sven; Sınır, Ekrem

    2018-03-01

    The measurement of negative gauge pressure is a field of increasing importance in science and industry. One of the main aims of the EMPIR Joint Research Project 14IND 06 pres2vac is to develop guidelines for it. We present a comparison of three different methods for measuring negative gauge pressure: (i) using two absolute pressure measuring instruments, (ii) generating a negative gauge pressure in the bell jar of the pressure balance, and (iii) using a ‘hanging piston’ pressure balance. The advantages and drawbacks are discussed and some preliminary results presented.

  14. Contrastive Analysis and Research on Negative Pressure Beam Tube System and Positive Pressure Beam Tube System for Mine Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyi; Shen, Jialong; Liu, Xinbo

    2018-01-01

    Against the technical defects of universally applicable beam tube monitoring system at present, such as air suction in the beam tube, line clogging, long sampling time, etc., the paper analyzes the current situation of the spontaneous combustion fire disaster forecast of mine in our country and these defects one by one. On this basis, the paper proposes a research thought that improving the positive pressure beam tube so as to substitute the negative pressure beam tube. Then, the paper introduces the beam tube monitoring system based on positive pressure technology through theoretical analysis and experiment. In the comparison with negative pressure beam tube, the paper concludes the advantage of the new system and draws the conclusion that the positive pressure beam tube is superior to the negative pressure beam tube system both in test result and test time. At last, the paper proposes prospect of the beam tube monitoring system based on positive pressure technology.

  15. Negative interstitial pressure in the peritendinous region during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D; Bülow, J

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, tissue pressure in the peritendinous area ventral to the human Achilles tendon was determined. The pressure was measured during rest and intermittent isometric calf muscle exercise at three torques (56, 112, and 168 Nm) 20, 40 and 50 mm proximal to the insertion of the tendon...... in 11 healthy, young individuals. In all experiments a linear significant decrease in pressure was obtained with increasing torque [e.g., at 40 mm: -0.4 +/- 0.3 mmHg (rest) to -135 +/- 12 mmHg (168 Nm)]. No significant differences were obtained among the three areas measured. On the basis...

  16. Involvement of nitric oxide in the wound bed microcirculatory change during negative pressure wound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Hitomi; Ichioka, Shigeru

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the mechanism of blood flow increase in the wound bed during negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). We developed an improved experimental model that allowed visualisation of the wound bed microcirculation under NPWT. Wounds were created on the mouse ear, taking care to preserve the subdermal vascular plexus, because the wound bed microcirculation was visualised using an intravital microscope system. We investigated whether application of a NO synthase inhibitor (N(G) -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester: L-NAME) might diminish the effect of the NPWT in increasing the wound blood flow. The experimental animals were divided into a negative pressure group (negative pressure of -125 mmHg applied to the wound for 5 minutes; n = 8), and a negative pressure plus L-NAME group (administration of L-NAME prior to application of the negative pressure; n = 8). In the negative pressure group, significant increase of blood flow was observed at 1 minute after the negative pressure application, which was sustained until 5 minutes. On the contrary, in the negative pressure plus L-NAME group, no significant changes were observed throughout the period of observation. These findings suggest that NO synthesis is involved in the wound bed microcirculatory change induced by NPWT. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The relationship between basal blood pressure and body mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In contrast to the situation in developed countries, very few studies have been done on blood pressure (BP) determinants among Nigerian adolescents. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between basal BP and body mass index (BMI) in a group of healthy Nigerian secondary school students. Methods: This was ...

  18. Physical activity, body mass index and blood pressure in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lack of physical activity contributes to overweight and obesity. It is recommended that children accumulate at least one hour of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity daily. Objective: The level of physical activity, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were evaluated in pupils attending private ...

  19. Original Research Article Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    for all University students is also recommended. Keywords: Body mass index; Blood pressure; Obesity;. University students; Nigeria. Kenneth E Oghagbon1. Valentine U Odili2*. Eze K Nwangwa3. Kevin E Pender3. 1Department of. Chemical. Pathology, Faculty of Clinical. Medicine, College of Health. Sciences, Delta State ...

  20. Negative chemical pressure effects induced by Y substitution for Ca ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the magnetic chain may be useful to the overall understanding of the novel magnetism of the parent compound. Keywords. Spin-chains; Ca3Co2O6; chemical pressure; magnetic order; quantum tun- neling. PACS Nos 75.50.-y; 75.30.Cr; 75.40.Cx. 1. Introduction. Among spin-chain systems, the compound, Ca3Co2O6 [1,2], ...

  1. Relationships amongst body dissatisfaction, internalisation of the media body ideal and perceived pressure from media in adolescent girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauss, Christine; Paxton, Susan J; Alsaker, Françoise D

    2007-12-01

    Sociocultural factors that underpin gender differences in body dissatisfaction have not frequently been explored. We examined the relative contribution of internalization of media body ideals and perceived pressure to achieve this ideal in explaining body dissatisfaction in adolescent boys and girls. A sample of 819 boys and 791 girls completed measures of internalization of body ideals, perceived pressure, body mass index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction. As expected, girls showed higher body dissatisfaction, internalization and pressure than boys. Internalization, pressure and BMI contributed to the prediction of body dissatisfaction in boys and in girls although these variables explained less variance in body dissatisfaction in boys. In addition, for girls the strongest predictor of body dissatisfaction was internalization, whilst for boys the strongest predictor was pressure. Differences in extent of internalization and pressure may contribute to higher body dissatisfaction in girls than boys. These sociocultural factors may affect girls and boys differently.

  2. Body cues, not facial expressions, discriminate between intense positive and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviezer, Hillel; Trope, Yaacov; Todorov, Alexander

    2012-11-30

    The distinction between positive and negative emotions is fundamental in emotion models. Intriguingly, neurobiological work suggests shared mechanisms across positive and negative emotions. We tested whether similar overlap occurs in real-life facial expressions. During peak intensities of emotion, positive and negative situations were successfully discriminated from isolated bodies but not faces. Nevertheless, viewers perceived illusory positivity or negativity in the nondiagnostic faces when seen with bodies. To reveal the underlying mechanisms, we created compounds of intense negative faces combined with positive bodies, and vice versa. Perceived affect and mimicry of the faces shifted systematically as a function of their contextual body emotion. These findings challenge standard models of emotion expression and highlight the role of the body in expressing and perceiving emotions.

  3. Impact of sleep duration and weekend oversleep on body weight and blood pressure in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan SF

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Weekend oversleep or catchup sleep is a frequent occurrence in children, but there are relatively little data concerning its impact on weight and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to assess the association between sleep duration and oversleep, and weight and blood pressure in adolescents. Methods: Sleep duration, weight and blood pressure of 327 children (51.4% boys, mean age 13.3 + 1.7 years who had polysomnograms performed during both exam cycles of the Tucson Children’s Assessment of Sleep Apnea study (TuCASA were analyzed. Sleep duration on school nights and non-school nights was used to compute a weighted average of child and parent reported overall sleep duration respectively. Oversleep was defined as the difference between self and parent reported weekend sleep and weekday sleep separately. Simple correlations between overall sleep duration, sleep on school and non-school nights and oversleep, and blood pressure, standardized body mass index (BMI, snoring, respiratory disturbance index (RDI and age were calculated. Significant bivariate associations then were used to develop multivariate partial correlation models. Results: Unadjusted negative correlations with BMI were noted for parent reported total sleep duration at the 1st exam cycle, parent and child reported total sleep and school night sleep duration, and parent reported non-school night sleep duration at the 2nd exam cycle. Additionally, for BMI, positive correlations were observed for log RDI at both exam cycles and snoring at the 2nd exam cycle. For blood pressure, there were positive associations with age, parent reported oversleep, caffeine consumption and snoring. Additionally, for blood pressure, negative relationships were observed with parent reported total sleep duration at the 1st exam cycle, and parent and child reported total sleep and school night sleep durations at the 2nd exam cycle. Partial correlations found that BMI was negatively

  4. Impact of Sleep Duration and Weekend Oversleep on Body Weight and Blood Pressure in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Stuart F; Combs, Daniel; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2018-01-01

    Weekend oversleep or catchup sleep is a frequent occurrence in children, but there are relatively little data concerning its impact on weight and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to assess the association between sleep duration and oversleep, and weight and blood pressure in adolescents. Sleep duration, weight and blood pressure of 327 children (51.4% boys, mean age 13.3 ± 1.7 years) who had polysomnograms performed during both exam cycles of the Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea study (TuCASA) were analyzed. Sleep duration on school nights and non-school nights was used to compute a weighted average of child and parent reported overall sleep duration respectively. Oversleep was defined as the difference between self and parent reported weekend sleep and weekday sleep separately. Simple correlations between overall sleep duration, sleep on school and non-school nights and oversleep, and blood pressure, standardized body mass index (BMI), snoring, respiratory disturbance index (RDI) and age were calculated. Significant bivariate associations then were used to develop multivariate partial correlation models. Unadjusted negative correlations with BMI were noted for parent reported total sleep duration at the 1 st exam cycle, parent and child reported total sleep and school night sleep duration, and parent reported non-school night sleep duration at the 2 nd exam cycle. Additionally, for BMI, positive correlations were observed for log RDI at both exam cycles and snoring at the 2 nd exam cycle. For blood pressure, there were positive associations with age, parent reported oversleep, caffeine consumption and snoring. Additionally, for blood pressure, negative relationships were observed with parent reported total sleep duration at the 1 st exam cycle, and parent and child reported total sleep and school night sleep durations at the 2 nd exam cycle. Partial correlations found that BMI was negatively correlated with parent reported total sleep duration

  5. Negative-Pressure Hydrocephalus: A Case Report on Successful Treatment Under Intracranial Pressure Monitoring with Bilateral Ventriculoperitoneal Shunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sajan; Jin, Yi; Gao, Liang; Zhou, Cheng Cheng; Cui, Da Ming

    2017-03-01

    Negative-pressure hydrocephalus (NegPH), a very rare condition of unknown etiology and optimal treatment, usually presents postneurosurgery with clinical and imaging features of hydrocephalus, but with negative cerebrospinal fluid pressure. We describe a NegPH case of -3 mm Hg intracranial pressure that was successfully treated to achieve 5 mm Hg under continuous intracranial pressure monitoring with horizontal positioning, head down and legs elevated to 10°-15°, neck wrapping for controlled venous drainage, chest and abdomen bandages, infusion of 5% dextrose fluid to lower plasma osmolarity (Na + , 130-135 mmol/L), daily cerebrospinal fluid drainage >200 mL, and arterial blood gas partial pressure of carbon dioxide >40 mm Hg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Negative-pressure therapy versus standard wound care: a meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suissa, Daniel; Danino, Alain; Nikolis, Andreas

    2011-11-01

    Several randomized controlled trials comparing negative-pressure therapy to standard wound care for chronic wounds have been published. Although these studies suggest a benefit for negative-pressure therapy, the majority of the review articles on the topic conclude that the studies are inconclusive. The authors conducted a quantitative meta-analysis of the effectiveness of negative-pressure therapy for the management of chronic wounds. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched from 1993 to March of 2010 for randomized controlled trials comparing negative-pressure therapy to standard wound care for chronic wounds. Measures of wound size and time to healing, along with the corresponding p values, were extracted from the randomized controlled trials. Relative change ratios of wound size and ratios of median time to healing were combined using a random effects model for meta-analysis. Ten trials of negative-pressure therapy versus standard wound care were found. In the negative-pressure therapy group, wound size had decreased significantly more than in the standard wound care group (relative change ratio, 0.77; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.63 to 0.96). Time to healing was significantly shorter in the negative-pressure therapy group in comparison with the standard wound care group (ratio of median time to healing, 0.74; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.78). This quantitative meta-analysis of randomized trials suggests that negative-pressure therapy appears to be an effective treatment for chronic wounds. An effect of publication bias cannot be ruled out. Therapeutic, II.

  7. Management of High-Voltage Burns of the Hand and Wrist with Negative Pressure Dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazım Gümüş

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Negative pressure dressing stimulates wound healing by promoting cellular proliferation and regeneration. It also removes interstitial edema and increases local blood flow, resulting in rapid growth of the granulation tissue. We used the dressing method in deep hand and wrist burns caused by high-voltage electrical current, which leads to progressive tissue necrosis, elevated compartment pressure, and deep tissue edema, to reveal if subatmospheric pressure could limit the zone of injury or ongoing tissue necrosis after electrical burn. Material and Methods: Six hands of five patients, who came in contact with high-voltage electrical wire carrying more than 1000 volts, are presented in this study. Hands and wrists were seriously injured and contracted. After the initial treatment involving fluid resuscitation, fasciotomy, carpal tunnel release, and debridement, a negative pressure dressing was applied to the wounds of hand, wrist, and forearm with 125 mm Hg continuous pressure, and maintained for 20 days. Results: When negative pressure dressing was stopped on the 20th day, significant granulation tissue developed over the hand and forearm wounds. However, wrist wounds needed more debridement and repeated dressings because of the presence of necrosis. Edema of the hands subsided significantly during the use of negative pressure dressing. Time to closure for hand and forearm wounds decreased considerably. Moreover, in one wrist, spontaneous closure was achieved at about one month. All hands except one treated with negative pressure dressing could be saved from amputation; however, significant tissue loss developed, needing complex reconstruction procedures. One hand was amputated because of the permanent loss of blood perfusion. Conclusion: The management of high-voltage burns of hand and wrist with subatmospheric pressure appears to be capable of reducing hand edema and accelerating closure of the wounds. It seems that negative

  8. Negative body experience in women with early childhood trauma: associations with trauma severity and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffers, Mia; Hoek, Maike; Bosscher, Ruud J; van Duijn, Marijtje A J; Schoevers, Robert A; van Busschbach, Jooske T

    2017-01-01

    Background : A crucial but often overlooked impact of early life exposure to trauma is its far-reaching effect on a person's relationship with their body. Several domains of body experience may be negatively influenced or damaged as a result of early childhood trauma. Objective : The aim of this study was to investigate disturbances in three domains of body experience: body attitude, body satisfaction, and body awareness. Furthermore, associations between domains of body experience and severity of trauma symptoms as well as frequency of dissociation were evaluated. Method : Body attitude was measured with the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire, body satisfaction with the Body Cathexis Scale, and body awareness with the Somatic Awareness Questionnaire in 50 female patients with complex trauma and compared with scores in a non-clinical female sample ( n  = 216). Patients in the clinical sample also filled out the Davidson Trauma Scale and the Dissociation Experience Scale. Results : In all measured domains, body experience was severely affected in patients with early childhood trauma. Compared with scores in the non-clinical group, effect sizes in Cohen's d were 2.7 for body attitude, 1.7 for body satisfaction, and 0.8 for body awareness. Associations between domains of body experience and severity of trauma symptoms were low, as were the associations with frequency of dissociative symptoms. Conclusions : Early childhood trauma in women is associated with impairments in self-reported body experience that warrant careful assessment in the treatment of women with psychiatric disorders.

  9. The face of appearance-related social pressure: gender, age and body mass variations in peer and parental pressure during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Helfert, Susanne; Warschburger, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Background Appearance-related social pressure plays an important role in the development of a negative body image and self-esteem as well as severe mental disorders during adolescence (e.g. eating disorders, depression). Identifying who is particularly affected by social pressure can improve targeted prevention and intervention, but findings have either been lacking or controversial. Thus the aim of this study is to provide a detailed picture of gender, weight, and age-related variations in t...

  10. Experimental study of a negative corona in atmospheric-pressure argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandaron, G.-N. B.; Baldanov, B. B.

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented from experimental studies of a negative point-to-plane dc corona in atmospheric-pressure argon. Several operating modes are identified: a hysteresis region, a repetitive mode, and a glow-discharge mode. The effect of gas-dynamic parameters on the characteristics of a repetitive negative corona is investigated

  11. Incisional negative pressure therapy to prevent wound complications following cesarean section in morbidly obese women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Katrina S; Alger, Lindsay; Terplan, Mishka

    2014-08-01

    We sought to evaluate the efficacy of incisional negative pressure therapy in decreasing postoperative wound complications when placed prophylactically over clean, closed incisions following cesarean section in obese patients. This was a retrospective cohort study comparing rates of wound complications following cesarean sections in morbidly obese women prior to and following the institution of standard use of prophylactic incisional negative pressure therapy. All women with a body mass index greater than 45 kg/m(2) undergoing cesarean section in a 2-year period in a single institution were included. The exposure was incisional negative pressure therapy, which began in September 2009, versus standard wound dressing used in the previous year. The main outcome was wound complication identified by ICD-9 codes. Demographic and wound outcomes were compared with χ(2) and t tests. Stata version 11.0 was used for all analysis. A total of 63 women met the inclusion criteria, 21 of whom received negative pressure wound therapy. The historical comparison and exposure groups were similar in all characteristics studied with the exceptions of length of surgery (64 vs 76 minutes, P = .03), length of labor (78 vs 261 minutes, P = .02), scheduled versus nonscheduled (77% vs 52%, P = .04), and mean age (29.5 vs 26.1 years, P = .04), respectively. There were 5 wound complications in the control group (10.4%) and none (0%) in the study group (P = .15). This pilot study suggests a decrease in wound complications in morbidly obese women receiving incisional negative pressure therapy following cesarean section. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Atrial distension, arterial pulsation, and vasopressin release during negative pressure breathing in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pump, B; Damgaard, M; Gabrielsen, A

    2001-01-01

    During an antiorthostatic posture change, left atrial (LA) diameter and arterial pulse pressure (PP) increase, and plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) is suppressed. By comparing the effects of a 15-min posture change from seated to supine with those of 15-min seated negative pressure breathing...... in eight healthy males, we tested the hypothesis that with similar increases in LA diameter, suppression of AVP release is dependent on the degree of increase in PP. LA diameter increased similarly during the posture change and negative pressure breathing (-9 to -24 mmHg) from between 30 and 31 +/- 1 to 34...... +/- 1 mm (P breathing from 36 +/- 3 to 42 +/- 3 mmHg (P

  13. Multivariate Modeling of Body Mass Index, Pulse Pressure, Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in Chinese Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang

    2015-01-01

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure (PP), and body mass index (BMI) are heritable traits in human metabolic health but their common genetic and environmental backgrounds are not well investigated. The aim of this article was to explore the phenotypic and genetic associations among...... PP, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and BMI. The studied sample contained 615 twin pairs (17-84 years) collected in the Qingdao municipality. Univariate and multivariate structural equation models were fitted for assessing the genetic and environmental contributions....... The AE model combining additive genetic (A) and unique environmental (E) factors produced the best fit for each four phenotypes. Heritability estimated in univariate analysis ranged from 0.42 to 0.74 with the highest for BMI (95% CI 0.70-0.78), and the lowest for PP (95% CI 0.34-0.49). The multivariate...

  14. The impact of thin idealized media images on body satisfaction: does body appreciation protect women from negative effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma

    2013-09-01

    This article examines whether positive body image can protect women from negative media exposure effects. University women (N=112) were randomly allocated to view advertisements featuring ultra-thin models or control images. Women who reported high levels of body appreciation did not report negative media exposure effects. Furthermore, the protective role of body appreciation was also evident among women known to be vulnerable to media exposure. Women high on thin-ideal internalization and low on body appreciation reported appearance-discrepancies that were more salient and larger when they viewed models compared to the control group. However, women high on thin-ideal internalization and also high on body appreciation rated appearance-discrepancies as less important and no difference in size than the control group. The results support the notion that positive body image protects women from negative environmental appearance messages and suggests that promoting positive body image may be an effective intervention strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Social comparison, negative body image, and disordered eating behavior: the moderating role of coping style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkasavage, Emilie; Arigo, Danielle; Schumacher, Leah M

    2015-01-01

    Comparing one's body to those of individuals perceived as more attractive is common among college women, and has been associated with increases in body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Not all college women are vulnerable to the negative influence of these upward body comparisons; however, little is known about characteristics that may distinguish more vulnerable women. Coping styles, which represent individuals' responses to negative events, are a key area of opportunity for better understanding the relationship between body comparison and weight-related experiences in this population. College women (n =628) completed an electronic assessment of demographics, upward body comparison, body dissatisfaction, disordered eating behavior, and coping styles. Controlling for reported BMI, positive reframing coping style moderated the relationship between upward body-focused comparison and body dissatisfaction (p =0.02), such that women who engaged in more (vs. less) positive reframing showed a weakened relationship between upward body-focused comparison and body dissatisfaction. Controlling for BMI and body dissatisfaction, both self-blaming (p =0.02) and self-distracting (p =0.009) styles also moderated the relationship between upward body-focused comparison and disordered eating behaviors, such that women who more (vs. less) strongly endorsed self-blaming and self-distracting styles appeared more susceptible to the negative influence of upward body comparison. These findings underscore the importance of upward body comparison for body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among college women, and highlight coping style as a key factor in these relationships. Increased attention to upward body comparison and coping style may improve quality of life and contribute to the prevention of disordered eating in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Metacognitive beliefs and emotion regulation strategies: obese women with negative and positive body images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Nejati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Women have higher vulnerability regarding to increase prevalence of obesity and its effect on people’s body image and women’s health on the society and future generations’ health is unquestionable role , negative body image influence on women’s eating habits and mental health, so aim of present research is to compare metacognitive beliefs and emotional regulation strategies in obese women with positive and negative body image. This study was a causal-comparative. The statistical population of this study consisted of 100 obese women with a BMI>30 who had referred to five nutritional clinics in Tehran. The clinics and the participants were selected by using the convenience sampling method. The data collection tools were the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID-I/II, Body Mass Index (BMI, the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30, the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire, and fisher’s body image scale. The multivariate hoteling t-test was used to compare the difference between the two groups. Results indicated that obese women with negative body image had higher mean scores in inefficient emotion regulation strategies including self-blame or focus on thought, catastrophizing and other-blame compared with obese women with positive body image. Moreover, the mean scores of obese women with positive body images was higher in efficient emotional regulation strategies include acceptance, positive refocusing, refocusing on planning, perspective taking and positive reappraisal. Metacognitive beliefs and emotion regulation strategies are significant variables in obese woman with positive and negative body images.

  17. Application of vacuum-assisted closure in seawater-immersed wound treatment under different negative pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, L; Peng, M M; Sun, J J; Yu, X C; Shi, B

    2015-06-11

    The therapeutic effect of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) has been confirmed in many types of complex wounds, but there are few relevant reports regarding seawater-immersed wounds. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of VAC on seawater-immersed wound healing under different negative pressures and explore the optimal negative pressure value. Four purebred miniature pigs were used as the experimental animal models. Four acute, symmetrical wounds were made on each side of the spine and designated as the experimental group (wounds with 2 h of seawater immersion) and the control group (wounds without seawater immersion). Wounds were divided into a conventional dressing group and 3 further groups with different VAC therapies (negative pressure at either 120, 180, or 240 mmHg). The extent of wound healing, and speed of granulation growth and re-epithelialization were measured. Bacterial flora distribution in the wounds was observed, and fibronectin levels in the exudate of the wounds were tested. Results showed that seawater immersion aggravated wound injury and that VAC therapy with 180 mmHg negative pressure induced the fastest epidermis migration, obvious edema elimination, significant capillary proliferation, and the highest level of fibronectin, and that in wounds, the proportion of Gram-negative bacteria tended to decrease and that of Gram-positive bacteria tended to increase. Our results show that VAC promotes seawater-immersed wound healing and that 180 mmHg negative pressure may be optimal for wound healing.

  18. Measurement of negative ion mobilities in O2 and O3 mixtures at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, H.; Norimoto, K.; Hayashi, T.

    1998-01-01

    Mobility measurements of negative molecular oxygen ions in pure oxygen and in an oxygen-ozone mixture are reported. A cascaded gap consisting of an ion drift gap and an ion detection gap was used in the experiment. The ion detection gap was formed by a positive point and a grounded plane electrode was operated at atmospheric pressure. The zero field mobility of negative molecular oxygen ions was determined to be 2.07+-0.02 cm 2 /V.s. A somewhat higher value of oxygen mobility was found at higher electric field/pressure ratios; this is presumed to be due to negative ozone ions. When changing the electric field/pressure ratio the mobility of negative oxygen ions in oxygen-ozone mixtures becomes smaller than that in pure oxygen; this is probably due to the cumulative effect of other particles produced by silent discharges. (J.U.)

  19. Improved wound management by regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy and regulated, oxygen- enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy through basic science research and clinical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Moris Topaz

    2012-01-01

    Regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RNPT) should be regarded as a state-of-the-art technology in wound treatment and the most important physical, nonpharmaceutical, platform technology developed and applied for wound healing in the last two decades. RNPT systems maintain the treated wound's environment as a semi-closed, semi-isolated system applying external physical stimulations to the wound, leading to biological and biochemical effects, with the potential to substantially i...

  20. Body mass index and blood pressure measurement during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The accurate measurement of blood pressure requires the use of a large cuff in subjects with a high mid-arm circumference (MAC). This prospective study examined the need for a large cuff during pregnancy and its correlation with maternal obesity. METHODS: Maternal body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and MAC were measured. RESULTS: Of 179 women studied, 15.6% were obese. With a BMI of level 1 obesity, 44% needed a large cuff and with a BMI of level 2 obesity 100% needed a large cuff. CONCLUSION: All women booking for antenatal care should have their MAC measured to avoid the overdiagnosis of pregnancy hypertension.

  1. The effect of body image threat on smoking motivation among college women: mediation by negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Khoury, Elena N; Litvin, Erika B; Brandon, Thomas H

    2009-06-01

    A recent experimental study found that activation of negative body image cognitions produced urges to smoke in young women (E. N. Lopez, D. J. Drobes, J. K. Thompson, & T. H. Brandon, 2008). This study intended to replicate and extend these experimental findings by examining the role of negative affect as a mediator of the relationship between body dissatisfaction and smoking urges. Female college smokers (N=133) were randomly assigned to a body image challenge (trying on a bathing suit) or a control condition (evaluating a purse). State levels of urge to smoke, mood, and body dissatisfaction were assessed both pre- and postmanipulation. Trying on a bathing suit increased body dissatisfaction and reported urges to smoke, particularly those urges related to reducing negative affect. Additionally, state negative affect mediated the relationship between the body image manipulation and smoking urge. This study provides additional support, through an experimental design, that situational challenges to body image influence smoking motivation and that this effect occurs, at least in part, through increases in negative affect. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Negative body experience in women with early childhood trauma : Associations with trauma severity and dissociation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers, Wilhelmina; Hoek, Maike; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Duijn, Marijtje A. J.; Schoevers, Robert A.; van Busschbach, Jooske T.

    2017-01-01

    Background:A crucial but often overlooked impact of early life exposure to trauma is its farreaching effect on a person's relationship with their body. Several domains of body experience may be negatively influenced or damaged as a result of early childhood trauma. Objective: The aim of this study

  3. Asymmetric Fuzzy Control of a Positive and Negative Pneumatic Pressure Servo System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Du, Jing-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yun; Li, Bao-Ren

    2017-11-01

    The pneumatic pressure control systems have been used in some fields. However, the researches on pneumatic pressure control mainly focus on constant pressure regulation. Poor dynamic characteristics and strong nonlinearity of such systems limit its application in the field of pressure tracking control. In order to meet the demand of generating dynamic pressure signal in the application of the hardware-in-the-loop simulation of aerospace engineering, a positive and negative pneumatic pressure servo system is provided to implement dynamic adjustment of sealed chamber pressure. A mathematical model is established with simulation and experiment being implemented afterwards to discuss the characteristics of the system, which shows serious asymmetry in the process of charging and discharging. Based on the analysis of the system dynamics, a fuzzy proportional integral derivative (PID) controller with asymmetric fuzzy compensator is proposed. Different from conventional adjusting mechanisms employing the error and change in error of the controlled variable as input parameters, the current chamber pressure and charging or discharging state are chosen as inputs of the compensator, which improves adaptability. To verify the effectiveness and performance of the proposed controller, the comparison experiments tracking sinusoidal and square wave commands are conducted. Experimental results show that the proposed controller can obtain better dynamic performance and relatively consistent control performance across the scope of work (2-140 kPa). The research proposes a fuzzy control method to overcome asymmetry and enhance adaptability for the positive and negative pneumatic pressure servo system.

  4. Study of continuous irrigation negative-pressure treatment using an original ulceration model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Hitomi; Kajikawa, Akiyoshi; Ueda, Kazuki

    2013-06-01

    A continuous irrigation with intermittent aspiration (CIIA) method has previously been developed in the treatment of infected expander sites. For the purpose of treatment of infected wounds, a new intermittent negative pressure irrigation treatment (INPIT) has been developed that is a combination of CIIA with topical negative-pressure therapy. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of INPIT. The efficacy of irrigation was investigated by changing the conditions including the location and the number of irrigation tubes, flow volume, and the timetable of negative-pressure application using original ulcer models. Although the presence of side holes and increase in the number of tubes or flow volume improved the irrigation efficacy, non-washed-out areas remained. On the other hand, INPIT allowed more uniform and wide area washing even at low flow volume. The results suggest that INPIT is superior to general conventional continuous irrigation treatment in irrigation efficiency.

  5. [Closure of cystic cavity-type bedsore by subcutaneous undermining dissection with continuous negative pressure drainage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Guo, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Ke-Hua; Zhao, Dong-Hong; Han, Tong; Lang, Yu-Hong; Peng, Li-Jun

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the clinical effect of subcutaneous undermining dissection with continuous negative pressure drainage for the closure of cystic cavity-type bedsore. 12 patients with cystic cavity-type bedsore underwent surgical debridement and the wounds were closed after subcutaneous undermining dissection. The negative pressure drainage was put in the deep space. The healing process was observed. Completed healing was achieved in all the 12 cases. The skin wounds healed after 17-20 days and the deep spaces closed after 36-43 days. 12 cases were followed up for 1 year with no occurrence. It is an easy and effective method to treat cystic cavity -type bedsore by subcutaneous undermining dissection with continuous negative pressure drainage.

  6. The interplay of personality and negative comments about appearance in predicting body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvalem, Ingela Lundin; von Soest, Tilmann; Roald, Helge E; Skolleborg, Knut Chr

    2006-09-01

    This study investigates how personality traits in combination with frequency of and emotional reaction to negative comments about appearance while growing up are related to appearance evaluation and orientation among adult women. Nine hundred and seven participants from a representative sample of Norwegian women aged 22-55, answered questions measuring body image, personality (Big Five), and history of experiencing negative comments about appearance. Results indicated that only emotional reaction to negative comments about appearance significantly predicted both appearance evaluation and orientation, while frequency of negative comments did not. Being extrovert predicted more positive appearance evaluation and being more appearance oriented than being introvert. Scoring high on neuroticism was related to negative appearance evaluation and high appearance orientation. The findings demonstrate the importance of differentiating between the frequency and the emotional impact of teasing as well as including personality traits when studying body image.

  7. Blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass: Results from the Tromsø Activity Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Emaus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Modifiable lifestyle factors, as cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF and body mass, may prevent hypertension.However, it remains unclear whether blood pressure is associated with CRF, independently of body mass index (BMI. Thus, the purpose was to study the relationship between CRF, body composition and blood pressure among 40-44 year old men and women.Methods: During 2007-2008, 12,900 men and women aged 30-85 years attended the sixth survey of the Tromsø study. Blood pressure (mm Hg, height (cm and weight (kg were measured and body mass index (BMI kg/m2 was estimated. In a sub-study, the Tromsø Activity Study, CRF [VO2max (ml/kg/min] was objectively measured using a treadmill test among 313 healthy men and women aged 40-44 years.Results: Among men and women participating in both studies, the mean BMI was 27.1 kg/m2 for men and 25.1 kg/m2 for women. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP was 92.4 mm Hg for men and 86.0 mm Hg for women. The proportion defined as pre-hypertensive/hypertensive (systolic/diastolic blood pressure > 120/80 were 33% and 56% for women and men, respectively. The proportion of low, medium and high CRF for both sexes combined differed significantly (p < 0.0001 by BMI level (< 25 or ≥ 25 kg/m2. Increased fitness tended to reduce blood pressure among overweight and obese men (p trend = 0.03, whereas increased fitness tended to reduce blood pressure among normal weighted women (p trend = 0.01.Conclusion: Among healthy 40-44 year old men and women in this study, BMI was positively associated and CRF was negatively associated with blood pressure. Moreover, our results suggest that BMI may be a more important factor than CRF in predicting systolic blood pressure in both sexes. However, cardiorespiratoryfitness and weight control may both be important targets for prevention of hypertension

  8. The face of appearance-related social pressure: gender, age and body mass variations in peer and parental pressure during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfert, Susanne; Warschburger, Petra

    2013-05-17

    Appearance-related social pressure plays an important role in the development of a negative body image and self-esteem as well as severe mental disorders during adolescence (e.g. eating disorders, depression). Identifying who is particularly affected by social pressure can improve targeted prevention and intervention, but findings have either been lacking or controversial. Thus the aim of this study is to provide a detailed picture of gender, weight, and age-related variations in the perception of appearance-related social pressure by peers and parents. 1112 German students between grades 7 and 9 (mean age: M = 13.38, SD = .81) filled in the Appearance-Related Social Pressure Questionnaire (German: FASD), which considers different sources (peers, parents) as well as various kinds of social pressure (e.g. teasing, modeling, encouragement). Girls were more affected by peer pressure, while gender differences in parental pressure seemed negligible. Main effects of grade-level suggested a particular increase in indirect peer pressure (e.g. appearance-related school and class norms) from early to middle adolescence. Boys and girls with higher BMI were particularly affected by peer teasing and exclusion as well as by parental encouragement to control weight and shape. The results suggest that preventive efforts targeting body concerns and disordered eating should bring up the topic of appearance pressure in a school-based context and should strengthen those adolescents who are particularly at risk - in our study, girls and adolescents with higher weight status. Early adolescence and school transition appear to be crucial periods for these efforts. Moreover, the comprehensive assessment of appearance-related social pressure appears to be a fruitful way to further explore social risk-factors in the development of a negative body image.

  9. Insomnia complaints in lean patients with obstructive sleep apnea negatively affect positive airway pressure treatment adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysteinsdottir, Bjorg; Gislason, Thorarinn; Pack, Allan I; Benediktsdottir, Bryndís; Arnardottir, Erna S; Kuna, Samuel T; Björnsdottir, Erla

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the determinants of long-term adherence to positive airway pressure treatment among patients with obstructive sleep apnea, with special emphasis on patients who stop positive airway pressure treatment within 1 year. This is a prospective long-term follow-up of subjects in the Icelandic Sleep Apnea Cohort who were diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea between 2005 and 2009, and started on positive airway pressure treatment. In October 2014, positive airway pressure adherence was obtained by systematically evaluating available clinical files (n = 796; 644 males, 152 females) with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index ≥15 events per h). The mean follow-up time was 6.7 ± 1.2 years. In total, 123 subjects (15.5%) returned their positive airway pressure device within the first year, 170 (21.4%) returned it later and 503 (63.2%) were still using positive airway pressure. The quitters within the first year had lower body mass index, milder obstructive sleep apnea, less sleepiness, and more often had symptoms of initial and late insomnia compared with long-term positive airway pressure users at baseline. Both initial and late insomnia were after adjustment still significantly associated with being an early quitter among subjects with body mass index insomnia are associated with early quitting on positive airway pressure among non-obese subjects. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  10. Perceiving social pressure not to feel negative predicts depressive symptoms in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonckheere, Egon; Bastian, Brock; Fried, Eiko I; Murphy, Sean C; Kuppens, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Western societies often overemphasize the pursuit of happiness, and regard negative feelings such as sadness or anxiety as maladaptive and unwanted. Despite this emphasis on happiness, the amount of people suffering from depressive complaints is remarkably high. To explain this apparent paradox, we examined whether experiencing social pressure not to feel sad or anxious could in fact contribute to depressive symptoms. A sample of individuals (n = 112) with elevated depression scores (Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9] ≥ 10) took part in an online daily diary study in which they rated their depressive symptoms and perceived social pressure not to feel depressed or anxious for 30 consecutive days. Using multilevel VAR models, we investigated the temporal relation between this perceived social pressure and depressive symptoms to determine directionality. Primary analyses consistently indicated that experiencing social pressure predicts increases in both overall severity scores and most individual symptoms of depression, but not vice versa. A set of secondary analyses, in which we adopted a network perspective on depression, confirmed these findings. Using this approach, centrality analysis revealed that perceived social pressure not to feel negative plays an instigating role in depression, reflected by the high out- and low instrength centrality of this pressure in the various depression networks. Together, these findings indicate how perceived societal norms may contribute to depression, hinting at a possible malignant consequence of society's denouncement of negative emotions. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Negative magnetoresistance of pitch-based carbon fibers Temperature and pressure dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambourger, P. D.

    1986-01-01

    The negative transverse magnetoresistance of high-modulus pitch-based carbon fibers has been measured over the temperature range 1.3-4.2 K at ambient pressure and at 4.2 K under hydrostatic pressure up to 16 kbar. At low fields (less than 0.5 torr) the magnitude of the magnetoresistance increases markedly as the temperature is lowered from 4.2 K to 1.3 K, in disagreement with Bright's theoretical model, and decreases with pressure at the rate -0.6 percent/kbar.

  12. Instagram Unfiltered: Exploring Associations of Body Image Satisfaction, Instagram #Selfie Posting, and Negative Romantic Relationship Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Jessica L; Clayton, Russell B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and consequences associated with Instagram selfie posting. Thus, this study explored whether body image satisfaction predicts Instagram selfie posting and whether Instagram selfie posting is then associated with Instagram-related conflict and negative romantic relationship outcomes. A total of 420 Instagram users aged 18 to 62 years (M = 29.3, SD = 8.12) completed an online survey questionnaire. Analysis of a serial multiple mediator model using bootstrapping methods indicated that body image satisfaction was sequentially associated with increased Instagram selfie posting and Instagram-related conflict, which related to increased negative romantic relationship outcomes. These findings suggest that when Instagram users promote their body image satisfaction in the form of Instagram selfie posts, risk of Instagram-related conflict and negative romantic relationship outcomes might ensue. Findings from the current study provide a baseline understanding to potential and timely trends regarding Instagram selfie posting.

  13. Topical negative pressure effects on coronary blood flow in a sternal wound model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstedt, Sandra; Malmsjö, Malin; Gesslein, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    patients with topical negative pressure (TNP)-treated mediastinitis and CABG patients without mediastinitis. The present study was designed to elucidate if TNP, applied over the myocardium, resulted in an increase of the total amount of coronary blood flow. Six pigs underwent median sternotomy...

  14. Closed incision prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy in patients undergoing major complex abdominal wall repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, F. E. E.; Atema, J. J.; Lapid, O.; Obdeijn, M. C.; Boermeester, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate if incisional prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy (pNPWT) reduces wound infections and other wound complications in high-risk patients undergoing major complex ventral abdominal wall repair. Methods Retrospective before-after comparison nested in a consecutive series of

  15. The Application of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy with Installation in Diabetic Foot Associated with Phlegmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachal, Krzysztof; Szmyt, Krzysztof; Wachal, Magda; Stanisic, Michał

    2015-03-01

    The negative pressure wound therapy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers was used successfully for many years. In the case of complications associated with infection by this type of wound treatment to give very good results. From many years of sustained research on a device that could combine the advantages of the negative pressure wound therapy and drainage flow. Finally, in the last year, the first V.A.C. Ulta (KCI, USA) devices were included to the Polish hospital departments. In this paper we present a case of a patient of successfully using a negative pressure wound therapy with installation via a set of V.A.C. Ulta in the ischemic diabetic foot syndrome complicated by phlegmon and tissue necrosis. The patient was treated in stages. In first stage was performed angioplasty of critically stenosis of the superficial femoral artery segment. Secondly, the resection of the necrotic bone revised fingers and forefoot was conducted, and in the third step the negative pressure wound therapy with installation was used. Finally, the wound was closed by the intermediate thickness skin graft. The total duration of treatment was 21 days. The patient in good general condition with a completely healed wound was discharged. Currently, after the supply with orthopedic equipment, patient regained full mobility.

  16. Outcome of Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy for Open Abdomen Treatment After Nontraumatic Lower Gastrointestinal Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Claus Anders; Fabricius, Rasmus; Kleif, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the risk factors for failure to achieve fascial closure after use of negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in an open abdomen (OA). We aimed at analyzing possible risk factors for failure of fascial closure and the risk of fistulas after nontrauma lower gastrointestinal...

  17. Using the Solving Problems Together Psychoeducational Group Counseling Model as an Intervention for Negative Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kimberly R.; Rushing, Jeri Lynn; Khurshid, Ayesha

    2011-01-01

    Problem-focused interventions are considered to be one of the most effective group counseling strategies with adolescents. This article describes a problem-focused group counseling model, Solving Problems Together (SPT), that focuses on working with students who struggle with negative peer pressure. Adapted from the teaching philosophy of…

  18. A systematic review of topical negative pressure therapy for acute and chronic wounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubbink, D. T.; Westerbos, S. J.; Nelson, E. A.; Vermeulen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Topical negative pressure (TNP) therapy is becoming increasingly popular for all kinds of wounds. Its clinical and cost effectiveness is unclear. A search of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on TNP in adult patients with all kinds of wounds in all settings was undertaken in Medline, Embase,

  19. NEGATIVE PRESSURE WOUND THERAPY (NPWT FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DIABETIC FOOT WOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesiana Heris Santy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Complications often experienced by people with diabetes are complications in the feet ( 15 % called diabetic foot ( Akhtyo , 2009 . Where the injury to the leg if not treated properly will lead to infections and ultimately need to be amputated .The purpose of writing articles is to review and discuss the evidence-based literature bersadarkanpraktice of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Effectiveness ( NPWT on the healing of diabetic foot ulcers.One technology that is used to prevent and avoid lower limb amputation is the technique of negative pressure or Negative Pressure Wound Therapy ( NPWT . This negative pressure technique has grown rapidly and now has been widely used in many countries , especially in Western European countries ( Germany and the United States . Negative pressure technique has the advantage that it is relatively cheaper cost than the use of hyperbaric oxygen . Results obtained by several studies that the use of NPWT may improve wound healing process through efforts to create a moist wound environment and decrease edema that becomes optimal wound healing , throw that out of the wound exudate so that the protease enzyme in the exudate also go wasted , this enzyme is known to interfere wound healing process . The other benefit is that it can stimulate cell growth by increasing angiogenesis physically , so that the growth of new cells will be maximal Abstrak : Komplikasi sering dialami pengidap diabetes adalah komplikasi pada kaki (15% disebut kaki diabetes (Akhtyo, 2009.Dimana luka pada kaki jika tidak ditangani dengan baik akan menyebabkan terjadinya infeksi dan akhirnya perlu di amputasi. Tujuan penulisan artikel adalah mengkaji dan membahas literature bersadarkan evidence based praktice  tentang Efektifitas Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT pada penyembuhan ulkus kaki Diabetik. Salah satu teknologi yang digunakan untuk mencegah dan menghindari amputasi ekstremitas bawah adalah  teknik tekanan negatif atau Negative

  20. Improved wound management by regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy and regulated, oxygen- enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy through basic science research and clinical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moris Topaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RNPT should be regarded as a state-of-the-art technology in wound treatment and the most important physical, nonpharmaceutical, platform technology developed and applied for wound healing in the last two decades. RNPT systems maintain the treated wound′s environment as a semi-closed, semi-isolated system applying external physical stimulations to the wound, leading to biological and biochemical effects, with the potential to substantially influence wound-host interactions, and when properly applied may enhance wound healing. RNPT is a simple, safe, and affordable tool that can be utilized in a wide range of acute and chronic conditions, with reduced need for complicated surgical procedures, and antibiotic treatment. This technology has been shown to be effective and safe, saving limbs and lives on a global scale. Regulated, oxygen-enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RO-NPT is an innovative technology, whereby supplemental oxygen is concurrently administered with RNPT for their synergistic effect on treatment and prophylaxis of anaerobic wound infection and promotion of wound healing. Understanding the basic science, modes of operation and the associated risks of these technologies through their fundamental clinical mechanisms is the main objective of this review.

  1. Improved wound management by regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy and regulated, oxygen- enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy through basic science research and clinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaz, Moris

    2012-05-01

    Regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RNPT) should be regarded as a state-of-the-art technology in wound treatment and the most important physical, nonpharmaceutical, platform technology developed and applied for wound healing in the last two decades. RNPT systems maintain the treated wound's environment as a semi-closed, semi-isolated system applying external physical stimulations to the wound, leading to biological and biochemical effects, with the potential to substantially influence wound-host interactions, and when properly applied may enhance wound healing. RNPT is a simple, safe, and affordable tool that can be utilized in a wide range of acute and chronic conditions, with reduced need for complicated surgical procedures, and antibiotic treatment. This technology has been shown to be effective and safe, saving limbs and lives on a global scale. Regulated, oxygen-enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RO-NPT) is an innovative technology, whereby supplemental oxygen is concurrently administered with RNPT for their synergistic effect on treatment and prophylaxis of anaerobic wound infection and promotion of wound healing. Understanding the basic science, modes of operation and the associated risks of these technologies through their fundamental clinical mechanisms is the main objective of this review.

  2. The use of continuous negative pressure after open debridement for septic arthritis of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H J; Song, J H; Kekatpure, A L; Adikrishna, A; Hong, H P; Lee, W J; Chun, J M; Jeon, I H

    2016-05-01

    The treatment of septic arthritis of the shoulder is challenging. The infection frequently recurs and the clinical outcome can be very poor. We aimed to review the outcomes following the use of continuous negative pressure after open debridement with a large diameter drain in patients with septic arthritis of the shoulder. A total of 68 consecutive patients with septic arthritis of the shoulder underwent arthrotomy, irrigation and debridement. A small diameter suction drain was placed in the glenohumeral joint and a large diameter drain was placed in the subacromial space with continuous negative pressure of 15 cm H2O. All patients received a standardised protocol of antibiotics for a mean of 5.1 weeks (two to 11.1). Negative pressure was maintained for a mean of 24 days (14 to 32). A total of 67 patients (98.5%) were cured without further treatment being required. At a mean follow-up of 14 months (three to 72), the mean forward flexion was 123° (80° to 140°) and the mean external rotation was 28°(10° to 40°) in those with a rotator cuff tear, and 125° (85° to 145°) and 35° (15° to 45°) in those without a rotator cuff tear. Continuous negative pressure, following open arthrotomy, irrigation and debridement, was effective in treating septic arthritis of the shoulder. The rate of recurrence was significantly lower than with conventional treatment involving arthroscopic or open debridement reported in the literature. Functional outcomes, even in patients with rotator cuff tears, were excellent. Continuous negative pressure is effective in treating septic arthritis of the shoulder. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:660-5. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  3. Body Talk: Siblings' Use of Positive and Negative Body Self-Disclosure and Associations with Sibling Relationship Quality and Body-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Kelly Bassett; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Lindell, Anna K

    2015-08-01

    The sibling relationship has been deemed the quintessential "love-hate relationship." Sibling relationships have also been found to have both positive and negative impacts on the adjustment of youth. Unlike previous research, however, the present study examined the associations between siblings' positive and negative body-related disclosures with relationship quality and body-esteem. Additionally, ordinal position, individual sex, and sibling sex composition were tested as moderators. Participants included 101 predominantly White and middle class adolescent sibling dyads (54 % female adolescents, with relatively equal sibling gender compositions). Older siblings were, on average, 16.46 (SD = 1.35) years old with younger siblings an average of 13.67 (SD = 1.56) years. Adolescents completed questionnaires and data were analyzed using Actor-Partner Interdependence Modeling, which focused on disclosure to and from dyad members. In general, sibling body-related disclosure was positive for the quality of the sibling relationship, regardless of the valance of disclosure. Also, adolescents' body esteem was greater when adolescents reported disclosing (i.e., actor-effects) about positive or negative body issues to their siblings (particularly for females). Conversely, when adolescents received positive or negative body-related disclosures from their siblings (i.e., partner-effects), adolescents reported lower levels of body esteem (particularly for girls and younger siblings). Thus, the impact of body-related disclosure on adolescents' feelings of body esteem appear to be associated more with whether they are the discloser or the one being disclosed to, while the impact on the quality of the relationship has simply more to do with whether or not they are generally disclosing to one another.

  4. Primate body temperature and sleep responses to lower body positive pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, D. M.; Fuller, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Cephalic fluid shifts, induced by lower body positive pressure (LBPP) are known to influence various physiological systems (i.e., cardiovascular and renal). In earlier experiments, an apparent change in the arousal state of primates in such LBPP conditions was observed. This study was designed to examine the effects of LBPP on arousal state and body temperature level which is normally correlated with sleep. Chair-restrained male squirrel monkeys were exposed to 40 mmHg LBPP for 90-100 minutes between the daytime hours of 13:00-15:00. Each monkey was placed in a specially modified restraint chair to which they were highly trained. Deep body temperature (DBT) was collected from 10 animals. Sleep parameters were obtained from six animals chronically implanted for sleep recording. A video camera was used to observe each animal's apparent state of arousal. LBPP resulted in an approximate 0.9 C decrease in DBT. During video observation, some animals appeared drowsy during LBPP; however, sleep recording revealed no significant changes in the state of arousal. Thus, LBPP is capable of inducing a mild hyperthermia. Further, the mechanisms underlying the observed lowering of body temperature appear to be independent of arousal state.

  5. Novel cavitation fluid jet polishing process based on negative pressure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengjun; Wang, Hui; Tang, Yu; Yin, Shaohui; Huang, Shuai; Zhang, Guanghua

    2018-04-01

    Traditional abrasive fluid jet polishing (FJP) is limited by its high-pressure equipment, unstable material removal rate, and applicability to ultra-smooth surfaces because of the evident air turbulence, fluid expansion, and a large polishing spot in high-pressure FJP. This paper presents a novel cavitation fluid jet polishing (CFJP) method and process based on FJP technology. It can implement high-efficiency polishing on small-scale surfaces in a low-pressure environment. CFJP uses the purposely designed polishing equipment with a sealed chamber, which can generate a cavitation effect in negative pressure environment. Moreover, the collapse of cavitation bubbles can spray out a high-energy microjet and shock wave to enhance the material removal. Its feasibility is verified through researching the flow behavior and the cavitation results of the negative pressure cavitation machining of pure water in reversing suction flow. The mechanism is analyzed through a computational fluid dynamics simulation. Thus, its cavitation and surface removal mechanisms in the vertical CFJP and inclined CFJP are studied. A series of polishing experiments on different materials and polishing parameters are conducted to validate its polishing performance compared with FJP. The maximum removal depth increases, and surface roughness gradually decreases with increasing negative outlet pressures. The surface becomes smooth with the increase of polishing time. The experimental results confirm that the CFJP process can realize a high material removal rate and smooth surface with low energy consumption in the low-pressure environment, together with compatible surface roughness to FJP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A rigid disc for protection of exposed blood vessels during negative pressure wound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anesäter, Erik; Borgquist, Ola; Torbrand, Christian; Roupé, K Markus; Ingemansson, Richard; Lindstedt, Sandra; Malmsjö, Malin

    2013-02-01

    There are increasing reports of serious complications and deaths associated with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Bleeding may occur when NPWT is applied to a wound with exposed blood vessels. Inserting a rigid disc in the wound may protect these structures. The authors examined the effects of rigid discs on wound bed tissue pressure and blood flow through a large blood vessel in the wound bed during NPWT. Wounds were created over the femoral artery in the groin of 8 pigs. Rigid discs were inserted. Wound bed pressures and arterial blood flow were measured during NPWT. Pressure transduction to the wound bed was similar for control wounds and wounds with discs. Blood flow through the femoral artery decreased in control wounds. When a disc was inserted, the blood flow was restored. NPWT causes hypoperfusion in the wound bed tissue, presumably as a result of mechanical deformation. The insertion of a rigid barrier alleviates this effect and restores blood flow.

  7. Facebook use and negative body image among U.S. college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckler, Petya; Kalyango, Yusuf; Paasch, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    Young women increasingly spend time on social media, but the relationship of this exposure to body image is still in the initial stages of exploration. In this study the authors used social comparison theory to examine the relationship between time spent on Facebook and body image. A survey of 881 U.S. college women was conducted in April-May 2013. Findings showed that 10.1% had posted about weight, body image, exercise, or dieting, and 27.4% had commented on friends' posts or photos. More time on Facebook related to more frequent body and weight comparisons, more attention to the physical appearance of others, and more negative feelings about their bodies for all women. For women who wanted to lose weight, more time on Facebook also related to more disordered eating symptoms.

  8. Impact of Metacognitive Acceptance on Body Dissatisfaction and Negative Affect: Engagement and Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Melissa J.; Wade, Tracey D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate engagement in metacognitive acceptance and subsequent efficacy with respect to decreasing 2 risk factors for disordered eating, body dissatisfaction (BD), and negative affect (NA). Method: In a pilot experiment, 20 female undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 24.35, SD = 9.79) underwent a BD induction procedure, received…

  9. Using portable negative pressure wound therapy devices in the home care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke JR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Joshua R Burke, Rachael Morley, Mustafa Khanbhai Academic Surgery Unit, Education and Research Centre, University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT is the continuous or intermittent application of subatmospheric pressure to the surface of a wound that improves the wound environment, accelerates healing, and reduces wound closure time. Since its first documented use, this technology has lent itself to a number of adaptations, most notably, the development of portable devices facilitating treatment in the home care setting. With advancing surgical standards, wound healing is an important rate-limiting factor in early patient discharge and often a major cost of inpatient treatment. The efficacy of NPWT in the home care setting has been investigated through rate of wound closure, time in care, and patient experience. Rate of wound closure is the most appropriate primary end point. Much can be gleaned from patient experience, but the future success of portable NPWT will be measured on time in care and therefore cost effectiveness. However, there is a lack of level 1a evidence demonstrating increased efficacy of portable over inpatient NPWT. The development of portable NPWT is an encouraging innovation in wound care technology, and extending the benefits to the home care setting is both possible and potentially more beneficial. Keywords: portable, negative pressure wound therapy, vacuum-assisted closure, topical negative pressure therapy

  10. The evidence-based principles of negative pressure wound therapy in trauma & orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Novak; Khan, Wasim S; J, Palmer

    2014-01-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy is a popular treatment for the management of both acute and chronic wounds. Its use in trauma and orthopedics is diverse and includes the acute traumatic setting as well as chronic troublesome wounds associated with pressure sores and diabetic foot surgery. Efforts have been made to provide an evidence base to guide its use however this has been limited by a lack of good quality evidence. The following review article explores the available evidence and describes future developments for its use in trauma and orthopaedic practice.

  11. The Evidence-Based Principles of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in Trauma & Orthopedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Novak; Khan, Wasim S; J, Palmer

    2014-01-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy is a popular treatment for the management of both acute and chronic wounds. Its use in trauma and orthopedics is diverse and includes the acute traumatic setting as well as chronic troublesome wounds associated with pressure sores and diabetic foot surgery. Efforts have been made to provide an evidence base to guide its use however this has been limited by a lack of good quality evidence. The following review article explores the available evidence and describes future developments for its use in trauma and orthopaedic practice. PMID:25067971

  12. Negative body image and eating disorder symptomatology among young women identifying with goth subculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2017-06-01

    The present study compared the rates of negative body image and risk for disordered eating in young women who identify as part of goth subculture and a matched sample. Participants were 80 women who identified as part of goth subculture and a matched sample of 82 women from London, United Kingdom. Participants completed measures of self-ideal body size discrepancy, body appreciation, appearance investment, and eating disorder symptomatology. Between-group comparisons indicated that goth women reported significantly higher drive for thinness (d=0.51), body dissatisfaction (d=0.62), and dysfunctional appearance investment (d=0.52), as well as lower body appreciation (d=0.55), than the matched sample. Heightened expectations about appearance and self-presentation, alongside appearance competitiveness, may result in more negative body image and disordered eating in young women who identify with goth subculture, but further research is necessary on this under-studied youth subculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Negative Pressure Wound Therapy with Instillation in the Treatment of Critical Wounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathen, M; Petri, M; Krettek, C; Omar, M

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has become the gold standard in the treatment of infected wounds. Negative pressure wound therapy with instillation (NPWTi) is a new development, that combines conventional NPWT with instillation of fluids. The purpose of this study was to review the results of current literature on the clinical use of NPWTi in acute and chronic wounds. A literature search was performed using Pubmed and the Cochrane Library, including articles in English and German. The data suggest that NPWTi is a promising therapeutic option in the treatment of wounds, and applicable in various fields. NPWTi appears to be a useful adjunct in the treatment of critical wounds. However, data from prospective randomised trials to support the validity of the results are sparse. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Silver negative pressure dressing with vacuum-assisted closure of massive pelvic and extremity wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Herrick J; Herrera, Diego F; Gay, Jason

    2014-03-01

    Massive soft tissue loss involving the pelvis and extremities from trauma, infections, and tumors remains a challenging and debilitating problem. Although vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) technology is effective in the management of soft tissue loss, the adjunct of a silver dressing in the setting of massive wounds has not been as well tested. Does a silver negative pressure dressing used in conjunction with a wound VAC decrease (1) the length of acute hospital stay and overall length of treatment; (2) the number of surgical débridements the patients underwent as part of their care; and (3) the likelihood of wound closure without soft tissue transposition? We evaluated 42 patients with massive (> 200 cm(2)) pelvic and extremity wounds from trauma, infection, or tumor who were treated with the wound VAC with or without a silver negative pressure dressing between January 2003 and January 2010; the first 26 patients were treated with the wound VAC alone, and in the final 16 consecutively treated patients, the silver dressing was added to the regimen. We reviewed medical records to determine length of treatment as well as the number and type of surgical interventions these patients underwent. We compared the group treated with the wound VAC alone with those patients treated with the wound VAC and silver negative pressure dressing. Hospital stay averaged 19 days in the VAC only group and 7.5 days in the VAC with silver dressing group (p silver dressing group (p silver dressing group (p silver dressing group (p silver negative pressure dressing in combination with the wound VAC as part of routine care of such patients. These results may be used as hypothesis-generating data for future randomized studies. Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  15. Disagreement in primary study selection between systematic reviews on negative pressure wound therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Peinemann, Frank; McGauran, Natalie; Sauerland, Stefan; Lange, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary study selection between systematic reviews is inconsistent, and reviews on the same topic may reach different conclusions. Our main objective was to compare systematic reviews on negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) regarding their agreement in primary study selection. Methods This retrospective analysis was conducted within the framework of a systematic review (a full review and a subsequent rapid report) on NPWT prepared by the Institute for Quality and Efficie...

  16. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in the Management of Combat Wounds: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Maurya, Sanjay; Bhandari, Prem Singh

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Wounds sustained in a combat trauma often result in a composite tissue loss. Combat injuries, due to high energy transfer to tissues, lead to trauma at multiple anatomical sites. An early wound cover is associated with lower rate of infections and a faster wound healing. The concept of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in the management of combat-related wounds has evolved from the civilian trauma and the wounds from nontraumatic etiologies.

  17. Histomorphological observation of surgical debridement combined with negative pressure therapy in treatment of diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao-Yun Dong

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Epidermal cells on the fascia side of the flap could be derived from the stem cells. Negative pressure wound therapy would attract not only cells but also other elements such as growth factors, cytokines, some nutrients and extracellular matrix. With the formation of the appropriate microenvironment after debridement, the migrated cells can grow, differentiate and spread, eventually leading to the epithelization on the fascia side of the flap in diabetic foot.

  18. Wounds with complicated shapes tend to develop infection during negative pressure wound therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Fujioka, Masaki; Hayashida, Kenji; Senjyu, Chikako

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: While negative pressure wound therapy (NPWP) has been shown to be useful, we felt that patients with wounds of complicated shapes were likely to develop infection during performing NPWT. We conducted an investigation to determine the factors of wound shape responsible for the occurrence of infection. Materials and methods: A total of 55 patients with wounds were treated using NPWT in our unit in 2011. Eight whose wounds formed a pocket, 7 whose wounds were deep, and 40 whose wou...

  19. Silver Negative Pressure Dressing With Vacuum-assisted Closure of Massive Pelvic and Extremity Wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Herrick J.; Herrera, Diego F.; Gay, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Background Massive soft tissue loss involving the pelvis and extremities from trauma, infections, and tumors remains a challenging and debilitating problem. Although vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) technology is effective in the management of soft tissue loss, the adjunct of a silver dressing in the setting of massive wounds has not been as well tested. Questions/purposes Does a silver negative pressure dressing used in conjunction with a wound VAC decrease (1) the length of acute hospital stay...

  20. Facets of negative affectivity and blood pressure in middle-aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel V. Igna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Research results suggesting that facets of negative affectivity, i.e. anxiety, anger-hostility, and depression, relate to incident cardiovascular diseases have been steadily increasing. Evidence for depression has been especially extensive. Elevated blood pressure, a major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, is one probable mediator in this context. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship of specific key elements of depressive disposition, i.e. depressive symptoms, hopelessness and vital exhaustion, with health behavior and blood pressure. Study sample was comprised of 710 middle-aged men. Participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing health behavior, depressive symptoms, vital exhaustion and hopelessness. Statistical analyses involved descriptive analyses, correlations and path analysis. Depressive symptoms and vital exhaustion associated with several unfavorable lifestyles such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and inactivity (standardized solution coefficients: 0.10, 0.14, 0.17, accordingly. However, no significant direct associations with blood pressure could be found for depressive symptoms or vital exhaustion. Hopelessness associated only with unhealthy diet (standardized solution coefficient -0.10 Moreover, for hopelessness, results showed a direct but inverse association with systolic blood pressure (standardized solution coefficient -0.08. Results suggest that the previously reported relations of depression and vital exhaustion with blood pressure could be mediated by unfavorable lifestyles. The relation of hopelessness with adverse health behaviors seems to be less significant. Also, the role of hopelessness as a risk factor of elevated blood pressure is not supported by the results of this study.

  1. Use of negative pressure wound therapy with silver base dressing for necrotizing fasciitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Saman Mohammadi

    2011-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening infection requiring urgent surgical and medical therapy. Hemodynamic stabilization and antimicrobial therapy precede aggressive surgical excision of necrotic tissue, which should be performed as soon as possible. The rapidly spreading infection and aggressive surgical intervention create challenges for wound management. Multiple dressings are available to address the various challenges associated with management of these wounds; this article discusses negative pressure therapy and antimicrobial dressings in the management of Fournier's gangrene, a form of necrotizing fasciitis that involves tissue of the genital or perianal areas. This article reviews the case of a 56-year-old man with fever, tachycardia, and perianal pain associated with necrotizing fasciitis. Extensive surgical debridement was done on the day of admission. After several irrigations, the wound was dressed by negative pressure wound therapy with a silver dressing that minimized hospital stay and enabled early reconstruction. We found that negative pressure wound therapy with a silver-based dressing promoted wound healing and provided a solid matrix for surgical reconstruction.

  2. Infected large pore meshes may be salvaged by topical negative pressure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrevoet, F; Vanlander, A; Sainz-Barriga, M; Rogiers, X; Troisi, R

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of negative pressure therapy for superficial and deep mesh infections after ventral and incisional hernia repair by a prospective monocentric observational study. During a 6-year period, 724 consecutive open ventral and incisional hernia repairs were performed. Pre- and intraoperative data as well as postoperative complications were prospectively recorded. In case of wound infection, negative pressure therapy (NPT) was our primary treatment. Sixty-three patients (8.7 %) were treated using negative pressure therapy after primary ventral and incisional hernia repair. Infectious complications needing NPT occurred in 54 patients in the retromuscular group (54/523; 10.3 %), none when laparoscopically treated and in 9 patients (9/143; 6.3 %) treated by an open intraperitoneal mesh technique. Considering outcome, all meshes were completely salvaged in the retromuscular mesh group after a median of 5 dressing changes (range, 2-9), while in the intraperitoneal mesh, group 3 meshes needed complete (n = 2) or partial (n = 1) excision. Mean duration to complete wound closure was 44 days (range, 26-63 days). NPT is a useful adjunct for salvage of deep infected meshes, particularly when large pore monofilament mesh is used.

  3. Using negative pressure therapy for improving skin graft taking on genital area defects following Fournier gangrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Erkan; Şenen, Dilek

    2017-09-01

    Fournier's gangrene is an infective necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, genital and perianal regions. Treatment includes aggressive surgical debridement that often results in extensive loss of genital skin. Skin grafts may be used for reconstruction but skin grafting of the male genitalia is diffucult because the penis and scrotum are mobile and deformable. A variety of methods are used to secure skin graft to recipient beds. We used negative pressure therapy (NPT) to secure skin grafts and improve skin graft taking. We used negative pressure therapy for graft fixation in 13 male patients who underwent debridements with the indication of Fournier gangrene, and whose defects formed were reconstructed with grafts between January 2009, and January 2014. Information about age of the patients, sessions of negative pressure therapy applied before, and after reconstruction, duration of hospital stay, and graft losses during postoperative period were recorded. Median age of the patients was 56.15 (46-72) years. NPT was applied to patients for an average of 6.64 sessions (4-12) before and 1 sessions after graft reconstruction. Patients were hospitalized for an average of 26.7 (20-39) days. Any graft loss was not seen after NPT. Because of the peculiar anatomy of the genital region, anchoring of grafts is difficult so graft losses are often encountered. Use of NPT for ensuring graft fixation on the genital region prevents skin graft shearing.

  4. Irrigation dynamics associated with positive pressure, apical negative pressure and passive ultrasonic irrigations: a computational fluid dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, José Enrique; Nurbakhsh, Babak; Layton, Gillian; Bussmann, Markus; Kishen, Anil

    2014-08-01

    Complexities in root canal anatomy and surface adherent biofilm structures remain as challenges in endodontic disinfection. The ability of an irrigant to penetrate into the apical region of a canal, along with its interaction with the root canal walls, will aid in endodontic disinfection. The aim of this study was to qualitatively examine the irrigation dynamics of syringe irrigation with different needle tip designs (open-ended and closed-ended), apical negative pressure irrigation with the EndoVac® system, and passive ultrasonic-assisted irrigation, using a computational fluid dynamics model. Syringe-based irrigation with a side-vented needle showed a higher wall shear stress than the open-ended but was localised to a small region of the canal wall. The apical negative pressure mode of irrigation generated the lowest wall shear stress, while the passive-ultrasonic irrigation group showed the highest wall shear stress along with the greatest magnitude of velocity. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2013 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  5. Evaluation of negative pressure vacuum-assisted system in acute and chronic wounds closure: our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiummariello, S; Guarro, G; Pica, A; Alfano, C

    2012-10-01

    Negative-pressure therapy or vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) has been used in clinical applications since the 1940's and has increased in popularity over the past decade. This dressing technique consists of an open cell foam dressing put into the wound cavity, a vacuum pump produces a negative pressure and an adhesive drape. A controlled sub atmospheric pressure from 75 to 150 mmHg is applied. The vacuum-assisted closure has been applied by many clinicians to chronic wounds in humans; however it cannot be used as a replacement for surgical debridement. The initial treatment for every contaminated wound should be the necrosectomy. The VAC therapy has a complementary function and the range of its indications includes pressure sores, stasis ulcers, chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers, post traumatic and post operative wounds, infected wounds such as necrotizing fasciitis or sternal wounds, soft-tissue injuries, bone exposed injuries, abdominal open wounds and for securing a skin graft. We describe our experience with the VAC dressing used to manage acute and chronic wounds in a series of 135 patients, with excellent results together with satisfaction of the patients.

  6. Timer switch to convert suction apparatus for negative pressure wound therapy application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surath Amarnath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT is an established modality in the treatment of chronic wounds, open fractures, and post-operative wound problems. This method has not been widely used due to the high cost of equipment and consumables. This study demonstrates an indigenously developed apparatus which gives comparable results at a fraction of the cost. Readily available materials are used for the air-tight dressing. Materials and Methods: Equipment consists of suction apparatus with adjustable pressure valve set to a pressure 125-150 mmHg. An electronic timer switch with a sequential working time of 5 min and a standby time of 3 min provides the required intermittent negative pressure. Readily available materials such as polyvinyl alcohol sponge, suction drains and steridrapes were used to provide an air tight wound cover. Results: A total of 90 cases underwent 262 NPWT applications from 2009 to 2014. This series, comprised of 30 open fractures, 21 post-operative and 39 chronic wounds. The wound healing rate in our study was comparable to other published studies using NPWT. Conclusion: The addition of electronic timer switch will convert a suction apparatus into NPWT machine, and the results are equally effective compared to more expensive counter parts. The use of indigenous dressing materials reduces the cost significantly.

  7. Patients' experiences of negative pressure wound therapy for the treatment of wounds: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, D; Stephens, D; Andrews, A

    2013-01-01

    To review the research on patients' experiences of undergoing negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). A literature search was carried out using the following databases: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, PsychINFO, MEDLINE, PubMed and PsyARTICLES. The search covered the period from 2001 to 2012, using the key words: ['negative pressure wound therapy' OR 'vacuum-assisted closure' OR 'topical negative therapy'] AND ['patients' experiences' OR 'psychological' OR 'stress' OR 'anxiety' OR 'wellbeing' OR 'pain' OR 'quality of life' OR 'physical']. Twenty-five relevant articles were included. NPWT is generally considered to be successful in reducing wound depth and facilitating healing. However, studies have highlighted a number of issues that need to be considered. For example, the type of dressing used during treatment can have a significant effect on patients' experience of pain. Furthermore, the NPWT system can cause patients to feel anxious due to both the patient and the health professional being unfamiliar with this form of treatment. It can also restrict patients' daily care and wider social life, which may result in a negative self-image and low self-esteem. Despite this, some studies have reported positive improvements to patients' quality of life. Additionally, since NPWT can lead to faster healing, any detrimental impact upon patients' wellbeing may be short-term and less prolonged than that of other treatments. Compared with other treatments, there is evidence to show that NPWT can lead to faster wound healing, and a reduced frequency of dressing changes and other treatments. However, there are a number of challenges with the use of NPWT, which need to be explored further so that improvements can be made. Specifically, certain aspects of NPWT may impact negatively on patients' wellbeing, albeit short-term. Therefore, research needs to explore patients' experience of NPWT throughout the treatment process and to consider how this can be improved to minimise any

  8. Faster Wound Healing With Topical Negative Pressure Therapy in Difficult-to-Heal Wounds: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, E.H. de; Boogaard, M.H.W.A. van den; Spauwen, P.H.M.; Kuppevelt, D.H. van; Goor, H. van; Schoonhoven, L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: : A randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness and safety of topical negative pressure therapy in patients with difficult-to-heal wounds. METHODS: : A total of 24 patients were randomly assigned to either treatment with topical negative pressure therapy or

  9. Effects of the exposure to self- and other-referential bodies on state body image and negative affect in resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Martin; Vocks, Silja; Düsing, Rainer; Waldorf, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Previous body image research suggests that first, exposure to body stimuli can negatively affect men's body satisfaction and second, body concerns are associated with dysfunctional gaze behavior. To date, however, the effects of self- vs. other-referential body stimuli and of gaze behavior on body image in men under exposure conditions have not been investigated. Therefore, 49 weight-trained men were presented with pictures of their own and other bodies of different builds (i.e., normal, muscular, hyper-muscular) while being eye-tracked. Participants completed pre- and post-exposure measures of body image and affect. Results indicated that one's own and the muscular body negatively affected men's body image to a comparable degree. Exposure to one's own body also led to increased negative affect. Increased attention toward disliked own body parts was associated with a more negative post-exposure body image and affect. These results suggest a crucial role of critical self-examination in maintaining body dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Body dissatisfaction: can a short media literacy message reduce negative media exposure effects amongst adolescent girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma; Easun, Alice; Harcourt, Diana

    2011-05-01

    This experimental study examined whether a brief video intervention identifying the artificial nature of media images could protect adolescent girls from negative media exposure effects and body dissatisfaction. A 2 (intervention condition)×2 (exposure condition) between-groups design was used. Participants were 127 British girls aged between 10 and 13 recruited from two secondary schools. Girls were assigned to one of four experimental conditions. An intervention video was shown to half of the girls immediately before they viewed ultra-thin models or control images. The video was developed by Dove's Self-Esteem Fund and has the benefits of being professionally produced and freely available through the Internet. In the absence of the intervention video, viewing thin idealized models was associated with lower state body satisfaction and lower state body esteem than exposure to control images. However, viewing the video intervention immediately before exposure prevented this negative exposure effect. The results suggest that, in the short term, this widely available video prevents girls from making damaging social comparisons with media models. Although this study only examined short-term effects, the findings add to the growing evidence that media literacy interventions may be useful tools in protecting young girls from body dissatisfaction. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Severe complications after negative pressure wound therapy in burned wounds: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren H

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Haitao Ren,1 Yuan Li21Department of Burns and Wound Center, the Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Ultrasound, Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: We present two typical cases of severe complications (sepsis and hemorrhage after negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT in burned patients. Necrotic tissues in some deep burn wounds are difficult to judge correctly and remove thoroughly. An electrically burned blood vessel looks “intact” but can easily break. Necrotic tissue or injured blood vessels when using NPWT are dangerous, both for causing sepsis and hemorrhage. This is the first article that reports the severe complications of NPWT in burned patients. It is imperative to heed indications and avoid contraindications. Proper preparation of wound beds, close observation, and sufficient irrigation are also crucial to avoid these severe complications, and there is an urgent need to substitute the central vacuum system with the low-pressure system.Keywords: negative pressure wound therapy, complication, burn sepsis, bleeding, drainage

  12. Abdominal compartment syndrome and open abdomen management with negative pressure devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surace, Alessandra; Ferrarese, Alessia; Marola, Silvia; Cumbo, Jacopo; Valentina, Gentile; Borello, Alessandro; Solej, Mario; Martino, Valter; Nano, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an increase of intra-abdominal pressure (IAH) to values higher than 20 mmHg, associated with reduced perfusion and organ dysfunction. There is a classification of open abdomen which stratifies patients according to the natural history of improvement or clinical deterioration. The aim of treatment is to maintain the open abdomen at the lowest level and to prevent progression to a more complex level. Surgical treatment essentially consists in abdominal decompression by leaving the abdomen open. Analysis of the literature shows that negative pressure increases the rate of primary fascial closure; entero-cutaneous fistulas are seen in a minority of cases, without seeming consequence of the application of the dressing. Open abdomen management consists of three treatment stages: acute (24-48 hours), intermediate (from 48 hours to 10 days) and late or reconstruction (from 10 days to the final closure). It's important to recognize patients at risk of IAH and the first signs of ACS and intervene early with abdominal decompression if this will establish itself. Management of the open abdomen is now facilitated by negative pressure devices, which positively affect the morbidity and mortality of patients with ACS.

  13. Sterilization by negative and positive DC plasma with a micro discharge gap at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Jiang, Lin-Xiu; Jiang, Yong-Rong; Zhu, Jian-Min; Chen, Zhen-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    A new needle-to-droplet electrode structure with a micro discharge gap (2 mm) was designed to achieve direct current (DC) discharge plasma in ambient air with the aim of using the plasma to sterilize liquids. Without using noble gases or an external air flow, we succeeded in generating both a negative and positive DC plasma at atmospheric pressure. The plasma was driven by a 0 to ‑20,000 V, 100 W DC power supply. A stainless steel needle with a tip diameter of ˜ 50μm and a 200-μL droplet of bacteria-containing liquid served as the electrodes. At atmospheric pressure and room temperature (23∘C), utilizing the negative DC plasma, the discharge time lasted 10 s; the results showed that the higher the discharge voltage, the more efficient the sterilization effect. Conversely, when we applied a voltage of ‑5.5 kV, we found that the sterilization effect was more efficient for longer discharge times. Our findings demonstrate that Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) can be killed in about 30 s. Our experiments show that our sterilization method required less time and was more efficient for positive than for negative DC plasma under the same conditions.

  14. A randomized, controlled trial of negative pressure wound therapy of pressure ulcers via a novel polyurethane foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Marcus James Dermot; Driver, Sara; Coghlan, Patrick; Greenwood, John Edward

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the study were (1) to look for any local, clinically apparent response, within and around a debrided wound, to a novel biocompatible polyurethane foam during repeated, short-term implantation, and (2) to assess the material's efficacy as a negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) interface compared with a widely used, commercially available foam. Twenty pressure ulcers in 18 patients underwent surgical debridement, then randomization to receive novel treatment or control foam as the wound interface for NPWT. Dressing changes every 2-3 days allowed qualitative wound assessment and quantitative measurement to compare outcomes. No adverse reaction was observed in any patient receiving the new foam. The new "novel foam" performed as a NPWT interface as effectively as the control "standard foam." In deep wounds, the new foam was easier to remove, fragmented less, and showed less retention than the control foam. No marginal in-growth occurred, making removal less traumatic and reducing bleeding from cavity wall granulations. The results support previous large animal studies, and independent ISO10993 testing, that the new foam is safe and biocompatible. Its efficacy as an NPWT interface, nontraumatic removal with low fragmentation and retention rate, favors the new material, especially in deep cavity wounds. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  15. Use of negative pressure wound therapy in the treatment of neonatal and pediatric wounds: a retrospective examination of clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharestani, Mona Mylene

    2007-06-01

    The clinical effectiveness of negative pressure wound therapy for the management of acute and chronic wounds is well documented in the adult population but information regarding its use in the pediatric population is limited. A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted to examine the clinical outcomes of using negative pressure wound therapy in the treatment of pediatric wounds. The medical records of 24 consecutive pediatric patients receiving negative pressure wound therapy were reviewed. Demographic data, wound etiology, time to closure, closure method, duration of negative pressure wound therapy, complications, dressing change frequency, dressing type used, and pressure settings were analyzed. All categorical variables in the dataset were summarized using frequency (count and percentages) and all continuous variables were summarized using median (minimum, maximum). The 24 pediatric patients (mean age 8.5 years [range 14 days to 18 years old]) had 24 wounds - 12 (50%) were infected at baseline. Sixteen patients had hypoalbuminemia and six had exposed hardware and bone in their wounds. Twenty-two wounds reached full closure in a median time of 10 days (range 2 to 45) following negative pressure wound therapy and flap closure (11), split-thickness skin graft (three), secondary (four), and primary (four) closure. Pressures used in this population ranged from 50 to 125 mm Hg and most wounds were covered with reticulated polyurethane foam. One patient developed a fistula during the course of negative pressure wound therapy. When coupled with appropriate systemic antibiotics, surgical debridement, and medical and nutritional optimization, in this population negative pressure wound therapy resulted in rapid granulation tissue and 92% successful wound closure. Future neonatal and pediatric negative pressure wound therapy usage registries and prospective studies are needed to provide a strong evidence base from which treatment decisions can be made in the management

  16. Recent Advances on the Application of Negative Pressure External Volume Expansion in Breast Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyue; Luan, Jie

    2018-02-01

    External volume expansion (EVE) has been effectively applied as an assistance to fat transplantation on breast plastic surgery. Many indicators and refinements have been made in clinical practice; meanwhile, the related mechanism and more optimized preclinical model also have been explored in experimental studies. A literature search was conducted using PubMed with the keywords: EVE, negative pressure, breast enlargement, breast augmentation, breast reconstruction, breast plastic surgery and breast aesthetic surgery. Studies dealing with the clinical and preclinical aspects of the subject and also in vitro experiments related to a certain period of negative pressure and adipose-derived cells were selected, and those only focused on negative pressure were excluded. The indications, contraindications, complications and treatments of EVE in clinical practice were summarized. The experimental studies were mainly classified into two groups (mechanical and translational) according to their contents. Mechanical studies were further divided into inference experimental validation phase studies. For the experimental validation phase, EVE was verified to promote angiogenesis, while it still remained controversial whether it would enhance adipogenesis and cell proliferation. Clinically, our experience is on the stage of exploration, and there is a lack of standardized guidelines on its clinical application. Experimentally, the previous studies showed some subtly different views on the functional mechanisms. However, it is not enough to regulate the clinical practice yet. Therefore, related basic studies and long-term clinical follow-up are needed. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  17. [Asymmetric negative pressure pulmonary edema after acute upper airway obstruction: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Aldo José

    2002-06-01

    Negative pressure pulmonary edema after acute upper airway obstruction is a well-described event, though infrequently diagnosed and reported. This report aimed at presenting a case of upper airway obstruction negative pressure pulmonary edema following acute upper airway obstruction characterized by pulmonary edema asymmetry, being more prominent in the right lung. A 4-year-old boy, 17 kg, phisical status ASA I submitted to combined tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy and turbinate cauterization under general anesthesia with sevoflurane/nitrous oxide/O2. Surgery duration was 90 minutes without complications. During anesthetic recovery and spontaneously breathing, patient reacted to tracheal tube, which was removed. Following, ventilatory efforts resulted in chest wall retraction without apparent air movement, being impossible to ventilate him with facial mask. Symptoms evolved to severe hypoxemia (50% SpO2) requiring reintubation. At this point, it was observed that the lung was stiffer and there were bilateral rales characterizing pulmonary edema. A chest X-ray showed diffuse bilateral infiltrates, right upper lobe atelectasis and marked pulmonary edema asymmetry (right greater than left). Patient was mechanically ventilated with PEEP for 20 hours when he was extubated. There was a progressive pulmonary edema improvement and patient was discharged 48 hours later. Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) is a rare event with high morbidity risk. It is often not diagnosed and requires from the anesthesiologist an updated knowledge and adequate management. It is usually bilateral, rarely unilateral, and exceptionally asymmetric as in this case. Most cases are treated by mechanical ventilation with PEEP or CPAP without any other therapy. The prognosis is favorable, with most cases recovering within the first 24 hours.

  18. Non-invasive nuclear device for communicating pressure inside a body to the exterior thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, L.W.; Meyer, G.A.; Hittman, F.; Lyon, W.C.; Hayes, W.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The need for a non-invasive technique for measuring the pressure in body cavities of animals or humans is recognized as highly desirable for continuous or intermittent monitoring of body conditions. The non-invasive nuclear device of the present invention is fully implantable and is fully capable of communicating pressure inside a body to the exterior to allow readout non-invasively. In its preferred form, the invention includes a housing for subcutaneous implantation with the radioactive source. An urging means such as a bellows is provided in the housing interior. The fluid pressure from a fluid pressure sensing device within the body is transmitted to the housing interior by means of a pressure-limiting fluid through a conduit. This causes the radioactive source to move against the force out of the initial or repose shielded relationship causing a proportional increase in pressure in the body portion being monitored. The radioactive output from the radioactive source corresponds to the magnitude of the pressure within the body. The housing may be securely mounted on a supporting portion of the body and the mounting serves as a radiation shield for the body. (JTA)

  19. Flame Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Coupled with Negative Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Ion Molecule Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Bhat, Suhail Muzaffar; Shiea, Jentaie

    2017-07-01

    Flame atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (FAPCI) combined with negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was developed to detect the ion/molecule reactions (IMRs) products between nitric acid (HNO3) and negatively charged amino acid, angiotensin I (AI) and angiotensin II (AII), and insulin ions. Nitrate and HNO3-nitrate ions were detected in the oxyacetylene flame, suggesting that a large quantity of nitric acid (HNO3) was produced in the flame. The HNO3 and negatively charged analyte ions produced by a negative ESI source were delivered into each arm of a Y-shaped stainless steel tube where they merged and reacted. The products were subsequently characterized with an ion trap mass analyzer attached to the exit of the Y-tube. HNO3 showed the strongest affinity to histidine and formed (Mhistidine-H+HNO3)- complex ions, whereas some amino acids did not react with HNO3 at all. Reactions between HNO3 and histidine residues in AI and AII resulted in the formation of dominant [MAI-H+(HNO3)]- and [MAII-H+(HNO3)]- ions. Results from analyses of AAs and insulin indicated that HNO3 could not only react with basic amino acid residues, but also with disulfide bonds to form [M-3H+(HNO3)n]3- complex ions. This approach is useful for obtaining information about the number of basic amino acid residues and disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins.

  20. Flame Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Coupled with Negative Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Ion Molecule Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Bhat, Suhail Muzaffar; Shiea, Jentaie

    2017-07-01

    Flame atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (FAPCI) combined with negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was developed to detect the ion/molecule reactions (IMRs) products between nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and negatively charged amino acid, angiotensin I (AI) and angiotensin II (AII), and insulin ions. Nitrate and HNO 3 -nitrate ions were detected in the oxyacetylene flame, suggesting that a large quantity of nitric acid (HNO 3 ) was produced in the flame. The HNO 3 and negatively charged analyte ions produced by a negative ESI source were delivered into each arm of a Y-shaped stainless steel tube where they merged and reacted. The products were subsequently characterized with an ion trap mass analyzer attached to the exit of the Y-tube. HNO 3 showed the strongest affinity to histidine and formed (M histidine -H+HNO 3 ) - complex ions, whereas some amino acids did not react with HNO 3 at all. Reactions between HNO 3 and histidine residues in AI and AII resulted in the formation of dominant [M AI -H+(HNO 3 )] - and [M AII -H+(HNO 3 )] - ions. Results from analyses of AAs and insulin indicated that HNO 3 could not only react with basic amino acid residues, but also with disulfide bonds to form [M-3H+(HNO 3 ) n ] 3- complex ions. This approach is useful for obtaining information about the number of basic amino acid residues and disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  1. [Efficacy observation on application of negative pressure therapy in the treatment of superficial partial-thickness scald wound in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chuan-an; Chai, Jia-ke; Tuo, Xiao-ye; Cai, Jian-hua; Li, Dong-jie; Zhang, Lin; Zhu, Hua; Cai, Jin-dong

    2013-02-01

    To observe the effect of negative pressure therapy in the treatment of superficial partial-thickness scald in children. Three hundred and seven children with superficial partial-thickness scald hospitalized from August 2009 to May 2012 were divided into negative pressure therapy group (NPT, n = 145) and control group (C, n = 162) according to the random number table. Patients in group NPT were treated with negative pressure from within post injury day (PID) 3 to PID 9 (with -16 kPa pressure), while traditional occlusive dressing method was used in group C. Changes in body temperature, wound healing condition, frequency of dressing change were compared between group NPT and group C. Bacterial culture results of wounds were compared before and after treatment in group NPT. Volume of drained transudate per one percent of wound area was recorded in group NPT on PID 1 to PID 3. Data were processed with t test or chi-square test. The incidence of high fever was significantly lower in group NPT (26.9%, 39/145) than in group C (63.6%, 103/162, χ(2) = 41.419, P wound epithelization was observed in 138 patients in group NPT, and in 7 patients there were a few residual wounds which healed after dressing change for 2 days. The wound healing time of patients in group NPT [(9.2 ± 0.6) d] was obviously shorter than that in group C [(10.1 ± 1.6) d, t = 6.895, P wound secretion of seventeen patients in group NPT before treatment, while no bacterium was discovered in all patients after treatment. Volumes of drainage fluid in group NPT were proportional to wound areas, which were respectively (9.8 ± 3.2), (6.2 ± 2.1), (4.1 ± 1.6) mL per one percent of wound area on PID 1, 2, and 3. NPT can decrease times of dressing change, and alleviate infection and inflammatory response by drainage of transudate, which promotes wound healing at last. NPT is proved to be a safe and effective approach for treatment of children with superficial partial-thickness scald.

  2. An Alternative Treatment Strategy for Complicated Chronic Wounds: Negative Pressure Therapy over Mesh Skin Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Maruccia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive skin defect represents a real problem and major challenge in plastic and reconstructive surgery. On one hand, skin grafts offer a practical method to deal with skin defects despite their unsuitability for several complicated wounds. On the other hand, negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT, applied before skin grafting, promotes granulation tissue growth. The aim of the study is to evaluate the improvement in wound healing given by the merger of these two different approaches. We treated 23 patients for large wounds of multiple factors. Of these, 15 were treated with the application of V.A.C.® Therapy (KCI Medical S.r.l., Milan, Italy, in combination with skin grafts after a prior unsuccessful treatment of 4 weeks with mesh skin grafts and dressings. Another 8 were treated with only mesh skin graft. Pain reduction and wound area reduction were found statistically significant (p<0.0009, p<0.0001. Infection was resolved in almost all patients. According to our study, the use of the negative pressure wound therapy over mesh skin grafts is significantly effective especially in wounds resistant to conventional therapies, thereby improving the rate of skin graft take.

  3. Matching Biological Mesh and Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in Reconstructing an Open Abdomen Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caviggioli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of open abdominal defects is a clinical problem which general and plastic surgeons have to address in cooperation. We report the case of a 66-year-old man who presented an abdominal dehiscence after multiple laparotomies for a sigmoid-rectal adenocarcinoma that infiltrated into the abdominal wall, subsequently complicated by peritonitis and enteric fistula. A cutaneous dehiscence and an incontinent abdominal wall resulted after the last surgery. The abdominal wall was reconstructed using a biological porcine cross-linked mesh Permacol (Covidien Inc., Norwalk, CT. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT, instead, was used on the mesh in order to reduce wound dimensions, promote granulation tissue formation, and obtain secondary closure of cutaneous dehiscence which was finally achieved with a split-thickness skin graft. Biological mesh behaved like a scaffold for the granulation tissue that was stimulated by the negative pressure. The biological mesh was rapidly integrated in the abdominal wall restoring abdominal wall continence, while the small dehiscence, still present in the central area, was subsequently covered with a split-thickness skin graft. The combination of these different procedures led us to solve this complicated case obtaining complete wound closure after less than 2 months.

  4. Embodied mood regulation : the impact of body posture on mood recovery, negative thoughts, and mood-congruent recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Lotte; Schneider, Iris K.; Koole, Sander L.

    2017-01-01

    Previous work has shown that a stooped posture may activate negative mood. Extending this work, the present experiments examine how stooped body posture influences recovery from pre-existing negative mood. In Experiment 1 (n=229), participants were randomly assigned to receive either a negative or

  5. Negative pressure wound therapy for serious dog bites of extremities: a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui-Feng, Chen; Li-Song, Huang; Ji-Bo, Zheng; Yi-Qing, Jia; Yu-Jie, Liu; Yi, Shan

    2016-06-01

    The objectives were to investigate the emergency treatment of serious dog bite lacerations on limbs and to identify whether negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was beneficial in these instances. A total of 580 cases with serious limb lacerations due to dog bites were randomly divided into 2 groups. After thorough debridement, the limb lacerations of group A (n = 329) were left open. The remaining cases (n = 251) were randomly divided into 2 subgroups, group B and group C, which were treated with 125 and 75 mm Hg of continuous negative pressure, respectively. Antibiotics were only used in cases where there were systemic signs of wound infection, and were not given prophylactically. The infection rate, infection time, and healing time were analyzed. The wound infection rates of groups A, B, and C were 9.1%, 4.1%, and 3.9%, respectively. The infection times of the 3 groups were 26.3 ± 11.6, 159.8 ± 13.4, and 166.4 ± 16.2 hours, respectively. The recovery times of the infection patients in the 3 groups were 19.2 ± 4.6, 13.2 ± 2.1, and 12.7 ± 2.3 days, respectively, and in the noninfection patients, the recovery times were 15.6 ± 2.7, 10.1 ± 2.3, and 10.5 ± 1.9 days, respectively. In groups B (-125 mm Hg) and C (-75 mm Hg), the infection rate, infection time, and healing time showed no significant differences. Patients with serious dog bite laceration on limbs could benefit from NPWT. Compared with the traditional treatment of leaving the wounds open, NPWT reduced the infection rate and shortened recovery time. When NPWT was performed, low negative pressure (-75 mm Hg) had the same positive effects as high pressure (-125 mm Hg). Prophylactic antibiotics administration is not recommended for treating this kind of laceration. Therapeutic/care management, level II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy With Instillation: Review of Evidence and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul J; Attinger, Christopher E; Olawoye, Olayinka; Crist, Brett D; Gabriel, Allen; Galiano, Robert D; Gupta, Subhas; Lantis Ii, John C; Lavery, Lawrence; Lipsky, Benjamin A; Teot, Luc

    2015-12-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy with instillation (NPWTi) and dwell time is an adjunctive treatment modality for selected complex wounds. Because of the greater amount of research now available, a multidisciplinary expert panel comprising the fields of podiatry, plastic and general surgery, burn treatment, infectious diseases, and orthopedics was convened on July 11, 2015, to produce a summary of the data and recommendations on the use of NPWTi. The panel members each reviewed available published literature on NPWTi in the PubMed, Cochrane, and Google Scholar databases from 1 January 2012 up until 20 July 2015 using the string search term negative pressure wound therapy instillation provided by the panel moderator; there were no restrictions on the language or type of publication. Panel members discussed their experiences and worked to reach consensus on several predefined topics. NPWTi was found to be most appropriate for properly selected complex hosts or wounds such as patients with multiple comorbidities, patients with an American Society of Anesthesiology Classification ≥ 2, severe traumatic wounds, diabetic foot infections, and wounds complicated by invasive infection or extensive biofilm. NPWTi should not be used routinely to treat simple wounds or hosts without comorbidities.There is evidence that when NPWTi is added to standard of care in properly selected cases it provides better overall clinical outcomes than standard of care alone, even when including NPWT. Based on published evidence and panel member experience, the Panel recommends a dwell time - fluid briefly instilled into the wound and allowed to diffuse for a user-specified time - of 10-20 minutes followed by 2-4 hours of negative pressure at -125 mmHg, although larger wounds may need times of up to 6 hours. Normal saline (0.9%) is the preferred solution for NPWTi, except in special situations. NPWTi with dwell time is an adjunct to other standard principles of appropriate wound assessment and

  7. External negative electric potential accelerates exocytosis of lamellar bodies in human skin ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Junichi; Goto, Makiko; Denda, Sumiko; Nakatani, Masashi; Takasugi, Yuya; Tsuchiya, Katsunori; Shimizu, Yuji; Takatsuru, Yusuke; Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Exocytosis of lamellar bodies at the uppermost nucleated layer of the epidermis is a crucial process for epidermal permeability barrier homoeostasis. We have previously suggested that skin surface electric potential might be associated with barrier homoeostasis. Thus, we hypothesized that the potential might drive exocytosis of lamellar bodies. In this study, we tested this idea by applying negative electric potential (-0.5 V) to human skin samples ex vivo for 2 h and observing the ultrastructure of the uppermost layer. The secretion of lamellar bodies was accelerated in the potential-applied skin, compared to that in untreated control skin. Multiphoton observation indicated that extracellular lipid domains were more extensive in treated skin than in control skin. Moreover, the calcium ion gradient was greater at the uppermost layer of the epidermis of treated skin, compared to that in control skin. These results indicate that electric potential may regulate lamellar body secretion in healthy human skin. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Bagautdinov dressing method: negative pressure wound therapy in a patient with an allergy to acrylate adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, David A; Wirth, Garrett A; Evans, Gregory Rd; Carmean, Melissa; Gordon, Ian L

    2017-02-01

    Current embodiments of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) create a hermetically sealed chamber at the surface of the body using polyurethane foam connected to a vacuum pump, which is then covered by a flexible adhesive drape. Commercially available NPWT systems routinely use flexible polyethylene films that have a sticky side, coated with the same acrylate adhesives used in other medical devices such as ECG leads and grounding pads. Severe reactions to the acrylate adhesives in these other devices, although uncommon, have been reported. We describe the case of a 63-year-old woman with an intractable leg ulcer resulting from external-beam radiotherapy (XRT). Treatment with a standard commercial NPWT system induced severe inflammation of the skin in direct contact with drape adhesive. We successfully administered prolonged, outpatient NPWT to the patient using an alternative method (first described by Bagautdinov in 1986), using plain polyethylene film and petrolatum. The necessary hermetic seal is achieved by smearing the skin with petrolatum before applying the polyethylene film and activating the vacuum pump. The Bagautdinov method is a practical solution to the problem of adapting NPWT to patients with contact sensitivity or skin tears related to the adhesive compounds in the flexible drapes. Its use of a circumferential elastic wrap to maintain constant pressure on the seal probably limits the Bagautdinov technique to the extremities. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Efficacy and safety of negative pressure wound therapy for Szilagyi grade III peripheral vascular graft infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsu-Tang; Hsu, Yung-Chang; Wu, Chao-I

    2014-12-01

    A best evidence topic in vascular surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether it is safe and effective to use negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) for Szilagyi grade III (i.e. the arterial implant proper involved in the infection) peripheral vascular graft infection. Altogether, 69 papers were found using the reported search. From the search results, reference lists of potentially eligible studies and related citations in PubMed, seven papers represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. In the only randomized, controlled trial that compared NPWT (n = 10) and alginate dressing change (n = 10), the NPWT group demonstrated shorter time to full skin epithelialization (median 57 vs 104 days; P = 0.026). In the other six case series, the recruited case number ranged from 12 to 72. The mode of NPWT varied among the included studies, with the majority using a continuous negative pressure of 125 mmHg. One study combined NPWT and sartorius myoplasty, another used sartorius myoplasty in selected cases and others did not. The mean duration of using NPWT ranged from 14.2 to 43 days. The mean duration to achieve complete wound healing ranged from 24 (the study with sartorius myoplasty) to 51 days. The NPWT treatment failure rate ranged from 0 (the study with sartorius myoplasty) to 25%. The major complication of NPWT was bleeding and the incidence rate was reported to be 1 year of follow-up) showed that NPWT with a continuous negative pressure of 125 mmHg, or combined NPWT and sartorius myoplasty, may shorten the time to complete wound healing by 2 months, have a >70% success rate, and have a <10% NPWT-related complication rate. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights

  10. The volume of the carotid bodies and blood pressure variability and pulse pressure in patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaźwiec, P; Gać, P; Poręba, M; Sobieszczańska, M; Mazur, G; Poręba, R

    2016-06-01

    To assess the relationship between the volume of the carotid bodies (VrCB+lCB) examined by means of computed tomography angiography (CTA) and blood pressure variability and pulse pressure (PP) in 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in patients with essential hypertension. A group of 52 patients with essential hypertension was examined (mean age: 68.32±12.31 years), the sizes of carotid bodies were measured by means of carotid artery CTA, and 24-hour ABPM was carried out. The 24-hour ABPM established systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), PP, SBP variability (SBPV), and DBP variability (DBPV). SBP, MAP, and SBPV were significantly higher in the group of hypertension patients with VrCB+lCB equal to or above the median than in the group of hypertension patients with VrCB+lCB less than the median, as well as in the group of hypertension patients with oversized carotid bodies, than in the group of hypertension patients with normal VrCB+lCB. Moreover, the PP was statistically significantly higher in the group of hypertension patients with VrCB+lCB equal to or above the median than in the group of hypertension patients with VrCB+lCB less than the median. The existence of statistically significant positive linear relationships was revealed between VrCB+lCB and SBP, PP, and SBPV. A higher body mass index, older age, smoking, and higher VrCB+lCB are independent risk factors increasing SBPV in the research group. A positive relationship between the size of the carotid bodies and variability of the SBP and PP is observed in patients with essential hypertension. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Negative pressure wound therapy in pediatric surgery: How and when to use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Martins, Alana Bandeira; Oliveira, Pablo Baptista; Gomes, Fernanda; Leve, Thais; Dekermacher, Samuel

    2018-04-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been widely adopted to treat laparostomy, abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and complicated wounds associated with tissue loss. The method presents specific aspects, advantages and indications in Pediatrics. Our aim is to review the evidence available about NPWT in children. Active search for papers about NPWT in Pediatric patients. Papers referring to orthopedic problems, wound complications after Cardiac Surgery or burns were excluded. The method shows good results to treat ACS, complicated wounds and abdominal wall malformations in neonates, including prematures. Periwound skin protection, monitoring of fluid losses and fine tuning of negative pressure levels according to age are necessary. Less pain, quicker recovery, less frequent dressing changes, possible recovery of exposed surgical hardware, granulation and shrinkage of the wound are advantages of the method over other kinds of dressing. NPWT is contraindicated over blood vessels and exposed nerves. Debridement is needed before usage over necrotic areas. Enteric fistulae are not contraindications. Complications are rare, mainly foam retention and dermatitis/skin maceration. The possibility of fistulae being caused by NPWT remains debatable. NPWT is widely used in Pediatrics, including neonates and premature, but the evidence available about the method is scarce and low quality. Complications are uncommon and mostly manageable. A possible causal relationship between NPWY and enteric fistula remains unclear. Adult devices and parameters have been adapted to children's use. Extra care is needed to protect the delicate tissues of Pediatric patients. Comparative research to define differential costs, indications and advantages of the method, specific indications and limits of NWTP in Pediatrics is needed. Review. IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intrarectal negative pressure system in the management of open abdomen with colorectal fistula: A case report☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetişir, Fahri; Salman, A. Ebru; Mamedov, Ruslan; Aksoy, Mustafa; Yalcin, Abdussamet; Kayaalp, Cüneyt

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION To present the management of open abdomen with colorectal fistula by application of intrarectal negative pressure system (NPS) in addition to abdominal NPS. PRESENTATION OF CASE Twenty-year old man had a history of injuries by a close-range gunshot to the abdomen eight days ago and he had been treated by bowel repairs, resections, jejunal anastomosis and Hartman's procedure. He was referred to our center after deterioration, evisceration with open abdomen and enteric fistula in septic shock. There were edematous, fibrinous bowels and large multiple fistulas from the edematous rectal stump. APACHE II, Mannheim Peritoneal Index and Björck scores were 18, 33 and 3, respectively (expected mortality 100%). After intensive care for 5 days, he was treated by abdominal and intrarectal NPS. NPS repeated for 5 times and the fistula was recovered on day 18 completely. Fascial closure was facilitated with a dynamic abdominal closure system (ABRA) and he was discharged on day 33 uneventfully. There was no herniation and any other problem after 12 months follow-up. DISCUSSION Management of fistula in OA can be extremely challenging. Floating stoma, fistula VAC, nipple VAC, ring and silo VAC, fistula intubation systems are used for isolation of the enteric effluent from OA. Several biologic dressings such as acellular dermal matrix, pedicled flaps have been used to seal the fistula opening with various success. Resection of the involved enteric loop and a new anastomosis of the intestine is very hard and rarely possible. In all of these reports, usually patients are left to heal with a giant hernia. In contrast to this, there is no hernia in our case during one year follow up period. CONCLUSION Combination of intra and extra luminal negative pressure systems and ABRA is a safe and successful method to manage open abdomen with colorectal fistula. PMID:24584042

  13. Intrarectal negative pressure system in the management of open abdomen with colorectal fistula: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetişir, Fahri; Salman, A Ebru; Mamedov, Ruslan; Aksoy, Mustafa; Yalcin, Abdussamet; Kayaalp, Cüneyt

    2014-01-01

    To present the management of open abdomen with colorectal fistula by application of intrarectal negative pressure system (NPS) in addition to abdominal NPS. Twenty-year old man had a history of injuries by a close-range gunshot to the abdomen eight days ago and he had been treated by bowel repairs, resections, jejunal anastomosis and Hartman's procedure. He was referred to our center after deterioration, evisceration with open abdomen and enteric fistula in septic shock. There were edematous, fibrinous bowels and large multiple fistulas from the edematous rectal stump. APACHE II, Mannheim Peritoneal Index and Björck scores were 18, 33 and 3, respectively (expected mortality 100%). After intensive care for 5 days, he was treated by abdominal and intrarectal NPS. NPS repeated for 5 times and the fistula was recovered on day 18 completely. Fascial closure was facilitated with a dynamic abdominal closure system (ABRA) and he was discharged on day 33 uneventfully. There was no herniation and any other problem after 12 months follow-up. Management of fistula in OA can be extremely challenging. Floating stoma, fistula VAC, nipple VAC, ring and silo VAC, fistula intubation systems are used for isolation of the enteric effluent from OA. Several biologic dressings such as acellular dermal matrix, pedicled flaps have been used to seal the fistula opening with various success. Resection of the involved enteric loop and a new anastomosis of the intestine is very hard and rarely possible. In all of these reports, usually patients are left to heal with a giant hernia. In contrast to this, there is no hernia in our case during one year follow up period. Combination of intra and extra luminal negative pressure systems and ABRA is a safe and successful method to manage open abdomen with colorectal fistula. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of Effective Interconnectivity of DegraPol-foams Designed for Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Hall

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Many wounds heal slowly and are difficult to manage. Therefore Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT was developed where polymer foams are applied and a defined negative pressure removes wound fluid, reduces bacterial burden and increases the formation of granulation tissue. Although NPWT is used successfully, its mechanisms are not well understood. In particular, different NPWT dressings were never compared. Here a poly-ester urethane Degrapol® (DP-foam was produced and compared with commercially available dressings (polyurethane-based and polyvinyl-alcohol-based in terms of apparent pore sizes, swelling and effective interconnectivity of foam pores. DP-foams contain relatively small interconnected pores; PU-foams showed large pore size and interconnectivity; whereas PVA-foams displayed heterogeneous and poorly interconnected pores. PVA-foams swelled by 40 %, whereas DP- and PU-foams remained almost without swelling. Effective interconnectivity was investigated by submitting fluorescent beads of 3, 20 and 45 mm diameter through the foams. DP- and PU-foams removed 70-90 % of all beads within 4 h, independent of the bead diameter or bead pre-adsorption with serum albumin. For PVA-foams albumin pre-adsorbed beads circulated longer, where 20 % of 3 mm and 10 % of 20 mm diameter beads circulated after 96 h. The studies indicate that efficient bead perfusion does not only depend on pore size and swelling capacity, but effective interconnectivity might also depend on chemical composition of the foam itself. In addition due to the efficient sieve-effect of the foams uptake of wound components in vivo might occur only for short time suggesting other mechanisms being decisive for success of NPWT.

  15. Associations between body mass index, ambulatory blood pressure findings, and changes in cardiac structure: relevance of pulse and nighttime pressures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedecostante, M.; Spannella, F.; Giulietti, F.; Espinosa, E.; Dessi-Fulgheri, P.; Sarzani, R.

    2015-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is central in the management of hypertension. Factors related to BP, such as body mass index (BMI), may differently affect particular aspects of 24-hour ABPM profiles. However, the relevance of BMI, the most used index of adiposity, has been

  16. Development of micropump-actuated negative pressure pinched injection for parallel electrophoresis on array microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bowei; Jiang, Lei; Xie, Hua; Gao, Yan; Qin, Jianhua; Lin, Bingcheng

    2009-09-01

    A micropump-actuated negative pressure pinched injection method is developed for parallel electrophoresis on a multi-channel LIF detection system. The system has a home-made device that could individually control 16-port solenoid valves and a high-voltage power supply. The laser beam is excitated and distributes to the array separation channels for detection. The hybrid Glass-PDMS microfluidic chip comprises two common reservoirs, four separation channels coupled to their respective pneumatic micropumps and two reference channels. Due to use of pressure as a driving force, the proposed method has no sample bias effect for separation. There is only one high-voltage supply needed for separation without relying on the number of channels, which is significant for high-throughput analysis, and the time for sample loading is shortened to 1 s. In addition, the integrated micropumps can provide the versatile interface for coupling with other function units to satisfy the complicated demands. The performance is verified by separation of DNA marker and Hepatitis B virus DNA samples. And this method is also expected to show the potential throughput for the DNA analysis in the field of disease diagnosis.

  17. Gastroesophageal pressure gradients in gastroesophageal reflux disease: relations with hiatal hernia, body mass index, and esophageal acid exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Durk R.; van Herwaarden, Margot A.; Smout, André J. P. M.; Samsom, Melvin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The roles of intragastric pressure (IGP), intraesophageal pressure (IEP), gastroesophageal pressure gradient (GEPG), and body mass index (BMI) in the pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and hiatal hernia (HH) are only partly understood. METHODS: In total, 149 GERD

  18. Exploiting potency of negative pressure in wound dressing using limited access dressing and suction-assisted dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Role of negative pressure dressing and moist wound healing are well established in the treatment of both acute and chronic wounds with certain advantages and disadvantages in both the techniques. Both these techniques prevents wound colonization, but the negative pressure dressing method has proved to have a greater potency to remove secretions, prevent wound invasion and eradication established infection. In both these techniques there is no accessibility to wound environment. Limited access dressing (LAD is a moist wound dressing with negative pressure. It provides limited access to the wound through two small ports for both dressers and pathogens. The LAD design has notable advantages like wound isolation that reduces chance of wound colonization and safe disposal of infected materials (important factor to reduce hospital-acquired infections, while avoiding some major disadvantages such as opacity of dressing materials, inaccessible offensive smelling wound environment, and relatively high treatment costs. In LAD a definite intermittent negative pressure regimen is followed. The intermittent negative pressure (cycle of 30 minutes suction and 3 1 / 2 hours rest is effective. Overall, the LAD is a safe and effective alternative to conventional dressing methods. LAD is an excellent research tool for wound healing as frequent/continuous record of wound healing is possible without disturbing the wound healing process. LAD is an effective dressing for limb salvage in cases of acute and chronic complex wounds. Leech effect prevents wound related systematic response syndrome and sepsis. Suction-assisted dressing (SAD is a combination of semiocclusive dressing with negative pressure. It works by removal of fluids by intermittent (like LAD negative pressure and preventing bacterial invasion. SAD is especially advantageous where soakage is less, there is no dead tissue covering the wound (e.g., following skin grafting, superficial skin wounds (e

  19. Passive control of base pressure on an axisymmetric blunt body using a perimetric slit

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de la Cruz, Juan Marcos; Oxlade, Anthony R.; Morrison, Jonathan F.

    2017-04-01

    The effect on the base pressure of a thin slit located at the base edge of a blunt axisymmetric body, communicating an internal cavity with the external flow, is investigated. A parametric study is performed of the effect on base pressure of changes in slit size and cavity depth. The base pressure increases initially with increasing cavity depth, but saturates at a depth which depends on the slit size. The base pressure increases monotonically up to 5 % with increasing slit size for the geometries tested. An upper limit of base pressure recovery of 20 % is extrapolated from the data. It is observed that the main effect of the slit is to reduce the instantaneous pressure asymmetry, which is linked to the total base pressure in a similar fashion for all the slit sizes. As a second-order effect, for highly asymmetric pressure distributions, the slit produces a base pressure increase not associated with the base pressure asymmetry. The results suggest a global effect of the slit on the wake due to a diametrical flow within the cavity driven by the pressure differences across the slit and regulated by the largest of the pressure drops between the slit and cavity. The slit also reduces the periodic base pressure fluctuations, corresponding mainly to the vortex shedding, and increases the rotational speed of the wake.

  20. Heterosocial involvement, peer pressure for thinness, and body dissatisfaction among young adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondoli, Dawn M; Corning, Alexandra F; Salafia, Elizabeth H Blodgett; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Fitzsimmons, Ellen E

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal connections among young adolescent heterosocial involvement (i.e., mixed-sex interactions), peer pressure for thinness, and body dissatisfaction. Three years of self-report questionnaire data were collected from 88 adolescent girls as they completed 6th through 8th grades. Results indicated that the relation between heterosocial involvement and body dissatisfaction was mediated by perceived peer pressure for thinness. Within this model, heterosocial involvement was associated with greater peer pressure for thinness. In turn, peer pressure for thinness was associated with greater body dissatisfaction. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for prevention and intervention efforts aimed at girls during their middle-school years. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. EFFECT OF 8 WEEKS OF AEROBIC ON BODY COMPOSITION AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

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    Gholamrezai Shahram

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Nowadays increasing blood pressure is the most important risk factor of coronary, cerebral and renal vessel diseases. Epidemiological studies indicate that Physical inactivity adversely affects the blood pressure in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of aerobic on body composition and blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Methods: 20 healthy postmenopausal women with similar age and weight were randomly devided in intervention and control groups. Subjects completed an informed consent form and health history questionnaire. The intervention group was trained in an aerobic exercise program for 8 weeks (3 sessions weekly. Weight, body fat percentage (BF%, body mass index (BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR, Lean body mass and blood pressure (BP were measured in the beginning and the end of the study for all of the subjects. Data were analyzed by the Paired t-test and independent t- test. Results: The results showed that BF% , WHR, BMI decreased and Lean body mass increased significantly in training group after 8 weeks training (P0.05. Conclusions: It seems that a period of aerobic training for 8 weeks can be effective as a non-pharmacological treatment strategy for improvement some physical fitness and body composition indexes, blood pressure in postmenopausal women.

  2. Cues of High and Low Body Weight Negatively Influence Adults' Perceptions and Ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm

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    Anthony A. Volk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant and child facial cues influence perceptions and ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm as well as actual parental care. A previous study demonstrated that infant and child facial cues of low body weight negatively influenced adults' ratings. The current study sought to replicate and expand on those results by presenting adults with normal faces as well as faces that were digitally altered to display high or low body weight. Cues of abnormal body weight significantly, and negatively, influenced adults’ ratings of adoption preference, health, and cuteness. Effect sizes were larger for cues of high body weight. Thus, infant and child facial cues of abnormal body weight may represent a relative risk factor to the quality of adult care obtained by children with abnormal body weight.

  3. Therapy of acute and delayed spinal infections after spinal surgery treated with negative pressure wound therapy in adult patients

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    Pawel Zwolak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the treatment of infected primary or delayed spine wounds after spinal surgery using negative pressure wound therapy. In our institution (University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland nine patients (three women and six men; mean age 68.6, range 43- 87 years were treated in the period between January to December 2011 for non-healing spinal wounds. The treatment consisted of repeated debridements, irrigation and temporary closure with negative pressure wound therapy system. Three patients were admitted with a spinal epidural abscess; two with osteoporotic lumbar fracture; two with pathologic vertebra fracture and spinal cord compression, and two with vertebra fracture after trauma. All nine patients have been treated with antibiotic therapy. In one case the hardware has been removed, in three patients laminectomy was performed without instrumentation, in five patients there was no need to remove the hardware. The average hospital stay was 16.6 days (range 11-30. The average follow-up was 3.8, range 0.5-14 months. The average number of negative pressure wound therapy procedures was three, with the range 1-11. Our retrospective study focuses on the clinical problems faced by the spinal surgeon, clinical outcomes after spinal surgery followed by wound infection, and negative pressure wound therapy. Moreover, we would like to emphasize the importance for the patients and their relatives to be fully informed about the increased complications of surgery and about the limitations of treatment of these wounds with negative pressure wound therapy.

  4. Does negative-pressure wound therapy influence subjacent bacterial growth? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Graeme E; Murphy, George R F; Nanchahal, Jagdeep

    2017-08-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy is a ubiquitous wound management resource. The influence of NPWT on the bacterial bioburden of the subjacent wound remains unclear. We sought to examine the evidence. MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched for articles quantitatively evaluating bacterial load under NPWT. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria including 4 randomised controlled trials, 8 clinical series and 12 experimental studies. Twenty studies evaluated conventional NPWT, while 4 evaluated infiltration-based NPWT. While 8 studies using conventional NPWT failed to demonstrate an observable effect on bacterial load, 7 studies reported that NPWT was inherently bacteriostatic and 5 others reported species selectivity with suppression of non-fermentative gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB), including Pseudomonas spp. Simultaneously, there was some evidence of enhanced proliferation of gram-positive cocci where the niche was cleared of NFGNB. Two of the 4 studies using infiltration-based NPWT also reported selectively impaired proliferation of Pseudomonas spp. The assumption that NPWT suppresses bacterial proliferation is oversimplified. There is evidence that NPWT exhibits species selectivity, suppressing the proliferation of NFGNB. However, this may depopulate the niche for exploitation by gram-positive cocci. This, in turn, has implications for the use of NPWT where highly virulent strains of gram-positive cocci have been isolated and the duration of NPWT therapy and frequency of dressing changes. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. No body is perfect: the significance of habitual negative thinking about appearance for body dissatisfaction, eating disorder propensity, self-esteem and snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanken, Bas; Tangelder, Yonne

    2011-06-01

    Thinking negatively about one's appearance may be a major source of unhappiness. It was investigated whether the habitual quality of negative body image thinking constitutes an additional vulnerability factor, i.e. when such thinking is repetitive and automatic. The cognitive content of negative body image thinking ('what') was distinguished from the habitual occurrence of such thinking ('how'). The mental habit component uniquely predicted explicit as well as implicit body dissatisfaction (the latter measured by an implicit association test) over and above cognitive content. Mental habit also accounted for eating disturbance propensity, low self-esteem and restrained snacking behaviour over and above cognitive content, even when controlled for body dissatisfaction. The habitual component of negative thinking about appearance thus seems a significant body image construct, has discriminant validity against body dissatisfaction, and constitutes a vulnerability factor for feelings of low self-worth and eating disturbance propensity. Implications for intervention strategies, such as mindfulness-based approaches, are discussed. © 2011 Taylor & Francis

  6. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy precipitated by negative pressure pulmonary oedema following total thyroidectomy

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    K S Bharathi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 'Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM' or 'stress cardiomyopathy' is a reversible cardiomyopathy that is precipitated by intense emotional or physical stress. This syndrome is characterised by symptoms mimicking acute coronary syndrome with transient systolic dysfunction associated with regional wall motion abnormalities, which extend beyond a single coronary vascular bed in the absence of obstructive coronary vascular disease. The presentation of TCM and myocardial infarction is similar with sudden onset of chest pain, breathlessness as well as abnormalities in both the electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes. It is difficult to differentiate between the two until cardiac catheterisation establishes the diagnosis. We report a case of TCM in a post-menopausal female, precipitated by negative pressure pulmonary oedema following total thyroidectomy in whom timely cardiac catheterisation established the diagnosis and influenced the management. Heightened awareness of this unique cardiomyopathy is essential to have a high index of suspicion in at-risk population for the prompt diagnosis of stress-related cardiomyopathy syndromes occurring in the perioperative period.

  7. Use of a risk assessment method to improve the safety of negative pressure wound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelong, Anne-Sophie; Martelli, Nicolas; Bonan, Brigitte; Prognon, Patrice; Pineau, Judith

    2014-06-01

    To conduct a risk analysis of the negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) care process and to improve the safety of NPWT, a working group of nurses, hospital pharmacists, physicians and hospital managers performed a risk analysis for the process of NPWT care. The failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) method was used for this analysis. Failure modes and their consequences were defined and classified as a function of their criticality to identify priority actions for improvement. By contrast to classical FMECA, the criticality index (CI) of each consequence was calculated by multiplying occurrence, severity and detection scores. We identified 13 failure modes, leading to 20 different consequences. The CI of consequences was initially 712, falling to 357 after corrective measures were implemented. The major improvements proposed included the establishment of 6-monthly training cycles for nurses, physicians and surgeons and the introduction of computerised prescription for NPWT. The FMECA method also made it possible to prioritise actions as a function of the criticality ranking of consequences and was easily understood and used by the working group. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to use the FMECA method to improve the safety of NPWT. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Impact of negative affectivity and trait forgiveness on aortic blood pressure and coronary circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; May, Ross W; Koutnik, Andrew P; Fincham, Frank D

    2015-02-01

    Prior research suggests that negative affectivity (NA) may have a direct adverse effect on coronary circulation, whereas forgiveness may provide cardioprotection. This study examined whether NA and forgiveness were independently related to aortic hemodynamics and the subendocardial viability index (SVI), a marker of coronary perfusion. A sample of 131 adults (M = 21.11 years, SD = 2.52) were evaluated for NA (depression, anxiety, and anger symptoms) and forgiveness (Tendency to Forgive Scale; TTF). Aortic hemodynamic parameters via applanation tonometry were assessed at rest and during sympathostimulation (cold pressor test; CPT). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses of resting values showed that NA was related to higher aortic blood pressure (ABP) and lower SVI. After controlling for demographics and for NA, TTF scores were significantly associated with decreased ABP, but increased SVI. CPT changes from baseline indicated that, after controlling for demographics and NA, TTF scores were significantly associated with SVI. Results indicate that NA significantly predicts ABP and decreased SVI. Conversely, forgiveness seems to provide cardioprotection by evoking decreased ABP while improving SVI. © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Bronchial fistula closure with negative pressure wound therapy: a feasible and cost-effective treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Rodrigo Barboza; Müller, Bruno Francisco; Cipriano, Federico Enrique Garcia; Coltro, Pedro Soler; Farina, Jayme Adriano

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of bronchial fistula (BF) after pulmonary lobectomy is a challenge. Often, patients require long hospital stay, have recurrent empyema and pneumonia, are susceptible to sepsis, often need broad-spectrum antibiotics, as well as various surgical approaches. With the advent and growing evidence of the benefits of negative pressure therapy (NPT), its use in some patients with BF has been reported with encouraging results concerning its feasibility and cost-effectiveness. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the application of NPT as a resource for BF treatment and comparatively analyze the overall cost of treatment. RESUMO O tratamento de fístula brônquica (FB) após lobectomia pulmonar é um desafio. Muitas vezes, o paciente demanda longo tempo de internação, apresenta recidivas de empiema e pneumonia, pode evoluir para sepse, frequentemente necessita de antibioticoterapia de amplo espectro, bem como de várias abordagens cirúrgicas. Com o advento e acúmulo de evidências dos benefícios da terapia por pressão negativa (TPN), seu uso em alguns pacientes com FB tem sido relatado com resultados animadores relativos à sua viabilidade e ao seu custo-efetividade. O objetivo deste estudo foi demonstrar a aplicação de TPN como recurso para tratamento da FB e analisar comparativamente o custo global do seu tratamento.

  10. The use of negative pressure wound therapy in the treatment of infected wounds. Case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel de Alcântara; Neves Filho, Wilson Vasconcelos; Guimarães, Janice de Souza; Castro, Daniel de Araújo; Ferracini, Antonio Marcos

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the results and benefits obtained from the topical use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in patients with infected wounds. This was a retrospective study of 20 patients (17 males and three females, mean age 42 years) with infected wounds treated using NPWT. The infected wounds were caused by trauma. The treatment system used was VAC. ® (Vacuum Assisted Closure, KCI, San Antonio, United States) applied to the wound in continuous mode from 100 to 125 mmHg. The parameters related to the wounds (location, number of VAC changes, the size of the defects in the soft parts, and the evolution of the state of the wound), length of hospital stay, length of intravenous antibiotic therapy, and complications related to the use of this therapy were evaluated. The mean length of the hospital stay, use of NPWT, and antibacterial therapy were 41 days, 22.5 days, and 20 days respectively. The use of the VAC led to a mean reduction of 29% in the wound area (95.65-68.1 cm 2 ; p  wound with complete eradication of the infection. No complication directly caused by NPWT was observed. NPWT stimulates infection-free scar tissue formation in a short time, and is a quick and comfortable alternative to conventional infected wounds treatment methods.

  11. Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy for Ludwig’s Angina: A Case Series

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    Nainika Nanda, BA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT is a well-established therapeutic approach for various complex wound classes. There is currently limited information on the use of NPWT for the scope of head and neck wounds. However, NPWT has been used successfully in some cases, including malignancy, infection, and trauma. In West Virginia, the incidence of dental-related infections leading to Ludwig’s Angina is high due to lack of access to dental care. Our case series describes the application of vacuum-based therapy in conjunction with antibiotic therapy for quick, effective closure of deep tissue infections before definitive complex wound repair via graft and flap reconstructions. Over a period of 3 months, 2 patients with submental infections extending to the lateral neck demonstrated clean, efficient wound closure with NPWT for less than 14 days while hospitalized at West Virginia University Medicine. Outpatient follow-up with these patients demonstrated excellent cosmetic outcomes with minimal contracture or hypertrophy of healing tissue. NPWT promotes wound healing through decreased edema, improved perfusion, and increased granulation of tissue based on our findings. Our series encourages the use of NPWT for initial closure of complex wounds secondary to deep neck infections.

  12. Negative expiratory pressure (NEP) parameters can predict obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in snoring patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouatbi, Sonia; Tabka, Zouhair; Dogui, Mohamed; Abdelghani, Ahmed; Guénard, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether parameters of the negative expiratory pressure (NEP) technique are able to detect obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in snoring patients. A cross-sectional study included 42 OSAS patients diagnosed by polysomnography (PSG), 34 simple snorers, and 32 healthy subjects. Lung function was measured by using a plethysmograph and the NEP technique was performed with the patient in the seated and supine positions in a random order. The depression was fixed to 5 cmH(2)O. All patients had normal forced expiratory flow/volume loops. Apneic patients had lower Dflow in both positions with a number of oscillations on the expiratory curve obtained with NEP and an expiratory flow limitation (EFL) in the supine position higher than that of other groups (p < 0.05). Changing from the sitting to the supine position raised the EFL of the three groups, with a significant decrease in Dflow and an increase in the number of oscillations in snoring and OSAS patients (p < 0.05). The analysis of variance showed that only the number of oscillations was significantly different between apneic and snoring patients. NEP constitutes a simple and useful tool for the screening OSAS by EFL, especially the number of oscillations obtained with NEP.

  13. The use of negative pressure wound therapy in the treatment of infected wounds. Case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Alcântara Jones

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results and benefits obtained from the topical use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT in patients with infected wounds. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 20 patients (17 males and three females, mean age 42 years with infected wounds treated using NPWT. The infected wounds were caused by trauma. The treatment system used was VAC.(r (Vacuum Assisted Closure, KCI, San Antonio, United States applied to the wound in continuous mode from 100 to 125 mmHg. The parameters related to the wounds (location, number of VAC changes, the size of the defects in the soft parts, and the evolution of the state of the wound, length of hospital stay, length of intravenous antibiotic therapy, and complications related to the use of this therapy were evaluated. RESULTS: The mean length of the hospital stay, use of NPWT, and antibacterial therapy were 41 days, 22.5 days, and 20 days respectively. The use of the VAC led to a mean reduction of 29% in the wound area (95.65-68.1 cm2; p < 0.05. Only one patient did not show any improvement in the final appearance of the wound with complete eradication of the infection. No complication directly caused by NPWT was observed. CONCLUSION: NPWT stimulates infection-free scar tissue formation in a short time, and is a quick and comfortable alternative to conventional infected wounds treatment methods.

  14. Blood pressure during pregnancy, neonatal size and altered body composition: the Healthy Start study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, A P; Shapiro, A L B; Sauder, K A; Kaar, J L; Ringham, B M; Glueck, D H; Galan, H L; Dabelea, D

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate associations between changes in maternal arterial pressure during normotensive pregnancies and offspring birth weight and body composition at birth. Prospective study of 762 pregnant normotensive Colorado women, recruited from outpatient obstetrics clinics. Repeated arterial pressure measurements during pregnancy were averaged within the second and third trimesters, respectively. Multivariable regression models estimated associations between second to third trimester changes in arterial pressure and small-for-gestational-age birth weight, fat mass, fat-free mass and percent body fat. A greater second to third trimester increase in maternal arterial pressure was associated with greater odds of small-for-gestational-age birth weight. Greater increases in maternal diastolic blood pressure were associated with reductions in offspring percent body fat (-1.1% in highest vs lowest quartile of increase, 95% confidence interval: -1.9%, -0.3%). Mid-to-late pregnancy increases in maternal arterial pressure, which do not meet clinical thresholds for hypertension are associated with neonatal body size and composition.

  15. Effects of solutes on solubilization and refolding of proteins from inclusion bodies with high hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hyun; Carpenter, John F.; Chang, Byeong S.; Randolph, Theodore W.; Kim, Yong-Sung

    2006-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP)-mediated solubilization and refolding of five inclusion bodies (IBs) produced from bacteria, three Gram-negative binding proteins (GNBP1, GNBP2, and GNBP3) from Drosophila, and two phosphatases from human were investigated in combination of a redox-shuffling agent (2 mM DTT and 6 mM GSSG) and various additives. HHP (200 MPa) combined with the redox-shuffling agent resulted in solubilization yields of ~42%–58% from 1 mg/mL of IBs. Addition of urea (1 and 2 M), 2.5 M glycerol, L-arginine (0.5 M), Tween 20 (0.1 mM), or Triton X-100 (0.5 mM) significantly enhanced the solubilization yield for all proteins. However, urea, glycerol, and nonionic surfactants populated more soluble oligomeric species than monomeric species, whereas arginine dominantly induced functional monomeric species (~70%–100%) to achieve refolding yields of ~55%–78% from IBs (1 mg/mL). Our results suggest that the combination of HHP with arginine is most effective in enhancing the refolding yield by preventing aggregation of partially folded intermediates populated during the refolding. Using the refolded proteins, the binding specificity of GNBP2 and GNBP3 was newly identified the same as with that of GNBP1, and the enzymatic activities of the two phosphatases facilitates their further characterization. PMID:16385003

  16. The volume of the carotid bodies and blood pressure variability and pulse pressure in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaźwiec, P.; Gać, P.; Poręba, M.; Sobieszczańska, M.; Mazur, G.; Poręba, R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the relationship between the volume of the carotid bodies (V rCB+lCB ) examined by means of computed tomography angiography (CTA) and blood pressure variability and pulse pressure (PP) in 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in patients with essential hypertension. Materials and methods: A group of 52 patients with essential hypertension was examined (mean age: 68.32±12.31 years), the sizes of carotid bodies were measured by means of carotid artery CTA, and 24-hour ABPM was carried out. The 24-hour ABPM established systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), PP, SBP variability (SBPV), and DBP variability (DBPV). Results: SBP, MAP, and SBPV were significantly higher in the group of hypertension patients with V rCB+lCB equal to or above the median than in the group of hypertension patients with V rCB+lCB less than the median, as well as in the group of hypertension patients with oversized carotid bodies, than in the group of hypertension patients with normal V rCB+lCB . Moreover, the PP was statistically significantly higher in the group of hypertension patients with V rCB+lCB equal to or above the median than in the group of hypertension patients with V rCB+lCB less than the median. The existence of statistically significant positive linear relationships was revealed between V rCB+lCB and SBP, PP, and SBPV. A higher body mass index, older age, smoking, and higher V rCB+lCB are independent risk factors increasing SBPV in the research group. Conclusion: A positive relationship between the size of the carotid bodies and variability of the SBP and PP is observed in patients with essential hypertension. - Highlights: • Purpose. Determination of the relationships: V rCB+lCB vs. BPV and V rCB+lCB vs. PP. • Positive linear correlations were documented between V rCB+lCB and SBP, PP and SBPV. • Higher BMI, age, V rCB+lCB and smoking are independent risk factor of increased SBPV.

  17. Randomized clinical trial to compare negative-pressure wound therapy approaches with low and high pressure, silicone-coated dressing, and polyurethane foam dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, Lawrence A; La Fontaine, Javier; Thakral, Gaurav; Kim, Paul J; Bhavan, Kavita; Davis, Kathryn E

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to compare two approaches to negative-pressure wound therapy: 125-mmHg pressure with a polyurethane foam dressing and 75-mmHg pressure with a silicone-coated dressing. Forty patients with diabetic foot wounds, after incision and drainage or amputation for infection, were assigned randomly to negative-pressure wound therapy with 75-mmHg continuous pressure with a silicone-covered dressing (75-mmHg group) or 125-mmHg with a polyurethane foam dressing (125-mmHg group) for up to 4 weeks or until surgical closure. There was no difference in the proportion of wounds that were closed surgically (75-mmHg group, 50 percent; 125-mmHg group, 60 percent), wounds that demonstrated 50 percent wound area reduction (75-mmHg group, 65 percent; 125-mmHg group, 80 percent), or wounds that demonstrated 50 percent wound volume reduction after 4 weeks of therapy (75-mmHg group, 95 percent; 125-mmHg group, 90 percent). The authors' results suggest that there was no difference in outcomes in wounds treated with low pressure (75 mmHg) with a silicone-coated interface and high pressure (125 mmHg) with a polyurethane foam interface. Therapeutic, II.

  18. Patients experiences of negative pressure wound therapy at home for the treatment of deep perivascular groin infection after vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsen, Christina; Acosta, Stefan; Kumlien, Christine

    2017-05-01

    To explore experiences of negative pressure wound therapy at home, in patients with deep perivascular groin infection after vascular surgery and management in daily life. Deep surgical site infection after vascular surgery with exposed vessels often requires long-term treatment with negative pressure wound therapy, and continued therapy at home has become routine. An explorative qualitative study. Nine men and six women with a deep surgical site infection in the groin after vascular surgery, treated in their home with negative pressure wound therapy, were interviewed. The interviews were analysed using manifest and latent content analysis. Undergoing negative pressure wound therapy at home meant a transition from being a dependent patient to a person who must have self-care competence and be involved in their own care. A need to feel prepared for this before discharge from hospital was expressed. Lack of information and feelings of uncertainty prolonged the time before feeling confident in managing the treatment. The informants gradually accepted the need to be tied up to a machine, became competent in its management and found solutions to perform everyday tasks. Overall, it was a relief to be treated at home. Several benefits of negative pressure wound therapy at home were expressed. However, unnecessary stress and anxiety were experienced due to a lack of information on the treatment and instruction concerning the equipment. Adequate information and education must therefore be provided to facilitate the transition from a patient to a person with self-care competence and ability to manage this treatment at home. The findings revealed a need for more support and knowledge in their transition from hospital care to home care with negative pressure wound therapy. Routines must be established that ensure patient safety and security in treatment at home. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Autonomic control of body temperature and blood pressure: influences of female sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Hart, Emma C J; Barnes, Jill N; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    Female reproductive hormones exert important non-reproductive influences on autonomic regulation of body temperature and blood pressure. Estradiol and progesterone influence thermoregulation both centrally and peripherally, where estradiol tends to promote heat dissipation, and progesterone tends to promote heat conservation and higher body temperatures. Changes in thermoregulation over the course of the menstrual cycle and with hot flashes at menopause are mediated by hormonal influences on neural control of skin blood flow and sweating. The influence of estradiol is to promote vasodilation, which, in the skin, results in greater heat dissipation. In the context of blood pressure regulation, both central and peripheral hormonal influences are important as well. Peripherally, the vasodilator influence of estradiol contributes to the lower blood pressures and smaller risk of hypertension seen in young women compared to young men. This is in part due to a mechanism by which estradiol augments beta-adrenergic receptor mediated vasodilation, offsetting alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction, and resulting in a weak relationship between muscle sympathetic nerve activity and total peripheral resistance, and between muscle sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure. After menopause, with the loss of reproductive hormones, sympathetic nerve activity, peripheral resistance and blood pressure become more strongly related, and sympathetic nerve activity (which increases with age) becomes a more important contributor to the prevailing level of blood pressure. Continuing to increase our understanding of sex hormone influences on body temperature and blood pressure regulation will provide important insight for optimization of individualized health care for future generations of women.

  20. Relaxation effects in ionic mobility and cluster formation: negative ions in SF{sub 6} at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, A M; De Urquijo, J; Hinojosa, G [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, PO Box 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Hernandez-Avila, J L [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Av. San Pablo 180, 02200 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Basurto, E, E-mail: juarez@fis.unam.m [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Av. San Pablo 180, 02200 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-06-15

    The relaxation effects of the ionic mobility and the formation of negative-ion clusters in SF{sub 6} are studied in this work. For this purpose, we have measured the mobility of negative ions in SF{sub 6} over the pressure range 100-800 Torr at a fixed value of density-normalized electric field, E/N, of 20 Td (1 Townsend = 10{sup -17} V cm{sup 2}). The data obtained show a clear dependence of the negative-ion drift velocity on drift distance. It is observed that the drift velocity (mobility) reaches a steady-state value only for drift distances above 2 cm, over the studied pressure range. In addition to this, we have observed that the ionic mobility depends strongly on the gas pressure. An explanation of this dependence of the ionic mobility on gas pressure is given in terms of a negative-ion clustering formation process. It was found that the assumption of a linear dependence of the cluster ion mass on pressure provides a satisfactory explanation for the observed mobilities.

  1. Correlation of intraocular pressure with blood pressure and body mass index in offsprings of diabetic patients: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja Patil, Anita Herur, Shashikala GV, Surekharani Chinagudi, Manjula R, Roopa Ankad, Sukanya Badami, Brid SV

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Raised intraocular pressure (IOP has been associated with risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM, obesity, body mass index (BMI and sex, increasing the risk of glaucoma causing visual impairment and blindness. Since familial inheritance is known with glaucoma and DM, the aim was to study the IOP and its correlation with BMI and blood pressure (BP in offsprings of DM and also to predict the future/early onset of glaucoma in them. Methods: This was an observational study done in medical undergraduate students. 25 students were included in the study group (offsprings of diabetic parents-cases and 23 students in the control group (offsprings without diabetic history in parents. Height, weight, blood pressure and intraocular pressure were recorded in both the groups and these were compared. Statistical analysis was done by student’s t test and Pearson’s correlation. Results: Cases exhibited a lower IOP, BMI, mean arterial pressure (MAP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, but not SBP, as compared to controls. These differences, however, were not statistically significant except DBP. There was a negative correlation found between IOP and BMI and also between IOP and MAP in cases, whereas in controls, there was a positive correlation found between BMI and IOP and no correlation between IOP and MAP. Conclusion: Offsprings of diabetic patients may be less prone for primary open angle glaucoma. Limitations: The limitations of the present study include a smaller sample size, study of the results in relation to paternal or maternal diabetic status and also of grandparents, so that the inheritance of diabetes and also of IOP can be studied.

  2. Body-part compatibility effects are modulated by the tendency for women to experience negative social comparative emotions and the body-type of the model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Eva; Jovanov, Kimberely; Welsh, Timothy N; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2017-01-01

    Although exposure to physique-salient media images of women's bodies has been consistently linked with negative psychological consequences, little is known about the cognitive processes that lead to these negative effects. The present study employed a novel adaptation of a computerized response time (RT) task to (i) assess implicit cognitive processing when exposed to the body of another individual, and (ii) examine individual differences in social comparative emotions that may influence the cognitive processing of human bodies. Adult females with low (n = 44) or high (n = 23) tendencies for comparative emotions completed a task in which they executed responses to coloured targets presented on the hands or feet of images of ultra-thin, average-size, and above average-size female models. Although the colour of the target is the only relevant target feature, it is typically found that the to-be-ignored location of the target on the body of the model influences RTs such that RTs are shorter when the target is on a body-part that is compatible with the responding limb (e.g., hand response when target was on hand) than on a body-part that is incompatible with the responding limb (e.g., hand response when target was on foot). Findings from the present study revealed that the magnitude of the body-part compatibility effect (i.e., the index of the cognitive processing of the model) was modulated by tendencies for affective body-related comparisons. Specifically, women who were prone to experiencing social comparative emotions demonstrated stronger and more consistent body-part compatibility effects across models. Therefore, women with higher social comparison tendencies have heightened processing of bodies at a neurocognitive level and may be at higher risk of the negative outcomes linked with physique-salient media exposure.

  3. Body-part compatibility effects are modulated by the tendency for women to experience negative social comparative emotions and the body-type of the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, Kimberely; Welsh, Timothy N.; Sabiston, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Although exposure to physique-salient media images of women’s bodies has been consistently linked with negative psychological consequences, little is known about the cognitive processes that lead to these negative effects. The present study employed a novel adaptation of a computerized response time (RT) task to (i) assess implicit cognitive processing when exposed to the body of another individual, and (ii) examine individual differences in social comparative emotions that may influence the cognitive processing of human bodies. Adult females with low (n = 44) or high (n = 23) tendencies for comparative emotions completed a task in which they executed responses to coloured targets presented on the hands or feet of images of ultra-thin, average-size, and above average-size female models. Although the colour of the target is the only relevant target feature, it is typically found that the to-be-ignored location of the target on the body of the model influences RTs such that RTs are shorter when the target is on a body-part that is compatible with the responding limb (e.g., hand response when target was on hand) than on a body-part that is incompatible with the responding limb (e.g., hand response when target was on foot). Findings from the present study revealed that the magnitude of the body-part compatibility effect (i.e., the index of the cognitive processing of the model) was modulated by tendencies for affective body-related comparisons. Specifically, women who were prone to experiencing social comparative emotions demonstrated stronger and more consistent body-part compatibility effects across models. Therefore, women with higher social comparison tendencies have heightened processing of bodies at a neurocognitive level and may be at higher risk of the negative outcomes linked with physique-salient media exposure. PMID:28632746

  4. Analysis of body imbalance in various writing sitting postures using sitting pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Eun; Seo, Sang-Min; Woo, Hee-Soon; Won, Sung-Yun

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] This study set out to substantiate the importance of the right sitting posture by measuring the sitting pressure. It also described the influence of an imbalanced sitting posture on the body. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included 30 healthy adults. A pressure mapping system was used to measure the sitting pressure in the right, one side prone, chin propped, and slumped sitting positions. [Results] The WDI (X AP ) showed a statistically significant difference between the 3 incorrect postures (one side prone, chin propped, and slumped sitting) and the right sitting posture. With regard to the WDI (X LR ), there was a statistically significant difference between the right sitting posture and the one side prone sitting posture only. [Conclusion] One side prone sitting was found to affect the body balance most adversely. This imbalanced posture may have an indirect effect on chronic diseases. The results prove that it is important to assume a proper posture to maintain body balance.

  5. Analysis of switching characteristics for negative capacitance ultra-thin-body germanium-on-insulator MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi-Ho Hu, Vita; Chiu, Pin-Chieh

    2018-04-01

    The impact of device parameters on the switching characteristics of negative capacitance ultra-thin-body (UTB) germanium-on-insulator (NC-GeOI) MOSFETs is analyzed. NC-GeOI MOSFETs with smaller gate length (L g), EOT, and buried oxide thickness (T box) and thicker ferroelectric layer thickness (T FE) exhibit larger subthreshold swing improvements over GeOI MOSFETs due to better capacitance matching. Compared with GeOI MOSFETs, NC-GeOI MOSFETs exhibit better switching time due to improvements in effective drive current (I eff) and subthreshold swing. NC-GeOI MOSFET exhibits larger ST improvements at V dd = 0.3 V (‑82.9%) than at V dd = 0.86 V (‑9.7%), because NC-GeOI MOSFET shows 18.2 times higher I eff than the GeOI MOSFET at V dd = 0.3 V, while 2.5 times higher I eff at V dd = 0.86 V. This work provides the device design guideline of NC-GeOI MOSFETs for ultra-low power applications.

  6. Negative covariance between parasite load and body condition in a population of feral horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeffe, Lucie; McLoughlin, Philip D; Medill, Sarah A; Stewart, Kathrine; Andres, Daniel; Shury, Todd; Wagner, Brent; Jenkins, Emily; Gilleard, John S; Poissant, Jocelyn

    2016-07-01

    In wild and domestic animals, gastrointestinal parasites can have significant impacts on host development, condition, health, reproduction and longevity. Improving our understanding of the causes and consequences of individual-level variation in parasite load is therefore of prime interest. Here we investigated the relationship between strongyle fecal egg count (FEC) and body condition in a unique, naturalized population of horses that has never been exposed to anthelmintic drugs (Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada). We first quantified variation in FEC and condition for 447 individuals according to intrinsic (sex, age, reproductive status, social status) and extrinsic (group size, location, local density) variables. We then quantified the repeatability of measurements obtained over a field season and tested for covariance between FEC and condition. FECs were high relative to other horse populations (mean eggs per gram ± SD = 1543·28 ± 209·94). FECs generally decreased with age, were higher in lactating vs non-lactating females, and unexpectedly lower in males in some part of the island. FECs and condition were both spatially structured, with patterns depending on age, sex and reproductive status. FECs and condition were both repeatable. Most notably, FECs and condition were negatively correlated, especially in adult females.

  7. Frequency pressure transducer with a sensitivity of mem capacitor on the basis of transistor structure with negative resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchuk, Oleksandr V.; Osadchuk, Iaroslav O.; Suleimenov, Batyrbek; Zyska, Tomasz; Arman, Abenov; Tleshova, Akmaral; GrÄ dz, Å.»aklin

    2017-08-01

    In the article the pressure transducer with frequency output based on the structure of the bipolar-field transistors with negative resistance and tenso sensitive MEMS capacitor has been considered. A mathematical model of the frequency pressure transducer in dynamic regime has been developed that allowed to determine the voltage or current in the circuit at any given moment in time when acting this pressure. Analytical expressions of the conversion function and sensitivity equation has been received. The sensitivity of the developed device is between 0,95kHz/kPa to 1,65kHz/kPa.

  8. Heart Rate Variability in Shift Workers: Responses to Orthostatism and Relationships with Anthropometry, Body Composition, and Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteze, Nayara Mussi; Souza, Breno Bernardes; Alves, Henrique José de Paula; de Oliveira, Fernando Luiz Pereira; de Oliveira, José Magalhães; de Freitas, Silvia Nascimento; do Nascimento Neto, Raimundo Marques; Sales, Maria Lilian; Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the response of heart rate variability (HRV) components to postural change and their association with cardiovascular risk factors in shift workers, a cross-sectional study with 438 Brazilian males rotating shift workers was done. Anthropometric, body composition, and clinical measures were collected. Electrocardiogram was recorded for 3 minutes, in the supine and orthostatic position, and HRV components were extracted. Descriptive analyses showed that mean values of body mass index, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio, visceral fat area (VFA), and blood pressure (BP) were higher than the reference values. In the regression model, age, WC, VFA, and systolic BP showed negative association with HRV components. These findings suggest the need for determining effective strategies for the evaluation and promotion of health among shift workers focused on the altered variables. PMID:26495293

  9. Cost-utility analysis of negative pressure wound therapy in high-risk cesarean section wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffaha, Haitham W; Gillespie, Brigid M; Chaboyer, Wendy; Gordon, Louisa G; Scuffham, Paul A

    2015-05-15

    Obese women undergoing cesarean section are at increased risk of postoperative infection. There is growing interest in negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) to prevent closed surgical incision complications including surgical site infection; however, the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this technology is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of NPWT compared with that of standard dressing in preventing surgical site infection in obese women undergoing elective cesarean section based on current evidence and to estimate the value and optimal design of additional research to study this technology. The analysis was from the perspective of Queensland Health, Australia, using a decision model. Parameters were obtained from the published literature, a pilot clinical trial, and expert opinion. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to calculate the net monetary benefit, characterize decision uncertainty, and estimate the value of additional research. Comparing the expected monetary benefits and costs of alternative trial sample sizes informed the optimal future study design. The incremental net monetary benefit of NPWT was Australian dollars 70, indicating that NPWT is cost-effective compared with that of standard dressing. The probability of NPWT being cost-effective was 65%. The estimated value of additional research to resolve decision uncertainty would be Australian dollars 2.7 million. The optimal sample size of a future trial investigating the relative effectiveness of NPWT would be 200 patients per arm. Based on the current evidence, NPWT is cost-effective; however, there is high uncertainty surrounding the decision to adopt this technology. Additional research is worthwhile before implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical Features of Patients with Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage due to Negative-Pressure Pulmonary Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contou, Damien; Voiriot, Guillaume; Djibré, Michel; Labbé, Vincent; Fartoukh, Muriel; Parrot, Antoine

    2017-08-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) with negative-pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) is an uncommon yet life-threatening condition. We aimed at describing the circumstances, clinical, radiological, and bronchoscopic features, as well as the outcome of patients with NPPE-related DAH. We performed a retrospective, observational cohort study, using data prospectively collected over 35 years in an intensive care unit (ICU). Of the 149 patients admitted for DAH, we identified 18 NPPE episodes in 15 patients, one admitted four times for recurrent NPPE-related DAH. The patients were primarily young, male, and athletic. The NPPE setting was postoperative (n = 12/18, 67%) or following generalized tonic-clonic seizures (n = 6/18, 33%). Hemoptysis was almost constant (n = 17/18, 94%), yet rarely massive (>200 cc, n = 1/18, 6%), with anemia observed in 10 (56%) episodes. The DAH triad (hemoptysis, anemia, and pulmonary infiltrates) was observed in 50% of episodes (n = 9/18), and acute respiratory failure in 94% (n = 17/18). Chest computed tomography revealed diffuse bilateral ground glass opacities (n = 10/10, 100%), while bronchoscopy detected bilateral hemorrhage (n = 12/12, 100%) and macroscopically bloody bronchoalveolar lavage, with siderophage absence in most (n = 7/8, 88%), indicating acute DAH. While one episode proved fatal, the other 17 recovered rapidly, with a mean ICU stay lasting 4.6 (2-15) days. Typically, the evolution was rapidly favorable under supportive care. NPPE-related DAH is a rare life-threatening condition occurring primarily after tonic-clonic generalized seizure or generalized anesthesia. Clinical circumstances are a key to its diagnosis. Early diagnosis and recognition likely allow for successful management of this potentially serious complication, whereas ictal-DAH appears ominous in epileptic patients.

  11. Negative pressure wound therapy after partial diabetic foot amputation: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David G; Lavery, Lawrence A

    2005-11-12

    Diabetic foot wounds, particularly those secondary to amputation, are very complex and difficult to treat. We investigated whether negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) improves the proportion and rate of wound healing after partial foot amputation in patients with diabetes. We enrolled 162 patients into a 16-week, 18-centre, randomised clinical trial in the USA. Inclusion criteria consisted of partial foot amputation wounds up to the transmetatarsal level and evidence of adequate perfusion. Patients who were randomly assigned to NPWT (n=77) received treatment with dressing changes every 48 h. Control patients (n=85) received standard moist wound care according to consensus guidelines. NPWT was delivered through the Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC) Therapy System. Wounds were treated until healing or completion of the 112-day period of active treatment. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study has been registered with , number NCT00224796. More patients healed in the NPWT group than in the control group (43 [56%] vs 33 [39%], p=0.040). The rate of wound healing, based on the time to complete closure, was faster in the NPWT group than in controls (p=0.005). The rate of granulation tissue formation, based on the time to 76-100% formation in the wound bed, was faster in the NPWT group than in controls (p=0.002). The frequency and severity of adverse events (of which the most common was wound infection) were similar in both treatment groups. NPWT delivered by the VAC Therapy System seems to be a safe and effective treatment for complex diabetic foot wounds, and could lead to a higher proportion of healed wounds, faster healing rates, and potentially fewer re-amputations than standard care.

  12. A prospective randomized evaluation of negative-pressure wound dressings for diabetic foot wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eginton, Mark T; Brown, Kellie R; Seabrook, Gary R; Towne, Jonathan B; Cambria, Robert A

    2003-11-01

    Optimal treatment for large diabetic foot wounds is ill defined. The purpose of this study was to compare the rate of wound healing with the Vacuum Assisted Closure device trade mark (VAC) to conventional moist dressings in the treatment of large diabetic foot wounds. Diabetics with significant soft tissue defects of the foot were considered for enrollment. Patients were randomized to receive either moist gauze dressings or VAC treatments for 2 weeks, after which they were treated with the alternative dressing for an additional 2 weeks. Wounds were photographed weekly and wound dimensions calculated in a blinded fashion with spatial analysis software. Percent change in wound dimensions were calculated and compared for each weekly assessment and over 2 weeks of therapy with each dressing type. Ten patients were enrolled in the trial, but two were lost to follow-up and two were withdrawn. Complete data were available for analysis on seven wounds in six patients. Average length, width, and depth of the wounds at initiation of the trial was 7.7, 3.5, and 3.1 cm, respectively. Only the wound depth was significantly decreased over the weeks of the trial to 1.2 cm ( p VAC dressings decreased the wound volume and depth significantly more than moist gauze dressings (59% vs. 0% and 49% vs. 8%, respectively). VAC dressings were associated with a decrease in all wound dimensions while wound length and width increased with moist dressings. In summary, over the first several weeks of therapy, VAC dressings decreased wound depth and volume more effectively than moist gauze dressings. Negative-pressure wound treatment may accelerate closure of large foot wounds in the diabetic patient.

  13. Loss of protein, immunoglobulins, and electrolytes in exudates from negative pressure wound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourigan, Leslie A; Hourigan, Leslie; Linfoot, John A; Linfoot, John; Chung, Kevin K; Chung, Kevin; Dubick, Michael A; Dubick, Michael; Rivera, Rachael L; Rivera, Racheal; Jones, John A; Salinas, Reuben D; Salinas, Reuben; Mann, Elizabeth A; Wade, Charles E; Wade, Charles; Wolf, Steven E; Baskin, Toney W; Baskin, Toney

    2010-10-01

    A relatively new technology in wound care, negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), has become widely used for the management of open abdomens and soft tissue wounds and provides a means to collect wound exudate to quantify protein loss. A prospective observational study was conducted in surgical, trauma, or burn patients (8 patients with open abdomens and 9 patients with acute soft tissue wounds on NPWT). NPWT exudate was collected and assayed to characterize loss of protein, electrolyte, and immunoglobulins over multiple days of NPWT. Total protein was present in open abdomen NPWT exudate, 2.9 ± 0.9 g/dL. In the soft tissue wound exudate, a similar mean concentration was found, 2.59 ± 0.6 g/dL (P = .34). Exudate concentrations of albumin, urea nitrogen, immunoglobulins, and electrolytes between wound types were also not significantly different. There were significant (P = .03) differences in the median volume of exudate, 1031 mL/d for open abdomens in contrast to 245 mL/d soft tissue wounds. Therefore, 24-hour losses of proteins and electrolytes were greater in patients with open abdomens than soft tissue wounds. Mean total protein loss was 25 ± 17 g/d for open abdomens and 8 ± 5 g/d for soft tissue wounds. There are significant losses of proteins in wound exudate. As there is no significant difference in the concentration of total protein between wound type, the rate of loss may be calculated as 2.9 g/dL times the volume of wound exudate. The rate of protein loss from wounds is similar to the presently assumed insensible loss rate of 12-25 g/d.

  14. Suture Technique to Prevent Air Leakage during Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy in Fournier Gangrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Shu; Chou, Chieh; Hu, Chuan-Yu; Huang, Shu-Hung

    2018-01-01

    The use of negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) for Fournier gangrene management is well documented; however, it is difficult to fixate GranuFoam dressings and maintain an airtight seal over the perineum area. We developed a simple method to facilitate GranuFoam fixation and improve airtight sealing. The Fournier's gangrene severity index (FGSI) score less than 9 was collected in from January 2015 to October 2016. All 13 patients underwent fasciotomy, and NPWT was applied directly on fasciotomy wounds after the debridement of infected tissue. Partial wound closure was performed, and a portion of GranuFoam was inserted to facilitate fixation. The seal check was converted to a 0-10 scale score that was recorded every 4 hours during NPWT. Patient profiles including medical history, FGSI, method of wound closure, and length of stay were collected in this study. The median age of the patients was 62 (38-76) years. The mean FGSI score was 4.3 ± 3.1. The average duration of NPWT was 17.5 ± 11.5 days, and the average seal check score was 0.8 ± 0.5. No seal check alarms were noted during the study. Successful wound closure was achieved in all patients without using additional reconstruction methods such as skin grafting or muscle flap coverage. The present results suggest that partial wound-edge closure and in situ GranuFoam fixation improve the NPWT leaks in Fournier gangrene wounds. Furthermore, this method is simple to learn and can be useful in applying NPWT to anatomically difficult areas.

  15. Evaluation of a Decision-Making Curriculum for Teaching Adolescents with Disabilities to Resist Negative Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemka, Ishita; Hickson, Linda; Mallory, Sarah B.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the impact of a decision-making curriculum (PEER-DM) on the social peer relationship knowledge and self-protective decision-making skills of adolescents with disabilities in hypothetical situations involving negative peer pressure. A randomized design was used to assign students with disabilities from…

  16. Major bleeding during negative pressure wound/VAC (R) - therapy for postsurgical deep sternal wound infection - a critical appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingerden, J.J.; Segers, P.; Jekel, L.

    2011-01-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy, commercially known as vacuum-assisted closure (V.A.C.(R)) therapy, has become one of the most popular (and efficacious) interim (prior to flap reconstruction) or definite methods of managing deep sternal wound infection. Complications such as profuse bleeding, which

  17. Effect of body position on ventilation distribution in preterm infants on continuous positive airway pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Judith L; Johnston, Leanne; Brauer, Sandy G; Woodgate, Paul G; Pham, Trang M T; Schibler, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Although continuous positive airway pressure is used extensively in neonatal intensive care units, and despite the belief that positioning is considered vital to the maintenance of good lung ventilation, no data exist on regional ventilation distribution in infants on continuous positive airway pressure ventilatory support. To investigate the effect of body position on regional ventilation in preterm infants on continuous positive airway pressure ventilatory support using electrical impedance tomography. Randomized crossover study design. Neonatal intensive care unit. Twenty-four preterm infants on continuous positive airway pressure were compared to six spontaneously breathing preterm infants. Random assignment of the order of the positions supine, prone, and quarter prone. Changes in global and regional lung volume were measured with electrical impedance tomography. Although there were no differences between positions, regional tidal volume was increased in the posterior compared with the anterior lung (p positive airway pressure. The posterior lung filled earlier than the anterior lung in the spontaneously breathing infants (p positive airway pressure the right lung filled before the left lung (p positive airway pressure than in the healthy infants (p preterm infants on continuous positive airway pressure using electrical impedance tomography. Gravity had little impact on regional ventilation distribution in preterm infants on continuous positive airway pressure or in spontaneously breathing infants in the supine or prone position, indicating that ventilation distribution in preterm infants is not gravity-dependent but follows an anatomical pattern. AUSTRALIA NEW ZEALAND CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRY:: ACTRN12606000210572.

  18. Positive fantasies or negative contrasts: the effect of media body ideals on restrained eaters' mood, weight satisfaction, and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G; Gleaves, David H

    2013-09-01

    Although viewing media body ideals promotes body dissatisfaction and problematic eating among women (e.g., extreme restraint/overeating), some argue that women only report such negative effects because they think that they are meant to (i.e., demand characteristics). Because restrained eaters are trying to lose weight, they might be vulnerable to such media exposure. However, because of demand characteristics, evidence is mixed. Therefore, we minimized demand characteristics and explored whether media body ideals would trigger restrained eaters to report negative (negative mood, weight dissatisfaction) or positive (positive mood, weight satisfaction) effects. We also hypothesized that this change (negative or positive) would encourage food intake. Restrained and unrestrained eaters (n=107) memorized media or control images. Restrained eaters exposed to media images reported decreased weight satisfaction and increased negative mood, but their food intake was not significantly affected. Perhaps paying advertent attention to the images caused goal-related negative affect, which triggered restraint. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The partitioning of nanoparticles to endothelium or interstitium during ultrasound-microbubble-targeted delivery depends on peak-negative pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiang, Y.-H.; Song, J.; Price, R. J., E-mail: rprice@virginia.edu [University of Virginia, Department of Biomedical Engineering (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Patients diagnosed with advanced peripheral arterial disease often face poor prognoses and have limited treatment options. For some patient populations, the therapeutic growth of collateral arteries (i.e. arteriogenesis) that bypass regions affected by vascular disease may become a viable treatment option. Our group and others are developing therapeutic approaches centered on the ability of ultrasound-activated microbubbles to permeabilize skeletal muscle capillaries and facilitate the targeted delivery of pro-arteriogenic growth factor-bearing nanoparticles. The development of such approaches would benefit significantly from a better understanding of how nanoparticle diameter and ultrasound peak-negative pressure affect both total nanoparticle delivery and the partitioning of nanoparticles to endothelial or interstitial compartments. Toward this goal, using Balb/C mice that had undergone unilateral femoral artery ligation, we intra-arterially co-injected nanoparticles (50 and 100 nm) with microbubbles, applied 1 MHz ultrasound to the gracilis adductor muscle at peak-negative pressures of 0.7, 0.55, 0.4, and 0.2 MPa, and analyzed nanoparticle delivery and distribution. As expected, total nanoparticle (50 and 100 nm) delivery increased with increasing peak-negative pressure, with 50 nm nanoparticles exhibiting greater tissue coverage than 100 nm nanoparticles. Of particular interest, increasing peak-negative pressure resulted in increased delivery to the interstitium for both nanoparticle sizes, but had little influence on nanoparticle delivery to the endothelium. Thus, we conclude that alterations to peak-negative pressure may be used to adjust the fraction of nanoparticles delivered to the interstitial compartment. This information will be useful when designing ultrasound protocols for delivering pro-arteriogenic nanoparticles to skeletal muscle.

  20. The partitioning of nanoparticles to endothelium or interstitium during ultrasound-microbubble-targeted delivery depends on peak-negative pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiang, Y.-H.; Song, J.; Price, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with advanced peripheral arterial disease often face poor prognoses and have limited treatment options. For some patient populations, the therapeutic growth of collateral arteries (i.e. arteriogenesis) that bypass regions affected by vascular disease may become a viable treatment option. Our group and others are developing therapeutic approaches centered on the ability of ultrasound-activated microbubbles to permeabilize skeletal muscle capillaries and facilitate the targeted delivery of pro-arteriogenic growth factor-bearing nanoparticles. The development of such approaches would benefit significantly from a better understanding of how nanoparticle diameter and ultrasound peak-negative pressure affect both total nanoparticle delivery and the partitioning of nanoparticles to endothelial or interstitial compartments. Toward this goal, using Balb/C mice that had undergone unilateral femoral artery ligation, we intra-arterially co-injected nanoparticles (50 and 100 nm) with microbubbles, applied 1 MHz ultrasound to the gracilis adductor muscle at peak-negative pressures of 0.7, 0.55, 0.4, and 0.2 MPa, and analyzed nanoparticle delivery and distribution. As expected, total nanoparticle (50 and 100 nm) delivery increased with increasing peak-negative pressure, with 50 nm nanoparticles exhibiting greater tissue coverage than 100 nm nanoparticles. Of particular interest, increasing peak-negative pressure resulted in increased delivery to the interstitium for both nanoparticle sizes, but had little influence on nanoparticle delivery to the endothelium. Thus, we conclude that alterations to peak-negative pressure may be used to adjust the fraction of nanoparticles delivered to the interstitial compartment. This information will be useful when designing ultrasound protocols for delivering pro-arteriogenic nanoparticles to skeletal muscle

  1. Pressure transduction and fluid evacuation during conventional negative pressure wound therapy of the open abdomen and NPWT using a protective disc over the intestines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindstedt Sandra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT has gained acceptance among surgeons, for the treatment of open abdomen, since very high closure rates have been reported with this method, compared to other kinds of wound management for the open abdomen. However, the method has occasionally been associated with increased development of fistulae. We have previously shown that NPWT induces ischemia in the underlying small intestines close to the vacuum source, and that a protective disc placed between the intestines and the vacuum source prevents the induction of ischemia. In this study we compare pressure transduction and fluid evacuation of the open abdomen with conventional NPWT and NPWT with a protective disc. Methods Six pigs underwent midline incision and the application of conventional NPWT and NPWT with a protective disc between the intestines and the vacuum source. The pressure transduction was measured centrally beneath the dressing, and at the anterior abdominal wall, before and after the application of topical negative pressures of -50, -70 and -120 mmHg. The drainage of fluid from the abdomen was measured, with and without the protective disc. Results Abdominal drainage was significantly better (p Conclusions The drainage of the open abdomen was significantly more effective when using NWPT with the protective disc than with conventional NWPT. This is believed to be due to the more even and effective pressure transduction in the open abdomen using a protective disc in combination with NPWT.

  2. Childhood Risk Factors for Thin Body Preoccupation and Social Pressure to Be Thin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agras, W. Stewart; Bryson, Susan; Hammer, Lawrence D.; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Thin body preoccupation and social pressure to be thin (TBPSP) in adolescence are risk factors for the development of full and partial bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. This study examined precursors of these potent risk factors. Method: A prospective study followed 134 children from birth to 11.0 years and their parents.…

  3. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  4. A Comparison of Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, and Acanthosis Nigricans in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Tijerina, Sandra L.; Reyna, Maria Elena; Farooqi, Mohammad I.; Shelton, Margarette L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective quantitative study was to examine the relationships among acanthosis nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), school grade, and gender in children attending elementary school located in South West Texas. Data were collected by attending school district nurses. Researchers reviewed 7,026…

  5. Baroreflex activation therapy lowers arterial pressure without apparent stimulation of the carotid bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnima, Teba; Goedhart, Emilie J B M; Seelen, Randy; van der Grinten, Chris P M; de Leeuw, Peter W; Kroon, Abraham A

    2015-06-01

    Carotid baroreflex activation therapy produces a sustained fall in blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension. Because the activation electrodes are implanted at the level of the carotid sinus, it is conceivable that the nearby located carotid body chemoreceptors are stimulated as well. Physiological stimulation of the carotid chemoreceptors not only stimulates respiration but also increases sympathetic activity, which may counteract the effects of baroreflex activation. The aim of this exploratory study is to investigate whether there is concomitant carotid chemoreflex activation during baroreflex activation therapy. Fifteen participants with the Rheos system were included in this single-center study. At arrival at the clinic, the device was switched off for 2 hours while patients were at rest. Subsequently, the device was switched on at 6 electric settings of high and low frequencies and amplitudes. Respiration and blood pressure measurements were performed during all device activation settings. Multilevel statistical models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, antihypertensive therapeutic index, sleep apnea, coronary artery disease, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate. There was no change in end-tidal carbon dioxide, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, breath duration, and breathing frequency during any of the electric settings with the device. Nevertheless, mean arterial pressure showed a highly significant decrease during electric activation (Pbaroreflex activation therapy using the Rheos system did not stimulate respiration at several electric device activation energies, which suggests that there is no appreciable coactivation of carotid body chemoreceptors during device therapy. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Disagreement in primary study selection between systematic reviews on negative pressure wound therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerland Stefan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary study selection between systematic reviews is inconsistent, and reviews on the same topic may reach different conclusions. Our main objective was to compare systematic reviews on negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT regarding their agreement in primary study selection. Methods This retrospective analysis was conducted within the framework of a systematic review (a full review and a subsequent rapid report on NPWT prepared by the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG. For the IQWiG review and rapid report, 4 bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and CINAHL were searched to identify systematic reviews and primary studies on NPWT versus conventional wound therapy in patients with acute or chronic wounds. All databases were searched from inception to December 2006. For the present analysis, reviews on NPWT were classified as eligible systematic reviews if multiple sources were systematically searched and the search strategy was documented. To ensure comparability between reviews, only reviews published in or after December 2004 and only studies published before June 2004 were considered. Eligible reviews were compared in respect of the methodology applied and the selection of primary studies. Results A total of 5 systematic reviews (including the IQWiG review and 16 primary studies were analysed. The reviews included between 4 and 13 primary studies published before June 2004. Two reviews considered only randomised controlled trials (RCTs. Three reviews considered both RCTs and non-RCTs. The overall agreement in study selection between reviews was 96% for RCTs (24 of 25 options and 57% for non-RCTs (12 of 21 options. Due to considerable disagreement in the citation and selection of non-RCTs, we contacted the review authors for clarification (this was not initially planned; all authors or institutions responded. According to published information and the additional

  7. Negative pressure wound therapy in preseptal orbital cellulitis complicated with necrotizing fasciitis and preseptal abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Ruiz, José; Ramos-Cadena, Angeles; Solis-Arias, Patricia; Lozano-Platonoff, Adriana; Lopez-García, Lirio A; Contreras-Barrera, Martha E; Saenz-Corral, Claudia; de-la-Cruz-Garcia, Isabel; Cárdenas-Mejía, Alexander; Lopez-Oliver, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    Preseptal cellulitis (PC) may be locally complicated with abscess formation and necrotizing fasciitis. If not treated promptly and adequately, it may result in further complications. The authors report a series of patients where negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) proved a safe and valuable adjunct therapy in avoiding complications of PC and in accelerating wound healing. A 4 patient case series. Four male patients (11 months to 58 years old) with unilateral complicated PC. Patients were admitted with PC and treated initially with specific intravenous antibiotic therapy. These patients did not respond adequately; therefore, surgical drainage and/or debridement were performed. After surgery, persistent edema and purulent discharge was observed prompting the need for adjunct NPWT every 48 to 72 hours. NPWT is the use of vacuum through a wound filler material covered with an airtight drape connected to a pump. Complete ophthalmologic examination was performed after each 48-hour cycle. Length of hospital stay, days from surgery to discharge, days from start of NPWT to discharge, clinical improvement, and safety. Four patients were diagnosed with PC between 2 and 5 days of evolution. Two diabetic adults developed the condition secondary to trauma, the adolescent as a result of a cosmetic piercing, and the infant associated to sinusitis. NPWT reached -125 mm·Hg, except for the infant who received -75 mm·Hg. The average number of days necessary for improvement with NPWT was 6.7 days. Only 2 patients required surgical reconstruction. Time from debridement to discharge was in average 13.5 days. No ocular complications were observed, and follow up was satisfactory with normal eyelid function and aesthetics and preserved visual acuity. NPWT proved to be safe and effective for treating locally complicated PC as an adjuvant therapy to antibiotic and surgical treatment that decreased the length of hospital stay, and the time for recovery in patients that were slow

  8. Comparison of health care costs and hospital readmission rates associated with negative pressure wound therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Amy; Cyhaniuk, Anissa; Krebs, Blake

    2015-03-01

    A retrospective national claims database analysis evaluated total and wound-related costs (eg, hospital readmission rates) for patients with chronic wounds treated with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), comparing NPWT-V (V.A.C. Therapy, KCI, an Acelity company, San Antonio, TX) and NPWT-O (other non-KCI models of NPWT, the brands of which were not known to the researchers). Patients with ≥ 1 NPWT claim from January 2009-June 2012 in outpatient settings in the United States were included, if they had continuous medical and pharmacy benefits for 12 months before the initial index date of their NPWT claim and at least 3 months post index. Mean total health care costs were assessed at 3 months and 12 months; wound-related hospital readmission rates were assessed at 3 months and 6 months. Cost differences between cohorts were analyzed by t test and readmission rates were analyzed by chi-square test. At 3 months, the cohort of NPWT-V patients was significantly younger (59.2 vs 63.6 years, P assessment, mean comorbidity scores did not differ between the NPWT-V group and the NPWT-O groups (3.38 vs 3.66). Total costs were lower for NPWT-V vs NPWT-O at 3 months ($35,498 vs $39,722, respectively; P = 0.08) and 12 months ($80,768 vs $111,212; P = 0.03). Significantly lower inpatient (P = 0.01), emergency room (P Wound-related readmission rates were significantly lower for NPWT-V at 3 months (5% vs 8%; P ≤ 0.01) and 6 months (6% vs 11%; P ≤ 0.01). For all wound types, NPWT-O patients had a 17-fold higher rate of switching to alternate NPWT models compared with NPWT-V patients. In this retrospective analysis, NPWT-V patients had lower total costs, lower wound-related costs, and lower hospital readmission rates than NPWT-O patients at all time points assessed.

  9. Cost analysis of Topical Negative Pressure (TNP Therapy for traumatic acquired wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freytag, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended traumatic wounds require extended reconstructive operations and are accompanied by long hospitalizations and risks of infection, thrombosis and flap loss. In particular, the frequently used Topical Negative Pressure (TNP Therapy is regarded as cost-intensive. The costs of TNP in the context of traumatic wounds is analyzed using the method of health economic evaluation.All patients (n=67: 45 male, 22 female; average age 54 y with traumatically acquired wounds being treated with TNP at the university hospital of Goettingen in the period 01/01/2005–31/12/2007 comprise the basis for this analysis. The concept of activity-based costing based on clinical pathways according to InEK (National Institute for the Hospital Remuneration System systematic calculations was chosen for cost accounting. In addition, a special module system adaptable for individual courses of disease was developed. The treated wounds were located on a lower extremity in 83.7% of cases (n=56 and on an upper extremity in 16.3% of cases (n=11. The average time of hospitalization of the patients was 54 days. Twenty-five patients (37.31% exceeded the „maximum length of stay“ of their associated DRG (Diagnosis Related Groups. The total PCCL (patient clinical complexity level = patient severity score of 2.99 reflects the seriousness of disease. For the treatment of the 67 patients, total costs were $1,729,922.32 (1,249,176.91 €. The cost calculation showed a financial deficit of $–210,932.50 (–152,314.36 €. Within the entire treatment costs of $218,848.07 (158,030.19 €, 12.65% per case were created by TNP with material costs of $102,528.74 (74,036 €, representing 5.92% of entire costs. The cost of TNP per patient averaged $3,266.39 (2,358.66 €. The main portion of the costs was not – as is often expected – due to high material costs of TNP but instead to long-term treatments. Because of their complexity, the cases are insufficiently represented in the

  10. Using CFD Surface Solutions to Shape Sonic Boom Signatures Propagated from Off-Body Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz, Irian; Li, Wu

    2013-01-01

    The conceptual design of a low-boom and low-drag supersonic aircraft remains a challenge despite significant progress in recent years. Inverse design using reversed equivalent area and adjoint methods have been demonstrated to be effective in shaping the ground signature propagated from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) off-body pressure distributions. However, there is still a need to reduce the computational cost in the early stages of design to obtain a baseline that is feasible for low-boom shaping, and in the search for a robust low-boom design over the entire sonic boom footprint. The proposed design method addresses the need to reduce the computational cost for robust low-boom design by using surface pressure distributions from CFD solutions to shape sonic boom ground signatures propagated from CFD off-body pressure.

  11. Body size and blood pressure: an analysis of Africans and the African diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Francesco P; Kerry, Sally M; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Luke, Amy; Amoah, Albert G B; Bovet, Pascal; Connor, Myles D; Forrester, Terrence; Gervasoni, Jean-Pierre; Kaki, Gisela Kimbally; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Thorogood, Margaret; Cooper, Richard S

    2008-01-01

    Blood pressure is directly and causally associated with body mass index (BMI) in populations worldwide. However, the relationship may vary across BMI in populations of African origin. We compared the relationship between blood pressure and BMI in populations of African origin, using 13 samples from Africa, the Caribbean, the United Kingdom and the United States. We had access to data from individual participants for age, height, weight, blood pressure, and treatment of hypertension. Analysis was restricted to 18,072 participants (age 35-64 years; 44% men). We carried out multivariate regression analysis to estimate the relationship between blood pressure and BMI by country and by sex. The use of antihypertensive treatment was taken into account by exclusion and by sensitivity analysis. There was a positive relationship between both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and BMI. In men the slopes for systolic blood pressure varied from 0.27 mm Hg per kg/m (95% confidence interval = -0.01 to 0.56) in the United States to 1.72 mm Hg per kg/m (95% confidence interval = 0.92 to 2.53) in Ghana (Kumasi). In women, the slopes varied from 0.08 (-0.54 to 0.72) in South Africa to 1.32 (0.98 to 1.66) in the Republic of Congo. Similar variation in trends was seen for diastolic blood pressure. The higher the BMI, the shallower the slopes [-0.10 (-0.15 to -0.06) for systolic, -0.09 (-0.12 to -0.06) for diastolic]. No differences were seen after excluding persons who were being treated for hypertension. Blood pressure and BMI levels vary among populations of the African diaspora. The effect of BMI on blood pressure levels diminishes as BMI increases. These results suggest a complex relationship among excess body weight, adiposity, and energy expenditure.

  12. The use of a rigid disc to protect exposed structures in wounds treated with negative pressure wound therapy: effects on wound bed pressure and microvascular blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anesäter, Erik; Borgquist, Ola; Torbrand, Christian; Roupé, K Markus; Ingemansson, Richard; Lindstedt, Sandra; Malmsjö, Malin

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing reports of deaths and serious complications associated with the use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Bleeding may occur in patients when NPWT is applied to a wound with exposed blood vessels or vascular grafts, possibly due to mechanical deformation and hypoperfusion of the vessel walls. Recent evidence suggests that using a rigid barrier disc to protect underlying tissue can prevent this mechanical deformation. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of rigid discs on the tissue exposed to negative pressure with regard to tissue pressure and microvascular blood flow. Peripheral wounds were created on the backs of eight pigs. The pressure and microvascular blood flow in the wound bed were measured when NPWT was applied. The wound was filled with foam, and rigid discs of different designs were inserted between the wound bed and the foam. The discs were created with or without channels (to accommodate exposed sensitive structures such as blood vessels and nerves), perforations, or a porous dressing that covered the underside of the discs (to facilitate pressure transduction and fluid evacuation). When comparing the results for pressure transduction to the wound bed, no significant differences were found using different discs covered with dressing, whereas pressure transduction was lower with bare discs. Microvascular blood flow in the wound bed decreased by 49 ± 7% when NPWT was applied to control wounds. The reduction in blood flow was less in the presence of a protective disc (e.g., -6 ± 5% for a dressing-covered, perforated disc, p = 0.006). In conclusion, NPWT causes hypoperfusion of superficial tissue in the wound bed. The insertion of a rigid barrier counteracts this effect. The placement of a rigid disc over exposed blood vessels or nerves may protect these structures from rupture and damage. © 2012 by the Wound Healing Society.

  13. Association between body size and blood pressure in children from different ethnic origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LA de Hoog Marieke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess associations between body size and blood pressure in children (5-6 years from different ethnic origins. Method Five ethnic groups of the ABCD cohort were examined: Dutch (n=1 923, Turkish (n=99, Moroccan (n=187, Black-African (n=67 and Black-Caribbean (n=121. Data on body-mass-index (BMI, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, fat-mass-index (FMI, and systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, were collected. Linear regression analysis with restricted cubic splines was used to examine non-linear associations between body size and blood pressure, adjusted for age, sex, height and birth weight. Results Ethnic differences were found in associations of BMI with SBP and DBP (SBP: p=0.001 and DBP: p=0.01 and FMI with SBP (p=0.03. BMI and FMI had a relatively large positive association with SBP in Turkish children (BMI: β=2.46mmHg; 95%CI:1.20-3.72; FMI: β=2.41mmHg; 95%CI:1.09-3.73 compared to Dutch (BMI: β=1.31mmHg; 95%CI:0.71-1.92; FMI: β=0.84mmHg; 95%CI:0.23-1.45. Black-Caribbean and Moroccan children showed high blood pressure with low BMI and FMI. Moroccan children showed higher SBP with high BMI and FMI. WHtR was positively associated with SBP and DBP, similar in all ethnic groups. Generally, strongest associations with blood pressure were found for BMI in all ethnic groups. Conclusion Ethnic-specific associations between BMI, and FMI and blood pressure are present at young age, with Turkish children showing the highest increase in blood pressure with increasing body size. The higher blood pressure in the Black-Caribbean and Moroccan children with low BMI needs further research. WHtR or FMI do not seem to be associated more strongly to blood pressure than BMI in any ethnic group.

  14. Short term exposure to attractive and muscular singers in music video clips negatively affects men's body image and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgrew, K E; Volcevski-Kostas, D

    2012-09-01

    Viewing idealized images has been shown to reduce men's body satisfaction; however no research has examined the impact of music video clips. This was the first study to examine the effects of exposure to muscular images in music clips on men's body image, mood and cognitions. Ninety men viewed 5 min of clips containing scenery, muscular or average-looking singers, and completed pre- and posttest measures of mood and body image. Appearance schema activation was also measured. Men exposed to the muscular clips showed poorer posttest levels of anger, body and muscle tone satisfaction compared to men exposed to the scenery or average clips. No evidence of schema activation was found, although potential problems with the measure are noted. These preliminary findings suggest that even short term exposure to music clips can produce negative effects on men's body image and mood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Body Dissatisfaction and Eating Disturbances in Early Adolescence: A Structural Modeling Investigation Examining Negative Affect and Peer Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Delyse M.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Taylor, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This study tested five proposed models of the relationship of negative affect and peer factors in early adolescent body dissatisfaction, dieting, and bulimic behaviors. A large community sample of girls in early adolescence was assessed via questionnaire (X[overbar] age = 12.3 years). Structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that negative…

  16. Platelet Activation after Presyncope by Lower Body Negative Pressure in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    sleeping habits and to avoid exercise, alcohol, and the use of autonomic stimulants such as prescription (e.g., antihistamines and decongestants) or...nonprescription (e.g., caffeine) drugs for 24 h before the study. LBNP Procedure Each subject was instrumented with a 21-gauge needle in an antecubital

  17. Early activation of the coagulation system during lower body negative pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaar, M; Johansson, P I; Nielsen, L B

    2009-01-01

    moderate hypovolemia by exposing 10 healthy male volunteers to 10 min of 30 mmHg LBNP. Thoracic electrical impedance increased during LBNP (by 2.6 +/- 0.7 Omega, mean +/- SD; P ... +/- 6 mmHg; P 7 l min(-1); P

  18. The microcirculatory response to compensated hypovolemia in a lower body negative pressure model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Sebastiaan A.; Bezemer, Rick; Milstein, Dan M. J.; Radder, Matthijs; Lima, Alexandre; Cherpanath, Thomas G. V.; Heger, Michal; Karemaker, John M.; Ince, Can

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that controlled, adequately compensated, central hypovolemia in subjects with intact autoregulation would be associated with decreased peripheral microcirculatory diffusion and convection properties and, consequently, decreased tissue

  19. Vasoactive Neuroendocrine Responses Associated with Tolerance to Lower Body Negative Pressure in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    effects at physiological plasma concentrations (Cowley et al., 1983; Altura & Altura , 1984; Share, 19964 ), and are released under conditions of orthostatic...istration. References ALTURA B. M. & ALTURA B. T. (1984) Actions of vaso- pressin, oxytocin, and synthetic analogs on vascular smooth muscle.6

  20. Electrical admittance for filling of the heart during lower body negative pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Yan; Holm, Søren; Jenstrup, Morten

    2000-01-01

    cardiac output, electrical impedance, heart rate, positron emission tomography, technetium-labeled erythrocytes......cardiac output, electrical impedance, heart rate, positron emission tomography, technetium-labeled erythrocytes...

  1. Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity During Intense Lower Body Negative Pressure to Presyncope in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-24

    maximal LBNP tolerance. Using this approach , absolute LBNP levels corresponded well to these ranges of percentages if subjects were able to continue at... patients with spinal cord injury display spontaneous bursts of MSNA, but activity is significantly lower than that of neurologically intact patients , and is...over sympathetic neural activity, and that this reduced baroreflex sensitivity is associated with syncope . We reasoned that if sympathetic baroreflexes

  2. Orthostatic intolerance in 6 degrees head-down tilt and lower body negative pressure loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Kazuyoshi; Miyamoto, Akira; Ito, Masao; Mano, Takaichi; Nakayama, Kiyoshi

    6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest experiment for 6 days was conducted at Nihon University Itabashi Hospital for 10 male athletes. In order to observe the orthostatic intolerance due to six days head-down tilt bed rest, 70 degrees head up tilt tests were performed before and after the head-down tilt. Two types of orthostatic intolerance were distinguished by the time course of their cardiovascular responses. One was vagotonia type and the other was brain anemia type. The latter type was commonly seen among astronauts after space flight due to the lack of plasma volume. As this volume change is considered to be initiated by some fluid loss from the lower extremities, analysis was made to clarify the relation between the leg volume change and the types of orthostatic intolerance. Nakayama proposed a Heart Rate Controllability Index, which is calculated from the initiate leg volume change and heart rate increase in head up tilt, for an indicator of the orthostatic intolerability. The index was applied to the subjects of six days head-down tilt above mentioned. For the subjects who showed a sign of presyncopy, the index values were higher or lower than that of the rest subjects who showed no sign of presyncopy. In order to evaluate the validity of the index, another experiment was conducted to induce an orthostatic intolerance by a different way of loading. The same types of orthostatic intolerance were observed and the index value hit high in the brain anemia type of orthostatic intolerance, while the vagotonia type showed relatively lower values than the normal group.

  3. Validation of Lower Body Negative Pressure as an Experimental Model of Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    the baboons indicated that the cardiac baroreflex was not abolished by sedation. Vascular resistance was the only hemodynamic variable that may have...research. Mil Med 149: 55–62, 1984. 6. Convertino V. Blood volume: its adaptation to endurance training . Med Sci Sports Exerc 23: 1338–1348, 1991. 7...Wehrwein EA, Hart EC, Charkoudian N, Henderson WR, Sheel AW. Baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity as a mechanism for persistent

  4. Use of dynamic CT in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with comparison of positive and negative pressure ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, Emma; Babyn, Paul [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Talakoub, Omid; Alirezaie, Javad [Ryerson University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Toronto, ON (Canada); Grasso, Francesco; Engelberts, Doreen; Kavanagh, Brian P. [Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto, Departments of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine and the Program in Pulmonary and Experimental Medicine, Toronto (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    Negative pressure ventilation via an external device ('iron lung') has the potential to provide better oxygenation with reduced barotrauma in patients with ARDS. This study was designed to see if oxygenation differences between positive and negative ventilation could be explained by CT. Six anaesthetized rabbits had ARDS induced by repeated saline lavage. Rabbits were ventilated with positive pressure ventilation (PPV) and negative pressure ventilation (NPV) in turn. Dynamic CT images were acquired over the respiratory cycle. A computer-aided method was used to segment the lung and calculate the range of CT densities within each slice. Volumes of ventilated lung and atelectatic lung were measured over the respiratory cycle. NPV was associated with an increased percentage of ventilated lung and decreased percentage of atelectatic lung. The most significant differences in ventilation and atelectasis were seen at mid-inspiration and mid-expiration (ventilated lung NPV=61%, ventilated lung PPV=47%, p<0.001; atelectatic lung NPV=10%, atelectatic lung PPV 19%, p<0.001). Aeration differences were not significant at end-inspiration. Dynamic CT can show differences in lung aeration between positive and negative ventilation in ARDS. These differences would not be appreciated if only static breath-hold CT was used. (orig.)

  5. Is subjective perception of negative body image among adolescents associated with bullying?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Adolescents' body image dissatisfaction has an adverse effect on peer relationships. It may lead to changes in behaviour (aggressive or passive) and consequently to bullying behaviour. Our aim was to assess the association between body image dissatisfaction and involvement in bullying and whether

  6. Effects of topical negative pressure therapy on tissue oxygenation and wound healing in vascular foot wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Nathaniel; Rodda, Odette A; Sleigh, Jamie; Vasudevan, Thodur

    2017-08-01

    Topical negative pressure (TNP) therapy is widely used in the treatment of acute wounds in vascular patients on the basis of proposed multifactorial benefits. However, numerous recent systematic reviews have concluded that there is inadequate evidence to support its benefits at a scientific level. This study evaluated the changes in wound volume, surface area, depth, collagen deposition, and tissue oxygenation when using TNP therapy compared with traditional dressings in patients with acute high-risk foot wounds. This study was performed with hospitalized vascular patients. Forty-eight patients were selected with an acute lower extremity wound after surgical débridement or minor amputation that had an adequate blood supply without requiring further surgical revascularization and were deemed suitable for TNP therapy. The 22 patients who completed the study were randomly allocated to a treatment group receiving TNP or to a control group receiving regular topical dressings. Wound volume and wound oxygenation were analyzed using a modern stereophotographic wound measurement system and a hyperspectral transcutaneous oxygenation measurement system, respectively. Laboratory analysis was conducted on wound biopsy samples to determine hydroxyproline levels, a surrogate marker to collagen. Differences in clinical or demographic characteristics or in the location of the foot wounds were not significant between the two groups. All patients, with the exception of two, had diabetes. The two patients who did not have diabetes had end-stage renal failure. There was no significance in the primary outcome of wound volume reduction between TNP and control patients on day 14 (44.2% and 20.9%, respectively; P = .15). Analyses of secondary outcomes showed a significant result of better healing rates in the TNP group by demonstrating a reduction in maximum wound depth at day 14 (36.0% TNP vs 17.6% control; P = .03). No significant findings were found for the other outcomes of changes

  7. Blood pressure in children in relation to relative body fat composition and cardio-respiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Linda P; Shield, Julian P H; Cooper, Ashley R; Ness, Andy R; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2011-08-01

    To examine whether higher physical fitness is associated with lower levels of blood pressure independent of adiposity in an established cohort of children. We explored how the method used to adjust fitness for body size would influence the findings. Blood pressure, adiposity (DXA scan) and fitness (predicted work capacity at a heart rate of 170 bpm [PWC170]) were assessed in children aged 9 years (n = 3594). Separate regression analyses for boys and girls yielded strong linear relationships between blood pressure (dependent variable) and ratio of fat to lean + bone (independent variable; all P fitness was assessed by adding PWC170 to the above models. Blood pressure was strongly inversely related to PWC170 when the latter was first adjusted for size in the conventional way (division by weight; all P fitness, mean blood pressure differed by 1 [95% CI 0?3] mm Hg for boys and 3 [95% CI 2?4] mm Hg for girls. Fitness is not associated with systolic blood pressure independent of levels of adiposity but there is a small but independent association with diastolic blood pressure.

  8. Sequential least-square reconstruction of instantaneous pressure field around a body from TR-PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Young Jin; Gomit, G.; Earl, T.; Chatellier, L.; David, L.

    2018-02-01

    A procedure is introduced to obtain an instantaneous pressure field around a wing from time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) and particle image accelerometry (PIA). The instantaneous fields of velocity and material acceleration are provided by the recently introduced multi-frame PIV method, fluid trajectory evaluation based on ensemble-averaged cross-correlation (FTEE). The integration domain is divided into several subdomains in accordance with the local reliability. The near-edge and near-body regions are determined based on the recorded image of the wing. The instantaneous wake region is assigned by a combination of a self-defined criterion and binary morphological processes. The pressure is reconstructed from a minimization process of the difference between measured and reconstructed pressure gradients in a least-square sense. This is solved sequentially according to a decreasing order of reliability of each subdomain to prevent a propagation of error from the less reliable near-body region to the free-stream. The present procedure is numerically assessed by synthetically generated 2D particle images based on a numerical simulation. Volumetric pressure fields are then evaluated from tomographic TR-PIV of a flow around a 30-degree-inclined NACA0015 airfoil. A possibility of using a different scheme to evaluate material acceleration for a specific subdomain is presented. Moreover, this 3D application allows the investigation of the effect of the third component of the pressure gradient by which the wake region seems to be affected.

  9. Suction device for epidermal grafting in vitiligo: employing a syringe and a manometer to provide an adequate negative pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H U; Yun, S K

    2000-07-01

    Suction devices for epidermal grafting need a suction pump to provide a negative pressure. The authors have developed a suction device in which a syringe and a manometer are employed to provide a negative pressure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of our suction device in vitiligo patients. The suction device was used to obtain epidermal blisters from the donor site. A CO2 laser was employed to remove the depigmented epidermis. The blister roofs of the donor site were harvested and were placed onto the recipient area. Ten patients with stable vitiligo were treated by epidermal grafting. Epidermal blisters were produced by suction in all patients. Also, all 10 patients regained repigmentation. Our suction blister device is simple and inexpensive to make, and it may become an alternative to the other suction devices.

  10. Comparison of Outcomes for Normal Saline and an Antiseptic Solution for Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy with Instillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul J; Attinger, Christopher E; Oliver, Noah; Garwood, Caitlin; Evans, Karen K; Steinberg, John S; Lavery, Larry A

    2015-11-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation is an adjunctive treatment that uses periodic instillation of a solution and negative pressure for a wide diversity of wounds. A variety of solutions have been reported, with topical antiseptics as the most frequently chosen option. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of normal saline versus an antiseptic solution for negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation for the adjunctive treatment of infected wounds. This was a prospective, randomized, effectiveness study comparing 0.9% normal saline versus 0.1% polyhexanide plus 0.1% betaine for the adjunctive treatment of infected wounds that required hospital admission and operative débridement. One hundred twenty-three patients were eligible, with 100 patients randomized for the intention-to-treat analysis and 83 patients for the per-protocol analysis. The surrogate outcomes measured were number of operative visits, length of hospital stay, time to final surgical procedure, proportion of closed or covered wounds, and proportion of wounds that remained closed or covered at the 30-day follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences in the demographic profiles in the two cohorts except for a larger proportion of male patients (p = 0.004). There was no statistically significant difference in the surrogate outcomes with the exception of the time to final surgical procedure favoring normal saline (p = 0.038). The authors' results suggest that 0.9% normal saline may be as effective as an antiseptic (0.1% polyhexanide plus 0.1% betaine) for negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation for the adjunctive inpatient management of infected wounds. Therapeutic, II.

  11. Wound care in patients after median sternotomy by use of negative pressure dressing - Prevena Incision Management System and PICO system

    OpenAIRE

    Sevyan, Armen

    2016-01-01

    The negative pressure wound dressing is applied successfully for the prevention of wound complications after median sternotomy in obese patients with a high risk for this complication. Most wound infections are caused by skin flora. In the market are available various systems for the prevention of wound infection. We had to compare the objective of the influence of PICO dressing and Prevena dressing on wound healing in patients after conventional median sternotomy. In this cohort study 272...

  12. Evaluation of a Decision-Making Curriculum for Teaching Adolescents with Disabilities to Resist Negative Peer Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemka, Ishita; Hickson, Linda; Mallory, Sarah B

    2016-07-01

    This study was designed to assess the impact of a decision-making curriculum (PEER-DM) on the social peer relationship knowledge and self-protective decision-making skills of adolescents with disabilities in hypothetical situations involving negative peer pressure. A randomized design was used to assign students with disabilities from self-contained special education classes to an intervention group (n = 22) or a wait-list control group (n = 20). ANCOVA analyses, using pretest scores as covariates, indicated that students who were trained on PEER-DM had significantly higher effective decision-making action and correct risk perception scores, relative to participants in the control group. This study provides supporting evidence that PEER-DM is a promising intervention for students with disabilities, including those with identified autism spectrum disorders, during transition years to help them develop a better understanding of positive and negative peer relationships and learn systematic decision-making skills for improved handling of social situations in the school and community, especially situations involving negative peer pressure. The study adds credence to using systematic, strategy-based decision making interventions designed to address the cognitive, emotional and motivational processes underlying adolescent decision making in sensitive interpersonal situations involving peer pressure. The study points to the lack of preparedness to handle situations of negative peer pressure as a serious social and health risk for adolescents with disabilities that deserves urgent and concerted attention in transition services programming. Implications for future curriculum-development efforts and replication of treatment findings are discussed. Future research examining disability-specific patterns of decision-making in peer situations and comparisons with typically developing populations is recommended.

  13. A direct method for determining complete positive and negative capillary pressure curves for reservoir rock using the centrifuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinler, E.A.; Baldwin, B.A. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01

    A method is being developed for direct experimental determination of capillary pressure curves from saturation distributions produced during centrifuging fluids in a rock plug. A free water level is positioned along the length of the plugs to enable simultaneous determination of both positive and negative capillary pressures. Octadecane as the oil phase is solidified by temperature reduction while centrifuging to prevent fluid redistribution upon removal from the centrifuge. The water saturation is then measured via magnetic resonance imaging. The saturation profile within the plug and the calculation of pressures for each point of the saturation profile allows for a complete capillary pressure curve to be determined from one experiment. Centrifuging under oil with a free water level into a 100 percent water saturated plug results in the development of a primary drainage capillary pressure curve. Centrifuging similarly at an initial water saturation in the plug results in the development of an imbibition capillary pressure curve. Examples of these measurements are presented for Berea sandstone and chalk rocks.

  14. Central inhibitory effect of α-methyldopa on blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature of renal hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, F.P.; Ezer, Joseph; Jong, Wybren de

    The central inhibitory effect of α-methyldopa on blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature was studied in conscious renal hypertensive rats. Systemic administration of α-methyldopa decreased mean arterial blood pressure and body temperature and caused a short lasting increase in heart rate

  15. Negative pressures in full-scale distribution system: field investigation, modelling, estimation of intrusion volumes and risk for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Besner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Various investigations encompassing microbial characterization of external sources of contamination (soil and trenchwater surrounding water mains, flooded air-valve vaults, field pressure monitoring, and hydraulic and transient analyses were conducted in the same distribution system where two epidemiological studies showing an increase in gastrointestinal illness for people drinking tap water were conducted in the 1990's. Interesting results include the detection of microorganisms indicators of fecal contamination in all external sources investigated but at a higher frequency in the water from flooded air-valve vaults, and the recording of 18 negative pressure events in the distribution system during a 17-month monitoring period. Transient analysis of this large and complex distribution system was challenging and highlighted the need to consider field pressure data in the process.

  16. Negative comparisons about one's appearance mediate the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardouly, Jasmine; Vartanian, Lenny R

    2015-01-01

    Use of social media, such as Facebook, is pervasive among young women. Body dissatisfaction is also highly prevalent in this demographic. The present study examined the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns among female university students (N=227), and tested whether appearance comparisons on Facebook in general, or comparisons to specific female target groups (family members, close friends, distant peers [women one may know but do not regularly socialize with], celebrities) mediated this relationship. Results showed a positive relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns, which was mediated by appearance comparisons in general, frequency of comparisons to close friends and distant peers, and by upward comparisons (judging one's own appearance to be worse) to distant peers and celebrities. Thus, young women who spend more time on Facebook may feel more concerned about their body because they compare their appearance to others (especially to peers) on Facebook. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tumefactive foreign body giant cell reaction following high-pressure paint injection injury: A case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauzo, Shakuntala H; Swaby, Michael G; Covinsky, Michael H

    2017-05-01

    High-pressure paint injection injury is an uncommon but well-described injury. The histologic features of long-term paint injection injury with retained material are less recognized. A 46-year-old male presented clinically as "recurrent giant cell tumor of tendon sheath." The right index finger demonstrated fusiform enlargement by a pigmented mass with diffuse infiltration into the soft tissue of the hand. Histologically the tumor showed multiple giant cells in a fibrotic stroma extending into the dermis. There were multiple types of foreign material including diffuse brown black pigment, weakly optically polarizing foreign material and white inclusions with a "train track" appearance. The cells were positive for CD68 and negative for S100 antigen. Further investigation revealed that the patient had a history of high-pressure paint injection injury to his digit 6 years prior. Foreign material injected under high pressure into tissues may result in a pseudo-neoplastic foreign body granulomatous reaction that can mimic giant cell tumor of tendon sheath. Our case demonstrates that this reaction can be florid and can have slow growth over years. A high index of suspicion, a good clinical history and careful examination can distinguish these 2 entities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Is subjective perception of negative body image among adolescents associated with bullying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-08-01

    Adolescents' body image dissatisfaction has an adverse effect on peer relationships. It may lead to changes in behaviour (aggressive or passive) and consequently to bullying behaviour. Our aim was to assess the association between body image dissatisfaction and involvement in bullying and whether this differs by gender. We used data from the Slovak part of the 2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The final sample comprised 8050 adolescents aged 11 to 15 years old (mean age 13.57), less than half of whom were boys. The association between self-reported body image and involvement in bullying was determined using multinomial logistic regression. We found a significant association between body dissatisfaction and involvement in bullying. Adolescents dissatisfied with their bodies because due to feeling overweight were more likely to become passive or reactive victims. Self-reported thinness was found to be significantly associated with bully-victims only in boys. Adolescent body dissatisfaction is strongly associated with bullying behaviour. Our findings point out the importance of incorporating at schools different types of intervention programmes supporting positive self-perceptions of adolescents and reducing bullying behaviour.

  19. Effect of bilateral carotid body resection on cardiac baroreflex control of blood pressure during hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Taylor, Jennifer L; Mozer, Michael T; Dube, Simmi; Basu, Ananda; Basu, Rita; Rizza, Robert A; Curry, Timothy B; Joyner, Michael J; Wehrwein, Erica A

    2015-06-01

    Hypoglycemia results in a reduction in cardiac baroreflex sensitivity and a shift in the baroreflex working range to higher heart rates. This effect is mediated, in part, by the carotid chemoreceptors. Therefore, we hypothesized hypoglycemia-mediated changes in baroreflex control of heart rate would be blunted in carotid body-resected patients when compared with healthy controls. Five patients with bilateral carotid body resection for glomus tumors and 10 healthy controls completed a 180-minute hyperinsulinemic, hypoglycemic (≈3.3 mmol/L) clamp. Changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity were assessed. Baseline baroreflex sensitivity was not different between groups (P>0.05). Hypoglycemia resulted in a reduction in baroreflex sensitivity in both the groups (main effect of time, P<0.01) and responses were lower in resected patients when compared with controls (main effect of group, P<0.05). Hypoglycemia resulted in large reductions in systolic (-17±7 mm Hg) and mean (-14±5 mm Hg) blood pressure in resected patients that were not observed in controls (interaction of group and time, P<0.05). Despite lower blood pressures, increases in heart rate with hypoglycemia were blunted in resected patients (interaction of group and time, P<0.01). Major novel findings from this study demonstrate that intact carotid chemoreceptors are essential for increasing heart rate and maintaining arterial blood pressure during hypoglycemia in humans. These data support a contribution of the carotid chemoreceptors to blood pressure control and highlight the potential widespread effects of carotid body resection in humans. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. The Ambivalence of Challenge Stressors: Time Pressure Associated with Both Negative and Positive Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Pascale S.; Semmer, Norbert K.; Kalin, Wolfgang; Jacobshagen, Nicola; Meier, Laurenz L.

    2012-01-01

    According to the challenge-hindrance model, challenge stressors contain both stressful and challenging aspects, hindrance stressors only stressful aspects. Typically, negative outcomes of challenge stressors refer to well-being (strain), positive outcomes to so-called work outcomes (e.g., productivity, intention to quit). As both effects occur…

  1. Perceiving social pressure not to feel negative predicts depressive symptoms in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejonckheere, E.; Bastian, B.; Fried, E.I.; Murphy, S.C.; Kuppens, P.

    Background Western societies often overemphasize the pursuit of happiness, and regard negative feelings such as sadness or anxiety as maladaptive and unwanted. Despite this emphasis on happiness, the amount of people suffering from depressive complaints is remarkably high. To explain this apparent

  2. Effect of body temperature on peripheral venous pressure measurements and its agreement with central venous pressure in neurosurgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Altan; Salman, M Alper; Salman, A Ebru; Aypar, Ulka

    2005-04-01

    Previous studies suggest a correlation of central venous pressure (CVP) with peripheral venous pressure (PVP) in different clinical settings. The effect of body temperature on PVP and its agreement with CVP in patients under general anesthesia are investigated in this study. Fifteen American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II patients undergoing elective craniotomy were included in the study. CVP, PVP, and core (Tc) and peripheral (Tp) temperatures were monitored throughout the study. A total of 950 simultaneous measurements of CVP, PVP, Tc, and Tp from 15 subjects were recorded at 5-minute intervals. The measurements were divided into low- and high-Tc and -Tp groups by medians as cutoff points. Bland-Altman assessment for agreement was used for CVP and PVP in all groups. PVP measurements were within range of +/-2 mm Hg of CVP values in 94% of the measurements. Considering all measurements, mean bias was 0.064 mm Hg (95% confidence interval -0.018-0.146). Corrected bias for repeated measurements was 0.173 +/- 3.567 mm Hg (mean +/- SD(corrected)). All of the measurements were within mean +/- 2 SD of bias, which means that PVP and CVP are interchangeable in our setting. As all the measurements were within 1 SD of bias when Tc was > or = 35.8 degrees C, even a better agreement of PVP and CVP was evident. The effect of peripheral hypothermia was not as prominent as core hypothermia. PVP measurement may be a noninvasive alternative for estimating CVP. Body temperature affects the agreement of CVP and PVP, which deteriorates at lower temperatures.

  3. Video-based quantification of body movement during social interaction indicates the severity of negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Zeno; Ramseyer, Fabian; Hoffmann, Holger; Kalbermatten, Samuel; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2010-08-01

    In schizophrenia, nonverbal behavior, including body movement, is of theoretical and clinical importance. Although reduced nonverbal expressiveness is a major component of the negative symptoms encountered in schizophrenia, few studies have objectively assessed body movement during social interaction. In the present study, 378 brief, videotaped role-play scenes involving 27 stabilized outpatients diagnosed with paranoid-type schizophrenia were analyzed using Motion Energy Analysis (MEA). This method enables the objective measuring of body movement in conjunction with ordinary video recordings. Correlations between movement parameters (percentage of time in movement, movement speed) and symptom ratings from independent PANSS interviews were calculated. Movement parameters proved to be highly reliable. In keeping with predictions, reduced movement and movement speed correlated with negative symptoms. Accordingly, in patients who exhibited noticeable movement for less than 20% of the observation time, prominent negative symptoms were highly probable. As a control measure, the percentage of movement exhibited by the patients during role-play scenes was compared to that of their normal interactants. Patients with negative symptoms differed from normal interactants by showing significantly reduced head and body movement. Two specific positive symptoms were possibly related to movement parameters: suspiciousness tended to correlate with reduced head movement, and the expression of unusual thought content tended to relate to increased movement. Overall, a close and theoretically meaningful association between the objective movement parameters and the symptom profiles was found. MEA appears to be an objective, reliable and valid method for quantifying nonverbal behavior, an aspect which may furnish new insights into the processes related to reduced expressiveness in schizophrenia. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Whole body heat stress attenuates the pressure response to muscle metaboreceptor stimulation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; Blaha, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    The effects of whole body heat stress on sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to stimulation of muscle metaboreceptors and mechanoreceptors remains unclear. We examined the muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), blood pressure, and heart rate in 14 young healthy subjects during fatiguing isometric handgrip exercise, postexercise circulatory occlusion (PECO), and passive muscle stretch during PECO. The protocol was performed under normothermic and whole body heat stress (increase internal temperature ~0.6°C via a heating suit) conditions. Heat stress increased the resting MSNA and heart rate. Heat stress did not alter the mean blood pressure (MAP), heart rate, and MSNA responses (i.e., changes) to fatiguing exercise. During PECO, whole body heat stress accentuated the heart rate response [change (Δ) of 5.8 ± 1.5 to Δ10.0 ± 2.1 beats/min, P = 0.03], did not alter the MSNA response (Δ16.4 ± 2.8 to Δ17.3 ± 3.8 bursts/min, P = 0.74), and lowered the MAP response (Δ20 ± 2 to Δ12 ± 1 mmHg, P heat stress prevented the MAP and MSNA responses to stretch during PECO (both P > 0.05). These data suggest that whole body heat stress attenuates the pressor response due to metaboreceptor stimulation, and the sympathetic nerve response due to mechanoreceptor stimulation. PMID:27763873

  5. Body adiposity is associated with risk of high blood pressure in Portuguese schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Gama, Augusta; Carvalhal, Isabel Mourão; Nogueira, Helena; Rosado-Marques, Vitor; Padez, Cristina

    2018-04-20

    The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) and its association with anthropometric indicators of adiposity in Portuguese schoolchildren. In this cross-sectional study, a nationally representative sample of 6-9-year-old children was analyzed. Weight and height (used to calculate body mass index [BMI]), blood pressure (BP), waist circumference (WC) and skinfold thickness (used to estimate body fat percentage [BFP]) were measured using standard techniques. BP was classified as high-normal BP or hypertension for values between the 90th and 95th percentiles or above the 95th percentile, respectively. A body adiposity index was calculated with principal component analysis using BMI, WC and BFP. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the strength of the association between anthropometric indicators and HBP. The prevalence of high-normal BP and hypertension was 4.5% and 3.7%, respectively. BP was positively correlated with all anthropometric indicators (p<0.01 for all). HBP was significantly more prevalent in females than in males and was positively associated with higher values of the assessed anthropometric indicators of adiposity, especially among females. Increased body fat predicted HBP. The use of anthropometric indicators may thus be useful in screening for HBP among Portuguese schoolchildren. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Clustering of body composition, blood pressure and physical activity in Portuguese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Santos, Daniel; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; de Souza, Michele Caroline; Diego, Vincent Paul; Maia, José

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were: (i) to identify familial resemblances in body fat, blood pressure (BP) and total physical activity (TPA); (ii) to estimate the magnitude of their genetic and environmental influences; and (iii) to investigate shared familial aggregation among these phenotypes. The sample comprised 260 nuclear families from Portugal. Body fat was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. BP was measured by an oscillometric device. TPA was estimated by the Baecke questionnaire. Familial correlation analyses were performed using Generalized Estimating Equations. Quantitative genetic modelling was used to estimate maximal heritability, genetic and environmental correlations. Familial intra-trait correlations ranged from 0.15-0.38. Genetic and common environmental factors explained from 30%--44% of fat mass depots and BP and 24% of TPA. Genetic correlations were significant between BP and the fat mass traits (p < 0.05). Environmental correlations were statistically significant between diastolic BP and total body fat, trunk fat and arm fat (p < 0.05) and TPA and other phenotypes. The results suggest familial resemblance in the variation of body fat, BP and TPA, showing partial pleiotropic effects in the variation in body fat phenotypes and BP. TPA only shares common environmental influences with BP and body fat traits.

  7. Deleterious effects of anabolic steroids on serum lipoproteins, blood pressure, and liver function in amateur body builders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenders, J. W.; Demacker, P. N.; Vos, J. A.; Jansen, P. L.; Hoitsma, A. J.; van 't Laar, A.; Thien, T.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of self-administered anabolic steroids (AS) on lipoproteins, liver function, and blood pressure were studied in male amateur body builders. Twenty body builders were studied at the end of a course of AS (group 1) and 42 body builders were studied after discontinuation of the AS for a

  8. Classroom Approach for Managing Dietary Restraint, Negative Eating Styles, and Body Image Concerns among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Steven R.; Madanat, Hala; Smith, TeriSue; De La Cruz, Natalie

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In this exploratory study, the authors evaluated the impact of an elective college course on dieting levels, eating styles, and body image among college women. Participants: Participants were a convenience sample of 29 self-selected female students at a western university who were mostly white, normal-weight seniors with significant…

  9. Proneness to worry is negatively associated with blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity: further evidence of the blood pressure emotional dampening hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Luis Carlos; Vila, Jaime; Reyes del Paso, Gustavo A

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes differences in blood pressure (BP) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in relation to trait worry. 36 high worry and 21 low worry females were selected from scores on the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Cardiovascular parameters were obtained during rest, a self-induced worry period, and defense reflex to intense auditory stimulation. Low worry participants exhibited greater BP during baseline and greater BRS both during baseline and the self-induced worry period than high worry participants. During the defense reflex, low worries present a greater increase in BP. It is concluded that low proneness to worry is associated with greater BP and BRS. Increases in BP during aversive stimulation activated a negative feedback mechanism to inhibit distress and emotional reactivity to negative stimulation. These results support the BP-emotional dampening hypothesis and suggest that the baroreflex can be a relevant mechanism in mediating this effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lower body weight is associated with less negative emotions in sad autobiographical memories of patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Grosse Holtforth, Martin; Bents, Hinrich; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2013-12-15

    Food restriction and weight-loss have been proposed to represent pathogenic mechanisms of emotion regulation in anorexia nervosa (AN). However, there is a lack of studies empirically examining this hypothesis. Therefore, the present study compared 25 women with AN and 25 healthy control women (HC) regarding spontaneous emotional processing of autobiographic memories. Participants' idiographic memories of sad autobiographic events were analyzed using computerized, quantitative text analysis as an unobtrusive approach of nonreactive assessment. Compared to HC, AN patients retrieved more negative but a comparable number of positive emotions. Moreover, the lesser the body weight in AN patients, the lesser negative emotions they retrieved, irrespective of current levels of depressive symptoms and duration of illness. No such association was found in HC. These preliminary findings are in line with models of AN proposing that food restriction and weight-loss may be negatively reinforced by the alleviation of aversive emotional responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Body mass index correlates negatively with white matter integrity in the fornix and corpus callosum: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiansong; Li, Yang; Lin, Haiqun; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-05-01

    Overweight or obese body habitus is associated with cognitive deficits, impaired brain function, gray matter atrophy, and white matter (WM) hyperintensities. However, few diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have assessed WM integrity in relation to overweight or obese status. This study assessed relationships between body mass index (BMI) and values of DTI parameters among 51 normal weight (lean), overweight, and obese participants who were otherwise healthy. BMI correlated negatively with fractional anisotropy and axial eigenvalues (λ(1)) in the body of corpus callosum (CC), positively with mean diffusivity and radial eigenvalues (See figure in text) in the fornix and splenium of CC, and positively with λ(1) in the right corona radiata (CR) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). These data indicate that BMI correlates negatively with WM integrity in the fornix and CC. Furthermore, the different patterns of BMI-related differences in DTI parameters at the fornix, body, and splenium of the CC, and the right CR and SLF suggest that different biological processes may underlie BMI-related impairments of WM integrity in different brain regions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Negative pressure of the environmental air in the cleaning area of the materials and sterilization center: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lopes Ciofi-Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the scientific evidence on aerosols generated during cleaning activities of health products in the Central Service Department (CSD and the impact of the negative pressure of the ambient air in the cleaning area to control the dispersion of aerosols to adjacent areas. Method: for this literature systematic review the following searches were done: search guidelines, manuals or national and international technical standards given by experts; search in the portal and databases PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL and Web of Science; and a manual search of scientific articles. Results: the five technical documents reviewed recommend that the CSD cleaning area should have a negative differential ambient air pressure, but scientific articles on the impact of this intervention were not found. The four articles included talked about aerosols formed after the use of a ultrasonic cleaner (an increased in the contamination especially during use and pressurized water jet (formation of smaller aerosols 5μm. In a study, the aerosols formed from contaminated the hot tap water with Legionella pneumophila were evaluated. Conclusions: there is evidence of aerosol formation during cleanup activities in CSD. Studies on occupational diseases of respiratory origin of workers who work in CSD should be performed.

  13. The Influence of the Bed with a Semiopen Hood on Bacteria Removal in a Negative-Pressure Isolation Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Min Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study numerically investigates the influence of a sickbed with a semiopened hood on bacteria removal in a negative-pressure isolation room. The parameters include air change rate, lying style, the length and height of hood, flow rate allotments, and the positions of outlets. The results show that the hood has excellent effect on the removal of contaminated air, which is much better than the case without hood. The flow field of patient's face up cough is very different from face side cough, and the contaminated air cannot be removed properly through one air outlet. There are three outlets on the hood, set straight above the patient's face and at both sides. The allotment of the exhaust flow rate of the upper outlet to that of side outlets is suggested to be 4: 6. When the total air change rate is above 6 ACH, the hood length has slight influence on pollutant removal. The increase of hood height has a negative impact when the patient coughs lying on back. When the side exhaust flow rate is high, the hood height has a slight impact for face side cough. The recommended air change rate for the negative-pressure ward with sickbed hood is above 5 ACH.

  14. Adjusting adiposity and body weight measurements for height alters the relationship with blood pressure in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willig, Amanda L.; Casazza, Krista; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Franklin, Frank A.; Amaya, Michelle; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adiposity measures are associated with increased pediatric blood pressure. However, this correlation can be confounded by the relationship of both variables to height. We evaluated whether adiposity and anthropometric measures were associated with pediatric blood pressure before and after adjusting each value for height. METHODS Participants included 281 African-American, European-American, and Hispanic-American children aged 7–12 years. Blood pressure percentiles were calculated according to pediatric guidelines using the average of four measurements. Total fat mass was determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Socioeconomic status was calculated with the Hollingshead index. Adiposity measures were indexed for height using log-log regression analysis. Partial correlations identified measures associated with blood pressure. Linear regression was used to test the association of those measures with absolute blood pressure, while logistic regression was used to evaluate the odds for hypertension. RESULTS More African-Americans (16.3%) presented with potential hypertension than European-American (5.1%) or Hispanic-American (2.7%) children. After adjusting for covariates, fat mass, body mass index, and waist circumference were positively significantly associated with absolute blood pressure and hypertension in African-American and European-American children (P < 0.05). When these measures were height-indexed, only waist remained significantly positively associated with hypertension risk in these two groups. No measures were significantly associated with blood pressure among Hispanic-American children. CONCLUSIONS In this multiethnic pediatric population, waist circumference was the strongest significant adiposity predictor of hypertension risk among African-American and European-American children. Additional research is needed to determine which environmental and genetic factors contribute to pediatric hypertension, particularly among Hispanic

  15. Comparisons of negative pressure wound therapy and ultrasonic debridement for diabetic foot ulcers: a network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruran; Feng, Yanhua; Di, Bo

    2015-01-01

    a network meta-analysis was performed to compare the strength and weakness of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with ultrasound debridement (UD) as for diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). PubMed, Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane library databases, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database were searched till February 2015. Clinical compared studies of negative pressure wound therapy and ultrasound debridement were enrolled. The primary efficacy outcomes included healed ulcers, reduction of ulcer areas and time to closure. Secondary amputation including major and minor amputations was used to assess the safety profile. Out of 715 studies, 32 were selected which enrolled 2880 diabetic patients. The pooled analysis revealed that NPWT including vacuum assisted closure (VAC) and vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) were as efficacious as ultrasound debridement improving healed ulcers, odds ratio, 0.86; 95% CI 0.28 to 2.6 and 1.2; 95% CI 0.38 to 4, respectively. However, both were better to standard wound care in wound healing patients. Compared with the standard wound care treated diabetic foot ulcers, NPWT and UD resulted in a significantly superior efficacy in time to wound closure and decrement in area of wound. No significances were observed between NPWT and UD groups in both indicators. Fewer patients tended to receive amputation in NPWT and UD groups compared to standard wound care group. The results of the network meta-analysis indicated that negative pressure wound therapy was similar to ultrasound debridement for diabetic foot ulcers, but better than standard wound care both in efficacy and safety profile.

  16. Comparisons of negative pressure wound therapy and ultrasonic debridement for diabetic foot ulcers: a network meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruran; Feng, Yanhua; Di, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: a network meta-analysis was performed to compare the strength and weakness of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with ultrasound debridement (UD) as for diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). Methods: PubMed, Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane library databases, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database were searched till February 2015. Clinical compared studies of negative pressure wound therapy and ultrasound debridement were enrolled. The primary efficacy outcomes included healed ulcers, reduction of ulcer areas and time to closure. Secondary amputation including major and minor amputations was used to assess the safety profile. Results: Out of 715 studies, 32 were selected which enrolled 2880 diabetic patients. The pooled analysis revealed that NPWT including vacuum assisted closure (VAC) and vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) were as efficacious as ultrasound debridement improving healed ulcers, odds ratio, 0.86; 95% CI 0.28 to 2.6 and 1.2; 95% CI 0.38 to 4, respectively. However, both were better to standard wound care in wound healing patients. Compared with the standard wound care treated diabetic foot ulcers, NPWT and UD resulted in a significantly superior efficacy in time to wound closure and decrement in area of wound. No significances were observed between NPWT and UD groups in both indicators. Fewer patients tended to receive amputation in NPWT and UD groups compared to standard wound care group. Conclusions: The results of the network meta-analysis indicated that negative pressure wound therapy was similar to ultrasound debridement for diabetic foot ulcers, but better than standard wound care both in efficacy and safety profile. PMID:26550165

  17. Topical negative pressure therapy Recent experience of the department of plastic surgery at Ibn Sina University Hospital, Rabat, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmoughit Echchaoui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe topical negative pressure therapy (TNP is a non-invasive method to treat chronic and acute wounds locally, using a continuous or intermittent negative pressure.The objective of this study is to present the first experience of this type of treatment used in clinical cases in our department. By presenting these cases, we highlight indication and efficiency of this new technique applied in relatively complicated situations, at the same time it also allows a significant improvement in treating injuries and chronic wounds.Materials and methodsIn this study, we present the recent experience of the Department of Reconstructive and Plastic Surgery of the University Hospital Center of Avicenne in Rabat. This therapy was used for the first time this year (in 2014, in three young patients who presented with chronic wounds associated with local and general factors that are unfavorable for the healing process.ResultsIn all three of our cases we obtained highly satisfactory clinical results.TNP allows wounds to bud in a shorter time, as well as a fast healing by second intention due to controlled wound healing or split-skin graft without using flaps. This enables to decrease the margin of error, the time and the number of dressing replacements, and to reduce the length of hospital stay.ConclusionThis is an expensive and specific equipment. However, the cost-benefit ratio analysis shows that it is an essential method that should be part of our therapeutic strategies.Keywords: loss of substance, negative pressure, budding, healing.  

  18. Role of the carotid body chemoreceptors in baroreflex control of blood pressure during hypoglycaemia in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Taylor, Jennifer L; Dube, Simmi; Basu, Rita; Basu, Ananda; Joyner, Michael J; Wehrwein, Erica A

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the carotid body chemoreceptors with hypoxia alters baroreceptor mediated responses. We aimed to examine whether this relationship can be translated to other chemoreceptor stimuli (i.e. hypoglycaemia) and hypothesized: 1) activation of the carotid body chemoreceptors with hypoglycaemia would reduce spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (sCBRS) in healthy humans and, 2) desensitization of the carotid chemoreceptors with hyperoxia would restore sCBRS to baseline levels during hypoglycaemia. Ten young healthy adults completed two 180-min hyperinsulinaemic (2 mU.kg FFM−1.min−1), hypoglycaemic (~3.2 µmol.mL−1) clamps, separated by at least one week and randomized to normoxia (PaO2 122±10 mmHg) or hyperoxia (PaO2 424±123 mmHg; to blunt activation of the carotid body glomus cells). Changes in heart rate, blood pressure, plasma catecholamines, heart rate variability (HRV), and sCBRS were assessed. During hypoglycaemia, HRV and sCBRS were reduced (pbaroreflex working range was shifted to higher heart rates. When hyperoxia was superimposed on hypoglycaemia, there was a greater reduction in blood pressure and a blunted rise in heart rate when compared to normoxic conditions (p0.05). In summary, hypoglycaemia-mediated changes in HRV and sCBRS cannot be exclusively attributed to the carotid chemoreceptors; however, the chemoreceptors appear to play a role in resetting the baroreflex working range during hypoglycaemia. PMID:24414173

  19. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in Infected Wound following Posterior Spinal Instrumentation using Simple Self-assembled System: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CW Chang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative wound infection in an instrumented spine patient is often disastrous. Management includes implant removal leading to spine instability. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT applied to the spine surgical wound is one of the wound care technique with successful results. We report a case of a man who sustained Chance fracture of Lumbar 1 (L1 vertebra treated with long segment posterior instrumentation, who unfortunately developed Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL positive E. coli infection one month after the operation. After careful debridement of the wound, the implant became exposed. Three cycles of NPWT were applied and the wound healed with granulation tissue completely covering the implant, and thus negating the need to remove the implant. In conclusion, the NPWT is a good alternative in postoperative wound management especially in an instrumented spine patient.

  20. Comparison of two negative pressure systems and syringe irrigation for root canal irrigation: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, C G; Fretes, V R; Ortiz, C P; Mereles, R; Sosa, V; Yubero, M F; Escobar, P M; Heilborn, C

    2016-02-01

    To compare in a laboratory study two negative pressure systems and syringe irrigation, regarding the delivery of a contrast solution (CS) to working length (WL) and into simulated lateral canals and the effective volume of irrigant aspirated during negative pressure irrigation. Twenty single-canaled incisor training models were constructed with six simulated lateral canals each (2, 4 and 6 mm to WL) and a size 40, 0.04 taper apical size canal. Each model underwent all irrigation procedures (EndoVac at WL (EndoVac-0) and WL-2 mm (EndoVac-2), iNP needle with negative pressure (iNPn) and syringe irrigation with the iNP needle (iNPs) and a 30-G side-slot needle placed at WL (SI0) and WL-2 (SI2) mm in a crossover design. CS was delivered at 4 mL min(-1) for 60 s with a peristaltic pump and a recovery device collected the volume (in mL) of irrigant suctioned by the negative pressure groups. The irrigation procedures were digitally recorded, and a still image of the 60-s time-point of irrigation was evaluated for CS distance to WL (in millimetres) after irrigation and penetration into lateral canals (3-point scale). Statistical tests used were Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test. EndoVac-0, iNPn and iNPs had median distances of CS to WL of 0 mm, followed by SI0 (0.2 mm), SI2 (0.7 mm) and EndoVac-2 (1.7 mm). There were no significant differences between EndoVac-0, iNPn, iNPs and SI0, but these were significantly different to SI2 and EndoVac-2 (P irrigation and that collected by iNPn (4 mL), but these were significantly greater than EndoVac-0 (2.8 mL, P irrigation procedures were ineffective at penetration into lateral canals. iNPn, EndoVac-0, iNPs and SI0 achieved greater irrigant penetration to WL. iNPn was able to collect a median volume of CS (4 mL) similar to that delivered by syringe irrigation (iNPp, SI0 and SI2). An adequate irrigant penetration into lateral canals could not be achieved by any of the systems. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John

  1. Refolding in high hydrostatic pressure of recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies in Escherichia Coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balduino, Keli Nunes

    2009-01-01

    The expression of proteins as inclusion bodies in bacteria is a widely used alternative for production of recombinant protein. However, the aggregation is a problem often encountered during refolding of these proteins. High hydrostatic pressure are able to solubilise the inclusion bodies in the presence of low concentrations of denaturant reagents, encouraging refolding protein with high efficiency and reduce costs. This work aims to refolding of recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli from inclusion bodies using high hydrostatic pressure. Three toxins, all featuring five or more disulfide bonds were studied: NXH8, Natterin 2 and Bothropstoxin 1. Suspensions of inclusion bodies of the three proteins were pressurized to 2000 bars for 16 hours. The buffers were optimized for refolding of the three proteins. The buffer used in the refolding of NXH8 was 50 mM Tris HCl, pH 9.0 with proportion of 1GSH: 4GSSG at a concentration of 6 mM and 2 M GdnHCl. Inclusion bodies were used in O.D. (A600nm) of 0.5. After refolding process, dialysis was performed at pH 7.0. The final yield of obtaining soluble NXH8 was 40% (28,6 mg of soluble NXH8/L of culture medium). The refolding of Bothropstoxin 1 was obtained in refolding buffer of Tris HCl 50 mM, pH 7,5 with proportion of 2 GSH: GSSG 3 and concentration of 3 mM and 1 M GdnHCl. Use with a suspension of O.D. (A600nm) of 0.5. The final yield of recovery of Bothropstoxin 1 refolded was 32% (9,2 mg of refolded Bothropstoxin 1/L of culture medium). The refolding of Natterin 2 was performed in the refolding buffer: 20 mM Tris HCl pH 9.0 at a ratio of 2 GSH: 3GSSG and concentration of 10 mM and 1 M GdnHCl and inclusion bodies O.D. (A600nm) of 6.0. The yield of Natterin 2 refolded was 20% (3,7 mg/L of culture medium). Physico-chemical and biological analysis were performed by SDS-PAGE, western blot, scanning electron microscopy, biological tests in vivo and in vitro and structural. The analysis conducted in NXH8 did not show

  2. A switchable positive and negative air pressure device for efficient and gentle handling of nanofiber scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotaling, Nathan A.; Khristov, Vladimir; Maminishkis, Arvydas; Bharti, Kapil; Simon, Carl G.

    2017-10-01

    A scaffold handling device (SHD) has been designed that can switch from gentle suction to positive pressure to lift and place nanofiber scaffolds. In tissue engineering laboratories, delicate fibrous scaffolds, such as electrospun nanofiber scaffolds, are often used as substrates for cell culture. Typical scaffold handling procedures include lifting the scaffolds, moving them from one container to another, sterilization, and loading scaffolds into cell culture plates. Using tweezers to handle the scaffolds can be slow, can damage the scaffolds, and can cause them to wrinkle or fold. Scaffolds may also acquire a static charge which makes them difficult to put down as they cling to tweezers. An SHD has been designed that enables more efficient, gentle lifting, and placement of delicate scaffolds. Most of the parts to make the SHD can be purchased, except for the tip which can be 3D-printed. The SHD enables more reliable handling of nanofiber scaffolds that may improve the consistency of biomanufacturing processes.

  3. Evidence-based recommendations for negative pressure wound therapy: treatment variables (pressure levels, wound filler and contact layer)--steps towards an international consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke-Sorensen, H; Malmsjo, M; Rome, P; Hudson, D; Krug, E; Berg, L; Bruhin, A; Caravaggi, C; Chariker, M; Depoorter, M; Dowsett, C; Dunn, R; Duteille, F; Ferreira, F; Francos Martínez, J M; Grudzien, G; Ichioka, S; Ingemansson, R; Jeffery, S; Lee, C; Vig, S; Runkel, N; Martin, R; Smith, J

    2011-09-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is becoming a commonplace treatment in many clinical settings. New devices and dressings are being introduced. Despite widespread adoption, there remains uncertainty regarding several aspects of NPWT use. To respond to these gaps, a global expert panel was convened to develop evidence-based recommendations describing the use of NPWT. In a previous communication, we have reviewed the evidence base for the use of NPWT within trauma and reconstructive surgery. In this communication, we present results of the assessment of evidence relating to the different NPWT treatment variables: different wound fillers (principally foam and gauze); when to use a wound contact layer; different pressure settings; and the impact of NPWT on bacterial bioburden. Evidence-based recommendations were obtained by a systematic review of the literature, grading of evidence and drafting of the recommendations by a global expert panel. Evidence and recommendations were graded according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) classification system. In general, there is relatively weak evidence on which to base recommendations for any one NPWT treatment variable over another. Overall, 14 recommendations were developed: five for the choice of wound filler and wound contact layer, four for choice of pressure setting and five for use of NPWT in infected wounds. With respect to bioburden, evidence suggests that reduction of bacteria in wounds is not a major mode of action of NPWT. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Obesity, body morphology, and blood pressure in urban and rural population groups of Yucatan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Pedro; Fernández, Victoria; Loría, Alvar; Pardío, Jeannette; Laviada, Hugo; Vargas-Ancona, Lizardo; Ward, Ryk

    2007-01-01

    To characterize body morphology and blood pressure of adults of the Mexican state of Yucatan. Rural-urban differences in weight, height, waist, and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were analyzed in 313 urban and 271 rural subjects. No rural-urban differences in prevalence of obesity and overweight were found. Hypertension was marginally higher in urban subjects. Rural abnormal waist circumference was higher in young men and young women. Comparison with two national surveys and a survey in the aboriginal population (rural mixtecos) showed similar prevalence of obesity as ENSA-2000 and higher than mixtecos and ENEC-1993. Abnormal waist circumference was intermediate between ENSANUT-2006 and mixtecos and hypertension was intermediate between ENEC and mixtecos. The Maya and mestizo population of Yucatan showed a high prevalence of obesity and abnormal waist circumference not accompanied by a comparable higher hypertension frequency. This finding requires further confirmation.

  5. Blood volume, blood pressure and total body sodium: internal signalling and output control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, P

    2009-01-01

    Total body sodium and arterial blood pressure (ABP) are mutually dependent variables regulated by complex control systems. This review addresses the role of ABP in the normal control of sodium excretion (NaEx), and the physiological control of renin secretion. NaEx is a pivotal determinant of ABP......, and under experimental conditions, ABP is a powerful, independent controller of NaEx. Blood volume is a function of dietary salt intake; however, ABP is not, at least not in steady states. A transient increase in ABP after a step-up in sodium intake could provide a causal relationship between ABP...... and the regulation of NaEx via a hypothetical integrative control system. However, recent data show that subtle sodium loading (simulating salty meals) causes robust natriuresis without changes in ABP. Changes in ABP are not necessary for natriuresis. Normal sodium excretion is not regulated by pressure. Plasma...

  6. Evaluation of the relationship between motion sickness symptomatology and blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybiel, A.; Lackner, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the development of symptoms of motion sickness and changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature. Twelve subjects were each evaluated four times using the vestibular-visual interaction test (Graybiel and Lackner, 1980). The results were analyzed both within and across individual subjects. Neither a systematic group nor consistent individual relationship was found between the physiological parameters and the appearance of symptoms of motion sickness. These findings suggest that biofeedback control of the physiological variables studied is not likely to prevent the expression of motion sickness symptomatology.

  7. Numerical simulation and optimization of Al alloy cylinder body by low pressure die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Guofa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Shrinkage defects can be formed easily at Critical location during low pressure die casting (LPDC of aluminum alloy cylinder body. It has harmful effect on the products. Mold fi lling and solidifi cation process of a cylinder body was simulated by using of Z-CAST software. The casting method was improved based on the simulation results. In order to create effective feeding passage, the structure of casting was modifi ed by changing the location of strengthening ribs at the bottom, without causing any adverse effect on the part’s performance. Inserting copper billet at suitable location of the die is a valid way to create suitable solidifi cation sequence that is benefi cial to the feeding. Using these methods, the shrinkage defect was completely eliminated at the critical location.

  8. Unusual idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patient with marked asymmetric and upper body parkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyunghun Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry of parkinsonian symptoms is strong evidence toward the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD. Lower body parkinsonism is characteristic in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH. We report an unusual INPH patient with marked asymmetric and upper body parkinsonism. An 83-year-old man presented with gait impairment and asymmetric clumsiness of movement. According to the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, the motor subscore was 12 in the left limb and 8 in the right. The score was 14 for both the upper and lower body. After the cerebrospinal fluid tap test (CSFTT, he showed marked improvement in the upper body score. A loss of asymmetry of parkinsonian signs, with greater improvement in the left limb, was presented. Fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl-nortropane (F-18 FP-CIT positron emission tomography (PET imaging was normal. In the differential diagnosis of elderly patients presenting with parkinsonism compatible with PD, we might need to consider a diagnosis of INPH.

  9. Intermittent negative pressure wound therapy with instillation for the treatment of persistent periprosthetic hip infections: a report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söylemez MS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Salih Söylemez,1 Korhan Özkan,2 Bülent Kılıç,3 Samet Erinç41Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Bingöl State Hospital, Bingöl, 2Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Medeniyet University, Istanbul, 3Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Orthopaedic Surgery Clinic, Istanbul Gelişim University, Tekirdağ, 4Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Göztepe Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, TurkeyAbstract: Intermittent negative pressure wound therapy with instillation (NPWTi is starting to be used successfully to treat early periprosthetic infections of endoprostheses. However, few articles have reported the outcome of treatment with intermittent NPWTi for late persistent periprosthetic infections of the hip. In this study, we report two cases who underwent several rounds of radical wound debridement for the treatment of a late persistent periprosthetic infection of the hip. Intermittent NPWTi was used in both cases. Patients were treated successfully and there was no recurrence after 3 and 1 years of follow-up, respectively.Keywords: negative pressure, vacuum-assisted, periprosthetic infection, hip

  10. Negative pressure wound therapy with Bio-Dome dressing technology in the treatment of complex wounds: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, H L; Spinazzola, J; Green, A; Rifkah, M; Faretta, M; Youshaw, D; Weaver, A; Zaki, P

    2014-04-01

    The treatment of complex wounds is difficult and not always effective. Various treatment options are used with varying degrees of success. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a cost-efficient and effective way to help treat these wounds. The use of a vacuum device applies the negative pressure to the site of the wound and promotes waste removal and increases circulation and tissue formation. While various NPWT systems are currently on the market, we utilised the ConvaTec Engenex® system with Bio-DomeTM technology; however, our case study is not intended to advocate the specific use of this system, but instead focuses on the use of NPWT as a viable option for wound healing. Each of the following case study patients presented with difficult-to-heal wounds that failed traditional therapeutic approaches. Through the use of NPWT, our patients saw major wound size reductions. Each patient exhibited at least a 94% reduction in wound area, wound volume or both.

  11. Does Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy for the Open Abdomen Benefit the Patient? A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Bojan; Jagrič, Tomaž

    2017-06-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is the most modern and sophisticated method of temporary abdominal closure. The aim of the study was to determine the significant predictors for mortality in patients with NPWT. University Clinical Centre Maribor, Slovenia MATERIALS AND METHODS:: The authors performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients treated with NPWT between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2014. In the univariate analysis, the type of wound closure, more than 7 NPWT changes, the total days with NPWT, and time to wound closure were significantly associated with death of the patient. In the multivariate analysis, only the number of more than 7 NPWT changes was found as a significant predictor for death (P = .038). Negative-pressure wound therapy is a method of choice for the treatment of open abdomen if there is a clear indication. However, clinicians should try all measures to remove the NPWT system and close the abdomen as soon as possible because prolonged use is associated with significantly higher mortality.

  12. Closed-incision negative-pressure therapy in high-risk general surgery patients following laparotomy: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, A; El-Masry, S

    2017-03-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) and wound dehiscence are dreaded complications following laparotomy in general surgical patients, and can potentially occur more often in various comorbid states. Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has a positive effect of on open and complicated wounds and so has been used for at-risk surgical incisions with the aim of redistributing lateral tension and holding incision edges together. The aim of the present study was to compare the rate of wound complications following laparotomy in high-risk general surgical patients with a clean incision treated with closed-incision negative-pressure therapy (ciNPT) with those receiving conventional care. A retrospective review was performed of the hospital medical records of patients who underwent laparotomy between 1 October 2010 and 31 March 2012. Records of 69 patients who received ciNPT and 112 who were managed by adherent gauze dressings were included in the final analysis. Two (2.9%) patients in the ciNPT group and 23 (20.5%) in the non-NPWT group developed a wound complication following laparotomy (P surgery patients considered to have risk of developing wound complications following laparotomy. © 2016 The Authors. Colorectal Disease published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. The efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy in the management of lower extremity trauma: review of clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakaris, N K; Thanasas, C; Keramaris, N; Kontakis, G; Granick, Mark S; Giannoudis, P V

    2007-12-01

    A large number of aids have been conceived and introduced into clinical practice (nutritional supplements, local dressings, technical innovations) aimed at facilitating and optimising wound healing in both acute and chronic wound settings. Among these advances, negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been introduced during the last 30 years, and has been analysed in over 400 manuscripts of the English, Russian and German literature. Until very recently, vacuum assisted closure (VAC) (KCI, TX, USA) has been the only readily available commercial device that provides localised negative pressure to the wound and is the predominant agent used to deliver NPWT featured in this review. We conducted a comprehensive review of the existing clinical evidence of the English literature on the applications of NPWT in the acute setting of trauma and burns of the lower extremity. Overall, 16 clinical studies have been evaluated and scrutinised as to the safety and the efficacy of this adjunct therapy in the specific environment of trauma. Effectiveness was comparable to the standard dressing and wound coverage methods. The existing clinical evidence justifies its application in lower limb injuries associated with soft tissue trauma.

  14. Measurement of negative ion mobility in O2 at high pressures using a point plate gap as an ion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Y; Kimura, T; Suzuki, S; Itoh, H

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental results for negative ion mobility in O 2 at 0.5-2.0 atm. The ion mobility is observed using a high-pressure ion drift tube with a positive corona gap (Geiger counter), which is constructed from a point plate gap and acts as a negative ion detector. The variation of waveforms in the burst pulse is observed by varying the voltage applied to the ion detector to find the optimum voltage that must be applied across the ion detector in O 2 . This is investigated carefully to ensure the precise determination of mobility. The distortion of the electric field near the mesh electrode, which operates as the cathode of the ion detector and as the anode of the ion drift gap, is then examined to determine the optimum applied voltage to suppress its effect on the measurement of mobility. The mobility is subsequently measured at a reduced electric field intensity of 2.83 × 10 -3 to 2.83. The observed mobility of 2.31 ± 0.03 cm 2 V -1 s -1 in O 2 is concluded to be that of O 2 - . This value is also obtained in experiments over a wide range of gas pressures (0.5-2.0 atm) and drift lengths (1.00-9.00 cm). The mobilities of O 3 - and O - are also obtained experimentally. (paper)

  15. [Mode of debridement, negative-pressure therapy combined with tissue transplantation for treatment of complicated and refractory wounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jin; Li, Hu-shan; Hao, Zhen-ming; Duan, Peng; Hao, Wen-jie

    2011-12-01

    To observe therapeutic effect of negative-pressure treatment combined with tissue transplantation on complicated and refractory wounds after debridement. After debridement, 20 patients with 20 complicated and refractory wounds hospitalized in our burn wards from May 2008 to June 2010 were randomly divided into treatment group (T, treated with negative-pressure from -19 kPa to -8 kPa, n = 10) and control group (C, covered with petrolatum gauze overlaid with saline gauze and dry gauze, n = 10) according to alternating method. On post treatment day (PTD) 4, 7, and 14, granulation tissues of wound surface in size of 4 mm × 3 mm × 2 mm were harvested for histopathological observation (including capillary growth, inflammatory cells, and collagen arrangement) with HE staining, and the numbers of vascular endothelial cells (VEC, with addition of rabbit anti-human coagulation factor VIII related antigen polyclonal antibody) and proliferation period cells (with addition of mouse anti-human Ki-67 monoclonal antibody) were counted by immunohistochemical staining. Data were processed with t test. Another 59 patients harboring 62 complicated and refractory wounds admitted to our burn ward at the same period were treated with the same mode of debridement, negative-pressure therapy, followed by timely skin or skin flap grafting. (1) Granulation tissue in T group grew more rapidly than that in C group. More capillaries and less inflammatory cells were observed in T group on PTD 7 as compared with those in C group. Collagen in T group on PTD 14 was more regular in arrangement than that in C group. The number of VEC per 400 times visual field in T group on PTD 4, 7, and 14 was respectively higher than that in C group (108.7 ± 11.2 vs. 31.0 ± 3.6, 138.0 ± 14.7 vs. 34.6 ± 4.5, 68.7 ± 6.9 vs. 55.1 ± 6.5, with t values from 4.62 to 30.28, P values all equal to 0.01). The number of proliferation period cell per 400 times visual field in T group on PTD 4 and 7 was respectively

  16. Effect of Negative Pressure on Proliferation, Virulence Factor Secretion, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence-Regulated Gene Expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effect of negative pressure conditions induced by NPWT on P. aeruginosa. Methods. P. aeruginosa was cultured in a Luria–Bertani medium at negative pressure of −125 mmHg for 24 h in the experimental group and at atmospheric pressure in the control group. The diameters of the colonies of P. aeruginosa were measured after 24 h. ELISA kit, orcinol method, and elastin-Congo red assay were used to quantify the virulence factors. Biofilm formation was observed by staining with Alexa Fluor® 647 conjugate of concanavalin A (Con A. Virulence-regulated genes were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Results. As compared with the control group, growth of P. aeruginosa was inhibited by negative pressure. The colony size under negative pressure was significantly smaller in the experimental group than that in the controls (p<0.01. Besides, reductions in the total amount of virulence factors were observed in the negative pressure group, including exotoxin A, rhamnolipid, and elastase. RT-PCR results revealed a significant inhibition in the expression level of virulence-regulated genes. Conclusion. Negative pressure could significantly inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa. It led to a decrease in the virulence factor secretion, biofilm formation, and a reduction in the expression level of virulence-regulated genes.

  17. The Key Roles of Negative Pressure Breathing and Exercise in the Development of Interstitial Pulmonary Edema in Professional Male SCUBA Divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Olivier; Regnard, Jacques; Gempp, Emmanuel; Louge, Pierre; Brocq, François Xavier; Schmid, Bruno; Desruelle, Anne-Virginie; Crunel, Valentin; Maurin, Adrien; Chopard, Romain; MacIver, David Hunter

    2018-01-03

    Immersion pulmonary edema is potentially a catastrophic condition; however, the pathophysiological mechanisms are ill-defined. This study assessed the individual and combined effects of exertion and negative pressure breathing on the cardiovascular system during the development of pulmonary edema in SCUBA divers. Sixteen male professional SCUBA divers performed four SCUBA dives in a freshwater pool at 1 m depth while breathing air at either a positive or negative pressure both at rest or with exercise. Echocardiography and lung ultrasound were used to assess the cardiovascular changes and lung comet score (a measure of interstitial pulmonary edema). The ultrasound lung comet score was 0 following both the dives at rest regardless of breathing pressure. Following exercise, the mean comet score rose to 4.2 with positive pressure breathing and increased to 15.1 with negative pressure breathing. The development of interstitial pulmonary edema was significantly related to inferior vena cava diameter, right atrial area, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, right ventricular fractional area change, and pulmonary artery pressure. Exercise combined with negative pressure breathing induced the greatest changes in these cardiovascular indices and lung comet score. A diver using negative pressure breathing while exercising is at greatest risk of developing interstitial pulmonary edema. The development of immersion pulmonary edema is closely related to hemodynamic changes in the right but not the left ventricle. Our findings have important implications for divers and understanding the mechanisms of pulmonary edema in other clinical settings.

  18. Development of the PRSEUS Multi-Bay Pressure Box for a Hybrid Wing Body Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Velicki, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    NASA has created the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project to explore and document the feasibility, benefits, and technical risk of advanced vehicle configurations and enabling technologies that will reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. A critical aspect of this pursuit is the development of a lighter, more robust airframe that will enable the introduction of unconventional aircraft configurations that have higher lift-to-drag ratios, reduced drag, and lower community noise. Although such novel configurations like the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) offer better aerodynamic performance as compared to traditional tube-and-wing aircraft, their blended wing shapes also pose significant new design challenges. Developing an improved structural concept that is capable of meeting the structural weight fraction allocated for these non-circular pressurized cabins is the primary obstacle in implementing large lifting-body designs. To address this challenge, researchers at NASA and The Boeing Company are working together to advance new structural concepts like the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS), which is an integrally stiffened panel design that is stitched together and designed to maintain residual load-carrying capabilities under a variety of damage scenarios. The large-scale multi-bay fuselage test article described in this paper is the final specimen in a building-block test program that was conceived to demonstrate the feasibility of meeting the structural weight goals established for the HWB pressure cabin.

  19. DC negative corona discharge in atmospheric pressure helium: transition from the corona to the ‘normal’ glow regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, Nusair; Farouk, Bakhtier; Antao, Dion S

    2014-01-01

    Direct current (dc) negative corona discharges in atmospheric pressure helium are simulated via detailed numerical modeling. Simulations are conducted to characterize the discharges in atmospheric helium for a pin plate electrode configuration. A self-consistent two-dimensional hybrid model is developed to simulate the discharges and the model predictions are validated with experimental measurements. The discharge model considered consists of momentum and energy conservation equations for a multi-component (electrons, ions, excited species and neutrals) gas mixture, conservation equations for each component of the mixture and state relations. A drift–diffusion approximation for the electron and the ion fluxes is used. A model for the external circuit driving the discharge is also considered and solved along with the discharge model. Many of the key features of a negative corona discharge, namely non-linear current–voltage characteristics, spatially flat cathode current density and glow-like discharge in the high current regime are displayed in the predictions. A transition to the ‘normal’ glow discharge from the corona discharge regime is also observed. The transition is identified from the calculated current–voltage characteristic curve and is characterized by the radial growth of the negative glow and the engulfment of the cathode wire. (paper)

  20. Second-order many-body perturbation study of solid hydrogen fluoride under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sode, Olaseni; Hirata, So

    2012-06-07

    A linear-scaling, embedded-fragment, second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) method with basis sets up to aug-cc-pVTZ is applied to the antiparallel structure of solid hydrogen fluoride and deuterium fluoride under 0-20 GPa of ambient pressure. The optimized structures, including the lattice parameters and molar volume, and phonon dispersion as well as phonon density of states (DOS), are determined as a function of pressure. The basis-set superposition errors are removed by the counterpoise correction. The structural parameters at 0 GPa calculated by MP2 agree accurately with the observed, making the predicted values at higher pressures a useful pilot for future experiments. The corresponding values obtained by the Hartree-Fock method have large, systematic errors. The MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ frequencies of the infrared- and Raman-active vibrations of the three-dimensional solids are in good agreement with the observed and also justify previous vibrational analyses based on one-dimensional chain models; the non-coincidence of the infrared and Raman mode pairs can be explained as factor-group (Davydov) splitting. The exceptions are one pair of modes in the librational region, for which band assignments based on a one-dimensional chain model need to be revised, as well as the five pseudo-translational modes that exist only in a three-dimensional treatment. The observed pressure dependence of Raman bands in the stretching region, which red-shift with pressure, is accounted for by theory only qualitatively, while that in the pseudo-translational region is reproduced with quantitative accuracy. The present calculation proves to be limited in explaining the complex pressure dependence of the librational modes. The hydrogen-amplitude-weighted phonon DOS at 0 GPa is much less structured than the DOS obtained from one-dimensional models and may be more realistic in view of the also broad, structureless observed inelastic neutron scattering spectra. All major observed peaks can be

  1. Stability of streambanks formed in partially saturated soils and effects of negative pore water pressures: the Sieve River (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimo; Casagli, Nicola

    1999-01-01

    Streambanks of alluvial channels are usually composed of loose materials, which are unsaturated in ambient conditions. Unsaturated soils are subject to negative pore water pressures, which cause an apparent cohesion. The latter is the main factor in allowing the stability of near-vertical banks. Even during moderate in-bank flow events, the apparent cohesion can be strongly reduced as the material approaches full saturation; therefore, during the drawdown phase, as the confining pressure of the water in the channel disappears, a bank failure is likely to occur. Channel bed-level lowering along the Sieve River, Central Italy, has caused widespread bank instability. A geomorphological reconnaissance of forms and processes was followed by in situ tests to determine the shear strength of the banks. Interpretation of the tests and a streambank stability analysis were based on concepts of soil mechanics for unsaturated soils, in order to obtain relations between bank angle and height in limit equilibrium conditions. A stability chart was obtained with curves for different apparent cohesion values, and a stability analysis was performed taking into account the effects of flow events. In order to investigate the pore pressure effects, a series of piezo-tensiometers were installed in a streambank of the Sieve River. Data from a 1 year monitoring period show variations in pore water pressure and matric suction as a consequence of rainfall, evapotranspiration, and water stage variations. A planar failure with a tension crack occurred in the upper cohesive part of the bank during December 1996. The safety factor has been expressed as a function of the geometry of the bank and of the shear strength of the material. Safety factor variations through time are therefore shown as a function of seasonal variations in matric suction.

  2. Study of blood pressure and blood sugar levels in adolescence and comparison with body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borade, Ashwin; Kadam, Gauri Shashank; Bhide, Gayatri; Dhongade, Ram

    2011-07-01

    Worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and its consequences prompted the WHO to designate obesity as a global epidemic in 2002. Being overweight is a risk factor for significant illness, especially diabetes and hypertension in adult life. To study the blood pressure and blood sugar levels and lifestyle parameters in adolescence and comparison with body mass index. In a prospective case control study, out of the 1000 screened, a total of 200 adolescents were considered out of which 100 were with high body mass index (BMI) and the other 100 were with normal BMI. Height, weight, BMI, waist hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure (BP), BSL, and associated risk factors like physical activity, fast food consumption, and computer/television watching were measured and screened. 109 (54.5%) males and 91 (45.5%) females were included. Maximum number [90 (45%)] of adolescents screened were in the age group of 17-19 years, while 54 (27%) and 56 (28%) adolescents were in the age group of 10-13 years and 14-16 years, respectively. According to CDC charts 2000, prevalence of overweight was 24% which was double when compared to WHO charts 2007. There was significant difference in prevalence of obesity; according to CDC chart it was 26%, whereas according to WHO chart it was 39%. The difference in blood pressures between cases and controls as per both CDC and WHO charts was found to be statistically significant (P 0.05) with BMI. The adolescents seem to have become heavier owing to environmental influences on growth patterns. So, a consideration should be given to shift the cut-offs for overweight and obesity to higher BMI percentiles if recent growth charts are to be followed. Adolescents with a BMI above the 95 th percentile (obese) are most likely to have obesity-related health risks.

  3. Adapting a Vacuum Assisted Closure dressing to challenging wounds: negative pressure treatment for perineal necrotizing fasciitis with rectal prolapse in a newborn affected by acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negosanti, Luca; Aceti, Arianna; Bianchi, Tommaso; Corvaglia, Luigi; Negosanti, Francesca; Sgarzani, Rossella; Morselli, Paolo Giovanni; Cipriani, Riccardo; Negosanti, Massimino; Patrizi, Annalisa; Faldella, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a newborn with acute myeloid leukaemia, who developed perineal necrotizing fasciitis due to Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, after twenty days of life. Following surgical debridement, she was effectively treated with topical negative pressure therapy (V.A.C.(R) device) with silver foam dressings, this achieved complete closure in thirteen days. Negative pressure therapy should be considered when conventional wound care fails to achieve complete wound closure, even in neonates.

  4. Effects of dressing type on 3D tissue microdeformations during negative pressure wound therapy: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, R; Zhao, Y; Kieswetter, K; Haridas, B

    2009-03-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy, also referred to as vacuum-assisted closure negative pressure wound therapy (VAC NPWT), delivered to various dermal wounds is believed to influence the formation of granulation tissue via the mechanism of microdeformational signals. In recent years, numerous experimental investigations have been initiated to study the cause-effect relationships between the mechanical signals and the transduction pathways that result in improved granulation response. To accurately quantify the tissue microdeformations during therapy, a new three-dimensional finite element model has been developed and is described in this paper. This model is used to study the effect of dressing type and subatmospheric pressure level on the variations in the microdeformational strain fields in a model dermal wound bed. Three-dimensional geometric models representing typical control volumes of NPWT dressings were generated using micro-CT scanning of VAC GranuFoam, a reticulated open-cell polyurethane foam (ROCF), and a gauze dressing (constructed from USP Class VII gauze). Using a nonlinear hyperfoam constitutive model for the wound bed, simulated tissue microdeformations were generated using the foam and gauze dressing models at equivalent negative pressures. The model results showed that foam produces significantly greater strain than gauze in the tissue model at all pressures and in all metrics (pobservation is consistent across all of the strain invariants assessed, i.e., epsilon(vol), epsilon(dist), the minimum and maximum principal strains, and the maximum shear strain. The distribution of the microdeformations and strain appears as a repeating mosaic beneath the foam dressing, whereas the gauze dressings appear to produce an irregular distribution of strains in the wound surface. Strain predictions from the developed computational model results agree well with those predicted from prior two-dimensional experimental and computational studies of foam

  5. Distribution assessment comparing continuous and periodic wound instillation in conjunction with negative pressure wound therapy using an agar-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycerz, Anthony M; Slack, Paul; McNulty, Amy K

    2013-04-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a widely accepted and effective treatment for various wound types, including complex wounds. Negative pressure with instillation was initially used as a gravity-fed system whereby reticulated, open-cell foam in the wound bed was periodically exposed to cycles of soaking with instillation solution followed by NPWT. Recent publications have alluded to positive outcomes with continuous instillation, where fluid is delivered simultaneously with negative pressure. To evaluate the distribution of instillation solutions to wound beds in conjunction with negative pressure, agar-based models were developed and exposed to coloured instillation solutions to identify exposure intensity via agar staining. This model allowed comparison of continuous- versus periodic-instillation therapy with negative pressure. Continuous instillation at a rate of 30 cc/hour with negative pressure showed isolated exposure of instillation fluid to wound beds in agar wound models with and without undermining and tunnelling. In contrast, periodic instillation illustrated uniform exposure of the additive to the entire wound bed including undermined and tunnel areas, with increased staining with each instillation cycle. These findings suggest that periodic instillation facilitates more uniform exposure throughout the wound, including tunnels and undermining, to instillation solutions, thereby providing therapy consistent with the clinician-ordered treatment. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  6. The determination of static pressures in contact zones between hard and soft bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanval, J.

    1997-10-01

    This thesis describes the development of a measuring device for the measurement of detailed contours of pressure between hard and soft surfaces, surfaces which vary from being small to relatively large. The techniques are based on the mathematical reconstruction of pressures on the contact patch on one side of the surface using experimental measurements of strain on the reverse side. The work has been geared towards a 'force-plate' made up of a closely-grouped nest of individual beams bending under the loading. The work in this thesis deals with the simple structure of one such simply supported beam. The work on one beam highlights significant difficulties in reconstructing profiles of pressures along one side of a beam in 'reverse calculation' using the distribution of strain on the underside. These difficulties are mathematical rather than physical in nature, the mathematical process of reverse calculation being an inverse problem. Considerable efforts in obtaining a regularisation method appropriate to the beam problem have proved successful in reconstructing actual loads in the form of known noise-roughened theoretical test loadings and experimental loadings. The mathematical problem of reconstruction is an inverse one for which a method has been developed based on the non-negativeness of the pressure distribution and the consequent convexity of the bending moment along the beam and on the known value of the total load. The problem is formulated as a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind for the pressure distribution and this is expressed as a convex combination of appropriate basis functions, the coefficients of which are determined from a constrained least-square problem. Suitable basis functions are Bernstein polynomials and B-splines. The method has been shown to be a regularisation one related to the projection methods for Inverse problems and because of convexity the method is successful with noise. The problem of determining the number of basis

  7. Finite element modeling for predicting the contact pressure between a foam mattress and the human body in a supine position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wookjin; Won, Byeong Hee; Cho, Seong Wook

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we generated finite element (FE) models to predict the contact pressure between a foam mattress and the human body in a supine position. Twenty-year-old males were used for three-dimensional scanning to produce the FE human models, which was composed of skin and muscle tissue. A linear elastic isotropic material model was used for the skin, and the Mooney-Rivlin model was used for the muscle tissue because it can effectively represent the nonlinear behavior of muscle. The contact pressure between the human model and the mattress was predicted by numerical simulation. The human models were validated by comparing the body pressure distribution obtained from the same human subject when he was lying on two different mattress types. The experimental results showed that the slope of the lower part of the mattress caused a decrease in the contact pressure at the heels, and the effect of bone structure was most pronounced in the scapula. After inserting a simple structure to function as the scapula, the contact pressure predicted by the FE human models was consistent with the experimental body pressure distribution for all body parts. These results suggest that the models proposed in this paper will be useful to researchers and designers of products related to the prevention of pressure ulcers.

  8. Experience with the vacuum assisted closure negative pressure technique in the treatment of non-healing diabetic and dysvascular wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Michael P; Fitzgibbons, Timothy C; McMullen, Scott T; Stice, R Colleen; Hayes, Dennis F; Henkel, Loree

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to report our experience with the Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC) negative pressure technique in patients with non-healing wounds of the foot, ankle, and lower limb. We retrospectively reviewed 17 patients with non-healing wounds of the lower extremity who underwent treatment using the Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC) device. Thirteen of 17 (76%) had diabetes mellitus, nine of whom were insulin-dependent, and 10 of whom had associated peripheral neuropathy. Eight of 17 (47%) had severe peripheral vascular disease. All had failed previous management with serial wound debridements and dressing changes; 15 of 17 (88%) had previously completed at least one course of oral antibiotics. Thirteen of 17 (76%) had previously undergone operative irrigation and debridement of the wounds; six of 17 (35%) had previously undergone revascularization procedures of the involved extremity. Five of 17 (29%) had wounds necessitating an amputation procedure prior to the present treatment; seven of 17 (41%) had failed treatment with local growth factors prior to the present treatment. Average length of treatment with the VAC device was 8.2 weeks. Fourteen of 17 (82%) wounds successfully healed; four underwent split-thickness skin grafting for wound closure; four were briefly treated with local growth factors; six were treated with only dressing changes following VAC treatment. Three of 17 (18%) wounds failed VAC treatment; all three patients had diabetes and had wounds located in the midfoot or forefoot; two of three had severe peripheral vascular disease. Our results indicate that the Vacuum Assisted Closure negative pressure technique is emerging as an acceptable option for wound care of the lower extremity. Not all patients are candidates for such treatment; those patients with severe peripheral vascular disease or smaller forefoot wounds may be best treated by other modalities. Larger wounds seem to be better suited for skin grafting or two-stage primary

  9. The impact of increasing body mass on peak and mean plantar pressure in asymptomatic adult subjects during walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Jones

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The implication of high peak plantar pressure on foot pathology in individuals both with and without diabetes has been recognized. The aim of this study was to investigate and clarify the relationship between increasing body mass and peak and mean plantar pressure in an asymptomatic adult population during walking. Methods: Thirty adults without any relevant medical history, structural foot deformities or foot posture assessed as highly pronated or supinated, and within a normal body mass index range were included in the study. An experimental, same subjects, repeated measures design was used. Peak and mean plantar pressure were evaluated with the F-Scan in-shoe plantar pressure measurement system under four different loading conditions (0, 5, 10, and 15 kg simulated with a weighted vest. Pressure data were gathered from three stances utilizing the mid-gait protocol. Results: There were statistically significant increases in peak pressure between the 10 and 15 kg load conditions compared to the control (0 kg within the heel and second to fifth metatarsal regions. The first metatarsal and hallux regions only displayed statistically significant increases in peak pressure between 15 kg and the control (0 kg. The midfoot and lesser digits regions did not display any statistically significant differences in peak pressure between any load conditions compared to the control (0 kg. The second to fifth metatarsal region displayed statistically significant increases in mean pressure in the 5, 10 and 15 kg groups compared to the control (0 kg. A statistically significant increase in peak pressure between the 15 kg and control (0 kg group was evident in all other regions. Conclusion: The relationship between increasing body mass and peak and mean plantar pressure was dependent upon the plantar region. This study provides more detail outlining the response of peak and mean pressure to different loading conditions than previously reported in the

  10. High bacterial load in negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) foams used in the treatment of chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Erlangga; Jordan, Xavier; Clauss, Martin; Borens, Olivier; Mäder, Mark; Trampuz, Andrej

    2013-01-01

    No earlier study has investigated the microbiology of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) foam using a standardized manner. The purpose of this study is to investigate the bacterial load and microbiological dynamics in NPWT foam removed from chronic wounds (>3 months). To determine the bacterial load, a standardized size of the removed NPWT foam was sonicated. The resulting sonication fluid was cultured, and the colony-forming units (CFU) of each species were enumerated. Sixty-eight foams from 17 patients (mean age 63 years, 71% males) were investigated. In 65 (97%) foams, ≥ 1 and in 37 (54%) ≥ 2 bacterial types were found. The bacterial load remained high during NPWT treatment, ranging from 10(4) to 10(6) CFU/ml. In three patients (27%), additional type of bacteria was found in subsequent foam cultures. The mean bacterial count ± standard deviation was higher in polyvinyl alcohol foam (6.1 ± 0.5 CFU/ml) than in polyurethane (5.5 ± 0.8 CFU/ml) (p = 0.02). The mean of log of sum of CFU/ml in foam from 125 mmHg (5.5 ± 0.8) was lower than in foam from 100 mmHg pressure (5.9 ± 0.5) (p = 0.01). Concluding, bacterial load remains high in NPWT foam, and routine changing does not reduce the load. © 2013 by the Wound Healing Society.

  11. The effect of negative pressure wound therapy with antibacterial dressings or antiseptics on an in vitro wound model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiasek, J; Domig, K J; Djedovic, G; Babeluk, R; Assadian, O

    2017-05-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial bioburden in experimental in vitro wounds during the application of conventional negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), with and without antimicrobial dressings (polyhexanide, silver), against NPWT instillation of octenidine. Experimental wounds produced in an in vitro porcine wound model were homogenously contaminated with bacterial suspension and treated with NPWT and different options. Group A: non-antimicrobial polyurethane foam dressing; group B: antimicrobial polyurethane foam dressing containing silver; group C: antimicrobial gauze dressing containing polyhexanide; group D: non-antimicrobial polyurethane foam dressing intermittently irrigated with octenidine; group E: negative control (non-antimicrobial polyurethane foam dressing without NPWT). Standard biopsies were harvested after 24 and 28 hours. This study demonstrated that the use of NPWT with intermitted instillation of octenidine (group D) or application of silver-based polyurethane foam dressings (group B) is significantly superior against Staphylococcus aureus colonisation in experimental wounds compared with non-antimicrobial polyurethane foam dressing (group A) after 48 hours. Surprisingly, the polyhexanide-based dressing (group C) used in this model showed no statistical significant effect compared with the control group (group E) after 24 or 48 hours of treatment. Both intermitted instillation of octenidine and silver-based dressings in standard NPWT were significantly superior compared with non-antimicrobial polyurethane foam dressings or PHMB coated gauze dressing after 48 hours.

  12. Hybrid Wing-Body Pressurized Fuselage and Bulkhead, Design and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    The structural weight reduction of a pressurized Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) fuselage is a serious challenge. Hence, research and development are presently being continued at NASA under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) and Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) projects in collaboration with the Boeing Company, Huntington Beach and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). In this paper, a structural analysis of the HWB fuselage and bulkhead panels is presented, with the objectives of design improvement and structural weight reduction. First, orthotropic plate theories for sizing, and equivalent plate analysis with appropriate simplification are considered. Then parametric finite-element analysis of a fuselage section and bulkhead are conducted using advanced stitched composite structural concepts, which are presently being developed at Boeing for pressurized HWB flight vehicles. With this advanced stiffened-shell design, structural weights are computed and compared to the thick sandwich, vaulted-ribbed-shell, and multi-bubble stiffened-shell structural concepts that had been studied previously. The analytical and numerical results are discussed to assess the overall weight/strength advantages.

  13. Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) Pressurized Fuselage Modeling, Analysis, and Design for Weight Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the interim progress for an in-house study that is directed toward innovative structural analysis and design of next-generation advanced aircraft concepts, such as the Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) and the Advanced Mobility Concept-X flight vehicles, for structural weight reduction and associated performance enhancement. Unlike the conventional, skin-stringer-frame construction for a cylindrical fuselage, the box-type pressurized fuselage panels in the HWB undergo significant deformation of the outer aerodynamic surfaces, which must be minimized without significant structural weight penalty. Simple beam and orthotropic plate theory is first considered for sizing, analytical verification, and possible equivalent-plate analysis with appropriate simplification. By designing advanced composite stiffened-shell configurations, significant weight reduction may be possible compared with the sandwich and ribbed-shell structural concepts that have been studied previously. The study involves independent analysis of the advanced composite structural concepts that are presently being developed by The Boeing Company for pressurized HWB flight vehicles. High-fidelity parametric finite-element models of test coupons, panels, and multibay fuselage sections, were developed for conducting design studies and identifying critical areas of potential failure. Interim results are discussed to assess the overall weight/strength advantages.

  14. Effects of Restricted Fructose Access on Body Weight and Blood Pressure Circadian Rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Senador

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-fructose diet is known to produce cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies. The objective was to determine whether the timing of high fructose (10% liquid solution intake affect the metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes. Male C57BL mice with radiotelemetric probes were divided into four groups: (1 24 h water (control; (2 24 h fructose (F24; (3 12 h fructose during the light phase (F12L; (4 12 h fructose during the dark phase (F12D. All fructose groups had higher fluid intake. Body weight was increased in mice on restricted access with no difference in total caloric intake. Fasting glycemia was higher in groups with restricted access. F24 mice showed a fructose-induced blood pressure increase during the dark period. Blood pressure circadian rhythms were absent in F12L mice. Results suggest that the timing of fructose intake is an important variable in the etiology of cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies produced by high fructose consumption.

  15. Helicobacter pylori-negative Russell body gastritis: does the diagnosis call for screening for plasmacytic malignancies, especially multiple myeloma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klair, Jagpal Singh; Girotra, Mohit; Kaur, Aneet; Aduli, Farshad

    2014-01-01

    Russell body gastritis (RBG) is a rare entity with unestablished pathophysiology, endoscopic findings, clinical manifestations and treatments. Literature is scarce on this clinical entity with unclear clinical significance. Of 18 cases reported, 12 tested (+) for Helicobacter pylori and improved with treatment, but it remains unclear whether this link is coincidental or bears some clinical significance. We describe a case of elderly woman who had a follow-up oesophagogastroduodenoscopy for chronic peptic ulcers, and biopsy showed positive immunohistochemical stains for κ and λ, indicating a polytypic population of plasma cells. Immunostaining for H pylori was negative. Biopsies were also (−) for gastric carcinoma, lymphoma and plasmacytoma. Considering her RGB-suggestive histology and her symptoms of bone pains and anaemia, multiple myeloma screening was considered clinically relevant. The purpose of this review was to educate clinicians and gastroenterologists about this unique entity and explore its association with multiple myeloma or other plamacytic malignancies. PMID:24671320

  16. [Aerodynamics study on pressure changes inside pressure-type whole-body plethysmograph produced by flowing air].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Hua; Shen, Hua-Hao

    2010-02-25

    When using pressure-type plethysmography to test lung function of rodents, calculation of lung volume is always based on Boyle's law. The precondition of Boyle's law is that perfect air is static. However, air in the chamber is flowing continuously when a rodent breathes inside the chamber. Therefore, Boyle's law, a principle of air statics, may not be appropriate for measuring pressure changes of flowing air. In this study, we deduced equations for pressure changes inside pressure-type plethysmograph and then designed three experiments to testify the theoretic deduction. The results of theoretic deduction indicated that increased pressure was generated from two sources: one was based on Boyle's law, and the other was based on the law of conservation of momentum. In the first experiment, after injecting 0.1 mL, 0.2 mL, 0.4 mL of air into the plethysmograph, the pressure inside the chamber increased sharply to a peak value, then promptly decreased to horizontal pressure. Peak values were significantly higher than the horizontal values (P<0.001). This observation revealed that flowing air made an extra effect on air pressure in the plethysmograph. In the second experiment, the same volume of air was injected into the plethysmograph at different frequencies (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 Hz) and pressure changes inside were measured. The results showed that, with increasing frequencies, the pressure changes in the chamber became significantly higher (P<0.001). In the third experiment, small animal ventilator and pipette were used to make two types of airflow with different functions of time. The pressure changes produced by the ventilator were significantly greater than those produced by the pipette (P<0.001). Based on the data obtained, we draw the conclusion that, the flow of air plays a role in pressure changes inside the plethysmograph, and the faster the airflow is, the higher the pressure changes reach. Furthermore, the type of airflow also influences the pressure changes.

  17. Effect of body position on preterm newborns receiving continuous positive airway pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunherotti, Marisa Aa; Martinez, Edson Z; Martinez, Francisco E

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of body position on the cardiorespiratory indicators of preterm newborns receiving nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Analytical, observational, prospective, cross-sectional, randomised crossover study was carried out on sixteen newborns that received nasal CPAP. The infants had a mean gestational age of 29.7 ± 2 weeks and birthweight of 1353 ± 280 g. Cardiorespiratory indicators (respiratory rate, heart rate and oxygen saturation) were evaluated in each infant in the supine, prone and right and left lateral decubitus positions at intervals of 10 min over a period of 60 min. The cardiorespiratory indicators were similar and within the normal range in the four decubitus positions. There was no difference in respiratory or heart rate between body positions. Although they showed desirable values, oxygen saturation was significantly lower in left lateral decubitus (96.6 ± 1.7%) when compared to the supine (97.1 ± 1.3%) and prone positions (97.4 ± 1.1%) (p = 0.00) and was also significantly lower in right lateral decubitus (96.9 ± 1.4%) when compared to the prone position (p = 0.00). We found no preferential decubitus position for preterm newborns receiving nasal CPAP, the supine position may be a choice, but the left and right lateral positions were less advantageous in terms of oxygen saturation. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Immediate Effects of Body Checking Behaviour on Negative and Positive Emotions in Women with Eating Disorders: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nicole; Lindenberg, Julia; Zeeck, Almut; Kosfelder, Joachim; Vocks, Silja

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive-behavioural models of eating disorders state that body checking arises in response to negative emotions in order to reduce the aversive emotional state and is therefore negatively reinforced. This study empirically tests this assumption. For a seven-day period, women with eating disorders (n = 26) and healthy controls (n = 29) were provided with a handheld computer for assessing occurring body checking strategies as well as negative and positive emotions. Serving as control condition, randomized computer-emitted acoustic signals prompted reports on body checking and emotions. There was no difference in the intensity of negative emotions before body checking and in control situations across groups. However, from pre- to post-body checking, an increase in negative emotions was found. This effect was more pronounced in women with eating disorders compared with healthy controls. Results are contradictory to the assumptions of the cognitive-behavioural model, as body checking does not seem to reduce negative emotions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  19. Tribocorrosion in pressurized high temperature water: a mass flow model based on the third body approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guadalupe Maldonado, S.

    2014-07-01

    Pressurized water reactors (PWR) used for power generation are operated at elevated temperatures (280-300 °C) and under higher pressure (120-150 bar). In addition to these harsh environmental conditions some components of the PWR assemblies are subject to mechanical loading (sliding, vibration and impacts) leading to undesirable and hardly controllable material degradation phenomena. In such situations wear is determined by the complex interplay (tribocorrosion) between mechanical, material and physical-chemical phenomena. Tribocorrosion in PWR conditions is at present little understood and models need to be developed in order to predict component lifetime over several decades. The goal of this project, carried out in collaboration with the French company AREVA NP, is to develop a predictive model based on the mechanistic understanding of tribocorrosion of specific PWR components (stainless steel control assemblies, stellite grippers). The approach taken here is to describe degradation in terms of electro-chemical and mechanical material flows (third body concept of tribology) from the metal into the friction film (i.e. the oxidized film forming during rubbing on the metal surface) and from the friction film into the environment instead of simple mass loss considerations. The project involves the establishment of mechanistic models for describing the single flows based on ad-hoc tribocorrosion measurements operating at low temperature. The overall behaviour at high temperature and pressure in investigated using a dedicated tribometer (Aurore) including electrochemical control of the contact during rubbing. Physical laws describing the individual flows according to defined mechanisms and as a function of defined physical parameters were identified based on the obtained experimental results and from literature data. The physical laws were converted into mass flow rates and solved as differential equation system by considering the mass balance in compartments

  20. Overspeed HIIT in Lower-Body Positive Pressure Treadmill Improves Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojanovic, Boris; Shultz, Rebecca; Feihl, Francois; Matheson, Gordon

    2015-12-01

    Optimal high-intensity interval training (HIIT) regimens for running performance are unknown, although most protocols result in some benefit to key performance factors (running economy (RE), anaerobic threshold (AT), or maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)). Lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) treadmills offer the unique possibility to partially unload runners and reach supramaximal speeds. We studied the use of LBPP to test an overspeed HIIT protocol in trained runners. Eleven trained runners (35 ± 8 yr, VO2max, 55.7 ± 6.4 mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) were randomized to an LBPP (n = 6) or a regular treadmill (CON, n = 5), eight sessions over 4 wk of HIIT program. Four to five intervals were run at 100% of velocity at VO2max (vVO2max) during 60% of time to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim) with a 1:1 work:recovery ratio. Performance outcomes were 2-mile track time trial, VO2max, vVO2max, vAT, Tlim, and RE. LBPP sessions were carried out at 90% body weight. Group-time effects were present for vVO2max (CON, 17.5 vs. 18.3, P = 0.03; LBPP, 19.7 vs. 22.3 km·h⁻¹; P HIIT protocol at 100% vVO2max improves field performance, vVO2max, VO2max and submaximal HR in trained runners. Improvements are similar if intervals are run on a regular treadmill or at higher speeds on a LPBB treadmill with 10% body weight reduction. LBPP could provide an alternative for taxing HIIT sessions.

  1. Effect of body change positions on endotracheal tube cuff pressure in patients with head injury treated with mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahrokhi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maintaining endotracheal tube cuff pressure in the normal range of 25-30 cmH2o plays an important role in the prevention of related complications. Objective: The present study aimed to determine the effect of body change position on level of endotracheal tube cuff pressure in patients with head trauma under mechanical ventilation admitted in ICUs. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was implemented on 30 patients with head injury under mechanical ventilation who admitted in ICUs in 2014. Available method was used for sampling. The mean of endotracheal cuff pressure was measured in 6 different body positions in the two-hour intervals using standard manometer, immediately before, immediately after, 15 minutes and 2 hours after the change positions. Data was analyzed using Chi-square, t and Bonferroni tests. Findings: The mean of endotracheal cuff pressure in the left and right lateral position with an angle of 30 degrees and head to the body (Respectively 31.5±0.68 and 34.1±0.68 cmH2o and also the left and right lateral and a 45-degree angle to the body at the end of the period of 15 minutes and 2 hours after change positions was higher than the normal range (Respectively 31.9±0.92 and 30.4±1.5 cmH2o. In all cases, the mean of pressure differences were statistically significant (p<0.001 Conclusion: According to the unnatural changes in endotracheal tube cuff pressure due to body change positions, it is suggested that after changing position of the patient, measure the cuff pressure and correct it if it’s necessary.

  2. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Literature Review of Efficacy, Cost Effectiveness, and Impact on Patients' Quality of Life in Chronic Wound Management and Its Implementation in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaa Othman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a paper reviewing the National Health Service (NHS agenda in relation to the use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT in chronic wound management and assesses the evidence behind it, its cost effectiveness and the outcome it has on patients’ satisfaction and life style. Multiple studies over the last 10 years looking at clinical efficacy of NPWT with its cost effectiveness and the implementation of this service in the UK were reviewed. NPWT has showed a reasonable body of evidence to support its usage in chronic wounds with potential positive outcomes on finance and patients’ satisfaction. However, the NHS system shows significant variations in the availability and implementation of this useful tool, depending on care providers and resources availabilities. The paper concluded that the NPWT can be a useful source of cutting down costs of chronic wound managements and saving money by its effect on expediting wound healing, which can address a part of the financial crises facing the NHS, however, has to be considered according to specific case needs. There should also be a national standard for the availability and indication of this tool to assure equal opportunities for different patients in different areas in the country.

  3. Negative pressure wound therapy literature review of efficacy, cost effectiveness, and impact on patients' quality of life in chronic wound management and its implementation in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Diaa

    2012-01-01

    This is a paper reviewing the National Health Service (NHS) agenda in relation to the use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) in chronic wound management and assesses the evidence behind it, its cost effectiveness and the outcome it has on patients' satisfaction and life style. Multiple studies over the last 10 years looking at clinical efficacy of NPWT with its cost effectiveness and the implementation of this service in the UK were reviewed. NPWT has showed a reasonable body of evidence to support its usage in chronic wounds with potential positive outcomes on finance and patients' satisfaction. However, the NHS system shows significant variations in the availability and implementation of this useful tool, depending on care providers and resources availabilities. The paper concluded that the NPWT can be a useful source of cutting down costs of chronic wound managements and saving money by its effect on expediting wound healing, which can address a part of the financial crises facing the NHS, however, has to be considered according to specific case needs. There should also be a national standard for the availability and indication of this tool to assure equal opportunities for different patients in different areas in the country.

  4. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Literature Review of Efficacy, Cost Effectiveness, and Impact on Patients' Quality of Life in Chronic Wound Management and Its Implementation in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Diaa

    2012-01-01

    This is a paper reviewing the National Health Service (NHS) agenda in relation to the use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) in chronic wound management and assesses the evidence behind it, its cost effectiveness and the outcome it has on patients' satisfaction and life style. Multiple studies over the last 10 years looking at clinical efficacy of NPWT with its cost effectiveness and the implementation of this service in the UK were reviewed. NPWT has showed a reasonable body of evidence to support its usage in chronic wounds with potential positive outcomes on finance and patients' satisfaction. However, the NHS system shows significant variations in the availability and implementation of this useful tool, depending on care providers and resources availabilities. The paper concluded that the NPWT can be a useful source of cutting down costs of chronic wound managements and saving money by its effect on expediting wound healing, which can address a part of the financial crises facing the NHS, however, has to be considered according to specific case needs. There should also be a national standard for the availability and indication of this tool to assure equal opportunities for different patients in different areas in the country. PMID:22701169

  5. Role of different negative pressure values in the process of infected wounds treated by vacuum-assisted closure: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Yu, Aixi; Wu, Gang; Xia, Chengyan; Hu, Xiang; Qi, Baiwen

    2013-10-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device is widely used to treat infected wounds in clinical work. Although the effect of VAC with different negative pressure values is well established, whether different negative pressures could result in varying modulation of wound relative cytokines was not clear. We hypothesise that instead of the highest negative pressure value the suitable value for VAC is the one which is the most effective on regulating wound relative cytokines. Infected wounds created on pigs' back were used to investigate the effects of varying negative pressure values of VAC devices. Wounds were treated with VAC of different negative pressure values or moist gauze, which was set as control. The VAC foam, semiocclusive dresses and moist gauze were changed on days 3, 5, 7 and 9 after wounds were created. When changing dressings, tissues from wounds were harvested for bacteria count and histology examination including Masson's trichrome stain and immunohistochemistry for microvessels. Western blot was carried out to test the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Results showed that on days 3 and 5 the number of bacteria in wounds treated by VAC with 75, 150, 225 and 300 mmHg was significantly decreased compared with that in wounds treated by gauze and 0 mmHg pressure value. However, there was no difference in wounds treated with negative pressure values of 75 , 150, 225 and 300 mmHg at any time spot. Immunohistochemistry showed that more microvessels were generated in wounds treated by VAC using 75 and 150 mmHg negative pressure comparing with that using 225 and 300 mmHg on days 3 and 5. However this difference vanished on days 7 and 9. Morphological evaluation by Masson's trichrome staining showed increased collagen deposition in VAC of 75 and 150 mmHg compared with that in VAC of 225 and 300 mmHg. Western blot showed that the expression of VEGF and bFGF significantly increased when the wounds

  6. Understanding the Influence of Pressure and Radial Loads on Stress and Displacement Response of a Rotating Body: The Automobile Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the use of the finite element technique for analyzing stress and displacement distributions in wheels of automotive vehicles when subject to the conjoint influence of inflation pressure and radial load. The most commonly used considerations in the design of the rotating body are elucidated. A potentially viable technique for finite element modeling of radial wheel, subjected to loading, is highlighted. The extrinsic influence of inflation pressure on performance of the rotating body, that is, the wheel, is rationalized.

  7. The Effects of Variable, Intermittent, and Continuous Negative Pressure Wound Therapy, Using Foam or Gauze, on Wound Contraction, Granulation Tissue Formation, and Ingrowth Into the Wound Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmsjö, Malin; Gustafsson, Lotta; Lindstedt, Sandra; Gesslein, Bodil; Ingemansson, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is commonly used in the continuous mode. Intermittent pressure therapy (IPT) results in faster wound healing, but it often causes pain. Variable pressure therapy (VPT) has therefore been introduced to provide a smooth transition between 2 different pressure environments, thereby maintaining the negative pressure environment throughout the therapy. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of IPT and VPT on granulation tissue formation. Method: A peripheral wound in a porcine model was treated for 72 hours with continuous NPWT (-80 mm Hg), IPT (0 to -80 mm Hg), or VPT (-10 to -80 mm Hg), using foam or gauze as wound filler. Wound contraction and force to remove the wound filler were measured. Biopsies from the wound bed were examined histologically for granulation tissue formation. Results: Intermittent pressure therapy and VPT produced similar results. Wound contraction was more pronounced following IPT and VPT than continuous NPWT. Intermittent pressure therapy and VPT resulted in the formation of more granulation tissue than continuous NPWT. Leukocyte infiltration and tissue disorganization were more prominent after IPT and VPT than after continuous NPWT. Granulation tissue grew into foam but not into gauze, regardless of the mode of negative pressure application, and less force was needed to remove gauze than foam. Conclusions: Wound contraction and granulation tissue formation is more pronounced following IPT and VPT than continuous NPWT. Granulation tissue grows into foam but not into gauze. The choice of negative pressure mode and wound filler is crucial in clinical practice to optimize healing while minimizing pain. PMID:22292101

  8. Homemade-device-induced negative pressure promotes wound healing more efficiently than VSD-induced positive pressure by regulating inflammation, proliferation and remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyan; Hu, Feng; Tang, Jintian; Tang, Shijie; Xia, Kun; Wu, Song; Yin, Chaoqi; Wang, Shaohua; He, Quanyong; Xie, Huiqing; Zhou, Jianda

    2017-04-01

    Vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) is an effective technique used to promote wound healing. However, recent studies have shown that it exerts positive pressure (PP) rather than negative pressure (NP) on skin. In this study, we created a homemade device that could maintain NP on the wound, and compared the therapeutic effects of VSD-induced PP to those of our homemade device which induced NP on wound healing. The NP induced by our device required less time for wound healing and decreased the wound area more efficiently than the PP induced by VSD. NP and PP both promoted the inflammatory response by upregulating neutrophil infiltration and interleukin (IL)‑1β expression, and downregulating IL‑10 expression. Higher levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and lower levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were observed in the wound tissue treated with NP compared to the wound tissue exposed to PP. Proliferation in the wound tissue exposed to NP on day 10 was significantly higher than that in wound tissue exposed to PP. NP generated more fibroblasts, keratinized stratified epithelium, and less epithelia with stemness than PP. The levels of ccollagen Ⅰ and Ⅲ were both decreased in both the NP and PP groups. NP induced a statistically significant increase in the expression of fibronectin (FN) on days 3 and 10 compared to PP. Furthermore, the level of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑13 increased in the NP group, but decreased in the PP group on day 3. NP also induced a decrease in the levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)‑1 and TIMP‑2 during the early stages of wound healing, which was significantly different from the increasing effect of PP on TIMP‑1 and TIMP‑2 levels at the corresponding time points. On the whole, our data indicate that our homemade device which induced NP, was more efficient than VSD‑induced PP on wound healing by

  9. Effects of Carotid Body Tumor Resection on the Blood Pressure of Essential Hypertensive Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudim, Marat; Groom, Kelly L.; Laffer, Cheryl L.; Netterville, James L.; Robertson, David; Elijovich, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Removal of the carotid body (CB) improves animal models of hypertension (HTN) and heart failure, presumably via withdrawal of chemoreflex-induced sympathetic activation. The effect of CB tumor (CBT) resection on blood pressure (BP) in subjects with HTN is unknown. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 20 subjects with HTN (BP≥140/90 mmHg or use of antihypertensives) out of 134 who underwent CBT resection. Short-term (from 3 months before to the first reading after 30 days from surgery) and long-term (slope of the regressions on time over the entire follow up) changes in BP and heart rate (HR) were ascertained and adjusted for covariates (interval between readings, total follow up, number of readings and changes in therapy). Age and duration of HTN were 56±4 and 9±5 years. Adjusted short-term decreases in systolic (SBP: −9.9±3.1, p<0.001) and pulse pressures (PP: −7.9±2.7, p<0.002) were significant and correlated with their respective long-term changes (SBP: r=0.47, p=0.047; PP: r=0.54, p=0.019). Also, there was a strong relationship between adjusted short-term changes in SBP and PP (r=0.64, p<0.004). Out of 12 subjects with concordant decreases in short- and long-term BP changes, 6 (50% of responders or 33% of the total) had short-term falls of SBP ≥10 mmHg and of PP ≥ 5mmHg. To our knowledge this study is the first to show that unilateral CBT resection is associated with sustained reduction of BP in subjects with HTN. Hence, we suggest that targeted removal of the CB chemoreflex conceivably has a role in the therapy of human HTN. PMID:26051925

  10. Simultaneous irrigation and negative pressure wound therapy enhances wound healing and reduces wound bioburden in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kathryn; Bills, Jessica; Barker, Jenny; Kim, Paul; Lavery, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Infected foot wounds are one of the most common reasons for hospitalization and amputation among persons with diabetes. The objective of the study was to investigate a new wound therapy system that employs negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with simultaneous irrigation therapy. For this study, we used a porcine model with full-thickness excisional wounds, inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Wounds were treated for 21 days of therapy with either NPWT, NPWT with simultaneous irrigation therapy using normal saline or polyhexanide biguanide (PHMB) at low or high flow rates, or control. Data show that NPWT with either irrigation condition improved wound healing rates over control-treated wounds, yet did not differ from NPWT alone. NPWT improved bioburden over control-treated wounds. NPWT with simultaneous irrigation further reduced bioburden over control and NPWT-treated wounds; however, flow rate did not affect these outcomes. Together, these data show that NPWT with simultaneous irrigation therapy with either normal saline or PHMB has a positive effect on bioburden in a porcine model, which may translate clinically to improved wound healing outcomes. © 2013 by the Wound Healing Society.

  11. Platelet-rich plasma, bilayered acellular matrix grafting and negative pressure wound therapy in diabetic foot infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, W; Boey, J; Chen, B; Byun, S; Lew, E; Liang, Z; Armstrong, D G

    2016-07-02

    Management and treatment of acute severe diabetic foot disease in patients with suboptimal glycaemic control is a critical issue in wound repair. This paper discusses the clinical efficacy of an aggressive surgical intervention combined with targeted use of regenerative medical therapies in limb preservation. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), bilayered acellular matrix grafting and split-thickness skin grafting were combined to treat a patient with diabetes, foot necrotising fasciitis and gaseous gangrene. The wound was completely healed. The clinical outcome revealed that a multi-intervention strategy could be effective for large necrotising fasciitis wounds. Early clinical observation, suggests aggresive surgical intervention preserving intact tissue and targeted use of new regenerative technologies can lead to preservation of a limb. The authors have received no financial support for the material presented in this study outside of the scope of standard patient care reimbursement. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO. 81500596) awarded to Dr Wuquan Deng.

  12. Measurement of vancomycin hydrochloride concentration in the exudate from wounds receiving negative pressure wound therapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Yukiko; Matsumura, Hajime; Onishi, Masami; Ono, Sayaka; Imai, Ryutaro; Watanabe, Katsueki

    2016-04-01

    It has been reported that negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is effective in the treatment of contaminated wounds. We hypothesised that systemically administered antibiotics migrate to wound site effectively by NPWT, which provides the antibacterial effect. We measured and compared the concentrations of vancomycin in the exudate and blood serum. Eight patients with skin ulcers or skin defect wounds who were treated with NPWT and were administered an intravenous drip of vancomycin were enrolled in this study. The wound surfaces were muscle, muscle fascia or adipose tissue. We administered vancomycin intravenously to NPWT patients (1-3 g/day). The exudate was obtained using 500 ml V.A.C. ATS canisters without gel. Three days later, the concentrations of vancomycin were measured. The mean concentration of vancomycin in the exudate from NPWT was 67% of the serum vancomycin concentration. We found that concentrations of vancomycin in NPWT exudates are higher than the previously reported concentrations in soft tissue without NPWT. The proactive use of NPWT might be considered in cases of suspected wound contamination when a systemic antibiotic is administered. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Wound management with negative pressure wound therapy in postoperative infection after open reconstruction of chronic Achilles tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saku, Isaku; Kanda, Shotaro; Saito, Toshihiro; Fukushima, Takashi; Akiyama, Toru

    2017-01-01

    Deep infection after reconstruction of chronic Achilles tendon rupture is a major and intractable complication. We report a case of late deep infection following a surgery for chronic Achilles tendon rupture, and its simple and successful treatment with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Six months following the reconstruction of chronic Achilles tendon rupture, a deep infection developed and reconstructed part of the tendon ruptured again. After appropriate debridement. There is no definitive treatment strategy for postoperative infection following open Achilles tendon repair. NPWT was applied to the wound, to promote wound healing and healthy granulation. In our case, NPWT promoted the wound healing and the infected Achilles tendon with tendon loss formed a healthy bridge with granulation tissue spontaneously. The patient resumed her normal activities of daily living, without requiring tendon transfer surgery. NPWT seems to be a simple and successful candidate for this situation. NPWT seems to be effective for the treatment of postoperative infection following Achilles tendon repair, even in cases of tendon loss. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of Bacteria- and Fungus-Binding Mesh in Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Provides Significant Granulation Tissue Without Tissue Ingrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmsjö, Malin; Lindstedt, Sandra; Ingemansson, Richard; Gustafsson, Lotta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Bacteria- and fungus-binding mesh traps and inactivates bacteria and fungus, which makes it interesting, alternative, and wound filler for negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). The aim of this study was to compare pathogen-binding mesh, black foam, and gauze in NPWT with regard to granulation tissue formation and ingrowth of wound bed tissue in the wound filler. Methods: Wounds on the backs of 8 pigs underwent 72 hours of NPWT using pathogen-binding mesh, foam, or gauze. Microdeformation of the wound bed and granulation tissue formation and the force required to remove the wound fillers was studied. Results: Pathogen-binding mesh produced more granulation tissue, leukocyte infiltration, and tissue disorganization in the wound bed than gauze, but less than foam. All 3 wound fillers caused microdeformation of the wound bed surface. Little force was required to remove pathogen-binding mesh and gauze, while considerable force was needed to remove foam. This is the result of tissue growth into the foam, but not into pathogen-binding mesh or gauze, as shown by examination of biopsy sections from the wound bed. Conclusions: This study shows that using pathogen-binding mesh as a wound filler for NPWT leads to a significant amount of granulation tissue in the wound bed, more than that with gauze, but eliminates the problems of ingrowth of the wound bed into the wound filler. Pathogen-binding mesh is thus an interesting wound filler in NPWT. PMID:24501617

  15. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy on Surgical Site Infections in Women Undergoing Elective Caesarean Sections: A Pilot RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaboyer, Wendy; Anderson, Vinah; Webster, Joan; Sneddon, Anne; Thalib, Lukman; Gillespie, Brigid M

    2014-09-30

    Obese women undergoing caesarean section (CS) are at increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI). Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) is growing in use as a prophylactic approach to prevent wound complications such as SSI, yet there is little evidence of its benefits. This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) assessed the effect of NPWT on SSI and other wound complications in obese women undergoing elective caesarean sections (CS) and also the feasibility of conducting a definitive trial. Ninety-two obese women undergoing elective CS were randomized in theatre via a central web based system using a parallel 1:1 process to two groups i.e., 46 women received the intervention (NPWT PICO™ dressing) and 46 women received standard care (Comfeel Plus(®) dressing). All women received the intended dressing following wound closure. The relative risk of SSI in the intervention group was 0.81 (95% CI 0.38-1.68); for the number of complications excluding SSI it was 0.98 (95% CI 0.34-2.79). A sample size of 784 (392 per group) would be required to find a statistically significant difference in SSI between the two groups with 90% power. These results demonstrate that a larger definitive trial is feasible and that careful planning and site selection is critical to the success of the overall study.

  16. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy on Surgical Site Infections in Women Undergoing Elective Caesarean Sections: A Pilot RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Chaboyer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Obese women undergoing caesarean section (CS are at increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT is growing in use as a prophylactic approach to prevent wound complications such as SSI, yet there is little evidence of its benefits. This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT assessed the effect of NPWT on SSI and other wound complications in obese women undergoing elective caesarean sections (CS and also the feasibility of conducting a definitive trial. Ninety-two obese women undergoing elective CS were randomized in theatre via a central web based system using a parallel 1:1 process to two groups i.e., 46 women received the intervention (NPWT PICO™ dressing and 46 women received standard care (Comfeel Plus® dressing. All women received the intended dressing following wound closure. The relative risk of SSI in the intervention group was 0.81 (95% CI 0.38–1.68; for the number of complications excluding SSI it was 0.98 (95% CI 0.34–2.79. A sample size of 784 (392 per group would be required to find a statistically significant difference in SSI between the two groups with 90% power. These results demonstrate that a larger definitive trial is feasible and that careful planning and site selection is critical to the success of the overall study.

  17. The Haiti earthquake: the provision of wound care for mass casualties utilizing negative-pressure wound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Allen; Gialich, Shelby; Kirk, Julie; Edwards, Sheriden; Beck, Brooke; Sorocéanu, Alexandra; Nelson, Scott; Gabriel, Cassie; Gupta, Subhas

    2011-10-01

    Many months after the devastating earthquake in January 2010, wounds remain a major disease burden in Haiti. Since January 2010, through the efforts of corporations, nonprofit charitable organizations, and medical professionals, advanced wound care techniques, including negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT), have been introduced into the wound care regimens of various hospitals in Haiti. In June 2010, the authors completed their second volunteer trip at a Haitian hospital specializing in orthopedic wounds. The medical team was composed of a plastic surgeon, orthopedic surgeon, anesthesiologist, medical assistant, scrub technician, and registered nurse (specializing in plastic surgery and orthopedics). The authors' team supplied NPWT devices, reticulated open-cell foam dressings, and canisters donated by Kinetic Concepts, Inc, San Antonio, Texas, for use at the hospital. This report describes the medical challenges in postearthquake Haiti (including limb salvage and infection), benefits of adjunctive use of NPWT/reticulated open-cell foam, and current wound care status in a Haitian orthopedic hospital. The future role of NPWT in Haiti and during mass catastrophe in a least-developed country is also discussed.

  18. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Applied Before and After Split-Thickness Skin Graft Helps Healing of Fournier Gangrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Junna; Xie, Ting; Wu, Minjie; Ni, Pengwen; Lu, Shuliang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fournier gangrene is a rare but highly infectious disease characterized by fulminant necrotizing fasciitis involving the genital and perineal regions. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT; KCI USA Inc, San Antonio, TX) is a widely adopted technique in many clinical settings. Nevertheless, its application and effect in the treatment of Fournier gangrene are unclear. A 47-year-old male patient was admitted with an anal abscess followed by a spread of the infection to the scrotum, which was caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. NPWT was applied on the surface of the scrotal area and continued for 10 days. A split-thickness skin graft from the scalp was then grafted to the wound, after which, NPWT utilizing gauze sealed with an occlusive dressing and connected to a wall suction was employed for 7 days to secure the skin graft. At discharge, the percentage of the grafted skin alive on the scrotum was 98%. The wound beside the anus had decreased to 4 × 0.5 cm with a depth of 1 cm. Follow-up at the clinic 1 month later showed that both wounds had healed. The patient did not complain of any pain or bleeding, and was satisfied with the outcome. NPWT before and after split-thickness skin grafts is safe, well tolerated, and efficacious in the treatment of Fournier gangrene. PMID:25654376

  19. The correlation between body mass index and intraocular pressure in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lira de Albuquerque

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: There is evidence from some studies that support an association between obesity in adults and higher intraocular pressure (IOP. However, this association has not been completely studied in children. Our aim is to evaluate the association between child body mass index (BMI and IOP. METHODS: Ninety-six children attending the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP in Brazil were studied. Thirty-three were overweight/obese with a mean BMI of 29.7 ± 5.2 and 63 with a mean BMI of 20.8 ± 3.3. IOP was measured using the Goldmann applanation tonometer and was corrected for corneal thickness. The coefficient of correlation between BMI and IOP was calculated. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the IOP of children with or without overweight/obesity. The mean IOP was 13.5 and 13.0 mmHg for the right eye and 13.1 and 12.9 mmHg for left eye, respectively (p=0.38 and p=0.71. The results remained the same after correction by pachymetry; 13.0 and 13.1 mmHg for the right eye and 12.4 and 12.9 mmHg for the left eye, respectively (p=0.88 and p=0.41. The coefficient of correlation between BMI and IOP was 0.070 (p=0.496. CONCLUSION: These results do not show a correlation between body mass index and IOP in children. Further studies are warranted to clarify the association between BMI and IOP in children.

  20. Anomalous thermal expansion, negative linear compressibility, and high-pressure phase transition in ZnAu2(CN) 4 : Neutron inelastic scattering and lattice dynamics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mayanak K.; Singh, Baltej; Mittal, Ranjan; Zbiri, Mohamed; Cairns, Andrew B.; Goodwin, Andrew L.; Schober, Helmut; Chaplot, Samrath L.

    2017-12-01

    We present temperature-dependent inelastic-neutron-scattering measurements, accompanied by ab initio calculations of the phonon spectra and elastic properties as a function of pressure to quantitatively explain an unusual combination of negative thermal expansion and negative linear compressibility behavior of ZnAu2(CN) 4 . The mechanism of the negative thermal expansion is identified in terms of specific anharmonic phonon modes that involve bending of the -Zn-NC-Au-CN-Zn- linkage. The soft phonon at the L point at the Brillouin zone boundary quantitatively relates to the high-pressure phase transition at about 2 GPa. The ambient pressure structure is also found to be close to an elastic instability that leads to a weakly first-order transition.

  1. The Prevalence and Inter-Relationship of Negative Body Image Perception, Depression and Susceptibility to Eating Disorders among Female Medical Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Nurajirahbt Abdul; Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Zuhrah, Beevi

    2016-03-01

    Female students are thought to be more negatively impacted by body image ideals and often more susceptible to various eating related disorders compared to men. A previous study using a sample of female students in Malaysia did not identify whether the increase in susceptibility to eating disorders can be explained by the level of body image acceptance. To identify the prevalence of depression and susceptibility to eating disorders among a sample of 206 female students in one of the private universities in Malaysia and explore the relationship between depression, body image and susceptibility to eating disorders. In addition, this study aimed to determine whether depression is a mediator between body image and susceptibility to eating disorders among female college students. The Body Image Acceptance and Action Questionnaire were used to assess body image acceptance, the Patient Health Questionnaire to measure depression and the Eating Attitude Test- 26 was used to assess susceptibility to eating disorders. The results showed that 65.5% (n=135) of the students were depressed and 6.3% (n=13) were susceptible to eating disorders. There was a significant positive relationship between depression and eating disorders and a negative relationship between body image and depression as well as between body image and eating disorder. Further, the regression model showed that depression was partially mediating the effect of body image on eating disorders. Body image and depression contribute to eating disorders and treating depression could reduce susceptibility to eating disorders.

  2. The use of a negative pressure wound management system in perineal wound closure after extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) for low rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrien, H; Newman, P; Burt, C; McCarthy, K; Dixon, A; Pullyblank, A; Lyons, A

    2016-09-01

    Perineal wound healing is a significant challenge after extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) due to a high rate of wound breakdown. Negative pressure therapy has proven benefits in open wounds, and recently a negative pressure system has been developed for use on closed wounds at high risk of breakdown, such as apronectomy and hysterectomy. The aim of the present study was to determine whether negative pressure therapy applied to closed perineal wounds after ELAPE improved wound healing and compare outcomes to the published literature and outcomes from a historical cohort of patients who had undergone 'standard' abdominoperineal resection (APR) and primary closure of the perineal wounds. Prospective data on consecutive patients having ELAPE in the period from November 2012 to April 2015 were collected. The pelvic floor defect was reconstructed with biologic mesh. The adipose tissue layer was closed with vicryl sutures, a suction drain was left in the deep layer, the subcuticular layer and skin were closed, and the negative pressure system was applied. Any wound breakdown within the first 30 days postoperatively was recorded. Of the 32 consecutive ELAPE patients whose perineal wounds were closed within 30 days with the use of the negative pressure system, there was 1 patient with major perineal wound breakdown and 2 patients with a 1 cm superficial wound defect, which needed no further treatment. In the remaining 29 (90 %) patients, the perineal wounds healed fully without complications. Twenty-five patients underwent standard APR in 2010-2011 with primary closure of their perineal wounds. Ten out of 25(40 %) of patients who had undergone standard APR and primary closure of perineal wounds had major wound complications (p = 0.01). Our results suggest that after ELAPE the application of a negative pressure system to the perineal wound closed with biologic mesh may reduce perineal wound complications and may reduce the need for major perineal

  3. How bacterial cell division might cheat turgor pressure - a unified mechanism of septal division in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Harold P

    2017-08-01

    An important question for bacterial cell division is how the invaginating septum can overcome the turgor force generated by the high osmolarity of the cytoplasm. I suggest that it may not need to. Several studies in Gram-negative bacteria have shown that the periplasm is isoosmolar with the cytoplasm. Indirect evidence suggests that this is also true for Gram-positive bacteria. In this case the invagination of the septum takes place within the uniformly high osmotic pressure environment, and does not have to fight turgor pressure. A related question is how the V-shaped constriction of Gram-negative bacteria relates to the plate-like septum of Gram-positive bacteria. I collected evidence that Gram-negative bacteria have a latent capability of forming plate-like septa, and present a model in which septal division is the basic mechanism in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Changes in blood pressure, body weight and urinary catecholamines during austerities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, K; Aizawa, Y; Mori, K

    1987-01-01

    More than one hundred monks belonging to Nichirenshu, a major Buddhist sect in Japan, participated in the annual hundred days austerities during the winter. Cold water bathing, insufficient sleep, hunger and emotional impact are considered to be the major stressors experienced by the monks subjected to these austere regimes. This study was conducted to evaluate the endocrinological and physiological changes in twenty newcomer monks during the first four weeks of the austerities. The urinary concentration of noradrenaline (NOR) increased significantly during the first four weeks but not that of adrenaline (ADR). The changes in urinary concentration of ADR and NOR indicated the main stressors possibly to be low ambient temperature and hunger. NOR is thus probably a better indicator than ADR for evaluating stress under austere conditions. Blood pressure (BP) did not rise but the concentration of NOR was noted to increase. NOR may possibly be excreted in excessive amounts to maintain normal BP against hypotensive factors such as loss of body weight due to low calorie intake.

  5. Blood pressure, body mass index and risk of cardiovascular disease in Chinese men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jianfeng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is still uncertain whether increased blood pressure (BP has a stronger effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD in lean persons than in obese persons. We tested it using a data set collected from a large cohort of Chinese adults. Methods Systolic and diastolic BP, body mass index (BMI and other variables were measured in 169,871 Chinese men and women ≥ 40 years of age in 1991 using standard protocols. Follow-up evaluation was conducted in 1999-2000, with a response rate of 93.4%. Data were analyzed with Cox proportional hazards models. Results After adjusted for age, sex, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, high school education, physical inactivity, geographic region, and urbanization, we found that the effects of systolic or diastolic BP on risk of CVD generally increased with the increasing BMI levels (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. For example, hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence interval (CI per 1- standard deviation (SD increase in systolic BP within corresponding BMI levels were 1.27(1.21-1.33, 1.45(1.41-1.48, 1.52 (1.45-1.59 and 1.63 (1.51-1.76, respectively. Statistically significant interactions (P Conclusion Our study suggests that the magnitude of the association between BP and CVD generally increase with increasing BMI. Hypertension should not be regarded as a less serious risk factor in obese than in lean or normal-weight persons in Chinese adults.

  6. Proposing a Model for Analysing Relationship between Social Anxiety and Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Mediating Role of Fear of Positive and Negative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Damercheli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at determining the relationship between the social anxiety and the body dysmorphic disorder with mediation of fear of positive and negative evaluation. The research method was descriptive and had correlational pattern in which the structural equation modelling was utilized. The research community included the female bachelor and master students, being studied at Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran, in 2015-2016 academic year. In this research, 1000 students, selected based on clustering random sampling, have answered the questionnaires and then 280 students were selected as the final samples based on the purposive sampling. The research tools composed of body dysmorphic metacognitive evaluation, social phobia inventory, Leary’s brief version of fear of negative evaluation, and fear of positive evaluation. The data of subjects were analyzed using path analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, measurement model test and structural model test. The results stated that the fear of positive and negative evaluation together mediates the relationship between the social anxiety and the body dysmorphic disorder. In addition, the direct effect of social anxiety on the fear of positive evaluation, on the fear of negative evaluation and on the body dysmorphic disorder was affirmed. Therefore, the interventions that target the fear of positive and negative evaluation as the central components of social anxiety can help the prevention of growth in body dysmorphic disorder

  7. Self-imagery in individuals with high body dissatisfaction: the effect of positive and negative self-imagery on aspects of the self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Stephanie; Stopa, Lusia; Turner, Hannah

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive behavioural models of eating disorders highlight low self-esteem as a maintaining factor. This study explored the impact of positive and negative self-imagery on aspects of the working self (implicit and explicit self-esteem and self-concept clarity) in individuals with high body dissatisfaction (an important aspect of eating disorders). The impact of these images on state body satisfaction and affect was also explored. A group of participants with high body dissatisfaction completed measures of explicit self-esteem, self-concept clarity, state body satisfaction and affect prior to completing a negative (n = 33) or positive (n = 33) self-imagery retrieval task. Following this they completed the baseline measures and a measure of implicit self-esteem. Holding a negative self-image in mind had a negative effect on explicit self-esteem, whilst holding a positive self-image had a beneficial effect. There were no effects of imagery on implicit self-esteem. Holding a negative image in mind led to a significant reduction in self-concept clarity; however, positive self-imagery did not affect self-concept clarity. Holding a negative self-image in mind led to a decrease in body satisfaction and state affect. The opposite was found for the positive self-imagery group. Implicit self-esteem was not measured at baseline. Imagery techniques which promote positive self-images may help improve aspects of the working self, body satisfaction and affect in individuals with high levels of body dissatisfaction. As such, these imagery techniques warrant further investigation in a clinical population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Whole body UVA irradiation lowers systemic blood pressure by release of nitric oxide from intracutaneous photolabile nitric oxide derivates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opländer, C.; Volkmar, C.M.; Paunel-Görgülü, A.; van Faassen, E.E.H.; Heiss, C.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Human skin contains photolabile nitric oxide derivates like nitrite and S-nitroso thiols, which after UVA irradiation, decompose and lead to the formation of vasoactive NO. Objective: Here, we investigated whether whole body UVA irradiation influences the blood pressure of healthy

  9. Muscle activation and estimated relative joint force during running with weight support on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente Rona; Hovgaard-Hansen, Line; Cappelen, Katrine Louise

    2016-01-01

    Running on a lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) treadmill allows effects of weight support on leg muscle activation to be assessed systematically, and has the potential to facilitate rehabilitation and prevent overloading. The aim was to study the effect of running with weight support on leg mus...

  10. Rapid and variable-volume sample loading in sieving electrophoresis microchips using negative pressure combined with electrokinetic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li-Ya; Yin, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Min

    2008-07-01

    A rapid and variable-volume sample loading scheme for chip-based sieving electrophoresis was developed by negative pressure combined with electrokinetic force. This was achieved by using a low-cost microvacuum pump and a single potential supply at a constant voltage. Both 12% linear polyacrylamide (LPA) with a high viscosity of 15000 cP and 2% hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) with a low viscosity of 102 cP were chosen as the sieving materials to study the behavior and the versatility of the proposed method. To reduce the hydrodynamic resistance in the sampling channel, sieving material was only filled in the separation channel between the buffer waste reservoir (BW) to the edge of the crossed intersection. By applying a subambient pressure to the headspace of sample waste reservoir (SW), sample and buffer solution were drawn immediately from sample reservoir (S) and buffer reservoir (B) across the intersection to SW. At the same time, the charged sample in the sample flow was driven across the interface between the sample flow and the sieving matrix into the sieving material filled separation channel by the applied electric field. The injected sample plug length is in proportion with the loading time. Once the vacuum in SW reservoir was released to activate electrophoretic separation, flows from S and B to SW were immediately terminated by the back flow induced by the difference of the liquid levels in the reservoirs to prevent sample leakage during the separation stage. The sample consumption was about 1.7 x 10(2) nL at a loading time of 1 s for each cycle. Only 0.024 s was required to transport bias-free analyte to the injection point. It is easy to freely choose the sample plug volume in this method by simply changing the loading time and to inject high quality sample plug with non-distorted shape into the separation channel. The system has been proved to possess an exciting potential for improving throughput, repeatability, sensitivity and separation performance of

  11. Effects of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT on the body weight, blood pressure and vaginal bleeding in menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was a descriptive, retrospective trial conducted in 29 menopausal women. Each patient received treatment with conjugated equine estrogen (CEE 0.625 mg/day + medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA 5 mg/hari continuously for the period of 6 months. The average age of menopause was 53.7 years with duration of menopause of 5.5 years. The education level of patients was Senior High School and higher. During the period of 6 months of continuous combined HRT, a significant increase of body weight and systolic blood pressure was found, while diastolic blood pressure did not have any significant change. Vaginal bleeding in the form of spotting occurred in 69% of the patients during the use of continuous combined HRT. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:11-4Keywords: continuous HRT, menopause, body weight, blood pressure, bleeding

  12. Negative pressure wound therapy via vacuum-assisted closure following partial foot amputation: what is the role of wound chronicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David G; Lavery, Lawrence A; Boulton, Andrew J M

    2007-03-01

    Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) to evaluate diabetic foot wound therapies have systematically eliminated large acute wounds from evaluation, focusing only on smaller chronic wounds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the proportion and rate of wound healing in acute and chronic wounds after partial foot amputation in individuals with diabetes treated with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) delivered by the vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device or with standard wound therapy (SWT). This study constitutes a secondary analysis of patients enrolled in a 16-week RCT of NPWT: 162 open foot amputation wounds (mean wound size = 20.7 cm(2)) were included. Acute wounds were defined as the wounds less than 30 days after amputation, whereas chronic wounds as the wounds greater than 30 days. Inclusion criteria consisted of individuals older than 18 years, presence of a diabetic foot amputation wound up to the transmetatarsal level and adequate perfusion. Wound size and healing were confirmed by independent, blinded wound evaluators. Analyses were done on an intent-to-treat basis. There was a significantly higher proportion of acute wounds (SWT = 59; NPWT = 63) than chronic wounds (SWT = 26; NPWT = 14), evaluated in this clinical trial (P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in the proportion of acute and chronic wounds achieving complete wound closure in either treatment group. Despite this finding, the Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated statistically significantly faster healing in the NPWT group in both acute (P = 0.030) and chronic wounds (P = 0.033). Among the patients treated with NPWT via the VAC, there was not a significant difference in healing as a function of chronicity. In both the acute and the chronic wound groups, results for patients treated with NPWT were superior to those for the patients treated with SWT. These results appear to indicate that wound duration should not deter the clinician from using this modality to treat complex wounds.

  13. Negative pressure wound therapy in the management of late deep infections after open reconstruction of achilles tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosser, Philipp; Kelm, Jens; Anagnostakos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Infection is a major complication after open reconstruction of Achilles tendon ruptures. We report on the use of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy in the treatment of late deep infections after open Achilles tendon reconstruction. Six patients (5 males [83.33%], 1 female [16.67%]; mean age, 52.8 [range 37 to 66] years) were been treated using an identical protocol. Surgical management consisted of debridement, lavage, and necrectomy of infected tendon parts. The VAC therapy was used for local wound preconditioning and infection management. A continuous negative pressure of 125 mm Hg was applied on each wound. For final wound closure, a split-thickness skin graft was performed. The skin graft healing process was also supported by VAC therapy during the first 5 days. The VAC dressings were changed a mean average of 3 (range 1 to 4) times until split-thickness skin grafting could be performed. The mean total duration of the VAC therapy was 13.6 ± 5.9 days. The mean hospital stay was 31.2 ± 15.9 days. No complications with regard to bleeding, seroma, or hematoma formation beneath the skin graft were observed. At a mean follow-up duration of 29.9 (range 4 to 65) months, no re-infection or infection persistence was observed. The VAC device seems to be a valuable tool in the treatment of infected tendons. The generalization of these conclusions should await the results of future studies with larger patient series. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of body mass index on high blood pressure among obese children in the western region of Saudi Arabia

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    Abdulmoein E. Al-Agha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI on high blood pressure among obese children and adolescents in western region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Cross-sectional data were obtained from 306 (female: 140, male: 166 child, between August 2016 and March 2017. A questioner was filled by health professionals at ambulatory pediatric clinic followed by waist-hip circumference, height, weight, and blood pressure measurement. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP and systolic blood pressure (SBP were adjusted to gender, height, and age. World Health Organization growth standards were used to calculate BMI z-scores. Results: The mean age of subjects was 10.1 years. Body mass index increased SBP by 1.722 mmHg (p=0.001, and DBP by 0.901 mmHg (p=0.006 in boys, and 0.969 mmHg (p=0.036, and DBP by 0.704 mmHg (p=0.045 in girls. Waist hip ratio showed significant difference p=0.041, (p=0.0001 between male and female. Of the baseline characteristics, age greater than 11 years showed significant difference. Symptomatic manifestation of high blood pressure, family history of hypertension, level of activity, income level and post-secondary education in parents, did not show any significant results. Conclusion: Elevated BMI is associated with significantly increased diastolic and systolic blood pressure in obese children, especially in children older than 11 years.

  15. Impact of body mass index on high blood pressure among obese children in the western region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Agha, Abdulmoein E; Mahjoub, Areej O

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on high blood pressure among obese children and adolescents in western region, Saudi Arabia.  Methods: Cross-sectional data were obtained from 306 (female: 140, male: 166) child, between August 2016 and March 2017. A questioner was filled by health professionals at ambulatory pediatric clinic followed by waist-hip circumference, height, weight, and blood pressure measurement. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were adjusted to gender, height, and age. World Health Organization growth standards were used to calculate BMI z-scores. Results: The mean age of subjects was 10.1 years. Body mass index increased SBP by 1.722 mmHg (p=0.001), and DBP by 0.901 mmHg (p=0.006) in boys, and 0.969 mmHg (p=0.036), and DBP by 0.704 mmHg (p=0.045) in girls. Waist hip ratio showed significant difference p=0.041, (p=0.0001) between male and female. Of the baseline characteristics, age greater than 11 years showed significant difference. Symptomatic manifestation of high blood pressure, family history of hypertension, level of activity, income level and post-secondary education in parents, did not show any significant results. Conclusion: Elevated BMI is associated with significantly increased diastolic and systolic blood pressure in obese children, especially in children older than 11 years.

  16. Perception of body image of adolescents and of their parents in relation to the nutritional status and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira Vieira, Raquel; Dal Bosco, Simone Morelo; Grave, Magali Trezinha Quevedo; Adami, Fernanda Scherer

    2015-04-01

    The perception of body image of adolescents is an instrument for nutritional assessment to health conditions. To verify the body image perception of adolescents and their parents in relation to nutritional status and blood pressure levels. Population-based study, and cross-sectional model, conducted with parents and adolescents aged 10-19 years old, in rural and urban zones in public schools. There was applied the Scale silhouettes for parents about the perception of the described body image and a question about the concern of the nutritional status of their children. There were verified the blood pressure, weight, height and waist circumference, the BMI (kg/m²) calculation of the adolescents, and the self-perceived body image. The data was expressed as average ± standard deviation and percentages. The sample consisted of 914 adolescents with a mean age of 13.12 ± 2.17 years, 56.8% female and 68.9% were eutrophic. As for blood pressure levels, 17.6% were classified in pre-hypertensive, 18.8% in stage 1 hypertension and 6% in stage 2. About the self-perception, 68% considered themselves being eutrophic and 64.75% of the parents classified their children as eutrophic. There was observed a direct and significant correlation among the body mass index, waist circumference, weight, systemic and diastolic blood pressure with the self-perception of the adolescents and the body image perceptions of the parents (pbody image perceptions of the adolescents and their respective parents. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-Term Excessive Body Weight and Adult Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Are Linked Through Later-Life Body Size and Blood Pressure: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijie; Zhang, Tao; Li, Shengxu; Guo, Yajun; Shen, Wei; Fernandez, Camilo; Harville, Emily; Bazzano, Lydia A; Urbina, Elaine M; He, Jiang; Chen, Wei

    2017-05-12

    Childhood adiposity is associated with cardiac structure in later life, but little is known regarding to what extent childhood body weight affects adult left ventricular geometric patterns through adult body size and blood pressure (BP). Determine quantitatively the mediation effect of adult body weight and BP on the association of childhood body mass index (BMI) with adult left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. This longitudinal study consisted of 710 adults, aged 26 to 48 years, who had been examined for BMI and BP measured ≥4× during childhood and ≥2× during adulthood, with a mean follow-up period of 28.0 years. After adjusting for age, race, and sex, adult BMI had a significant mediation effect (76.4%; P adult LV mass index association. The mediation effects of adult systolic BP (15.2%), long-term burden (12.1%), and increasing trends of systolic BP (7.9%) were all significant ( P adult LV hypertrophy, eccentric hypertrophy, and concentric hypertrophy. Importantly, the mediation effects of adult BMI were all significantly stronger than those of adult systolic BP on LV mass index, LV hypertrophy, and LV remodeling patterns ( P adult cardiac structure, and early life excessive body weight and adult LV hypertrophy are linked through later life excessive body weight and elevated BP. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Negative pressure wound therapy in the management of mine blast injuries of lower limbs: Lessons learnt at a tertiary care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Sanjay; Srinath, N; Bhandari, P S

    2017-10-01

    Mine blast injuries of foot are devastating injuries that result in composite tissue loss or amputations. Negative pressure wound therapy has helped in the management of such combat-related wounds. The aim of this study was to report experiences gained in managing such injuries at a tertiary care center. 17 combatants who sustained mine blast injuries were included in this study. Severity of foot injury was assessed as per Foot and Ankle Severity Score. After wound debridement, negative pressure wound therapy was started and foot defect was appropriately reconstructed. Following wound healing, the foot was assessed for Foot and Ankle Severity Score in terms of impairment. The patients were then suitably rehabilitated by shoe modifications, orthosis, or custom-made prosthesis. Mean age of soldiers who sustained mine blast injuries was 30.2 years. The mean Foot and Ankle Severity Score was 3.76. Temporary wound closure was achieved using negative pressure wound therapy and it prevented local and systemic infection. The defect could be reconstructed appropriately using split skin graft, regional fasciocutaneous flap, or microvascular free flap. Mean time to definitive reconstructive procedure was 16.5 days. Mean Foot and Ankle Severity Score in terms of impairment was 4.11. All soldiers could be rehabilitated and were returned to their respective units and were able to perform sedentary duties assigned to them. The negative pressure wound therapy was helpful in preventing proximal amputations due to mine blast injury and was helpful in satisfactory reconstruction of foot defects.

  19. Major bleeding during negative pressure wound/V.A.C.®--therapy for postsurgical deep sternal wound infection--a critical appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingerden, Jan J.; Segers, Patrique; Jekel, Lilian

    2011-01-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy, commercially known as vacuum-assisted closure (V.A.C.®) therapy, has become one of the most popular (and efficacious) interim (prior to flap reconstruction) or definite methods of managing deep sternal wound infection. Complications such as profuse bleeding, which

  20. Blood pressure levels and body mass index in Brazilian adults with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pucci

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Increased life expectancy among people with Down syndrome (DS has introduced new environmental factors that may affect blood pressure (BP and/or lead to obesity in this population. The aim here was to investigate BP levels and body mass index (BMI in adults with DS, correlating these data with the patients' sex and age. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional observational study conducted in special schools in Curitiba (PR, Brazil. METHODS: 97 adult patients were included. BP was measured in accordance with the established guidelines. BMI was calculated by dividing the weight by the height squared (kg/m2. RESULTS: Sex had no influence on BMI; nor did systolic BP (SBP or diastolic BP (DBP. The age range was from 18 to 56 years. No correlation was observed between increasing age and greater BMI or BP. Eighty-six individuals (88.7% presented normal BP, eleven (11.3% prehypertension and none hypertension. Twenty patients (20.4% presented BP lower than 90 × 60 mmHg. BMI ranged from 18 to 48 kg/m2 (mean of 28.8 ± 3.92 kg/m2: 21.9% had normal weight; 40.7% were overweight; and 25.3% had obesity class I, 9.9% class II and 2.2% class III. Higher BMI was associated with significantly greater SBP and DBP (P = 0.0175 and P = 0.0015. CONCLUSION: Sex and age did not influence SBP, DBP or BMI in Brazilian adults with DS. Higher BMI was associated with greater BP (both systolic and diastolic.

  1. Longitudinal relationship of parental hypertension with body mass index, blood pressure, and cardiovascular reactivity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongling; Alpert, Bruce S; Walker, Sammie S; Somes, Grant W

    2007-05-01

    To investigate whether parental hypertension (HTN) affects children's body mass index (BMI) and cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) over time. A longitudinal study of 315 students (black: 23 females, 19 males; white: 142 females, 131 males) was conducted in the public schools of Obion County, Tennessee, between 1987 and 1992. BMI and BMI z scores were calculated. The CVR task was a series of video games (taking approximately 10 minutes to play) given to the same students in their third-, fourth-, fifth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade years. CVR was defined as the change in blood pressure (delta_BP) or heart rate (delta_HR) between before playing and while playing the video game. Positive parental history of HTN (27.6%) was defined as at least 1 parent with HTN. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to estimate the effects of parental HTN on children's BMI and CVR over time. Children with parental HTN had significant higher BMI, BMI z score, and R_BP than did children without parental HTN (BMI: 21.6 vs 19.9, P = .001; BMI z score: 1.6 vs 1.1, P = .003; R_SBP: 112.6 vs 110.4 mm Hg, P = .01; R_DBP 62.7 vs 60.6 mm Hg, P = .003) after adjustment for covariates. Increased CVR was observed in children with parental HTN compared with children without parental HTN but was statistically significant only for SBP (delta_SBP: 17.2 vs 14.9 mm Hg; P = .01) after adjustment for covariates. Parental HTN independently predicted children's BMI, BMI z score, resting BP, and BP reactivity.

  2. Prophylactic negative-pressure wound therapy after cesarean is associated with reduced risk of surgical site infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lulu; Kronen, Ryan J; Simon, Laura E; Stoll, Carolyn R T; Colditz, Graham A; Tuuli, Methodius G

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effect of prophylactic negative-pressure wound therapy on surgical site infections and other wound complications in women after cesarean delivery. We searched Ovid Medline, Embase, SCOPUS, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We included randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing prophylactic negative-pressure wound therapy with standard wound dressing for cesarean delivery. The primary outcome was surgical site infection after cesarean delivery. Secondary outcomes were composite wound complications, wound dehiscence, wound seroma, endometritis, and hospital readmission. Heterogeneity was assessed using Higgin's I 2 . Relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random-effects models. Six randomized controlled trials and 3 cohort studies in high-risk mostly obese women met inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Six were full-text articles, 2 published abstracts, and 1 report of trial results in ClinicalTrials.gov. Studies were also heterogeneous in the patients included and type of negative-pressure wound therapy device. The risk of surgical site infection was significantly lower with the use of prophylactic negative-pressure wound therapy compared with standard wound dressing (7 studies: pooled risk ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.31-0.66; adjusted risk ratio, -6.0%, 95% confidence interval, -10.0% to -3.0%; number needed to treat, 17, 95% confidence interval, 10-34). There was no evidence of significant statistical heterogeneity (I 2  = 9.9%) or publication bias (Egger P = .532). Of the secondary outcomes, only composite wound complications were significantly reduced in patients receiving prophylactic negative-pressure wound therapy compared with standard dressing (9 studies: pooled risk ratio, 0.68, 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.94). Studies on the effectiveness of prophylactic negative-pressure wound therapy at

  3. Negative pressure of the environmental air in the cleaning area of the materials and sterilization center: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofi-Silva, Caroline Lopes; Hansen, Lisbeth Lima; Almeida, Alda Graciele Claudio Dos Santos; Kawagoe, Julia Yaeko; Padoveze, Maria Clara; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa

    2016-09-01

    to analyze the scientific evidence on aerosols generated during cleaning activities of health products in the Central Service Department (CSD) and the impact of the negative pressure of the ambient air in the cleaning area to control the dispersion of aerosols to adjacent areas. for this literature systematic review the following searches were done: search guidelines, manuals or national and international technical standards given by experts; search in the portal and databases PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL and Web of Science; and a manual search of scientific articles. the five technical documents reviewed recommend that the CSD cleaning area should have a negative differential ambient air pressure, but scientific articles on the impact of this intervention were not found. The four articles included talked about aerosols formed after the use of a ultrasonic cleaner (an increased in the contamination especially during use) and pressurized water jet (formation of smaller aerosols 5μm). In a study, the aerosols formed from contaminated the hot tap water with Legionella pneumophila were evaluated. there is evidence of aerosol formation during cleanup activities in CSD. Studies on occupational diseases of respiratory origin of workers who work in CSD should be performed. analisar as evidências científicas sobre aerossóis gerados durante atividades de limpeza dos produtos para saúde no Centro de Material e Esterilização (CME) e o impacto da pressão negativa do ar ambiente na área de limpeza para controle da dispersão de aerossóis para áreas adjacentes. para essa revisão sistemática de literatura foram realizadas: busca de diretrizes, manuais ou normas técnicas nacionais e internacionais indicadas por especialistas; busca no portal e bases de dados PUBMED, SCOPUS, Cinahl e Web of Science; e busca manual de artigos científicos. Os cinco documentos técnicos analisados preconizam que na área de limpeza do CME haja diferencial negativo de pressão do ar ambiente

  4. Intermittent negative pressure applied to the lower limb increases foot macrocirculatory and microcirculatory blood flow pulsatility in people with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundby, Øyvind Heiberg; Høiseth, Lars Øivind; Irgens, Ingebjørg; Mathiesen, Iacob; Lundgaard, Eivind; Haugland, Hanne; Weedon-Fekjær, Harald; Sundhagen, Jon O; Sanbæk, Gunnar; Hisdal, Jonny

    2018-04-01

    Experimental prestudy and poststudy. Examine the acute effects of intermittent negative pressure (INP) applied to the lower limb on foot circulation in people with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Vascular laboratory, Oslo University Hospital. Twenty-four people with SCI (median age 59 years, range 29-74) were exposed to lower leg INP (-40 mm Hg) using an air-tight pressure chamber connected to an INP generator. The contralateral leg was placed outside the pressure chamber. We continuously measured arterial blood flow velocity (ultrasound Doppler), skin blood flow (laser Doppler), skin temperature of the dorsum of the foot, heart rate (ECG) and systemic blood pressure (Finometer) during 5-min baseline (atmospheric pressure), followed by 10-min INP (alternating 10 s -40 mm Hg and 7 s atmospheric pressure), and 5-min post-INP (atmospheric pressure). Skin blood flow was measured on the foot placed outside the pressure chamber. A mixed effects regression model was applied to estimate the effect of INP on blood flow. To quantify flow fluctuations, we calculated cumulative up-and-down changes in arterial blood flow velocity per minute. Flow fluctuations increased during INP compared to baseline [32.3 cm/s/min (95% CI 26.9 to 37.7) vs. 15.2 cm/s/min (95% CI 9.8 to 20.6), P < 0.001]. Peak blood flow velocity and skin blood flow was reached 2-3 s after the onset of negative pressure and increased 33% (95% CI 16 to 46, P < 0.001) and 11% (95% CI -4.1 to 60, P = 0.14) above baseline, respectively. INP induced increased foot arterial blood flow fluctuations compared to baseline. The Norwegian Research Council provided funding to Otivio (grant: 241589).

  5. Treatment of open upper limb injuries with infection prevention and negative pressure wound therapy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, E; Raghuvanshi, M

    2017-12-02

    Open upper limb injuries requiring soft reconstruction can pose a dilemma for trauma surgeons when considering the treatment options. The British Orthopaedic Association and British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons Standard for Trauma (BOAST) have addressed the management of severe open lower limb fractures with the creation of the BOAST 4 guidelines. However, no such gold standard exists for the treatment of open injuries of the upper limb. Furthermore, treatment of these injuries is often more difficult and requires complicated strategies. Since the advent of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), there has been an improvement in wound care, though a focused review of its use in wound closure and infection prevention in the upper limb has not been published. We examine wound care management for open upper limb injuries with regard to the dressings applied, NPWT, wound closure and infection prevention. A systematic search of Medline, Cochrane and Google Scholar was performed using the key words. The key word searches were performed by two independent reviewers and 8,792 papers were found. Manuscripts between 1990 and 2010 were included, with the addition of key manuscripts before this date. Each manuscript was assessed by the two authors independently for methodology and validity Results: Approximately 120 manuscripts fulfilled selection criteria examining the influence of NPWT on open upper and lower limb injuries, and those examining infection risk in the same injuries. Of these 120 manuscripts, 28 were suitable for inclusion in the review. The systematic review is presented, allied to the BOAST 4 principles, examining the use of NPWT and the tools available for infection prevention for wounds of the upper and lower limb. The use of NPWT in conjunction with antibiotic-bead therapy improved the way in which open fractures of both the upper and lower limb are treated. Production of guidelines is warranted for the treatment of upper

  6. Economic and organizational sustainability of a negative-pressure portable device for the prevention of surgical-site complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foglia E

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emanuela Foglia,1 Lucrezia Ferrario,1 Elisabetta Garagiola,1 Giuseppe Signoriello,2 Gianluca Pellino,3 Davide Croce,1,4 Silvestro Canonico3 1Centre for Health Economics, Social and Health Care Management - LIUC University, Castellanza, Italy; 2Department of Mental Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Naples, Italy; 3School of Medicine, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Naples, Italy; 4School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South \tAfrica Purpose: Surgical-site complications (SSCs affect patients’ clinical pathway, prolonging their hospitalization and incrementing their management costs. The present study aimed to assess the economic and organizational implications of a portable device for negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT implementation, compared with the administration of pharmacological therapies alone for preventing surgical complications in patients undergoing general, cardiac, obstetrical–gynecological, or orthopedic surgical procedures.Patients and methods: A total of 8,566 hospital procedures, related to the year 2015 from one hospital, were evaluated considering infection risk index, occurrence rates of SSCs, drug therapies, and surgical, diagnostic, and specialist procedures and hematological exams. Activity-based costing and budget impact analyses were implemented for the economic assessment.Results: Patients developing an SSC absorbed i 64.27% more economic resources considering the length of stay (€ 8,269±2,096 versus € 5,034±2,901, p<0.05 and ii 42.43% more economic resources related to hematological and diagnostic procedures (€ 639±117 versus € 449±72, p<0.05. If the innovative device had been used over the 12-month time period, it would have decreased the risk of developing SSCs; the hospital would have realized an average reduction in health care expenditure equal to −0.69% (−€ 483

  7. The influence of puberty onset, body mass index, and pressure to be thin on disordered eating behaviors in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Line; Lariviere, Michel

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to verify the hypothesis that pubertal development, obesity, body satisfaction, as well as family and peer influences predict unhealthy eating habits in children and adolescents. A randomized stratified sample of young Quebecers aged 9, 13, and 16 years on March 31, 1999 [608 children aged of 9 years (325 girls and 283 boys) and 662 adolescents aged of 13 and 16 years (349 girls and 313 boys)] were used. Children's weight, height, and Body Mass Index (BMI) were recorded. Questionnaires were administered to children and a parent (usually the mother). Among 9-year-old children, this study found that weight loss or weight control behaviors were predicted mainly by the onset of puberty, lower maternal abusive control, and the level of peer pressure. Among adolescents, mother's BMI, income, peer pressure, and negative comments about the child's weight most strongly predicted behaviors to control weight, strategies to lose weight and the frequency of such behaviors. The findings suggest that both parents and children need to understand the impact of comments on a child's behavior.

  8. Body weight and perceived social pressure to exercise at a health club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne C; Miller, Todd A

    2009-01-01

    To determine the social pressure overweight (OW, n=1183) and normal-weight (NW, n=550) adults perceive regarding health club exercise. A 12-item survey, based on the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior, measured subjective norm toward exercising at a health club 30 min, twice a week, for the next month. OW feel more social pressure to exercise at a club than do NW, but motivation to comply is the same between groups. Exercise interventions for OW should capitalize on individual perceived social pressures to exercise by designing strategies to increase motivation to comply with these pressures.

  9. Predictors of Adolescent Male Body Image Dissatisfaction: Implications for Negative Health Practices and Consequences for School Health from a Regionally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, James E.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Kittleson, Mark; Welshimer, Kathleen J.; Partridge, Julie A.; Robertson, Stacia L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescent males are more likely to sustain intentional and unintentional injuries, be involved in a physical confrontation, and be successful in suicide attempts. Body image dissatisfaction (BID) has been linked as a possible contributing factor to these negative health behaviors and risks; however, research is limited with males. The…

  10. Self-harm history predicts resistance to inpatient treatment of body shape aversion in women with eating disorders: The role of negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Cox, Rebecca; Ebesutani, Chad; Wall, David

    2015-06-01

    Although self-harm has been observed among patients with eating disorders, the effects of such tendencies on treatment outcomes are unclear. The current study employed structural equation modeling to (a) evaluate the relationship between self-harm and changes in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in a large sample of patients (n = 2061) who underwent inpatient treatment, and (b) to examine whether the relationship between self-harm and changes in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness during inpatient treatment remains significant when controlling for change in negative affect during treatment. Results revealed that patients with a history of self-harm reported significantly less reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness following treatment. Patients experiencing less change in negative affect also reported significantly less reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness after discharge from treatment. However, the association between history of self-harm and reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness after treatment became non-significant when controlling for change in negative affect. This pattern of findings was also replicated among patients with a primary diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (n = 845), bulimia nervosa (n = 565), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (n = 651). The implications of these findings for delineating the specific role of self-harm in the nature and treatment of eating disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reducing the negative effects of media exposure on body image: Testing the effectiveness of subvertising and disclaimer labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Sandhu, Gaganjyot; Scott, Terri; Akbari, Yasmin

    2016-06-01

    Body image activists have proposed adding disclaimer labels to digitally altered media as a way to promote positive body image. Another approach advocated by activists is to alter advertisements through subvertising (adding social commentary to the image to undermine the message of the advertisement). We examined if body image could be enhanced by attaching Photoshop disclaimers or subvertising to thin-ideal media images of swimsuit models. In Study 1 (N=1268), adult women exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher body state satisfaction or lower drive for thinness than women exposed to unaltered images. In Study 2 (N=820), adult women who were exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher state body satisfaction or lower state social appearance comparisons than women exposed to unaltered images or to no images. These results raise questions about the effectiveness of disclaimers and subvertising for promoting body satisfaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Education for a Healthy Body Weight: Helping Adolescents Balance the Cultural Pressure for Thinness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    The article examines cultural pressure for extreme thinness in the United States and its impact as a possible predisposing factor for developing eating disorders among adolescent females. Preventive strategies are recommended to help adolescents balance this pressure and their own desire for attractiveness within the larger context of good health.…

  13. Relationship of pressure to be thin with gains in body weight and fat mass in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suelter, C S; Schvey, N; Kelly, N R; Shanks, M; Thompson, K A; Mehari, R; Brady, S; Yanovski, S Z; Melby, C L; Tanofsky-Kraff, M; Yanovski, J A; Shomaker, L B

    2018-01-01

    Sociocultural pressure to be thin is commonly reported by adolescents; yet, to what extent such pressure is associated with weight gain has not been evaluated longitudinally. Examine whether pressure to be thin was positively associated with weight and fat gain in adolescents. Participants were 196 healthy adolescent (age 15 ± 1 years old) girls (65%) and boys of varying weights (BMI 25 ± 7 kg/m 2 ) studied at baseline and 1-year follow-up. At baseline, adolescents and their mothers reported pressure to be thin by questionnaire. At baseline and follow-up, BMI was calculated, and fat mass was assessed with air displacement plethysmography. Multiple regression was used to examine associations between baseline pressure to be thin and 1-year changes in BMI and fat mass. Accounting for multiple covariates, including baseline BMI or fat, adolescent-reported pressure from parents and peers and mother-reported pressure toward their teen were associated with greater gains in either adolescent BMI or fat (ps weight status was a moderator of multiple effects (ps < .05). Parental and peer pressure to be thin were associated with increases in BMI and fat mass during adolescence, particularly in heavier adolescents. Further research is necessary to clarify how this association operates reciprocally and to identify underlying explanatory mechanisms. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  14. PAF: A software tool to estimate free-geometry extended bodies of anomalous pressure from surface deformation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, A. G.; Fernández, J.; Cannavò, F.

    2018-02-01

    We present a software package to carry out inversions of surface deformation data (any combination of InSAR, GPS, and terrestrial data, e.g., EDM, levelling) as produced by 3D free-geometry extended bodies with anomalous pressure changes. The anomalous structures are described as an aggregation of elementary cells (whose effects are estimated as coming from point sources) in an elastic half space. The linear inverse problem (considering some simple regularization conditions) is solved by means of an exploratory approach. This software represents the open implementation of a previously published methodology (Camacho et al., 2011). It can be freely used with large data sets (e.g. InSAR data sets) or with data coming from small control networks (e.g. GPS monitoring data), mainly in volcanic areas, to estimate the expected pressure bodies representing magmatic intrusions. Here, the software is applied to some real test cases.

  15. Cracked rocks with positive and negative Poisson's ratio: real-crack properties extracted from pressure dependence of elastic-wave velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Vladimir Y.; Radostin, Andrey V.; Dyskin, Arcady V.; Pasternak, Elena

    2017-04-01

    We report results of analysis of literature data on P- and S-wave velocities of rocks subjected to variable hydrostatic pressure. Out of about 90 examined samples, in more than 40% of the samples the reconstructed Poisson's ratios are negative for lowest confining pressure with gradual transition to the conventional positive values at higher pressure. The portion of rocks exhibiting negative Poisson's ratio appeared to be unexpectedly high. To understand the mechanism of negative Poisson's ratio, pressure dependences of P- and S-wave velocities were analyzed using the effective medium model in which the reduction in the elastic moduli due to cracks is described in terms of compliances with respect to shear and normal loading that are imparted to the rock by the presence of cracks. This is in contrast to widely used descriptions of effective cracked medium based on a specific crack model (e.g., penny-shape crack) in which the ratio between normal and shear compliances of such a crack is strictly predetermined. The analysis of pressure-dependences of the elastic wave velocities makes it possible to reveal the ratio between pure normal and shear compliances (called q-ratio below) for real defects and quantify their integral content in the rock. The examination performed demonstrates that a significant portion (over 50%) of cracks exhibit q-ratio several times higher than that assumed for the conventional penny-shape cracks. This leads to faster reduction of the Poisson's ratio with increasing the crack concentration. Samples with negative Poisson's ratio are characterized by elevated q-ratio and simultaneously crack concentration. Our results clearly indicate that the traditional crack model is not adequate for a significant portion of rocks and that the interaction between the opposite crack faces leading to domination of the normal compliance and reduced shear displacement discontinuity can play an important role in the mechanical behavior of rocks.

  16. A prospective study on the impact of peer and parental pressure on body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfert, Susanne; Warschburger, Petra

    2011-03-01

    The current study explores the role of appearance-related social pressure regarding changes in body image in adolescent girls (n=236) and boys (n=193) over a 1-year-period. High school students aged 11-16 completed measures of body dissatisfaction (i.e., weight and muscle concerns) and appearance-related social pressure from peers and parents. Three aspects proved to be particularly crucial: Parental encouragement to control weight and shape was a strong predictor of weight concerns in boys and girls alike; influences of friends affected gender-specific body image concerns by leading to weight concerns in girls and muscle concerns in boys; finally appearance-based exclusion was a predictor of weight concerns in boys. The findings provide longitudinal evidence for the crucial impact of appearance-related social pressure and suggest that a detailed assessment of different types of social impacts can identify concrete targets for effective prevention and therapy for weight-related problems among adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Are All Minority Women Equally Buffered from Negative Body Image? Intra-Ethnic Moderators of the Buffering Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabik, Natalie J.; Cole, Elizabeth R.; Ward, L. Monique

    2010-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction is normative among European American women, and involvement with predominant culture or linking self-worth to weight may intensify the association between body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness for women of color. Our study investigated whether orientation to other ethnic groups (Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure) and…

  18. Heart Rate Variability during Simulated Hemorrhage with Lower Body Negative Pressure in High and Low Tolerant Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    low tolerant (LT) and high tolerant (HT) subjects at pre- syncope when both groups are on the verge of hemodynamic collapse; and (2) HRV could... syncope (submax) in LT and HT groups. Only four HRV metrics (Long-range Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, ForbiddenWords, Poincaré Plot Descriptor Ratio...heart rate variability, heart period variability INTRODUCTION In trauma patients, the primary cause of death within the first hour of injury is

  19. Relationship between water compartments, body composition assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis and blood pressure in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łątka, Monika; Wójtowicz, Kinga; Drożdż, Tomasz; Dąbrowska, Ewelina; Kwinta, Przemko; Pietrzyk, Jacek Antoni; Drożdż, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA) is becoming more widely used in clinical practice as a method of body composition analysis. In healthy children blood pressure (BP) changes with age, body mass and height. Until now the relation between water compartments and BP in healthy children has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition as well as water compartments (measured by electrical bioimpedance) and BP. The study was performed in 72 children (32 girls and 40 boys) aged: 6-7 and 12-13 years. BIA measurements were taken using Nutriguard Data Input device with Bianostic electrodes and following parameters were calculated: total body water (TBW), lean body mass (LBM), fat mass (FM), intra- and extracellular water (ICW, ECW) and phase angle alpha. BP was measured twice using the oscillometric method. Elevated BP > 95th percentile for gender, age and height were observed in 9 children. A significant correlation between systolic (S)BP and TBW (R = 0.4023, p obesity (BMI > 95th percentile). Growth disorders were found in 6 children (5 of them being undernourished). In the studied children SBP and DBP correlated with water compartments, lean body and fat masses derived from BIA. The problem of unrecognized hypertension and malnutrition in children and adolescents is still underestimated in the Polish population.

  20. Homeostasis in Primates in the Hyperdynamic Environment. [circadian timekeeping and effects of lower body positive pressure on sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of chronic centrifugation upon the homestatic regulation of the circadian timekeeping system was examined. The interactions of body temperature regulation and the behavioral state of arousal were studied by evaluating the influence of cephalic fluid shifts induced by lower body positive air pressure (LBPP), upon these systems. The small diurnal squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) was used as the non-human primate model. Results show that the circadian timekeeping system of these primates is functional in the hyperdynamic environment, however, some of its components appear to be regulated at different homeostatic levels. The LBPP resulted in an approximate 0.7 C decrease in DBT (p 0.01). However, although on video some animals appeared drowsy during LBPP, sleep recording revealed no significant changes in state of arousal. Thus, the physiological mechanisms underlying this lowering of body temperature can be independent of the arousal state.

  1. A Human Body Pressure Distribution Imaging System Based on Wavelet Analysis and Resistance Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuanfeng Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a pressure distribution sensing system based on wavelet analysis and resistance tomography is proposed to overcome the shortcomings of a traditional electrode type pressure distribution sensor, which needs to be arranged with many electrodes and has a high production cost. The system uses ADS1256, a constant current source module, a serial communication module, a Raspberry host, a touch screen, and other components. The wavelet transform is used to preprocess the collected signal to improve the anti-jamming performance of the system. The method of resistance tomography is used to realize the real-time imaging of pressure distribution. Finally, the reliability of the system is verified using conductive silica gel as a sensitive material. The experimental results show that wavelet analysis preprocessing can significantly improve the quality of pressure distribution imaging.

  2. Effectiveness of negative pressure wound therapy/closed incision management in the prevention of post-surgical wound complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandy-Hodgetts, Kylie; Watts, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of post-surgical wound complications, such as surgical site infections and surgical wound dehiscence, generates a significant burden for patients and healthcare systems. The effectiveness of negative pressure wound therapy has been under investigation but to date no systematic review has been published in relation to its effectiveness in the prevention of surgical wound complications. To identify the effectiveness of negative pressure wound therapy in the prevention of post-surgical wound complications in adults with a closed surgical incision compared to standard surgical dressings. Male and female adults who have had negative pressure wound therapy applied to their surgical incision following a procedure in one of the following areas: trauma, cardiothoracic, orthopedic, abdominal, or vascular surgery.The intervention of interest was the use of negative pressure wound therapy directly over an incision following a surgical procedure; the comparator was standard surgical dressings.Both experimental and epidemiological study designs, including randomized controlled trials, pseudo-randomized trials, quasi-experimental studies, before and after studies, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, case control studies, and analytical cross sectional studies were sought.The primary outcome was the occurrence of post-surgical wound infection or dehiscence as measured by the following: surgical site infections - superficial and deep; surgical wound dehiscence; wound pain; wound seroma; wound hematoma. Published and unpublished studies in English from 1990 to 2013 were identified by searching a variety of electronic databases. Reference lists of all papers selected for retrieval were then searched for additional studies. Papers selected for retrieval were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity prior to inclusion in the review using standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of

  3. Body image mediates negative family climate and deteriorating glycemic control for single adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Amy C; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Laursen, Brett

    2015-12-01

    Glycemic control declines during adolescence, as youth with diabetes struggle with pubertal changes and a changing social world. The present study tests whether body image mediates longitudinal links between family climate and changes in adolescent glycemic control. Mediation was hypothesized for nondating adolescents but not for dating adolescents, because the former are thought to remain more family oriented than the latter. Participants were German adolescents with Type 1 diabetes (51 girls, 58 boys; M = 15.84 years, SD = 1.44). Participants reported body image and family climate. Physicians assayed blood HbA1c levels (M = 8.22%, SD = 1.80%) to measure glycemic control. For nondating adolescents, body image mediated associations between family climate and longitudinal changes in glycemic control. Poorer family climate was associated with poorer body image, which predicted deteriorating glycemic control. For dating adolescents, family climate was unassociated with changes in glycemic control. Nondating adolescents may look to parents for feedback on body image, which affects how they manage the challenges of diabetes. Parents and practitioners alike should be alert to the fact that family climate continues to be an important determinant of adolescent adjustment, particularly for those who have not moved into romantic relationships. We know that body image matters to adolescents, but for some youth, body image may be the difference between health and serious physical problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Analysis of automobile engine cylinder pressure and rotation speed from engine body vibration signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhua; Cheng, Xiang; Tan, Haishu

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the engine vibration signal process method for the engine cylinder pressure and engine revolution speed measurement instrument, the engine cylinder pressure varying with the engine working cycle process has been regarded as the main exciting force for the engine block forced vibration. The forced vibration caused by the engine cylinder pressure presents as a low frequency waveform which varies with the cylinder pressure synchronously and steadily in time domain and presents as low frequency high energy discrete humorous spectrum lines in frequency domain. The engine cylinder pressure and the rotation speed can been extract form the measured engine block vibration signal by low-pass filtering analysis in time domain or by FFT analysis in frequency domain, the low-pass filtering analysis in time domain is not only suitable for the engine in uniform revolution condition but also suitable for the engine in uneven revolution condition. That provides a practical and convenient way to design motor revolution rate and cylinder pressure measurement instrument.

  5. The developmental effects of media-ideal internalization and self-objectification processes on adolescents' negative body-feelings, dietary restraint, and binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Fida, Roberta; Clerici, Massimo; Zanetti, Maria Assunta; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Despite accumulated experimental evidence of the negative effects of exposure to media-idealized images, the degree to which body image, and eating related disturbances are caused by media portrayals of gendered beauty ideals remains controversial. On the basis of the most up-to-date meta-analysis of experimental studies indicating that media-idealized images have the most harmful and substantial impact on vulnerable individuals regardless of gender (i.e., "internalizers" and "self-objectifiers"), the current longitudinal study examined the direct and mediated links posited in objectification theory among media-ideal internalization, self-objectification, shame and anxiety surrounding the body and appearance, dietary restraint, and binge eating. Data collected from 685 adolescents aged between 14 and 15 at baseline (47 % males), who were interviewed and completed standardized measures annually over a 3-year period, were analyzed using a structural equation modeling approach. Results indicated that media-ideal internalization predicted later thinking and scrutinizing of one's body from an external observer's standpoint (or self-objectification), which then predicted later negative emotional experiences related to one's body and appearance. In turn, these negative emotional experiences predicted subsequent dietary restraint and binge eating, and each of these core features of eating disorders influenced each other. Differences in the strength of these associations across gender were not observed, and all indirect effects were significant. The study provides valuable information about how the cultural values embodied by gendered beauty ideals negatively influence adolescents' feelings, thoughts and behaviors regarding their own body, and on the complex processes involved in disordered eating. Practical implications are discussed.

  6. High Sensitivity, Wearable, Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors Based on Irregular Microhump Structures and Its Applications in Body Motion Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongrong; Wang, Shan; Zeng, Jifang; Ren, Xiaochen; Chee, Adrian J Y; Yiu, Billy Y S; Chung, Wai Choi; Yang, Yong; Yu, Alfred C H; Roberts, Robert C; Tsang, Anderson C O; Chow, Kwok Wing; Chan, Paddy K L

    2016-07-01

    A pressure sensor based on irregular microhump patterns has been proposed and developed. The devices show high sensitivity and broad operating pressure regime while comparing with regular micropattern devices. Finite element analysis (FEA) is utilized to confirm the sensing mechanism and predict the performance of the pressure sensor based on the microhump structures. Silicon carbide sandpaper is employed as the mold to develop polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microhump patterns with various sizes. The active layer of the piezoresistive pressure sensor is developed by spin coating PSS on top of the patterned PDMS. The devices show an averaged sensitivity as high as 851 kPa(-1) , broad operating pressure range (20 kPa), low operating power (100 nW), and fast response speed (6.7 kHz). Owing to their flexible properties, the devices are applied to human body motion sensing and radial artery pulse. These flexible high sensitivity devices show great potential in the next generation of smart sensors for robotics, real-time health monitoring, and biomedical applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Major bleeding during negative pressure wound/V.A.C.® - therapy for postsurgical deep sternal wound infection - a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segers Patrique

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Negative-pressure wound therapy, commercially known as vacuum-assisted closure (V.A.C.® therapy, has become one of the most popular (and efficacious interim (prior to flap reconstruction or definite methods of managing deep sternal wound infection. Complications such as profuse bleeding, which may occur during negative-pressure therapy but not necessarily due to it, are often attributed to a single factor and reported as such. However, despite the wealth of clinical experience internationally available, information regarding certain simple considerations is still lacking. Garnering information on all the factors that could possibly influence the outcome has become more difficult due to a (fortunate decrease in the incidence of deep sternal wound infection. If more insight is to be gained from fewer clinical cases, then various potentially confounding factors should be fully disclosed before complications can be attributed to the technique itself or improvements to negative-pressure wound therapy for deep sternal wound infection can be accepted as evidence-based and the guidelines for its use adapted. The authors propose the adoption of a simple checklist in such cases.

  8. Can single use negative pressure wound therapy be an alternative method to manage keloid scarring? A preliminary report of a clinical and ultrasound/colour-power-doppler study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraccalvieri, Marco; Sarno, Antonino; Gasperini, Stefano; Zingarelli, Enrico; Fava, Raffaella; Salomone, Marco; Bruschi, Stefano

    2013-06-01

    Keloid scarring represents a pathological healing where primary healing phenomenon is deviated from normal. Pico is a single use negative pressure wound therapy system originally introduced to manage open or just closed wounds. Pico dressing is made of silicone, and distributes an 80 mmHg negative pressure across wound bed. Combination of silicon layer and continuous compression could be a valid method to manage keloid scarring. Since November 2011, three patients were enrolled and evaluated before negative pressure treatment, at end of treatment (1 month) and 2 months later, through Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS), Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and a scoring system for itching. Ultrasound (US) and colour-power-doppler (CPD) examination was performed to evaluate thickness and vascularisation of the scar. One patient was discharged from study after 1 week. In last two patients, VSS, VAS and itching significantly improved after 1 month therapy and the results were stable after 2 months without any therapy. At end of therapy, the 'appearance of palisade vessels' disappeared in both cases at CPD exam; US showed a thickness reduction (average 43·8%). We propose a well-tolerated, non invasive treatment to manage keloid scarring. Prospective studies are necessary to investigate whether these preliminary observations are confirmed. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  9. Association between Infancy BMI Peak and Body Composition and Blood Pressure at Age 5–6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, Michel H. P.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The development of overweight is often measured with the body mass index (BMI). During childhood the BMI curve has two characteristic points: the adiposity rebound at 6 years and the BMI peak at 9 months of age. In this study, the associations between the BMI peak and body composition measures and blood pressure at age 5–6 years were investigated. Methods Measurements from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study were available for this study. Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and body composition measures (BMI, waist-to-height ratio, fat percentage) were gathered during a health check at about 6 years of age (n = 2822). All children had multiple BMI measurements between the 0–4 years of age. For boys and girls separately, child-specific BMI peaks were extracted from mixed effect models. Associations between the estimated BMI peak and the health check measurements were analysed with linear models. In addition, we investigated the potential use of the BMI at 9 months as a surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. Results After correction for the confounding effect of fetal growth, both timing and magnitude of the BMI peak were significantly and positively associated (pBMI peak showed no direct association with blood pressure at the age 5–6 year, but was mediated by the current BMI. The correlation between the magnitude of the BMI peak and BMI at 9 months was approximately 0.93 and similar associations with the measures at 5–6 years were found. Conclusion The magnitude of the BMI peak was associated with body composition measures at 5–6 years of age. Moreover, the BMI at 9 months could be used as surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. PMID:24324605

  10. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of body psychotherapy in the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia – a multi-centre randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priebe Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative symptoms of schizophrenia are frequently associated with poor long term outcomes. Established interventions have little, if any, positive effects on negative symptoms. Arts Therapies such as Body Psychotherapy (BPT have been suggested to reduce negative symptoms, but the existing evidence is limited. In a small exploratory trial a manualised form of group BPT led to significantly lower negative symptom levels both at the end of treatment and at 4 months follow-up as compared to supportive counseling. We designed a large multi-site trial to assess the effectiveness of a manualised BPT intervention in reducing negative symptoms, compared to an active control. Methods/Design In a randomised controlled trial, 256 schizophrenic outpatients with negative symptoms will be randomly allocated either to BPT or Pilates groups. In both conditions, patients will be offered two 90 minutes sessions per week in groups of about 8 patients over a period of 10 weeks. Outcomes are assessed at the end of treatment and at six months follow-up. The primary outcome is severity of negative symptoms, as measured by the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS, whilst a range of secondary outcome measures include general psychopathology, social contacts, and quality of life. We will also assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Discussion The study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a promising form of group therapy which may help alleviate negative symptoms that are associated with unfavourable long-term outcomes and have so far been difficult to treat. If the trial is successful, it will add a new and effective option in the treatment of negative symptoms. Group BPT is manualised, might be attractive to many patients because of its unusual approach, and could potentially be rolled out to services at relatively little additional cost. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN84216587

  11. A Risk Analysis Methodology to Address Human and Organizational Factors in Offshore Drilling Safety: With an Emphasis on Negative Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabibzadeh, Maryam

    According to the final Presidential National Commission report on the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, there is need to "integrate more sophisticated risk assessment and risk management practices" in the oil industry. Reviewing the literature of the offshore drilling industry indicates that most of the developed risk analysis methodologies do not fully and more importantly, systematically address the contribution of Human and Organizational Factors (HOFs) in accident causation. This is while results of a comprehensive study, from 1988 to 2005, of more than 600 well-documented major failures in offshore structures show that approximately 80% of those failures were due to HOFs. In addition, lack of safety culture, as an issue related to HOFs, have been identified as a common contributing cause of many accidents in this industry. This dissertation introduces an integrated risk analysis methodology to systematically assess the critical role of human and organizational factors in offshore drilling safety. The proposed methodology in this research focuses on a specific procedure called Negative Pressure Test (NPT), as the primary method to ascertain well integrity during offshore drilling, and analyzes the contributing causes of misinterpreting such a critical test. In addition, the case study of the BP Deepwater Horizon accident and their conducted NPT is discussed. The risk analysis methodology in this dissertation consists of three different approaches and their integration constitutes the big picture of my whole methodology. The first approach is the comparative analysis of a "standard" NPT, which is proposed by the author, with the test conducted by the DWH crew. This analysis contributes to identifying the involved discrepancies between the two test procedures. The second approach is a conceptual risk assessment framework to analyze the causal factors of the identified mismatches in the previous step, as the main contributors of negative pressure test

  12. Body

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The human body is both the physical form inhabited by an individual “self” and the medium through which an individual engages with society. Hence the body both shapes and is shaped by an individual’s social roles. In contrast to the cognate fields of archaeology, anthropology, and classics, there has been little explicit discussion or theorization of the body in Egyptology. Some recent works, discussed here, constitute an exception to this trend, but there is much more scope for exploring anc...

  13. Influence of upper body position on middle cerebral artery blood velocity during continuous positive airway pressure breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund Rasmussen, J; Mantoni, T; Belhage, B

    2007-01-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a treatment modality for pulmonary oxygenation difficulties. CPAP impairs venous return to the heart and, in turn, affects cerebral blood flow (CBF) and augments cerebral blood volume (CBV). We considered that during CPAP, elevation of the upper body...... in 11 healthy subjects during CPAP at different body positions (15 degrees head-down tilt, supine, 15 degrees, 30 degrees and 45 degrees upper body elevation). In the supine position, 10 cmH(2)O of CPAP reduced MCA V(mean) by 9 +/- 3% and increased cHbT by 4 +/- 2 micromol/L (mean +/- SEM); (P ....05). In the head-down position, CPAP increased cHbT to 13 +/- 2 micromol/L but left MCA V(mean) unchanged. Upper body elevation by 15 degrees attenuated the CPAP associated reduction in MCA V(mean) (-7 +/- 2%), while cHbT returned to baseline (1 +/- 2 micromol/L). With larger elevation of the upper body MCA V...

  14. Body height and arterial pressure in seated and supine young males during +2 G centrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedsen, Sine K.; Eiken, Ola; Kölegård, Roger

    2015-01-01

    by the use of a human centrifuge would increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) more in tall than in short males in the seated position. In short (162-171cm, n=8) and tall (194-203cm, n=10) healthy males (18-41yr), brachial arterial pressure, heart rate (HR) and cardiac output were measured during +2G...... centrifugation, while they were seated upright with the legs kept horizontal (+2Gz). In a separate experiment, the same measurements were done with the subjects supine (+2Gx). During +2Gz MAP increased in the short (22±2 mmHg, P 

  15. [Influence of different inner dressings in negative-pressure wound therapy on escharectomy wound of full-thickness burn rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J H; Chen, J; Xue, D J; Huang, W X; Su, G L

    2017-07-20

    Objective: To explore the influence of different inner dressings in negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) on escharectomy wound of full-thickness burn rabbits. Methods: Eighteen Japanese white rabbits were inflicted with full-thickness burn on unilateral back. They were divided into polymer dressing group (PD), biological dressing group (BD), and silver biological dressing group (SBD), according to the random number table, with 6 rabbits in each group. On 3 days post burn, the wounds were performed with escharectomy, and then wounds of rabbits in group PD were covered with polyurethane foam. Wounds of rabbits in group BD were covered with porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM) and wounds of rabbits in group SBD were covered with silver porcine ADM. Then continuous NPWT was performed on rabbits of the three groups for 7 days. Immediately after surgery and on post surgery day (PSD) 7, general observation of wound was conducted and tissue around the wound was harvested for determination of dry to wet weight ratio. The content of bacteria was counted and the content of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 in wound was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fibroblasts in wound were counted after Masson staining and number of microvessels was counted after CD31 antibody immunohistochemical staining. Data were processed with analysis of variance for repeated measurement, LSD- t test, paired samples t test, and Bonferroni correction. Results: (1) Immediately after surgery, there was no granulation tissue in basal wound of rabbits in the three groups, with rich blood supply and obvious edema. On PSD 7, much granulation tissue was found in basal wound of rabbits in the three groups, with no or mild edema and no obvious redness and swelling in wound edge. (2) There were no significant differences in dry to wet weight ratios of tissue around the wound among and within the three groups immediately after surgery and on PSD 7 (with F

  16. Comparison of body shape and physical activity among adolescents with normotensive and elevated blood pressure in Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Chen, Min; Xue, Li-Hua; Zhao, Jin-Shan; Chu, Zun-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have provided ample evidence that hypertension in adults has its onset in childhood; children and adolescents with elevated blood pressure (BP) are more likely to become hypertensive adults. Shandong province is one of the areas of China with higher prevalence of hypertension. However, no studies on the relationship between physique and BP have been reported in Shandong Province, China. The present study examined the difference in body shape and physical activity (PA) between adolescents with normotensive and elevated BP in Shandong, China. Data for this study were obtained from a large cross-sectional survey of schoolchildren carried out in 2010.A total of 28 039 students (14 084 boys and 13 955 girls) aged 10-17 years participated in this study. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), BP, triceps and subscapular skinfolds of all subjects were measured and the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness was applied. Body mass index (BMI) of adolescents was calculated from their height and weight and the prevalence of overweight and obesity were obtained according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs. Elevated BP was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 95th percentile for age and gender. PA attitudes and behaviours were assessed by a standardized questionnaire. The mean values of BMI, WC and SFT for both boys and girls were all significantly higher in the elevated BP group than in the normal BP group in all age categories (p physical activity.

  17. Blood pressure, seasonal body fat, heart rate, and ecological differences in Caboclo populations of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H P; James, G D; Crews, D E

    2006-01-01

    This study compares blood pressure (BP) and related cardiovascular risk factors among three Caboclo communities from the Brazilian Amazon. Its purpose is to investigate possible risk differentials related to variable ecological settings and Western influences. Caxiuanã is characterized as a more "traditional" group, while Aracampina and Santana are viewed as more "transitional" in lifestyle. A total of 348 subjects from the three communities were evaluated in the wet or the dry season or in both. Measurements across the communities were compared by season and sex. Results suggest little seasonal variation in average BP, BP change, body fat, or body fat change among men. Conversely, there is substantial seasonal and inter-community variation among women. Additional analyses reveal (1) an inconsistent association between age and BP across the communities; (2) that BMI is not associated with BP transitional communities in either season but is associated with both systolic and diastolic pressure in the most traditional community; and (3) little to no sex effect on BP. These results suggest increased Western influence affects body composition particularly of women. However, increased BMI and fat among transitional Caboclo women does not directly translate into higher BP; rather, their BP appears to be more affected by seasonal stresses. Finally, conditions during the wet season diminish age-related variation in BP, suggesting that during the wet season these Caboclo may be less active. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 18:10-22, 2006. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Recurrent/metastatic thyroid carcinomas false negative for serum thyroglobulin but positive by posttherapy I-131 whole body scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul; Chung, June-Key; Lim, Il Han; Park, Do Joon; Cho, Bo Youn

    2009-01-01

    Serum Tg and I-131 WBS have been used to detect recurrent and metastatic thyroid cancers postoperatively. Tg is known to be more sensitive than I-131 WBS, and therefore, false-negative WBS cases with elevated Tg levels are frequently found. However, the clinical characteristics of false-negative Tg cases with positive WBS have not been clarified. The authors evaluated 824 postoperative patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma who underwent post-ablation/therapy I-131 WBS. Tg negativity was defined as a Tg level of ≤2 ng/mL without TgAb under thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation. Remission, recurrence, and metastasis were confirmed using pathologic or clinically findings. Fifty-two patients (6.3%) with functioning metastasis and negativity for TgAb were Tg-negative and posttherapy I-131 WBS-positive (TgN group), and 128 patients with functioning metastases were Tg positive and WBS positive (TgP group). The TgN group consisted of 45 cases of cervical/mediastinal lymph node metastases (86.5%) and seven cases of distant metastasis to lung or bone by follow-up WBS. The TgN group demonstrated significantly higher profiles of regional involvement than the TgP group (P < 0.029). In 47 patients in the TgN group, metastatic uptake disappeared in 33, ameliorated in four, and persisted in ten during follow-up. A significant number of differentiated thyroid cancer patients were Tg-/TgAb-negative despite a positive WBS finding. Cervical and mediastinal lymph nodes were predominant sites of metastasis in the TgN group. WBS should be undertaken routinely as a complementary modality to detect functioning recurrence and metastasis regardless of serum Tg results. (orig.)

  19. Body Objectification, Social Pressure, and Disordered Eating Behavior in College Women: The Role of Sorority Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basow, Susan A.; Foran, Kelly A.; Bookwala, Jamila

    2007-01-01

    Social pressure to conform to the thin ideal is believed to play a decisive role in the development of eating disorders. In this field study at a college with only sophomore rush, 99 sorority women, 80 nonsorority women past their first year, and 86 first-year women completed three subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (Garner, 1991), the…

  20. Variations of Blood Pressure in Stroke Unit Patients May Result from Alternating Body Positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aries, M.J.H.; Elting, Jan Willem; Stewart, Roy E.; de Keyser, Jacques; Thien, Theo; Kremer, Berry P.; Vroomen, Patrick C. A. J.

    Background: Blood pressure (BP) is one of the major vital parameters monitored in the stroke unit. The accuracy of indirect BP measurement is strongly influenced by the position of both patient and arm during the measurement. Acute stroke patients are often nursed in lateral decubitus positions. The

  1. Evaluation of Intracranial Pressure in Different Body Postures and Disease Entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Morten; Hadi, Amer; Juhler, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    We currently do not have sufficient knowledge regarding appropriate boundaries between "normal" and "abnormal" intracranial pressure (ICP) in humans. Our objective in this study was to quantify the effects of postural changes on ICP in normal and ill subjects. As a model for normal patients, we...

  2. The effect of whole body position on lumbar cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udommongkol Chesda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We compared cerebrospinal fluid (CSF opening pressure measurements in the lumbar subarachnoid space between the flexed position (F-OP and relaxed position (R-OP in recumbent patients. We devised an equation for using F-OP to determine the existence of raised intracranial pressure (ICP. Patients (n = 83 underwent lumbar puncture while in the flexed lateral decubitus position and then were moved to the relaxed position. F-OP and R-OP were measured with a water manometer. R-OP > 180 mmH2O plus relevant clinical signs were taken as indicators of raised intracranial pressure. Mean pressures for F-OP and R-OP were 178.54 and 160.52 mmH2O respectively, p 180, raised ICP could be significantly over diagnosed. The authors recommend an equation [R-OP(calculated, mmH2O = 0.885 × F-OP(measured, mmH2O] or using 200 mmH2O as the threshold for increased ICP with flexed posture.

  3. New Insight into Fat, Muscle and Bone Relationship in Women: Determining the Threshold at Which Body Fat Assumes Negative Relationship with Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Although LM has strong positive relationship with BMD, FM above 33% in overweight/obese women is negatively related to BMD of most skeletal sites. Therefore, overweight/obesity after certain amount of FM, may not be a protective factor against osteoporosis in females. For clinical practice in women, it is important to maintain LM and keep FM accrual below ~30% body fat to maintain good skeletal health.

  4. Improving the false-negative rate of CT in acute appendicitis-Reassessment of CT images by body imaging radiologists: A blinded prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poortman, Pieter [Department of Surgery, St Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg (Netherlands)], E-mail: ppoortman@wlz.nl; Lohle, Paul N.M. [Department of Surgery, St Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg (Netherlands)], E-mail: plohle@elisabeth.nl; Schoemaker, Cees M. [Department of Surgery, St Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg (Netherlands)], E-mail: mcschoemaker@elisabeth.nl; Cuesta, Miguel A. [Department of Surgery, VU Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: ma.cuesta@vumc.nl; Oostvogel, Henk J.M. [Department of Surgery, St Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg (Netherlands)], E-mail: h.oostvogel@elisabeth.nl; Lange-de Klerk, Elly S.M. de [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: esm.delange@vumc.nl; Hamming, Jaap F. [Department of Surgery, Leiden University Medical Centre (Netherlands)], E-mail: j.f.hamming@lumc.nl

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To compare the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) analyzed by individual radiology staff members and body imaging radiologists in a non-academic teaching hospital for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Patients and methods: In a prospective study 199 patients with suspected acute appendicitis were examined with unenhanced CT. CT images were pre-operatively analyzed by one of the 12 members of the radiology staff. In a later stage two body imaging radiologist reassessed all CT images without knowledge of the surgical findings and without knowledge of the primary CT diagnosis. The results, independently reported, were correlated with surgical and histopathologic findings. Results: In 132 patients (66%) acute appendicitis was found at surgery, in 67 patients (34%) a normal appendix was found. The sensitivity of the primary CT analysis and of the reassessment was 76% and 88%, respectively; the specificity was 84% and 87%; the positive predictive value was 90% and 93%; the negative predictive value was 64% and 78%; and the accuracy was 78% and 87%. Conclusion: Reassessment of CT images for acute appendicitis by body imaging radiologists results in a significant improvement of sensitivity, negative predictive value and accuracy. To prevent false-negative interpretation of CT images in acute appendicitis the expertise of the attending radiologist should be considered.

  5. Familial aggregation in blood pressure and body composition in portuguese nuclear families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério César Fermino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to verify the indirect presence of vertical transmission of genetic factors between parents and children in blood pressure (BP and body composition (BC, and (2 identify the infl uence of genetic factors in the variability of BP and BC. Sample size comprises 367 subjects (164 parents: 41±4.6 years old and 203 children of 13.2±3 years old from 107 nuclear families participating in the project “FAMÍLIAS ACTIVAS”; they proceed from different regions of North of Portugal (36 from Vouzela, 36 from Esposende, 25 from Vila Nova de Paiva and 10 from Vila Nova de Famalicão. BP was measured with an automatic digital device, Omron® model M6 (HEM-7001-E. BC phenotypes were assessed with a bioelectric impedance device from Tanita® model BC-418 (Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan. PEDSTATS was used to verify the structure of each family and to analyze the generic behavior of the variables in family members. FCOR and ASSOC modules, from Genetic Epidemiology S.A.G.E. 5.3 software, were use to calculate correlations (r and the heritability (h2 of different phenotypes. Signifi cant level was set at 0.05. Main results evidenced an important familial aggregation between family members for systolic BP (SBP (0.01≤ r ≤0.35, and diastolic BP (DBP (0.24≤ r ≤0.50 the same occurred for BC phenotypes (-0.15≤ r ≤0.65. Genetic factors contributed to 43% of the SBP and 49% of DBP variation; the same occurred for BC phenotypes ranging from 35 to 46% of the total variation. The conclusions were that (1 a strong familial aggregation exists in the BP and the BC in this sample of portuguese nuclear families and that (2 genetic factors play important role in these phenotypes.ResumoO objetivo deste estudo foi (1 verifi car a presença indireta de transmissão vertical de fatores genéticos entre progenitores e descendentes na pressão arterial (PA e na composição corporal (CC, e (2 estimar a contribuição dos fatores genéticos que s

  6. Combined non-adaptive light and smell stimuli lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate and reduced negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shan; Jacob, Tim J C

    2016-03-15

    Bright light therapy has been shown to have a positive impact on seasonal affective disorder (SAD), depression and anxiety. Smell has also has been shown to have effects on mood, stress, anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of light and smell in a non-adaptive cycle. Human subjects were given smell (lemon, lavender or peppermint) and light stimuli in a triangular wave (60scycle) for 15min. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored before and after each session for 5 consecutive days and a Profile of Mood States (POMS) test was administered before and after the sensory stimulation on days 1, 3 and 5. The light-smell stimulus lowered blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, and reduced heart rate for all odours compared to control. Of the two sensory stimuli, the odour stimulus contributed most to this effect. The different aromas in the light-smell combinations could be distinguished by their different effects on the mood factors with lemon inducing the greatest mood changes in Dejection-Depression, Anger-Hostility, Tension-Anxiety. In conclusion, combined light and smell stimulation was effective in lowering blood pressure, reducing heart rate and improving mood. The combination was more effective than either smell or light stimuli alone, suggesting that a light-smell combination would be a more robust and efficacious alternative treatment for depression, anxiety and stress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of dietary pattern and body weight with blood pressure in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Y.; Boonstra, A.; Pan, X.; Zhao, J.; Yuan, B.; Dai, Yue; Zhou, M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Shi, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Background To identify risk factors, associations between dietary patterns, body mass index (BMI), and hypertension in a Chinese population. Methods Dietary intake was assessed in 2518 adults by a 3-day 24 h recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Salt and oil intake was assessed by weighing

  8. Psychological and socio-cultural risk factors for developing negative attitude and anti-health behaviour toward the body in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izydorczyk Bernadetta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present the results of research concerning psychological and socio-cultural risk factors for development of negative anti-health (that is too restrictive and compensatory attitude toward one’s body in young Polish women. The study comprised 120 women, of 20 to 25 years of age, with similar socio-demographic status (marital status, living and having been brought up in multi-generation families who so far in the course of their lives have not disclosed mental or somatic disturbances (having accompanying manifestations of body image distortion. The theoretical theses for the research model were the contemporary cognitive concepts (multifactor models of body image dissatisfaction, as well as socio-cultural concepts.

  9. Fat Mass Index and Body Mass Index Affect Peak Metabolic Equivalent Negatively during Exercise Test among Children and Adolescents in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Tuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Peak metabolic equivalent (MET is the most reliable indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF. The aim of this study was to examine the association between CRF indicated by peak MET and body mass index (BMI or fat mass index (FMI in Taiwanese children and adolescents (C-A. Data of 638 C-A aged 10–18 that received symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing was analyzed. Anthropometry-body composition was measured by vector bioelectrical impedance analysis. BMI was defined as body weight (kg/body height (m2 and FMI was defined as fat mass (kg/body height (m2. BMI was grouped by Taiwanese obesity cut-off points. FMI Class-I was categorized by percentage of body fat. FMI Class-II used the reference values from Korean C-A. Excess adiposity was defined as (1 “overweight” and “obesity” by BMI, (2 greater than the sex- and age-specific 75th percentile of whole subjects by FMI Class-I, and (3 greater than 95th percentiles of reference value by FMI Class-II. Boys had significantly higher fat mass and FMI, and had more excess adiposity than girls (all p < 0.05. Both boys and girls with excess adiposity (by any definition had lower MET at anaerobic threshold (AT MET and peak MET (all p < 0.001. BMI and FMI were significantly negatively associated with both AT MET and peak MET significantly (all p < 0.001. FMI (95% CI: −0.411~−0.548 correlated with peak MET more than BMI (95% CI: −0.134~ −0.372 did. Excess adiposity affected CRF negatively. It is concluded that weight management should start early in childhood.

  10. Latitudinal cogradient variation of development time and growth rate and a negative latitudinal body weight cline in a widely distributed cabbage beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Tang

    Full Text Available The evolutionary and phenotypic responses to environmental gradients are often assumed to be the same, a phenomenon known as "cogradient variation". However, only a few insect species display cogradient variation in physiological traits along a latitudinal gradient. We found evidence for such a response in the examination of the life history traits of the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi from 6 different geographical populations at 16, 19, 22, 24, 26 and 28°C. Our results showed that larval and pupal development times significantly decreased as rearing temperature increased, and that growth rates were positively correlated with temperature. Body weight tended to decrease with increasing temperature, consistent with the general pattern in ectothermic animals. Larval development time was positively correlated with latitude, whereas the growth rate decreased as latitude increased, showing an example of latitudinal cogradient variation. Body weight significantly decreased with increasing latitude in a stepwise manner, showing a negative latitudinal body weight cline. Females were significantly larger than males, consistent with the female biased sex dimorphism in insects. Body weight tended to decrease with increasing rearing temperature, whereas the differences in sexual size dimorphism (SSD tended to decrease with increasing body weight, which biased our results toward acceptance of Rensch's rule. We found that weight loss was an important regulator of SSD, and because male pupae lost significantly more weight at metamorphosis than female pupae, SSD was greater in adults than in pupae. Overall, our data provide a new example that a latitudinal cogradient variation in physiological traits is associated with a negative latitudinal body weight cline.

  11. Lower Body Positive Pressure Application with an Antigravity Suit in Acute Carotid Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Berthet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenge in acute stroke is still to reperfuse as early as possible the ischemic territory. Since fibrinolytic therapies have a limited window with potential risk of bleeding, having a nonpharmacologic mean to recruit vessels in area surrounding necrosis might be useful. We propose here to use antigravity suit inflated at “venous” pressure levels to shift blood towards thoracic and brain territories. We report two cases of spectacular clinical recovery after acute carotid occlusion.

  12. F-18 FDG-PET/CT evaluation of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer with negative I-131 total body scan and high thyroglobulin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagna, Francesco; Bosio, Giovanni; Biasiotto, Giorgio; Rodella, Carlo; Puta, Erinda; Gabanelli, Sara; Lucchini, Silvia; Merli, Giuseppe; Savelli, Giordano; Giubbini, Raffaele; Rosenbaum, Joshua; Alavi, Abass

    2009-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the incremental diagnostic rate of F-18 fluoro-fluorodeoxygulose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) in patients with negative I-131 whole body scans and high Tg levels. The secondary end points were correlations between F-18 FDG-PET/CT positive results and Tg levels and comparison between F-18 FDG-PET/CT accuracy in patients "on-therapy" with suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and those with high TSH levels. We studied 52 patients who had undergone total thyroidectomy and remnant ablation; they had high Tg levels (average = 156 ng/mL; SD +/- 274) after 3 weeks of levothyroxine withdrawal and negative I-131 total body scans after therapeutic doses. We noted a statistically significant positive correlation between F-18 FDG-PET/CT positive results and Tg levels, irrespective of levothyroxine therapy regimen. Tg levels between F-18 FDG-PET/CT positive/negative groups were significantly different and we did not note any statistically significant correlation between F-18 FDG-PET/CT results and TSH levels, tumor size, and combination of Tg/TSH levels. Our results indicate that F-18 FDG-PET/CT is a useful diagnostic tool in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and with negative I-131 total body scans and high Tg levels. The levothyroxine therapy regimen does not influence F-18 FDG-PET/CT results and the rate of F-18 FDG-PET/CT positive results appears to correlate with the Tg levels. The highest accuracy is reached when the study is performed for patients with Tg levels higher than 21 ng/mL.

  13. Acute effects of whole-body vibration with resistance exercise on postexercise blood pressure and oxygen consumption in prehypertensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Zachary S; Swan, Pamela Diane

    2016-06-01

    Research on the acute health effects of whole-body vibration with resistance exercise (WBV + RE) for clinical populations is limited. This randomized crossover trial evaluated postexercise hypotension and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in response to three conditions: WBV + RE, RE alone, and control (CON) in 11 prehypertensive (systolic/diastolic blood pressure: 120-139/80-89 mmHg) adults. Following a 12-hour fast with no exercise for the previous 24 hours, resting VO 2 and blood pressure (BP) were measured. WBV + RE was performed while standing barefoot on a vibration platform (Pneumex Pro-Vibe) and lifting a bar of 10% body weight. Fifteen repetitions of nine exercises were performed using a 1-minute-to-30-second exercise:rest ratio. RE was identical to WBV + RE but without vibration. During CON, participants remained seated for 15 minutes. Following exercise, VO 2 was measured continuously and BP every 15 minutes for 3 hours. Postexercise hypotension and EPOC were significantly different for WBV + RE compared with RE and CON ( p EPOC was significantly ( p  EPOC.

  14. Theory of photostructural changes in glasses with negative-U centers: dependencies of steady-state photodarkening on gap-light intensity and frequency, pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    A theory is presented of a mechanism for the photostructural changes observed in semiconducting glasses. The theory takes into account that in these materials negative-U centers are the basic charge carriers, and gap-light generated excited states of such centers are accompanied by metastable 'defects' in the original structure, which can be identified as the photostructural changes. The theory gives rise to a consistent interpretation, and some predictions, of dependencies of the steady-state photodarkening on gap-light intensity and frequency, pressure and temperature

  15. Effect of negative pressure therapy on repair of soft tissues of the lower extremities in patients with neuropathic and neuroischaemic forms of diabetic foot syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Leonidovna Zaytseva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AimTo evaluate the efficiency of topical negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT compared with standard therapy for the regeneration of the soft tissues of the lower extremities in patients with diabetic foot syndrome.Materials and MethodsThe effects of negative pressure therapy on the clinical (size, tissue oxygenation, histological (light microscopy and immunohistochemical (CD68, MMP-9, TIMP-1 aspects of repair of the soft tissue of the lower extremities in patients with diabetes mellitus were compared with those of standard treatment. Thirty-one patients with diabetic foot ulcers were included in the study from the moment of debridement until the plastic closure of the wound. During the perioperative period, 13 patients received NPWT (-90 to -120 mmHg and 18 patients received standard therapy.ResultsA reduction of the wound area (26.6%±17.2% and the depth of the defects (40.5%±25.6% were achieved with negative pressure therapy compared with baseline data. In the control group, the corresponding values were 25.3%±19.4% and 21.8%±21.6%, respectively. The results of transcutaneous oximetry showed a greater increase in the level of local hemodynamics in the study group (p <0.04. An important criterion for wound preparation for a plastic closure is filling it with granulation tissue by more than 75%. In the study group, 95% of patients had wounds filled with 89.9%±17% of abundant granulation tissue. The histological data of the study group show a significant reduction of oedema by 80% (p <0.05, improved extracellular matrix organization (p <0.05, 90% (p <0.05 dissolution of inflammatory infiltrate and the formation of healthy granulation tissue (p <0.05. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in the number of macrophages in the dermis (CD68 expression (p <0.05. In both groups, the level of MMP-9 was decreased. However, the ratio of MMP-9:TIMP-1 was lower in the study group (p <0.05.ConclusionThe findings suggest that

  16. A compare between myocardial topical negative pressure levels of -25 mmHg and -50 mmHg in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstedt, Sandra; Paulsson, Per; Mokhtari, Arash

    2008-01-01

    Topical negative pressure (TNP), widely used in wound therapy, is known to stimulate wound edge blood flow, granulation tissue formation, angiogenesis, and revascularization. We have previously shown that application of a TNP of -50 mmHg to the myocardium significantly increases microvascular blood...... flow in the underlying tissue. We have also shown that a myocardial TNP levels between -75 mmHg and -150 mmHg do not induce microvascular blood flow changes in the underlying myocardium. The present study was designed to elucidate the difference between -25 mmHg and -50 mmHg TNP on microvascular flow...

  17. Walnut consumption in a weight reduction intervention: effects on body weight, biological measures, blood pressure and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Barkai, Hava-Shoshana; Pakiz, Bilge; Heath, Dennis D

    2017-12-04

    Dietary strategies that help patients adhere to a weight reduction diet may increase the likelihood of weight loss maintenance and improved long-term health outcomes. Regular nut consumption has been associated with better weight management and less adiposity. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a walnut-enriched reduced-energy diet to a standard reduced-energy-density diet on weight, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and satiety. Overweight and obese men and women (n = 100) were randomly assigned to a standard reduced-energy-density diet or a walnut-enriched (15% of energy) reduced-energy diet in the context of a behavioral weight loss intervention. Measurements were obtained at baseline and 3- and 6-month clinic visits. Participants rated hunger, fullness and anticipated prospective consumption at 3 time points during the intervention. Body measurements, blood pressure, physical activity, lipids, tocopherols and fatty acids were analyzed using repeated measures mixed models. Both study groups reduced body weight, body mass index and waist circumference (time effect p weight was -9.4 (0.9)% vs. -8.9 (0.7)% (mean [SE]), for the standard vs. walnut-enriched diet groups, respectively. Systolic blood pressure decreased in both groups at 3 months, but only the walnut-enriched diet group maintained a lower systolic blood pressure at 6 months. The walnut-enriched diet group, but not the standard reduced-energy-density diet group, reduced total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) at 6 months, from 203 to 194 mg/dL and 121 to 112 mg/dL, respectively (p weight loss that is comparable to a standard reduced-energy-density diet in the context of a behavioral weight loss intervention. Although weight loss in response to both dietary strategies was associated with improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors, the walnut-enriched diet promoted more favorable effects on LDL-C and systolic blood pressure. The trial

  18. Effect of Sitagliptin on Glycemic Control, Body Weight, Blood Pressure and Serum Lipid Profile in Type 2 Diabetic Hyperlipidemic Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Atif, M. A.; Akhtar, L.; Ali, B.; Tunio, A. G.; Serwar, G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dyslipidaemia is a global health issue in developed as well as in developing countries. People with type 2 Diabetes mellitus are more susceptible to develop dyslipidaemia and its related complications. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of sitagliptin a (DPP-4 inhibitor) oral antidiabetic drug on blood sugar, body weight, blood pressure and dyslipidaemia in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: This 12 weeks open label observational study was conducted at outdoor of diabetic clinic of Sheikh Zayed Medical College/Hospital, Rahim Yar Khan in which newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients (n=78) with poor glycaemic control(HbA1c >7.2 percent) were selected. The patient received sitagliptin 50 mg twice daily for 12 weeks. Results: After 12 weeks treatment with sitagliptin, there was a significant reduction in the value of HbA1c from 8.184 percent±0.467 at baseline to 7.0200 percent±0.459 at 12 weeks (p<0.05). Body weight also decreased significantly from 80.21kg±7.156 at baseline to 71.74 kg±6.567 at 12 weeks (p<0.05).Systolic blood pressure decreased (SBP) decreased significantly from 138.17±6.050 mmHg at baseline to 131.22±6.311 mmHg at 12 weeks (p<0.05). Significant changes were also seen in diastolic blood pressure which decreased from 83.14±6.714 mmHg at baseline to 75.28±6.481 mmHg at 12 weeks (p<0.05). Significant reduction in the serum level of total Cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected (TC: 222.09±13.538 to 209.41±13.475 mg/dl, p<0.05; TG: 170.99±6.940 to 143.45±8.279 mg/dl, p<0.05; LDL-C 120.00±5.804 to 109.06±6.278 mg/dl, p<0.05). High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased significantly from 42.99±4.836 mg/dl at baseline to 49.97±3.490 mg/dl at 12 weeks. Conclusion: Sitagliptin not only improves blood glucose control but also body weight, blood pressure and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic hyperlipidaemia patients. (author)

  19. Observational study on efficacy of negative expiratory pressure test proposed as screening for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome among commercial interstate bus drivers - protocol study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirata Raquel P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a respiratory disease characterized by the collapse of the extrathoracic airway and has important social implications related to accidents and cardiovascular risk. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether the drop in expiratory flow and the volume expired in 0.2 s during the application of negative expiratory pressure (NEP are associated with the presence and severity of OSA in a population of professional interstate bus drivers who travel medium and long distances. Methods/Design An observational, analytic study will be carried out involving adult male subjects of an interstate bus company. Those who agree to participate will undergo a detailed patient history, physical examination involving determination of blood pressure, anthropometric data, circumference measurements (hips, waist and neck, tonsils and Mallampati index. Moreover, specific questionnaires addressing sleep apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness will be administered. Data acquisition will be completely anonymous. Following the medical examination, the participants will perform a spirometry, NEP test and standard overnight polysomnography. The NEP test is performed through the administration of negative pressure at the mouth during expiration. This is a practical test performed while awake and requires little cooperation from the subject. In the absence of expiratory flow limitation, the increase in the pressure gradient between the alveoli and open upper airway caused by NEP results in an increase in expiratory flow. Discussion Despite the abundance of scientific evidence, OSA is still underdiagnosed in the general population. In addition, diagnostic procedures are expensive, and predictive criteria are still unsatisfactory. Because increased upper airway collapsibility is one of the main determinants of OSA, the response to the application of NEP could be a predictor of this disorder. With the

  20. Relationship between Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and Visual Acuity in Residents of Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Ernest-Nwoke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the relationship between body mass index (BMI and blood pressure (BP on visual acuity among apparently healthy residents of Ekpoma, Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study among 225 subjects (ages of 18–35 years from whom BP, body weight, and height were collected. Visual acuity was measured using the Snellen chart following standard procedures of number of letters seen at 6-metre distance. The data were then analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results. The sampled population consists of 112 male and 113 female (mean age 31.72±14.2 years. Majority (180 of the respondents had normal visual acuity. However, compared with the respondents with normal BMI (R19.61±1.5; L19.67±1.70, visual acuity of underweight (R18.53±2.30; L18.53±2.70 and obese (R15.68±4.79; L17.73±1.70 were more deviated. Similarly, compared with respondent with normal BP (120–125/80–85 mmHg; R18.00±2.53; L18.07±3.11, hypotensive (R15.5±7.35; L15.00±10.20, and hypertensive (R15.01±21.25; L15.00±11.91 respondents had deviated visual acuity. Conclusion. Abnormal body weight (underweight and obese and BP (hypotension and hypertension have potential negative impacts on visual acuity. Based on the observed relationship between weights, BP, and visual acuity, eye examinations can be included as regular screening exercise for abnormal BMI and BP conditions.

  1. Decrease in blood pressure, body mass index and glycemia after aerobic training in elderly women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Luciana Zaranza; Fiani, Cássio Ricardo Vaz; Freitas, Maria Cristina Foss de; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; Foss, Milton César

    2010-10-01

    The aging process is associated with the development of several diseases, which can be attenuated by the practice of physical activities. Aerobic training is an effective method to maintain and improve cardiovascular function. Additionally, it has a crucial role in the prevention and treatment of several chronic-degenerative diseases, especially diabetes mellitus. } To verify the effect of a 13-week aerobic training program on blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI) and glycemia levels in elderly women with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Eleven sedentary elderly women with DM2, aged 61.0 ± 9.1 years, were submitted a 13-week aerobic training program, constituting group G2. Eleven controlled elderly women (aged 60.2 ± 6.8 years) were not submitted to the aerobic training, constituting the control group (G1). G1 attended educational lectures once a week, whereas G2 walked three times a week. Both groups presented a significant decrease in glycemia and diastolic blood pressure levels. No significant decreases in BMI were observed after the aerobic training in either group. The 13-week aerobic training program was enough to promote significant decrease in the diastolic blood pressure and glycemia levels; therefore, this type of exercise training decreases the risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

  2. Abdominal Cavity Eventration Treated by Means of the "Open Abdomen" Technique Using the Negative Pressure Therapy System--Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciak, Piotr W; Porzeżyńska, Joanna; Ptasińska, Karolina; Walczak, Dominik A

    2015-11-01

    Wound dehiscence is a surgical complication in which the wound ruptures along the surgical suture with abdominal cavity bowel displacement. It is observed in 0.2-6% of operated patients. The extensive wound is a gateway for infection. Moreover, increased secretion of serous fluid induces a hygienic problem and may lead to secondary skin infections or bedsores. The negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) system is an innovative therapeutic method. It perfectly executes the TIME strategy, receiving more and more recognition. The study presented a case of a 62-year old male patient after several consecutive wound dehiscence episodes who was primarily treated for rectal cancer by means of low anterior resection of the rectum. Due to acute respiratory insufficiency after several operations, wound necrosis with dehiscence was observed. Considering the high risk of perioperative death we abandoned surgical treatment and introduced conservative management using negative pressure wound therapy until the patient's health improved. Literature regarding the above-mentioned issue was also reviewed.

  3. The SNaP™ Wound Care System: A Case Series Using a Novel Ultraportable Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Device for the Treatment of Diabetic Lower Extremity Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Bruce; Oldenbrook, Leslie; Ryu, Justin; Fong, Kenton D.; Schubart, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Although there is significant evidence supporting the use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) for the treatment of lower extremity diabetic ulcers, currently available electrically powered NPWT systems are not ideally suited for treating smaller diabetic foot ulcers. The Smart Negative Pressure (SNaP™) Wound Care System is a novel, ultraportable device that delivers NPWT without the use of an electrically powered pump. It was specifically designed to meet the wound care needs of patients with diabetes. The SNaP System is compact, silent, mobile, easy-to-use, and available off-the-shelf. It is fully disposable and may offer other important benefits over electrically powered systems to both the clinician and patient. We review the evidence for use of NPWT for the treatment of diabetic wounds and discuss the potential benefits of this new NPWT technology for patients with diabetes. We also present a case series of four difficult lower extremity diabetic ulcers that were successfully treated with the SNaP System. This study suggests that the SNaP System may be a useful addition to the armamentarium of the diabetic wound care clinician. PMID:20663444

  4. Stagnations of increasing trends in negative pressure with repeated cavitation in water/metal Berthelot tubes as a result of mechanical sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiro, Kazuki; Ohde, Yoshihito; Tanzawa, Yasutoshi

    2003-01-01

    To investigate effects of mechanical sealing on negative pressures in water/metal tube Berthelot systems, trends in negative pressure are observed through runs of temperature cycles below 90 deg. C in two systems made of metals having small amounts of gas inclusions. The first system is a pre-degassed all-stainless-steel tube/plug system. The steel is a special product for vacuum engineering. The second is the same tube sealed with plugs made of silver solidified one-dimensionally in a vacuum furnace. A new type of trend, stagnation for intermediate cycles is found in both systems so long as sealing distortion of each plug is small in amount. The stagnation period for the first system is longer than that for the second one. A metallurgical mechanism of a gas-being-replenished crevice model is proposed: distorted parts of metals undergo heat-treatment during runs of temperature cycles, and the heat-treatment enhances the rates of impurity gas transports to crevices on the metal surface where cavitation occurs, and the transport causes the stagnation for cycles during which the rates are still high

  5. Storage of the complement components C4, C3, and C 3-activator in the human liver as PAS-negative globular hyaline bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, W; Riedel, H; Trautmann, B; Justus, J; Hiemann, D

    1982-01-01

    Liver biopsies of a 58-year-old clinically healthy patient with a hepatomegaly and intracisternal PAS-negative globular hyaline bodies were immunofluorescent-optically examined for the content of the complement components C 1 q, C 4, C 9, C 1-inactivator, C 3-activator. Further examinations were performed for fibrinogen, IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE, L-chain (type chi and lambda), alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 1-fetoprotein, alpha 1- and alpha 2-glycoprotein, cholinesterase, ceruloplasmin, myoglobin, hemopexin, HBsAg and HBsAg. Th inclusion bodies reacted with antisera against the complement components C 4, C 3 and C 3-activator, as also identified by double immunofluorescence. Probably this is a disturbance of the protein metabolism of the liver cell with abnormal complement storage in the presence of normal total complement and normal complement components in the serum.

  6. Filter paper inhibits in vitro protocorm-like body formation in hybrid Cymbidium and reduces synseed germination, but buffers the negative impact of antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEIXEIRA DA SILVA JAIME A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Only few studies in the plant tissue culture literature have examined the impact of filter paper on in vitro plant organogenesis. In this study, using a model plant, hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon ‘Day Light’, the impact of a single or double layer of Advantec #2 or Whatman #1 filter paper on new protocorm-like body (neo-PLB formation on Teixeira Cymbidium (TC medium was examined for half-PLBs (transgenic and non-transgenic, PLB-derived transverse thin cell layers (tTCLs, and PLB synseeds. In addition, the response of half-PLBs or tTCLs to two antibiotics (kanamycin and cefotaxime, commonly used in plant genetic transformation studies was investigated either directly on gelled medium or on filter paper-overlaid medium. Filter paper negatively affected most growth and developmental parameters of all the explants tested, both transgenic and non-transgenic. A double sheet of filter paper had a significantly (P ≤ 0.05 more negative impact than a single sheet, relative to the control values (i.e., no filter paper. Kanamycin inhibited neo-PLB formation on TC medium, the negative impact being greater on a single layer than on a double layer of filter paper, i.e., filter paper buffered the growth-inhibiting characteristics of kanamycin. Up to 100 mg/l, cefotaxime showed no apparent negative effects on neo-PLBs formation and growth, although hyperhydricity was observed when filter paper was not used.

  7. Use of a portable, single-use negative pressure wound therapy device in home care patients with low to moderately exuding wounds: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Theresa; Trueman, Paul; Rossington, Alan

    2014-03-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is widely used in the management of acute and chronic wounds. The purpose of this 8-week study was to evaluate outcomes of using a new canisterless, portable, single-use NPWT system in patients with wounds treated in a Canadian community healthcare setting. The device is designed to provide negative pressure at 80±20 mm Hg, 24 hours a day of continuous usage, for a maximum wear time of 7 days. Data on wound outcomes, including exudate levels, wound appearance, and wound area, were collected weekly by a Registered Nurse as part of routine practice. When treatment was discontinued, patients and nurses were asked to rate their satisfaction with the device. Data from patients who had used a conventional NPWT device to manage their wounds were retrospectively abstracted from their medical records. In the prospective study, conducted between October 2011 and July 2012, 326 patients (median age=61 years; range 17-91 years) with wounds of mixed etiology (53 pressure ulcers, 21 venous leg ulcers, 16 diabetic foot ulcers, and 15 traumatic and 221 surgical wounds) were treated for a maximum of 8 weeks with the portable NPWT device. The majority of patients (228 out of 326; 68%) achieved complete wound closure within 8 weeks of treatment. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of median time to healing of all wounds was 9 weeks. The majority of patients (318 patients, 97%) reported they were pleased or satisfied with the dressing performance. Nurses indicated satisfaction with the dressing performance for all but two patients (99%). The majority (89%) of patients managed with conventional NPWT (n=539) had an open surgical wound with moderate or high levels of exudate. Healing rates in the portable and conventional NPWT group were similar (10% to 11% per week). Portable, single-use NPWT has the potential to deliver good wound outcomes in community care settings and simplify the use of negative pressure for nurses and patients. Additional research is

  8. Kidney function during common carotid artery occlusion in anaesthetized cats: influence of vagotomy, constant ventilation, blood pressure stabilization, and carotid body chemoreceptor inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, A; Schmidt, M; Arndt, H; Hanus, U; Kranz, G; Rogoll, I

    1985-01-01

    The reactions of kidney function elicited by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion were studied in six groups of chloralosed cats in which the Nn. vagi, the breathing reaction, the increase of the mean systemic arterial blood pressure, and the carotid body chemoreceptors were excluded successively. Carotid occlusion in the control animals caused a rise of the mean systemic arterial blood pressure, hyperventilation, and an increase in renal sodium and water excretion, resulting from an inhibition of tubular reabsorption. Bilateral cervical vagotomy, relaxation and constant artificial ventilation only slightly modified this renal response. Inactivation of the carotid body chemoreceptors in vagotomized and constantly ventilated cats attenuated the natriuresis due to carotid occlusion regardless of the behaviour of the renal perfusion pressure. On the other hand, keeping the mean arterial blood pressure during carotid occlusion constant by the bleeding technique also reduced the natriuretic reaction. Cats with both inactivated carotid body chemoreceptors and constant renal perfusion pressure exhibited an antinatriuretic reaction during carotid clamping. From these data it is concluded that in narcotized cats the natriuretic response during carotid occlusion is the result of both a stimulation of the carotid body chemoreceptors and the rise of the renal perfusion pressure. In contrast, in dogs this so-called carotid-sinus-polyuria seems to be induced solely by the increase of the systemic arterial blood pressure. The findings additionally indicated that the arterial chemoreceptors may be involved in the physiological daily control of renal sodium excretion already at normal arterial oxygen tension under sea-level conditions.

  9. The influence of seat adjustment and a thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis on the distribution of body-seat pressure in children with scoliosis and pelvic obliquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Yehudit; Meyer, Shirley; Katz-Leurer, Michal; Tamar Weiss, Patrice L

    2004-01-07

    To determine the effect of a thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO) on the distribution of body-seat interface pressure in children with concomitant scoliosis and pelvic obliquity and to determine the effects of two methods commonly used in customized seating--elevation (push up) of the lower side of the pelvis or a wedge insertion beneath the raised pelvis--on the distribution of body-seat interface pressure. The study population comprised 15 children with an underlying neuromuscular disorder. All had scoliosis and pelvic obliquity when seated, and used a TLSO during sitting. Body-seat interface pressure was measured using the QA Pad. Maximum pressure, mean pressure and contact area were recorded at baseline and at 10 degrees 'push up' and 10 degrees wedge insertion, with and without the TLSO. X-rays were performed with and without the orthosis at baseline position. The TLSO reduced the scoliosis deformity by a mean of 5.3 degrees and significantly (p pelvic obliquity was contralateral to the side of the curve. Seat adjustment did not have any significant effect on pressure readings. Application of a TLSO in a child with scoliosis and contralateral pelvic obliquity significantly reduced the spinal curvature and interface sitting pressure. Manipulation of sitting by use of wedges under the pelvis had no significant effect on pressure distribution.

  10. Contrasting effects of prenatal life stress on blood pressure and body mass index in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sunil K; Beilin, Lawrence J; Robinson, Monique; Burrows, Sally; Mori, Trevor A

    2015-04-01

    Various environmental stressors in pregnancy have been reported to affect high blood pressure (BP) in adult offspring. However, few studies have examined the effect of prenatal maternal psychological stress on offspring BP and BMI in early adulthood. In 957 Raine cohort participants, regression analyses were used to examine the association between the count of maternal life stress events experienced during pregnancy and offspring BP and BMI at age 20. Prenatal life stress associated positively with offspring BMI but inversely with SBP. After adjustment for confounders each additional prenatal life stress event reduced offspring SBP by 0.66  mmHg (P = 0.013) in those with an average BMI and lowered the odds of systolic (pre)hypertension by 17% (odds ratio = 0.83; P = 0.008). The inverse relationship between prenatal life stress and adult SBP was stronger in offspring with higher BMI. On the contrary, each unit increase in prenatal life stress score predicted a BMI increase of 0.37  kg/m (P = 0.022). Longitudinal analysis showed similar effects of prenatal life stress for offspring BMI from age 8 and SBP from age 14. This study has shown that maternal stress in pregnancy significantly associated with BMI from early childhood, but contrary to our hypothesis predicted lower resting SBP and lower odds of systolic (pre)hypertension in young adult offspring. The effect of prenatal life stress on BP was accentuated by a higher BMI. Fetal programming events as a result of prenatal stress may underpin some of these relationships.

  11. Application of the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis method to the trajectory of the centre of pressure of the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazquez, M. T.; Anguiano, M.; Arias de Saavedra, F.; Lallena, A. M.; Carpena, P.

    2009-01-01

    The Detrended Fluctuation Analysis is a signal analyzing method which permits to study the correlation properties of the signal analyzed. This algorithm admits different variants which can be used to eliminate trends of different order existing in the signal. In this work we show the results obtained when two of these different variants, the so-called DFA-1 and DFA-2, are applied to the time series of the position and velocity of the centre of pressure of the human body in static conditions. The results show that the correlation exponents α obtained for each of the four types of analysis performed, depend on the scale studied. For the scales corresponding to large time intervals (above 35 s) the α values found in the four analyses coincide. (Author) 24 refs.

  12. Interaction between body mass index and serum uric acid in relation to blood pressure in community-dwelling Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Senzaki, Kensuke; Kumagi, Teru

    2018-01-01

    Few data is available on the association between body mass index (BMI), serum uric acid (SUA) levels and blood pressure (BP) categories in the disease continuum, when efforts for its prevention may be applicable. We performed a cross-sectional study to examine the association between BMI, SUA and BP in a community-dwelling sample of Japanese men. Individuals not on antihypertensive and uric acid lowering medications, and aged 50 to 90 years [817men aged 66 ± 9 (mean ± standard deviation) years] were recruited for the survey during a community based annual medical check-up. The main outcome was the presence of prehypertension [systolic BP (SBP) 120-139 mmHg and/or diastolic BP (DBP) 80-89 mmHg] and hypertension [SBP ≥ 140 and /or DBP ≥ 90]. In participants with a BMI of dwelling men.

  13. Dental caries is negatively correlated with body mass index among 7-9 years old children in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Zhe-Qing; Chen, Ya-Jun; Mai, Jin-Cheng; Ma, Jun; Yang, Wen-Han; Jing, Jin

    2016-07-26

    Evidence linking caries in primary dentition and children's anthropometric measures is contradictory. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of primary dental caries and its relationship with body mass index (BMI) among 7-9 years old school children in urban Guangzhou, China. This cross-sectional study enrolled 32,461 pupils (14,778 girls and 17,683 boys) aged 7-9 years from 65 elementary schools in Guangzhou. Dental caries was detected according to criteria recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The total mean decayed, missing or filled teeth (dmft) of primary dentition were assessed. Weight and height were measured and BMI was calculated. Children were classified into underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity groups by BMI based on Chinese criteria. Z-score of BMI-for-age (BAZ) was calculated by WHO standardized procedure. Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression. Restricted cubic spline regression was applied to evaluate the shape of the relationship between BAZ and primary dental caries. The prevalence of primary dental caries was 30.7 % in total sample. Regarding dmft values, the mean ± standard deviation (SD) in the combined sample were 1.03 ± 2.05 in boys and 0.93 ± 1.92 in girls. Both indices decreased by age. Compared with normal BMI group, children in overweight and obesity groups have 27 % (OR = 0.73, 95 % CI: 0.66-0.81, P caries after adjustment for age and gender, respectively. Although in general, increased BAZ was associated with decreased risk of dental caries, full-range BAZ was associated with dental caries in an A-shaped manner with a zenith at around -1.4. Higher BMI was associated with lower odds of caries; overweight and obese children were more likely to be primary dental caries free among 7-9 years in Guangzhou, China.

  14. Exercise and dietary advice intervention for survivors of triple-negative breast cancer: effects on body fat, physical function, quality of life, and adipokine profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Anne K; Abraham, Jame; Bonner, Daniel; Gilleland, Diana; Hobbs, Gerald; Kurian, Sobha; Yanosik, Mary Anne; Vona-Davis, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Regular exercise and healthy eating are routinely recommended for breast cancer survivors, and past studies show benefits in quality of life and decreased inflammation. However, this has not been tested specifically in triple-negative breast cancer survivors. Increasing physical activity and losing body fat are thought to positively affect inflammatory biomarkers that have been associated with breast cancer. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine if participation in an exercise and dietary counseling program can improve body fat, physical function, and quality of life in survivors of this aggressive breast cancer. Secondarily, we sought to determine if participation in the program had beneficial effects on obesity-related markers of the adipokine profile. Sixty-six survivors of triple-negative breast cancer with BMI >25 were invited to participate. Twenty-eight enrolled and 23 completed the randomized, controlled trial (13 intervention, 10 control). Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (150 min per week, for 12 weeks) and diet counseling were compared to usual care, education only. The primary outcome of interest was weight loss (body mass, BMI, % fat), and secondary outcomes included physical function (exercise capacity), quality of life (Function After Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B)), cytokines (C-reactive protein (CRP), TNF-α, IL-6), and adipokine profile (leptin, adiponectin, insulin). Participants in the program lost more body fat (2.4 % loss vs. 0.4 % gain, p quality of life (FACT-B total score +14 pts) and decreased sedentary time but did not improve peak exercise capacity. The intervention had no effect on serum cytokines and adipokines after 12 weeks in the program. However, serum leptin and adiponectin and their ratio were significantly correlated with BMI in the intervention group (p quality of life in survivors of triple-negative breast cancer. BMI was associated with favorable changes in leptin and adiponectin which may reflect a

  15. Management of the open abdomen using negative pressure wound therapy with instillation in severe abdominal sepsis: A review of 48 cases in Hospital Mexico, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibaja, Pablo; Sanchez, Alfredo; Villegas, Guillermo; Apestegui, Alvaro; Mora, Esteban

    2017-01-01

    Despite the numerous advances in recent years, severe abdominal sepsis (with associated organ failure associated with infection) remains a serious, life-threatening condition with a high mortality rate. OA is a viable alternative to the previously used scheduled repeat laparotomy or continuous peritoneal lavage. The use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) has been described as a successful method of management of the open abdomen. Adding instillation of saline solution to NPWT in a programmed and controlled manner, could offer the clinician an additional tool for the management of complex septic abdomen. To explore if the concept of active two-way therapy (Negative pressure wound therapy with instillation or NPWT-I) yields superior control of underlying, life-threatening abdominal infections and its effects on survival and morbidity in patients with severe abdominal sepsis when management with an open abdomen is required. A retrospective review of 48 patients with severe abdominal sepsis, who were managed with and open abdomen and NPWT-I was performed. NPWT-I was initiated utilizing the same parameters on all patients, this consisted of cycles of instillation of saline solution, which was removed through negative pressure after a short dwell period. We observed the effects on primary fascia closure rate, mortality, hospital and SICU length of stay and associated complications. Our patient group consisted of 20 (42%) males and 28 (58%) females. Average age was 48 years. Mortality in these patients was attributed to pulmonary embolism (n=1), acute renal failure (n=2) and cardiopulmonary arrest (n=1). Average total hospital stay was 24days, and stay in the SICU (n=26) averaged 7.5days. No acute complications related to the NPWT-I. All patients presenting with abdominal compartment syndrome resolved after initiation of the NPWT-I. A total of 46 patients (96%) patients achieved fascia closure after NPWT-I therapy after an average of 6days. Four patients (8%) died

  16. Assessment of Pressure Sources and Water Body Resilience: An Integrated Approach for Action Planning in a Polluted River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirauda, Domenica; Ostoich, Marco

    2018-02-23

    The present study develops an integrated methodology combining the results of the water-quality classification, according to the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC-WFD, with those of a mathematical integrity model. It is able to analyse the potential anthropogenic impacts on the receiving water body and to help municipal decision-makers when selecting short/medium/long-term strategic mitigation actions to be performed in a territory. Among the most important causes of water-quality degradation in a river, the focus is placed on pollutants from urban wastewater. In particular, the proposed approach evaluates the efficiency and the accurate localisation of treatment plants in a basin, as well as the capacity of its river to bear the residual pollution loads after the treatment phase. The methodology is applied to a sample catchment area, located in northern Italy, where water quality is strongly affected by high population density and by the presence of agricultural and industrial activities. Nearly 10 years of water-quality data collected through official monitoring are considered for the implementation of the system. The sample basin shows different real and potential pollution conditions, according to the resilience of the river and surroundings, together with the point and diffuse pressure sources acting on the receiving body.

  17. The Effect of Lower-Body Positive Pressure on the Cardiorespiratory Response at Rest and during Submaximal Running Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Stucky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-gravity treadmills facilitate locomotion by lower-body positive pressure (LBPP. Effects on cardiorespiratory regulation are unknown. Healthy men (30 ± 8 y, 178.3 ± 5.7 cm, 70.3 ± 8.0 kg; mean ± SD stood upright (n = 10 or ran (n = 9 at 9, 11, 13, and 15 km.h−1 (5 min stages with LBPP (0, 15, 40 mmHg. Cardiac output (CO, stroke volume (SV, heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP, peripheral resistance (PR, and oxygen uptake (VO2 were monitored continuously. During standing, LBPP increased SV [by +29 ± 13 (+41% and +42 ± 15 (+60% ml, at 15 and 40 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.05] and decreased HR [by −15 ± 6 (−20% and −22 ± 9 (−29% bpm (p < 0.05] resulting in a transitory increase in CO [by +1.6 ± 1.0 (+32% and +2.0 ± 1.0 (+39% l.min−1 (p < 0.05] within the first seconds of LBPP. This was accompanied by a transitory decrease in end-tidal PO2 [by −5 ± 3 (−5% and −10 ± 4 (−10% mmHg (p < 0.05] and increase in VO2 [by +66 ± 53 (+26% and +116 ± 64 (+46% ml.min−1 (p < 0.05], suggesting increased venous return and pulmonary blood flow. The application of LBPP increased baroreflex sensitivity (BRS [by +1.8 ± 1.6 (+18% and +4.6 ± 3.7 (+47% at 15 and 40 mmHg LBPP, respectively P < 0.05]. After reaching steady-state exercise CO vs. VO2 relationships remained linear with similar slope and intercept for each participant (mean R2 = 0.84 ± 0.13 while MAP remained unchanged. It follows that (1 LBPP affects cardiorespiratory integration at the onset of exercise; (2 at a given LBPP, once reaching steady-state exercise, the cardiorespiratory load is reduced proportionally to the lower metabolic demand resulting from the body weight support; (3 the balance between cardiovascular response, oxygen delivery to the exercising muscles and blood pressure regulation is maintained at exercise steady-state; and (4 changes in baroreflex sensitivity may be involved in the regulation of cardiovascular parameters during LBPP.

  18. The Effect of Body Mass Index, Negative Affect, and Disordered Eating on Health-Related Quality of Life in Preadolescent Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tarrah B; Steele, Ric G

    2016-08-01

    To examine the indirect effect of body mass index z-score (BMIz) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) through disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of preadolescent children, and the degree to which negative affect moderated the association between BMIz and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Participants included 165 children between 8 and 12 years of age (M = 9.41). HRQOL, disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, and negative affect were assessed using self-report measures. Height and weight were collected by research staff. Consistent with previous research in treatment-seeking and adolescent samples, the indirect effect of BMIz on HRQOL through disordered eating attitudes and behaviors was significant. Negative affect did not moderate the relationship between BMIz and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Intervening on disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in preadolescents with higher weight status is critical to prevent the risk for poor HRQOL. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. [Influence of body position on the displacement of nasal prongs in preterm newborns receiving continuous positive airway pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunherotti, Marisa Afonso Andrade; Martinez, Francisco Eulógio

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of body position on the displacement of nasal prongs in preterm infants. This prospective, randomized, crossover study enrolled infants born at a mean gestational age of 29.7±2 weeks, birth weight of 1.353±280g and 2.9±2.2 days of life, submitted to continuous positive airway pressure by nasal prongs. The main outcome was the number of times that the nasal prongs were displaced following infant positioning in the following body positions: prone, right lateral, left lateral, and supine, according to a pre-established random order. Moreover, cardiorespiratory variables (respiratory rate, heart rate, and oxygen saturation) were evaluated for each body position. Data for each position were collected every 10 minutes, over a period of 60minutes. An occurrence was defined when the nasal prongs were displaced from the nostrils after 3 minutes in the desired position, requiring intervention of the examiner. Among the 16 studied infants, the occurrence of nasal prong displacement was only observed in the prone position (9 infants-56.2%) and in the left lateral position (2 infants-12.5%). The number of times that the prongs were displaced was 11 in the prone position (seven within the first 10minutes) and two in the left lateral position (one within the first 10minutes). No clinically significant changes were observed in the cardiorespiratory variables. Maintenance of the nasal prongs to provide adequate noninvasive respiratory support was harder in the prone position. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. High and low negative pressure suction techniques in EUS-guided fine-needle tissue acquisition by using 25-gauge needles: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Taiki; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Yasuda, Ichiro; Mukai, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Katanuma, Akio; Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Ishiwatari, Hirotoshi; Doi, Shinpei; Yamada, Reiko; Maguchi, Hiroyuki; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Mitsuhashi, Tomoko; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2014-12-01

    EUS-guided FNA (EUS-FNA) has a high diagnostic accuracy for pancreatic diseases. However, although most reports have typically focused on cytology, histological tissue quality has rarely been investigated. The effectiveness of EUS-FNA combined with high negative pressure (HNP) suction was recently indicated for tissue acquisition, but has not thus far been tested in a prospective, randomized clinical trial. To evaluate the adequacy of EUS-FNA with HNP for the histological diagnosis of pancreatic lesions by using 25-gauge needles. Prospective, single-blind, randomized, controlled crossover trial. Seven tertiary referral centers. Patients referred for EUS-FNA of pancreatic solid lesions. From July 2011 to April 2012, 90 patients underwent EUS-FNA of pancreatic solid masses by using normal negative pressure (NNP) and HNP with 2 respective passes. The order of the passes was randomized, and the sample adequacy, quality, and histology were evaluated by a single expert pathologist. EUS-FNA by using NNP and HNP. The adequacy of tissue acquisition and the accuracy of histological diagnoses made by using the EUS-FNA technique with HNP. We found that 72.2% (65/90) and 90% (81/90) of the specimens obtained using NNP and HNP, respectively, were adequate for histological diagnosis (P = .0003, McNemar test). For 73.3% (66/90) and 82.2% (74/90) of the specimens obtained by using NNP and HNP, respectively, an accurate diagnosis was achieved (P = .06, McNemar test). Pancreatitis developed in 1 patient after this procedure, which subsided with conservative therapy. This was a single-blinded, crossover study. Biopsy procedures that combine the EUS-FNA with HNP techniques are superior to EUS-FNA with NNP procedures for tissue acquisition. ( UMIN000005939.). Copyright © 2014 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Foliar δ13C Showed No Altitudinal Trend in an Arid Region and Atmospheric Pressure Exerted a Negative Effect on Plant δ13C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zixun; Wang, Guoan; Jia, Yufu

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested foliar δ 13 C generally increases with altitude. However, some observations reported no changes or even decreased trends in foliar δ 13 C. We noted that all the studies in which δ 13 C increased with elevation were conducted in the human regions, whereas those investigations in which δ 13 C did not vary or decreased were conducted in areas with water stress. Thus, we proposed that the pattern of increasing δ 13 C with elevation is not a general one, and that δ 13 C may remain unchanged or decrease in plants grown in arid environments. To test the hypothesis, we sampled plants along altitude gradients on the shady and sunny slopes of Mount Tianshan characterized by arid and semiarid climates. The measurements of foliar δ 13 C showed no altitudinal trends for the plants grown on either of the slopes. Therefore, this study supported our hypothesis. In addition, the present study addressed the effect of atmospheric pressure on plant δ 13 C by accounting for the effects of temperature and precipitation on δ 13 C. This study found that the residual foliar δ 13 C increased with increasing altitude, suggesting that atmospheric pressure played a negative role in foliar δ 13 C.

  2. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana; Vinter, Christina Anne; Bille, Camilla

    generator are used to allocate the participants into one of two groups (iNPWT vs. standard dressing), stratified by centre and type of CS. The study is conducted at five public hospitals located in three regions of Denmark. Interim analyses will be preformed along the trial using the group sequential method...... Therapy (iNPWT) applied prophylactically following caesarean section compared with standard postoperative dressings in obese women undergoing caesarean section. Method: This study is designed as an unblinded, pragmatic, parallel randomised multicenter trial, with a 1:1 allocation. A computer random number...

  3. Plasma bile acids show a positive correlation with body mass index and are negatively associated with cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip ePrinz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bile acids may be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of plasma bile acids with body mass index (BMI and the possible involvement of circulating bile acids in the modulation of physical activity and eating behavior. Blood was obtained in a group of hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2, underweight (anorexia nervosa, BMI 50 kg/m2, n=14-15/group and plasma bile acid concentrations assessed. Physical activity and plasma bile acids were measured in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa (BMI 14.6±0.3 kg/m2, n=43. Lastly, in a population of obese patients (BMI 48.5±0.9 kg/m2, n=85, psychometric parameters related to disordered eating and plasma bile acids were assessed. Plasma bile acids showed a positive correlation with BMI (r=0.26, p=0.03 in the population of patients with broad range of BMI (9-85 kg/m2, n=74. No associations were observed between plasma bile acids and different parameters of physical activity in anorexic patients (p>0.05. Plasma bile acids were negatively correlated with cognitive restraint of eating (r=-0.30, p=0.008, while no associations were observed with other psychometric eating behavior-related parameters (p>0.05 in obese patients. In conclusion, these data may point towards a role of bile acids in the regulation of body weight. Since plasma bile acids are negatively correlated with the cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients, this may represent a compensatory adaptation to prevent further overeating.

  4. Genetic admixture, social-behavioural factors and body composition are associated with blood pressure differently by racial-ethnic group among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentidis, Y C; Dulin-Keita, A; Casazza, K; Willig, A L; Allison, D B; Fernandez, J R

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease has a progressively earlier age of onset, and disproportionately affects African Americans (AAs) in the United States. It has been difficult to establish the extent to which group differences are due to physiological, genetic, social or behavioural factors. In this study, we examined the association between blood pressure and these factors among a sample of 294 children, identified as AA, European American or Hispanic American. We use body composition, behavioural (diet and physical activity) and survey-based measures (socio-economic status and perceived racial discrimination), as well as genetic admixture based on 142 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to examine associations with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We find that associations differ by ethnic/racial group. Notably, among AAs, physical activity and perceived racial discrimination, but not African genetic admixture, are associated with blood pressure, while the association between blood pressure and body fat is nearly absent. We find an association between blood pressure and an AIM near a marker identified by a recent genome-wide association study. Our findings shed light on the differences in risk factors for elevated blood pressure among ethnic/racial groups, and the importance of including social and behavioural measures to grasp the full genetic/environmental aetiology of disparities in blood pressure.

  5. Gender difference in interactions between MAOA promoter uVNTR polymorphism and negative familial stressors on body mass index among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, B; Li, D; London, S J; Palmer, P H; Johnshon, C A; Li, Y; Shih, J; Bergen, A W; Nishita, D; Swan, G E; Ahn, R; Conti, D V

    2014-10-01

    Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) modulates metabolism of serotonin and dopamine metabolism, neurotransmitters involved in regulation of appetite and food intake. The gene coding for MAOA contains a 30-bp tandem repeat (uVNTR) polymorphism in its promoter region that has been previously identified to be associated with obesity with mixed findings in the literature. Our goals were to replicate the population effects of this functional polymorphism on obesity risk, and to further explore gender differences and interaction effects with negative stressors. Analyses were conducted with data on genotypes, measured weight and height, and self-reported behavioural characteristics among 1101 Chinese adolescents 11-15 years old living in Wuhan, China. Girls with the high-activity allele had significantly lower body mass index (BMI; β = -0.25 ± 0.98, P = 0.011) compared to those with the low activity allele. Experience of negative familial stressors (e.g., death or illness of family members, hit or scolded by parents and increased quarrelling with parents, parents argued frequently) significantly weakened this protective genetic effect on BMI (P for interaction = 0.043). Stratified analyses showed a significant protective genetic effect on BMI only within the stratum of low stress level (β = -0.44 ± 0.14, P = 0.002). No similar effect was observed among boys. Our findings confirm the genetic effects of MAOA uVNTR polymorphism on BMI in a Chinese adolescent population and suggest potential genetic interactions with negative familial stressors. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  6. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC and (18)F-FDG in thyroid cancer patients with negative (131)I whole-body scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Michael; Froehlich, Franz; Decristoforo, Clemens; Ensinger, Christian; Donnemiller, Eveline; von Guggenberg, Elisabeth; Heute, Dirk; Moncayo, Roy

    2004-03-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed technetium-99m labelled somatostatin analogue, (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC ((99m)Tc-TOC), in terms of precise localisation of disease. The study population comprised 54 patients (24 men, 30 women; age range 22-90 years) with histologically confirmed DTC who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated Tg levels after initial treatment. All patients were negative on the iodine-131 post-therapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) was performed in a subgroup of 36 patients. The study population consisted of two groups: Group A ( n=22) comprised patients with disease recurrence as shown by elevated Tg levels but without detectable pathology. In group B ( n=32), pre-existing lesions were known. Among the 54 cases, SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 33 (61.1%), true negative in 4 (7.4%) and false negative in 17 (31.5%) cases, which resulted in a sensitivity of 66%. A total of 138 tumour foci were localised in 33 patients. The fraction of true positive (99m)Tc-TOC findings was positively correlated ( P<0.01) with elevated Tg levels (higher than 30 ng/ml). Despite two false positive findings, analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated better diagnostic efficacy with (18)F-FDG PET ( P<0.001); however, it also revealed substantial agreement between the imaging techniques [Cohen's kappa of 0.62 (0.47-0.78)]. In conclusion, scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localisation diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease.

  7. Utility of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinto, Ajit S.; Kamaleshwaran, K. K.; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, 99mTc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. 18F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. 18F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. PMID:26097420

  8. Utility of (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinto, Ajit S; Kamaleshwaran, K K; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. (18)F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. (18)F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease.

  9. Physiological-biochemical status of perch (Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, 1758 and roach in conditions (Rutilus rutilus Linnaeus, 1758 of excessive anthropogenic pressure on the body of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Martseniuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To establish during the spring and summer period the physiologically-biochemical response of fish to the effect of excessive anthropogenic contamination on the indicators of the maintenance of hormones and glucose in their blood plasma, and the possibility of using these indicators to assess the ecological status of the water body. Methodology. Two Lakes in the city of Kyiv were selected for research, which are characterized by various hydrochemical and toxicological indices. These water objects were Lake Kyrylivske (Opechen Upper – a water body from the system of Lakes Opechen (polluted by the water body and Lake Babyne that is on Trukhanov Island (relatively clean Lake, control. Fishing was carried out in the early spring and in the middle of the summer by hook fishing gear. In laboratory conditions, the total content of thyroxine (T4, triiodothyronine (T3 and cortisol in blood plasma of fish was determined by enzyme immunoassay, using commercial T3-EIA, T4-EIA sets (NPL Granum, Ukraine and DS-EIA-Steroid-Cortisol ("Diagnostic Systems" NGO, Russia using the Rayto RT-2100C EIA Analyzer. The glucose content was determined by spectrophotometrically glucose oxidase method using standard commercial kits "Filisit-Diagnostika" (Ukraine. Statistical data was processed using the programs Statistica 10.0 and Excel programs from the Microsoft Office suite. Findings. In the spring, excessive anthropogenic pressure on the Lake Kyrylivske causes an energy imbalance in fish, which causes the deceleration of catabolic reactions in their tissues. In this period, the perch and roach react to the conditions of existence in the Lake Kyrylivske increase in the content of cortisol in the blood compared with fish from the Lake. Babyne, what can be their reaction to excessive anthropogenic stress. Also, during this period, the low content of thyroxin and triiodothyronine in the perch from the Lake Kyrylivske was noted compared with the Lake. Babyne, which

  10. Evidence for diamond-grade ultra-high pressure metamorphism and fluid interaction in the Swartberget Fe-Ti garnet periodotite-websterite body, Western Gneiss Region, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijmoed, J.C.; Van Roermund, H.L.M.; Davies, G.R.

    2006-01-01

    Based on mineral-chemical evidence we propose that the northernmost Scandian ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic domain within the Western Gneiss Region of Norway can be extended 25 km northeastwards. A newly discovered, well preserved, fine-grained, Fe-Ti type garnet peridotite body at

  11. Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Their Children's Blood Pressure and Resting Cardiac Autonomic Balance at Age 5 to 6 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gademan, M.G.J.; van Eijsden, M.; Roseboom, T.J.; van der Post, J.A.M.; Stronks, K.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Adverse intrauterine conditions can program hypertension. Because one of the underlying mechanisms is thought to be cardiac autonomic balance, we investigated the association between prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure and indicators of the autonomic balance in the child at age 5

  12. Changes in Blood Pressure, Body Composition, and Vo2max after 10 Weeks of High Intense Interval Training and Ginger Consumption in Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Nayebifar

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, HIIT and ginger consumption can be a good strategy to improve systolic and diastolic blood pressures in women. Also, this kind of trainings is an effective approach in improving cardiorespiratory function and body composition in the population of overweight women.

  13. Integrating a hip belt with body armour reduces the magnitude and changes the location of shoulder pressure and perceived discomfort in soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Gavin K; Doyle, Tim L A; Saxby, David J; Billing, Dan; Higgs, Jeremy; Lloyd, David G

    2018-04-01

    Soldiers carry heavy loads that may cause general discomfort, shoulder pain and injury. This study assessed if new body armour designs that incorporated a hip belt reduced shoulder pressures and improved comfort. Twenty-one Australian soldiers completed treadmill walking trials wearing six different body armours with two different loads (15 and 30 kg). Contact pressures applied to the shoulders were measured using pressure pads, and qualitative assessment of comfort and usability were acquired from questionnaires administered after walking trials. Walking with hip belt compared to no hip belt armour resulted in decreased mean and maximum shoulder pressures (p armour and backpack designs should integrate a hip belt and distribute load closer to shoulder midline to reduce load carriage discomfort and, potentially, injury risk. Practitioner Summary: Soldiers carry heavy loads that increase their risk of discomfort and injury. New body armour designs are thought to ease this burden by transferring the load to the hips. This study demonstrated that designs incorporating a hip belt reduced shoulder pressure and shoulder discomfort compared to the current armour design.

  14. Standard Practice for Installation, Inspection, and Maintenance of Valve-body Pressure-relief Methods for Geothermal and Other High-Temperature Liquid Applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers installation, inspection, and maintenance of valve body cavity pressure relief methods for valves used in geothermal and other high-temperature liquid service. The valve type covered by this practice is a design with an isolated body cavity such that when the valve is in either the open or closed position pressure is trapped in the isolated cavity, and there is no provision to relieve the excess pressure internally. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. Blood pressure, body mass index, heart rate and levels of blood cholesterol and glucose of volunteers during National Heart Weeks, 1995-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, K L; Tan, H; Liew, Y M; Sambhi, J S; Aljafri, A M; Hatijah, A

    2000-12-01

    The paper presents the results of a health screening programme conducted in 10 major centers in Malaysia--Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Ipoh, Johor Bahru, Alor Star, Kuala Terengganu, Malacca, Kota Bahru, Kuching and Kota Kinabalu during the National Heart Weeks, 1995-1997. There were 6,858 participants of both sexes aged between 6 years to 81 years old. The parameters involved in the screening programme were body mass index, blood pressure, heart rate, cholesterol and glucose. The following are the results of the study:- 1. The mean and standard deviation for the body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), total cholesterol (TC) and non fasting (random) blood glucose (GL) of the volunteers studied were 24.3 +/- 4.0 kg/m2, 128.3 +/- 21.1 mmHg, 79.6 +/- 11.9 mmHg, 77.2 +/- 12.1 bpm, 5.33 +/- 1.37 mmol/l and 5.11 +/- 1.97 mmol/l respectively. 2. There was a rising trend for BMI, SBP, DBP, TC and GL with age. The HR was higher in the younger age group of those below 20 years. Males tended to have higher mean values than females except for HR which was similar in both sexes. 3. The Malays, Chinese and Indians seemed to have closely similar mean values for SBP, DBP and HR but the Indians possessed the highest BMI (25.62 +/- 3.90 kg/m2), TC (5.61 +/- 1.48 mmol/l) and GL (5.41 +/- 2.43 mmol/l) among the three major ethnic groups. While the Ibans had highest TC (6.07 + 1.09 mmol/l), their GL level was the lowest (4.76 +/- 1.15 mmol/l). The Kadazans had the lowest TC level (4.94 +/- 1.39 mmol/l) among all the ethnic groups. 4. Among the participants screened, 31.9% were overweight (BMI > or = 25), 7.6% were obese (BMI > or = 30); 26.8% had raised SBP (> or = 140 mmHg) and 19.3% had raised DBP (> or = 90 mmHg); 13.6% of the participants had increased HR (> or = 90 bpm), 22% had raised TC (> or = 6.20 mmol/l) and 2% had raised GL (> or = 11.00 mmol/l). There was a higher prevalence for abnormal values with increasing age

  16. Silver from polyurethane dressing is delivered by gradient to exudate, tissue, and serum of patients undergoing negative-pressure wound treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca-Buis, René F; Munguía, Nadia M; Gonzalez, Juan Manuel Melchor; Solís-Arrieta, Lilia; y Osorio, Liliana Saldivar; Krötzsch, Edgar

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the distribution and concentration of silver eluted from silver-coated polyurethane dressing (V.A.C. GranuFoam Silver Dressing; KCI, San Antonio, Texas) in vitro and in patients undergoing negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT). This was a descriptive study of the effect of silver-coated polyurethane dressing in patients undergoing NPWT. Six patients with infected wounds undergoing NPWT using silver-coated polyurethane dressing. To evaluate silver release in vitro, the authors soaked dressing fragments in water and human serum for different lengths of time and performed atomic absorption spectroscopy. For patient evaluation, the authors obtained exudate, serum, and wound tissue at different time points from 6 patients undergoing NPWT and measured silver levels by atomic absorption and dispersed x-ray spectroscopy. Silver from the dressing was immediately released in vitro at a rate 3 times greater in serum than in water. In vivo, silver was delivered to wound exudate at rates 102 to 104 times greater than in corresponding serum. Few surface silver deposits were detected in treated tissue. The high concentration of silver found in wound exudate reflects not only the affinity for silver in serum components and wound fluids, but also that most silver ions are not distributed systemically in the patient; instead, they are transported by the vacuum created by therapy.

  17. Laparostomy management using the ABThera™ open abdomen negative pressure therapy system in a grade IV open abdomen secondary to acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, James E F; Gupta, Shradha; Masterson, Sarah; Sigurdsson, Helgi H

    2013-04-01

    Wound control in laparostomy for the treatment of intra-abdominal hypertension remains challenging and numerous techniques have been described. We report the first UK experience with a new commercially available device specifically designed to facilitate management of the open abdomen. A 44-year-old gentleman presented with a 3-day history of constant severe epigastric pain and associated vomiting. Amylase was markedly elevated and he was admitted for supportive management of pancreatitis, with subsequent transfer to intensive care due to severe systemic inflammatory syndrome. The patient decompensated, developing intra-abdominal hypertension with renal and respiratory failure. This was successfully managed by performing a laparostomy and using an ABThera™ Open Abdomen Negative Pressure Therapy System (KCI, San Antonio, TX). We describe its use to facilitate wound control, including enteroatmospheric fistula, allowing granulation and eventual restoration of gastrointestinal continuity 383-days after admission. We found the ABThera™ System proved to be a useful treatment adjunct, protecting intra-abdominal contents while removing large volumes of exudate and infected material from within the abdominal cavity. Complex cases such as this remain infrequent and this article provides a summary of our experience, including a review of indications for laparostomy and the underlying basic science in this difficult area. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  18. Ultra pressure liquid chromatography-negative electrospray ionization mass spectrometry determination of twelve halobenzoquinones at ng/L levels in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongfu; Wang, Wei; Qian, Yichao; Boyd, Jessica M; Zhao, Yuli; Li, Xing-Fan